WorldWideScience

Sample records for earth resources survey

  1. Surveying earth resources by remote sensing from satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otterman, J.; Lowman, P.D.; Salomonson, V.V.

    1976-04-01

    The techniques and recent results of orbital remote sensing, with emphasis on Landsat and Skylab imagery are reviewed. Landsat (formerly ERTS) uses electronic sensors (scanners and television) for repetitive observations with moderate ground resolution. The Skylab flights used a wider range of electro-optical sensors and returned film cameras with moderate and high ground resolution. Data from these programs have been used successfully in many fields. For mineral resources, satellite observations have proven valuable in geologic mapping and in exploration for metal, oil, and gas deposits, generally as a guide for other (conventional) techniques. Water resource monitoring with satellite data has included hydrologic mapping, soil moisture studies, and snow surveys. Marine resources have been studied, with applications in the fishing industry and in ocean transportation. Agricultural applications, benefiting from the repetitive coverage possible with satellites, have been especially promising. Crop inventories are being conducted, as well as inventories of timber and rangeland. Overgrazing has been monitored in several areas. Finally, environmental quality has also proven susceptible to orbital remote sensing; several types of water pollution have been successfully monitored. The effects of mining and other activities on the land can also be studied. The future of orbital remote sensing in global monitoring of the Earth's resources seems assured. However, efforts to extend spectral range, increase resolution, and solve cloud-cover problems must be continued. Broad applications of computer analysis techniques are vital to handle the immense amount of information produced by satellite sensors.

  2. Recent advancements in information extraction methodology and hardware for earth resources survey systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, J. D.; Thomson, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    The present work discusses some recent developments in preprocessing and extractive processing techniques and hardware and in user applications model development for earth resources survey systems. The Multivariate Interactive Digital Analysis System (MIDAS) is currently being developed, and is an attempt to solve the problem of real time multispectral data processing in an operational system. The main features and design philosophy of this system are described. Examples of wetlands mapping and land resource inventory are presented. A user model developed for predicting the yearly production of mallard ducks from remote sensing and ancillary data is described.

  3. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center-fiscal year 2010 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Janice S.

    2011-01-01

    The Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center is a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) facility focused on providing science and imagery to better understand our Earth. The work of the Center is shaped by the earth sciences, the missions of our stakeholders, and implemented through strong program and project management, and application of state-of-the-art information technologies. Fundamentally, EROS contributes to the understanding of a changing Earth through 'research to operations' activities that include developing, implementing, and operating remote-sensing-based terrestrial monitoring capabilities needed to address interdisciplinary science and applications objectives at all levels-both nationally and internationally. The Center's programs and projects continually strive to meet, and where possible exceed, the changing needs of the USGS, the Department of the Interior, our Nation, and international constituents. The Center's multidisciplinary staff uses their unique expertise in remote sensing science and technologies to conduct basic and applied research, data acquisition, systems engineering, information access and management, and archive preservation to address the Nation's most critical needs. Of particular note is the role of EROS as the primary provider of Landsat data, the longest comprehensive global land Earth observation record ever collected. This report is intended to provide an overview of the scientific and engineering achievements and illustrate the range and scope of the activities and accomplishments at EROS throughout fiscal year (FY) 2010. Additional information concerning the scientific, engineering, and operational achievements can be obtained from the scientific papers and other documents published by EROS staff or by visiting our web site at http://eros.usgs.gov. We welcome comments and follow-up questions on any aspect of this Annual Report and invite any of our customers or partners to contact us at their convenience. To

  4. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center-Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Janice S.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center is a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) facility focused on providing science and imagery to better understand our Earth. As part of the USGS Geography Discipline, EROS contributes to the Land Remote Sensing (LRS) Program, the Geographic Analysis and Monitoring (GAM) Program, and the National Geospatial Program (NGP), as well as our Federal partners and cooperators. The work of the Center is shaped by the Earth sciences, the missions of our stakeholders, and implemented through strong program and project management and application of state-of-the-art information technologies. Fundamentally, EROS contributes to the understanding of a changing Earth through 'research to operations' activities that include developing, implementing, and operating remote sensing based terrestrial monitoring capabilities needed to address interdisciplinary science and applications objectives at all levels-both nationally and internationally. The Center's programs and projects continually strive to meet and/or exceed the changing needs of the USGS, the Department of the Interior, our Nation, and international constituents. The Center's multidisciplinary staff uses their unique expertise in remote sensing science and technologies to conduct basic and applied research, data acquisition, systems engineering, information access and management, and archive preservation to address the Nation's most critical needs. Of particular note is the role of EROS as the primary provider of Landsat data, the longest comprehensive global land Earth observation record ever collected. This report is intended to provide an overview of the scientific and engineering achievements and illustrate the range and scope of the activities and accomplishments at EROS throughout fiscal year (FY) 2009. Additional information concerning the scientific, engineering, and operational achievements can be obtained from the scientific papers and other documents published by

  5. Near Earth Object Survey Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Near Earth Object Survey Telescope (NEOST), located at the Xuyi station of the Purple Mountain Observatory, is a telescope with the most powerful detection capacity, the highest efficiency and the best performance in the fields of near Earth object survey and optical imaging in China. NEOST is an 171.8 Schmidt type telescope with a 1.20 meter primary mirror and a 1.04 meter corrector,

  6. Rare Earth Metals: Resourcefulness and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijie

    2013-10-01

    When we appreciate the digital revolution carried over from the twentieth century with mobile communication and the Internet, and when we enjoy our high-tech lifestyle filled with iDevices, hybrid cars, wind turbines, and solar cells in this new century, we should also appreciate that all of these advanced products depend on rare earth metals to function. Although there are only 136,000 tons of annual worldwide demand, (Cho, Rare Earth Metals, Will We Have Enough?)1 rare earth metals are becoming such hot commodities on international markets, due to not only to their increasing uses, including in most critical military hardware, but also to Chinese growth, which accounts for 95% of global rare earth metal production. Hence, the 2013 technical calendar topic, planned by the TMS/Hydrometallurgy and Electrometallurgy Committee, is particularly relevant, with four articles (including this commentary) contributed to the JOM October Issue discussing rare earth metals' resourcefulness and recovery.

  7. EarthSpace: Resources for Undergraduate Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, S.; Dalton, H.; Shipp, S.; Frappier, R.; CoBabe-Ammann, E. A.

    2014-07-01

    EarthSpace (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace/) is a national clearinghouse for information and resources for undergraduate faculty teaching planetary sciences, Earth sciences, astrophysics, and solar and space physics. Teaching materials include lectures, laboratory exercises, activities, homework assignments, and other resources. All materials are peer-reviewed and authors adhere to the Creative Commons Attribution (NC CC BY 3.0). Materials on the site are searchable by keyword, resource type, teaching topic, and author. Materials are cross-posted to other digital libraries online higher education communities. News and funding opportunities are also emailed monthly in a newsletter via the community mailing list, HENews, and the RSS feed notifies members of new additions to the site. Instructors are invited to visit the site to search contributed materials, news, and opportunities, submit materials, or volunteer to review submitted resources.

  8. The U.S. Geological Survey Flagstaff Science Campus—Providing expertise on planetary science, ecology, water resources, geologic processes, and human interactions with the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert J.; Vaughan, R. Greg; McDougall, Kristin; Wojtowicz, Todd; Thenkenbail, Prasad

    2017-06-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Flagstaff Science Campus is focused on interdisciplinary study of the Earth and solar system, and has the scientific expertise to detect early environmental changes and provide strategies to minimize possible adverse effects on humanity. The Flagstaff Science Campus (FSC) is located in Flagstaff, Arizona, which is situated in the northern part of the State, home to a wide variety of landscapes and natural resources, including (1) young volcanoes in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, (2) the seven ecological life zones of the San Francisco Peaks, (3) the extensive geologic record of the Colorado Plateau and Grand Canyon, (4) the Colorado River and its perennial, ephemeral, and intermittent tributaries, and (5) a multitude of canyons, mountains, arroyos, and plains. More than 200 scientists, technicians, and support staff provide research, monitoring, and technical advancements in planetary geology and mapping, biology and ecology, Earth-based geology, hydrology, and changing climate and landscapes. Scientists at the FSC work in collaboration with multiple State, Federal, Tribal, municipal, and academic partners to address regional, national, and global environmental issues, and provide scientific outreach to the general public.

  9. Exploiting Untapped Information Resources in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, R.; Fox, P. A.; Kempler, S.; Maskey, M.

    2015-12-01

    One of the continuing challenges in any Earth science investigation is the amount of time and effort required for data preparation before analysis can begin. Current Earth science data and information systems have their own shortcomings. For example, the current data search systems are designed with the assumption that researchers find data primarily by metadata searches on instrument or geophysical keywords, assuming that users have sufficient knowledge of the domain vocabulary to be able to effectively utilize the search catalogs. These systems lack support for new or interdisciplinary researchers who may be unfamiliar with the domain vocabulary or the breadth of relevant data available. There is clearly a need to innovate and evolve current data and information systems in order to improve data discovery and exploration capabilities to substantially reduce the data preparation time and effort. We assert that Earth science metadata assets are dark resources, information resources that organizations collect, process, and store for regular business or operational activities but fail to utilize for other purposes. The challenge for any organization is to recognize, identify and effectively utilize the dark data stores in their institutional repositories to better serve their stakeholders. NASA Earth science metadata catalogs contain dark resources consisting of structured information, free form descriptions of data and pre-generated images. With the addition of emerging semantic technologies, such catalogs can be fully utilized beyond their original design intent of supporting current search functionality. In this presentation, we will describe our approach of exploiting these information resources to provide novel data discovery and exploration pathways to science and education communities

  10. Develop hydroenergy resources and protect earth environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Youmei

    2009-01-01

    Energy is a driving force behind the progress of human civilization. Mainly depend on the current human soci-ety of non-renewable fossil energy sources, such as coal and oil, its increasing demand. Gradually reduce the reserves, the contradiction between supply and demand becoming increasingly prominent. With the process of human history has moved forward with the depletion of fossil energy will eventually be unable to sustainable use. The total hydropower re-sources are limited, but it is renewable, clean energy, its energy is infinite. Therefore, the full use of limited water re-sources and slow down the depletion of fossil energy process, is to improve and protect the earth's ecology and environ-ment, one of the most realistic measures.

  11. [Application of digital earth technology in research of traditional Chinese medicine resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxin; Liu, Xinxin; Gao, Lu; Wei, Yingqin; Meng, Fanyun; Wang, Yongyan

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes the digital earth technology and its core technology-"3S" integration technology. The advance and promotion of the "3S" technology provide more favorable means and technical support for Chinese medicine resources survey, evaluation and appropriate zoning. Grid is a mature and popular technology that can connect all kinds of information resources. The author sums up the application of digital earth technology in the research of traditional Chinese medicine resources in recent years, and proposes the new method and technical route of investigation in traditional Chinese medicine resources, traditional Chinese medicine zoning and suitability assessment by combining the digital earth technology and grid.

  12. Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center's Earth as Art Image Gallery 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center manages the Earth as Art Three exhibit, which provides fresh and inspiring glimpses of different parts of...

  13. Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center's Earth as Art Image Gallery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center manages this collection of Landsat 7 scenes created for aesthetic purposes rather than scientific...

  14. 2007 Survey of Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This WEC study is a unique comprehensive compilation of global energy resources. Complementing the BP Statistical Review and the World Energy Outlook, it details 16 key energy resources with the latest data provided by 96 WEC Member Committees worldwide. This highly regarded publication is an essential tool for governments, NGOs, industry, academia and the finance community. This 21st edition is the latest in a long series of reviews of the status of the world's major energy resources. It covers not only the fossil fuels but also the major types of traditional and novel sources of energy.

  15. Global rare earth resources and scenarios of future rare earth industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhanheng

    2011-01-01

    It is known to all that China is abundant in rare earth resources. But rare earth deposits are really not that rare in the earth crust. In the five continents, i.e. Asia, Europe, Australia, North and South America, and Africa, there are about thirty four countries found to have rare earth deposits; Brazil might surpass China and rank the first in rare earth deposits. At present, investment in rare earth production was surged,there have been about 200 projects, and the total production for 25 of them would be more than 170 thousand tons after 2015, a multi-supply system on rare earths is being established worldwide. Cautions on the investment of rare earth production are involved.

  16. A nationwide survey starts on lacustrine resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ As a key component of the national initiative for basic S&T data and infrastructure development, a nationwide survey on the lake water quality, volume and bio-resources has recently been kicked off. The move marks the systematic implementation of the second-round investigation of the country's lacustrine resources.

  17. Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center's Earth as Art Image Gallery 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center manages this collection of forty-five new scenes developed for their aesthetic beauty, rather than for...

  18. Comparison of Satellite Surveying to Traditional Surveying Methods for the Resources Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, B. P.; Osborne, V. J.; Kruger, M. L.

    Modern ground-based survey methods involve detailed survey, which provides three-space co-ordinates for surveyed points, to a high level of accuracy. The instruments are operated by surveyors, who process the raw results to create survey location maps for the subject of the survey. Such surveys are conducted for a location or region and referenced to the earth global co- ordinate system with global positioning system (GPS) positioning. Due to this referencing the survey is only as accurate as the GPS reference system. Satellite survey remote sensing utilise satellite imagery which have been processed using commercial geographic information system software. Three-space co-ordinate maps are generated, with an accuracy determined by the datum position accuracy and optical resolution of the satellite platform.This paper presents a case study, which compares topographic surveying undertaken by traditional survey methods with satellite surveying, for the same location. The purpose of this study is to assess the viability of satellite remote sensing for surveying in the resources industry. The case study involves a topographic survey of a dune field for a prospective mining project area in Pakistan. This site has been surveyed using modern surveying techniques and the results are compared to a satellite survey performed on the same area.Analysis of the results from traditional survey and from the satellite survey involved a comparison of the derived spatial co- ordinates from each method. In addition, comparisons have been made of costs and turnaround time for both methods.The results of this application of remote sensing is of particular interest for survey in areas with remote and extreme environments, weather extremes, political unrest, poor travel links, which are commonly associated with mining projects. Such areas frequently suffer language barriers, poor onsite technical support and resources.

  19. A Survey on Resource Provisioning in Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Uthaya Banu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing allow the users to efficiently and dynamically provision computing resource to meet their IT needs. Companies are able to rent resources from cloud for storage and other computational purposes so that their infrastructure cost can be reduced. Further they can make use of company-wide access to applications based on pay-as-you-go model. Hence there is no need for getting licenses for individual products. However one of the major pitfalls in cloud computing is related to optimizing the resources being allocated. Resource allocation is performed with the objective of minimizing the costs associated with it. The other challenges in resource allocation are meeting customer demands and application requirements. In this paper we have presented a widespread survey on various resource allocation strategies and their challenges are discussed in detail.

  20. Current Status on Resource and Recycling Technology for Rare Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Osamu; Okabe, Toru H.

    2014-06-01

    The development of recycling technologies for rare earths is essential for resource security and supply stability because high-quality rare earth mines are concentrated in China and the demand for rare earth metals such as neodymium and dysprosium, used as raw materials in permanent magnets (neodymium magnet), is expected to increase rapidly in the near future. It is also important to establish a recycling-based society from the perspective of the conservation of finite and valuable mineral resources and the reduction of the environmental load associated with mining and smelting. In this article, the current status of rare earth resource as well as that of recycling technology for the magnets is reviewed. The importance of establishing an efficient recycling process for rare earths is discussed from the characteristics of supply chain of rare earths, and the technological bases of the recycling processes for the magnet are introduced. Further, some fundamental researches on the development of new recycling processes based on pyrometallurgical process are introduced, and the features of the recycling processes are evaluated.

  1. User-based Resource Design in Earth Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, M.; Haber, J.; Wittenberg, K.

    2001-12-01

    Reform in the classroom, and certainly in academic publishing, is greatly influenced not only by educational research, but also by direct surveys of students and instructors. This presentation looks at changes to Columbia Earthscape, www.earthscape.org, based on an ongoing series of evaluation and testing measures. Two years ago, the Earthscape project was introduced as a central online resource. It aimed to select and make available authoritative materials from all the disciplines that constitute Earth-system science. Its design harnessed the dynamics of the Web and the interrelatedness of research, education, and public policy. In response to substantial class tests, involving five universities in the United States and abroad, three focus groups of geoscience faculty and librarians, user feedback, internal editorial-board review, and extensive consultation with colleagues in commercial and nonprofit educational publishing, Earthscape is implementing broad changes in design and content. These include arranging the site into sections that correspond to user profiles (scientist, policy-maker, teacher, and student), providing easier search or browsing (by research area, policy content, or lesson concept), and streamlining the presentation of links among our resources. These changes are implemented through more advanced searching capabilities, greater specificity of content metatags, and an overall increase in content from journals, books, and original material. The metatags now include all core geoscience disciplines or a range of pertinent issues (such as climate change, geologic hazards, and pollution). Reflecting the evaluation by librarians, Earthscape's revised interface will permit users to begin with a primary area of interest based on who they are, their "profile." They can then either browse the site's entire holdings in that area, perform searches within each area, or follow the extensive hyperlinks to explore connections to other areas and user needs

  2. Basic survey for coal resources development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-01

    Aiming at stable coal supply which occupies an important role as energy substitute for petroleum, as a link in surveys necessary to promote development of coal resources abroad, out of those areas with high reliability as coal resources inside and outside of Japan, by carrying out geophysical exploration and drilling in unexplored districts, a general outline of the overall geological construction and coal bed distribution, etc., can be grasped. This survey has been carried out in FY 1982-1984 in the 2 districts in Kyushu, ARIAKE SEA and OFF NISHI SONOGI and 5 districts in Hokkaido, OFF KUSHIRO, SHINJO,KITA ASHIBETSU, HOKUYO and RUSHIN to verify the coal bed and ascertain distribution conditions. Countinued surveys in these districts so as to grasp the geological construction of the district. Through these surveys, Japanese techniques in coal drilling prospecting, geophysical exploration and data processing have been found useful.

  3. Brand Awareness towards Sustaining Earth's Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Seema

    2015-04-01

    entrepreneurship where we will be developing a business idea with the aim of solving an important social as well as environmental problem along with making reasonable profit from selling of the concerned product. Waste management and environmental pollution is a growing concern in the city. To drive a change in the minds of the people it is important to educate them on the issues to face the stark reality. To achieve this we do re-informing drives to bring a change - a. First and foremost people should depend on renewable energy. b. Limited use of natural resources by including recycling in our daily lives which helps in cutting down of natural resources. For example segregating dry waste from wet waste. c. Taking care and respecting the Nature. Being respectful of the environment goes hand in hand as environmental problems have impacted people on broad scale. As Mahatma Gandhi said, 'Be the change you want to see in the world' it is about making efforts to see a change in the society. It is essential to let people know that every individual's efforts do not go waste but add up to ensure an impactful change.

  4. Geographical information modelling for land resource survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de S.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing popularity of geographical information systems (GIS) has at least three major implications for land resources survey. Firstly, GIS allows alternative and richer representation of spatial phenomena than is possible with the traditional paper map. Secondly, digital technology has improv

  5. Infrared near-Earth-object survey modeling for observatories interior to the Earth's orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buie, M.

    2014-07-01

    The search for and dynamical characterization of the near-Earth population of objects (NEOs) has been a busy topic for surveys for many years. Most of the work thus far has been from ground-based optical surveys such as the Catalina Sky Survey and LINEAR. These surveys have essentially reached a complete inventory of objects down to 1 km diameter and have shown that the known objects do not pose any significant impact threat. Smaller objects are correspondingly smaller threats but there are more of them and fewer of them have so far been discovered. The next generation of surveys is looking to extend their reach down to much smaller sizes. From an impact risk perspective, those objects as small as 30--40 m are still of interest (similar in size to the Tunguska bolide). Smaller objects than this are largely of interest from a space resource or in-situ analysis efforts. A recent mission concept promoted by the B612 Foundation and Ball Aerospace calls for an infrared survey telescope in a Venus-like orbit, known as the Sentinel Mission. This wide-field facility has been designed to complete the inventory down to a 140 m diameter while also providing substantial constraints on the NEO population down to a Tunguska-sized object. I have been working to develop a suite of tools to provide survey modeling for this class of survey telescope. The purpose of the tool is to uncover hidden complexities that govern mission design and operation while also working to quantitatively understand the orbit quality provided on its catalog of objects without additional followup assets. The baseline mission design calls for a 6.5 year survey lifetime. This survey model is a statistically based tool for establishing completeness as a function of object size and survey duration. Effects modeled include the ability to adjust the field-of-regard (includes all pointing restrictions), field-of-view, focal plane array fill factor, and the observatory orbit. Consequences tracked include time

  6. RESOURCE SCHEDULING IN CLOUD ENVIRONMET: A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Mangla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing offers the avant-garde services at a stretch that are too attractive for any cloud user to ignore. With its growing application and popularization, IT companies are rapidly deploying distributed data centers globally, posing numerous challenges in terms of scheduling of resources under different administrative domains. This perspective brings out certain vital factors for efficient scheduling of resources providing a wide genre of characteristics, diversity in context of level of service agreements and that too with user-contingent elasticity. In this paper, a comprehensive survey of research related to various aspects of cloud resource scheduling is provided. A comparative analysis of various resource scheduling techniques focusing on key performance parameters like Energy efficiency, Virtual Machine allocation and migration, Cost-effectiveness and Service-Level Agreement is also presented.

  7. MAESTRO: Mathematics and Earth Science Teachers' Resource Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtier, A. M.; Pyle, E. J.; Fichter, L.; Lucas, S.; Jackson, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Mathematics and Earth Science Teachers' Resource Organization (MAESTRO) partnership between James Madison University and Harrisonburg City and Page County Public Schools, funded through NSF-GEO. The partnership aims to transform mathematics and Earth science instruction in middle and high schools by developing an integrated mathematics and Earth systems science approach to instruction. This curricular integration is intended to enhance the mathematical skills and confidence of students through concrete, Earth systems-based examples, while increasing the relevance and rigor of Earth science instruction via quantification and mathematical modeling of Earth system phenomena. MAESTRO draws heavily from the Earth Science Literacy Initiative (2009) and is informed by criterion-level standardized test performance data in both mathematics and Earth science. The project has involved two summer professional development workshops, academic year Lesson Study (structured teacher observation and reflection), and will incorporate site-based case studies with direct student involvement. Participating teachers include Grade 6 Science and Mathematics teachers, and Grade 9 Earth Science and Algebra teachers. It is anticipated that the proposed integration across grade bands will first strengthen students' interests in mathematics and science (a problem in middle school) and subsequently reinforce the relevance of mathematics and other sciences (a problem in high school), both in support of Earth systems literacy. MAESTRO's approach to the integration of math and science focuses on using box models to emphasize the interconnections among the geo-, atmo-, bio-, and hydrospheres, and demonstrates the positive and negative feedback processes that connect their mutual evolution. Within this framework we explore specific relationships that can be described both qualitatively and mathematically, using mathematical operations appropriate for each grade level. Site-based case studies

  8. Bayesian adaptive survey protocols for resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Transparency in resource management decisions requires a proper accounting of uncertainty at multiple stages of the decision-making process. As information becomes available, periodic review and updating of resource management protocols reduces uncertainty and improves management decisions. One of the most basic steps to mitigating anthropogenic effects on populations is determining if a population of a species occurs in an area that will be affected by human activity. Species are rarely detected with certainty, however, and falsely declaring a species absent can cause improper conservation decisions or even extirpation of populations. We propose a method to design survey protocols for imperfectly detected species that accounts for multiple sources of uncertainty in the detection process, is capable of quantitatively incorporating expert opinion into the decision-making process, allows periodic updates to the protocol, and permits resource managers to weigh the severity of consequences if the species is falsely declared absent. We developed our method using the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas), a threatened species precinctive to the Central Valley of California, as a case study. Survey date was negatively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake, and water temperature was positively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake at a sampled location. Reporting sampling effort, timing and duration of surveys, and water temperatures would allow resource managers to evaluate the probability that the giant gartersnake occurs at sampled sites where it is not detected. This information would also allow periodic updates and quantitative evaluation of changes to the giant gartersnake survey protocol. Because it naturally allows multiple sources of information and is predicated upon the idea of updating information, Bayesian analysis is well-suited to solving the problem of developing efficient sampling protocols for species of

  9. ERISTAR: Earth Resources Information Storage, Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) have sponsored faculty fellowship programs in systems engineering design for the past several years. During the summer of 1972 four such programs were conducted by NASA, with Auburn University cooperating with Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The subject for the Auburn-MSFC design group was ERISTAR, an acronym for Earth Resources Information Storage, Transformation, Analysis and Retrieval, which represents an earth resources information management network of state information centers administered by the respective states and linked to federally administered regional centers and a national center. The considerations for serving the users and the considerations that must be given to processing data from a variety of sources are described. The combination of these elements into a national network is discussed and an implementation plan is proposed for a prototype state information center. The compatibility of the proposed plan with the Department of Interior plan, RALI, is indicated.

  10. Hyperspectral surveying for mineral resources in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Graham, Garth E.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kelley, Karen D.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2016-07-07

    Alaska is a major producer of base and precious metals and has a high potential for additional undiscovered mineral resources. However, discovery is hindered by Alaska’s vast size, remoteness, and rugged terrain. New methods are needed to overcome these obstacles in order to fully evaluate Alaska’s geology and mineral resource potential. Hyperspectral surveying is one method that can be used to rapidly acquire data about the distributions of surficial materials, including different types of bedrock and ground cover. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey began the Alaska Hyperspectral Project to assess the applicability of this method in Alaska. The primary study area is a remote part of the eastern Alaska Range where porphyry deposits are exposed. In collaboration with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the National Park Service, the U.S. Geological Survey is collecting and analyzing hyperspectral data with the goals of enhancing geologic mapping and developing methods to identify and characterize mineral deposits elsewhere in Alaska.

  11. Earth resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes (issue 58)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography lists 500 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between April 1 and June 30, 1988. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  12. NEOLegacy: The ultimate Spitzer survey of Near Earth Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilling, David; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2016-08-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth's orbit. NEOs are valuable tracers of the evolution of our Solar System, and are also key components of current and future space exploration. Finally, the study of NEOs is relevant for civil defense through understanding the impact threat. We propose here an efficient and comprehensive survey to measure the diameters, albedos, and lightcurves of 1154 NEOs. We include only targets that are too faint to be detected by NEOWISE. This catalog will complete a database of diameters and albedos for nearly 3000 NEOs -- more than 20% of all known objects. Our primary goal, in line with the planetary science priorities for Spitzer Cycle 13, is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties. From this catalog we will calculate an independent estimate of the NEO size distribution, addressing a current controversy, and measure the compositional distribution of NEOs as a function of size. We will increase by up to a factor of five the number of NEO lightcurves with relatively well known periods and amplitudes. The legacy value of this project is most evident in the fact that there will not ever in the foreseeable future be another opportunity to measure thousands of NEO diameters and carry out the type of science described above. Our online database will be the single most valuable resource of NEO diameters and albedos for years to come. Only Spitzer is sensitive and efficient enough to create such an important catalog of this scale. Our team has unmatched experience observing NEOs with Spitzer.

  13. Earth resources shuttle imaging radar. [systems analysis and design analysis of pulse radar for earth resources information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A report is presented on a preliminary design of a Synthetic Array Radar (SAR) intended for experimental use with the space shuttle program. The radar is called Earth Resources Shuttle Imaging Radar (ERSIR). Its primary purpose is to determine the usefulness of SAR in monitoring and managing earth resources. The design of the ERSIR, along with tradeoffs made during its evolution is discussed. The ERSIR consists of a flight sensor for collecting the raw radar data and a ground sensor used both for reducing these radar data to images and for extracting earth resources information from the data. The flight sensor consists of two high powered coherent, pulse radars, one that operates at L and the other at X-band. Radar data, recorded on tape can be either transmitted via a digital data link to a ground terminal or the tape can be delivered to the ground station after the shuttle lands. A description of data processing equipment and display devices is given.

  14. Mission Adaptive Uas Capabilities for Earth Science and Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, S.; Fladeland, M.; Ippolito, C.; Knudson, M.; Young, Z.

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are important assets for accessing high risk airspace and incorporate technologies for sensor coordination, onboard processing, tele-communication, unconventional flight control, and ground based monitoring and optimization. These capabilities permit adaptive mission management in the face of complex requirements and chaotic external influences. NASA Ames Research Center has led a number of Earth science remote sensing missions directed at the assessment of natural resources and here we describe two resource mapping problems having mission characteristics requiring a mission adaptive capability extensible to other resource assessment challenges. One example involves the requirement for careful control over solar angle geometry for passive reflectance measurements. This constraint exists when collecting imaging spectroscopy data over vegetation for time series analysis or for the coastal ocean where solar angle combines with sea state to produce surface glint that can obscure the signal. Furthermore, the primary flight control imperative to minimize tracking error should compromise with the requirement to minimize aircraft motion artifacts in the spatial measurement distribution. A second example involves mapping of natural resources in the Earth's crust using precision magnetometry. In this case the vehicle flight path must be oriented to optimize magnetic flux gradients over a spatial domain having continually emerging features, while optimizing the efficiency of the spatial mapping task. These requirements were highlighted in recent Earth Science missions including the OCEANIA mission directed at improving the capability for spectral and radiometric reflectance measurements in the coastal ocean, and the Surprise Valley Mission directed at mapping sub-surface mineral composition and faults, using high-sensitivity magnetometry. This paper reports the development of specific aircraft control approaches to incorporate the unusual and

  15. USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Survey Data in Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, C.; Steele, C.; Ma, A.; Chin, J.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG) program has a rich data catalog of geologic field activities and metadata called InfoBank, which has been a standard tool for researchers within and outside of the agency. Along with traditional web maps, the data are now accessible in Google Earth, which greatly expands the possible user audience. The Google Earth interface provides geographic orientation and panning/zooming capabilities to locate data relative to topography, bathymetry, and coastal areas. Viewing navigation with Google Earth's background imagery allows queries such as, why areas were not surveyed (answer presence of islands, shorelines, cliffs, etc.). Detailed box core subsample photos from selected sampling activities, published geotechnical data, and sample descriptions are now viewable on Google Earth, (for example, M-1-95-MB, P-2-95-MB, and P-1-97- MB box core samples). One example of the use of Google Earth is CMG's surveys of San Francisco's Ocean Beach since 2004. The surveys are conducted with an all-terrain vehicle (ATV) and shallow-water personal watercraft (PWC) equipped with Global Positioning System (GPS), and elevation and echo sounder data collectors. 3D topographic models with centimeter accuracy have been produced from these surveys to monitor beach and nearshore processes, including sand transport, sedimentation patterns, and seasonal trends. Using Google Earth, multiple track line data (examples: OB-1-05-CA and OB-2-05-CA) can be overlaid on beach imagery. The images also help explain the shape of track lines as objects are encountered.

  16. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The United States spends approximately four million dollars each year searching for near-Earth objects (NEOs). The objective is to detect those that may collide with Earth. The majority of this funding supports the operation of several observatories that scan the sky searching for NEOs. This, however, is insufficient in detecting the majority of NEOs that may present a tangible threat to humanity. A significantly smaller amount of funding supports ways to protect the Earth from such a potential collision or "mitigation." In 2005, a Congressional mandate called for NASA to detect 90 percent of NEOs with diameters of 140 meters of greater by 2020. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies identifies the need for detection of objects as small as 30 to 50 meters as these can be highly destructive. The book explores four main types of mitigation including civil defense, "slow push" or "pull" methods, kinetic impactors and nuclear explosions. It also asserts that responding effectively to hazards posed by NEOs requires national and international cooperation. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies is a useful guide for scientists, astronomers, policy makers and engineers.

  17. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The United States spends approximately four million dollars each year searching for near-Earth objects (NEOs). The objective is to detect those that may collide with Earth. The majority of this funding supports the operation of several observatories that scan the sky searching for NEOs. This, however, is insufficient in detecting the majority of NEOs that may present a tangible threat to humanity. A significantly smaller amount of funding supports ways to protect the Earth from such a potential collision or "mitigation." In 2005, a Congressional mandate called for NASA to detect 90 percent of NEOs with diameters of 140 meters of greater by 2020. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies identifies the need for detection of objects as small as 30 to 50 meters as these can be highly destructive. The book explores four main types of mitigation including civil defense, "slow push" or "pull" methods, kinetic impactors and nuclear explosions. It also asserts that responding effectively to hazards posed by NEOs requires national and international cooperation. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies is a useful guide for scientists, astronomers, policy makers and engineers.

  18. Mother Lode: The Untapped Rare Earth Mineral Resources of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    hundreds of Bq/m 3 of air; the recommended safety limits for civilian exposure are 3.5 mSv/year and 0.15 Bq/m 3 , respectively. 37 REO Mining – a...Commission for Asia and the Pacific. Atlas of Mineral Resources of the ESCAP Region, Vol. 6, Viet Nam. ST/ESCAP/831. Bangkok : UNESCAP, 1990. “US$ 35.5... Bangkok ), July 19, 2013. ProQuest (1400734925). “VINACOMIN and Japanese Firm to Exploit and Process Rare Earth in Lai Chau.” Vietnam National

  19. [Inventories of the Earth. Mineral resource appraisals and the rise of resource economics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    How do the earth sciences mediate between the natural and social world? This paper explores the question by focusing on the history of nonfuel mineral resource appraisal from the late nineteenth to the mid twentieth century. It argues that earth sciences early on embraced social scientific knowledge, i.e. economic knowledge, in particular, when it came to determining or deposits and estimating the magnitude of mineral reserves. After 1900, assessing national and global mineral reserves and their "life span" or years of supply became ever more important, scaling up and complementing traditional appraisal practices on the level of individual mines or mining and trading companies. As a consequence, economic methods gained new weight for mineral resource estimation. Natural resource economics as an own field of research grew out of these efforts. By way of example, the mineral resource appraisal assigned to the U.S. Materials Policy Commission by President Harry S. Truman in 1951 is analyzed in more detail. Natural resource economics and environmental economics might be interpreted as a strategy to bring down the vast and holistically conceived object of geological and ecological research, the earth, to human scale, and assimilate it into social matters.

  20. Earth observation for regional scale environmental and natural resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.; Brookshire, D.; Faulkner, S.; Chivoiu, B.; Bridge, B.; Broadbent, C.

    2013-12-01

    Earth observations (EO) provide critical information to natural resource assessment. Three examples are presented: conserving potable groundwater in intense agricultural regions, maximizing ecosystem service benefits at regional scales from afforestation investment and management, and enabling integrated natural and behavioral sciences for resource management and policy analysis. In each of these cases EO of different resolutions are used in different ways to help in the classification, characterization, and availability of natural resources and ecosystem services. To inform decisions, each example includes a spatiotemporal economic model to optimize the net societal benefits of resource development and exploitation. 1) EO is used for monitoring land use in intensively cultivated agricultural regions. Archival imagery is coupled to a hydrogeological process model to evaluate the tradeoff between agrochemical use and retention of potable groundwater. EO is used to couple individual producers and regional resource managers using information from markets and natural systems to aid in the objective of maximizing agricultural production and maintaining groundwater quality. The contribution of EO is input to a nitrate loading and transport model to estimate the cumulative impact on groundwater at specified distances from specific sites (wells) for 35 Iowa counties and two aquifers. 2) Land use/land cover (LULC) derived from EO is used to compare biological carbon sequestration alternatives and their provisioning of ecosystem services. EO is used to target land attributes that are more or less desirable for enhancing ecosystem services in two parishes in Louisiana. Ecological production functions are coupled with value data to maximize the expected return on investment in carbon sequestration and other ancillary ecosystem services while minimizing the risk. 3) Environmental and natural resources management decisions employ probabilistic estimates of yet-to-find or yet

  1. SATELLITE GRAVITY SURVEYING TECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCH OF EARTH'S GRAVITY FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Jinsheng

    2003-01-01

    This is a summarized paper. Two topics are discussed: Firstly, the concept, development and application of four kinds of satellite gravity surveying technology are introduced; Secondly, some problems of theory and method, which must be considered in the study of the Earth's gravity field based on satellite gravity data, are expounded.

  2. The Heritage of Earth Science Applications in Policy, Business, and Management of Natural Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, M.

    2012-12-01

    From the first hand-held cameras on the Gemini space missions to present day satellite instruments, Earth observations have enhanced the management of natural resources including water, land, and air. Applications include the development of new methodology (for example, developing and testing algorithms or demonstrating how data can be used) and the direct use of data in decisionmaking and policy implementation. Using well-defined bibliographic search indices to systematically survey a broad social science literature, this project enables identification of a host of well-documented, practical and direct applications of Earth science data in resource management. This literature has not previously been well surveyed, aggregated, or analyzed for the heritage of lessons learned in practical application of Earth science data. In the absence of such a survey, the usefulness of Earth science data is underestimated and the factors that make people want to use -- and able to use -- the data are poorly understood. The project extends and updates previous analysis of social science applications of Landsat data to show their contemporary, direct use in new policy, business, and management activities and decisionmaking. The previous surveys (for example, Blumberg and Jacobson 1997; National Research Council 1998) find that the earliest attempts to use data are almost exclusively testing of methodology rather than direct use in resource management. Examples of methodology prototyping include Green et al. (1997) who demonstrate use of remote sensing to detect and monitor changes in land cover and use, Cowen et al. (1995) who demonstrate design and integration of GIS for environmental applications, Hutchinson (1991) who shows uses of data for famine early warning, and Brondizio et al. (1996) who show the link of thematic mapper data with botanical data. Blumberg and Jacobson (in Acevedo et al. 1996) show use of data in a study of urban development in the San Francisco Bay and the

  3. Earth and water resources and hazards in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles G.; Fary, R.W.; Guffanti, Marianne; Laura, Della; Lee, M.P.; Masters, C.D.; Miller, R.L.; Quinones-Marques, Ferdinand; Peebles, R.W.; Reinemund, J.A.; Russ, D.P.

    1984-01-01

    Long-range economic development in Central America will depend in large part on production of indigenous mineral, energy, and water resources and on mitigation of the disastrous effects of geologic and hydrologic hazards such as landslides, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and floods. The region has six world-class metal mines at present as well as additional evidence of widespread mineralization. Systematic investigations using modern mineral exploration techniques should reveal more mineral deposits suitable for development. Widespread evidence of lignite and geothermal resources suggests that intensive studies could identify producible energy sources in most Central American countries. Water supply and water quality vary greatly from country to country. Local problems of ground- and surface-water availability and of contamination create a need for systematic programs to provide better hydrologic data, capital improvements, and management. Disastrous earthquakes have destroyed or severely damaged many cities in Central America. Volcanic eruptions, landslides, mudflows, and floods have devastated most of the Pacific side of Central America at one time or another. A regional approach to earthquake, volcano, and flood-risk analysis and monitoring, using modern technology and concepts, would provide the facilities and means for acquiring knowledge necessary to reduce future losses. All Central American countries need to strengthen institutions and programs dealing with earth and water resources and natural hazards. Some of these needs may be satisfied through existing or pending projects and technical and economic assistance from U.S. or other sources. The need for a comprehensive study of the natural resources of Central America and the requirements for their development is evident. The U.S. Caribbean Basin Initiative offers both an excellent opportunity for a regional approach to these pervasive problems and an opportunity for international cooperation.

  4. Survey Relationship between Human Resources Roles and Human Resources Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Darvish

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates relationship between Human resources roles and Human resources competencies in Iranian Petroleum Company. For this study, we were looking for answers to these questions: What are the new required Human Resources competencies For Contemporary organizations? And For Gain these competencies what roles should be played by Human Resources? The study had one main hypothesis and four minor hypotheses. Research method was descriptive, and regression and correlation tests were used to determine the relationship between variables. The populations of this study were managers of Iranian Petroleum Company. This Research showed that Human resources roles have significant effect on Human resources competencies; Strategic partner, Employee champion, and Change agent had significant relationship with all of Human resource competencies; Administrative expert had not significant relationship with none of the Human resource competencies.

  5. Earth System Grid II, Turning Climate Datasets into Community Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, Don

    2006-08-01

    The Earth System Grid (ESG) II project, funded by the Department of Energy’s Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing program, has transformed climate data into community resources. ESG II has accomplished this goal by creating a virtual collaborative environment that links climate centers and users around the world to models and data via a computing Grid, which is based on the Department of Energy’s supercomputing resources and the Internet. Our project’s success stems from partnerships between climate researchers and computer scientists to advance basic and applied research in the terrestrial, atmospheric, and oceanic sciences. By interfacing with other climate science projects, we have learned that commonly used methods to manage and remotely distribute data among related groups lack infrastructure and under-utilize existing technologies. Knowledge and expertise gained from ESG II have helped the climate community plan strategies to manage a rapidly growing data environment more effectively. Moreover, approaches and technologies developed under the ESG project have impacted datasimulation integration in other disciplines, such as astrophysics, molecular biology and materials science.

  6. Threat of Human Earth and Natural Resource Supply by Asteroid Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Y.; Kato, T.; Tanosaki, T.

    2017-02-01

    Meteoritic impact can be stopped before entry among three major shocked events, which is observed from two sites to be changed the orbits in advance. Asteroid impacts produce also to form Earth's resources, which is applied to other space resources.

  7. Rare earth minerals and resources in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanazawa, Yasuo [Human Resource Department, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)]. E-mail: y.kanazawa@aist.go.jp; Kamitani, Masaharu [Institute for Geo-Resources and Environment, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8567 (Japan)

    2006-02-09

    About 200 rare earth (RE) minerals are distributed in a wide variety of mineral classes, such as halides, carbonates, oxides, phosphates, silicates, etc. Due to the large ionic radii and trivalent oxidation state, RE ions in the minerals have large coordination numbers (c.n.) 6-10 by anions (O, F, OH). Light rare earth elements (LREEs) tend to occupy the larger sites of 8-10 c.n. and concentrate in carbonates and phosphates. On the other hand, heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and Y occupy 6-8 c.n. sites and are abundant in oxides and a part of phosphates. Only a few mineral species, such as bastnaesite (Ce,La)(CO{sub 3})F, monazite (Ce,La)PO{sub 4}, xenotime YPO{sub 4}, and RE-bearing clay have been recovered for commercial production. Bayan Obo, China is the biggest RE deposit in the world. One of probable hypotheses for ore geneses is that the deposit might be formed by hydrothermal replacement of carbonate rocks of sedimentary origin. The hydrothermal fluid may be derived from an alkaline-carbonatite intrusive series. Following Bayan Obo, more than 550 carbonatite/alkaline complex rocks constitute the majority of the world RE resources. The distribution is restricted to interior and marginal regions of continents, especially Precambrian cratons and shields, or related to large-scale rift structures. Main concentrated areas of the complexes are East African rift zones, northern Scandinavia-Kola peninsula, eastern Canada and southern Brazil. Representative sedimentary deposits of REE are placer- and conglomerate-types. The major potential countries are Australia, India, Brazil, and Malaysia. Weathered residual deposits have been formed under tropical and sub-tropical climates. Bauxite and laterite nickel deposit are the representative. Ion adsorption clay without radioactive elements is known in southern China. Weathering processes concentrate REE in a particular clay mineral-layer in the weathered crusts whose source were originally REE-rich rocks like granite

  8. Mining the CFHT Legacy Survey for known Near Earth Asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Vaduvescu, O; Birlan, M; Toma, R; Badea, M; Dumitru, D; Opriseanu, C; Vidican, D; 10.1002/asna.201011550

    2011-01-01

    The Canada-France-Hawaii Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) comprising about 25 000 MegaCam images was data mined to search for serendipitous encounters of known Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs). A total of 143 asteroids (109 NEAs and 34 PHAs) were found on 508 candidate images which were field corrected and measured carefully, and their astrometry was reported to Minor Planet Centre. Both recoveries and precoveries (apparitions before discovery) were reported, including data for 27 precovered asteroids (20 NEAs and 7 PHAs) and 116 recovered asteroids (89 NEAs and 27 PHAs). Our data prolonged arcs for 41 orbits at first or last opposition, refined 35 orbits by fitting data taken at one new opposition, recovered 6 NEAs at their second opposition and allowed us to ameliorate most orbits and their Minimal Orbital Intersection Distance (MOID), an important parameter to monitor for potential Earth impact hazard in the future.

  9. Continental shelves as potential resource of rare earth elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourret, Olivier; Tuduri, Johann

    2017-07-19

    The results of this study allow the reassessment of the rare earth elements (REE) external cycle. Indeed, the river input to the oceans has relatively flat REE patterns without cerium (Ce) anomalies, whereas oceanic REE patterns exhibit strong negative Ce anomalies and heavy REE enrichment. Indeed, the processes at the origin of seawater REE patterns are commonly thought to occur within the ocean masses themselves. However, the results from the present study illustrate that seawater-like REE patterns already occur in the truly dissolved pool of river input. This leads us to favor a partial or complete removal of the colloidal REE pool during estuarine mixing by coagulation, as previously shown for dissolved humic acids and iron. In this latter case, REE fractionation occurs because colloidal and truly dissolved pools have different REE patterns. Thus, the REE patterns of seawater could be the combination of both intra-oceanic and riverine processes. In this study, we show that the Atlantic continental shelves could be considered potential REE traps, suggesting further that shelf sediments could potentially become a resource for REE, similar to metalliferous deep sea sediments.

  10. Investigation of microwave hologram techniques for application to earth resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, R. W.; Bayma, R. W.; Evans, M. B.; Zelenka, J. S.; Doss, H. W.; Ferris, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation of microwave hologram techniques for application to earth resources was conducted during the period from June 1971 to November 1972. The objective of this investigation has been to verify the feasibility of an orbital microwave holographic radar experiment. The primary advantage of microwave hologram radar (MHR) over the side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) is that of aspect or viewing angle; the MHR has a viewing angle identical with that of photography and IR systems. The combination of these systems can thus extend the multispectral analysis concept to span optical through microwave wavelengths. Another advantage is the capacity of the MHR system to generate range contours by operating in a two-frequency mode. It should be clear that along-track resolution of an MHR can be comparable with SLAR systems, but cross-track resolution will be approximately an order of magnitude coarser than the range resolution achievable with an arbitrary SLAR system. An advantage of the MHR over the SLAR is that less average transmitter power is required. This reduction in power results from the much larger receiving apertures associated with MHR systems.

  11. China is Planning to Raise rare Earth Resource Tax Again

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>In the face of the current situation of the lost WTO dispute on rare earth,and cancellation of export tariff for partial rare earth products,efforts of regulation and integration on rare earth by the state government will again be tightened.Reporters of the Economic Information Daily recently learned from authoritative sources that relevant ministries are

  12. The Catalina Sky Survey for Near-Earth Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Eric J.; Carson Fuls, David; Gibbs, Alex; Grauer, Al; Johnson, Jess Andrew; Kowalski, Richard; Larson, Stephen M.; Leonard, Gregory; Matheny, Rose; Seaman, Robert L.; Shelly, Frank

    2016-10-01

    The Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) operates three telescopes on Mt. Lemmon, Arizona, in support of NASA's effort to detect and catalog near-Earth objects (NEOs). CSS is undergoing a period of significant enhancement, including the installation of two large-format cameras built around monolithic 10k x 10k detectors, which replace our reliable but aging 4k x 4k cameras at the survey telescopes. These new cameras increase the field of view (FoV) of our 0.7-meter Schmidt telescope by a factor of 2.4 (from 8.1 deg2 to 19.4 deg2), and the FoV of our 1.5-meter telescope by a factor of 4 (from 1.2 deg2 to 5.0 deg2), enabling significantly more sky to be surveyed every night. Other recent improvements include the conversion to a more modern telescope control system, the addition of an image subtraction-based enhancement to our moving object detection software, and the deployment of a custom adaptive queue scheduler.We will present a brief overview of survey operations, discussing the balance between human-driven decisions and automation. Results from the new camera commissioning will also be presented, and we will introduce a new project to reprocess the CSS archival holdings with an enhanced pipeline, and publicly serve the data via PDS.CSS is supported by NASA under grant #NNX15AF79G.

  13. Distributed Computation Resources for Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, D.; Doutriaux, C.; Williams, D. N.

    2014-12-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), prompted by the United Nations General Assembly, has published a series of papers in their Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) on processes, impacts, and mitigations of climate change in 2013. The science used in these reports was generated by an international group of domain experts. They studied various scenarios of climate change through the use of highly complex computer models to simulate the Earth's climate over long periods of time. The resulting total data of approximately five petabytes are stored in a distributed data grid known as the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). Through the ESGF, consumers of the data can find and download data with limited capabilities for server-side processing. The Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) is already in the planning stages and is estimated to create as much as two orders of magnitude more data than the AR5 distributed archive. It is clear that data analysis capabilities currently in use will be inadequate to allow for the necessary science to be done with AR6 data—the data will just be too big. A major paradigm shift from downloading data to local systems to perform data analytics must evolve to moving the analysis routines to the data and performing these computations on distributed platforms. In preparation for this need, the ESGF has started a Compute Working Team (CWT) to create solutions that allow users to perform distributed, high-performance data analytics on the AR6 data. The team will be designing and developing a general Application Programming Interface (API) to enable highly parallel, server-side processing throughout the ESGF data grid. This API will be integrated with multiple analysis and visualization tools, such as the Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT), netCDF Operator (NCO), and others. This presentation will provide an update on the ESGF CWT's overall approach toward enabling the necessary storage proximal computational

  14. Home area geology and Alabama earth science teachers: A resource to improve the understanding and use of the state's rocks to supplement textbook concepts in earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacefield, James Anderson

    Recent studies have suggested that teachers of earth science in Alabama secondary schools are undertrained in the content areas of the subject. A survey of academic training and certification of active earth science teachers (Hall, 1985) was replicated as part of a study of the current inservice needs of Alabama earth science teachers (Logue & Lacefield, 1995). Only one-third of responding teachers were found to be properly certified to teach the subject; most had been trained for teaching life science. Approximately one-half had never had a course in geology, astronomy, or meteorology--the three primary components of the typical earth science course. Of 32 earth science topics suggested for possible additional inservice workshops, teachers responding to the Logue and Lacefield survey selected Alabama and Southeastern geology as the topic of greatest interest and need. As an alternative to conventional inservice training, an illustrated book on Alabama geologic history was developed for publication. Its purpose was to supply an ongoing, usable geologic reference for Alabama earth science teachers and their students and to promote greater understanding of Alabama geology by the public in general. Entitled Lost Worlds in Alabama Rocks: The Half-Billion Year Record of Change in the State's Life and Landscape, the 82-page book (included as appendix) explains how geologic history is reconstructed using evidence from rocks, surveys the major sets of sedimentary rocks found within the state, details what each means in terms of ancient environment, and describes how Alabama's present landscape can be interpreted to reflect past geologic changes. The resource includes nearly 200 color photographs and graphics and 12 pages of fossil identification guides illustrating the most common fossil organisms found within the state. A selected group of professional geologists and earth science educators evaluated the book for scientific accuracy, format, presentation of content, and

  15. Archeological Survey and Cultural Resources Overview

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Archaeological field survey within the Santee National Wildlife Refuge, Clarendon County, South Carolinais summarized. Five archaeological sites were discovered, and...

  16. Colorado cultural resource survey: Management data form [5JA784

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document includes the survey forms necessary to assess cultural resources in Colorado. This document assesses the Lewis children graves (site # 5JA1478) on...

  17. Colorado cultural resource survey: Management data form [5JA784

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document includes the survey forms necessary to assess cultural resources in Colorado. This document assesses the Allard Ranch (site # 5JA784, temporary #...

  18. Journal Articles Applying National Aquatic Resource Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) data are being used and applied above and beyond the regional and national assessments. This page includes a list of recent journal articles that reference NARS data.

  19. Preliminary natural resource survey : Carson River Mercury Site, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The survey in this report was conducted to determine if natural resources under the trusteeship of Interior have been affected by the release of hazardous substances...

  20. The impact of earth resources exploration from space. [technology assessment/LANDSAT satellites -technological forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordberg, W.

    1975-01-01

    The use of Earth Resources Technology Satellites in solving global problems is examined. Topics discussed are: (1) management of food, water, and fiber resources; (2) exploration and management of energy and mineral resources; (3) protection of the environment; (4) protection of life and property; and (5) improvements in shipping and navigation.

  1. Agricultural and forest resource surveys from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    An overview is presented on the use of spaceborne remote sensors as aid to agriculture and forestry for soil mapping, crop yield predictions, acreage determinations, damage assessment, and numerous other benefits. Some results obtained by ERTS 1 are discussed in terms of the significance of information derived and the potential use of these data for better management of our natural resources.

  2. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS): spectroscopy results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cristina A.; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Hinkle, Mary L.; Mommert, Michael; Polishook, David; Thirouin, Audrey; Binzel, Richard; Christensen, Eric J.; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Person, Michael J.; Trilling, David E.; Willman, Mark; Burt, Brian

    2016-10-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) is an ongoing physical characterization survey to build a large, uniform catalog of physical properties including lightcurves and visible wavelength spectroscopy. We will use this catalog to investigate the global properties of the small NEO population and identify individual objects that can be targets of interest for future exploration. To accomplish our goals, MANOS uses a wide variety of telescopes (1-8m) in both the northern and southern hemispheres. We focus on targets that have been recently discovered and operate on a regular cadence of remote and queue observations to enable rapid characterization of small NEOs. Targets for MANOS are selected based on three criteria: mission accessibility, size, and observability. With our resources, we observe 5-10 newly discovered sub-km NEOs per month. MANOS has been operating for three years and we have observed over 500 near-Earth objects in that time.We will present results from the spectroscopy component of the MANOS program. Visible wavelength spectra are obtained using DeVeny on the Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT), Goodman on the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, and GMOS on Gemini North and South. Over 300 NEO spectra have been obtained during our program. We will present preliminary results from our spectral sample. We will discuss the compositional diversity of the small NEO population and how the observed NEOs compare to the meteorite population.MANOS is funded by the NASA Near-Earth Object Observations program.

  3. Near Earth asteroid resource utilisation for large in-orbit reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, C. R.

    2016-11-01

    The resources offered by the family of near Earth asteroids could provide bulk materials to support future space science ventures, both crewed missions and space-based astronomy. Using low-energy transfer trajectories small near Earth asteroids could be captured directly, or their material resources returned to Earth orbit or the Lagrange points. With novel fabrication methods, such as additive layer manufacturing, large-scale space structures including optical and radio telescopes could in principle be assembled from such resources. Indeed, with bulk materials readily available, very large numbers of structures could be fabricated in-situ for interferometry applications.

  4. BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, J. C.; Stephens, J. C.; Chung, Serena; Brady, M. P.; Evans, R. D.; Kruger, C. E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Liu, M. L.; Stockle, Claudio O.; Vaughan, Joseph K.; Rajagopalan, K.; Harrison, John; Tague, C. L.; Kalyanaraman, Anantharaman; Chen, Yong; Guenther, Alex B.; Leung, F. Y.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Perleberg, A. B.; Yoder, J.; Allen, Elizabeth; Anderson, S.; Chandrasekharan, B.; Malek, K.; Mullis, T.; Miller, C.; Nergui, T.; Poinsatte, J.; Reyes, J.; Zhu, J.; Choate, J. S.; Jiang, X.; Nelson, R.; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Yorgey, G. G.; Johnson, Kristen; Chinnayakanhalli, K. J.; Hamlet, A. F.; Nijssen, B.; Walden, Von

    2015-04-01

    As managers of agricultural and natural resources are confronted with uncertainties in global change impacts, the complexities associated with the interconnected cycling of nitrogen, carbon, and water present daunting management challenges. Existing models provide detailed information on specific sub-systems (land, air, water, economics, etc). An increasing awareness of the unintended consequences of management decisions resulting from interconnectedness of these sub-systems, however, necessitates coupled regional earth system models (EaSMs). Decision makers’ needs and priorities can be integrated into the model design and development processes to enhance decision-making relevance and "usability" of EaSMs. BioEarth is a current research initiative with a focus on the U.S. Pacific Northwest region that explores the coupling of multiple stand-alone EaSMs to generate usable information for resource decision-making. Direct engagement between model developers and non-academic stakeholders involved in resource and environmental management decisions throughout the model development process is a critical component of this effort. BioEarth utilizes a "bottom-up" approach, upscaling a catchment-scale model to basin and regional scales, as opposed to the "top-down" approach of downscaling global models utilized by most other EaSM efforts. This paper describes the BioEarth initiative and highlights opportunities and challenges associated with coupling multiple stand-alone models to generate usable information for agricultural and natural resource decision-making.

  5. An integrated study of earth resources in the state of California using remote sensing techniques. [planning and management of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R. N.; Churchman, C. W.; Burgy, R. H.; Schubert, G.; Estes, J. E.; Bowden, L. W.; Algazi, R.; Coulson, K. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The University of California has been conducting an investigation which seeks to determine the usefulness of modern remote sensing techniques for studying various components of California's earth resources complex. Most of the work has concentrated on California's water resources, but with some attention being given to other earth resources as well and to the interplay between them and California's water resources.

  6. Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center's Landsat State Mosaics Gallery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center manages the this gallery of images of the 50 U.S. states plus Puerto Rico as derived by Landsat data.

  7. Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center's Journey of Lewis and Clark Gallery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center manages the this gallery of Landsat-derived images of one of the most remarkable and productive scientific...

  8. Near-Earth-object survey progress and population of small near-Earth asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A.

    2014-07-01

    Estimating the total population vs. size of NEAs and the completion of surveys is the same thing since the total population is just the number discovered divided by the estimated completion. I review the method of completion estimation based on ratio of re-detected objects to total detections (known plus new discoveries). The method is quite general and can be used for population estimations of all sorts, from wildlife to various classes of solar system bodies. Since 2001, I have been making estimates of population and survey progress approximately every two years. Plotted below, left, is my latest estimate, including NEA discoveries up to August, 2012. I plan to present an update at the meeting. All asteroids of a given size are not equally easy to detect because of specific orbital geometries. Thus a model of the orbital distribution is necessary, and computer simulations using those orbits need to establish the relation between the raw re-detection ratio and the actual completion fraction. This can be done for any sub-group population, allowing to estimate the population of a subgroup and the expected current completion. Once a reliable survey computer model has been developed and ''calibrated'' with respect to actual survey re-detections versus size, it can be extrapolated to smaller sizes to estimate completion even at very small size where re-detections are rare or even zero. I have recently investigated the subgroup of extremely low encounter velocity NEAs, the class of interest for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), recently proposed by NASA. I found that asteroids of diameter ˜ 10 m with encounter velocity with the Earth lower than 2.5 km/sec are detected by current surveys nearly 1,000 times more efficiently than the general background of NEAs of that size. Thus the current completion of these slow relative velocity objects may be around 1%, compared to 10^{-6} for that size objects of the general velocity distribution. Current surveys are nowhere near

  9. Colorado cultural resource survey: cultural resource re-evaluation form [5JA784

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document includes the survey forms necessary to assess cultural resources in Colorado. This document assesses the Allard ranch (5JA784) on Arapaho National...

  10. Colorado cultural resource survey: cultural resource re-evaluation form [5JA783

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document includes the survey forms necessary to assess cultural resources in Colorado. This document assesses the Case ranch (5JA783) on Arapaho National...

  11. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center--providing comprehensive earth science for complex societal issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David G.; Wallace, Alan R.; Schneider, Jill L.

    2010-01-01

    Minerals in the environment and products manufactured from mineral materials are all around us and we use and come into contact with them every day. They impact our way of life and the health of all that lives. Minerals are critical to the Nation's economy and knowing where future mineral resources will come from is important for sustaining the Nation's economy and national security. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program (MRP) provides scientific information for objective resource assessments and unbiased research results on mineral resource potential, production and consumption statistics, as well as environmental consequences of mining. The MRP conducts this research to provide information needed for land planners and decisionmakers about where mineral commodities are known and suspected in the earth's crust and about the environmental consequences of extracting those commodities. As part of the MRP scientists of the Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center (WMERSC or 'Center' herein) coordinate the development of national, geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-resource databases and the migration of existing databases to standard models and formats that are available to both internal and external users. The unique expertise developed by Center scientists over many decades in response to mineral-resource-related issues is now in great demand to support applications such as public health research and remediation of environmental hazards that result from mining and mining-related activities. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center Results of WMERSC research provide timely and unbiased analyses of minerals and inorganic materials to (1) improve stewardship of public lands and resources; (2) support national and international economic and security policies; (3) sustain prosperity and improve our quality of life; and (4) protect and improve public health, safety, and environmental quality. The MRP

  12. Non-terrestrial resources of economic importance to earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John S.

    1991-01-01

    The status of research on the importation of energy and nonterrestrial materials is reviewed, and certain specific directions for new research are proposed. New technologies which are to be developed include aerobraking, in situ propellant production, mining and beneficiation of extraterresrrial minerals, nuclear power systems, electromagnetic launch, and solar thermal propulsion. Topics discussed include the system architecture for solar power satellite constellations, the return of nonterrestrial He-3 to earth for use as a clean fusion fuel, and the return to earth of platinum-group metal byproducts from processing of nonterrestrial native ferrous metals.

  13. AGI's Earth Science Week and Education Resources Network: Connecting Teachers to Geoscience Organizations and Classroom Resources that Support NGSS Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeck, E.; Camphire, G.; Brendan, S.; Celia, T.

    2016-12-01

    There exists a wide array of high quality resources to support K-12 teaching and motivate student interest in the geosciences. Yet, connecting teachers to those resources can be a challenge. Teachers working to implement the NGSS can benefit from accessing the wide range of existing geoscience resources, and from becoming part of supportive networks of geoscience educators, researchers, and advocates. Engaging teachers in such networks can be facilitated by providing them with information about organizations, resources, and opportunities. The American Geoscience Institute (AGI) has developed two key resources that have great value in supporting NGSS implement in these ways. Those are Earth Science Week, and the Education Resources Network in AGI's Center for Geoscience and Society. For almost twenty years, Earth Science Week, has been AGI's premier annual outreach program designed to celebrate the geosciences. Through its extensive web-based resources, as well as the physical kits of posters, DVDs, calendars and other printed materials, Earth Science Week offers an array of resources and opportunities to connect with the education-focused work of important geoscience organizations such as NASA, the National Park Service, HHMI, esri, and many others. Recently, AGI has initiated a process of tagging these and other resources to NGSS so as to facilitate their use as teachers develop their instruction. Organizing Earth Science Week around themes that are compatible with topics within NGSS contributes to the overall coherence of the diverse array of materials, while also suggesting potential foci for investigations and instructional units. More recently, AGI has launched its Center for Geoscience and Society, which is designed to engage the widest range of audiences in building geoscience awareness. As part of the Center's work, it has launched the Education Resources Network (ERN), which is an extensive searchable database of all manner of resources for geoscience

  14. Interchance and cooperation with user agencies. [dissemination of earth resources data to inventory and management personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, D. T.

    1973-01-01

    It is apparent that the rate of remote sensing technique development is increasing at a much faster pace than is the rate at which these same techniques are being put to practical use by earth resource managers and inventory specialists. It has become increasingly important to bridge this widening gap between remote sensing specialists and potential users. Members of the University of California project on remote sensing of earth resources have been actively participating in efforts to overcome this gap by maintaining library facilities, disseminating research findings, training remote sensing specialists, and interacting with resource managers.

  15. Interchance and cooperation with user agencies. [dissemination of earth resources data to inventory and management personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, D. T.

    1973-01-01

    It is apparent that the rate of remote sensing technique development is increasing at a much faster pace than is the rate at which these same techniques are being put to practical use by earth resource managers and inventory specialists. It has become increasingly important to bridge this widening gap between remote sensing specialists and potential users. Members of the University of California project on remote sensing of earth resources have been actively participating in efforts to overcome this gap by maintaining library facilities, disseminating research findings, training remote sensing specialists, and interacting with resource managers.

  16. Evaluating Educational Resources for Inclusion in the Dig Texas Instructional Blueprints for Earth & Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, B. E.; Bohls-Graham, E.; Martinez, A. O.; Ellins, K. K.; Riggs, E. M.; Serpa, L. F.; Stocks, E.; Fox, S.; Kent, M.

    2014-12-01

    Today's instruction in Earth's systems requires thoughtful selection of curricula, and in turn, high quality learning activities that address modern Earth science. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), which are intended to guide K-12 science instruction, further demand a discriminating selection process. The DIG (Diversity & Innovation in Geoscience) Texas Instructional Blueprints attempt to fulfill this practice by compiling vetted educational resources freely available online into units that are the building blocks of the blueprints. Each blueprint is composed of 9 three-week teaching units and serves as a scope and sequence for teaching a one-year Earth science course. In the earliest stages of the project, teams explored the Internet for classroom-worthy resources, including laboratory investigations, videos, visualizations, and readings, and submitted the educational resources deemed suitable for the project into the project's online review tool. Each team member evaluated the educational resources chosen by fellow team members according to a set of predetermined criteria that had been incorporated into the review tool. Resources rated as very good or excellent by all team members were submitted to the project PIs for approval. At this stage, approved resources became candidates for inclusion in the blueprint units. Team members tagged approved resources with descriptors for the type of resource and instructional strategy, and aligned these to the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Earth and Space Science and the Earth Science Literacy Principles. Each team then assembled and sequenced resources according to content strand, balancing the types of learning experiences within each unit. Once units were packaged, teams then considered how they addressed the NGSS and identified the relevant disciplinary core ideas, crosscutting concepts, and science and engineering practices. In addition to providing a brief overview of the project, this

  17. [Wild resources survey of Marsdenia tenacissima in Honghe, Yunnan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhen-Gui; Yang, Sheng-Chao; Chen, Jun-Wen; Wang, Jian-Jun; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Long, Guang-Qiang

    2014-07-01

    To ascertain current situation of wild Marsdenia tenacissima resources in Honghe, Yunnan province, the distribution, habitat characteristic and resources reserves of M. tenacissima were surveyed based on interviews and investigation. The results showed that M. tenacissima was found in 7 counties such as Jinping, Mengzi etc, and distributed mainly on the mountainsides from 800 m to 1 200 m. And distribution was affected by many factors, such as light, heat, topography, soil, and vegetation. M. tenacissima grew well in distribution areas. M. tenacissima had averagely a weight of 2.8 kg per plant. Resources reserve of M. tenacissima in Honghe was estimated to 1 300 tons by now but it reduced rapidly in resent years, the wild resources reserve may not meet demand of market. Resources protection and wildlife tending would be conducted to deal with increasing medication requirements.

  18. Developing alternative resources of rare earth elements in Europe - EURARE and the red mud challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deady, Eimear; Mouchos, Evangelos; Goodenough, Kathryn; Wall, Frances; Williamson, Ben

    2015-04-01

    part of this study. Red muds from these deposits contain on average 900 ppm REE compared with typical values of red muds has been shown to be feasible [5,7] although it is challenging due to the heterogeneous spatial distribution of REE in the primary bauxite deposits [8], an unclear understanding of the mobility of REE in red mud tailings ponds, and the need for development of appropriate processing methods. However, the resource potential of red muds in Europe is significant with approximately 3.5 Mt of bauxite ore extracted in 2012 [2], resulting in approximately 1.4 Mt of red mud from the production of alumina. In addition a large volume of stockpiled red muds exists from historical processing of bauxites, the total of which is not well constrained. Understanding the REE potential of both bauxites and red muds is integral to an assessment of European REE resources. References [1] European Commission, "Report on critical raw materials for the EU. Report of the Ad hoc Working Group on defining critical raw materials". May 2014. [2] T. Brown, N. Idoine, E. Raycraft, R. Shaw, E. Deady, J. Rippingale, T. Bide, C. Wrighton, J. Rodley, "World Mineral Production 2008-12" British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, 2014. [3] Z. Maksimović and G. Pantó, "Authigenic rare earth minerals in karst-bauxites and karstic nickel deposits". In: A.P. Jones, F. Wall and C.T. Williams, Rare earth minerals, chemistry, origin and ore deposits, Chapter 10, pp. 257-279, 1996. [4] G. Bárdossy, "Karst Bauxites, Bauxite Deposits on Carbonate Rocks". Elsevier, 444pp, 1982. [5] M. Ochsenkühn-Petropoulou, T. Lyberopoulou, and G. Parissakis, "Direct determination of lanthanides, yttium and scandium in bauxites and red mud from alumina production", Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 296, no. 3, pp. 305-313, October 1994. [6] É. Deady, E. Mouchos, K. Goodenough, B. Williamson and F. Wall. "Rare Earth Elements in Karst-Bauxites: a Novel Untapped European Resource?" ERES 1st European Rare Earth

  19. The U.S.Geological Survey Energy Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    Energy resources are an essential component of modern society. Adequate, reliable, and affordable energy supplies obtained using environmentally sustainable practices underpin economic prosperity, environmental quality and human health, and political stability. National and global demands for all forms of energy are forecast to increase significantly over the next several decades. Throughout its history, our Nation has faced important, often controversial, decisions regarding the competing uses of public lands, the supply of energy to sustain development and enable growth, and environmental stewardship. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program (ERP) provides information to address these challenges by supporting scientific investigations of energy resources, such as research on the geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of oil, gas, coal, heavy oil and natural bitumen, oil shale, uranium, and geothermal resources, emerging resources such as gas hydrates, and research on the effects associated with energy resource occurrence, production, and (or) utilization. The results from these investigations provide impartial, robust scientific information about energy resources and support the U.S. Department of the Interior's (DOI's) mission of protecting and responsibly managing the Nation's natural resources. Primary consumers of ERP information and products include the DOI land- and resource-management Bureaus; other Federal, State, and local agencies; the U.S. Congress and the Administration; nongovernmental organizations; the energy industry; academia; international organizations; and the general public.

  20. Clean separation technologies of rare earth resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Chunsheng; WU Sheng; CHENG Fuxiang; WANG Songling; LIU Yan; ZHANG Bo; YAN Chunhua

    2013-01-01

    After a review on the conventional separation process of rare earths (RE),hyperlink extraction technology was introduced and a potential process was proposed for clean separation of RE.A great amount of acid,base and water was consumed in the conventional RE separation process which included the procedures of raw material dissolving,extraction separation and precipitation.Therefore hyperlink extraction technology had been developed,by which the repeated consumption of acid and base could be avoided during the extraction process.And based on the theory and successful applications of the hyperlink extraction technology,we proposed the integral hyperlink process in which the intermediate acid resulted in individual procedures would be recycled and reused after being treated.The proposed process would make it feasible to consume no chemicals except for oxalic acid,and so could be a promising clean separation technology with a significant reduction on consumption and emission.

  1. Our magnificent earth: a Rand McNally atlas of Earth resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The prime difficulty in assembling and presenting information on resources is the sheer complexity of the subject. It is not enough to discuss, say, the world's oil reserves in isolation: the subject inevitably involves a discussion of prospecting and mining; of trade and transport; of uses to which oil is put; and of the political role of the oil companies and international groups such as OPEC. The whole discussion is bound up with the question of alternative fuels and thus with consideration of what kind of future society we want to live in. Every topic that falls within the scope of a book on resources has similar ramifications: all the issues are interconnected. The simple, but very important, purpose of this atlas is to explain the interrelated nature of the issues behind present questions about resources, trade, food, energy, and population: to be a sourcebook of information about them, a map and handbook of future options. As such, this work is unique, both in the way it assembles and presents information, and in terms of its practical function: it brings together all the problems and suggests options in clear language. The following major divisions are used: (1) The Nature of Resources; (2) Resources and Peoples; (3) Energy; (4) The Living Resource; (5) Minerals; and (6) Planning for Tomorrow; from 6 to 26 subdivisions appear under each major division. A glossary, index, and bibliography are included.

  2. The Earth System CoG Collaboration Environment: Connecting Resources in the Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, S.; DeLuca, C.; Cinquini, L.; Overeem, I.; Edwards, P. N.; Jablonowski, C.; Rood, R. B.; Balaji, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Earth System CoG collaboration environment supports Earth science research and product development in virtual organizations comprised of multiple projects and communities. It provides data, metadata, and visualization services along with tools for collaboration, and can be used to host individual projects or to profile projects hosted elsewhere. All projects on CoG are described using a project ontology - an organized common vocabulary - that exposes information needed for collaboration and decision-making. Projects can be linked into a network, and the underlying ontology enables views of this information across the network. This access to information, and the community-driven evolution of a project ontology that includes a description of management and governance roles, bodies, and processes, promote the creation of active and knowledgeable project governance, at both individual and aggregate project levels. A description of the environment along with results of recent use by an model intercomparison project (MIP) and international software project will be presented.

  3. Linking earth science informatics resources into uninterrupted digital value chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Robert; Angreani, Rini; Cox, Simon; Fraser, Ryan; Golodoniuc, Pavel; Klump, Jens; Rankine, Terry; Robertson, Jess; Vote, Josh

    2015-04-01

    The CSIRO Mineral Resources Flagship was established to tackle medium- to long-term challenges facing the Australian mineral industry across the value chain from exploration and mining through mineral processing within the framework of an economically, environmentally and socially sustainable minerals industry. This broad portfolio demands collaboration and data exchange with a broad range of participants and data providers across government, research and industry. It is an ideal environment to link geoscience informatics platforms to application across the resource extraction industry and to unlock the value of data integration between traditionally discrete parts of the minerals digital value chain. Despite the potential benefits, data integration remains an elusive goal within research and industry. Many projects use only a subset of available data types in an integrated manner, often maintaining the traditional discipline-based data 'silos'. Integrating data across the entire minerals digital value chain is an expensive proposition involving multiple disciplines and, significantly, multiple data sources both internal and external to any single organisation. Differing vocabularies and data formats, along with access regimes to appropriate analysis software and equipment all hamper the sharing and exchange of information. AuScope has addressed the challenge of data exchange across organisations nationally, and established a national geosciences information infrastructure using open standards-based web services. Federated across a wide variety of organisations, the resulting infrastructure contains a wide variety of live and updated data types. The community data standards and infrastructure platforms that underpin AuScope provide important new datasets and multi-agency links independent of software and hardware differences. AuScope has thus created an infrastructure, a platform of technologies and the opportunity for new ways of working with and integrating

  4. The EURONEAR Lightcurve Survey of Near Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaduvescu, O.; Aznar Macias, A.; Tudor, V.; Predatu, M.; Galád, A.; Gajdoš, Š.; Világi, J.; Stevance, H. F.; Errmann, R.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; Char, F.; Peixinho, N.; Popescu, M.; Sonka, A.; Cornea, R.; Suciu, O.; Toma, R.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Sota, A.; Licandro, J.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Morate, D.; Mocnik, T.; Diaz Alfaro, M.; Lopez-Martinez, F.; McCormac, J.; Humphries, N.

    2017-07-01

    This data paper presents lightcurves of 101 near Earth asteroids (NEAs) observed mostly between 2014 and 2017 as part of the EURONEAR photometric survey using 11 telescopes with diameters between 0.4 and 4.2 m located in Spain, Chile, Slovakia and Romania. Most targets had no published data at the time of observing, but some objects were observed in the same period mainly by B. Warner, allowing us to confirm or improve the existing results. To plan the runs and select the targets, we developed the public Long Planning tool in PHP. For preliminary data reduction and rapid follow-up planning we developed the LiDAS pipeline in Python and IRAF. For final data reduction, flux calibration, night linkage and Fourier fitting, we used mainly MPO Canopus. Periods of 18 targets are presented for the first time, and we could solve or constrain rotation for 16 of them. We secured periods for 45 targets (U˜ 3 ), found candidate periods for other 16 targets (U˜ 2 ), and we propose tentative periods for other 32 targets (U˜ 1 ). We observed 7 known or candidate binary NEAs, fiting 3 of them (2102 Tantalus, 5143 Heracles and 68348). We observed 8 known or candidate tumbling NEAs, deriving primary periods for 3 objects (9400, 242708 and 470510). We evidenced rapid oscillations (few minutes) and could fit fast tentative periods TP2 for 5 large newly suggested tumbling or binary candidates (27346, 112985, 285625, 377732, 408980), probably discovering at least one new binary NEA (2011 WO41). We resolved periods of 4 special objects which include two proposed space mission targets (163249 and 101955 Bennu), one very fast rotator NEA discovered by EURONEAR (2014 NL52) and the "Halloween asteroid" (2015 TB145). Using Mercator in simultaneous 3 band MAIA imaging, we could evidence for the first time clear variation in the color lightcurves of 10 NEAs. The periods derived from the g-r color lightcurves are found to match individual band period fits for 4 NEAs (27346, 86067, 112985 and

  5. The EURONEAR Lightcurve Survey of Near Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaduvescu, O.; Macias, A. Aznar; Tudor, V.; Predatu, M.; Galád, A.; Gajdoš, Š.; Világi, J.; Stevance, H. F.; Errmann, R.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; Char, F.; Peixinho, N.; Popescu, M.; Sonka, A.; Cornea, R.; Suciu, O.; Toma, R.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Sota, A.; Licandro, J.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Morate, D.; Mocnik, T.; Alfaro, M. Diaz; Lopez-Martinez, F.; McCormac, J.; Humphries, N.

    2017-08-01

    This data paper presents lightcurves of 101 near Earth asteroids (NEAs) observed mostly between 2014 and 2017 as part of the EURONEAR photometric survey using 11 telescopes with diameters between 0.4 and 4.2 m located in Spain, Chile, Slovakia and Romania. Most targets had no published data at the time of observing, but some objects were observed in the same period mainly by B. Warner, allowing us to confirm or improve the existing results. To plan the runs and select the targets, we developed the public Long Planning tool in PHP. For preliminary data reduction and rapid follow-up planning we developed the LiDAS pipeline in Python and IRAF. For final data reduction, flux calibration, night linkage and Fourier fitting, we used mainly MPO Canopus. Periods of 18 targets are presented for the first time, and we could solve or constrain rotation for 16 of them. We secured periods for 45 targets (U˜ 3), found candidate periods for other 16 targets (U˜ 2), and we propose tentative periods for other 32 targets (U˜ 1). We observed 7 known or candidate binary NEAs, fiting 3 of them (2102 Tantalus, 5143 Heracles and 68348). We observed 8 known or candidate tumbling NEAs, deriving primary periods for 3 objects (9400, 242708 and 470510). We evidenced rapid oscillations (few minutes) and could fit fast tentative periods TP2 for 5 large newly suggested tumbling or binary candidates (27346, 112985, 285625, 377732, 408980), probably discovering at least one new binary NEA (2011 WO41). We resolved periods of 4 special objects which include two proposed space mission targets (163249 and 101955 Bennu), one very fast rotator NEA discovered by EURONEAR (2014 NL52) and the "Halloween asteroid" (2015 TB145). Using Mercator in simultaneous 3 band MAIA imaging, we could evidence for the first time clear variation in the color lightcurves of 10 NEAs. The periods derived from the g- r color lightcurves are found to match individual band period fits for 4 NEAs (27346, 86067, 112985 and

  6. Projected Near-Earth Object Discovery Performance of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesley, Steven R.; Veres, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This report describes the methodology and results of an assessment study of the performance of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) in its planned efforts to detect and catalog near-Earth objects (NEOs).

  7. 2010 survey of energy resources. 22nd edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    This, the 22nd edition of the World Energy Council's Survey of Energy Resources (SER), is the latest in a long series of reviews of the status of the world's major energy resources. It covers not only the fossil fuels but also the major types of traditional and novel sources of energy. The Survey is a flagship publication of the World Energy Council (WEC), prepared triennially and timed for release at each World Energy Congress. It is a unique document in that no entity other than the WEC compiles such wideranging information on a regular and consistent basis. This highly regarded publication is an essential tool for governments, industry, investors, NGOs and academia.

  8. The US Geological Survey's national coal resource assessment: The results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, L.F.; Kirschbaum, M.A.; Warwick, P.D.; Flores, R.M.; Affolter, R.H.; Hatch, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    The US Geological Survey and the State geological surveys of many coal-bearing States recently completed a new assessment of the top producing coal beds and coal zones in five major producing coal regions the Appalachian Basin, Gulf Coast, Illinois Basin, Colorado Plateau, and Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains. The assessments, which focused on both coal quality and quantity, utilized geographic information system technology and large databases. Over 1,600,000 million short tons of coal remain in over 60 coal beds and coal zones that were assessed. Given current economic, environmental, and technological restrictions, the majority of US coal production will occur in that portion of the assessed coal resource that is lowest in sulfur content. These resources are concentrated in parts of the central Appalachian Basin, Colorado Plateau, and the Northern Rocky Mountains. ?? Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Transit and radial velocity survey efficiency comparison for a habitable zone Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Christopher J. [SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); McCullough, P. R., E-mail: christopher.j.burke@nasa.gov [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Transit and radial velocity searches are two techniques for identifying nearby extrasolar planets to Earth that transit bright stars. Identifying a robust sample of these exoplanets around bright stars for detailed atmospheric characterization is a major observational undertaking. In this study we describe a framework that answers the question of whether a transit or radial velocity survey is more efficient at finding transiting exoplanets given the same amount of observing time. Within the framework we show that a transit survey's window function can be approximated using the hypergeometric probability distribution. We estimate the observing time required for a transit survey to find a transiting Earth-sized exoplanet in the habitable zone (HZ) with an emphasis on late-type stars. We also estimate the radial velocity precision necessary to detect the equivalent HZ Earth-mass exoplanet that also transits when using an equal amount of observing time as the transit survey. We find that a radial velocity survey with σ{sub rv} ∼ 0.6 m s{sup –1} precision has comparable efficiency in terms of observing time to a transit survey with the requisite photometric precision σ{sub phot} ∼ 300 ppm to find a transiting Earth-sized exoplanet in the HZ of late M dwarfs. For super-Earths, a σ{sub rv} ∼ 2.0 m s{sup –1} precision radial velocity survey has comparable efficiency to a transit survey with σ{sub phot} ∼ 2300 ppm.

  10. Survey reveals the situation of Chinese caterpillar fungus resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Following its investigation of aweto (or Chinese caterpillar fungus) resources carried out from May to July 2007 on the Tibetan(or Qinghai-Tibet) Plateau,the central producing area of this precious ingredient for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM),the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (XTBG)under CAS conducted a further survey from May to July 2008 in the marginal habitats of this fungus.

  11. On inclusion of water resource management in Earth system models - Part 1: Problem definition and representation of water demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazemi, A.; Wheater, H. S.

    2015-01-01

    Human activities have caused various changes to the Earth system, and hence the interconnections between human activities and the Earth system should be recognized and reflected in models that simulate Earth system processes. One key anthropogenic activity is water resource management, which determines the dynamics of human-water interactions in time and space and controls human livelihoods and economy, including energy and food production. There are immediate needs to include water resource management in Earth system models. First, the extent of human water requirements is increasing rapidly at the global scale and it is crucial to analyze the possible imbalance between water demands and supply under various scenarios of climate change and across various temporal and spatial scales. Second, recent observations show that human-water interactions, manifested through water resource management, can substantially alter the terrestrial water cycle, affect land-atmospheric feedbacks and may further interact with climate and contribute to sea-level change. Due to the importance of water resource management in determining the future of the global water and climate cycles, the World Climate Research Program's Global Energy and Water Exchanges project (WRCP-GEWEX) has recently identified gaps in describing human-water interactions as one of the grand challenges in Earth system modeling (GEWEX, 2012). Here, we divide water resource management into two interdependent elements, related firstly to water demand and secondly to water supply and allocation. In this paper, we survey the current literature on how various components of water demand have been included in large-scale models, in particular land surface and global hydrological models. Issues of water supply and allocation are addressed in a companion paper. The available algorithms to represent the dominant demands are classified based on the demand type, mode of simulation and underlying modeling assumptions. We discuss

  12. MLR will Continue to Control the Total Exploitation Quantity of Advantageous Mineral Resources Including Rare Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>According to Wang Min,Vice Minister of Land and Resources and chief of China Geological Survey,for some time to come the MLR will continue to implement the policy of controlling the total exploitation quantity of advantageous mineral resources,exercising

  13. Procedures, Resources and Selected Results of the Deep Ecliptic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buie, M. W.; Millis, R. L.; Wasserman, L. H.; Elliot, J. L.; Kern, S. D.; Clancy, K. B.; Chiang, E. I.; Jordan, A. B.; Meech, K. J.; Wagner, R. M.; Trilling, D. E.

    2003-06-01

    The Deep Ecliptic Survey is a project whose goal is to survey a large area of the near-ecliptic region to a faint limiting magnitude (R ~ 24) in search of objects in the outer solar system. We are collecting a large homogeneous data sample from the Kitt Peak Mayall 4-m and Cerro Tololo Blanco 4-m telescopes with the Mosaic prime-focus CCD cameras. Our goal is to collect a sample of 500 objects with good orbits to further our understanding of the dynamical structure of the outer solar system. This survey has been in progress since 1998 and is responsible for 272 designated discoveries as of March 2003. We summarize our techniques, highlight recent results, and describe publically available resources.

  14. ExploreNEOs: The Warm Spitzer Near Earth Object survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, M.; Trilling, D. E.; Hora, J. L.; Harris, A. W.; Benner, L. A. M.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; Chesley, S.; Delbó, M.; Emery, J. P.; Fazio, G.; Hagen, A. R.; Kistler, J. L.; Mainzer, A.; Mommert, M.; Morbidelli, A.; Penprase, B.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Stansberry, J. A.; Thomas, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    We are carrying out the ExploreNEOs project in which we observe more than 600 near Earth Objects (NEOs) at 3.6 and 4.5 microns with Warm Spitzer. For each NEO we derive diameter and albedo. We present our results to date, which include studies of individual objects, results for our entire observed s

  15. ExploreNEOs: The Warm Spitzer Near Earth Object Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trilling, D. E.; Hora, J. L.; Mueller, M.; Thomas, C. A.; Harris, A. W.; Hagen, A. R.; Mommert, M.; Benner, L.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; Chesley, S.; Delbo, M.; Emery, J. P.; Fazio, G.; Kistler, J. L.; Mainzer, A.; Morbidelli, A.; Penprase, B.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Stansberry, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    We have observed some 600 near Earth objects (NEOs) at 3.6 and 4.5 microns with the Warm Spitzer Space Telescope. We derive the albedo and diameter for each NEO to characterize global properties of the NEO population, among other goals.

  16. On inclusion of water resource management in Earth System models – Part 1: Problem definition and representation of water demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nazemi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human activities have caused various changes in the Earth System, and hence, the interconnections between humans and the Earth System should be recognized and reflected in models that simulate the Earth System processes. One key anthropogenic activity is water resource management that determines the dynamics of human–water interactions in time and space. There are various reasons to include water resource management in Earth System models. First, the extent of human water requirements is increasing rapidly at the global scale and it is crucial to analyze the possible imbalance between water demands and supply under various scenarios of climate change and across various temporal and spatial scales. Second, recent observations show that human–water interactions, manifested through water resource management, can substantially alter the terrestrial water cycle, affect land-atmospheric feedbacks and may further interact with climate and contribute to sea-level change. Here, we divide the water resource management into two interdependent elements, related to water demand as well as water supply and allocation. In this paper, we survey the current literature on how various water demands have been included in large-scale models, including Land Surface Schemes and Global Hydrological Models. The available algorithms are classified based on the type of demand, mode of simulation and underlying modeling assumptions. We discuss the pros and cons of available algorithms, address various sources of uncertainty and highlight limitations in current applications. We conclude that current capability of large-scale models in terms of representing human water demands is rather limited, particularly with respect to future projections and online simulations. We argue that current limitations in simulating various human demands and their impact on the Earth System are mainly due to the uncertainties in data support, demand algorithms and large-scale models. To

  17. GEOCAB Portal: A gateway for discovering and accessing capacity building resources in Earth Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desconnets, Jean-Christophe; Giuliani, Gregory; Guigoz, Yaniss; Lacroix, Pierre; Mlisa, Andiswa; Noort, Mark; Ray, Nicolas; Searby, Nancy D.

    2017-02-01

    The discovery of and access to capacity building resources are often essential to conduct environmental projects based on Earth Observation (EO) resources, whether they are Earth Observation products, methodological tools, techniques, organizations that impart training in these techniques or even projects that have shown practical achievements. Recognizing this opportunity and need, the European Commission through two FP7 projects jointly with the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) teamed up with the Committee on Earth observation Satellites (CEOS). The Global Earth Observation CApacity Building (GEOCAB) portal aims at compiling all current capacity building efforts on the use of EO data for societal benefits into an easily updateable and user-friendly portal. GEOCAB offers a faceted search to improve user discovery experience with a fully interactive world map with all inventoried projects and activities. This paper focuses on the conceptual framework used to implement the underlying platform. An ISO19115 metadata model associated with a terminological repository are the core elements that provide a semantic search application and an interoperable discovery service. The organization and the contribution of different user communities to ensure the management and the update of the content of GEOCAB are addressed.

  18. Survey of Research Resources in Colleges of Veterinary Medicine in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, John M.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of research resources in 24 veterinary colleges in the US and Canada reports information on university-wide research facilities, college-wide research facilities, personnel, and instrumentation resources. Corporate research resource management was compared with university research resource management. The survey form is outlined.…

  19. Resource and radioactivity survey in southern Victoria Land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeller, E.J. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence); Dreschhoff, G.; Crisler, K.; Tessensohn, F.

    1977-10-01

    This report describes the first systematic attempt at a gamma-ray survey of the exposed rocks in a portion of Antarctica. The area examined is in the Transantarctic Mountains between 76/sup 0/45' and 78/sup 0/30'S and extends from the Ross Sea coast to the ice sheet. Rock radioactivity was examined with the aim of assessing the uranium resource potential of the area. In the course of the airborne survey many results were obtained relating to: mobility of U in the study area; an area of fluorite bearing marble being discovered; pegmatities at Mt. Dromedary and Roaring Valley; granites in the area; volcanics; and metasediments. A calibration test and airborne gamma-ray measurement techniques were used for these, but ground checks were made where significant anomalies were detected. 2 figures.

  20. Survey of potential geopressured resource areas in California. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, S.K.; Robertson-Tait, A.; Kraemer, M.; Buening, N.

    1993-03-01

    This paper presents the initial results of a survey of the occurrence and characteristics of geopressured fluid resources in California using the publicly- available database involving more than 150,000 oil and gas wells drilled in the State. Of the 975 documented on-shore oil and gas pools studied, about 42% were identified as potentially geopressured. Geothermal gradients in California oil and gas fields lie within the normal range of 1 F to 2 F per 100 feet. Except for the Los Angeles Basin, there was no evidence of higher temperatures or temperature gradients in geopressured pools.

  1. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML Update, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, S. M.; Commissionthe Management; Application Inte, I.

    2012-12-01

    CGI Interoperability Working Group activities during 2012 include deployment of services using the GeoSciML-Portrayal schema, addition of new vocabularies to support properties added in version 3.0, improvements to server software for deploying services, introduction of EarthResourceML v.2 for mineral resources, and collaboration with the IUSS on a markup language for soils information. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML have been used as the basis for the INSPIRE Geology and Mineral Resources specifications respectively. GeoSciML-Portrayal is an OGC GML simple-feature application schema for presentation of geologic map unit, contact, and shear displacement structure (fault and ductile shear zone) descriptions in web map services. Use of standard vocabularies for geologic age and lithology enables map services using shared legends to achieve visual harmonization of maps provided by different services. New vocabularies have been added to the collection of CGI vocabularies provided to support interoperable GeoSciML services, and can be accessed through http://resource.geosciml.org. Concept URIs can be dereferenced to obtain SKOS rdf or html representations using the SISSVoc vocabulary service. New releases of the FOSS GeoServer application greatly improve support for complex XML feature schemas like GeoSciML, and the ArcGIS for INSPIRE extension implements similar complex feature support for ArcGIS Server. These improved server implementations greatly facilitate deploying GeoSciML services. EarthResourceML v2 adds features for information related to mining activities. SoilML provides an interchange format for soil material, soil profile, and terrain information. Work is underway to add GeoSciML to the portfolio of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) specifications.

  2. Analysis research for earth resource information systems - Where do we stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Discussion of the state of the technology of earth resources information systems relative to future operational implementation. The importance of recognizing the difference between systems with image orientation and systems with numerical orientation is illustrated in an example concerning the effect of noise on multiband multispectral data obtained in an agricultural experiment. It is suggested that the data system hardware portion of the total earth resources information system be designed in terms of a numerical orientation; it is argued, however, that this choise is entirely compatible with image-oriented analysis tasks. Some aspects of interfacing such an advanced technology with an operational user community in such a way as to accommodate the user's need for flexibility and yet provide the services needed on a cost-effective basis are discussed.

  3. NGSS aligned Earth science resources and professional development programs from the Exploratorium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Exploratorium is a museum of science, art and human perception located in San Francisco, CA. The Exploratorium has been offering resources and professional development to primary and secondary teachers since 1972. We focus on inquiry based, hands-on learning, with an emphasis on Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) implementation. This brief, invited presentation will feature the programs and online resources developed by the Exploratorium's "Institute for Inquiry" and "Teacher Institute" that may help formal and informal educators engage, implement and promote three dimensional learning in the Earth Sciences.

  4. EarthCube as an information resource marketplace; the GEAR Project conceptual design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, S. M.; Zaslavsky, I.; Gupta, A.; Valentine, D.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscience Architecture for Research (GEAR) is approaching EarthCube design as a complex and evolving socio-technical federation of systems. EarthCube is intended to support the science research enterprise, for which there is no centralized command and control, requirements are a moving target, the function and behavior of the system must evolve and adapt as new scientific paradigms emerge, and system participants are conducting research that inherently implies seeking new ways of doing things. EarthCube must address evolving user requirements and enable domain and project systems developed under different management and for different purposes to work together. The EC architecture must focus on creating a technical environment that enables new capabilities by combining existing and newly developed resources in various ways, and encourages development of new resource designs intended for re-use and interoperability. In a sense, instead of a single architecture design, GEAR provides a way to accommodate multiple designs tuned to different tasks. This agile, adaptive, evolutionary software development style is based on a continuously updated portfolio of compatible components that enable new sub-system architecture. System users make decisions about which components to use in this marketplace based on performance, satisfaction, and impact metrics collected continuously to evaluate components, determine priorities, and guide resource allocation decisions by the system governance agency. EC is designed as a federation of independent systems, and although the coordinator of the EC system may be named an enterprise architect, the focus of the role needs to be organizing resources, assessing their readiness for interoperability with the existing EC component inventory, managing dependencies between transient subsystems, mechanisms of stakeholder engagement and inclusion, and negotiation of standard interfaces, rather than actual specification of components. Composition of

  5. Low Delta-V Near-Earth Asteroids: a survey of suitable targets for space missions

    CERN Document Server

    Ieva, S; Perna, D; Barucci, M A; Bernardi, F; Fornasier, S; De Luise, F; Perozzi, E; Rossi, A; Brucato, J R

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) have become very important targets to study, since they can give us clues to the formation, evolution and composition of the Solar System. In addition, they may represent either a threat to humankind, or a repository of extraterrestrial resources for suitable space-borne missions. Within this framework, the choice of next-generation mission targets and the characterisation of a potential threat to our planet deserve special attention. To date, only a small part of the 11,000 discovered NEOs have been physically characterised. From ground and space-based observations one can determine some basic physical properties of these objects using visible and infrared spectroscopy. We present data for 13 objects observed with different telescopes around the world (NASA-IRTF, ESO-NTT, TNG) in the 0.4 - 2.5 um spectral range, within the NEOSURFACE survey (http://www.oa-roma.inaf.it/planet/NEOSurface.html). Objects are chosen from among the more accessible for a rendez-vous mis...

  6. CINERGI: Community Inventory of EarthCube Resources for Geoscience Interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavsky, Ilya; Bermudez, Luis; Grethe, Jeffrey; Gupta, Amarnath; Hsu, Leslie; Lehnert, Kerstin; Malik, Tanu; Richard, Stephen; Valentine, David; Whitenack, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Organizing geoscience data resources to support cross-disciplinary data discovery, interpretation, analysis and integration is challenging because of different information models, semantic frameworks, metadata profiles, catalogs, and services used in different geoscience domains, not to mention different research paradigms and methodologies. The central goal of CINERGI, a new project supported by the US National Science Foundation through its EarthCube Building Blocks program, is to create a methodology and assemble a large inventory of high-quality information resources capable of supporting data discovery needs of researchers in a wide range of geoscience domains. The key characteristics of the inventory are: 1) collaboration with and integration of metadata resources from a number of large data facilities; 2) reliance on international metadata and catalog service standards; 3) assessment of resource "interoperability-readiness"; 4) ability to cross-link and navigate data resources, projects, models, researcher directories, publications, usage information, etc.; 5) efficient inclusion of "long-tail" data, which are not appearing in existing domain repositories; 6) data registration at feature level where appropriate, in addition to common dataset-level registration, and 7) integration with parallel EarthCube efforts, in particular focused on EarthCube governance, information brokering, service-oriented architecture design and management of semantic information. We discuss challenges associated with accomplishing CINERGI goals, including defining the inventory scope; managing different granularity levels of resource registration; interaction with search systems of domain repositories; explicating domain semantics; metadata brokering, harvesting and pruning; managing provenance of the harvested metadata; and cross-linking resources based on the linked open data (LOD) approaches. At the higher level of the inventory, we register domain-wide resources such as domain

  7. Evaluating Career Development Resources: Lessons from the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.

    2010-12-01

    Retention of geoscientists throughout the professional pipeline is especially challenging in the case of groups that are already underrepresented in science, including racial minorities and women. The Earth Science Women’s Network (ESWN) is a professional network of early-career female geoscientists that provides its members with a variety of career resources, through both informal, online and in-person networking and formal career development workshops. The group’s members are of diverse nationalities and racial/ethnic backgrounds, of various age cohorts and career stages, but primarily graduate students, postdocs, and early-career researchers. With funding from an NSF ADVANCE grant to ESWN, we have conducted a detailed survey of ESWN members as part of an evaluation-with-research study that aims to determine the career needs of young geoscientists. The survey data provide information about members’ personal and professional situations, their professional development needs, and obstacles they face as young women scientists. ESWN members indicated a variety of areas of professional growth that would advance their scientific careers, but at all career stages, members chose expanding their professional networks as among their top career needs. Professional networking has established benefits for retention of people from groups underrepresented in science, including women: it introduces young scientists to career best practices and advancement opportunities, provides access to role models, and creates a sense of community. ESWN members strongly indicate that their professional networks benefited from their involvement with the Network. The community aspect of network-building is especially important for people from underrepresented groups, as they often feel alone due to the lack of role models. The intimate character of the ESWN discussion list greatly contributes to its members’ sense of community. Moreover, personal concerns and professional success are

  8. DREAM: Distributed Resources for the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) Advanced Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. N.

    2015-12-01

    The data associated with climate research is often generated, accessed, stored, and analyzed on a mix of unique platforms. The volume, variety, velocity, and veracity of this data creates unique challenges as climate research attempts to move beyond stand-alone platforms to a system that truly integrates dispersed resources. Today, sharing data across multiple facilities is often a challenge due to the large variance in supporting infrastructures. This results in data being accessed and downloaded many times, which requires significant amounts of resources, places a heavy analytic development burden on the end users, and mismanaged resources. Working across U.S. federal agencies, international agencies, and multiple worldwide data centers, and spanning seven international network organizations, the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) has begun to solve this problem. Its architecture employs a system of geographically distributed peer nodes that are independently administered yet united by common federation protocols and application programming interfaces. However, significant challenges remain, including workflow provenance, modular and flexible deployment, scalability of a diverse set of computational resources, and more. Expanding on the existing ESGF, the Distributed Resources for the Earth System Grid Federation Advanced Management (DREAM) will ensure that the access, storage, movement, and analysis of the large quantities of data that are processed and produced by diverse science projects can be dynamically distributed with proper resource management. This system will enable data from an infinite number of diverse sources to be organized and accessed from anywhere on any device (including mobile platforms). The approach offers a powerful roadmap for the creation and integration of a unified knowledge base of an entire ecosystem, including its many geophysical, geographical, social, political, agricultural, energy, transportation, and cyber aspects. The

  9. From Bunker to Building: Results from the 2010 Chief Human Resource Officer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patrick M.; Stewart, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the researchers, with funding from the Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies (CAHRS), began conducting the annual Chief Human Resource Officers (CHRO) Survey. The 2009 survey was sent to CHROs at the U.S. Fortune 150 companies, as well as to ten other CHROs at CAHRS partner companies. That survey focused on understanding how CHROs…

  10. The U.S. Geological Survey National Helium Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, S. T.; East, J. A., II

    2015-12-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Congress passed legislation directing the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to complete a national assessment of subsurface helium gas resources. As part of this assessment, the USGS has constructed a database of helium concentration from compositional analyses of produced gas. Though most data of this data is non-proprietary, helium data have been taken from both public and proprietary sources, with a majority taken from the USGS geochemical database (http://energy.usgs.gov/GeochemistryGeophysics/GeochemistryLaboratories/GeochemistryLaboratories-GeochemistryDatabase.aspx#4413382-introduction) and from the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) natural gas database. Altogether, there are over 16,000 analyses of natural gas composition compiled. In order to complete the assessment, it was necessary to correlate the well data with geologic reservoir data so that the helium concentrations could be compared with the reservoir and field-level gas production, in place gas volumes, and gas recovery factors. The well data from the compiled database were initially cross-referenced with the proprietary IHS Inc. well database, where possible. The results of that effort were then cross-referenced with three additional databases: the proprietary NRG Associates database of significant oil and gas fields of the United States, the non-proprietary U.S. Department of Energy's gas information system (GASIS), and an internal BLM reservoir and field database. These field and reservoir databases provide the data needed to estimate the in-place helium resources for fields with economic concentrations of helium. In order for helium production to be economic, the gas produced from geologic reservoirs must be greater than 0.3 mole percent (mol%), or in the case of liquefied natural gas processing, greater than 0.04 mol%. The field and reservoir specific estimates of total gas in place volumes, gas recovery factors, and helium concentrations, can be used as inputs for a

  11. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Alzheimer's - resources Anorexia nervosa - resources Arthritis - resources Asthma and allergy - resources Autism - resources Blindness - resources BPH - resources Breastfeeding - resources Bulimia - resources Burns - resources Cancer - resources Cerebral ...

  12. The Accuracy of the Warm Spitzer Near-Earth Object Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Alan W.; Mommert, M.; Hora, J. L.; Mueller, M.; Trilling, D. E.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; Chesley, S.; Delbo', M.; Emery, J. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Mainzer, A.; Penprase, B.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Stansberry, J. A.; Thomas, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    We report on observations of near-Earth objects (NEOs) performed with IRAC as part of our on-going (2009-2011) Warm Spitzer NEO survey ("ExploreNEOs"), the primary aim of which is to provide sizes and albedos of some 700 NEOs. The emphasis of the work described here is an assessment of the overall

  13. Survey Simulations of an New Near-Earth Asteroid Detection System

    CERN Document Server

    Mainzer, A; Bauer, J; Conrow, T; Cutri, R M; Dailey, J; Fowler, J; Giorgini, J; Jarrett, T; Masiero, J; Spahr, T; Statler, T; Wright, E L

    2015-01-01

    We have carried out simulations to predict the performance of a new space-based telescopic survey operating at thermal infrared wavelengths that seeks to discover and characterize a large fraction of the potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population. Two potential architectures for the survey were considered: one located at the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point, and one in a Venus-trailing orbit. A sample cadence was formulated and tested, allowing for the self-follow-up necessary for objects discovered in the daytime sky on Earth. Synthetic populations of NEAs with sizes >=140 m in effective spherical diameter were simulated using recent determinations of their physical and orbital properties. Estimates of the instrumental sensitivity, integration times, and slew speeds were included for both architectures assuming the properties of new large-format 10 um detector arrays capable of operating at ~35 K. Our simulation included the creation of a preliminary version of a moving object processing pipeline ...

  14. Human Expeditions to Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for Exploration, Resource Utilization, Science, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Barbee, Brent; Landis, Rob; Johnson, Lindley; Yeomans, Don; Friedensen, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and planetary defence. Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs, and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. With respect to planetary defence, in 2005 the U.S. Congress directed NASA to implement a survey program to detect, track, and characterize NEAs equal or greater than 140 m in diameter in order to access the threat from such objects to the Earth. The current goal of this survey is to achieve 90% completion of objects equal or greater than 140 m in diameter by 2020.

  15. Implementing earth observation and advanced satellite based atmospheric sounders for water resource and climate modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boegh, E.; Dellwik, Ebba; Hahmann, Andrea N.;

    This paper discusses preliminary remote sensing (MODIS) based hydrological modelling results for the Danish island Sjælland (7330 km2) in relation to project objectives and methodologies of a new research project “Implementing Earth observation and advanced satellite based atmospheric sounders...... for effective land surface representation in water resource modeling” (2009- 2012). The purpose of the new research project is to develop remote sensing based model tools capable of quantifying the relative effects of site-specific land use change and climate variability at different spatial scales....... For this purpose, a) internal catchment processes will be studied using a Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) system, b) Earth observations will be used to upscale from field to regional scales, and c) at the largest scale, satellite based atmospheric sounders and meso-scale climate modelling will be used...

  16. Global demand for rare earth resources and strategies for green mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Tanushree; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Uchimiya, Minori; Kwon, Eilhann E; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Deep, Akash; Yun, Seong-Taek

    2016-10-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are essential raw materials for emerging renewable energy resources and 'smart' electronic devices. Global REE demand is slated to grow at an annual rate of 5% by 2020. This high growth rate will require a steady supply base of REEs in the long run. At present, China is responsible for 85% of global rare earth oxide (REO) production. To overcome this monopolistic supply situation, new strategies and investments are necessary to satisfy domestic supply demands. Concurrently, environmental, economic, and social problems arising from REE mining must be addressed. There is an urgent need to develop efficient REE recycling techniques from end-of-life products, technologies to minimize the amount of REEs required per unit device, and methods to recover them from fly ash or fossil fuel-burning wastes.

  17. Earth resources programs at the Langley Research Center. Part 1: Advanced Applications Flight Experiments (AAFE) and microwave remote sensing program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R. N.

    1972-01-01

    The earth resources activity is comprised of two basic programs as follows: advanced applications flight experiments, and microwave remote sensing. The two programs are in various stages of implementation, extending from experimental investigations within both the AAFE program and the microwave remote sensing program, to multidisciplinary studies and planning. The purpose of this paper is simply to identify the main thrust of the Langley Research Center activity in earth resources.

  18. The Ministry of Land and Resources Standardized Approval Management of Exploration Right & Mining Right for Rare Earth & Tungsten Mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Recently,the Ministry of Land and Resources issued"Notice on Standardizing Approval Management of Exploration Right&Mining Right for Rare Earth Mine&Tungsten Mine"(the"Notice").Rare earth ore and tungsten ore are specific ore varieties prescribed by the State Council for protective exploitation.Since the

  19. 77 FR 10480 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Hawaii Resident Resource Users...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... stewardship of reef resources. Conservation planners will gain information about the threats and status of... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Hawaii Resident Resource Users' Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions of Coral Reefs in Two...

  20. International Human Resource Management Education: A Survey of HR Professionals, Suggestions for Skill Dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Lizabeth A.; Wagner-Marsh, Fraya; Loewe, G. Michael

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed a human resource professional association about training and interest in international human resources management. Based on results, offers recommendations for expanding coverage of this topic in credit and non-credit courses. (EV)

  1. Uranium resource assessment by the Geological Survey; methodology and plan to update the national resource base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Warren Irvin; McCammon, Richard B.

    1987-01-01

    Based on the Memorandum of Understanding {MOU) of September 20, 1984, between the U.S. Geological Survey of the U.S. Department of Interior and the Energy Information Administration {EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy {DOE), the U.S. Geological Survey began to make estimates of the undiscovered uranium endowment of selected areas of the United States in 1985. A modified NURE {National Uranium Resource Evaluation) method will be used in place of the standard NURE method of the DOE that was used for the national assessment reported in October 1980. The modified method, here named the 'deposit-size-frequency' {DSF) method, is presented for the first time, and calculations by the two methods are compared using an illustrative example based on preliminary estimates for the first area to be evaluated under the MOU. The results demonstrate that the estimate of the endowment using the DSF method is significantly larger and more uncertain than the estimate obtained by the NURE method. We believe that the DSF method produces a more realistic estimate because the principal factor estimated in the endowment equation is disaggregated into more parts and is more closely tied to specific geologic knowledge than by the NURE method. The DSF method consists of modifying the standard NURE estimation equation, U=AxFxTxG, by replacing the factors FxT by a single factor that represents the tonnage for the total number of deposits in all size classes. Use of the DSF method requires that the size frequency of deposits in a known or control area has been established and that the relation of the size-frequency distribution of deposits to probable controlling geologic factors has been determined. Using these relations, the principal scientist {PS) first estimates the number and range of size classes and then, for each size class, estimates the lower limit, most likely value, and upper limit of the numbers of deposits in the favorable area. Once these probable estimates have been refined

  2. Algorithms for Relative Radiometric Correction in Earth Observing Systems Resource-P and Canopus-V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenin, V. A.; Eremeev, V. V.; Kuznetcov, A. E.

    2016-06-01

    The present paper has considered two algorithms of the relative radiometric correction of information obtained from a multimatrix imagery instrument of the spacecraft "Resource-P" and frame imagery systems of the spacecraft "Canopus-V". The first algorithm is intended for elimination of vertical stripes on the image that are caused by difference in transfer characteristics of CCD matrices and CCD detectors. Correction coefficients are determined on the basis of analysis of images that are homogeneous by brightness. The second algorithm ensures an acquisition of microframes homogeneous by brightness from which seamless images of the Earth surface are synthesized. Examples of practical usage of the developed algorithms are mentioned.

  3. EROS resources for the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center has several educational resources that demonstrate how satellite imagery is used to understand our changing world.

  4. Identifying Fossil Shell Resources via Geophysical Surveys: Chesapeake Bay Region, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 6- 4 Chesapeake Fossil Shell Survey Identifying Fossil Shell Resources via Geophysical Surveys: Chesapeake Bay Region...other technical reports published by ERDC, visit the ERDC online library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. Chesapeake Fossil Shell...Survey ERDC/CHL TR-16-4 May 2016 Identifying Fossil Shell Resources via Geophysical Surveys: Chesapeake Bay Region, Virginia Heidi M. Wadman and Jesse

  5. Pella vilya: Near earth objects—Planetary defence through the regulation of resource utilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Gérardine Meishan

    2010-07-01

    Reactions to near earth objects (NEOs) in the past decade have run the gamut from expectations of Armageddon-type scenarios to Eureka moments of revolutionary scientific ideas. Concerns over the potentially devastating effects of an unmitigated collision jostle with forecasts of untold economic returns from the utilisation of NEO resources. Drawing from recent analogies and examples from the field of international environmental law, this paper proposes the development of a legal framework for the regulation of NEO resource utilisation. The proposed legal framework also includes a mechanism to ensure the political will and economic investment necessary for technological advances in planetary defence. By twinning the threats and opportunities presented by NEOs, this paper also analyses the position of theme-specific space law development in the overall legal framework of space exploration and traffic management.

  6. [Key content and formulation of national Chinese materia medica resources survey at county level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Li, Hai-Tao; Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhao, Run-Huai; Zhang, Ben-Gang; Sun, Li-Ying; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-08-01

    According to National Census for Water, National Population Census, National Land and Resources Survey, and work experience of experimental measures for national Chinese materia medica resources(CMMR) survey,the national CMMR survey at the county level is the key point of whole survey, that includes organization and management, field survey, sorting data three key links. Organization and management works of national CMMR survey needs to finish four key contents, there are definite goals and tasks, practicable crew, preparation directory, and security assurance. Field survey works of the national CMMR survey needs to finish five key contents, there are preparation works for field survey, the choice of the key survey area (samples), fill in the questionnaire, video data collection, specimen and other physical collection. Sorting data works of the national CMMR survey needs to finish tree key contents, there are data, specimen and census results.

  7. National Training Center Fort Irwin expansion area aquatic resources survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.

    1996-02-01

    Biologists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were requested by personnel from Fort Irwin to conduct a biological reconnaissance of the Avawatz Mountains northeast of Fort Irwin, an area for proposed expansion of the Fort. Surveys of vegetation, small mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and aquatic resources were conducted during 1995 to characterize the populations and habitats present with emphasis on determining the presence of any species of special concern. This report presents a description of the sites sampled, a list of the organisms found and identified, and a discussion of relative abundance. Taxonomic identifications were done to the lowest level possible commensurate with determining the status of the taxa relative to its possible listing as a threatened, endangered, or candidate species. Consultation with taxonomic experts was undertaken for the Coleoptera ahd Hemiptera. In addition to listing the macroinvertebrates found, the authors also present a discussion related to the possible presence of any threatened or endangered species or species of concern found in Sheep Creek Springs, Tin Cabin Springs, and the Amargosa River.

  8. The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS): Discovering New Earths and Super-Earths in the Solar Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, George R.

    2015-12-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will discover thousands of exoplanets in orbit around the brightest stars in the sky. In its two-year prime survey mission, TESS will monitor more than 200,000 bright stars in the solar neighborhood for temporary drops in brightness caused by planetary transits. This first-ever spaceborne all-sky transit survey will identify planets ranging from Earth-sized to gas giants, around a wide range of stellar types and orbital distances.TESS stars will typically be 30-100 times brighter than those surveyed by the Kepler satellite; thus, TESS planets will be far easier to characterize with follow-up observations. For the first time it will be possible to study the masses, sizes, densities, orbits, and atmospheres of a large cohort of small planets, including a sample of rocky worlds in the habitable zones of their host stars.An additional data product from the TESS mission will be full frame images (FFI) with a cadence of 30 minutes or less. These FFI will provide precise photometric information for every object within the 2300 square degree instantaneous field of view of the TESS cameras. These objects will include more than 1 million stars and bright galaxies observed during sessions of several weeks. In total, more than 30 million objects brighter than I=16 will be precisely photometered during the two-year prime mission. In principle, the lunar-resonant TESS orbit could provide opportunities for an extended mission lasting more than a decade, with data rates in excess of 100 Mbits/s.An extended survey by TESS of regions surrounding the North and South Ecliptic Poles will provide prime exoplanet targets for characterization with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), as well as other large ground-based and space-based telescopes of the future.TESS will issue data releases every 4 months, inviting immediate community-wide efforts to study the new planets, as well as commensal survey candidates from the FFI. A NASA Guest

  9. Dormant Comets Among the Near-Earth Object Population: A Meteor-Based Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Quan-Zhi; Pokorný, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Dormant comets in the near-Earth object (NEO) population are thought to be involved in the terrestrial accretion of water and organic materials. Identification of dormant comets is difficult as they are observationally indistinguishable from their asteroidal counterparts, however they may have produced dust during their final active stages which potentially are detectable today as weak meteor showers at the Earth. Here we present the result of a reconnaissance survey looking for dormant comets using 13~567~542 meteor orbits measured by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR). We simulate the dynamical evolution of the hypothetical meteoroid streams originated from 407 near-Earth asteroids in cometary orbits (NEACOs) that resemble orbital characteristics of Jupiter-family comets (JFCs). Out of the 44 hypothetical showers that are predicted to be detectable by CMOR, we identify 5 positive detections that are statistically unlikely to be chance associations, including 3 previously known associations. This transla...

  10. Chinese Surveying and Control Network for Earth-Orbit Satellites and Deep Space Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between the surveying and control network(CSN) for earth-orbit satellite and spatial geodesy, and the relationship between the CSN for deep space celestial bodies and detectors, and deep space detection are briefly summarized, and so are the basic technical needs of the deep space surveying and control network(DSN). Then, the techniques, the constituents and the distributing of Chinese satellite CSN (CSCSN) and other radio observing establishments in China are introduced. Lastly, with the primary CSCSN and other observing establishments, some projects for China to rebuild a more perfect CSCSN, and to establish a DSN are analyzed and stated.

  11. Transit surveys for Earths in the habitable zones of white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Agol, Eric

    2011-01-01

    To date the search for habitable Earth-like planets has primarily focused on nuclear burning stars. I propose that this search should be expanded to cool white dwarf stars that have expended their nuclear fuel. I define the continuously habitable zone of white dwarfs, and show that it extends from ~0.005 to 0.02 AU for white dwarfs with masses from 0.4-0.9 solar masses, temperatures less than 10,000 K, and habitable durations of at least 3 Gyr. As they are similar in size to Earth, white dwarfs may be completely eclipsed by terrestrial planets that orbit edge-on, which can easily be detected with ground-based telescopes. If planets can migrate inward or reform near white dwarfs, I show that a global robotic telescope network could carry out a transit survey of nearby white dwarfs placing interesting constraints on the presence of habitable Earths. If planets were detected, I show that the survey would favor detection of planets similar to Earth: similar size, temperature, rotation period, and host star temper...

  12. Sensor Web Technology Challenges and Advancements for the Earth Science Decadal Survey Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Charles D.; Moe, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the Earth science decadal survey era and the role ESTO developed sensor web technologies can contribute to the scientific observations. This includes hardware and software technology advances for in-situ and in-space measurements. Also discussed are emerging areas of importance such as the potential of small satellites for sensor web based observations as well as advances in data fusion critical to the science and societal benefits of future missions, and the challenges ahead.

  13. Applying beliefs and resources frameworks to the psychometric analyses of an epistemology survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Yerdelen-Damar1,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored how researchers’ views about the form of students’ epistemologies influence how the researchers develop and refine surveys and how they interpret survey results. After running standard statistical analyses on 505 physics students’ responses to the Turkish version of the Maryland Physics Expectations-II survey, probing students’ epistemologies and expectations, we interpreted the results through two different theoretical lenses, the beliefs perspective and the resources perspective. We showed that the beliefs and resources frameworks provided different interpretations of the psychometric analyses, leading to different conclusions about how the survey results should be interpreted and how the survey should be improved.

  14. The precision-processing subsystem for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, W. E.; Bybee, J. E.; Bedross, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    Description of the precision processor, a subsystem in the image-processing system for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS). This processor is a special-purpose image-measurement and printing system, designed to process user-selected bulk images to produce 1:1,000,000-scale film outputs and digital image data, presented in a Universal-Transverse-Mercator (UTM) projection. The system will remove geometric and radiometric errors introduced by the ERTS multispectral sensors and by the bulk-processor electron-beam recorder. The geometric transformations required for each input scene are determined by resection computations based on reseau measurements and image comparisons with a special ground-control base contained within the system; the images are then printed and digitized by electronic image-transfer techniques.

  15. CIM-EARTH: Community integrated model of economic and resource trajectories for humankind.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J.; Foster, I.; Judd, K.; Moyer, E.; Munson, T.; Univ. of Chicago; Hoover Inst.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is a global problem with local climatic and economic impacts. Mitigation policies can be applied on large geographic scales, such as a carbon cap-and-trade program for the entire U.S., on medium geographic scales, such as the NOx program for the northeastern U.S., or on smaller scales, such as statewide renewable portfolio standards and local gasoline taxes. To enable study of the environmental benefits, transition costs, capitalization effects, and other consequences of mitigation policies, we are developing dynamic general equilibrium models capable of incorporating important climate impacts. This report describes the economic framework we have developed and the current Community Integrated Model of Economic and Resource Trajectories for Humankind (CIM-EARTH) instance.

  16. Refurbishment of the cryogenic coolers for the Skylab earth resources experiment package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, J. C.; Luksa, N. C.

    1975-01-01

    Skylab Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP) experiments, S191 and S192, required a cold temperature reference for operation of a spectrometer. This cold temperature reference was provided by a subminiature Stirling cycle cooler. However, the failure of the cooler to pass the qualification test made it necessary for additional cooler development, refurbishment, and qualification. A description of the failures and the cause of these failures for each of the coolers is presented. The solutions to the various failure modes are discussed along with problems which arose during the refurbishment program. The rationale and results of various tests are presented. The successful completion of the cryogenic cooler refurbishment program resulted in four of these coolers being flown on Skylab. The system operation during the flight is presented.

  17. ERISTAR: Earth Resources Information Storage, Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval administrative report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, R. I.; Obrien, J. F., Jr.; Lueg, R. E.; Cox, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    The 1972 Systems Engineering program at Marshall Space Flight Center where 15 participants representing 15 U.S. universities, 1 NASA/MSFC employee, and another specially assigned faculty member, participated in an 11-week program is discussed. The Fellows became acquainted with the philosophy of systems engineering, and as a training exercise, used this approach to produce a conceptional design for an Earth Resources Information Storage, Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval System. The program was conducted in three phases; approximately 3 weeks were devoted to seminars, tours, and other presentations to subject the participants to technical and other aspects of the information management problem. The second phase, 5 weeks in length, consisted of evaluating alternative solutions to problems, effecting initial trade-offs and performing preliminary design studies and analyses. The last 3 weeks were occupied with final trade-off sessions, final design analyses and preparation of a final report and oral presentation.

  18. U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program—Mineral resource science supporting informed decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Aleeza M.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2016-09-19

    The USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP) delivers unbiased science and information to increase understanding of mineral resource potential, production, and consumption, and how mineral resources interact with the environment. The MRP is the Federal Government’s sole source for this mineral resource science and information. Program goals are to (1) increase understanding of mineral resource formation, (2) provide mineral resource inventories and assessments, (3) broaden knowledge of the effects of mineral resources on the environment and society, and (4) provide analysis on the availability and reliability of mineral supplies.

  19. Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This curriculum-based, easy-to-follow book teaches young readers about Earth as one of the eight planets in our solar system in astronomical terms. With accessible text, it provides the fundamental information any student needs to begin their studies in astronomy, such as how Earth spins and revolves around the Sun, why it's uniquely suitable for life, its physical features, atmosphere, biosphere, moon, its past, future, and more. To enhance the learning experience, many of the images come directly from NASA. This straightforward title offers the fundamental information any student needs to sp

  20. Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS): A Time Domain Resource for the Entire Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djorgovski, Stanislav G.; Drake, Andrew J.; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Graham, Matthew; Donalek, Ciro; Christensen, Eric J.; Larson, Stephen M.; CRTS Team

    2016-01-01

    Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS; http://crts.caltech.edu) is systematically exploring and characterizing the faint, variable sky. It uses data streams generated by the Catalina Sky Survey, which searches for near-Earth asteroids, to search for variable objects and transient events. The CRTS survey has been in operation since 2008, with the archival data going back to 2005. The survey covers the total area of ~33,000 deg2, down to ~19-21 mag per exposure, with time baselines from 10 min to ~10 years, and growing; there are now typically ~ 200-400 exposures per pointing, and coadded images reach deeper than ~ 23 mag. The area coverage rate will increase substantially as new cameras are being deployed, and possible new data streams opened. The survey has so far detected nearly 11,000 unique, high-amplitude transients, including ~3,000 confirmed or likely supernovae (for the 5 years in a row we published more supernovae than any other survey), at least 1,500 CVs (the great majority of them previously uncatalogued), >3,000 of blazars and other AGN, and a broad variety of other types of objects.CRTS is intended to be a data resource for the entire astronomical community. We have a completely open data policy: all discovered transient events are published in real time with no proprietary delay period, and all data are made public, in order to better serve the entire community, and maximize the scientific returns. This includes an archive of ~500 million light curves, which are being updated continuously. This is an unprecedented data set for the exploration of the time domain, in terms of the area, depth, and temporal coverage.Numerous scientific projects have been enabled by this data stream, including: discoveries of ultraluminous and otherwise peculiar SNe; unusual CVs and dwarf novae; mapping of the structure in the Galactic halo using RR Lyrae; variability-based discovery of AGN and probes of their physics; etc. We also have a major effort on the automated

  1. Integration and Exposure of Large Scale Computational Resources Across the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, D.; Maxwell, T. P.; Doutriaux, C.; Williams, D. N.; Chaudhary, A.; Ames, S.

    2015-12-01

    As the size of remote sensing observations and model output data grows, the volume of the data has become overwhelming, even to many scientific experts. As societies are forced to better understand, mitigate, and adapt to climate changes, the combination of Earth observation data and global climate model projects is crucial to not only scientists but to policy makers, downstream applications, and even the public. Scientific progress on understanding climate is critically dependent on the availability of a reliable infrastructure that promotes data access, management, and provenance. The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) has created such an environment for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). ESGF provides a federated global cyber infrastructure for data access and management of model outputs generated for the IPCC Assessment Reports (AR). The current generation of the ESGF federated grid allows consumers of the data to find and download data with limited capabilities for server-side processing. Since the amount of data for future AR is expected to grow dramatically, ESGF is working on integrating server-side analytics throughout the federation. The ESGF Compute Working Team (CWT) has created a Web Processing Service (WPS) Application Programming Interface (API) to enable access scalable computational resources. The API is the exposure point to high performance computing resources across the federation. Specifically, the API allows users to execute simple operations, such as maximum, minimum, average, and anomalies, on ESGF data without having to download the data. These operations are executed at the ESGF data node site with access to large amounts of parallel computing capabilities. This presentation will highlight the WPS API, its capabilities, provide implementation details, and discuss future developments.

  2. In-Situ Resource Utilization for Space Exploration: Resource Processing, Mission-Enabling Technologies, and Lessons for Sustainability on Earth and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, A. F.; Palaszewski, B. A.; Landis, G. A.; Jaworske, D. A.; Colozza, A. J.; Kulis, M. J.; Heller, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    As humanity begins to reach out into the solar system, it has become apparent that supporting a human or robotic presence in transit andor on station requires significant expendable resources including consumables (to support people), fuel, and convenient reliable power. Transporting all necessary expendables is inefficient, inconvenient, costly, and, in the final analysis, a complicating factor for mission planners and a significant source of potential failure modes. Over the past twenty-five years, beginning with the Space Exploration Initiative, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), academic collaborators, and industrial partners have analyzed, researched, and developed successful solutions for the challenges posed by surviving and even thriving in the resource limited environment(s) presented by near-Earth space and non-terrestrial surface operations. In this retrospective paper, we highlight the efforts of the co-authors in resource simulation and utilization, materials processing and consumable(s) production, power systems and analysis, fuel storage and handling, propulsion systems, and mission operations. As we move forward in our quest to explore space using a resource-optimized approach, it is worthwhile to consider lessons learned relative to efficient utilization of the (comparatively) abundant natural resources and improving the sustainability (and environment) for life on Earth. We reconsider Lunar (and briefly Martian) resource utilization for potential colonization, and discuss next steps moving away from Earth.

  3. EVALUATION OF SUBSOIL RESOURCES, LAND RESOURCES AND SOILS IN THE COURSE OF ENGINEERING AND ECOLOGICAL SURVEYS AT THE DESIGN STAGE OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platov Nikolaj Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective environmental legislative acts, industrial regulations and Construction Standards and Norms do not comprise a consistent system governing rational use of natural resources. Inconsistency of regulatory acts, unavailability of a single approach or a methodological background backing the development of new and the update of effective regulatory documents causes inconsistency of engineering and ecological information. The inconsistency prevents any competent application and correlation of the information about the condition and properties of the ground and soils. The main objective of an engineering survey is the supply of trustworthy information to teams of designers. The quality of the engineering and ecological information stands behind the safety of buildings and structures. The quality of any environment-related information and data concerning any environmental protection measures is consequent to the quality of regulatory documents. In addition to their role in the built environment, resources of the lithosphere serve as the basis for the development of almost all branches of industry and other types of human activities. Effective legal and regulatory documents ignore the fact that subsoil resources serve as the material and physical basis of the living environment on Earth. Foundations of the Legislation of the USSR and the Union Republics on Subsoil Resources served as the basis for their protection. The successor legislation includes in excess of 40 regulatory documents that govern the extraction of natural resources and losses that accompany the exploitation of their deposits. The principal acts include the Unified Rules Governing Protection of Subsoil Resources in the course of Development of Deposits of Solid Mineral Resources (1985 and other acts approved by the Principal State Technical Supervision Committee; the above Unified Rules have not undergone any substantial changes since the days of the USSR. The exception is the

  4. Efficient Resource Management for Multicast Ad Hoc Networks: Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Chopra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Group communication over multicast ad hoc network suffers from insufficient utilization of limited resources, i.e. shared channel, battery, data processing capabilities and storage space etc. Multicast routing protocol should be able to manage all these resources because their consumption depends upon different factors, i.e. Unicast/Multicast network operations, dynamic topology due to mobility, control overhead due to scalability, packet loss and retransmission due to collision and congestion etc. All these factors may cause unnecessary network load, delay and unfair resource utilization. However, multicast ad hoc routing protocols are more efficient than Unicast routing protocols, but they also suffer from performance degradation factors discussed above. Researchers have developed various layer wise solutions for resource optimization. In this paper, we will explore the different schemes for fair utilization of network resources.

  5. Dormant comets among the near-Earth object population: a meteor-based survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Quan-Zhi; Brown, Peter G.; Pokorný, Petr

    2016-11-01

    Dormant comets in the near-Earth object (NEO) population are thought to be involved in the terrestrial accretion of water and organic materials. Identification of dormant comets is difficult as they are observationally indistinguishable from their asteroidal counterparts, however, they may have produced dust during their final active stages which potentially are detectable today as weak meteor showers at the Earth. Here we present the result of a reconnaissance survey looking for dormant comets using 13 567 542 meteor orbits measured by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR). We simulate the dynamical evolution of the hypothetical meteoroid streams originated from 407 near-Earth asteroids in cometary orbits that resemble orbital characteristics of Jupiter-family comets (JFCs). Out of the 44 hypothetical showers that are predicted to be detectable by CMOR, we identify five positive detections that are statistically unlikely to be chance associations, including three previously known associations. This translates to a lower limit to the dormant comet fraction of 2.0 ± 1.7 per cent in the NEO population and a dormancy rate of ˜10-5 yr-1 per comet. The low dormancy rate confirms disruption and dynamical removal as the dominant end state for near-Earth JFCs. We also predict the existence of a significant number of meteoroid streams whose parents have already been disrupted or dynamically removed.

  6. The Blueprint for Change: A National Strategy to Enhance Access to Earth and Space Science Education Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, E. E.; Barstow, D.

    2001-12-01

    Enhancing access to high quality science education resources for teachers, students, and the general public is a high priority for the earth and space science education communities. However, to significantly increase access to these resources and promote their effective use will require a coordinated effort between content developers, publishers, professional developers, policy makers, and users in both formal and informal education settings. Federal agencies, academic institutions, professional societies, informal science centers, the Digital Library for Earth System Education, and other National SMETE Digital Library Projects are anticipated to play key roles in this effort. As a first step to developing a coordinated, national strategy for developing and delivering high quality earth and space science education resources to students, teachers, and the general public, 65 science educators, scientists, teachers, administrators, policy makers, and business leaders met this June in Snowmass, Colorado to create "Earth and Space Science Education 2010: A Blueprint for Change". The Blueprint is a strategy document that will be used to guide Earth and space science education reform efforts in grades K-12 during the next decade. The Blueprint contains specific goals, recommendations, and strategies for coordinating action in the areas of: Teacher Preparation and Professional Development, Curriculum and Materials, Equity and Diversity, Assessment and Evaluation, Public Policy and Systemic Reform, Public and Informal Education, Partnerships and Collaborations, and Technology. If you develop, disseminate, or use exemplary earth and space science education resources, we invite you to review the Blueprint for Change, share it with your colleagues and local science educators, and join as we work to revolutionize earth and space science education in grades K-12.

  7. An integrated study of earth resources in the state of California using remote sensing techniques. [water and forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1974-01-01

    Progress and results of an integrated study of California's water resources are discussed. The investigation concerns itself primarily with the usefulness of remote sensing of relation to two categories of problems: (1) water supply; and (2) water demand. Also considered are its applicability to forest management and timber inventory. The cost effectiveness and utility of remote sensors such as the Earth Resources Technology Satellite for water and timber management are presented.

  8. SURVEY SIMULATIONS OF A NEW NEAR-EARTH ASTEROID DETECTION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Giorgini, J.; Masiero, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Conrow, T.; Cutri, R. M.; Dailey, J.; Fowler, J.; Jarrett, T. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Spahr, T. [Minor Planet Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS-18, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Statler, T. [Astrophysical Institute, Ohio University (United States); Wright, E. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-05-15

    We have carried out simulations to predict the performance of a new space-based telescopic survey operating at thermal infrared wavelengths that seeks to discover and characterize a large fraction of the potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population. Two potential architectures for the survey were considered: one located at the Earth–Sun L1 Lagrange point, and one in a Venus-trailing orbit. A sample cadence was formulated and tested, allowing for the self-follow-up necessary for objects discovered in the daytime sky on Earth. Synthetic populations of NEAs with sizes as small as 140 m in effective spherical diameter were simulated using recent determinations of their physical and orbital properties. Estimates of the instrumental sensitivity, integration times, and slew speeds were included for both architectures assuming the properties of newly developed large-format 10 μm HgCdTe detector arrays capable of operating at ∼35 K. Our simulation included the creation of a preliminary version of a moving object processing pipeline suitable for operating on the trial cadence. We tested this pipeline on a simulated sky populated with astrophysical sources such as stars and galaxies extrapolated from Spitzer Space Telescope and Wide-field Infrared Explorer data, the catalog of known minor planets (including Main Belt asteroids, comets, Jovian Trojans, planets, etc.), and the synthetic NEA model. Trial orbits were computed for simulated position-time pairs extracted from the synthetic surveys to verify that the tested cadence would result in orbits suitable for recovering objects at a later time. Our results indicate that the Earth–Sun L1 and Venus-trailing surveys achieve similar levels of integral completeness for potentially hazardous asteroids larger than 140 m; placing the telescope in an interior orbit does not yield an improvement in discovery rates. This work serves as a necessary first step for the detailed planning of a next-generation NEA survey.

  9. SURVEY OF THE RESOURCES AND USE OF THE LIBRARIES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is on this premise that the Federal Ministry of Education, taking due cognizance of the importance of .... This lack of financial resources has only retarded positive ..... The use of the library should also be incorporated into the school timetable.

  10. Resource and radioactivity survey in the Ellsworth Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreschhoff, G.A.M.; Zeller, E.J.; Thoste, V.; Bulla, K.

    1980-01-01

    During the 1979-80 field season, radiometric survey operations were mostly limited to the Ellsworth Mountain area. The only exception was a brief attempt to detect radioactive fallout on the sea ice at McMurdo Station. The fallout measurements were made in an effort to detect a supposed nuclear bomb test off the South African coast. No fission products were found. The gamma-ray spectrometer used for the survey was a Geometrics GR-800 with a total sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) detector volume of 8390 cubic centimeters. The equipment had not been modified since the previous year and it functioned without interruption throughout the survey flights.

  11. Survey On Scheduling And Radio Resources Allocation In Lte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayssal Bendaoud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on an essential task of the enhanced NodeB eNodeB element in LTE architecture, the Radio Resource Manager RRM, which aims to accept or reject requests for connection to the network based on some constraints and ensuring optimal distribution of radio resources between Users Equipments UEs. Its main functionalities include Admission Control AC and Packet Scheduling PS. This paper will center mainly on the PS part of the RRM task, which performs the radio resource allocation in both uplink and downlink directions. Several approaches and algorithms have been proposed in the literature to address this need (allocate resources efficiently, the diversity and multitude of algorithms is related to the factors considered for the optimal management of radio resource, specifically, the traffic type and the QoS (Quality of Service requested by the UE. In this article, an art’s state of the radio resource allocation strategies and a detailed study of several scheduling algorithms proposed for LTE (uplink and downlink are made. Therefore, we offer our evaluation and criticism.

  12. Modeling the Performance of the LSST in Surveying the Near-Earth Object Population

    CERN Document Server

    Grav, Tommy; Spahr, Tim

    2016-01-01

    We have performed a detailed survey simulation of the LSST performance with regards to near-Earth objects (NEOs) using the project's current baseline cadence. The survey shows that if the project is able to reliably generate linked sets of positions and times (a so-called "tracklet") using two detections of a given object per night and can link these tracklets into a track with a minimum of 3 tracklets covering more than a ~12 day length-of-arc, they would be able to discover 62% of the potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) larger than 140 m in its projected 10 year survey lifetime. This completeness would be reduced to 58% if the project is unable to implement a pipeline using the two detection cadence and has to adopt the four detection cadence more commonly used by existing NEO surveys. When including the estimated performance from the current operating surveys, assuming these would continue running until the start of LSST and perhaps beyond, the completeness fraction for PHAs larger than 140m would be 73...

  13. Only One Earth: United Nations Environmental Sabbath/Earth Rest Day, June 1-3, 1990. [Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Environment Program, New York, NY.

    This publication was assembled with the idea of assisting religious leaders in all denominations to conduct services which would relate to the healing of Planet Earth in conjunction with the first United Nations Environmental Sabbath during June, 1990. Part I is introductory, in nature, and contains factual data concerning the following…

  14. Whittier Narrows Flood Control Basin Historic Resources Survey,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-15

    MAKING SURVEY 2.0 General In making this survey of the Whittier Narrows and Los Angeles River-Rio Hondo historic re- sources , the investigators have...various protective facilities. Washington provided the funds with the stipulation that the work be done unqr the direction of the United States Army Corps...testIfying to southern California’s historic penchant for unique town building ("Venice of America") and amusement park operation ( Disneyland ). Finally

  15. Cultural Resources Survey of Five Mississippi River Revetment Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    sugar, indigo, cotton, rice, maize , and many vegetables. The potatoes which they take from the earth are very good. The melons gathered by them are fine...and deposits on the ware (Rhodes 1973:285). The resulting glaze is thin and has an "orange peel -like" texture. Most clays can be salt-glazed...successfully; it occasionally is found on redwares, for example. For firing at very low temperatures, borax is added to the salt, reducing the "orange peel

  16. A major light rare-earth element (LREE) resource in the Khanneshin carbonatite complex, southern Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Robert D.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Peters, Stephen G.; Horton, Forrest; Buttleman, Kim; Scott, Emily R.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid rise in world demand for the rare-earth elements (REEs) has expanded the search for new REE resources. We document two types of light rare-earth element (LREE)-enriched rocks in the Khanneshin carbonatite complex of southern Afghanistan: type 1 concordant seams of khanneshite-(Ce), synchysite-(Ce), and parisite-(Ce) within banded barite-strontianite alvikite, and type 2 igneous dikes of coarse-grained carbonatite, enriched in fluorine or phosphorus, containing idiomorphic crystals of khanneshite-(Ce) or carbocernaite. Type 1 mineralized barite-strontianite alvikite averages 22.25 wt % BaO, 4.27 wt % SrO, and 3.25 wt % ∑ LREE2O3 (sum of La, Ce, Pr, and Nd oxides). Type 2 igneous dikes average 14.51 wt % BaO, 5.96 wt % SrO, and 3.77 wt % ∑ LREE2O3. A magmatic origin is clearly indicated for the type 2 LREE-enriched dikes, and type 1 LREE mineralization probably formed in the presence of LREE-rich hydrothermal fluid. Both types of LREE mineralization may be penecontemporaneous, having formed in a carbonate-rich magma in the marginal zone of the central vent, highly charged with volatile constituents (i.e., CO2, F, P2O5), and strongly enriched in Ba, Sr, and the LREE. Based on several assumptions, and employing simple geometry for the zone of LREE enrichment, we estimate that at least 1.29 Mt (million metric tonnes) of LREE2O3 is present in this part of the Khanneshin carbonatite complex.

  17. Geology and market-dependent significance of rare earth element resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simandl, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    China started to produce rare earth elements (REEs) in the 1980s, and since the mid-1990s, it has become the dominant producer. Rare earth element export quotas first introduced by the Chinese government in the early 2000s were severely reduced in 2010 and 2011. This led to strong government-created disparity between prices within China and the rest of the world. Industrialized countries identified several REEs as strategic metals. Because of rapid price increases of REE outside of China, we have witnessed a world-scale REE exploration rush. The REE resources are concentrated in carbonatite-related deposits, peralkaline igneous rocks, pegmatites, monazite ± apatite veins, ion adsorption clays, placers, and some deep ocean sediments. REE could also be derived as a by-product of phosphate fertilizer production, U processing, mining of Ti-Zr-bearing placers, and exploitation of Olympic Dam subtype iron oxide copper gold (IOCG) deposits. Currently, REEs are produced mostly from carbonatite-related deposits, but ion adsorption clay deposits are an important source of heavy REE (HREE). Small quantities of REE are derived from placer deposits and one peralkaline intrusion-related deposit. The ideal REE development targets would be located in a politically stable jurisdiction with a pro-mining disposition such as Canada and Australia. REE grade, HREE/light REE (LREE) ratio of the mineralization, tonnage, mineralogy, and permissive metallurgy are some of the key technical factors that could be used to screen potential development projects. As REEs are considered strategic metals from economic, national security, and environmental points of view, technical and economic parameters alone are unlikely to be used in REE project development decision-making. Recycling of REE is in its infancy and unless legislated, in the short term, it is not expected to contribute significantly to the supply of REE.

  18. National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) N/P Values for Streams - Wadeable Streams Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Aquatic Resource Survey (NARS) findings for nutrients in streams and lakes highlight that nutrient pollution is widespread across the United States and...

  19. Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment Capabilities in APEC Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P

    2008-11-01

    This survey of biomass resource assessments and assessment capabilities in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies considered various sources: academic and government publications, media reports, and personal communication with contacts in member economies.

  20. National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) N/P Values for Lakes – National Lake Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Aquatic Resource Survey (NARS) findings for nutrients in streams and lakes highlight that nutrient pollution is widespread across the United States and...

  1. Cultural Resource Survey of Proposed Ditch Plugs Near Troublesome Creek in Marion County, Missouri

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A phase I cultural resource survey was conducted for the US Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, of three proposed ditch plugs to be constructed...

  2. National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) N/P Values for Lakes – National Lake Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Aquatic Resource Survey (NARS) findings for nutrients in streams and lakes highlight that nutrient pollution is widespread across the United States and...

  3. Cultural Resources Survey for Additional Work at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A cultural resources survey was conducted at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, during the late summer of 1981. This work concentrated on the...

  4. Photographic consulting services to the Earth Resources program. [using aerial photography as a tool for scientific measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The recommendations, procedures, and techniques are summarized which provided by the Kodak Apparatus Division to the Ames Research Center to support the Earth Resources Aircraft Program at that facility. Recommendations, procedures, and calibration data are included for sensitometry, densitometry, laboratory cleanliness, and determination of camera exposure. Additional comments are made regarding process control procedures and general laboratory operations.

  5. Development of online instructional resources for Earth system science education: An example of current practice from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shaochun; Xu, Shijin; Lu, Xiancai

    2009-06-01

    Educators around the world are striving to make science more accessible and relevant to students. Online instructional resources have become an integral component of tertiary science education and will continue to grow in influence and importance over the coming decades. A case study in the iterative improvement of the online instructional resources provided for first-year undergraduates taking " Introductory Earth System Science" at Nanjing University in China is presented in this paper. Online instructional resources are used to conduct a student-centered learning model in the domain of Earth system science, resulting in a sustainable online instructional framework for students and instructors. The purpose of our practice is to make Earth system science education more accessible and exciting to students, changing instruction from a largely textbook-based teacher-centered approach to a more interactive and student-centered approach, and promoting the integration of knowledge and development of deep understanding by students. Evaluation on learning performance and learning satisfaction is conducted to identify helpful components and perception based on students' learning activities. The feedbacks indicate that the use of online instructional resources has positive impacts on mitigating Earth system science education challenges, and has the potential to promote deep learning.

  6. A Survey on Resource Allocation Strategies in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Vinothina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has become a new age technology that has got huge potentials in enterprises and markets. Clouds can make it possible to access applications and associated data from anywhere. Companies are able to rent resources from cloud for storage and other computational purposes so that their infrastructure cost can be reduced significantly. Further they can make use of company-wide access to applications, based on pay-as-you-go model. Hence there is no need for getting licenses for individual products. However one of the major pitfalls in cloud computing is related to optimizing the resources being allocated. Because of the uniqueness of the model, resource allocation is performed with the objective of minimizing the costs associated with it. The other challenges of resource allocation are meeting customer demands and application requirements. In this paper, various resource allocation strategies and their challenges are discussed in detail. It is believed that this paper would benefit both cloud users and researchers in overcoming the challenges faced.

  7. Psychological career resources of working adults: A South African survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to explore broad trends regarding how individuals from various age, educational, marital, race and gender groups in the South African organisational context differ in terms of their psychological career resources, as measured by the Psychological Career Resources Inventory. A sample of 2 997 working adults registered as students at a South African higher distance education institution participated in this study. The results indicate significant differences between the various biographical variables and the participants’ psychological career resources. In the context of employment equity, and with more women entering the workplace, this study is expected to contribute important knowledge that will inform career development practices concerned with enhancing employees’ career meta-competencies as an important element of their general employability.

  8. A powerful new southern hemisphere survey for near-Earth objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, E.; Lister, T.; Larson, S.; Gibbs, A.; Grauer, A.; Hill, R.; Johnson, J.; Kowalski, R.; Sanders, R.; Shelly, F.

    2014-07-01

    For nearly a decade, the Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) operated the Siding Spring Survey (SSS) in partnership with the Australian National University. The SSS was the only professional, full-time NEO survey in the Southern Hemisphere during this period. The SSS ceased operations in July of 2013, and the lack of a full-time, state-of-the-art survey in the Southern Hemisphere leaves a significant blind spot in NASA's ongoing effort to identify and track near-Earth objects (NEOs) that may pose a hazard to the Earth, or that may be appropriate destinations for robotic or human missions. The CSS and the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) are partnering to fill this gap, by rapidly building, deploying and operating a network of three dedicated 1.0-meter survey telescopes at Cerro Tololo, one of the premiere astronomical sites in the Southern Hemisphere. The partnership between CSS and LCOGT provides a fast-track, low-risk, and cost-effective survey capability that will be fully dedicated to the NEO discovery effort. The first of three survey telescopes will be operational ˜18 months after the start of funding, with the second and third telescopes coming online within an additional ˜12 months. Our joint survey will be a powerful new NEO survey capability. The telescopes are based on the field-tested LCOGT 1.0-m design, modified to feature a faster f/1.8 primary and a prime focus camera that will deliver an 8.6 deg^2 field of view (FOV), with a resolution of 1.0 arcseconds per pixel. The three co-located telescopes will offer the operational flexibility to survey together (acting as a 1.7-m telescope), or separately (effectively delivering a 25+ deg^2 FOV), and will have no competing science goals to compromise from the primary mission of NEO discovery. The telescopes will be robotically operated, and the data will be processed, validated, and reported in near real-time from the CSS headquarters in Tucson. Same-night and subsequent night astrometric

  9. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS): photometric results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirouin, Audrey; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Binzel, Richard; Christensen, Eric J.; DeMeo, Francesca; Person, Michael J.; Polishook, David; Thomas, Cristina; Trilling, David E.; Willman, Mark; Hinkle, Mary L.; Burt, Brian; Avner, Dan

    2016-10-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) is a physical characterization survey of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) to provide physical data for several hundred mission accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Using a variety of 1-m to 8-m class telescopes, we observe 5 to 10 newly discovered sub-km NEOs per month in order to derive their rotational properties and taxonomic class.Rotational data can provide useful information about physical properties, like shape, surface heterogeneity/homogeneity, density, internal structure, and internal cohesion. Here, we present results of the MANOS photometric survey for more than 200 NEOs. We report lightcurves from our first three years of observing and show objects with rotational periods from a couple of hours down to a few seconds. MANOS found the three fastest rotators known to date with rotational periods below 20s. A physical interpretation of these ultra-rapid rotators is that they are bound through a combination of cohesive and/or tensile strength rather than gravity. Therefore, these objects are important to understand the internal structure of NEOs. Rotational properties are used for statistical study to constrain overall properties of the NEO population. We also study rotational properties according to size, and dynamical class. Finally, we report a sample of NEOs that are fully characterized (lightcurve and visible spectra) as the most suitable candidates for a future robotic or human mission. Viable mission targets are objects with a rotational period >1h, and a delta-v lower than 12 km/s. Assuming the MANOS rate of object characterization, and the current NEO population estimates by Tricarico (2016), and by Harris and D'Abramo (2015), 10,000 to 1,000,000 NEOs with diameters between 10m and 1km are expected to be mission accessible. We acknowledge funding support from NASA NEOO grant number NNX14AN82G, and NOAO survey program.

  10. 75 FR 51751 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; User Engagement Survey for Water Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Information Collection; Comment Request; User Engagement Survey for Water Resources Forecasts and Climate Information AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... workshops related to water resources and/or climate. This information collection will be conducted by...

  11. Special Educational Resources in the Swedish Upper Secondary Schools: A Total Population Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, Joacim

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the special educational resources in the Swedish upper secondary schools using a total population survey that covers all upper secondary schools. Special educators and special teachers together constitute the special educational resources at each school. With two types of regression models (logistic and linear regression), the…

  12. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS): first photometric results

    CERN Document Server

    Thirouin, A; Binzel, R P; Christensen, E; DeMeo, F E; Person, M J; Polishook, D; Thomas, C A; Trilling, D; Willman, M; Hinkle, M; Burt, B; Avner, D; Aceituno, F J

    2016-01-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS) aims to physically characterize sub-km Near-Earth Objects (NEOs). We report first photometric results from the survey which began in August, 2013. Photometric observations were performed using 1 m to 4 m class telescopes around the world. We present rotational periods and lightcurve amplitudes for 86 sub-km NEOs, though in some cases, only lower limits are provided. Our main goal is to obtain lightcurves for small NEOs (typically, sub-km objects) and estimate their rotational periods, lightcurve amplitudes, and shapes. These properties are used for statistical study to constrain overall properties of the NEO population. A weak correlation seems to indicate that smaller objects are more spherical than the larger ones. We also report 7 NEOs that are fully characterized (lightcurve and visible spectra) as the most suitable candidates for a future human or robotic mission. Viable mission targets are objects fully characterized, with a Delta_v(NHATS) 1h. Ass...

  13. E-Resources, Services and User Surveys in Tsinghua University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Shao; Yi, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to provide an overview of the e-resources and services in Tsinghua University Library, Beijing, and describe five campus-wide user surveys. It states how these user surveys play an important role in service quality enhancement. Design/methodology/approach: Following a brief history of Tsinghua University Library, a summary…

  14. NASA Wavelength: A Full Spectrum of NASA Resources for Earth and Space Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. A.; Schwerin, T. G.; Peticolas, L. M.; Porcello, D.; Kansa, E.; Shipp, S. S.; Bartolone, L.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums have developed a digital library--NASAWavelength.org--that enables easy discovery and retrieval of thousands of resources from the NASA Earth and space science education portfolio. The system has been developed based on best practices in the architecture and design of web-based information systems. The design style and philosophy emphasize simple, reusable data and services that facilitate the free flow of data across systems. The primary audiences for NASA Wavelength are STEM educators (K-12, higher education and informal education) as well as scientists, education and public outreach professionals who work with K-12, higher education, and informal education. A NASA Wavelength strandmap service features the 19 AAAS strandmaps that are most relevant to NASA science; the service also generates all of the 103 AAAS strandmaps with content from the Wavelength collection. These maps graphically and interactively provide connections between concepts as well as illustrate how concepts build upon one another across grade levels. New features have been developed for this site based on user feedback, including list-building so that users can create and share individual collections within Wavelength. We will also discuss potential methods for integrating the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) into the search and discovery tools on NASA Wavelength.

  15. Using airborne geophysical surveys to improve groundwater resource management models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jared D.; Cannia, James C.; Peterson, Steven M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Minsley, Burke J.; Bedrosian, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, groundwater management requires more accurate hydrogeologic frameworks for groundwater models. These complex issues have created the demand for innovative approaches to data collection. In complicated terrains, groundwater modelers benefit from continuous high‐resolution geologic maps and their related hydrogeologic‐parameter estimates. The USGS and its partners have collaborated to use airborne geophysical surveys for near‐continuous coverage of areas of the North Platte River valley in western Nebraska. The survey objectives were to map the aquifers and bedrock topography of the area to help improve the understanding of groundwater‐surface‐water relationships, leading to improved water management decisions. Frequency‐domain heliborne electromagnetic surveys were completed, using a unique survey design to collect resistivity data that can be related to lithologic information to refine groundwater model inputs. To render the geophysical data useful to multidimensional groundwater models, numerical inversion is necessary to convert the measured data into a depth‐dependent subsurface resistivity model. This inverted model, in conjunction with sensitivity analysis, geological ground truth (boreholes and surface geology maps), and geological interpretation, is used to characterize hydrogeologic features. Interpreted two‐ and three‐dimensional data coverage provides the groundwater modeler with a high‐resolution hydrogeologic framework and a quantitative estimate of framework uncertainty. This method of creating hydrogeologic frameworks improved the understanding of flow path orientation by redefining the location of the paleochannels and associated bedrock highs. The improved models reflect actual hydrogeology at a level of accuracy not achievable using previous data sets.

  16. Cultural Resource Survey Report. Hildebrand Ranch Area: Proposed Chatfield Arboretum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    on foot and digging test pits if they seemed useful. The pedestrian survey was accomplished in a standard manner by walking slowly in parallel zig - zag ...few hardy visitors on various military, exploratory or religious missions. After discovery of gold at Sutter’s Mill , and subsequently on Cherry Creek

  17. DataONE: Survey of Earth Scientists, To Share or Not to Share Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, B. D.; Tenopir, C.; Allard, S.; Douglas, K.; Wu, L.; Frame, M.; Dataone-The Data Observation NetworkEarth

    2010-12-01

    A primary goal of the Data Observation Network for Earth (DataONE; http://dataone.org) is to ensure preservation and access to multi-scale, multi-discipline, and multi-national science data, particularly in the Earth and Environmental Sciences. As a means to measure project success and to better understand the needs of the community, we have conducted a baseline assessment of the data sharing practices and preferences of domain scientists. The survey is motivated by the understanding that improving access to the sharing of data requires changes in both technology and expectations of the scientific community. A follow-up survey conducted in the future will measure how data sharing initiatives such as DataONE have influenced attitudes and behaviors. A letter of invitation with a link to an online survey instrument was emailed to scientists. Scientists were contacted by several methods: through contacts at the universities where they work, through journal editors of science journals, and directly to biology and environmental science faculty at major U.S. universities. A total of 1329 responses were received. The overall findings from the baseline assessment demonstrate several key findings. -Data management practices vary: {56.1%of respondents did not use any metadata standard, 22.1% used a lab created metadata standard, and over half of respondents 59% (local site) and 55% (national site) mentioned that at least some of their data were available; only 42% (global) and 35% (regional site) respondents mentioned that their data were available.} -Many scientists are interested in sharing data. Over 80% of respondents agreed with the statements: {“I would use other researchers' datasets if their datasets were easily accessible.” and “I would be willing to share data across a broad group of researchers who use data in different ways.”} -There are many barriers to sharing data. The two most common barriers identified were: {Insufficient time (54%) and Lack of

  18. Basic survey for coal resources exploitation for Fiscal 1998. Coal GIS survey; 1998 nendo seitan shigeh kaihatsu kiso chosa. Sekitan GIS chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For the construction of a coal mine assessment technology system, surveys are conducted on the current state and technology trends of resources-related GIS (geographical information system) in other countries. When one ponders over coal-rich areas to be newly explored and developed in one's study on the stable exploitation of coal abroad and its import to this country, what interests one gradually shifts from known superior large-scale coal mine areas to next-generation coal mine areas yet to be exploited. Accordingly, it is mandatory to build an assessment-oriented comprehensive technology system capable of promptly dealing with any changes in natural, geological conditions that may be presented by coal mines to be exploited. Although GIS is recognized as a useful means not only in the field of natural science but also in other fields whose data may be plotted on a map, its position is not yet established when it comes to coal resources. It is therefore necessary to promptly introduce GIS into the field of coal. In fiscal 1998, on-site surveys were conducted not only in Japan but also in the U.S., Canada, and Australia who are senior to Japan in terms of GIS application. Also, information was collected from literature and via Internet, surveys were conducted about the use of GIS in the field of earth science especially in the field of coal resources, and the state of the digital data utilizing setup indispensable for the proper operation of GIS was investigated. (NEDO)

  19. Boosting Scientific Exploitation of Sentinel Data: The Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Fröhlich, Johannes; Stowasser, Rainer; Wotawa, Gerhard; Hoffmann, Christian; Federspiel, Christian; Nortarnicola, Claudia; Zebisch, Marc; Boresch, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    an increasing trend towards more specialisation and cooperation. Also this strategy has already led to remarkable advances in the provision of high-quality scientific EO data sets. Nonetheless, many of these collaborative developments stand on shaky grounds given that the scientific and technical know-how and the data processing capabilities remain largely fragmented. This is because the cooperation between different EO teams is typically project-based and can end abruptly after the end of a project. In other words, few EO teams cooperate on a more strategic level that involves e.g. the sharing of software code or the joint use of common IT resources. In recognition of the problems discussed above, and with a view on the high potential of the upcoming Sentinel satellites for monitoring of global water resources (Wagner et al. 2011, Hornáček et al. 2012), we are proposing the foundation of an Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring (EODC-Water). The EODC-Water will be a collaborative undertaking of research organisations, public agencies and private industry with the goal to foster the use of EO data for monitoring of global water resources. It will do so by proving a collaborative computer cloud that connects several data centres throughout Europe, thereby enabling the archiving, distributing, and processing of large EO data sets. The basic idea is to move the processing to the data instead of moving the data to where the software is. This sounds simple, but its realisation will overhaul the way of how EO data processing and distribution are organised. Another important element of EODC-Water will be its partner organisations which have agreed to participate in a collaborative software development process for establishing end-to-end EO data processing chains. EODC-Water will boost the scientific exploitation of EO data by allowing its scientific users to focus their efforts on scientific problems rather than having to deal with standard

  20. TERSSE: Definition of the Total Earth Resources System for the Shuttle Era. Volume 2: An Assessment of the Current State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Results of a state-of-the-art assessment of technology areas which affect the Earth Resources Program are presented along with a functional description of the basic earth resources system. Major areas discussed include: spacecraft flight hardware, remote sensors, data processing techniques and hardware, user models, user interfaces, and operations technology.

  1. Constructing a Cross-Domain Resource Inventory: Key Components and Results of the EarthCube CINERGI Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavsky, I.; Richard, S. M.; Malik, T.; Hsu, L.; Gupta, A.; Grethe, J. S.; Valentine, D. W., Jr.; Lehnert, K. A.; Bermudez, L. E.; Ozyurt, I. B.; Whitenack, T.; Schachne, A.; Giliarini, A.

    2015-12-01

    While many geoscience-related repositories and data discovery portals exist, finding information about available resources remains a pervasive problem, especially when searching across multiple domains and catalogs. Inconsistent and incomplete metadata descriptions, disparate access protocols and semantic differences across domains, and troves of unstructured or poorly structured information which is hard to discover and use are major hindrances toward discovery, while metadata compilation and curation remain manual and time-consuming. We report on methodology, main results and lessons learned from an ongoing effort to develop a geoscience-wide catalog of information resources, with consistent metadata descriptions, traceable provenance, and automated metadata enhancement. Developing such a catalog is the central goal of CINERGI (Community Inventory of EarthCube Resources for Geoscience Interoperability), an EarthCube building block project (earthcube.org/group/cinergi). The key novel technical contributions of the projects include: a) development of a metadata enhancement pipeline and a set of document enhancers to automatically improve various aspects of metadata descriptions, including keyword assignment and definition of spatial extents; b) Community Resource Viewers: online applications for crowdsourcing community resource registry development, curation and search, and channeling metadata to the unified CINERGI inventory, c) metadata provenance, validation and annotation services, d) user interfaces for advanced resource discovery; and e) geoscience-wide ontology and machine learning to support automated semantic tagging and faceted search across domains. We demonstrate these CINERGI components in three types of user scenarios: (1) improving existing metadata descriptions maintained by government and academic data facilities, (2) supporting work of several EarthCube Research Coordination Network projects in assembling information resources for their domains

  2. [Essential procedure and key methods for survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gong; Huang, Lu-qi; Xue, Da-yuan; Zhang, Xiao-bo

    2014-12-01

    The survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources is the important component and one of the innovative aspects of the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources. China has rich traditional knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the comprehensive investigation of TCM traditional knowledge aims to promote conservation and sustainable use of Chinese materia medica resources. Building upon the field work of pilot investigations, this paper introduces the essential procedures and key methods for conducting the survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources. The essential procedures are as follows. First is the preparation phrase. It is important to review all relevant literature and provide training to the survey teams so that they have clear understanding of the concept of traditional knowledge and master key survey methods. Second is the field investigation phrase. When conducting field investigations, survey teams should identify the traditional knowledge holders by using the 'snowball method', record the traditional knowledge after obtaining prior informed concerned from the traditional knowledge holders. Researchers should fill out the survey forms provided by the Technical Specification of the Fourth National Survey of Chinese Materia Medica Resources. Researchers should pay particular attention to the scope of traditional knowledge and the method of inheriting the knowledge, which are the key information for traditional knowledge holders and potential users to reach mutual agreed terms to achieve benefit sharing. Third is the data compilation and analysis phrase. Researchers should try to compile and edit the TCM traditional knowledge in accordance with intellectual property rights requirements so that the information collected through the national survey can serve as the basic data for the TCM traditional knowledge database. The key methods of the survey include regional

  3. Demand-Side Management and Integrated Resource Planning: Findings from a Survey of 24 Electric Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, M.

    1991-01-01

    Integrated resource planning differs from traditional utility planning practices primarily in its increased attention to demand-side management (DSM) programs and its integration of supply- and demand-side resources into a combined resource portfolio. This report details the findings from an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) survey of 24 electric utilities that have well-developed integrated planning processes. These utilities account for roughly one-third of total capacity, electricity generation, and DSM-program expenditures nationwide. The ORNL survey was designed to obtain descriptive data on a national sample of utilities and to test a number of hypothesized relationships between selected utility characteristics and the mix of resources selected for the integrated plan, with an emphasis on the use of DSM resources and the processes by which they are chosen. The survey solicited information on each utility's current and projected resource mix, operating environment, procedures used to screen potential DSM resources, techniques used to obtain public input and to integrate supply- and demand-side options into a unified plan, and procedures used in the final selection of resources for the plan.

  4. Mineral resource assessment of rare-earth elements, thorium, titanium, and uranium in the Greenville 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesure, Frank G.; Curtin, Gary C.; Daniels, David L.; Jackson, John C.

    1993-01-01

    Mineral resources of the Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina, were assessed between 1984 and 1990 under the Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The mineral resource assessments were made on the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and the presence of mines, prospects, and mineral occurrences from the literature. This report is an assessment of the rare-earth elements (REE), thorium, titanium, and uranium resources in the Greenville quadrangle and is based on heavy mineral concentrates collected in 1951-54 by the USGS (Overstreet and others, 1968; Caldwell and White, 1973; Cuppels and White, 1973); on the results of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) sampling program (Ferguson, 1978, 1979); on analyses of stream-sediment and heavy-mineral-concentrate samples (Jackson and Moore, 1992, G.C Cullin, USGS, unpub. data, 1992) on maps showing aerial gamma radiation in the Greenville quadrangle (D.L. Daniels, USGS, unpub. data, 1992); and on the geology as mapped by Nelson and others (1987, 1989).

  5. Energy Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedman, Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    Our Nation faces the simultaneous challenges of increasing demand for energy, declining domestic production from existing oil and gas fields, and increasing expectations for environmental protection. The Energy Information Administration (2000) forecasts that worldwide energy consumption will increase 32 percent between 1999 and 2020 because of growth of the world economy. Forecasts indicate that in the same time period, U.S. natural gas consumption will increase 62 percent, petroleum consumption will increase 33 percent, and coal consumption will increase 22 percent. The U.S. Geological Survey provides the objective scientific information our society needs for sound decisions regarding land management, environmental quality, and economic, energy, and strategic policy.

  6. Resources to Transform Undergraduate Geoscience Education: Activities in Support of Earth, Oceans and Atmospheric Sciences Faculty, and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.; Singer, J.

    2013-12-01

    The NSF offers funding programs that support geoscience education spanning atmospheric, oceans, and Earth sciences, as well as environmental science, climate change and sustainability, and research on learning. The 'Resources to Transform Undergraduate Geoscience Education' (RTUGeoEd) is an NSF Transforming Undergraduate Education in STEM (TUES) Type 2 special project aimed at supporting college-level geoscience faculty at all types of institutions. The project's goals are to carry out activities and create digital resources that encourage the geoscience community to submit proposals that impact their courses and classroom infrastructure through innovative changes in instructional practice, and contribute to making transformative changes that impact student learning outcomes and lead to other educational benefits. In the past year information sessions were held during several national and regional professional meetings, including the GSA Southeastern and South-Central Section meetings. A three-day proposal-writing workshop for faculty planning to apply to the TUES program was held at the University of South Florida - Tampa. During the workshop, faculty learned about the program and key elements of a proposal, including: the need to demonstrate awareness of prior efforts within and outside the geosciences and how the proposed project builds upon this knowledge base; need to fully justify budget and role of members of the project team; project evaluation and what matters in selecting a project evaluator; and effective dissemination practices. Participants also spent time developing their proposal benefitting from advice and feedback from workshop facilitators. Survey data gathered from workshop participants point to a consistent set of challenges in seeking grant support for a desired educational innovation, including poor understanding of the educational literature, of available funding programs, and of learning assessment and project evaluation. Many also noted

  7. NEOSurvey 1: Initial results from the Warm Spitzer Exploration Science Survey of Near Earth Object Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Trilling, David E; Hora, Joseph; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are small Solar System bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth's orbit. We are carrying out a Warm Spitzer Cycle 11 Exploration Science program entitled NEOSurvey --- a fast and efficient flux-limited survey of 597 known NEOs in which we derive diameter and albedo for each target. The vast majority of our targets are too faint to be observed by NEOWISE, though a small sample has been or will be observed by both observatories, which allows for a cross-check of our mutual results. Our primary goal is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties. We present here the first results from this new program: fluxes and derived diameters and albedos for 80 NEOs, together with a description of the overall program and approach, including several updates to our thermal model. The largest source of error in our diameter and albedo solutions, which derive from our single band thermal emission measurements, is uncertainty in eta, the beaming parameter used in our thermal modelin...

  8. U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program - Science Supporting Mineral Resource Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropschot, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    The United States is the world's largest user of mineral resources. We use them to build our homes and cities, fertilize our food crops, and create wealth that allows us to buy goods and services. Individuals rarely use nonfuel mineral resources in their natural state - we buy light bulbs, not the silica, soda ash, lime, coal, salt, tungsten, copper, nickel, molybdenum, iron, manganese, aluminum, and zinc used to convert electricity into light. The USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP) is the sole Federal source of scientific information and unbiased research on nonfuel mineral potential, production, and consumption, as well as on the environmental effects of minerals. The MRP also provides baseline geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-deposit data used to understand environmental issues related to extraction and use of mineral resources. Understanding how minerals, water, plants, and organisms interact contributes to our understanding of the environment, which is essential for maintaining human and ecosystem health. To support creation of economic and national security policies in a global context, MRP collects and analyzes data on essential mineral commodities from around the world.

  9. The Timber Resources of Maine. A Report on the Forest Survey made by the U.S. Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland H. Ferguson; Franklin R. Longwood; Franklin R. Longwood

    1960-01-01

    This is a report on the timber resources of Maine. It is based on the findings of a forest survey made in 1954-58 by the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, U.S. Forest Service. The Maine survey was part of a nationwide survey that is being made to evaluate the extent and condition of the Nation's forest resources.

  10. Basic survey on coal resources in Ariake Sea area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masui, Mitsuharu

    1984-09-21

    This is a contracted NEDO project. Potential existance of coal resources and geological conditions were studied and the following information was acquired. Area examined is the Ariake Sea area with breadth of 12 km (east to west) and 17 km (north to south) between the Miike Coal Mines and the Karatsu Coal Mines. Investigation was made by a marine drilling (depth being 864.8 m and 865.2 m below the sea bottom) and by a marine seismic method. Existence of coal bed groups comparable with the coal bed in the trial section of the Miike Coal Mines was confirmed by the two-drill trial. This indicates that the west end line of the Miike Coal Mines lies further west of the line connecting the Chikugo barrier and the Minenosu barrier. Investigation by a marine earthquake indicates that the upper surface of the coal beds in the investigated area is distributed in the depth of 400 - 1,100 m below the sea level, and that the basic surface is situated at the depth of 700 - 1,400 m below the sea level. This suggests the possibility that the coal beds of the Miike Coal Mines are distributed to reach the western part of the Ariake Sea. (9 figs, 3 tabs)

  11. Survey of energy resources: focus on shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    The energy sector around the world is undergoing major changes resulting from increasing competitive pressures and concerns about costs, security of supply and the environment. At the same time, 1.6 billion people, almost a quarter of the world population, do not have access to commercial energy and the need for energy infrastructure investment is huge. The energy challenges are not the same in all regions. While rapidly burgeoning economies in the developing world are focusing on expanding energy access to support their economic growth and provide basic energy services to their citizens, industrialised countries are focusing on securing energy supplies in a competitive environment and in a publicly and environmentally acceptable way. In recent years, shale gas has been making headlines as a potential solution for many of the energy-related challenges, in particular in the United States. A number of studies on shale gas have been conducted, the majority focusing on the assessment of the resource base and the role of emerging technologies, which can significantly increase the current reserve estimates.

  12. A survey of the neuroscience resource landscape: perspectives from the neuroscience information framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachat, Jonathan; Bandrowski, Anita; Grethe, Jeffery S; Gupta, Amarnath; Astakhov, Vadim; Imam, Fahim; Larson, Stephen D; Martone, Maryann E

    2012-01-01

    The number of available neuroscience resources (databases, tools, materials, and networks) available via the Web continues to expand, particularly in light of newly implemented data sharing policies required by funding agencies and journals. However, the nature of dense, multifaceted neuroscience data and the design of classic search engine systems make efficient, reliable, and relevant discovery of such resources a significant challenge. This challenge is especially pertinent for online databases, whose dynamic content is largely opaque to contemporary search engines. The Neuroscience Information Framework was initiated to address this problem of finding and utilizing neuroscience-relevant resources. Since its first production release in 2008, NIF has been surveying the resource landscape for the neurosciences, identifying relevant resources and working to make them easily discoverable by the neuroscience community. In this chapter, we provide a survey of the resource landscape for neuroscience: what types of resources are available, how many there are, what they contain, and most importantly, ways in which these resources can be utilized by the research community to advance neuroscience research.

  13. A magnetic survey of mineral resources in northeastern Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista Rodriguez, Jose Alberto [Instituto Superior Minero Metalurgico de Moa (Cuba)

    2006-01-15

    Interpretation of the aeromagnetic survey of northeastern Cuba at scale 1 50 000 is presented. Mainly ophiolitic rocks are characterized by a high magnetic response. The aeromagnetic data was reduced to the pole and the horizontal and vertical gradients, as well as the upward continuation were calculated. To define areas of serpentinized ultrabasic rocks at surface and depth, the magnetic field transformations were interpreted. We discuss lateral extension of outcrops, thickness variation of the ophiolitic rocks, basement extension and fault zones. Hydrothermal alterations indicate associated precious metal secondary mineralization. Operations are planned to limit damage to mining by siliceous material in Fe+Ni laterites. [Spanish] Cuba, en la cual afloran fundamentalmente rocas ofioliticas caracterizadas por un alto grado de magnetizacion. Los datos aeromagneticos fueron reducidos al polo y luego se realizaron los calculos de gradientes horizontales y verticales y la continuacion analitica ascendente. A partir de los resultados de estas transformaciones se delimitaron zonas donde predominan las rocas ultrabasicas serpentinizadas tanto en superficie como en profundidad, definiendose la extension lateral de estas rocas por debajo de las rocas que afloran en superficie. Tambien se estimaron las variaciones de los espesores de las rocas ofioliticas, el basamento de las rocas que afloran, la presencia de estructuras disyuntivas, y se proponen nuevas estructuras de este tipo. Por ultimo se delimitan las zonas de alteracion hidrotermal, lo cual posee gran importancia, ya que con las mismas se pueden vincular mineralizaciones de metales preciosos. Ademas, su delimitacion en depositos lateriticos permite orientar los trabajos de explotacion minera, teniendo en cuenta el dano que causa al proceso metalurgico la presencia de material silicio en las lateritas Fe+Ni.

  14. [Data validation methods and discussion on Chinese materia medica resource survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Ma, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Xing-Xing

    2013-07-01

    From the beginning of the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources, there were 22 provinces have conducted pilots. The survey teams have reported immense data, it put forward the very high request to the database system construction. In order to ensure the quality, it is necessary to check and validate the data in database system. Data validation is important methods to ensure the validity, integrity and accuracy of census data. This paper comprehensively introduce the data validation system of the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources database system, and further improve the design idea and programs of data validation. The purpose of this study is to promote the survey work smoothly.

  15. Water resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Afghanistan from 2004 through 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Vining, Kevin C.; Amer, Saud A.; Zaheer, Mohammad F.; Medlin, Jack H.

    2014-01-01

    Safe and reliable supply of water, for irrigation and domestic consumption, is one of Afghanistan’s critical needs for the country’s growing population. Water is also needed for mining and mineral processing and the associated business and community development, all of which contribute to the country’s economic growth and stability. Beginning in 2004, U.S. Geological Survey scientists have aided efforts to rebuild Afghanistan’s capacity to monitor water resources, working largely with scientists in the Afghanistan Geological Survey of the Ministry of Mines and Petroleum as well as with scientists in the Afghanistan Ministry of Energy and Water, the Afghanistan Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation, and Livestock, and nongovernmental organizations in Afghanistan. Considerable efforts were undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey to compile or recover hydrologic data on Afghanistan’s water resources. These collaborative efforts have assisted Afghan scientists in developing the data collection networks necessary for improved understanding, managing these resources, and monitoring critical changes that may affect future water supplies and conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey, together with Afghan scientists, developed a regional groundwater flow model to assist with water resource planning in the Kabul Basin. Afghan scientists are now independently developing the datasets and conducting studies needed to assess water resources in other population centers of Afghanistan.

  16. MONITORING OF ENERGETIC PARTICLE ENVIRONMENT INSIDE THE CHINA-BRAZIL EARTH RESOURCE SATELLITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    On 14 October 1999, the Chinese-Brazil earth resource satellite (CBERS-1) was launched in China. On board of the satellite there was an instrument designed at Peking University to detect the energetic particle radiation inside the satellite so the radiation fluxes of energetic particles in the cabin can be monitored continuously. Inside a satellite cabin, radiation environment consists of ether penetrated energetic particles or secondary radiation from satellite materials due to the interactions with primary cosmic rays.Purpose of the detectors are twofold, to monitor the particle radiation in the cabin and also to study the space radiation environment The data can be used to study the radiation environment and their effects on the electronics inside the satelhte cabin. On the other hand, the data are useful in study of geo-space energetic particle events such as solar proton events, particle precipitation and variations of the radiation belt since there should be some correlation between the radiation situation inside and outside the satellite.The instrument consists of two semi-conductor detectors for protons and electrons respectively. Each detector has two channels of energy ranges. They are 0.5-2MeV and ≥2MeV for electrons and 5-30MeV and 30-60MeV for protons. Counting rate for all channels are up to 104/(cm2@s)and power consumption is about 2.5 W. There are also the additional functions of CMOS TID (total integrated dose) effect and direct SEU monitoring. The data of CBMC was first sent back on Oct. 17 1999 and it's almost three years from then on. The detector has been working normally and the quality of data is good.The preliminary results of data analysis of CBMC not only reveal the effects of polar particle precipitation and radiation belt on radiation environment inside a satellite, but also show some important features of the geo-space energetic particle radiation.As one of the most important parameters of space weather, the energetic charged

  17. China will Implement Total Mining Volume Control on Advantageous Mineral Resources Such As Rare Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    On the end of January,the Ministry of Land and Resources convened the third round of mineral resource planning compilation work video conference,which made re-mobilization and re-deployment for a new round of planning compilation work.According to report from the China Land and Resources News,the third round of mineral resource plan compilation will place focus on

  18. Studying the Earth's Environment from Space: Computer Laboratory Exercised and Instructor Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth A.; Alfultis, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Studying the Earth's Environment From Space is a two-year project to develop a suite of CD-ROMs containing Earth System Science curriculum modules for introductory undergraduate science classes. Lecture notes, slides, and computer laboratory exercises, including actual satellite data and software, are being developed in close collaboration with Carla Evans of NASA GSFC Earth Sciences Directorate Scientific and Educational Endeavors (SEE) project. Smith and Alfultis are responsible for the Oceanography and Sea Ice Processes Modules. The GSFC SEE project is responsible for Ozone and Land Vegetation Modules. This document constitutes a report on the first year of activities of Smith and Alfultis' project.

  19. New Web Services for Broader Access to National Deep Submergence Facility Data Resources Through the Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrini, V. L.; Grange, B.; Morton, J. J.; Soule, S. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Lehnert, K.

    2016-12-01

    The National Deep Submergence Facility (NDSF) operates the Human Occupied Vehicle (HOV) Alvin, the Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Jason, and the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Sentry. These vehicles are deployed throughout the global oceans to acquire sensor data and physical samples for a variety of interdisciplinary science programs. As part of the EarthCube Integrative Activity Alliance Testbed Project (ATP), new web services were developed to improve access to existing online NDSF data and metadata resources. These services make use of tools and infrastructure developed by the Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance (IEDA) and enable programmatic access to metadata and data resources as well as the development of new service-driven user interfaces. The Alvin Frame Grabber and Jason Virtual Van enable the exploration of frame-grabbed images derived from video cameras on NDSF dives. Metadata available for each image includes time and vehicle position, data from environmental sensors, and scientist-generated annotations, and data are organized and accessible by cruise and/or dive. A new FrameGrabber web service and service-driven user interface were deployed to offer integrated access to these data resources through a single API and allows users to search across content curated in both systems. In addition, a new NDSF Dive Metadata web service and service-driven user interface was deployed to provide consolidated access to basic information about each NDSF dive (e.g. vehicle name, dive ID, location, etc), which is important for linking distributed data resources curated in different data systems.

  20. Miniature Tunable Laser Spectrometers for Quantifying Atmospheric Trace Gases, Water Resources, Earth Back-Contamination, and In Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Chris; Blacksberg, Jordana; Flesch, Greg; Keymeulen, Didier; Christensen, Lance; Forouhar, Siamak

    2012-01-01

    The Tunable Laser Spectrometers (TLS) technique has seen wide applicability in gas measurement and analysis for atmospheric analysis, industrial, commercial and health monitoring and space applications. In Earth science using balloons and aircraft over 2 decades, several groups (JPL, NASA Langley & Ames, NOAA, Harvard U., etc) have demonstrated the technique for ozone hole studies, lab kinetics measurements, cloud physics and transport, climate change in the ice record. The recent availability of high-power (mW) room temperature lasers (TDL, IC, QC) has enabled miniaturized, high-sensitivity spectrometers for industry and space (1) Mars, Titan, Venus, Saturn, Moon (2) Commercial isotope ratio spectrometers are replacing bulkier, complex isotope ratio mass spectrometers.

  1. Survey of Hawaii Resident Resource Users' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of Coral Reefs in Two Hawaii Priority Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This survey collects data regarding resident resource users' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions about the condition of coral reef and watershed resources, current...

  2. Thermal-Infrared Surveys of Near-Earth Object Diameters and Albedos with Spitzer and IRTF/MIRSI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Hora, Joseph L.; Chesley, Steven; Emery, Josh; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan W.; Moskovitz, Nick; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2015-01-01

    More than 12000 Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) have been discovered over the past few decades and current discovery surveys find on average 4 new NEOs every night. In comparison to asteroid discovery, the physical characterization of NEOs lags far behind: measured diameters and albedos exist only for rou

  3. A survey on resource allocation in high performance distributed computing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Hameed; Malik, Saif Ur Rehman; Hameed, Abdul; Khan, Samee Ullah; Bickler, Gage; Min-Allah, Nasro; Qureshi, Muhammad Bilal; Zhang, Limin; Yongji, Wang; Ghani, Nasir; Kolodziej, Joanna; Zomaya, Albert Y.; Xu, Cheng-Zhong; Balaji, Pavan; Vishnu, Abhinav; Pinel, Fredric; Pecero, Johnatan E.; Kliazovich, Dzmitry; Bouvry, Pascal; Li, Hongxiang; Wang, Lizhe; Chen, Dan; Rayes, Ammar

    2013-11-01

    An efficient resource allocation is a fundamental requirement in high performance computing (HPC) systems. Many projects are dedicated to large-scale distributed computing systems that have designed and developed resource allocation mechanisms with a variety of architectures and services. In our study, through analysis, a comprehensive survey for describing resource allocation in various HPCs is reported. The aim of the work is to aggregate under a joint framework, the existing solutions for HPC to provide a thorough analysis and characteristics of the resource management and allocation strategies. Resource allocation mechanisms and strategies play a vital role towards the performance improvement of all the HPCs classifications. Therefore, a comprehensive discussion of widely used resource allocation strategies deployed in HPC environment is required, which is one of the motivations of this survey. Moreover, we have classified the HPC systems into three broad categories, namely: (a) cluster, (b) grid, and (c) cloud systems and define the characteristics of each class by extracting sets of common attributes. All of the aforementioned systems are cataloged into pure software and hybrid/hardware solutions. The system classification is used to identify approaches followed by the implementation of existing resource allocation strategies that are widely presented in the literature.

  4. [Formulation of technical specification for national survey of Chinese materia medica resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan-Ping; Lu, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Zhao, Run-Huai; Zhang, Ben-Gang; Sun, Li-Ying; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-04-01

    According to the process of the technical specification (TS) design for the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources (CMMR), we analyzed the assignment and objectives of the national survey and pointed out that the differences about CMMR management around China, the distribution of CMMR and their habitat, the economic and technological level, and even enthusiasm and initiative of the staff, etc. are the most difficult points for TS design. And we adopt the principle of combination of the mandatory and flexibility in TS design. We fixed the key points which would affect the quality of national survey first, then proposed the framework of TS which including 3 parts of organization and 11 parts of technique itself. The framework will serve and lead the TS preparation, which will not only provide an action standard to the national survey but will also have a profound influence to the popularization and application of the survey technology of CMMR. [Key words

  5. School Resource Officer Facts: Findings from the Fall 1999 DCJS Survey of Virginia SRO Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia State Dept. of Criminal Justice Services, Richmond.

    This report provides results from the Fall 1999 Department of Criminal Justice Service Survey of Virginia School Resource Officer (SRO) Programs. Through this study, all Virginia police departments and sheriff's offices with primary responsibility for patrol, crime prevention, and community policing within their jurisdictions were contacted by…

  6. The U.S. Geological Survey Federal-State cooperative water- resources program; fiscal year 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, B.K.; Mann, William B.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey 's Federal-State Cooperative Water Resources Program (50-50 matching of funds) started in Kansas in 1895. During fiscal year (FY) 1987, hydrologic data collection, investigations, and research are being conducted in every state, Puerto Rico, and several territories in cooperation with 940 state, regional and local agencies. Federal funding of $55.3 million was matched by cooperating agencies; cooperators also provided $4.6 million unmatched, for a program total of about $115 million. The Cooperative Program accounted for almost 45% of the FY 1987 obligations of the Geological Survey 's Water Resources Division. The principal areas of emphasis during the year included groundwater contamination, stream quality, water supply and demand, and hydrologic hazards. Information is presented on program functions and priorities. Data collection activities are also described as is work related to water resources contamination. Several examples of current (1987) investigations are provided. (Author 's abstract)

  7. Indexing, screening, coding and cataloging of earth resources aircraft mission data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Tasks completed are as follows: (1) preparation of large Area Crop Inventory experiment for data base entry;(2) preparation of Earth Observations Aircraft Flight summary reports for publication; (3) updating of the aircraft mission index coverage map and Ames aircraft flight map; (4) Prepared of Earth Observation Helicopter Flight reports for publication; and (5) indexing of LANDSAT imagery. (6) formulation of phase 3 biowindows 1, 2, 3, and 4 listings by country, footprint, and acqusition dates; (7) preparation of flight summary reports; and (8) preparation of an Alaska state index coverage map.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Catalog of Earth-Like Exoplanet Survey Targets (Chandler+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, C. O.; McDonald, I.; Kane, S. R.

    2016-07-01

    We present the Catalog of Earth-Like Exoplanet Survey Targets (CELESTA), a database of habitable zones around 37000 nearby stars. The first step in creating CELESTA was assembling the input data. The Revised Hipparcos Catalog (van Leeuwen 2007, Cat. I/311) is a stellar catalog based on the original Hipparcos mission (Perryman et al. 1997, Cat. I/239) data set. Hipparcos, launched in 1989, recorded with great precision the parallax of nearby stars, ultimately leading to a database of 118218 stars. McDonald et al. 2012 (cat. J/MNRAS/427/343) calculated effective temperatures and luminosities for the Hipparcos stars. The next step was selecting appropriate stars for the construction of CELESTA. The Stellar Parameter Catalog of 103663 stars included many stars that were not suitable for our purposes, especially stars off the Main-Sequence (MS) branch, e.g., giants. Please refer to Section 3.2 in the paper for additional details about the star selection. The final CELESTA catalog contains 37354 stars (see Table2), each with a set of associated attributes, e.g., estimated mass, measured distance. The complete database can also be found online at a dedicated host (http://www.celesta.info/). (2 data files).

  9. Automated bare earth extraction technique for complex topography in light detection and ranging surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Terry H.; Magruder, Lori A.; Neuenschwander, Amy L.; Bradford, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Bare earth extraction is an important component to light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data analysis in terms of terrain classification. The challenge in providing accurate digital surface models is augmented when there is diverse topography within the data set or complex combinations of vegetation and built structures. Few existing algorithms can handle substantial terrain diversity without significant editing or user interaction. This effort presents a newly developed methodology that provides a flexible, adaptable tool capable of integrating multiple LiDAR data attributes for an accurate terrain assessment. The terrain extraction and segmentation (TEXAS) approach uses a third-order spatial derivative for each point in the digital surface model to determine the curvature of the terrain rather than rely solely on the slope. The utilization of the curvature has shown to successfully preserve ground points in areas of steep terrain as they typically exhibit low curvature. Within the framework of TEXAS, the contiguous sets of points with low curvatures are grouped into regions using an edge-based segmentation method. The process does not require any user inputs and is completely data driven. This technique was tested on a variety of existing LiDAR surveys, each with varying levels of topographic complexity.

  10. Fair reckoning: a qualitative investigation of responses to an economic health resource allocation survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Mita; Hurley, Jeremiah; DeJean, Deirdre

    2014-04-01

    To investigate how participants in an economic resource allocation survey construct notions of fairness. Qualitative interview study guided by interpretive grounded theory methods. Qualitative interviews were conducted with volunteer university- (n=39) and community-based (n =7) economic survey participants. INTERVENTION OR MAIN VARIABLES STUDIED: We explored how participants constructed meanings to guide or explain fair survey choices, focusing on rationales, imagery and additional desired information not provided in the survey scenarios. Data were transcribed and coded into qualitative categories. Analysis iterated with data collection iterated through three waves of interviews. Participants compared the survey dilemmas to domains outside the health system. Most compared them with other micro-level, inter-personal sharing tasks. Participants raised several fairness-relevant factors beyond need or capacity to benefit. These included age, weight, poverty, access to other options and personal responsibility for illness; illness duration, curability or seriousness; life expectancy; possibilities for sharing; awareness of other's needs; and ability to explain allocations to those affected. They also articulated a fairness principle little considered by equity theories: that everybody must get something and nobody should get nothing. Lay criteria for judging fairness are myriad. Simple scenarios may be used to investigate lay commitments to abstract principles. Although principles are the focus of analysis and inference, participants may solve simplified dilemmas by imputing extraneous features to the problem or applying unanticipated principles. These possibilities should be taken into account in the design of resource allocation surveys eliciting the views of the public. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Peru Water Resources: Integrating NASA Earth Observations into Water Resource Planning and Management in Perus La Libertad Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett-Vasquez, Steve; Steentofte, Catherine; Holbrook, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    Developing countries often struggle with providing water security and sanitation services to their populations. An important aspect of improving security and sanitation is developing a comprehensive understanding of the country's water budget. Water For People, a non-profit organization dedicated to providing clean drinking water, is working with the Peruvian government to develop a water budget for the La Libertad region of Peru which includes the creation of an extensive watershed management plan. Currently, the data archive of the necessary variables to create the water management plan is extremely limited. Implementing NASA Earth observations has bolstered the dataset being used by Water For People, and the METRIC (Mapping EvapoTranspiration at High Resolution and Internalized Calibration) model has allowed for the estimation of the evapotranspiration values for the region. Landsat 8 imagery and the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor onboard Terra were used to derive the land cover information, and were used in conjunction with local weather data of Cascas from Peru's National Meteorological and Hydrological Service (SENAMHI). Python was used to combine input variables and METRIC model calculations to approximate the evapotranspiration values for the Ochape sub-basin of the Chicama River watershed. Once calculated, the evapotranspiration values and methodology were shared Water For People to help supplement their decision support tools in the La Libertad region of Peru and potentially apply the methodology in other areas of need.

  12. Application effectiveness of the microtremor survey method in the exploration of geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Baoqing; Xu, Peifen; Ling, Suqun; Du, Jianguo; Xu, Xueqiu; Pang, Zhonghe

    2017-10-01

    Geophysical techniques are critical tools of geothermal resource surveys. In recent years, the microtremor survey method, which has two branch techniques (the microtremor sounding technique and the two-dimensional (2D) microtremor profiling technique), has become a common method for geothermal resource exploration. The results of microtremor surveys provide important deep information for probing structures of geothermal storing basins and researching the heat-controlling structures, as well as providing the basis for drilling positions of geothermal wells. In this paper, the southern Jiangsu geothermal resources area is taken as a study example. By comparing the results of microtremor surveys and drilling conclusions, and analyzing microtremor survey effectiveness, and geological and technical factors such as observation radius and sampling frequency, we study the applicability of the microtremor survey method and the optimal way of working with this method to achieve better detection results. A comparative study of survey results and geothermal drilling results shows that the microtremor sounding technique effectively distinguishes sub-layers and determines the depth of geothermal reservoirs in the area with excellent layer conditions. The error of depth is generally no more than 8% compared with the results of drilling. It detects deeper by adjusting the size of the probing radius. The 2D microtremor profiling technique probes exactly the buried structures which display as low velocity anomalies in the apparent velocity profile of the S-wave. The anomaly is the critical symbol of the 2D microtremor profiling technique to distinguish and explain the buried geothermal structures. 2D microtremor profiling results provide an important basis for locating exactly the geothermal well and reducing the risk of drilling dry wells.

  13. Quality-assurance plan for water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Montana--1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, Joe A.

    1995-01-01

    As the Nation's principal earth-science information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey has developed a worldwide reputation for collecting accurate data and producing factual, impartial interpretive reports. To ensure continued confidence in the pro- ducts, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey has implemented a policy that all scientific work will be performed in accordance with a centrally managed quality-assurance program. The formal policy for quality assurance within the Montana District was established and documented in USGS Open-File Report 91-194. This report has been revised to reflect changes in personnel and organi- zational structure that have occurred since 1991. Quality assurance is formalized by describing organization and operational responsibilities, the quality-assurance policy, and the quality- assurance responsibilities for performing District functions. The District conducts its work through offices in Helena, Billings, Kalispell, and Fort Peck. Data-collection programs and interpretive studies are conducted by three operating sections and four support units. Discipline specialists provide technical advice and assistance. Management advisors provide guidance on various personnel issues and support functions.

  14. Quality-assurance plan for water-resources activities of the U. S. Geological Survey in Montana--1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, Joe A.

    1991-01-01

    As the Nation's principal earth-science information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey has developed a worldwide reputation for collecting accurate data and producing factual, impartial interpretive reports. To ensure continued confidence in the pro- ducts, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey has implemented a policy that all scientific work will be performed in accordance with a centrally managed quality-assurance program. The formal policy for quality assurance within the Montana District was established and documented in USGS Open-File Report 91-194. This report has been revised to reflect changes in personnel and organi- zational structure that have occurred since 1991. Quality assurance is formalized by describing organization and operational responsibilities, the quality-assurance policy, and the quality- assurance responsibilities for performing District functions. The District conducts its work through offices in Helena, Billings, Kalispell, and Fort Peck. Data-collection programs and interpretive studies are conducted by three operating sections and four support units. Discipline specialists provide technical advice and assistance. Management advisors provide guidance on various personnel issues and support functions.

  15. Quality-assurance plan for water-resources activities of the U. S. Geological Survey in Montana--1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, Joe A.

    1991-01-01

    As the Nation's principal earth-science information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey has developed a worldwide reputation for collecting accurate data and producing factual, impartial interpretive reports. To ensure continued confidence in the pro- ducts, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey has implemented a policy that all scientific work will be performed in accordance with a centrally managed quality-assurance program. The formal policy for quality assurance within the Montana District was established and documented in USGS Open-File Report 91-194. This report has been revised to reflect changes in personnel and organi- zational structure that have occurred since 1991. Quality assurance is formalized by describing organization and operational responsibilities, the quality-assurance policy, and the quality- assurance responsibilities for performing District functions. The District conducts its work through offices in Helena, Billings, Kalispell, and Fort Peck. Data-collection programs and interpretive studies are conducted by three operating sections and four support units. Discipline specialists provide technical advice and assistance. Management advisors provide guidance on various personnel issues and support functions.

  16. TIGER-NET – enabling an Earth Observation capacity for Integrated Water Resource Management in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walli, A.; Tøttrup, C.; Naeimi, V.

    and upcoming generations of satellites, including the Sentinel missions. Dedicated application case studies have been developed and demonstrated covering all EO products required by and developed with the participating African water authorities for their water resource management tasks, such as water reservoir......As part of the TIGER initiative [1] the TIGER-NET project aims to support the assessment and monitoring of water resources from watershed to transboundary basin level delivering indispensable information for Integrated Water Resource Management in Africa through: 1. Development of an open......-source Water Observation and Information Systems (WOIS) for monitoring, assessing and inventorying water resources in a cost-effective manner; 2. Capacity building and training of African water authorities and technical centers to fully exploit the increasing observation capacity offered by current...

  17. Moving dunes on the Google Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Several methods exist for surveying the dunes and estimate their migration rate. Among methods suitable for the macroscopic scale, the use of the satellite images available on Google Earth is a convenient resource, in particular because of its time series. Some examples of the use of this feature of Google Earth are here proposed.

  18. Report on preliminary survey of biomass resources. Baiomasu no shigen yobi chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-03-01

    Biomass resources come to public notice as a part of the development of alternative energy. The special features of distribution of resources by the metropolis and districts were grasped and the biomass resources in Hokkaido as the model district were surveyed in detail. The amount of existing biomass resources in Japan is approximately one and a half billion tons and the forest land accounts for 94% of it. The amount of production of biomass and amount of available energy are approximately 160 million tons and approximately 100 million tons, respectively. Since the amount of production of biomass in Hokkaido is only 14% of that in Japan though the amount of existing biomass resources is 22%, the production capacity per unit area of land must be increased. The productions of alcohol from glucide and starch and the recovery of silicon for semiconductor (seven times the nationwide production) from rice hulls are promising. The productions of methane and compost from the other resources are expected. The promising areas of biomass resources in Hokkaido are Obihiro, Asahikawa and three regions along the shore of the Sea of Okhotsk. (21 figs, 29 tabs)

  19. U.S. Geological Survey Energy and Minerals science strategy: a resource lifecycle approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Richard C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Bills, Donald J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Cordier, Daniel J.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Hein, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.; Nelson, Philip H.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2013-01-01

    The economy, national security, and standard of living of the United States depend heavily on adequate and reliable supplies of energy and mineral resources. Based on population and consumption trends, the Nation’s use of energy and minerals can be expected to grow, driving the demand for ever broader scientific understanding of resource formation, location, and availability. In addition, the increasing importance of environmental stewardship, human health, and sustainable growth places further emphasis on energy and mineral resources research and understanding. Collectively, these trends in resource demand and the interconnectedness among resources will lead to new challenges and, in turn, require cutting- edge science for the next generation of societal decisions. The long and continuing history of U.S. Geological Survey contributions to energy and mineral resources science provide a solid foundation of core capabilities upon which new research directions can grow. This science strategy provides a framework for the coming decade that capitalizes on the growth of core capabilities and leverages their application toward new or emerging challenges in energy and mineral resources research, as reflected in five interrelated goals.

  20. Survey on Agricultural Biological Resources and Traditional Cultural Knowledge of Hani People in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqin; ZHANG; Hong; LUO; Wenjie; LONG; Yongtao; LEI; Qing; CAI; Mei; LAN; Li; ZHONG

    2015-01-01

    In 2007- 2008,a systematic survey,collection and arrangement was carried out for agricultural biological resources and traditional cultural knowledge of Hani People in 8 counties,15 towns,and 23 village committees of Yunnan Province. A total of 299 samples were obtained about agricultural biological resources related to production and living of Hani People. According to purpose of utilization,samples were divided into grain crops,medicinal plants,vegetables,fruit trees,and oil crops,taking up 48. 2%,21. 7%,18. 4%,7. 7%,and 2. 0% of the samples respectively. The survey indicated that planting industry and breeding industry take up the dominant role in rural social economy of Hani People,so agricultural biological resources are the fundamental means of production maintaining rural social development of Hani People.The current situation of agricultural biological resources of Hani People in Yunnan,reasons for growth and decline were analyzed,and the utilization,protection and development of agricultural biological resources were discussed.

  1. Methods and resources for physics education in radiology residency programs: survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresolin, Linda; Bisset, George S; Hendee, William R; Kwakwa, Francis A

    2008-11-01

    Over the past 2 years, ongoing efforts have been made to reevaluate and restructure the way physics education is provided to radiology residents. Program directors and faculty from North American radiology residency programs were surveyed about how physics is being taught and what resources are currently being used for their residents. Substantial needs were identified for additional educational resources in physics, better integration of physics into clinical training, and a standardized physics curriculum closely linked to the initial certification examination of the American Board of Radiology.

  2. Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. Space Exploration Policy. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

  3. The Catalog of Earth-Like Exoplanet Survey TArgets (CELESTA): A Database of Habitable Zones around Nearby Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Chandler, Colin Orion; Kane, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    Locating planets in circumstellar Habitable Zones is a priority for many exoplanet surveys. Space-based and ground-based surveys alike require robust toolsets to aid in target selection and mission planning. We present the Catalog of Earth-Like Exoplanet Survey Targets (CELESTA), a database of Habitable Zones around 36,000 nearby stars. We calculated stellar parameters, including effective temperatures, masses, and radii, and we quantified the orbital distances and periods corresponding to the circumstellar Habitable Zones. We gauged the accuracy of our predictions by contrasting CELESTA's computed parameters to observational data. We ascertain a potential return on investment by computing the number of Habitable Zones probed for a given survey duration. A versatile framework for extending the functionality of CELESTA into the future enables ongoing comparisons to new observations, and recalculations when updates to Habitable Zone models, stellar temperatures, or parallax data become available. We expect to u...

  4. Nova Southeastern University's Employees Respond to a 1999 Office of Human Resources Customer Satisfaction Survey. Research and Planning Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarland, Thomas W.

    In 1999 the Office of Human Resources at Nova Southeastern University (Florida) prepared a survey, based on a previous study, to gather information about employee satisfaction with the University's services. This report summarizes the results of this customer satisfaction survey. Surveys were returned by 466 of the 1,941 potential respondents, a…

  5. IsoNose - Isotopic Tools as Novel Sensors of Earth Surfaces Resources - A new Marie Curie Initial Training Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Bouchez, Julien; Bouman, Caludia; Kamber, Balz; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Gorbushina, Anna; James, Rachael; Oelkers, Eric; Tesmer, Maja; Ashton, John

    2015-04-01

    The Marie Curie Initial Training Network »Isotopic Tools as Novel Sensors of Earth Surfaces Resources - IsoNose« is an alliance of eight international partners and five associated partners from science and industry. The project is coordinated at the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and will run until February 2018. In the last 15 years advances in novel mass-spectrometric methods have opened opportunities to identify "isotopic fingerprints" of virtually all metals and to make use of the complete information contained in these fingerprints. The understanding developed with these new tools will ultimately guide the exploitation of Earth surface environments. However, progress in bringing these methods to end-users depends on a multi transfer of knowledge between (1) isotope Geochemistry and Microbiology, Environmental Sciences (2), Economic Geology and (3) instrument developers and users in the development of user-friendly and new mass spectrometric methods. IsoNose will focus on three major Earth surface resources: soil, water and metals. These resources are currently being exploited to an unprecedented extent and their efficient management is essential for future sustainable development. Novel stable isotope techniques will disclose the processes generating (e.g. weathering, mineral ore formation) and destroying (e.g. erosion, pollution) these resources. Within this field the following questions will be addressed and answered: - How do novel stable isotope signatures characterize weathering processes? - How do novel stable isotope signatures trace water transport? - How to use novel stable isotope as environmental tracers? - How to use novel stable isotope for detecting and exploring metal ores? - How to improve analytical capabilities and develop robust routine applications for novel stable isotopes? Starting from the central questions mentioned above the IsoNose activities are organized in five scientific work packages: 1

  6. Significant results from using earth observation satellites for mineral and energy resource exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, William D.

    1981-01-01

    A large number of Earth-observation satellites orbit our world several times each day, providing new information about the land and sea surfaces and the overlying thin layer of atmosphere that makes our planet unique. Meteorological satellites have had the longest history of experimental use and most are now considered operational. The geologic information collected by the Landsat, Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO), Magsat, Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) and Seasat land and ocean observation systems is being thoroughly tested, and some of these systems are now approaching operational use.

  7. National Chemistry Week 2003: Earth's Atmosphere and Beyond. JCE Resources for Chemistry and the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Erica K.

    2003-10-01

    This annotated bibliography collects the best that past issues of the Journal of Chemical Education have to offer for use with this year's National Chemistry Week theme: Earth's Atmosphere and Beyond. Each article has been characterized as a demonstration, experiment, activity, informational, or software/video item; several fit in more than one classification. The most recent articles are listed first. Also included is an evaluation as to which levels the article may serve. Articles that appeared adaptable to other levels, but are not designed explicitly for those levels, are labeled "poss. h.s." "poss. elem.", and so forth.

  8. The End of Flat Earth Economics & the Transition to Renewable Resource Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Hazel

    1978-01-01

    A post-industrial revolution is predicted for the future with an accompanying shift of focus from simple, brute force technolgies, based on cheap, accessible resources and energy, to a second generation of more subtle, refined technologies grounded in a much deeper understanding of biological and ecological realities. (Author/BB)

  9. The End of Flat Earth Economics & the Transition to Renewable Resource Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Hazel

    1978-01-01

    A post-industrial revolution is predicted for the future with an accompanying shift of focus from simple, brute force technolgies, based on cheap, accessible resources and energy, to a second generation of more subtle, refined technologies grounded in a much deeper understanding of biological and ecological realities. (Author/BB)

  10. Exploiting Dark Information Resources to Create New Value Added Services to Study Earth Science Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil; Li, Xiang; Bugbee, Kaylin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents two research applications exploiting unused metadata resources in novel ways to aid data discovery and exploration capabilities. The results based on the experiments are encouraging and each application has the potential to serve as a useful standalone component or service in a data system. There were also some interesting lessons learned while designing the two applications and these are presented next.

  11. TIGER-NET – enabling an Earth Observation capacity for Integrated Water Resource Management in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walli, A.; Tøttrup, C.; Naeimi, V.

    -source Water Observation and Information Systems (WOIS) for monitoring, assessing and inventorying water resources in a cost-effective manner; 2. Capacity building and training of African water authorities and technical centers to fully exploit the increasing observation capacity offered by current...

  12. Tapping the earth's geothermal resources: Hydrothermal today, magma tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1986-12-17

    The paper discusses geothermal resources, what it is, where it is, and how to extract energy from it. The materials research activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory related to geothermal energy extraction are discussed. These include high-temperature, light-weight polymer cements, elastomers, biochemical waste processing techniques, and non-metallic heat exchanger tubing. The economics of geothermal energy is also discussed. (ACR)

  13. Building Capacity to Integrate NASA Earth Science into Water Resources Management Applications in the Context of a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, A. I.; Mehta, A. V.

    2011-12-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences program provides technical capacity building activities to enable decision-makers to integrate NASA Earth Science into environmental management activities. This includes workshops tailored to end-user needs by working directly with agencies to 1) identify environmental management activities that could benefit from NASA Earth Science and 2) conducting workshops that teach the NASA products and decision-support tools best suited to the identified application area. Building on a successful 3-year effort on air pollution monitoring for environmental applications, the project has expanded into water resources. Climate Change has dramatically increased demand for observational and predictive data in support of decision making activities related to water supply and demand. However, a gap remains between NASA products and applied research and the entities who stand to benefit from their utilization. To fill this gap, the project has developed short courses on 1) impacts of climate change on water resources 2) hands-on exercises on access and interpretation of NASA imagery relevant to water resources management via the use of decision-support web tools and software and 3) case studies on the application of NASA products in the field. The program is currently focused on two areas 1) precipitation products over the central and southern U.S. that help communities and agencies improve flooding forecasts and 2) snow and snow/water equivalent products over the western U.S and Latin America that can provide end-users with improved stream flow prediction in Spring within a framework of decreasing snow availability.

  14. High-fidelity Simulations of the Near-Earth Object Search Performance of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereš, Peter; Chesley, Steven R.

    2017-07-01

    We perform high-fidelity simulations of a wide-field telescopic survey searching for Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) larger than 140 m, focusing on the observation and detection model, as well as detection efficiency and accuracy. As a test survey, we select the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). We use its proposed pointings for a 10-year mission, and model the detection of NEOs in the fields. We discuss individual model parameters for magnitude losses, vignetting, fading, asteroid rotation and colors, fill factor, limiting magnitude, rate of motion, field shape and rotation, and survey patterns. We assess results in terms of the cumulative completeness of the detected population as a function of size and time. Additionally, we examine the sources of modeling uncertainty, and derive the overall NEO population completeness for the baseline LSST survey to be 55 ± 5% for NEOs with absolute magnitude brighter than 22. Including already discovered objects and ongoing surveys, the NEO completeness at the end of the LSST baseline survey should reach ˜77%.

  15. Assessing readiness of cyberinfrastructure resources for cross-domain interoperability: a view from an NSF EarthCube roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavsky, Ilya; Couch, Alva; Richard, Stephen; Valentine, David; Lehnert, Kerstin; Stocks, Karen; Murphy, Philip

    2013-04-01

    EarthCube is a new research initiative of the U.S. National Science Foundation, with the mission to develop community-guided cyberinfrastructure integrating data, models and other resources across geoscience disciplines. Analysis and modeling of physical processes that are not confined to disciplinary or jurisdictional boundaries, requires that data and models can be re-used outside the original context in which they are collected or developed. Infrastructure readiness for cross-domain interoperability encompasses the capabilities that need to be in place to enable such information re-use and ensure that it is both scientifically sound and technically feasible. In an ideal cross-domain information integration scenario, resources can be discovered via federated catalogs and linked nomenclatures from neighboring domains, while standard data services can be used to transparently compile composite data products and to integrate information using commonality in key data characteristics related to shared models of spatial features, time measurements, and observations. The main premise of the cross-domain readiness assessment is that when accessing domain resources from another domain, a user expects to be able to discover these resources, interpret them, retrieve the information, and integrate it with other data. Documentation of the resource must be sufficient for a user in a different context to determine fitness for use, and establish trust in scientific soundness. As part of an EarthCube roadmap focused on cross-domain interoperability, we explored a number of approaches to cyberinfrastructure readiness assessment, addressing both readiness of existing resources, and readiness of processes that enable cross-domain communication and information exchange across disciplinary boundaries. Our initial assessment considers basic infrastructure components required to enable cross-domain interoperability in the geosciences. These components, and the evaluation metrics

  16. Board on earth sciences and resources. Progress report, 1 September 1991--31 August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    During the past year, working groups of the committee have reviewed and reported on the status of regional networks, and wrote a report on the real-time warning of earthquakes. The field of seismology is going through revolutionary changes with new measurement capabilities, new analytical capabilities, and new understanding of earthquake processes at hand are still evolving. Earthquake ``gaps`` are recognized as diagnostic elements for focusing on future large earthquakes; regional and national networks are under intense study, and future directions for them are emerging; and large scientific projects are under way in seismology which will bring new insights into earth structure, wave propagation, and earthquake processes. Ground motions and recurrence rates of earthquakes are major factors in the assessment of earthquake hazards, and improvements in both factors are badly needed. The Committee on Seismology will continue to review progress and needs for research on strong ground motions.

  17. Limited Resources, Limited Opportunities, and the Accumulation of Disadvantage: Evidence from the Global Survey of Physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2012-03-01

    Using the results of the Global Survey of Physicists, which we conducted in collaboration with the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics Working Group on Women, we document the effect of limited resources and opportunities on women physicists' careers. We find that women respondents are less likely than men to report access to a variety of resources and opportunities that would be helpful in advancing a scientific career. These include access to funding, travel money, lab and office space, equipment, clerical support, and availability of employees or students to help with research. When asked about specific opportunities, women report fewer invited talks and overseas research opportunities. Women who responded are less likely to have been journal editors, acted as bosses or managers, advised graduate students, served on thesis or dissertation committees, and served on committees for grant agencies. We also show the disproportionate effects of children on women physicists' careers. Women who responded are more likely than men to have changed their work situations upon becoming parents. Mothers are more likely than men and women without children to report that their careers have progressed more slowly than colleagues who finished their degrees at the same time. Furthermore, women are more likely than men to report that their careers affected the decisions they made about marriage and children. The results of this survey draw attention to the need to focus on factors other than representation when discussing the situation of women in physics. 15,000 physicists in 130 countries answered this survey, and across all these countries, women have fewer resources and opportunities and are more affected by cultural expectations concerning child care. Cultural expectations about home and family are difficult to change. However, for women to have successful outcomes and advance in physics, they must have equal access to resources and opportunities.

  18. CIM-EARTH: Community Integrated Model of Economic and Resource Trajectories for Humankind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, I.; Elliott, J.; Munson, T.; Judd, K.; Moyer, E. J.; Sanstad, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    We report here on the development of an open source software framework termed CIM-EARTH that is intended to aid decision-making in climate and energy policy. Numerical modeling in support of evaluating policies to address climate change is difficult not only because of inherent uncertainties but because of the differences in scale and modeling approach required for various subcomponents of the system. Economic and climate models are structured quite differently, and while climate forcing can be assumed to be roughly global, climate impacts and the human response to them occur on small spatial scales. Mitigation policies likewise can be applied on scales ranging from the better part of a continent (e.g. a carbon cap-and-trade program for the entire U.S.) to a few hundred km (e.g. statewide renewable portfolio standards and local gasoline taxes). Both spatial and time resolution requirements can be challenging for global economic models. CIM-EARTH is a modular framework based around dynamic general equilibrium models. It is designed as a community tool that will enable study of the environmental benefits, transition costs, capitalization effects, and other consequences of both mitigation policies and unchecked climate change. Modularity enables both integration of highly resolved component sub-models for energy and other key systems and also user-directed choice of tradeoffs between e.g. spatial, sectoral, and time resolution. This poster describes the framework architecture, the current realized version, and plans for future releases. As with other open-source models familiar to the climate community (e.g. CCSM), deliverables will be made publicly available on a regular schedule, and community input is solicited for development of new features and modules.

  19. Specialty food safety concerns and multilingual resource needs: an online survey of public health inspectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Mai T; Jones, Andria Q; Sargeant, Jan M; Marshall, Barbara J; Dewey, Catherine E

    2010-12-01

    The province of Ontario, Canada, has a highly diverse and multicultural population. Specialty foods (i.e., foods from different cultures) are becoming increasingly available at retail food outlets and foods service establishments across the province; as a result, public health inspectors (PHIs) are increasingly required to assess the safety of foods with which they may be unfamiliar. The aim of this study was to investigate the concerns, perceptions, and self-identified needs of PHIs in Ontario with regard to specialty foods and food safety information resources in languages other than English. A cross-sectional online survey of 239 PHIs was conducted between April and June 2009. The study found that while some food safety information resources were available in languages other than English, fewer than 25% of respondents (56/239) were satisfied with the current availability of these resources. With regard to specialty foods, 60% of respondents (143/239) reported at least one specialty food with which they were not confident about their current food safety knowledge, and 64% of respondents (153/239) reported at least one specialty food with which they were dissatisfied with the current availability of food safety information. Therefore, the development of additional food safety information resources for specialty foods, and food safety resources in additional languages may provide enhanced support to PHIs involved in protecting and promoting a safe food supply.

  20. Topographic Lidar Survey of the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, February 6, 2012 -- Bare Earth DEMs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A topographic Lidar survey was conducted on February 6, 2012, over the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana. The data were collected at a nominal pulse space of 0.5-meter...

  1. Topographic Lidar Survey of the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, February 6, 2012 -- Bare Earth DEMs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A topographic Lidar survey was conducted on February 6, 2012, over the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana. The data were collected at a nominal pulse space of 0.5-meter...

  2. Land use maps of the Tanana and Purcell Mountain areas, Alaska, based on Earth Resources Technology Satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS imagery in photographic format was used to make land use maps of two areas of special interest to native corporations under terms of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. Land selections are to be made in these areas, and the maps should facilitate decisions because of their comprehensive presentation of resource distribution information. The ERTS images enabled mapping broadly-defined land use classes in large areas in a comparatively short time. Some aerial photography was used to identify colors and shades of gray on the various images. The 14 mapped land use categories are identified according to the classification system under development by the U.S. Geological Survey. These maps exemplify a series of about a dozen diverse Alaskan areas. The principal resource depicted is vegetation, and clearly shown are vegetation units of special importance, including stands possibly containing trees of commercial grade and stands constituting wildlife habitat.

  3. An Experiment to Evaluate Skylab Earth Resources Sensors for Detection of the Gulf Stream. [Straits of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, G. A. (Principal Investigator); Gordon, H. R.; Baig, S. R.; Mccaslin, M.; Devivo, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An experiment to evaluate the Skylab earth resources package for observing ocean currents was performed in the Straits of Florida in January 1974. Data from the S190 photographic facility, S191 spectroradiometer and S192 multispectral scanner, were compared with surface observations. The anticyclonic edge of the Gulf Stream could be identified in the Skylab S190A and B photographs, but the cyclonic edge was obscured by clouds. The aircraft photographs were judged not useful for spectral analysis because vignetting caused the blue/green ratios to be dependent on the position in the photograph. The spectral measurement technique could not identify the anticyclonic front, but mass of Florida Bay water which was in the process of flowing into the Straits could be identified and classified. Monte Carlo simulations of the visible spectrum showed that the aerosol concentration could be estimated and a correction technique was devised.

  4. Storms in Space: Bringing NASA Earth-Sun Science Educational Resources to Hearing- Impaired Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, K.; Sindt, M.; Jahn, J.

    2007-12-01

    Using assistive technology, children with hearing loss can actively participate in the hearing world. However, to develop the necessary skills, hearing-impaired students need to be immersed in a language-rich environment which compensates for the lack of "incidental" learning that typifies the language acquisition of their peers with typical hearing. For any subject matter taught in class, this means that the conceptual and language framework of the topic has to be provided in addition to regular class materials. In a collaboration between the Sunshine Cottage School for Deaf Children and the Southwest Research Institute, we are exploring how NASA-developed educational resources covering Space Science topics can be incorporated successfully in blended classrooms containing children with hearing loss and those with typical hearing in grades 3-5. Utilizing the extensive routine language monitoring performed at Sunshine Cottage, student progress is directly monitored during the year as well as from year to year. This allow us to evaluate the effectiveness of the resources used. Since all instruction at Sunshine Cottage is auditory-oral, our experiences in using those materials can be fed back directly into mainstream classrooms of the same grade levels.

  5. 1995 Annual wildlife survey report. Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-25

    This report summarizes the results of wildlife surveys performed at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) from January through December of 1995 as compared with results from previous years. These surveys were performed as part of a long-term ecological monitoring program conducted under the Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program (NRPCP). This program is essential in identifying and describing fluctuations of wildlife populations, wildlife habitat use, and changes in species using RFETS. The NRPCP provides support to the Department of Energy (DOE) in its role as Natural Resource Trustee, and provides data essential to accomplishing the goal of preserving the unique ecological values of RFETS in keeping with the Rocky Flats Vision presented in the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement Public Comment Draft. Wildlife population densities vary due to natural pressures and human influences, and only long-term monitoring can verify which factors influencing wildlife populations are the consequence of natural fluctuations, and which are due to human influences. The wildlife monitoring described in this report provides qualitative data that give an indication of the ecological health of RFETS. Monitoring numbers, habitat affinities, and apparent health of the wildlife populations makes it possible to evaluate the overall ecological health of the site. Monitoring and surveys such as those carried out by the NRPCP can indicate trends of this sort, and act as an {open_quotes}early warning system{close_quotes} for impending ecological problems.

  6. Studying Earth's Environment From Space: Classroom and Laboratory Activities with Instructor Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth A.

    2001-01-01

    Standard, text-book based learning for earth, ocean, and atmospheric sciences has been limited by the unavailability of quantitative teaching materials. While a descriptive presentation, in a lecture format, of discrete satellite images is often adequate for high school classrooms, this is seldom the case at the undergraduate level. In order to address these concerns, a series of numerical exercises for the Macintosh was developed for use with satellite-derived Sea Surface Temperature, pigment and sea ice concentration data. Using a modified version of NIH Image, to analyze actual satellite data, students are able to better understand ocean processes, such as circulation, upwelling, primary production, and ocean/atmosphere coupling. Graphical plots, image math, and numerical comparisons are utilized to substantiate temporal and spatial trends in sea surface temperature and ocean color. Particularly for institutions that do not offer a program in remote sensing, the subject matter is presented as modular units, each of which can be readily incorporated into existing curricula. These materials have been produced in both CD-ROM and WWW format, making them useful for classroom or lab setting. Depending upon the level of available computer support, graphics can be displayed directly from the CD-ROM, or as a series of color view graphs for standard overhead projection.

  7. Marine phosphorites as potential resources for heavy rare earth elements and yttrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, James; Koschinsky, Andrea; Mikesell, Mariah; Mizell, Kira; Glenn, Craig R.; Wood, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Marine phosphorites are known to concentrate rare earth elements and yttrium (REY) during early diagenetic formation. Much of the REY data available are decades old and incomplete, and there has not been a systematic study of REY distributions in marine phosphorite deposits that formed over a range of oceanic environments. Consequently, we initiated this study to determine if marine phosphorite deposits found in the global ocean host REY concentrations of high enough grade to be of economic interest. This paper addresses continental-margin (CM) and open-ocean seamount phosphorites. All 75 samples analyzed are composed predominantly of carbonate fluorapatite and minor detrital and authigenic minerals. CM phosphorites have low total REY contents (mean 161 ppm) and high heavy REY (HREY) complements (mean 49%), while seamount phosphorites have 4–6 times higher individual REY contents (except for Ce, which is subequal; mean ΣREY 727 ppm), and very high HREY complements (mean 60%). The predominant causes of higher concentrations and larger HREY complements in seamount phosphorites compared to CM phosphorites are age, changes in seawater REY concentrations over time, water depth of formation, changes in pH and complexing ligands, and differences in organic carbon content in the depositional environments. Potential ore deposits with high HREY complements, like the marine phosphorites analyzed here, could help supply the HREY needed for high-tech and green-tech applications without creating an oversupply of the LREY.

  8. Marine Phosphorites as Potential Resources for Heavy Rare Earth Elements and Yttrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Hein

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine phosphorites are known to concentrate rare earth elements and yttrium (REY during early diagenetic formation. Much of the REY data available are decades old and incomplete, and there has not been a systematic study of REY distributions in marine phosphorite deposits that formed over a range of oceanic environments. Consequently, we initiated this study to determine if marine phosphorite deposits found in the global ocean host REY concentrations of high enough grade to be of economic interest. This paper addresses continental-margin (CM and open-ocean seamount phosphorites. All 75 samples analyzed are composed predominantly of carbonate fluorapatite and minor detrital and authigenic minerals. CM phosphorites have low total REY contents (mean 161 ppm and high heavy REY (HREY complements (mean 49%, while seamount phosphorites have 4–6 times higher individual REY contents (except for Ce, which is subequal; mean ΣREY 727 ppm, and very high HREY complements (mean 60%. The predominant causes of higher concentrations and larger HREY complements in seamount phosphorites compared to CM phosphorites are age, changes in seawater REY concentrations over time, water depth of formation, changes in pH and complexing ligands, and differences in organic carbon content in the depositional environments. Potential ore deposits with high HREY complements, like the marine phosphorites analyzed here, could help supply the HREY needed for high-tech and green-tech applications without creating an oversupply of the LREY.

  9. Critical care resources in the Solomon Islands: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westcott Mia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are minimal data available on critical care case-mix, care processes and outcomes in lower and middle income countries (LMICs. The objectives of this paper were to gather data in the Solomon Islands in order to gain a better understanding of common presentations of critical illness, available hospital resources, and what resources would be helpful in improving the care of these patients in the future. Methods This study used a mixed methods approach, including a cross sectional survey of respondents' opinions regarding critical care needs, ethnographic information and qualitative data. Results The four most common conditions leading to critical illness in the Solomon Islands are malaria, diseases of the respiratory system including pneumonia and influenza, diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis. Complications of surgery and trauma less frequently result in critical illness. Respondents emphasised the need for basic critical care resources in LMICs, including equipment such as oximeters and oxygen concentrators; greater access to medications and blood products; laboratory services; staff education; and the need for at least one national critical care facility. Conclusions A large degree of critical illness in LMICs is likely due to inadequate resources for primary prevention and healthcare; however, for patients who fall through the net of prevention, there may be simple therapies and context-appropriate resources to mitigate the high burden of morbidity and mortality. Emphasis should be on the development and acquisition of simple and inexpensive tools rather than complicated equipment, to prevent critical care from unduly diverting resources away from other important parts of the health system.

  10. User guide: Earth resources observation and science (EROS) center science processing architecture (ESPA) on demand interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkerson, Calli

    2013-01-01

    Landsat data have been produced, archived, and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1972. Scientists and users rely on these data for historical study of land surface change, but shoulder the burden of post-production processing to create applications-ready data sets. In compliance with guidelines established through the Global Climate Observing System, USGS has embarked on production of higher-level Landsat data products to support land surface change study. Terrestrial variables such as surface reflectance and land surface temperature will be offered as Climate Data Records (CDR). Derivations of spectral indices from surface reflectance are also produced, to further ease user application in land remote sensing science. Higher level products, such as leaf area index, burned area extent, snow covered area, and surface water extent representing Essential Climate Variables (ECV) will be available soon.

  11. A Survey Analysis Of The Resource Selection Models In Agile/Virtual Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pires

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a survey is made of the analysis of the resource selection process. We approach the process also fromthe point of view of conventional enterprises but with particular emphasis on the existent models in Agile/VirtualEnterprises in order to identify the main limitations and shortcomings of the process.This analysis was focused in the global process of the resource selection, namely in terms of the pre-selection andselection phases, requisites, mathematical models, tools and other relevant areas in the existent models.It is concluded that the resource pre-selection is an area that is not adequately explored in a systematic way. Thevalue concept is not incorporated in the selection process. As a result, a reasoned analysis is not performed of thedecision-making process for creating an Agile/Virtual Enterprise. These conclusions were made to envision a futureapproach that allows the incorporation of new areas that contribute to the improvement of the resource selectionprocess.

  12. U.S. Geological Survey federal-state cooperative water-resources program, fiscal year 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Melvin; Dodds, Betty

    1996-01-01

    The Federal-State Cooperative Program is a major U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) activity for the collection, analysis, and reporting of information on the quantity, quality, and use of the Nation's water resources. The fundamental characteristic of the program is that most of the work is undertaken by the USGS through joint-funding agreements, with State, regional, and local agencies providing at least one-half the funds. The main objectives of the program are (1) to collect, on a systematic basis, data needed for the continuing determi- nation and evaluation of the quantity, quality, and use of the Nation's water resources; and (2) to appraise the availability and the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface and ground water through data analysis and interpretive water-resources investigations and research. During fiscal year (FY) 1995, Cooperative Program activities were underway in offices in every State, Puerto Rico, and several territories in concert with about 1,100 cooperating agencies. In FY 1995, Federal funding of $62.1 million as matched by cooperating agencies, which also provided more than $28.2 million unmatched for a total program of about $152 million. This amounted to nearly 38 percent of the total funds for the USGS's water-resources activities. This report presents examples of FY 1995 investigations, as well as information on hydrologic data collection and water-use activities.

  13. Windows to the Universe: an Internet Resource Bringing the Earth and Space Sciences to the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. M.; Alexander, C. J.; Burek, M.; Kozyra, J.; Lenhart, E.; Linker, J.; Mastie, D.; Ceritelli, M.; Thoenes, H.; Orselli, P.; Weymouth, T.

    1997-07-01

    Windows to the Universe is a World Wide Web site that presents information about the Earth and Space sciences as well as related historical and cultural topics to the general public in an attractive and user-friendly way. The site makes extensive use of graphically annotated button panels to allow intuitive navigation through the site. The site is graphics intensive, providing access to a rich archive of images, movies, animations and data collected by satellites, spacecraft, and ground-based instruments. Intended primarily as an innovative information resource for museums, libraries, and classrooms, content within Windows to the Universe is developed to complement K-12 science education needs. Content is available at three levels of sophistication, approximating the elementary, middle, and high school levels, and resources are available on-line for teachers including standards-based keyword search capabilities and classroom activities. Supplementary CD-ROMs are available for Mac and Windows-95 platforms that allow rapid access to images on the site, rather than requiring the user to download images over the Internet. This award-winning site is funded by the NASA Public Use of Remote Sensing Data Bases Program.

  14. Information Resources in High-Energy Physics Surveying the Present Landscape and Charting the Future Course

    CERN Document Server

    Gentil-Beccot, Anne; Holtkamp, Annette; O'Connell, Heath B; Brooks, Travis C

    2009-01-01

    Access to previous results is of paramount importance in the scientific process. Recent progress in information management focuses on building e-infrastructures for the optimization of the research workflow, through both policy-driven and user-pulled dynamics. For decades, High-Energy Physics (HEP) has pioneered innovative solutions in the field of information management and dissemination. In light of a transforming information environment, it is important to assess the current usage of information resources by researchers and HEP provides a unique test-bed for this assessment. A survey of about 10% of practitioners in the field reveals usage trends and information needs. Community-based services, such as the pioneering arXiv and SPIRES systems, largely answer the need of the scientists, with a limited but increasing fraction of younger users relying on Google. Commercial services offered by publishers or database vendors are essentially unused in the field. The survey offers an insight into the most importan...

  15. The Survey of Ermia mangshanensis Resource in South China Tiger Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heping; XIE; Shizhou; LI; Jianrong; WANG; Yuanhui; CHEN; Lianchao; CHEN; Shengqiao; LEI

    2014-01-01

    In 2007,one living Ermia mangshanensis was found in the Shapingpian area at the junction of South China Tiger Nature Reserve in North Guangdong and Hunan Mangshan National Nature Reserve.To learn more about Ermia mangshanensis resource,the researchers in South China Tiger Nature Reserve in North Guangdong and Hunan Mangshan National Nature Reserve conducted field survey of Ermia mangshanensis in the Shapingpian area during the period 2010- 2012.The results show that there is Ermia mangshanensis in the Shapingpian area of South China Tiger Nature Reserve at the elevation of 800- 1200 m,and the population number is estimated at 48- 80.

  16. Tools to Support the Reuse of Software Assets for the NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattmann, Chris A.; Downs, Robert R.; Marshall, James J.; Most, Neal F.; Samadi, Shahin

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Software Reuse Working Group (SRWG) is chartered with the investigation, production, and dissemination of information related to the reuse of NASA Earth science software assets. One major current objective is to engage the NASA decadal missions in areas relevant to software reuse. In this paper we report on the current status of these activities. First, we provide some background on the SRWG in general and then discuss the group s flagship recommendation, the NASA Reuse Readiness Levels (RRLs). We continue by describing areas in which mission software may be reused in the context of NASA decadal missions. We conclude the paper with pointers to future directions.

  17. Small Near-Earth Asteroids in the Palomar Transient Factory Survey: A Real-Time Streak-detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszczak, Adam; Prince, Thomas A.; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank; Bue, Brian; Rebbapragada, Umaa; Barlow, Tom; Surace, Jason; Helou, George; Kulkarni, Shrinivas

    2017-03-01

    Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) in the 1–100 meter size range are estimated to be ∼1,000 times more numerous than the ∼15,000 currently cataloged NEAs, most of which are in the 0.5–10 kilometer size range. Impacts from 10–100 meter size NEAs are not statistically life-threatening, but may cause significant regional damage, while 1–10 meter size NEAs with low velocities relative to Earth are compelling targets for space missions. We describe the implementation and initial results of a real-time NEA-discovery system specialized for the detection of small, high angular rate (visually streaked) NEAs in Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) images. PTF is a 1.2-m aperture, 7.3 deg2 field of view (FOV) optical survey designed primarily for the discovery of extragalactic transients (e.g., supernovae) in 60-second exposures reaching ∼20.5 visual magnitude. Our real-time NEA discovery pipeline uses a machine-learned classifier to filter a large number of false-positive streak detections, permitting a human scanner to efficiently and remotely identify real asteroid streaks during the night. Upon recognition of a streaked NEA detection (typically within an hour of the discovery exposure), the scanner triggers follow-up with the same telescope and posts the observations to the Minor Planet Center for worldwide confirmation. We describe our 11 initial confirmed discoveries, all small NEAs that passed 0.3–15 lunar distances from Earth. Lastly, we derive useful scaling laws for comparing streaked-NEA-detection capabilities of different surveys as a function of their hardware and survey-pattern characteristics. This work most directly informs estimates of the streak-detection capabilities of the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF, planned to succeed PTF in 2017), which will apply PTF’s current resolution and sensitivity over a 47-deg2 FOV.

  18. The United States Polar Rock Repository: A geological resource for the Earth science community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunow, Annie M.; Elliot, David H.; Codispoti, Julie E.

    2007-01-01

    The United States Polar Rock Repository (USPRR) is a U. S. national facility designed for the permanent curatorial preservation of rock samples, along with associated materials such as field notes, annotated air photos and maps, raw analytic data, paleomagnetic cores, ground rock and mineral residues, thin sections, and microfossil mounts, microslides and residues from Polar areas. This facility was established by the Office of Polar Programs at the U. S. National Science Foundation (NSF) to minimize redundant sample collecting, and also because the extreme cold and hazardous field conditions make fieldwork costly and difficult. The repository provides, along with an on-line database of sample information, an essential resource for proposal preparation, pilot studies and other sample based research that should make fieldwork more efficient and effective. This latter aspect should reduce the environmental impact of conducting research in sensitive Polar Regions. The USPRR also provides samples for educational outreach. Rock samples may be borrowed for research or educational purposes as well as for museum exhibits.

  19. DLESE Teaching Box Pilot Project: Developing a Replicable Model for Collaboratively Creating Innovative Instructional Sequences Using Exemplary Resources in the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingroff, M.

    2004-12-01

    Before the advent of digital libraries, it was difficult for teachers to find suitable high-quality resources to use in their teaching. Digital libraries such as DLESE have eased the task by making high quality resources more easily accessible and providing search mechanisms that allow teachers to 'fine tune' the criteria over which they search. Searches tend to return lists of resources with some contextualizing information. However, teachers who are teaching 'out of discipline' or who have minimal training in science often need additional support to know how to use and sequence them. The Teaching Box Pilot Project was developed to address these concerns, bringing together educators, scientists, and instructional designers in a partnership to build an online framework to fully support innovative units of instruction about the Earth system. Each box integrates DLESE resources and activities, teaching tips, standards, concepts, teaching outcomes, reviews, and assessment information. Online templates and best practice guidelines are being developed that will enable teachers to create their own boxes or customize existing ones. Two boxes have been developed so far, one on weather for high school students, and one on the evidence for plate tectonics for middle schoolers. The project has met with significant enthusiasm and interest, and we hope to expand it by involving individual teachers, school systems, pre-service programs, and universities in the development and use of teaching boxes. A key ingredient in the project's success has been the close collaboration between the partners, each of whom has brought unique experiences, perspectives, knowledge, and skills to the project. This first effort involved teachers in the San Francisco Bay area, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, San Francisco State University, U.S. Geological Survey, and DLESE. This poster will allow participants to explore one of the teaching boxes. We will discuss how the boxes were

  20. Photographic consulting services for earth resources program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    A comparison of prints from ERTS photography revealed significant differences in the image quality produced at GSFC, the EROS facility at Sioux Falls, and Eastman Kodak in Rochester. Based on this survey photographic quality was improved significantly at Sioux Falls, and improvements were suggested for optical and contact printers at the GSFC. Based on a test in which 365 meters of Eastman Electron Recording Film (ESTAR Base) SO-438 were processed the 1-sigma variation in process control from all sources is about + or - 0.04 at a density of 1.0. Variations from film and from processing were approximately equal contributors to the overall tolerance. Distortion produced by the Kodak Colorado printer at GSFC covers a range of about 0.04%, a small value compared to that caused by other factors in the ERTS system. The edge fringing inherent in the color film materials used at GSFC also seems to be a small factor in the unsharpness of ERTS color prints. MTF and granularity measurements were made on processed film samples supplied by GSFC. MTF values were above 0.70 out to 42 cycles/mm for all stages of contact printing in the ERTS system.

  1. Geological, geochemical, and geophysical survey of the geothermal resources at Hot Springs Bay Valley, Akutan Island, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motyka, R.J.; Wescott, E.M.; Turner, D.L.; Swanson, S.E.; Romick, J.D.; Moorman, M.A.; Poreda, R.J.; Witte, W.; Petzinger, B.; Allely, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive survey was conducted of the geothermal resource potential of Hot Springs Bay Valley on Akutan Island. A topographic base map was constructed, geologic mapping, geophysical and geochemical surveys were conducted, and the thermal waters and fumarolic gases were analyzed for major and minor element species and stable isotope composition. (ACR)

  2. A Spectroscopic And Photometric Survey Of Selected Near-earth Asteroids: Results From 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Michael D.; Lawrence, K. J.; Somers, J.; Teague, S.; Strojia, C.; Dombroski, D.; Davtyan, T.; Barajas, T.; Truong, T.; McCormack, M.; Gerhart, C.; Garcia, K.; Rhoades, H.; Mayes, D.; Shitanishi, J.; Foster, J.; McAuley, A.

    2012-10-01

    Over the past four years we have used the dual-channel optical spectrometer (DBSP) at the Palomar 200-inch telescope (P200) to collect low-resolution spectroscopy of Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and have been awarded, on average, three nights per semester. Additionally, we have ample access to the JPL Table Mountain 0.6-m (TMO) telescope for time-resolved Bessel BVRI photometry. Undergraduate students from the CURE program (Consortium for Undergraduate Research Experience) have provided a large fraction of the observing effort at TMO. With these two telescopes, we strove to characterize all bright (VEarth asteroids (as potential mission targets). In this paper we will present our observational results for 150 NEAs. Our data products are diverse, and can include taxonomic classification, broad-band colors, rotational period, solar phase behavior and absolute magnitude, and 3-d shape/pole models derived from lightcurve inversion. We will discuss the variability between main-belt and near-Earth spectral families, quantify differences between PHA and background near-Earth populations, and present our first attempts to generate a spectral photometry using solely near-Earth asteroids. This research was funded by NASA. The student participation was supported by the National Science Foundation under REU grant 0852088 to Cal State LA.

  3. U.S. Geological Survey Studies of Energy Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Government and the American public need access to information on energy resources in sub-Saharan Africa.Sub-Saharan Africa (mostly Nigeria) produces 5 percent of the world's oil, while supplying the United States with 15 percent of our imports (Energy Information Administration). In the next 10 years, sub-Saharan oil and gas will become increasingly more important to the export market. New discoveries in offshore provinces of West Africa ensure a bright future for the region. Projections indicate that increased oil production in sub-Saharan Africa will far outpace the growth of intraregional consumption, providing greater quantities of oil for export (Forman, 1996). Also, West Africa, although a marginal supplier of liquefied natural gas (LNG) today, will become an important LNG source to the international market by the year 2000 (Oil & Gas Journal, 1996). The United States needs up-to-date information about petroleum resources and the energy balance within the region to predict the future role of sub-Saharan Africa as a major oil and gas exporter. The data required to generate the needed information are often disseminated in archives of oil companies and African geologic surveys, or in obscure publications. For these reasons, the U.S. Geological Survey is collecting data on sub-Saharan energy and constructing a regional energy bibliography. The team of geoscientists will assure that this information is available quickly and from a scientifically based, objective view point.

  4. Fiscal 1995 verification survey of geothermal exploration technology. Report on a deep geothermal resource survey; 1995 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa. Shinbu chinetsu shigen hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    For the purpose of reducing the risk of deep geothermal resource development, the paper investigated three factors for the formation of geothermal resource in the deep underground, that is, heat supply from heat source, supply of geothermal fluids, and the developmental status of fracture systems forming reservoir structures. The survey further clarified the status of existence of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of the geothermal system including shallow geothermal energy in order to research/study usability of deep geothermal resource. In the deep geothermal resource survey, drilling/examination were made of a deep geothermal exploration well (`WD-1,` target depth: approximately 3,000-4,000m) in the already developed area, with the aim of making rationalized promotion of the geothermal development. And the status of existence of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of the geothermal system were clarified to investigate/study usability of the geothermal system. In fiscal 1995, `WD-1` in the Kakkonda area reached a depth of 3,729m. By this, surveys were made to grasp the whole image of the shallow-deep geothermal system and to obtain basic data for researching usability of deep geothermal resource. 22 refs., 531 figs., 136 tabs.

  5. 我国资源卫星的社会效益及其CVM评价%Social benefit of China Earth Resource Satellite and its CVM evaluation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫相斌; 李一军; 梁迎春; 褚芳芳

    2009-01-01

    应用条件价值法对我国资源卫星的社会效益进行了定量评价.研究发现,民众认为我国资源卫星的社会效益主要体现在促进科学教育、社会生活改善和产业发展等几个方面,我国绝大部分民众在经济条件允许的情况下,愿意为资源卫星的社会效益支付费用.通过对调研数据的分析,估算出我国民众对资源卫星社会效益的总支付意愿约为96.7亿元人民币/年.%Contingent valuation method was adopted to evlauate social benefit of China Earth Resource Satellite. We discovered that the public regards China Earth Resource Satellite's social benefit mainly exist in promoting science and education, people's daily life, and industries. Most of public would like to pay for the social benefits of China Earth Resource Satellite under the condition of they have payment ablillity. By analyzing collected data, the total willingness to pay for the social benefit of China Earth Resource Satellite is about 9.67 billion RMB yuan each year.

  6. GPs' mental wellbeing and psychological resources: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Marylou Anna; Cardwell, Chris; Donnelly, Michael

    2017-08-01

    The negative impact of work has been the traditional focus of GP surveys. We know little about GP positive mental health and psychological resources. To profile and contextualise GP positive mental health and personal psychological resources. Cross-sectional survey of GPs working in Northern Ireland (NI). A questionnaire comprising the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS) and measures of resilience, optimism, self-efficacy, and hope, and sociodemographic information was posted to 400 GPs randomly selected from a publicly available GP register. The response rate was 55% (n = 221 out of 400). Mean value for GP wellbeing (WEMWBS) was 50.2 (standard deviation [SD] 8) compared to UK vets 48.8 (SD 9), UK teachers 47.2 (SD 9), and the population of NI 50.8 (SD 9). After adjustment for confounding, mean WEMWBS was 2.4 units (95% CI = 0.02 to 4.7) higher in female GPs than males (P = 0.05), and 4.0 units (95% CI = 0.8 to 7.3) higher in GPs ≥55 years than GPs ≤44 years (P = 0.02). Optimism was 1.1 units higher in female GPs than male GPs (95% CI = 0.1 to 2.0), and 1.56 units higher in GPs ≥55 years (95% CI = 0.2 to 2.9) than in those ≤44 years. Hope was 3 units higher in GPs ≥55 years (95% CI = 0.4 to 5.7) than in those aged 45-54 years. Correlation between WEMWBS and psychological resources was highest with hope (r = 0.65, P GPs have levels of positive mental health that are comparable to the local population and better than other occupational groups, such as vets and teachers. Male and younger GPs may have most to gain from wellbeing interventions. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  7. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  8. Expedition Earth and Beyond: Using NASA data resources and integrated educational strategies to promote authentic research in the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W.; Willis, K.; Runco, S.

    2009-12-01

    Teachers in today’s classrooms are bound by state required skills, education standards, and high stakes testing. How can they gain skills and confidence to replace units or individual activities with curriculum that incorporates project and inquiry-based learning and promotes authentic research in the classroom? The key to promoting classroom authentic research experiences lies in educator professional development that is structured around teacher needs. The Expedition Earth and Beyond Program is a new geosciences program based at the NASA Johnson Space Center designed to engage, inspire and educate teachers and students in grades 5-14. The program promotes authentic research experiences for classrooms and uses strategies that will help NASA reach its education goals while still allowing educators to teach required standards. Teachers will have access to experts in terrestrial and planetary remote sensing and geoscience; this will enhance their use of content, structure, and relevant experiences to gain the confidence and skills they need to actively engage students in authentic research experiences. Integrated and powerful educational strategies are used to build skills and confidence in teachers. The strategies are as follows: 1) creating Standards-aligned, inquiry-based curricular resources as ready-to-use materials that can be modified by teachers to fit their unique classroom situation; 2) providing ongoing professional development opportunities that focus on active experiences using curricular materials, inquiry-based techniques and expanding content knowledge; 3) connecting science experts to classrooms to deepen content knowledge and provide relevance to classroom activities and real world applications; 4) facilitating students sharing research with their peers and scientists reinforcing their active participation and contributions to research. These components of the Expedition Earth and Beyond Education Program will be enhanced by providing exciting and

  9. Expedition Earth and Beyond: Using NASA Data Resources and Integrated Educational Strategies to Promote Authentic Research in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffi, Paige Valderrama; Stefanov, William; Willis, Kim; Runco, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Teachers in today s classrooms are bound by state required skills, education standards, and high stakes testing. How can they gain skills and confidence to replace units or individual activities with curriculum that incorporates project and inquiry-based learning and promotes authentic research in the classroom? The key to promoting classroom authentic research experiences lies in educator professional development that is structured around teacher needs. The Expedition Earth and Beyond Program is a new geosciences program based at the NASA Johnson Space Center designed to engage, inspire and educate teachers and students in grades 5-14. The program promotes authentic research experiences for classrooms and uses strategies that will help NASA reach its education goals while still allowing educators to teach required standards. Teachers will have access to experts in terrestrial and planetary remote sensing and geoscience; this will enhance their use of content, structure, and relevant experiences to gain the confidence and skills they need to actively engage students in authentic research experiences. Integrated and powerful educational strategies are used to build skills and confidence in teachers. The strategies are as follows: 1) creating Standards-aligned, inquiry-based curricular resources as ready-to-use materials that can be modified by teachers to fit their unique classroom situation; 2) providing ongoing professional development opportunities that focus on active experiences using curricular materials, inquiry-based techniques and expanding content knowledge; 3) connecting science experts to classrooms to deepen content knowledge and provide relevance to classroom activities and real world applications; 4) facilitating students sharing research with their peers and scientists reinforcing their active participation and contributions to research. These components of the Expedition Earth and Beyond Education Program will be enhanced by providing exciting and

  10. Wind energy resource survey of New Zealand. Phase 1: National survey using existing data, detailed technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, V.

    1987-01-01

    The New Zealand Wind Energy Resource Survey provides an overview of wind energy in New Zealand in terms of supply and demand. Supply is related to the meteorology and geography of the country. The general problems of extrapolation and interpolation of wind data both in space and time are discussed and current knowledge reviewed. The indications using available wind data are that there is an abundance of wind turbine sites with mean wind speeds high enough to drive conventional large-scale turbines economically. The limitation on wind power usage would be the ability of the electricity grid to accept the fluctuating supply rather than the magnitude of the supply. A complete assessment of the economics of wind power requires simulation of the grid operation. However, there are several points favorable to wind power which are elucidated. New Zealand has a hydro-based electricity system and this is particularly suitable for the incorporation of wind power. The geographical extent of the country permits the output from windpower to be steadied considerably by dispersing the turbine network widely. The supply of wind at times of high demand and high hydro storage water value is generally average to high. However, on an inter-annual scale, dry years may be accompanied by lighter winds.

  11. Surveys of arthropod and gastropod diversity in the geothermal resource subzones, Puna, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.E.; Burgett, J.; Bruegmann, M.

    1995-04-01

    The invertebrate surveys reported here were carried out as part of ecological studies funded by the Department of Energy in support of their environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Hawaii Geothermal Project. Currently, preparation of the EIS has been suspended, and all supporting information is being archived and made available to the public. The invertebrate surveys reported here assessed diversity and abundance of the arthropod and gastropod fauna in forested habitat and lava tubes in or near the three geothermal resource subzones. Recommendations for conservation of these organisms are given in this report. Surveys were conducted along three 100-m transect lines at each of the six forested locations. Malaise traps, baited pitfall traps, yellow pan traps, baited sponge lures, and visual examination of vegetation were used to assess invertebrate diversity along each transect line. Three of these locations were adjacent to roads, and three were adjacent to lava flows. Two of these lava-forest locations (Keauohana Forest Reserve and Pu`u O`o) were relatively remote from direct human impacts. The third location (Southeast Kula) was near a low-density residential area. Two lava tubes were surveyed. The forest over one of these tubes (Keokea tube) had recently been burned away. This tube was used to assess the effects of loss of forest habitat on the subterranean fauna. An undisturbed tube (Pahoa tube) was used as a control. Recommendations offered in this report direct geothermal development away from areas of high endemic diversity and abundance, and toward areas where natural Hawaiian biotic communities have already been greatly disturbed. These disturbed areas are mainly found in the lower half of the Kamaili (middle) geothermal subzone and throughout most of the Kapoho (lower) geothermal subzone. These recommendation may also generally apply to other development projects in the Puna District.

  12. Monitoring urban impervious surface area change using China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellites and HJ-1 remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Peijun; Xia, Junshi; Feng, Li

    2015-01-01

    Impervious surface area (ISA) plays an important role in monitoring urbanization and related environmental changes, and has become a hotspot in urban and environmental studies. Xuzhou City, located in northwest Jiangsu Province, China, is chosen as the study area, and two scenes of China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellites images and one scene of HJ-1 image are employed to estimate ISA percentage and analyze the change trend from 2001 to 2009. Using a linear spectral mixture model (LSMM) and nonlinear backpropagation neural network (BPNN) method, all pixels are decomposed to derive four fraction images representing the abundance of four endmembers: vegetation, high-albedo objects, low-albedo objects, and soil. The ISA percentage is then derived by the combination of high- and low-albedo fraction images after removing the influence of water. Some high spatial resolution images are selected to validate the ISA estimation results, and the experimental results indicate that the accuracy of BPNN is higher than LSMM. By comparing the urban ISA abundances derived by BPNN from three dates, it is found that the ISA of Xuzhou City has increased rapidly from 2001 to 2009, especially in the northeast and southeast regions, corresponding to the urban planning scheme and fast urbanization. Compared to other medium remote sensing images, the revisit cycle of HJ-1 multispectral image is only two days, demonstrating the potential of such data for ISA extraction in urbanization, disaster, and other related applications.

  13. A robotic, compact, and extremely high resolution optical spectrograph for a close-in super-Earth survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jian; Powell, Scott; Zhao, Bo; Varosi, Frank; Ma, Bo; Sithajan, Sirinrat; Liu, Jian; Li, Rui; Grieves, Nolan; Schofield, Sidney; Avner, Louis; Jakeman, Hali; Yoder, William A.; Gittelmacher, Jakob A.; Singer, Michael A.; Muterspaugh, Matthew; Williamson, Michael; Maxwell, J. E.

    2014-08-01

    One of the most astonishing results from the HARPS and Kepler planet surveys is the recent discovery of close-in super-Earths orbiting more than half of FGKM dwarfs. This new population of exoplanets represents the most dominant class of planetary systems known to date, is totally unpredicted by the classical core-accretion disk planet formation model. High cadence and high precision Doppler spectroscopy is the key to characterize properties of this new population and constrain planet formation models. A new robotic, compact high resolution optical spectrograph, called TOU (formerly called EXPERT-III), was commissioned at the Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope (AST) at Fairborn Observatory in Arizona in July 2013 and has produced a spectral resolution of about 100,000 and simultaneous wavelength coverage of 0.38-0.9 μm with a 4kx4k back-illuminated Fairchild CCD detector. The instrument holds a very high vacuum of 1 micro torr and about 2 mK temperature stability over a month. The early on-sky RV measurements show that this instrument is approaching a Doppler precision of 1 m/s (rms) for bright reference stars (such as Tau Ceti) with 5 min exposures and better than 3 m/s (P-V, RMS~1 m/s) daily RV stability before calibration exposures are applied. A pilot survey of 20 Vsuper-Earth systems and known RV stable stars, is being launched and every star will be observed ~100 times over ~300 days time window between this summer and next spring, following up with a full survey of ~150 V< 10 FGKM dwarfs in 2015-2017.

  14. High-resolution marine magnetic surveys for searching underwater cultural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Monti

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently two marine magnetic surveys, combined with the use of a multi-beam sonar (Kongsberg Marittime EM 300 multibeam: 30 KHz frequency echosounder for hydrographic purposes; acoustic lobe composed of 128 beams able to cover a 150° sector a side-scan sonar (Simrad MS 992 dual-frequency sidescan sonar with echo sounder transducers 150 Hz and 330 KHz and a Remote Operated Vehicle (ROV – a mobile tools used in environments which are too dangerous for humans, were executed in two sites respectively in the Ligurian Sea and the Asinara Gulf. The aim of these investigations was to test modern instrumentations and set new working procedures for searching underwater cultural resources. The collected and processed magnetic data yielded very satisfactory results: we detected submerged and buried features of cultural interest at both sites, at depths of 40 m and 400 m respectively.

  15. Survey of Trapped Plasmas at the Earth’s Magnetic Equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    not sampled for ions in this survey). This local time dependence appears to reflect the L versus local time dependance of the plasmapause. The regions...versus local time dependance of the plasmapause. The regions of peak occurrence probability for trapped ions were mutually exclusive with the high...4 Figure 2. Plasma D...sity L Dependance

  16. A survey on critical care resources and practices in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukoja, Marija; Riviello, Elisabeth; Gavrilovic, Srdjan; Adhikari, Neill K J; Kashyap, Rahul; Bhagwanjee, Satish; Gajic, Ognjen; Kilickaya, Oguz

    2014-09-01

    Timely and appropriate care is the key to achieving good outcomes in acutely ill patients, but the effectiveness of critical care may be limited in resource-limited settings. This study sought to understand how to implement best practices in intensive care units (ICU) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and to develop a point-of-care training and decision-support tool. An internationally representative group of clinicians performed a 22-item capacity-and-needs assessment survey in a convenience sample of 13 ICU in Eastern Europe (4), Asia (4), Latin America (3), and Africa (2), between April and July 2012. Two ICU were from low-income, 2 from low-middle-income, and 9 from upper-middle-income countries. Clinician respondents were asked about bed capacity, patient characteristics, human resources, available medications and equipment, access to education, and processes of care. Thirteen clinicians from each of 13 hospitals (1 per ICU) responded. Surveyed hospitals had median of 560 (interquartile range [IQR]: 232, 1,200) beds. ICU had a median of 9 (IQR: 7, 12) beds and treated 40 (IQR: 20, 67) patients per month. Many ICU had ≥ 1 staff member with some formal critical care training (n = 9, 69%) or who completed Fundamental Critical Care Support (n = 7, 54%) or Advanced Cardiac Life Support (n = 9, 69%) courses. Only 2 ICU (15%) used any kind of checklists for acute resuscitation. Ten (77%) ICU listed lack of trained staff as the most important barrier to improving the care and outcomes of critically ill patients. In a convenience sample of 13 ICU from LMIC, specialty-trained staff and standardized processes of care such as checklists are frequently lacking. ICU needs-assessment evaluations should be expanded in LMIC as a global priority, with the goal of creating and evaluating context-appropriate checklists for ICU best practices. Copyright © 2014 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Situational Analysis of Human Resources in Family Physician Program: Survey from Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhor, Rohollah; Azmal, Mohammad; Kiaei, Mohammad Zakaria; Eslamian, Maryam; Tabatabaee, Seyed Saeed; Jafari, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Family physician is the increasing efforts to promote physician and other human resources in the health care systems. Goal: Investigate Human resources situation of the family physician program in six pilot cities in Khuzestan province in the southwest of Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to examine the family physician program in 2011. In this study, 15 healthcare teams in six pilot cities in Iran were assessed. Data was compiled from family physician officer document in vice treatment of Ahwaz University of medical sciences. National instructions of family physician was used to identify current gaps. Results: The survey findings indicated that there is a doctor’s shortage about 36% in the health team that deployed in the first level of referral system. Also on the team, the 34% shortage of nurses and 60% shortages of nutrition personnel are seen. Specialists with offices in cities of second referral level, there have not welcomed the program. Conclusions: It seems that to facilitate patient access to physicians under contract with family physician program and the referral system in level two and level three, adopting arrangements to attract specialists and improving their maintenance is necessary. PMID:25126016

  18. Earth resources cartography program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvocoresses, A. P.

    1972-01-01

    Progress is reported on efforts to develop techniques of using space vehicle and high altitude aircraft imagery in cartography projects. Major efforts were made to develop an operational system for isolating specified themes from the imagery.

  19. Information resources in high-energy physics. Surveying the present landscape and charting the future course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentil-Beccot, A.; Mele, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Holtkamp, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); O' Connell, H.B. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Brooks, T.C. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Access to previous results is of paramount importance in the scientific process. Recent progress in information management focuses on building e-infrastructures for the optimization of the research workflow, through both policy-driven and user-pulled dynamics. For decades, High-Energy Physics (HEP) has pioneered innovative solutions in the eld of infor- mation management and dissemination. In light of a transforming information environment, it is important to assess the current usage of information resources by researchers and HEP provides a unique test-bed for this assessment. A survey of about 10% of practitioners in the eld reveals usage trends and information needs. Community-based services, such as the pioneering arXiv and SPIRES systems, largely answer the need of the scientists, with a limited but increasing fraction of younger users relying on Google. Commercial services offered by publishers or database vendors are essentially unused in the eld. The survey o ers an in- sight into the most important features that users require to optimize their research workflow. These results inform the future evolution of information management in HEP and, as these researchers are traditionally 'early adopters' of innovation in scholarly communication, can inspire developments of disciplinary repositories serving other communities. (orig.)

  20. Information Resources in High-Energy Physics: Surveying the Present Landscape and Charting the Future Course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentil-Beccot, Anne; Mele, Salvatore; Holtkamp, Annette; O' Connell, Heath B.; Brooks, Travis C.

    2008-04-22

    Access to previous results is of paramount importance in the scientific process. Recent progress in information management focuses on building e-infrastructures for the optimization of the research workflow, through both policy-driven and user-pulled dynamics. For decades, High-Energy Physics (HEP) has pioneered innovative solutions in the field of information management and dissemination. In light of a transforming information environment, it is important to assess the current usage of information resources by researchers and HEP provides a unique test-bed for this assessment. A survey of about 10% of practitioners in the field reveals usage trends and information needs. Community-based services, such as the pioneering arXiv and SPIRES systems, largely answer the need of the scientists, with a limited but increasing fraction of younger users relying on Google. Commercial services offered by publishers or database vendors are essentially unused in the field. The survey offers an insight into the most important features that users require to optimize their research workflow. These results inform the future evolution of information management in HEP and, as these researchers are traditionally 'early adopters' of innovation in scholarly communication, can inspire developments of disciplinary repositories serving other communities.

  1. 1994 Annual wildlife survey report. Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-24

    This report summarizes the results of wildlife surveys and other wildlife monitoring performed from January through December 1994. These surveys are part of a long-term ecological monitoring program conducted under the Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program (NRPCP). This program is essential in identifying and quantifying fluctuations of wildlife populations, wildlife habitat use, and changes in the species using the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) as year-round or seasonal habitat. Wildlife population densities vary constantly due to natural pressures, and only well-integrated, long-term monitoring can identify which factors influencing wildlife populations are a consequence of natural causes, and which are due to human activities. An integrated monitoring program that gathers data on ecologically interactive species is essential in evaluating population fluctuations. Such data can be an invaluable tool in predicting and avoiding impacts on the ecology of an area due to projected human activities. With 167 species of birds, three big game species, nine species of carnivores, nine species of mid-sized mammals, and 15 small mammal species, the Site provides habitat to a surprising variety of wildlife. Many of these species are sensitive species or indicator organisms that by their presence or, more significantly, by their absence can indicate the ecological health of an area. Their presence at the Site indicates a very healthy ecosystem.

  2. Transmission planning in the era of integrated resource planning: A survey of recent cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldick, R.; Kahn, E.P.

    1992-09-01

    State action is critical to the expansion of the high-voltage transmission network, because regulated utilities must seek approval from utility commissions for proposals to site new lines. It is the purpose of this report to survey the regulatory treatment of issues that are unique to or ubiquitous in transmission planning and use. The authors review recent transmission siting cases to examine how the issues are presented to and resolved by state regulatory commissions and to provide a perspective for more general discussion of transmission policy. Their primary focus is on planning issues. Transmission capacity expansion is not typically treated in integrated resource planning. It is usually assumed that there is adequate transmission to achieve any particular plan. The authors believe that one important reason for this omission is the inherent complexity of transmission system expansion. Regulators and competitors may be at a serious disadvantage in negotiating or adjudicating specific transmission proposals with utilities, who generally have greater knowledge of both general technological considerations and case specifics. This problem of asymmetric information must be addressed at some level in planning or dispute resolution. However, they observe that explicit consideration of the information problem is absent from most regulatory and technical analysis of transmission. The goal of this survey is to share knowledge about the problems facing state regulators over the siting of new transmission facilities, and help to define constructive approaches to them.

  3. Basic research and data analysis for the National Geodetic Satellite program and for the Earth Surveys program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Current research is reported on precise and accurate descriptions of the earth's surface and gravitational field and on time variations of geophysical parameters. A new computer program was written in connection with the adjustment of the BC-4 worldwide geometric satellite triangulation net. The possibility that an increment to accuracy could be transferred from a super-control net to the basic geodetic (first-order triangulation) was investigated. Coordinates of the NA9 solution were computed and were transformed to the NAD datum, based on GEOS 1 observations. Normal equations from observational data of several different systems and constraint equations were added and a single solution was obtained for the combined systems. Transformation parameters with constraints were determined, and the impact of computers on surveying and mapping is discussed.

  4. Software Engineering Support of the Third Round of Scientific Grand Challenge Investigations: Earth System Modeling Software Framework Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Bryan; Zhou, Shu-Jia; Higgins, Glenn; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    One of the most significant challenges in large-scale climate modeling, as well as in high-performance computing in other scientific fields, is that of effectively integrating many software models from multiple contributors. A software framework facilitates the integration task, both in the development and runtime stages of the simulation. Effective software frameworks reduce the programming burden for the investigators, freeing them to focus more on the science and less on the parallel communication implementation. while maintaining high performance across numerous supercomputer and workstation architectures. This document surveys numerous software frameworks for potential use in Earth science modeling. Several frameworks are evaluated in depth, including Parallel Object-Oriented Methods and Applications (POOMA), Cactus (from (he relativistic physics community), Overture, Goddard Earth Modeling System (GEMS), the National Center for Atmospheric Research Flux Coupler, and UCLA/UCB Distributed Data Broker (DDB). Frameworks evaluated in less detail include ROOT, Parallel Application Workspace (PAWS), and Advanced Large-Scale Integrated Computational Environment (ALICE). A host of other frameworks and related tools are referenced in this context. The frameworks are evaluated individually and also compared with each other.

  5. Small near-Earth asteroids in the Palomar Transient Factory survey: A real-time streak-detection system

    CERN Document Server

    Waszczak, Adam; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank; Bue, Brian; Rebbapragada, Umaa; Barlow, Tom; Surace, Jason; Helou, George; Kulkarni, Shrinivas

    2016-01-01

    Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) in the 1-100 meter size range are estimated to be $\\sim$1,000 times more numerous than the $\\sim$15,000 currently-catalogued NEAs, most of which are in the 0.5-10 kilometer size range. Impacts from 10-100 meter size NEAs are not statistically life-threatening but may cause significant regional damage, while 1-10 meter size NEAs with low velocities relative to Earth are compelling targets for space missions. We describe the implementation and initial results of a real-time NEA-discovery system specialized for the detection of small, high angular rate (visually-streaked) NEAs in Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) images. PTF is a 1.2-m aperture, 7.3-deg$^2$ field-of-view optical survey designed primarily for the discovery of extragalactic transients (e.g., supernovae) in 60-second exposures reaching $\\sim$20.5 visual magnitude. Our real-time NEA discovery pipeline uses a machine-learned classifier to filter a large number of false-positive streak detections, permitting a human scanner t...

  6. Cultural Resources Sample Survey of the Bayou Cocodrie and Tributaries Project, St. Landry, Evangeline and Avoyelles Parishes, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-06

    construction of networks of underground pipelines and above ground pumping facilities. While most of the construction activities are finished, these activities...Pipeline Company’s pipeline right-of-way from East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana, to Orange County, Texas; Neitzel’s (1976) survey of an underground waterline...Louisiana. Gagliano, Sherwood M., Richard A. Weinstein, Bert Rader , Benjamin A. Small, and Kathleen McCloskey 1978 Cultural Resources Survey of the

  7. The Timber Resources of Delaware. A Report on tbe Forest survey made by the U.S. Forest Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland H. Ferguson; Roland H. Ferguson

    1959-01-01

    This is a report on the findings of the first comprehensive survey of the timber resources of Delaware. It describes, as of 1957, the area and condition of the forest land, the volume of standing timber, the annual growth and mortality of the forest growing stock, and the extent of timber cutting. The survey made by the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture,...

  8. Recent drilling activities at the earth power resources Tuscarora geothermal power project's hot sulphur springs lease area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goranson, Colin

    2005-03-01

    Earth Power Resources, Inc. recently completed a combined rotary/core hole to a depth of 3,813 feet at it's Hot Sulphur Springs Tuscarora Geothermal Power Project Lease Area located 70-miles north of Elko, Nevada. Previous geothermal exploration data were combined with geologic mapping and newly acquired seismic-reflection data to identify a northerly tending horst-graben structure approximately 2,000 feet wide by at least 6,000 feet long with up to 1,700 feet of vertical offset. The well (HSS-2) was successfully drilled through a shallow thick sequence of altered Tertiary Volcanic where previous exploration wells had severe hole-caving problems. The ''tight-hole'' drilling problems were reduced using drilling fluids consisting of Polymer-based mud mixed with 2% Potassium Chloride (KCl) to reduce Smectite-type clay swelling problems. Core from the 330 F fractured geothermal reservoir system at depths of 2,950 feet indicated 30% Smectite type clays existed in a fault-gouge zone where total loss of circulation occurred during coring. Smectite-type clays are not typically expected at temperatures above 300 F. The fracture zone at 2,950 feet exhibited a skin-damage during injection testing suggesting that the drilling fluids may have caused clay swelling and subsequent geothermal reservoir formation damage. The recent well drilling experiences indicate that drilling problems in the shallow clays at Hot Sulphur Springs can be reduced. In addition, average penetration rates through the caprock system can be on the order of 25 to 35 feet per hour. This information has greatly reduced the original estimated well costs that were based on previous exploration drilling efforts. Successful production formation drilling will depend on finding drilling fluids that will not cause formation damage in the Smectite-rich fractured geothermal reservoir system. Information obtained at Hot Sulphur Springs may apply to other geothermal systems developed in

  9. A Survey of Near-Earth Objects in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancredi, G.

    The search for NEOs has been concentrated up to now in the northern hemisphere. Six dedicated NEO surveys programmes are already in place: 4 located in the SouthWest of USA, one in Hawaii and one in Japan. None of the surveys mentioned above reach most of the southern sky, therefore more than 25% of the celestial sphere is not covered by any project. The National Research Council of Uruguay (CONICYT) granted the Observatorio Astronómico "Los Molinos" - OALM (Minister of Education and Culture) a small project to install a telescope to search for NEOs. The money was used to buy a 46cm (f/2.8) telescope (Centurion 18" by Astroworks). With further support from our home institutions (Universidad de Uruguay and the Minister of Education and Culture) and from the Planetary Society NEO grant we bought the CCD, a PC and the control software. The telescope will be located in a dark area of the countryside, 200 km from Montevideo. We have support from the Local Government of the Province of Maldonado for the buildings. The construction will start in May. In the mean time we have installed the telescope at the actual site of the OALM where we are testing the software, the hardware and starting the survey observations. An asteroid has been already discovered in this testing phase (K02H09A). The telescope will be fully controlled from our home institute in Montevideo through Internet. All the operations will be performed in a remote way. Follow-up observations of the discovered objects will be done from other telescopes of our institute as well through collaboration with colleagues of the SouthAmerican Spacegaurd Association, with telescopes in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.

  10. The Remote Sensing Prospecting Information Extraction and Mineral Resources Prognosis in the Banqiao Rare Earth Mineral Deposit%板桥稀土矿遥感找矿信息提取与矿产预测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章钦瑜; 张登荣; 黄国成; 朱骏

    2012-01-01

    通过对离子吸附型稀土矿成矿规律的分析,从浙江省板桥地区的遥感地质特征研究入手,在研究区地表范围内进行稀土遥感找矿信息的提取.首先利用SPOT图像和DEM数据构建的坡度数据对与稀土成矿相关的地貌单元进行解译;然后通过光谱特征分析和基于ASTER图像的矿物遥感异常提取,获取与成矿相关的高岭土、绢云母、绿泥石等风化特征矿物的分布信息;最后叠合分析地貌、坡度及异常提取结果,进行稀土遥感找矿预测.与地质调查资料及化探数据的对比分析证实,上述方法对圈定1:5万的大比例尺离子吸附型稀土矿分布范围是有效的,可为更详细的稀土矿产资源潜力评价提供依据.%In this paper, the prospecting information of the rare earth resources on Earth' s surface was extracted by analyzing the metallogenic regularity and geological remote sensing features of the study area. Firstly, the distribution of geomorphic units of Qedl was interpreted based on SPOT imagery and slope map obtained from DEM data. Then, the distribution of characteristic minerals closely related to rare earth deposits such as kaolin, sericite and chlorite was extracted by using remote sensing alteration anomaly extraction methods in the study area. At last, the potential rare earth ore districts were predicted by using overlap analysis of geomorphic units of Qedl as well as slope and abnormal extraction results. A comparison with the results of geological and geochemical survey shows that the remote sensing methods proposed in this paper are effective and reliable in prognosis of rare earth mineral distribution at the scale of 1 : 50 000 and can provide useful suggestions for more detailed potential evaluation of rare earth mineral resources.

  11. Fiscal 1992 comprehensive survey of geothermal resource in Japan (tertiary). Report on a deep-seated geothermal resource survey (summary); 1992 nendo zenkoku chinetsu shigen sogo chosa (dai sanji). Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa hokokusho (yoyaku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Drilling and survey were conducted of deep geothermal exploration wells to grasp the existing situation of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of geothermal systems in the area where geothermal resource was already developed. Exploration wells are planned to be drilled down to a depth of 4000m in five years. In fiscal 1992, 24-inch pits were drilled down to 605m. In the survey, data were obtained on microscopic observation of cores and cuttings, X-ray diffraction analysis, survey of fluid inclusion, survey of geology and underground gas by mud log, etc. Further conducted were temperature log, electrical log, lateral log, density log, acoustic log, FMI log, induction log, etc. In making deep geothermal models, selection and preparation of the existing data were made, and geothermal structure models and reservoir models were made as prediction models in the Kakkonda area. Besides, studies were made of a survey method using microearthquakes, etc., survey technology using resistivity, survey technology using artificial fluid inclusion, deep drilling technology, deep fluid utilization technology, etc. 72 refs., 73 figs., 33 tabs.

  12. U.S. Geological Survey program of offshore resource and geoenvironmental studies, Atlantic-Gulf of Mexico region, from September 1, 1976, to December 31, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folger, David W.; Needell, Sally W.

    1983-01-01

    acromagnetic data, and 39,000 km of gravity data, plus 10,000 samples and logs obtained from U.S. Geological Survey and industry drilling (for example, coreholes of the Atlantic Slope Program, Joint Oceanographic Institutions Deep Earth Sampling, Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Tests, and the Atlantic Margin Coring Program). A sedimentary section of Jurassic and Cretaceous age grades from terrigenous clastic rocks nearshore to carbonate rocks offshore; this section is part of an extensive buried bank-platform complex that could contain large reserves of natural gas and oil. The volume of sediment deposited offshore far exceeds the volume deposited onshore where extensive accumulations of oil, gas, and minerals have been found. Commercial exploratory drilling offshore thus far has been limited to the Baltimore Canyon Trough area off New Jersey, where at least two holes have found gas; leasing has taken place in the Southeast Georgia Embayment, where drilling was scheduled to begin in 1979, and is imminent in the Georges Bank area off New England. In addition, hydrogeologic and hydrochemical data obtained from the drilling studies have delineated freshwater-bearing submarine extensions of land aquifers that are important coastal ground-water resources. Hazards in the Georges Bank area include sand mobility associated with strong currents and storm-driven waves; high concentrations of suspended sediment in the water column that, when mixed with spilled oil, may sink to the bottom; and slumping along the upper slope. In the Baltimore Canyon, high sediment mobility accompanies major winter storms, and slumped material may cover as much as 20 percent of the upper slope. Potentially unstable slope areas are being studied in great detail to provide data on timing, triggering mechanisms, and rates of sediment movement. In the Southeast Georgia Embayment and Blake Plateau Basin, strong Gulf Stream flow poses a major problem to all offshore operations. In the Gulf o

  13. Enabling the Use of Earth Observation Data for Integrated Water Resource Management in Africa with the Water Observation and Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslaw Guzinski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Water Observation and Information System (WOIS is an open source software tool for monitoring, assessing and inventorying water resources in a cost-effective manner using Earth Observation (EO data. The WOIS has been developed by, among others, the authors of this paper under the TIGER-NET project, which is a major component of the TIGER initiative of the European Space Agency (ESA and whose main goal is to support the African Earth Observation Capacity for Water Resource Monitoring. TIGER-NET aims to support the satellite-based assessment and monitoring of water resources from watershed to cross-border basin levels through the provision of a free and powerful software package, with associated capacity building, to African authorities. More than 28 EO data processing solutions for water resource management tasks have been developed, in correspondence with the requirements of the participating key African water authorities, and demonstrated with dedicated case studies utilizing the software in operational scenarios. They cover a wide range of themes and information products, including basin-wide characterization of land and water resources, lake water quality monitoring, hydrological modeling and flood forecasting and mapping. For each monitoring task, step-by-step workflows were developed, which can either be adjusted by the user or largely automatized to feed into existing data streams and reporting schemes. The WOIS enables African water authorities to fully exploit the increasing EO capacity offered by current and upcoming generations of satellites, including the Sentinel missions.

  14. Survey of shark fisheries and preparation of a National Plan of Action (NPOA) for conservation and management of shark resources in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The report presents; terms of reference; work progress; surveys of shark fishers and traders; shark biodiversity survey; and a National Plan of Action (NPOA) for conservation and management of shark resources in Bangladesh.

  15. On mining technology of engineering pressure-type rare earth resources%工程压覆型稀土资源的开采技术探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新光

    2016-01-01

    结合广西贺州境内被2条高速线路(永贺高速公路和贵广高速铁路)压覆的稀土资源的抢救性回收工程实例,探讨了原地浸矿技术对压覆型离子稀土资源开采的实用性和有效性,分析了影响“原地浸矿”和“堆浸”2种稀土资源开采工艺回收率的主要因素,并对其回收工艺进行了优化,探索出了一种绿色的、高效的压覆型稀土资源的开采工艺。%This paper,combining with rare earth resources overlaid by salvaging recycling projects in two highways of Hezhou Guangxi,that is the Yongzhou-Hezhou Highway and the Guiyang-Guangzhou Highway, discusses the practicability and effectiveness of in-situ leaching technology for exploiting ion-type rare earth resources overlaid by projects.In addition,it also analyzes main factors of impacting mining teaching recovery of two rare earth resources,including “in-situ leaching”and “heap leaching”,optimizes its recovery process, and explores a green and efficient mining technology of rare earth resources overlaid by projects.

  16. Human Trafficking in the United States. Part II. Survey of U.S. Government Web Resources for Publications and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigabutra-Roberts, Anchalee

    2012-01-01

    This second part of a two-part series is a survey of U.S. government web resources on human trafficking in the United States, particularly of the online publications and data included on agencies' websites. Overall, the goal is to provide an introduction, an overview, and a guide on this topic for library staff to use in their research and…

  17. National Assessment of School Resource Officer Programs: Survey of Students in Three Large New SRO Programs. Document Number 209270

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Jack; Panniello, Jenn

    2005-01-01

    In this report, School Resource Officer (SRO) programs in four school districts are examined. The study was primarily concerned with what variables affect students' comfort level in reporting crimes to the SRO, and their perceptions of safety. The analysis was driven by data obtained through surveys of 907 students. Using these data, seven…

  18. Supporting data for the U.S. Geological Survey 2012 world assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Conventional Resources Assessment Team, USGS

    2013-01-01

    This report provides information pertaining to the 2012 U.S. Geological Survey assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional oil and gas resources of the world, exclusive of the United States. Some of the results were previously published, mostly in USGS fact sheet series.

  19. Tools, Techniques, and Training: Results of an E-Resources Troubleshooting Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathmel, Angela; Mobley, Liisa; Pennington, Buddy; Chandler, Adam

    2015-01-01

    A primary role of any e-resources librarian or staff is troubleshooting electronic resources (e-resources). While much progress has been made in many areas of e-resources management (ERM) to understand the ERM lifecycle and to manage workflows, troubleshooting access remains a challenge. This collaborative study is the result of the well-received…

  20. Earth survey applications division: Research leading to the effective use of space technology in applications relating to the Earth's surface and interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, L. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Accomplishments and future plans are described for the following areas: (1) geology - geobotanical indicators and geopotential data; (2) modeling magnetic fields; (3) modeling the structure, composition, and evolution of the Earth's crust; (4) global and regional motions of the Earth's crust and earthquake occurrence; (5) modeling geopotential from satellite tracking data; (6) modeling the Earth's gravity field; (7) global Earth dynamics; (8) sea surface topography, ocean dynamics; and geophysical interpretation; (9) land cover and land use; (10) physical and remote sensing attributes important in detecting, measuring, and monitoring agricultural crops; (11) prelaunch studies using LANDSAT D; (12) the multispectral linear array; (13) the aircraft linear array pushbroom radiometer; and (14) the spaceborne laser ranging system.

  1. A survey of tools and resources for the next generation analyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David L.; Graham, Jake; Catherman, Emily

    2015-05-01

    We have previously argued that a combination of trends in information technology (IT) and changing habits of people using IT provide opportunities for the emergence of a new generation of analysts that can perform effective intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) on a "do it yourself" (DIY) or "armchair" approach (see D.L. Hall and J. Llinas (2014)). Key technology advances include: i) new sensing capabilities including the use of micro-scale sensors and ad hoc deployment platforms such as commercial drones, ii) advanced computing capabilities in mobile devices that allow advanced signal and image processing and modeling, iii) intelligent interconnections due to advances in "web N" capabilities, and iv) global interconnectivity and increasing bandwidth. In addition, the changing habits of the digital natives reflect new ways of collecting and reporting information, sharing information, and collaborating in dynamic teams. This paper provides a survey and assessment of tools and resources to support this emerging analysis approach. The tools range from large-scale commercial tools such as IBM i2 Analyst Notebook, Palantir, and GeoSuite to emerging open source tools such as GeoViz and DECIDE from university research centers. The tools include geospatial visualization tools, social network analysis tools and decision aids. A summary of tools is provided along with links to web sites for tool access.

  2. Performance Audit of the U.S. Geological Survey, Energy Resource Program Inorganic Geochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppens, James A.; Janke, Louis G.; McCord, Jamey D.; Bullock, John H.; Brazeau, Lisa; Affronter, Ronald H.

    2007-01-01

    A performance audit of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Energy Resource Program (ERP) Inorganic Geochemistry Laboratory (IGL) was conducted between August, 2003 and October, 2005. The goals were to ensure that a high level of analytical performance was maintained and identify any areas that could be enhanced. The audit was subdivided into three phases. Phase 1 was a preliminary assessment of current performance based on recent performance on CANSPEX samples. IGL performance was also compared to laboratories world-wide with similar scope. Phase 2 consisted of the implementation of the recommended changes made in Phase 1. Phase 3 of the audit consisted of a reassessment effort to evaluate the effectiveness of the recommendations made in the Phase 1 and an on-site audit of the laboratory facilities. Phases 1 and 3 required summary reports that are included in Appendices A and B of this report. The audit found that the IGL was one of the top two laboratories compared for trace element analyses. Several recommendations to enhance performance on major and minor elemental parameters were made and implemented. Demonstrated performance improvements as a result of the recommended changes were documented. Several initiatives to sustain the performance improvements gained from the audit have been implemented.

  3. Rare Earth Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Oversupply of rare earths led to the significant price drop of rare earth mineral products and separated products in Chinese domestic market. To stabilize the price, prevent waste of resources, further improve regulation capability on domestic rare earth market and rare earth price and maintain sustaining and healthy development of rare earth industry, partial rare earth producers in Baotou and Jiangxi province projected to cease the production for one month.

  4. Enabling the Use of Earth Observation Data for Integrated Water Resource Management in Africa with the Water Observation and Information System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzinski, Radoslaw; Kass, Steve; Huber, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    The Water Observation and Information System (WOIS) is an open source software tool for monitoring, assessing and inventorying water resources in a cost-effective manner using Earth Observation (EO) data. The WOIS has been developed by, among others, the authors of this paper under the TIGER...... to cross-border basin levels through the provision of a free and powerful software package, with associated capacity building, to African authorities. More than 28 EO data processing solutions for water resource management tasks have been developed, in correspondence with the requirements...... of the participating key African water authorities, and demonstrated with dedicated case studies utilizing the software in operational scenarios. They cover a wide range of themes and information products, including basin-wide characterization of land and water resources, lake water quality monitoring, hydrological...

  5. Proposed program for and present status of the Geological Survey's investigation of domestic resources of radioactive raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulter, A.P.; Killeen, P.L.; Page, G.B.; Rubey, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    This interim report is designed to show the present status of the Geological Survey's information and the parts of a comprehensive program necessary to improve our information about the raw material resources of uranium and thorium. Rarely in geologic work has it been necessary. to determine so completely a nation's resources of useful minerals in so brief a span of time. Ordinarily, information on mineral resources Is accumulated during a long period of years. However, uranium and thorium were suddenly thrust from a position of subsidiary economic interest into one of great strategic importance. Information concerning their occurrence must, therefore, be obtained as rapidly as reliable methods of investigation will permit. Accordingly the program must be at once comprehensive and carried out over an area more extensive than is usual in the search for and appraisal of most other mineral resources.

  6. How to measure Europe's resource use. An analysis for Friends of the Earth Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giljum, S.; Hinterberger, F.; Lutter, S.; Polzin, C.

    2009-06-15

    The natural resource base, on which the quality-of-life of our societies is built, is in danger of overexploitation and collapse. Due to growth of world population and continued high levels of consumption in the developed world, combined with the rapid industrialisation of countries such as China, India and Brazil, worldwide demand on natural resources and related pressures on the environment are steadily increasing. Renewable resources, and the ecological services they provide, are at great risk of degradation and collapse. Extraction of many non-renewable resources is already reaching or near a peak. European environmental policy has focussed on solving problems related to specific pollutants, rather than those related to growing production and consumption. Europe has achieved significant improvement in environmental problems related to specific pollutants and harmful substances in the past 30 years, such as air pollutants, sewage effluents and hazardous wastes. However, environmental problems related to the overall scale of European production and consumption are getting worse: depleting fish stocks, shrinking water reserves, growing waste volumes, growing energy consumption and continued high level of per capita emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are part of these persistent environmental problems. Current EU policies addressing resource use do not have concrete reduction targets and are not coherent. In the EU, issues of resource productivity, environmental impacts of resource use and resource security have significantly gained in policy importance in the past ten years and a number of policy strategies have been launched. However, from a sustainable development perspective, key issues are not being adequately addressed. Concrete targets for increasing resource productivity and decreasing resource use and related environmental impacts are missing in all main EU policies. Furthermore, EU environmental policies focus on the impacts related to resource

  7. Early aerial photography and contributions to Digital Earth - The case of the 1921 Halifax air survey mission in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werle, D.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents research into the military and civilian history, technological development, and practical outcomes of aerial photography in Canada immediately after the First World War. The collections of early aerial photography in Canada and elsewhere, as well as the institutional and practical circumstances and arrangements of their creation, represent an important part of remote sensing heritage. It is argued that the digital rendition of the air photos and their representation in mosaic form can make valuable contributions to Digital Earth historic inquiries and mapping exercises today. An episode of one of the first urban surveys, carried out over Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1921, is highlighted and an air photo mosaic and interpretation key is presented. Using the almost one hundred year old air photos and a digitally re-assembled mosaic of a substantial portion of that collection as a guide, a variety of features unique to the post-war urban landscape of the Halifax peninsula are analysed, illustrated, and compared with records of past and current land use. The pan-chromatic air photo ensemble at a nominal scale of 1:5,000 is placed into the historical context with contemporary thematic maps, recent air photos, and modern satellite imagery. Further research opportunities and applications concerning early Canadian aerial photography are outlined.

  8. NEOSurvey 1: Initial Results from the Warm Spitzer Exploration Science Survey of Near-Earth Object Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2016-12-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are small solar system bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth’s orbit. We are carrying out a Warm Spitzer Cycle 11 Exploration Science program entitled NEOSurvey—a fast and efficient flux-limited survey of 597 known NEOs in which we derive a diameter and albedo for each target. The vast majority of our targets are too faint to be observed by NEOWISE, though a small sample has been or will be observed by both observatories, which allows for a cross-check of our mutual results. Our primary goal is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties. We present here the first results from this new program: fluxes and derived diameters and albedos for 80 NEOs, together with a description of the overall program and approach, including several updates to our thermal model. The largest source of error in our diameter and albedo solutions, which derive from our single-band thermal emission measurements, is uncertainty in η, the beaming parameter used in our thermal modeling; for albedos, improvements in solar system absolute magnitudes would also help significantly. All data and derived diameters and albedos from this entire program are being posted on a publicly accessible Web page at nearearthobjects.nau.edu.

  9. Pick up a book or "google it?" a survey of radiologist and trainee-preferred references and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhauser, Blake D; Liaw, Kevin; McDonald, Robert J; Thomas, Kristen B; Hudson, Kathleen T; Kallmes, David F

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate radiologist and trainee-preferred sources for solving imaging questions. The institutional review board determined this study to be exempt from informed consent requirements. Web-based surveys were distributed to radiology staff and trainees at 16 academic institutions. Surveys queried ownership and use of tablet computers and habits of utilization of various electronic and hardcopy resources for general reference. For investigating specific cases, respondents identified a single primary resource. Comparisons were performed using Fisher's exact test. For staff, use of Google and online journals was nearly universal for general imaging questions (93 [103/111] and 94 % [104/111], respectively). For trainees, Google and resident-generated study materials were commonly utilized for such questions (82 [111/135] and 74 % [100/135], respectively). For specific imaging questions, online journals and PubMed were rarely chosen as a primary resource; the most common primary resources were STATdx for trainees and Google for staff (44 [55/126] and 52 % [51/99], respectively). Use of hard copy journals was nearly absent among trainees. Sixty percent of trainees (78/130) own a tablet computer versus 41 % of staff (46/111; p = 0.005), and 71 % (55/78) of those trainees reported at least weekly use of radiology-specific tablet applications, compared to 48 % (22/46) of staff (p books but have replaced hard copy journals with online resources.

  10. Discussing on using Google Earth assisted management of mineral resources%浅谈利用Google Earth辅助矿产资源管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏洲

    2014-01-01

    Google Earth as a free software can be very rich and powerful three-dimensional model .However, the weak import feature coordinate conversion ArcGIS 9.2 or later supports Google Earth data (KML/KMZ format) vector data conversion. This article presents a turning point coordinate aid ArcGIS software to quickly convert and put on the Google Earth map of ways and means .Also introduced the using of Google Earth auxiliary mineral resources management approach.%Google Earth作为免费软件,三维模型上能十分的丰富和强大,但坐标转换导入功能薄弱,ArcGIS 9.2以上版本支持Google Earth数据(KML/KMZ格式)的矢量数据式转换。文章介绍了一种借助ArcGIS软件实现坐标拐点快速转换并投放到Google Earth地图中的方法和途径,同时介绍了利用Google Earth辅助矿产资源管理的方法。

  11. On resource survey of natural mineral drugs in eastern Jilin and their sustaining application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    There are rich natural resources of natural mineral drugs in eastern Jilin Province. Systematic resource investigation can elevate fractional conversion of this area' s mineral drugs resources superiority. Research on natural mineral drugs of this area can upgrade the translation rate of resource superiority and accelerate the development of local medical industry, especially, it can provide scientific data for founding the strategic design of Chinese traditional medicine's trademark of Jilin Changbai Mountain. Since the resource of mineral drugs can not be regenerated, it must be exploited scientifically, utilized reasonably and protected effectively its sustaining application.

  12. Applying Beliefs and Resources Frameworks to the Psychometric Analyses of an Epistemology Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Elby, Andrew; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study explored how researchers' views about the form of students' epistemologies influence how the researchers develop and refine surveys and how they interpret survey results. After running standard statistical analyses on 505 physics students' responses to the Turkish version of the Maryland Physics Expectations-II survey, probing students'…

  13. U.S. Geological Survey water-resource monitoring activities in support of the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soileau, Suzanna; Miller, Kirk

    2013-01-01

    The quality of the Nation’s water resources are vital to the health and well-being of both our communities and the natural landscapes we value. The U.S. Geological Survey investigates the occurrence, quantity, quality, distribution, and movement of surface water and groundwater and provides this information to engineers, scientists, managers, educators, and the general public. This information also supplements current (2013) and historical water data provided by the National Water Information System. The U.S. Geological Survey collects and shares data nationwide, but how those data are used is often site specific; this variety of data assists natural-resource managers in addressing unique, local, and regional challenges.

  14. Water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Montana, October 1987 through September 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamke, J. N.

    1989-01-01

    Water resources programs and activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Montana consist principally of hydrological data collection and local, areal, or statewide hydrologic investigations. The work is supported by direct Federal funding, by transfer of funds from other Federal agencies, and by joint funding agreements with State or local agencies. The Montana District of the Geological Survey 's Water Resources Division conducts its hydrologic work through a headquarters office in Helena, and field offices in Helena, Billings, Fort Peck and Kalispell. This report describes the eighteen projects funded for fiscal years 1988 and 1989. In addition, it describes the operations of the Montana District, water conditions during water year 1988, activities in addition to regular programs, sources of publications and information, and lists reports published or released during the preceding 5 years. (USGS)

  15. Amazonas project: Application of remote sensing techniques for the integrated survey of natural resources in Amazonas. [Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT multispectral scanner and return beam vidicon imagery for surveying the natural resources of the Brazilian Amazonas is described. Purposes of the Amazonas development project are summarized. The application of LANDSAT imagery to identification of vegetation coverage and soil use, identification of soil types, geomorphology, and geology and highway planning is discussed. An evaluation of the worth of LANDSAT imagery in mapping the region is presented. Maps generated by the project are included.

  16. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 3: Intensive use of living resources, agriculture. Part 3: The integrated impact of improved (ERS) information on US agricultural commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    The economic value of information produced by an assumed operational version of an earth resources survey satellite of the ERTS class is assessed. The theoretical capability of an ERTS system to provide improved agricultural forecasts is analyzed and this analysis is used as a reasonable input to the econometric methods derived by ECON. An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scopes, and architecture of the analysis, and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. Several promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  17. 长治市食用菌资源调查%Surveys into the Edible Mushroom Resources in Changzhi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    平慧芳

    2012-01-01

    为了充分发挥长治市自身的资源优势,达到食用茵生产的低成本、高效益的目标,对长治市食用菌资源进行了调查,内容包括菌种资源、原料资源、气候资源和场地资源,为长治市食用茵产业发展提供了参考和指导。%To fully utilize the resources advantages of Changzhi and reach the goal of low and high benefit cost of edible mush rooms, surveys into the edible mushroom resources in Changzhi are carried out, including the resources of mushrooms, raw materials, cli mate and fields, which may be of referential guidance for the development of the mushroom industry in this city.

  18. The retention of health human resources in primary healthcare centers in Lebanon: a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alameddine Mohamad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Critical shortages of health human resources (HHR, associated with high turnover rates, have been a concern in many countries around the globe. Of particular interest is the effect of such a trend on the primary healthcare (PHC sector; considered a cornerstone in any effective healthcare system. This study is a rare attempt to investigate PHC HHR work characteristics, level of burnout and likelihood to quit as well as the factors significantly associated with staff retention at PHC centers in Lebanon. Methods A cross-sectional design was utilized to survey all health providers at 81 PHC centers dispersed in all districts of Lebanon. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: socio-demographic/ professional background, organizational/institutional characteristics, likelihood to quit and level of professional burnout (using the Maslach-Burnout Inventory. A total of 755 providers completed the questionnaire (60.5% response rate. Bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression were used to determine factors associated with likelihood to quit. Results Two out of five respondents indicated likelihood to quit their jobs within the next 1–3 years and an additional 13.4% were not sure about quitting. The top three reasons behind likelihood to quit were poor salary (54.4%, better job opportunities outside the country (35.1% and lack of professional development (33.7%. A U-shaped relationship was observed between age and likelihood to quit. Regression analysis revealed that high levels of burnout, lower level of education and low tenure were all associated with increased likelihood to quit. Conclusions The study findings reflect an unstable workforce and are not conducive to supporting an expanded role for PHC in the Lebanese healthcare system. While strategies aiming at improving staff retention would be important to develop and implement for all PHC HHR; targeted retention initiatives should focus on the young-new recruits

  19. The retention of health human resources in primary healthcare centers in Lebanon: a national survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Critical shortages of health human resources (HHR), associated with high turnover rates, have been a concern in many countries around the globe. Of particular interest is the effect of such a trend on the primary healthcare (PHC) sector; considered a cornerstone in any effective healthcare system. This study is a rare attempt to investigate PHC HHR work characteristics, level of burnout and likelihood to quit as well as the factors significantly associated with staff retention at PHC centers in Lebanon. Methods A cross-sectional design was utilized to survey all health providers at 81 PHC centers dispersed in all districts of Lebanon. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: socio-demographic/ professional background, organizational/institutional characteristics, likelihood to quit and level of professional burnout (using the Maslach-Burnout Inventory). A total of 755 providers completed the questionnaire (60.5% response rate). Bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression were used to determine factors associated with likelihood to quit. Results Two out of five respondents indicated likelihood to quit their jobs within the next 1–3 years and an additional 13.4% were not sure about quitting. The top three reasons behind likelihood to quit were poor salary (54.4%), better job opportunities outside the country (35.1%) and lack of professional development (33.7%). A U-shaped relationship was observed between age and likelihood to quit. Regression analysis revealed that high levels of burnout, lower level of education and low tenure were all associated with increased likelihood to quit. Conclusions The study findings reflect an unstable workforce and are not conducive to supporting an expanded role for PHC in the Lebanese healthcare system. While strategies aiming at improving staff retention would be important to develop and implement for all PHC HHR; targeted retention initiatives should focus on the young-new recruits and allied health

  20. Self-Injurious Behaviors on the Net: A Survey of Resources for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Michael; Haberstroh, Shane; Marbach, Christina

    2008-01-01

    Self-injurious behaviors (SIBs) are encountered almost daily by some school counselors, and although many resources are cited and referenced in textbooks and professional journals, few online resources have been explored in the literature. In this article, the authors give an overview of the most visited Web sites related to information about…

  1. Workshop on Survey Methods in Education Research: Facilitator's Guide and Resources. REL 2017-214

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Jill; Redford, Jeremy; Bhatt, Monica P.

    2017-01-01

    This Workshop on Survey Methods in Education Research tool consists of a facilitator guide and workshop handouts. The toolkit is intended for use by state or district education leaders and others who want to conduct training on developing and administering surveys. The facilitator guide provides materials related to various phases of the survey…

  2. 数字地球与地质矿产资源开发利用%Digital Earth and the Exploration of the Geological and Mineral Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱大明; 高建国; 秦德先

    2001-01-01

    Digital Earth speech by U.S. Vice president Al Gore has been paid much attention from the politicians and scientists in many countries of the world. Digital Earth not only can be used to increase economy and society sustainable development, but also would accelerate the ability on the creativity of science and technology. Digital Earth technology is specially suited to geo-sciences. It would exert an important role and an extensive influence on geological exploration and mineral resources.%美国副总统戈尔关于数字地球的演讲引起许多国家政界、学术界的关注。数字地球对实现经济社会可持续发展和拓展科技自主创新能力等战略目标具有极其重要的意义。数字地球作为地球科学与信息科学的集成,对地质勘探、矿产资源开发利用具有重要的作用和广阔的发展前景。

  3. The Warm Spitzer NEO Survey : Exploring The History of the Inner Solar System and Near Earth Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hora, Joseph L.; Trilling, D. E.; Thomas, C. A.; Stansberry, J. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Smith, H. A.; Penprase, B. E.; Mueller, M.; Mainzer, A. K.; Harris, A. W.; Fazio, G. G.; Emery, J. P.; Delbo, M.; Chesley, S. R.; Bottke, W. F.; Bhattacharya, B.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) originated in collisions between bodies in the main asteroid belt and have found their way into near Earth space via complex and little understood dynamical interactions. This transport of material from the main belt into the inner Solar System has shaped th

  4. Global-Scale Resource Survey and Performance Monitoring of Public OGC Web Map Services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gui, Zhipeng; Cao, Jun; Liu, Xiaojing; Cheng, Xiaoqiang; Wu, Huayi

    2016-01-01

    ...) to the user community is the Web Map Service (WMS). WMS is widely employed globally, but there is limited knowledge of the global distribution, adoption status or the service quality of these online WMS resources...

  5. Cultural Resources Survey and Testing for Davis Pond Freshwater Diversion, St. Charles Parish, Louisiana. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    samples analyzed. Cyperaceae ( sedge family) cone-shape forms were also 0 identified in the 16SC27 samples. Although morphologically similar forms may be...ethnobotanical resources. For example, both grass (Poaceae) and sedge ( Cyperaceae ) phytolith types represent potential botanical resources. However, the...produced by other plants, these conical forms on flat, polygonal bases are most commonly produced by sedges . These forms occur in all but one sample

  6. China's human resources for maternal and child health: a national sampling survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhenghong; Song, Peige; Theodoratou, Evropi; Guo, Sufang; An, Lin

    2015-12-16

    In order to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 4 and 5, the Chinese Government has invested greatly in improving maternal and child health (MCH) with impressive results. However, one of the most important barriers for further improvement is the uneven distribution of MCH human resources. There is little information about the distribution, quantity and capacity of the Chinese MCH human resources and we sought to investigate this. Cities at prefectural level were selected by random cluster sampling. All medical and health institutions providing MCH-related services in the sampled areas were investigated using a structured questionnaire. The data were weighted based on the proportion of the sampled districts/cities. Amount, proportions and numbers per 10,000 population of MCH human resources were estimated in order to reveal the quantity of the Chinese MCH human resources. The capacity of MCH human resources was evaluated by analyzing data on the education level and professional skills of the staff. There were 77,248 MCH workers in China in 2010. In general, 67.6% and 71.9% of the women's and children's health care professionals had an associate degree or higher, whereas around 30% had only high-school or lower degrees. More than 40% of the women's health workers were capable of providing skilled birth attendance, but these proportions varied between different institutions and locations. Evidence from this study highlights that Chinese MCH human resources are not in shortage in the national level. However, the quantity and capacity of MCH human resources are not evenly distributed among different institutions and locations. Finally there is a need in the improvement of the MCH services by improving the quality of MCH human resources.

  7. Water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Montana, October 1993 through September 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harksen, C. J.; Midtlyng, Karen S.

    1995-01-01

    Water-resources programs and activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Montana consist principally of hydrologic-data collection and investigative studies that address water-resource issues. The work is supported by direct Federal funding, by transfer of funds from other Federal agencies, and by joint funding agreements with State or local agencies. The Montana District of the Geological Survey's Water Resources Division conducts its hydrologic work through a District Office in Helena and Field Headquarters in Helena, Billings, Kalispell, and Fort Peck. Thirty-two projects currently are being conducted. As outlined in this report, these projects are operated under the general categories of data-collection programs and investigative studies. This report describes the projects funded for fiscal years 1994 and 1995. The report also describes the operations of the Montana District, general hydrology of Montana, activities in addition to regular programs, and sources of publications and information. It also lists reports published or released during the preceding 5 years.

  8. Water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Montana, October 1991 through September 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtlyng, K. S.; Harksen, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    Water-resources programs and activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Montana consist principally of hydrologic-data collection and investigative studies that address water-resource issues. The work is supported by direct Federal funding, by transfer of funds from other Federal agencies, and by joint funding agreements with State or local agencies. The Montana District of the Geological Survey's Water Resources Division conducts its hydrologic work through a District Office in Helena, and Field Headquarters in Helena, Billings, Fort Peck, and Kalispell. Twenty-seven projects are being con- ducted. As outlined in this report, these projects are operated under the general categories of data- collection programs and investigative studies. This report describes the projects funded for fiscal years 1992 and 1993. hi addition, it describes the operations of the Montana District, hydrologic conditions during water year 1992, activities in addition to regular programs, and sources of publications and information. It also lists reports published or released during the preceding 5 years.

  9. eMental health experiences and expectations: a survey of youths' Web-based resource preferences in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterlin, Felicia M; Mar, Marissa Y; Neilson, Erika K; Werker, Gregory R; Krausz, Michael

    2014-12-17

    Due to the high prevalence of psychological disorders and the lack of access to care among Canadian youth, the development of accessible services is increasingly important. eMental Health is an expanding field that may help to meet this need through the provision of mental health care using technology. The primary goals of the study are to explore youth experiences with traditional and online mental health resources, and to investigate youth expectations for mental health websites. A Web-based survey containing quantitative and qualitative questions was delivered to youth aged 17-24 years. Participants were surveyed to evaluate their use of mental health resources as well as their preferences for various components of a potential mental health website. A total of 521 surveys were completed. Most participants (61.6%, 321/521) indicated that they had used the Internet to seek information or help for feelings they were experiencing. If they were going through a difficult time, 82.9% (432/521) of participants were either "somewhat likely" or "very likely" to use an information-based website and 76.8% (400/521) reported that they were either "somewhat unlikely" or "very unlikely" to visit social media websites for information or help-seeking purposes during this time. Most (87.7%, 458/521) participants rated their online privacy as very important. Descriptions of interventions and treatments was the most highly rated feature to have in a mental health-related website, with 91.9% (479/521) of participants regarding it as "important" or "very important". When presented a select list of existing Canadian mental health-related websites, most participants had not accessed any of the sites. Of the few who had, the Canadian Mental Health Association website was the most accessed website (5.8%, 30/521). Other mental health-related websites were accessed by only 10.9% of the participants (57/521). The findings suggest that despite interest in these tools, current eMental Health

  10. Polymer Chemistry in Science Centers and Museums: A Survey of Educational Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, David M.; McKee, Scott

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 129 science and technology-related centers and museums revealed a shortage of polymer chemistry exhibits. Describes those displays that do exist and suggests possibilities for future displays and exhibits. Contains 23 references. (WRM)

  11. Relation between the Electromagnetic Processes in the Near-Earth Space and Dynamics of the Biological Resources in Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, L. N.; Shirochkov, A. V.

    It is a well-established fact that the electromagnetic processes of different kind occurring in the near- Earth space produce significant effects in the Earth's atmosphere at all altitudes including the ground surface. There are some indications that these processes could influence at least indirectly the human health conditions. In this study we explore relation between perturbations in the solar wind (dynamics of its density, velocity, intensity of the interplanetary magnetic field) and long- term changes in population of some species of Arctic fauna (lemmings, polar foxes, deers, wolves, elks etc.) It was found out that the best statistical coupling between various Space Weather parameters and the changes in populations of the Arctic fauna species appears when the solar wind dynamic pressure magnitude is taken as one of these parameters. It was shown that the secular variations of the solar UV radiation expressed as the Total Solar Irradiance appears to be a space parameter, showing the best correlation with the changes in population of the Arctic fauna species. Such high correlation coefficients as 0.8 are obtained. It is premature now to discuss exact physical mechanisms, which could explain the obtained relations. A possible mutual dependence of some climatic factors and fauna population in Arctic on the Space Weather parameters is discussed in this connection. Conclusion is made that the electromagnetic fields of space origin is an important factor determining dynamics of population of the Arctic fauna species.

  12. Functional requirements of computer systems for the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, 1988-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, R.M.; McNellis, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Investigating the occurrence, quantity, quality, distribution, and movement of the Nation 's water resources is the principal mission of the U.S. Geological Survey 's Water Resources Division. Reports of these investigations are published and available to the public. To accomplish this mission, the Division requires substantial computer technology to process, store, and analyze data from more than 57,000 hydrologic sites. The Division 's computer resources are organized through the Distributed Information System Program Office that manages the nationwide network of computers. The contract that provides the major computer components for the Water Resources Division 's Distributed information System expires in 1991. Five work groups were organized to collect the information needed to procure a new generation of computer systems for the U. S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division. Each group was assigned a major Division activity and asked to describe its functional requirements of computer systems for the next decade. The work groups and major activities are: (1) hydrologic information; (2) hydrologic applications; (3) geographic information systems; (4) reports and electronic publishing; and (5) administrative. The work groups identified 42 functions and described their functional requirements for 1988, 1992, and 1997. A few new functions such as Decision Support Systems and Executive Information Systems, were identified, but most are the same as performed today. Although the number of functions will remain about the same, steady growth in the size, complexity, and frequency of many functions is predicted for the next decade. No compensating increase in the Division 's staff is anticipated during this period. To handle the increased workload and perform these functions, new approaches will be developed that use advanced computer technology. The advanced technology is required in a unified, tightly coupled system that will support all functions simultaneously

  13. A survey and taxonomy on energy efficient resource allocation techniques for cloud computing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hameed, Abdul; Khoshkbarforoushha, Alireza; Ranjan, Rajiv; Jayaraman, Prem Prakash; Kolodziej, Joanna; Balaji, Pavan; Zeadally, Sherali; Malluhi, Qutaibah Marwan; Tziritas, Nikos; Vishnu, Abhinav; Khan, Samee U.; Zomaya, Albert

    2014-06-06

    In a cloud computing paradigm, energy efficient allocation of different virtualized ICT resources (servers, storage disks, and networks, and the like) is a complex problem due to the presence of heterogeneous application (e.g., content delivery networks, MapReduce, web applications, and the like) workloads having contentious allocation requirements in terms of ICT resource capacities (e.g., network bandwidth, processing speed, response time, etc.). Several recent papers have tried to address the issue of improving energy efficiency in allocating cloud resources to applications with varying degree of success. However, to the best of our knowledge there is no published literature on this subject that clearly articulates the research problem and provides research taxonomy for succinct classification of existing techniques. Hence, the main aim of this paper is to identify open challenges associated with energy efficient resource allocation. In this regard, the study, first, outlines the problem and existing hardware and software-based techniques available for this purpose. Furthermore, available techniques already presented in the literature are summarized based on the energy-efficient research dimension taxonomy. The advantages and disadvantages of the existing techniques are comprehensively analyzed against the proposed research dimension taxonomy namely: resource adaption policy, objective function, allocation method, allocation operation, and interoperability.

  14. Geothermal Systems of the Great Basin and U.S. Geological Survey Plans for a Regional Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.F.

    2002-01-01

    Based on current projections, the United States faces the need to increase its electrical power generating capacity by 40% (approximately 300,000 Megawatts-electrical or MWe) over the next 20 years (Energy Information Administration, EIA - Department of Energy). A critical question for the near future is the extent to which geothermal resources can contribute to this increasing demand for electricity. Geothermal energy constitutes one of the nation's largest sources of renewable and environmentally benign electrical power, yet the installed capacity of 2860 MWe falls far short of estimated geothermal resources. This is particularly true for the Great Basin region of the western United States, which has an installed capacity of about 500 MWe, much lower than the 7500 MWe resource estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the late 1970s. The reasons for the limited development of geothermal power are varied, but political, economic and technological developments suggest the time is ripe for a new assessment effort. Technologies for power production from geothermal systems and scientific understanding of geothermal resource occurrence have improved dramatically in recent years. The primary challenges facing geothermal resource studies are (1) understanding the thermal, chemical and mechanical processes that lead to the colocation of high temperatures and high permeabilities necessary for the formation of geothermal systems and (2) developing improved techniques for locating, characterizing and exploiting these systems. Starting in the fall of 2002, the USGS will begin work with institutions funded by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Research Program to investigate the nature and extent of geothermal systems in the Great Basin and to produce an updated assessment of available geothermal resources.

  15. First steps of integrated spatial modeling of titanium, zirconium, and rare earth element resources within the Coastal Plain sediments of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Karl J.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Fey, David L.; Budahn, James R.; Smith, Steven M.; Shah, Anjana K.

    2015-01-01

    The Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States has extensive, unconsolidated sedimentary deposits that are enriched in heavy minerals containing titanium, zirconium, and rare earth element resources. Areas favorable for exploration and development of these resources are being identified by geochemical data, which are supplemented with geological, geophysical, hydrological, and geographical data. The first steps of this analysis have been completed. The concentrations of lanthanum, yttrium, and titanium tend to decrease as distance from the Piedmont (which is the likely source of these resources) increases and are moderately correlated with airborne measurements of equivalent thorium concentration. The concentrations of lanthanum, yttrium, and titanium are relatively high in those watersheds that adjoin the Piedmont, south of the Cape Fear Arch. Although this relation suggests that the concentrations are related to the watersheds, it may be simply an independent regional trend. The concentration of zirconium is unrelated to the distance from the Piedmont, the equivalent thorium concentration, and the watershed. These findings establish a foundation for more sophisticated analyses using integrated spatial modeling.

  16. Oxygen and pulse oximetry in childhood pneumonia: a survey of healthcare providers in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Amy Sarah; Van Cleve, William C; Thompson, Mary I W; English, Mike

    2012-10-01

    Globally, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children provider perceptions and practices regarding their role in childhood pneumonia, we conducted a survey using a convenience sampling strategy targeting clinicians working in resource-limited countries. Most respondents were physicians from public district and provincial hospitals with access to oxygen and pulse oximetry; however, reported therapeutic use for childhood pneumonia was low. Common barriers included insufficient supply, competition for use, lack of policies, guidelines and training and perceived high cost. Despite the frequency of hypoxemia, the inaccuracy of clinical predictors, the poor outcome hypoxemia portends and the effectiveness of pulse oximetry and oxygen in childhood pneumonia, our data indicate that these tools may be underused in resource-limited settings.

  17. A Review of Methods Applied by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Assessment of Identified Geothermal Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin F.; Reed, Marshall J.; Mariner, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an updated assessment of geothermal resources in the United States. The primary method applied in assessments of identified geothermal systems by the USGS and other organizations is the volume method, in which the recoverable heat is estimated from the thermal energy available in a reservoir. An important focus in the assessment project is on the development of geothermal resource models consistent with the production histories and observed characteristics of exploited geothermal fields. The new assessment will incorporate some changes in the models for temperature and depth ranges for electric power production, preferred chemical geothermometers for estimates of reservoir temperatures, estimates of reservoir volumes, and geothermal energy recovery factors. Monte Carlo simulations are used to characterize uncertainties in the estimates of electric power generation. These new models for the recovery of heat from heterogeneous, fractured reservoirs provide a physically realistic basis for evaluating the production potential of natural geothermal reservoirs.

  18. Occupational stress and coping resources in physiotherapists: a survey of physiotherapists in three general hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M C; Barros, L; Carolino, E

    2010-12-01

    To identify occupational stressors and coping resources in a group of physiotherapists, and to analyse interactions between subjective levels of stress, efficacy in stress resolution and coping resources used by these professionals. A sample of 55 physiotherapists working in three general hospitals in Portugal completed the Coping Resources Inventory for Stress, the Occupational Stressors Inventory and two subjective scales for stress and stress resolution. Most physiotherapists perceived that they were moderately stressed (19/55, 35%) or stressed (20/55, 36%) due to work, and reported that their efficacy in stress resolution was moderate (25/54, 46%) or efficient (23/54, 42%). Issues related to lack of professional autonomy, lack of organisation in the hierarchical command chain, lack of professional and social recognition, disorganisation in task distribution and interpersonal conflicts with superiors were identified as the main sources of stress. The most frequently used coping resources were social support, stress monitoring, physical health and structuring. Perceived efficacy in stress resolution was inversely related to perceived level of occupational stress (r=-0.61, P<0.01). Significant correlations were found between several coping resources and the perceived level of stress and efficacy in stress resolution. Associations between problem solving, cognitive restructuring and stress monitoring and both low levels of perceived stress and high levels of perceived efficacy were particularly strong. The importance of identifying stressors and coping resources related to physiotherapists' occupational stress, and the need for the development of specific training programmes to cope with stress are supported. Copyright © 2010 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of user applications for earth resources survey data in urban and regional planning in the Puget Sound area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, F. V.

    1975-01-01

    User applications of remote sensing in Washington State are described. The first project created a multi-temporal land use/land cover data base for the environs of the Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, to serve planning and management operations of the Port of Seattle. The second is an on-going effort to develop a capability within the Puget Sound Governmental Conference, a council of governments (COG), to inventory and monitor land use within its four county jurisdiction. Developmental work has focused on refinement of land use/cover classification systems applicable at this regional scale and various levels of detail in relation to program requirements of the agency. Related research, refinement of manual methods, user training and approaches to technology transfer are discussed.

  20. MIDAS, prototype Multivariate Interactive Digital Analysis System for large area earth resources surveys. Volume 1: System description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, D.; Gordon, M.; Kistler, R.; Kriegler, F.; Lampert, S.; Marshall, R.; Mclaughlin, R.

    1977-01-01

    A third-generation, fast, low cost, multispectral recognition system (MIDAS) able to keep pace with the large quantity and high rates of data acquisition from large regions with present and projected sensots is described. The program can process a complete ERTS frame in forty seconds and provide a color map of sixteen constituent categories in a few minutes. A principle objective of the MIDAS program is to provide a system well interfaced with the human operator and thus to obtain large overall reductions in turn-around time and significant gains in throughput. The hardware and software generated in the overall program is described. The system contains a midi-computer to control the various high speed processing elements in the data path, a preprocessor to condition data, and a classifier which implements an all digital prototype multivariate Gaussian maximum likelihood or a Bayesian decision algorithm. Sufficient software was developed to perform signature extraction, control the preprocessor, compute classifier coefficients, control the classifier operation, operate the color display and printer, and diagnose operation.

  1. MIDAS prototype Multispectral Interactive Digital Analysis System for large area earth resources surveys. Volume 2: Charge coupled device investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegler, F.; Marshall, R.; Sternberg, S.

    1976-01-01

    MIDAS is a third-generation, fast, low cost, multispectral recognition system able to keep pace with the large quantity and high rates of data acquisition from large regions with present and projected sensors. MIDAS, for example, can process a complete ERTS frame in forty seconds and provide a color map of sixteen constituent categories in a few minutes. A principal objective of the MIDAS Program is to provide a system well interfaced with the human operator and thus to obtain large overall reductions in turn-around time and significant gains in throughput. The need for advanced onboard spacecraft processing of remotely sensed data is stated and approaches to this problem are described which are feasible through the use of charge coupled devices. Tentative mechanizations for the required processing operations are given in large block form. These initial designs can serve as a guide to circuit/system designers.

  2. Status of the Preservation of Digital Resources in China: Results of a Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiazhen, Liu; Daoling, Yang

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain first-hand data on the main challenges in preserving digital resources in libraries, archives and information centres in China. Design/methodology/approach: The data in this paper have been acquired by e-mail questionnaire. The conclusions are based on feedback from 57 respondents, distributed in 14 provinces in China, who work…

  3. Technological Change in the Workplace: A Statewide Survey of Community College Library and Learning Resources Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Carolyn E.; Denny, Emmett

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the effects of technostress on library personnel focuses on an investigation that examined how employees in Florida community college libraries and learning resources centers are dealing with technological change in their work environment. Considers implications for planning and implementing technological change and includes…

  4. A Survey on the Exchange of Linguistic Resources: Publishing Linguistic Linked Open Data on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Sanchez-Alonso, Salvador; Roa-Valverde, Antonio J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review of the principal formats and frameworks that have been used in the last 20 years to exchange linguistic resources. It aims to give special attention to the most recent approaches to publishing linguistic linked open data on the Web. Design/methodology/approach: Research papers…

  5. Regional Assessment of Remote Forests and Black Bear Habitat from Forest Resource Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor A. Rudis; John B. Tansey

    1995-01-01

    We developed a spatially explicit modeling approach, using a county-scaled remote forest (i.e., forested area reserved from or having no direct human interference) assessment derived from 1984-1990 forest resource inventory data and a 1984 black bear (Ursus americantus) range map for 12 states in the southern United States.We defined minimum suitable and optimal black...

  6. Bioenergy resources in forest. Economic potential survey; Bioenergiressurser i skog. Kartlegging av oekonomisk potensial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergseng, Even; Eid, Tron; Roerstad, Per Kristian; Troemborg, Erik

    2012-07-01

    Forests constitute the largest resource potential for bioenergy in Norway. Based on simulations of forest development in Norway forward costs in the industry and other specified conditions, this study gives analysis and cost curves for increased recovery of bioenergy from Norwegian forests. (Author)

  7. Survey of ecological resources at selected US Department of Energy sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, C.; Beckert, H.; Abrams, C. [and others

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns and manages a wide range of ecological resources. During the next 30 years, DOE Headquarters and Field Offices will make land-use planning decisions and conduct environmental remediation and restoration activities in response to federal and state statutes. This document fulfills, in part, DOE`s need to know what types of ecological resources it currently owns and manages by synthesizing information on the types and locations of ecological resources at 10 DOE sites: Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Plant, Los Alamos National Laboratory, savannah River Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Fernald Environmental Management Project. This report summarizes information on ecosystems, habitats, and federally listed threatened, endangered, and candidate species that could be stressed by contaminants or physical activity during the restoration process, or by the natural or anthropogenic transport of contaminants from presently contaminated areas into presently uncontaminated areas. This report also provides summary information on the ecosystems, habitats, and threatened and endangered species that exist on each of the 10 sites. Each site chapter contains a general description of the site, including information on size, location, history, geology, hydrology, and climate. Descriptions of the major vegetation and animal communities and of aquatic resources are also provided, with discussions of the treatened or endangered plant or animal species present. Site-specific ecological issues are also discussed in each site chapter. 106 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Interlinking Educational Resources and the Web of Data: A Survey of Challenges and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Stefan; Sanchez-Alonso, Salvador; Ebner, Hannes; Yu, Hong Qing; Giordano, Daniela; Marenzi, Ivana; Nunes, Bernardo Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Research in the area of technology-enhanced learning (TEL) throughout the last decade has largely focused on sharing and reusing educational resources and data. This effort has led to a fragmented landscape of competing metadata schemas, or interface mechanisms. More recently, semantic technologies were taken into account to improve…

  9. Rancho Santiago College Climate Survey Report. Research, Planning and Resource Development Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slark, Julie; And Others

    In February 1990, a study was conducted by the Rancho Santiago College (RSC) Research Committee and Planning Council to assess institutional effectiveness, using college climate as one correlate of RSC's success. A staff morale survey instrument, distributed to all full- and part-time faculty and staff, yielded an overall response rate of 36%, and…

  10. Rancho Santiago College Student Satisfaction Survey. Research, Planning, Resource Development Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slark, Julie; Pham, Nga

    In spring 1991, in-class surveys were completed by 1,495 students enrolled in a random sample of courses at the Santa Ana and Orange campuses of Rancho Santiago College (RSC) to determine their attitudes about RSC and its programs and services. Study results included the following: (1) most respondents were "satisfied" or "very satisfied" with the…

  11. Rancho Santiago College Graduate Student Survey. Research, Planning, Resource Development Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Nga

    In spring 1991, a survey was sent to all 937 1989-90 Associate in Arts/Science (AA/AS) graduate and certificate recipients of Rancho Santiago College (RSC) to identify their current activities and to obtain their opinions about the college experience at RSC. Study findings were based on 374 usable responses, 81% from AA/AS degree recipients and…

  12. Merced County Streams Project, Castle Reservoir, California Intensive Cultural Resources Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-29

    speakers between 10,000 and 6,000 B.C. The Western Pluvial Lake Tradi- tion OBedwell 1973) would represent these ancient Hokan popula- tions. (2) Between I...and party 1916 Soil survey of the Merced area, California. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Wood, Raymond F. 1954 California’s Agua Fria

  13. Cultural Resources Investigation: Survey of Portions of the State Road Coulee Project, La Crosse, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    Dorchester, Clark County, Wis. ETC Engineering Inc. An archaeological survey of Copeland Park. City of La Crosse. An archaeological inspection of the Gillett...Evaluation of Weston , Unit 3 Power Plant, - Marathon County, Wisconsin. -Archaeological Inventory of the Sanitary Sewer Collection System and Waste Disposal

  14. Acquiring data for large aquatic resource surveys: the art of ompromise among science, logistics, and reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is revising its strategy to obtain the information needed to answer questions pertinent to water-quality management efficiently and rigorously at national scales. One tool of this revised strategy is use of statistically based surveys ...

  15. Acquiring data for large aquatic resource surveys: the art of ompromise among science, logistics, and reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is revising its strategy to obtain the information needed to answer questions pertinent to water-quality management efficiently and rigorously at national scales. One tool of this revised strategy is use of statistically based surveys ...

  16. Breeder survey, tools, and resources to visualize diversity and pedigree relationships at MaizeGDB

    Science.gov (United States)

    In collaboration with maize researchers, the MaizeGDB Team prepared a survey to identify breeder needs for visualizing pedigrees, diversity data, and haplotypes, and distributed it to the maize community on behalf of the Maize Genetics Executive Committee (Summer 2015). We received 48 responses from...

  17. The utility of Skylab photo-interpreted earth resources data in studies of marine geology and coastal processes in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbull, J. V. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Three Skylab earth resources passes over Puerto Rico and St. Croix on 6 June and 30 November 1973 and 18 January 1974 resulted in color photography and multispectral photography and scanner imagery. Bathymetric and turbid water features are differentiable by use of the multispectral data. Photography allows mapping of coral reefs, offshore sand deposits, areas of coastal erosion, and patterns of sediment transport. Bottom sediment types could not be differentiated. Patterns of bottom dwelling biologic communities are well portrayed but are difficult to differentiate from bathymetric detail. Effluent discharges and oil slicks are readily detected and are differentiated from other phenomena by the persistence of their images into the longer wavelength multispectral bands.

  18. Wind energy prospecting: socio-economic value of a new wind resource assessment technique based on a NASA Earth science dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanvyve, E.; Magontier, P.; Vandenberghe, F. C.; Delle Monache, L.; Dickinson, K.

    2012-12-01

    Wind energy is amongst the fastest growing sources of renewable energy in the U.S. and could supply up to 20 % of the U.S power production by 2030. An accurate and reliable wind resource assessment for prospective wind farm sites is a challenging task, yet is crucial for evaluating the long-term profitability and feasibility of a potential development. We have developed an accurate and computationally efficient wind resource assessment technique for prospective wind farm sites, which incorporates innovative statistical techniques and the new NASA Earth science dataset MERRA. This technique produces a wind resource estimate that is more accurate than that obtained by the wind energy industry's standard technique, while providing a reliable quantification of its uncertainty. The focus now is on evaluating the socio-economic value of this new technique upon using the industry's standard technique. Would it yield lower financing costs? Could it result in lower electricity prices? Are there further down-the-line positive consequences, e.g. job creation, time saved, greenhouse gas decrease? Ultimately, we expect our results will inform efforts to refine and disseminate the new technique to support the development of the U.S. renewable energy infrastructure. In order to address the above questions, we are carrying out a cost-benefit analysis based on the net present worth of the technique. We will describe this approach, including the cash-flow process of wind farm financing, how the wind resource assessment factors in, and will present current results for various hypothetical candidate wind farm sites.

  19. NASA Water Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David L.

    2011-01-01

    projects under five functional themes. I) Streamflow and Flood Forecasting 2) Water Supply and Irrigation (includes evapotranspiration) 3) Drought 4) Water Quality 5) Climate and Water Resources. To maximize this activity NASA Water Resources Program works closely with other government agencies (e.g., the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA); the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), USAID, the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA)), universities, non-profit national and international organizations, and the private sector. The NASA Water Resources program currently is funding 21 active projects under the functional themes (http://wmp.gsfc.nasa.gov & http://science.nasa.gov/earth-science/applied-sciences/).

  20. Earth Occultation Imaging Applied to BATSE -- Application to a Combined BATSE-GBM Survey of the Hard X-Ray Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yuan; Case, Gary; Ling, James; Wheaton, William

    2013-01-01

    A combined BATSE-GBM hard X-ray catalog is presented based on Earth Occultation Imaging applied to a reanalysis of BATSE data. An imaging approach has been developed for the reanalysis of Earth Occultation analysis of BATSE data. The standard occultation analysis depends on a predetermined catalog of potential sources, so that a real source not present in the catalog may induce systematic errors when source counts associated with an uncatalogued source are incorrectly attributed to catalog sources. The goal of the imaging analysis is to find a complete set of hard X-ray sources, including sources not in the original BATSE occultation catalog. Using the imaging technique, we have identified 15 known sources and 17 unidentified sources and added them to the BATSE occultation catalog. The resulting expanded BATSE catalog of sources observed during 1991-2000 is compared to the ongoing GBM survey.

  1. Use of Google Earth to strengthen public health capacity and facilitate management of vector-borne diseases in resource-poor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; Farfan-Ale, Jose Arturo; Loroño-Pino, Maria Alba; Garcia-Rejon, Julian; Gomez-Carro, Salvador; Lira-Zumbardo, Victor; Najera-Vazquez, Rosario; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Calderon-Martinez, Joaquin; Dominguez-Galera, Marco; Mis-Avila, Pedro; Morris, Natashia; Coleman, Michael; Moore, Chester G; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars

    2008-09-01

    Novel, inexpensive solutions are needed for improved management of vector-borne and other diseases in resource-poor environments. Emerging free software providing access to satellite imagery and simple editing tools (e.g. Google Earth) complement existing geographic information system (GIS) software and provide new opportunities for: (i) strengthening overall public health capacity through development of information for city infrastructures; and (ii) display of public health data directly on an image of the physical environment. We used freely accessible satellite imagery and a set of feature-making tools included in the software (allowing for production of polygons, lines and points) to generate information for city infrastructure and to display disease data in a dengue decision support system (DDSS) framework. Two cities in Mexico (Chetumal and Merida) were used to demonstrate that a basic representation of city infrastructure useful as a spatial backbone in a DDSS can be rapidly developed at minimal cost. Data layers generated included labelled polygons representing city blocks, lines representing streets, and points showing the locations of schools and health clinics. City blocks were colour-coded to show presence of dengue cases. The data layers were successfully imported in a format known as shapefile into a GIS software. The combination of Google Earth and free GIS software (e.g. HealthMapper, developed by WHO, and SIGEpi, developed by PAHO) has tremendous potential to strengthen overall public health capacity and facilitate decision support system approaches to prevention and control of vector-borne diseases in resource-poor environments.

  2. 2000 Survey of Distributed Spacecraft Technologies and Architectures for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise in the 2010-2025 Timeframe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticker, Ronald L.; Azzolini, John D.

    2000-01-01

    The study investigates NASA's Earth Science Enterprise needs for Distributed Spacecraft Technologies in the 2010-2025 timeframe. In particular, the study focused on the Earth Science Vision Initiative and extrapolation of the measurement architecture from the 2002-2010 time period. Earth Science Enterprise documents were reviewed. Interviews were conducted with a number of Earth scientists and technologists. fundamental principles of formation flying were also explored. The results led to the development of four notional distribution spacecraft architectures. These four notional architectures (global constellations, virtual platforms, precision formation flying, and sensorwebs) are presented. They broadly and generically cover the distributed spacecraft architectures needed by Earth Science in the post-2010 era. These notional architectures are used to identify technology needs and drivers. Technology needs are subsequently grouped into five categories: Systems and architecture development tools; Miniaturization, production, manufacture, test and calibration; Data networks and information management; Orbit control, planning and operations; and Launch and deployment. The current state of the art and expected developments are explored. High-value technology areas are identified for possible future funding emphasis.

  3. Simulated JWST/NIRISS Spectroscopy of Anticipated TESS Planets and Selected Super-Earths Discovered from K2 and Ground-Based Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Dana; Albert, Loic; Deming, Drake

    2017-01-01

    The 2018 launch of James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), coupled with the 2017 launch of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), heralds a new era in Exoplanet Science, with TESS projected to detect over one thousand transiting sub-Neptune-sized planets (Ricker et al, 2014), and JWST offering unprecedented spectroscopic capabilities. Sullivan et al (2015) used Monte Carlo simulations to predict the properties of the planets that TESS is likely to detect, and published a catalog of 962 simulated TESS planets. Prior to TESS launch, the re-scoped Kepler K2 mission and ground-based surveys such as MEarth continue to seek nearby Earth-like exoplanets orbiting M-dwarf host stars. The exoplanet community will undoubtedly employ JWST for atmospheric characterization follow-up studies of promising exoplanets, but the targeted planets for these studies must be chosen wisely to maximize JWST science return. The goal of this project is to estimate the capabilities of JWST’s Near InfraRed Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS)—operating with the GR700XD grism in Single Object Slitless Spectrography (SOSS) mode—during observations of exoplanets transiting their host stars. We compare results obtained for the simulated TESS planets, confirmed K2-discovered super-Earths, and exoplanets discovered using ground-based surveys. By determining the target planet characteristics that result in the most favorable JWST observing conditions, we can optimize the choice of target planets in future JWST follow-on atmospheric characterization studies.

  4. Difficulties and Experience of Water Resources Survey%浅谈在开展水利普查工作中的难点和经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁进芝

    2015-01-01

    开展全国水利普查,是一项重大的国情国力调查,是国家资源环境调查的重要组成部分,是水利系统一项全局性、战略性、基础性的工作,对摸清水利发展状况,夯实水利管理基础,谋划水利长远发展,增强水利社会管理和公共服务能力,促进水资源可持续利用具有十分重要的意义,是一项利国利民、惠及子孙后代的德政工程。%The national water resources survey is an important survey of national conditions and strength. It is an important part of national resources and environment investigations. The national water resources survey is a kind of overall, strategic and fundamental work of water resources system. It has important significance for clearing the development situation of water resources, strengthening the management foundation of water resources, planning the long-term development of water resources, strengthening the social management of water resources and the public service ability and promoting the sustainable utilization of water resources. It is a kind of benevolent projects of benefitting the nation, people and descendants.

  5. Genetics of the hippocampal transcriptome in mouse: a systematic survey and online neurogenomics resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert W Overall

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Differences in gene expression in the CNS influence behavior and disease susceptibility. To systematically explore the role of normal variation in expression on hippocampal structure and function, we generated an online microarray database for a diverse panel of strains of mice, including most common inbred strains and numerous recombinant inbred lines (www.genenetwork.org. Using this resource, coexpression networks for families of genes can be generated rapidly to test causal models related to function. The data set is optimized for quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping and was used to identify over 5500 QTLs that modulate mRNA levels. We describe a wide variety of analyses and novel synthetic approaches that take advantage of this resource, and demostrate how both the data and associated tools can be applied to the study of gene regulation in the hippocampus and relations to structure and function.

  6. Genetics of the hippocampal transcriptome in mouse: a systematic survey and online neurogenomics resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Rupert W; Kempermann, Gerd; Peirce, Jeremy; Lu, Lu; Goldowitz, Dan; Gage, Fred H; Goodwin, Shirlean; Smit, August B; Airey, David C; Rosen, Glenn D; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Sutter, Thomas R; Nowakowski, Richard S; Whatley, Stephen; Williams, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Differences in gene expression in the CNS influence behavior and disease susceptibility. To systematically explore the role of normal variation in expression on hippocampal structure and function, we generated an online microarray database for a diverse panel of strains of mice, including most common inbred strains and numerous recombinant inbred lines (www.genenetwork.org). Using this resource, coexpression networks for families of genes can be generated rapidly to test causal models related to function. The data set is optimized for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and was used to identify over 5500 QTLs that modulate mRNA levels. We describe a wide variety of analyses and novel synthetic approaches that take advantage of this resource, and demonstrate how both the data and associated tools can be applied to the study of gene regulation in the hippocampus and relations to structure and function.

  7. Literature survey of in situ processes for application to the US tar sand resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jr., L. A.

    1989-08-01

    Tar sands in the United States and worldwide are a large potential source of hydrocarbon liquids that has yet to be sufficiently developed. The development of the US tar sand resource lags the worldwide development and poses a challenge that has not been eagerly accepted by the petroleum industry. This paper reviews the developmental status of in situ enhanced oil recovery techniques that have been proposed for the production of heavy oils or bitumen and determines which process or processes are in the forefront for application to the US resource. Also noted is what developmental work, if any, remains to be accomplished before field testing of the process(es). The review used only information available in the public domain. 196 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. A Cultural Resources Survey of the St. Charles Parish Hurricane Protection Levee, St. Charles Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Destrehan, daughter of Jean-Noel Destrehan and Marie-Claude Elenore de Longy (Conrad 1981:87). 69 .... .. mu muuuu m umuum 0n By 1944 the plantation was in...National Historic Park . Southwest Cultural Resources Center, Santa Fe. Holmes, Jack D. 1967 Indigo in Colonial Louisiana and the Floridas; Louisiana HiSt...Report submitted to the National Park Service, Tallahassee. 79 Neuman, Robert W. 1977 An Archaeological Assessment of Coastal Louisiana. Melanges, No

  9. An Intensive Cultural Resources Survey at Tuttle Creek Lake Pottawatomie and Riley Counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Title (in progress): "The Early Horizon Olmec: "’ A Review of Their Style, Culture and Impact on *= Mesoamerica ." B.A. Fordham University, 1972...4 -- ~4 .4 . .*.*4 ~ .. - ... ~~-* ..-... .,**.**.~**.* P PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS: Archaeology of the Northeast United States and of Mesoamerica ...Development of Early Horizon Cultures in Mesoamerica Settlement and Subsistence Patterns Prehistoric Exchange Systems Cultural Ecology Cultural Resource

  10. Cultural Resources Survey of Three Iberville Parish Levee Enlargement and Revetment Construction Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-22

    and four feet front, and forty arpents in depth, and bounded on one side by land of Bonaventura Leblanc, and on the other by Juan Hebert. It appears...and on the lower by land of Bonaventura Forest. This land was surveyed by Don Luis Andry, in the year 1772, in favor of the claimant, who obtained a...1772, In favor of Bonaventura Forest, who obtained a complete grant for the same In the year 1774, from Governor Unzaga; under which grant the

  11. U.S. Geological Survey assessments of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources, 2000 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-10-20

    From 2000 to 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted 139 quantitative assessments of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas accumulations within the United States. This report documents those assessments more fully than previously done by providing detailed documentation of both the assessment input and output. This report also compiles the data into spreadsheet tables that can be more readily used to provide analogs for future assessments, especially for hypothetical continuous accumulations.

  12. A global water resources ensemble of hydrological models: the eartH2Observe Tier-1 dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schellekens

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The dataset presented here consists of an ensemble of 10 global hydrological and land surface models for the period 1979–2012 using a reanalysis-based meteorological forcing dataset (0.5° resolution. The current dataset serves as a state of the art in current global hydrological modelling and as a benchmark for further improvements in the coming years. A signal-to-noise ratio analysis revealed low inter-model agreement over (i snow-dominated regions and (ii tropical rainforest and monsoon areas. The large uncertainty of precipitation in the tropics is not reflected in the ensemble runoff. Verification of the results against benchmark datasets for evapotranspiration, snow cover, snow water equivalent, soil moisture anomaly and total water storage anomaly using the tools from The International Land Model Benchmarking Project (ILAMB showed overall useful model performance, while the ensemble mean generally outperformed the single model estimates. The results also show that there is currently no single best model for all variables and that model performance is spatially variable. In our unconstrained model runs the ensemble mean of total runoff into the ocean was 46 268 km3 yr−1 (334 kg m−2 yr−1, while the ensemble mean of total evaporation was 537 kg m−2 yr−1. All data are made available openly through a Water Cycle Integrator portal (WCI, wci.earth2observe.eu, and via a direct http and ftp download. The portal follows the protocols of the open geospatial consortium such as OPeNDAP, WCS and WMS. The DOI for the data is https://doi.org/10.1016/10.5281/zenodo.167070.

  13. A global water resources ensemble of hydrological models: the eartH2Observe Tier-1 dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Jaap; Dutra, Emanuel; Martínez-de la Torre, Alberto; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; van Dijk, Albert; Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Minvielle, Marie; Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Decharme, Bertrand; Eisner, Stephanie; Fink, Gabriel; Flörke, Martina; Peßenteiner, Stefanie; van Beek, Rens; Polcher, Jan; Beck, Hylke; Orth, René; Calton, Ben; Burke, Sophia; Dorigo, Wouter; Weedon, Graham P.

    2017-07-01

    The dataset presented here consists of an ensemble of 10 global hydrological and land surface models for the period 1979-2012 using a reanalysis-based meteorological forcing dataset (0.5° resolution). The current dataset serves as a state of the art in current global hydrological modelling and as a benchmark for further improvements in the coming years. A signal-to-noise ratio analysis revealed low inter-model agreement over (i) snow-dominated regions and (ii) tropical rainforest and monsoon areas. The large uncertainty of precipitation in the tropics is not reflected in the ensemble runoff. Verification of the results against benchmark datasets for evapotranspiration, snow cover, snow water equivalent, soil moisture anomaly and total water storage anomaly using the tools from The International Land Model Benchmarking Project (ILAMB) showed overall useful model performance, while the ensemble mean generally outperformed the single model estimates. The results also show that there is currently no single best model for all variables and that model performance is spatially variable. In our unconstrained model runs the ensemble mean of total runoff into the ocean was 46 268 km3 yr-1 (334 kg m-2 yr-1), while the ensemble mean of total evaporation was 537 kg m-2 yr-1. All data are made available openly through a Water Cycle Integrator portal (WCI, wci.earth2observe.eu), and via a direct http and ftp download. The portal follows the protocols of the open geospatial consortium such as OPeNDAP, WCS and WMS. The DOI for the data is https://doi.org/10.1016/10.5281/zenodo.167070.

  14. Critical Sucess Factor For Implementation Of Enterprise Resource Planning System ERP Survey Bumn Companies In Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhanis Ladewi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was conducted to determine the influence management commitment and change management to the implementation of ERP. Where the ERP system is a computerized system that allows the management of all resources in the base organizations overall enterprise. Mc. Leod 2008 15 Romney 2012 56. The usefulness of this research is to develop science and problem solving. The results showed that there was a significant effect of management commitment and change management to the implementation of the ERP system Meanwhile if viewed from the side of the relationship there is a strong relationship between management and change management commitment to the implementation of the ERP system.

  15. 中药党参资源及生产现状%Survey of Codonopsis Germplasm Resource and Production Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张向东; 高建平; 曹铃亚; 针娴

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To understand the situation of germplasm resources and production status of Codonopsis pilosula. Methods :The relevant documents were consulted,combined with fields survey,and the obtained information was systemati-zated. Results:Codonopsis pilosula widely distributed in Shanxi,Gansu,Shaanxi,Sichuan,Hubei and other provinces. The products mainly were cultivated species with a small amount of wild. The original plant of Codonopsis pilosula included Codonopsis pilosula(Fianch. )Nannf,Codonopsis pilosula Nannf. var. modesta(Nannf. )L. T. Shen and Codonopsis tang-shen Oliv. Conclusion: Wild resources of Codonopsis pilosula is rich in China,but most of the resources quantity is reducing rapidly, and the urgent protection of wild resources of Codonopsis pilosula must be carried on.%目的:全面了解党参原植物种质资源状况及中药党参生产状况.方法:查阅相关文献,实地调查,标本采集鉴定和信息收集整理.结果:中药党参主产于山西、甘肃、陕西、四川、湖北等省,主要为栽培品,少量为野生,其原植物包括党参、素花党参、川党参.结论:我国党参种质资源丰富,但多数资源量在减少,亟待保护.

  16. Green Resource Allocation for Multiple OFDMA Based Networks:A Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. S. Khan; J. Abdullah; H. Lenando; J. M. Nazim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract-Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) is a popular and widely accepted multiple access technique to provide high data rate services in a mobile environment in the area of wireless communications. OFDMA can provide better flexibility in allocating the radio spectra by utilizing subcarrier allocations, scheduling, and energy control to obtain multi-dimension diversity gains. Due to its resource allocation flexibility, OFDMA has been widely used as a green air interface technology for the emerging broadband wireless access networks. This paper extensively addresses the integration of green OFDMA to the future air interface technologies, for instance: two-tier cellular, multi radio access technologies (RATs), FemtoCell, and relay networks. The main focus of the paper is to review and analyze the current OFDMA techniques to address the green resource allocation in multiuser diversity, where the critical constraints are the computational complexity, energy efficiency, and the sub-channel assignment. The future trend of OFDMA based networks will aim to maximize the energy efficiency of the exclusive channel assignment through a joint sub-channel and power allocation to accommodate high data traffic networks specially the relay based 5G cellular networks.

  17. The Griggs Dynamic Convection Model: a Resource for Learning About Mountain-Building Processes in the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glesener, G.

    2013-12-01

    Using a physical analog model in the classroom/laboratory setting is just one of the many ways teachers can provide a resource for learning through inquiry; however, well developed physical analog models of natural processes that can be measured and manipulated scientifically by students can be challenging for teachers to obtain. This research analyzes a historical physical analog model--the David Griggs (1939) Dynamic Convection Model, which was used 'to study the effect of sub-crustal convection currents on the continental crust.'--to determine if the model is capable of supporting model-based inquiry-oriented classroom activities. An analogical structure-mapping method developed for assessing the affordances of scale models (Kastens and Rivet, 2010) is used to show that the model has highly transparent surface and structural features, which correspond to Griggs' theory of mountain-building at the levels of attributes, simple relations, higher order relations and systematicity. A variety of experimental parameters for the model (i.e., using different materials, and varying the speeds of the convection cells) are described to give teachers support for developing inquiry-oriented classroom activities. Furthermore, the Griggs dynamic convection model, along with a replica for people to try, will be at the poster session.

  18. Locatable mineral assessment tracts for the U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Juan, Carma A.; Horton, John D.; Parks, Heather L.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Anderson, Eric D.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Box, Stephen E.; Cossette, Pamela M.; Denning, Paul D.; Giles, Stuart A.; Hall, Susan M.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Hearn, Carter B.; Hofstra, Albert H.; John, David A.; Ludington, Stephen; Lund, Karen; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Robinson, Jr., Gilpin R.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Rytuba, James J.; Smith, Steven M.; Stillings, Lisa; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Vikre, Peter G.; Wallis, John C.; Wilson, Anna B.; Zientek, Michael L.; Zurcher, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Southwestern and South-Central Wyoming SFAs, as well as additional areas in Nevada (termed the “Nevada additions”) proposed by the State of Nevada. Landscape-scale conservation efforts by the BLM, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), State agencies, private land owners, and other partners are striving to conserve the breeding sagebrush habitat for the greater sage-grouse across these areas.Accompanying report (Chapter A): Day, W.C., Hammarstrom, J.M., Zientek, M.L., and Frost, T.P., eds., 2016, Overview with methods and procedures of the U.S. Geological Survey mineral-resource assessment of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089, 211 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20165089.To quickly view the data, please access the ScienceBase interactive map viewer via the "Map" link in the upper-right corner of this page. Additional data functionality is described within the "Data_access_README.pdf" file that can be viewed or downloaded from the Attached Files area below.

  19. Resource Letter MPCVW-1: Modeling Political Conflict, Violence, and Wars: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Ana P.; Velásquez, Nicolás; Manrique, Pedro; Hong, Qi; Johnson, Nicholas; Johnson, Neil

    2013-11-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide into the literature on modeling and explaining political conflict, violence, and wars. Although this literature is dominated by social scientists, multidisciplinary work is currently being developed in the wake of myriad methodological approaches that have sought to analyze and predict political violence. The works covered herein present an overview of this abundance of methodological approaches. Since there is a variety of possible data sets and theoretical approaches, the level of detail and scope of models can vary quite considerably. The review does not provide a summary of the available data sets, but instead highlights recent works on quantitative or multi-method approaches to modeling different forms of political violence. Journal articles and books are organized in the following topics: social movements, diffusion of social movements, political violence, insurgencies and terrorism, and civil wars.

  20. SURVEY REGARDING THE EFFECTS OF OCCUPATIONAL SEGREGATION BY GENDER UPON HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEMYEN SUZANA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Theorists have designed over time the essential coordinates for human motivation, however, there are a number of differences between women and men in terms of, on the one hand, the interests, and on the other hand the skills, ability to work, level of dedication and so on. However, in addition to the delimitation criterion based on gender, later they can be identified differently from one individual to another, since each human being is different from his peers. Women's work is also in frequent occasions, differently appreciated from the one performed by men, and employee discrimination on the basis of gender is still present in some companies. The level of education, personality, areas of interest will be reflected differently according to gender analysis, and the existence of cultures and structures still "male" and "female", determines influences in the approach to human resource management

  1. Assessment of human resources for health using cross-national comparison of facility surveys in six countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neeru; Dal Poz, Mario R

    2009-03-12

    Health facility assessments are being increasingly used to measure and monitor indicators of health workforce performance, but the global evidence base remains weak. Partly this is due to the wide variability in assessment methods and tools, hampering comparability across and within countries and over time. The World Health Organization coordinated a series of facility-based surveys using a common approach in six countries: Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Jamaica, Mozambique, Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe. The objectives were twofold: to inform the development and monitoring of human resources for health (HRH) policy within the countries; and to test and validate the use of standardized facility-based human resources assessment tools across different contexts. The survey methodology drew on harmonized questionnaires and guidelines for data collection and processing. In accordance with the survey's dual objectives, this paper presents both descriptive statistics on a number of policy-relevant indicators for monitoring and evaluation of HRH as well as a qualitative assessment of the usefulness of the data collection tool for comparative analyses. The findings revealed a large diversity in both the organization of health services delivery and, in particular, the distribution and activities of facility-based health workers across the sampled countries. At the same time, some commonalities were observed, including the importance of nursing and midwifery personnel in the skill mix and the greater tendency of physicians to engage in dual practice. While the use of standardized questionnaires offered the advantage of enhancing cross-national comparability of the results, some limitations were noted, especially in relation to the categories used for occupations and qualifications that did not necessarily conform to the country situation. With increasing experience in health facility assessments for HRH monitoring comes greater need to establish and promote best practices regarding methods

  2. Assessment of human resources for health using cross-national comparison of facility surveys in six countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Poz Mario R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health facility assessments are being increasingly used to measure and monitor indicators of health workforce performance, but the global evidence base remains weak. Partly this is due to the wide variability in assessment methods and tools, hampering comparability across and within countries and over time. The World Health Organization coordinated a series of facility-based surveys using a common approach in six countries: Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Jamaica, Mozambique, Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe. The objectives were twofold: to inform the development and monitoring of human resources for health (HRH policy within the countries; and to test and validate the use of standardized facility-based human resources assessment tools across different contexts. Methods The survey methodology drew on harmonized questionnaires and guidelines for data collection and processing. In accordance with the survey's dual objectives, this paper presents both descriptive statistics on a number of policy-relevant indicators for monitoring and evaluation of HRH as well as a qualitative assessment of the usefulness of the data collection tool for comparative analyses. Results The findings revealed a large diversity in both the organization of health services delivery and, in particular, the distribution and activities of facility-based health workers across the sampled countries. At the same time, some commonalities were observed, including the importance of nursing and midwifery personnel in the skill mix and the greater tendency of physicians to engage in dual practice. While the use of standardized questionnaires offered the advantage of enhancing cross-national comparability of the results, some limitations were noted, especially in relation to the categories used for occupations and qualifications that did not necessarily conform to the country situation. Conclusion With increasing experience in health facility assessments for HRH monitoring comes

  3. 2006 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Bare Earth Topographic LiDAR: North Puget Sound, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USGS Contract Number: 01CRCN0014 In Spring, 2006 Sanborn was contracted by the USGS to survey aprocimately 1,735 square miles of western Whatcom and Skagit Counties...

  4. 2006 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Bare Earth Topographic LiDAR: North Puget Sound, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USGS Contract Number: 01CRCN0014 In Spring, 2006 Sanborn was contracted by the USGS to survey aprocimately 1,735 square miles of western Whatcom and Skagit Counties...

  5. Accuracy estimates for some global analytical models of the Earth's main magnetic field on the basis of data on gradient magnetic surveys at stratospheric balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, Yu. P.; Brekhov, O. M.; Bondar, T. N.; Filippov, S. V.; Petrov, V. G.; Tsvetkova, N. M.; Frunze, A. Kh.

    2014-03-01

    Two global analytical models of the main magnetic field of the Earth (MFE) have been used to determine their potential in deriving an anomalous MFE from balloon magnetic surveys conducted at altitudes of ˜30 km. The daily mean spherical harmonic model (DMSHM) constructed from satellite data on the day of balloon magnetic surveys was analyzed. This model for the day of magnetic surveys was shown to be almost free of errors associated with secular variations and can be recommended for deriving an anomalous MFE. The error of the enhanced magnetic model (EMM) was estimated depending on the number of harmonics used in the model. The model limited by the first 13 harmonics was shown to be able to lead to errors in the main MFE of around 15 nT. The EMM developed to n = m = 720 and constructed on the basis of satellite and ground-based magnetic data fails to adequately simulate the anomalous MFE at altitudes of 30 km. To construct a representative model developed to m = n = 720, ground-based magnetic data should be replaced by data of balloon magnetic surveys for altitudes of ˜30 km. The results of investigations were confirmed by a balloon experiment conducted by Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radio Wave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Moscow Aviation Institute.

  6. Advanced practice psychiatric nurses as a treatment resource: survey and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Saul; Bachman, John; Cuffel, Brian; Friesen, Bernice; McCabe, John

    2003-07-01

    Access to behavioral health services, particularly pharmacotherapy, continues to be a significant problem. This is particularly the case for public sector beneficiaries and managed care members. The greater use of advanced practice psychiatric nurses (APPNs) with prescribing privileges could help. To better understand the availability and competence of APPNs to prescribe, the authors conducted 1) a national survey of APPNs' availability and prescribing practices, 2) a comparative analysis of pharmacy claims data generated by APPNs and psychiatrists, and 3) a comprehensive clinical record review comparing APPNs to psychiatrists. About 25% of the sample of APPNs reported having prescription authority and a private practice. The analysis of prescribing practices between APPNs and psychiatrists showed that with a few exceptions, there were no differences between the groups, as did a retrospective clinical record review. These results lead the authors to recommend greater efforts to increase the supply of APPNs.

  7. A Survey and Resource Materials on the Use of Oxygen Supplementation in Fish Culture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colt, John; Orwicz, Kris; Bouck, Gerald R.

    1988-09-01

    Oxygen supplementation is the process by which naturally occurring dissolved oxygen (DO) is supplemented with enriched oxygen to restore or enhance DO levels in water. In aquaculture this is usually done with relatively pure oxygen and the result has significant potential to improve fish health, aid hatchery economic considerations, or both. For example, oxygen supplementation can preclude both hypoxia and gas bubble disease, as well as allow more fish to be reared in the same space or water or both. However, the concepts and technology in oxygen supplementation are evolving rapidly and direct communication with the user groups would foster technology transfer and improve implementation. Therefore we undertook and now report a survey of organizations that either currently use or plan to use oxygen supplementation. Additionally we included various pertinent material, including literature sources, lists of consultants and equipment manufacturers and some current research in oxygen supplementation.

  8. A brief qualitative survey on the utilization of Yoga research resources by Yoga teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavanani, Ananda Balayogi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Yoga has become popular worldwide with increasing research done on its therapeutic potential. However, it remains to be determined whether such findings actually percolate down into teaching and practice of Yoga teachers/therapists. Materials and Methods: The aim of this survey was to document awareness of Yoga research findings in the Yoga community and find out how these were utilized. It was undertaken with a select group of 34 international Yoga teachers and therapists utilizing email and social media between August and December 2015. Majority of responders had well-established reputation in Yoga and were from diverse lineages with 30 of them having more than 5 years of experience in the field. A set of eight questions were sent to them related to essentiality of Yoga research, how they updated themselves on research findings and whether such studies influenced their teaching and practice. Responses were compiled and appropriate statistics determined for quantitative aspects while feedback, comments and suggestions were noted in detail. Results and Discussion: About 89% agreed that it was essential to be up-to-date on Yoga research but only 70% updated themselves regularly with average papers read fully per year being <10. Most accessed information through general news reports, emails from contacts, and articles on internet sites whereas only 7% were through PubMed. About 60% felt these studies helped them in general teaching whereas 20% said that such studies had not really influenced it in any way. Conclusion: This survey provides a basic picture of a general lack of awareness of Yoga research amongst practicing Yoga teachers and therapists. Though a majority agree research is important, few seriously update themselves on this through scientific channels. With regard to future studies, most wanted “proof” that could be used to convince potential clients and felt that more qualitative methods should be applied. PMID:27104038

  9. Quality-assurance plan for water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, F.A.

    1996-01-01

    To ensure continued confidence in its products, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey implemented a policy that all its scientific work be performed in accordance with a centrally managed quality-assurance program. This report establishes and documents a formal policy for current (1995) quality assurance within the Idaho District of the U.S. Geological Survey. Quality assurance is formalized by describing district organization and operational responsibilities, documenting the district quality-assurance policies, and describing district functions. The districts conducts its work through offices in Boise, Idaho Falls, Twin Falls, Sandpoint, and at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Data-collection programs and interpretive studies are conducted by two operating units, and operational and technical assistance is provided by three support units: (1) Administrative Services advisors provide guidance on various personnel issues and budget functions, (2) computer and reports advisors provide guidance in their fields, and (3) discipline specialists provide technical advice and assistance to the district and to chiefs of various projects. The district's quality-assurance plan is based on an overall policy that provides a framework for defining the precision and accuracy of collected data. The plan is supported by a series of quality-assurance policy statements that describe responsibilities for specific operations in the district's program. The operations are program planning; project planning; project implementation; review and remediation; data collection; equipment calibration and maintenance; data processing and storage; data analysis, synthesis, and interpretation; report preparation and processing; and training. Activities of the district are systematically conducted under a hierarchy of supervision an management that is designed to ensure conformance with Water Resources Division goals quality assurance. The district quality

  10. A survey to study and compare factors affecting human resources efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHSEN KHADEMI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The human resources are considered the main asset of any society. If used properly and effectively, it will create other sources and above all the added value. The quality of the life is usually dependent on the quality of human professional life including factors such as job security, services and welfare pensions, health services, income, and job quality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role and priority of the above-mentioned factors on efficacy of the staff members of the Fars Office of Education. Methods: The research sample comprised the staff members of the Fars Office of Education across the state, including 61 districts. Based on the Cochran Formula, 25 districts were randomly selected. In order to measure the factors, the Likert-type instrument designed by Hossainpoor to compare the Ideal and current situation, was used. Results: The staff rated job security as the most important factor affecting their efficacy in both current and ideal situations followed by income. Discussion: Based on the previous research and review of literature, success of the educational organizations is fully dependent on their personnel. If executives of such organizations try to attract the qualified personnel and keep them motivated, their success will be guaranteed.

  11. How to use local resources to fight malnutrition in Madagascar? A study combining a survey and a consumer test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaroson Rakotosamimanana, Vonimihaingo; Valentin, Dominique; Arvisenet, Gaëlle

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to understand consumers' habits and belief structures concerning local food products and to develop a new snack as a way to fight against children malnutrition in Madagascar. A large variety of natural food resources grow in Madagascar, like Moringa oleifera (MO) which leaves are rich in nutrients but not consumed. First, a survey conducted in four areas of Madagascar revealed that MO leaves are known for their health benefits but infrequently consumed, probably because of their low satiating power and strong odor. In the studied areas, different levels of consumption were observed, which may be linked to varying levels of familiarity with MO by the local populations, this in turn resulting from different situations regarding geographical and historical availability. In contrary, resources such as cassava are perceived as having negative effects on health but are widely consumed because they are cheap, liked by children and satiating. The second step in the study aimed to propose products that could increase MO consumption without completely changing food practices. The acceptability of snacks associating cassava roots and MO was evaluated by means of hedonic tests performed by children. Between the snacks tested, the preferred snack contained the highest quantity of MO and was sweetened. There was no effect of area on the acceptance of the formulated snacks. This work is an evaluation of the potential of MO in the diet of malnourished population.

  12. U.S. Geological Survey 2002 Petroleum Resource Assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA): GIS Play Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, Christopher P.; Houseknecht, David W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2002-01-01

    This report provides digital GIS files of maps for each of the 24 plays evaluated in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 2002 petroleum resource assessment of the NPRA (Bird and Houseknecht, 2002a). These are the same maps released in pdf format by Bird and Houseknecht (2002b). The USGS released in 2002 a summary of the estimated volume of technically recoverable, undiscovered oil and nonassociated gas resources for 24 plays in NPRA (Bird and Houseknecht, 2002b). The NPRA assessment study area includes Federal and Native onshore land and adjacent State offshore areas. A map showing the areal extent of each play was prepared by USGS geologists as a preliminary step in the assessment process. Boundaries were drawn on the basis of a variety of information, including seismic reflection data, results of previous exploration drilling, and regional patterns of rock properties. Play boundary polygons were captured by digitizing the play maps prepared by USGS geologists. Federal, Native, and State areas were later clipped from the play boundary polygons, allowing for acreages to be calculated for entire plays and for various subareas within plays.

  13. Observations of the Earth's magnetic field from the shuttle: Using the Spartan carrier as a magnetic survey tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, W. J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The shuttle-deployed and recovered Spartan shows promise as an inexpensive and simple support module for potential field measurements. The results of a preliminary engineering study on the applications of the Spartan carrier to magnetic measurements shows: (1) Extension of the mission duration to as long as 7 days is feasible but requires more reconfiguration of the internal systems; (2) On-board recording of Global Positioning System signals will provide position determination with an accuracy consistent with the most severe requirements; and (3) Making Spartan a magnetically clean spacecraft is straight forward but requires labor-intensive modifications to both the data and power systems. As a magnetic survey tool, Spartan would allow surveys at regularly spaced intervals and could make quick-reaction surveys at times of instability in the secular variation.

  14. On inclusion of water resource management in Earth System models – Part 2: Representation of water supply and allocation and opportunities for improved modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nazemi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human water use has significantly increased during the recent past. Water allocation from surface and groundwater sources has altered terrestrial discharge and storage, with large variability in time and space. Water supply and allocation, therefore, should be considered with water demand and appropriately included in large-scale models to address various online and offline implications, with or without considering possible climate interactions. Here, we review the algorithms developed to represent the elements of water supply and allocation in large-scale models, in particular Land Surface Schemes and Global Hydrologic Models. We noted that some potentially-important online implications, such as the effects of large reservoirs on land-atmospheric feedbacks, have not yet been addressed. Regarding offline implications, we find that there are important elements, such as groundwater availability and withdrawals, and the representation of large reservoirs, which should be improved. Major sources of uncertainty in offline simulations include data support, water allocation algorithms and host large-scale models. Considering these findings with those highlighted in our companion paper, we note that advancements in computation, host models, system identification algorithms as well as remote sensing and data assimilation products can facilitate improved representations of water resource management at larger scales. We further propose a modular development framework to consider and test multiple datasets, algorithms and host models in a unified model diagnosis and uncertainty assessment framework. We suggest that such a framework is required to systematically improve current representations of water resource management in Earth System models. A key to this development is the availability of regional scale data. We argue that the time is right for a global initiative, based on regional case studies, to move this agenda forward.

  15. U.S. Geological Survey 2011 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cook Inlet region, south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.; Pierce, Brenda S.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has completed an assessment of the volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in conventional and continuous accumulations in Cook Inlet. The assessment used a geology-based methodology and results from new scientific research by the USGS and the State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys and Division of Oil and Gas (DOG). In the Cook Inlet region, the USGS estimates mean undiscovered volumes of nearly 600 million barrels of oil, about 19 trillion cubic feet of gas, and about 46 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  16. Tools You Can Use! E/PO Resources for Scientists and Faculty to Use and Contribute To: EarthSpace and the NASA SMD Scientist Speaker’s Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Shupla, C.; CoBabe-Ammann, E.; Dalton, H.; Shipp, S.

    2013-10-01

    The Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forum has helped to create two tools that are designed to help scientists and higher-education science faculty make stronger connections with their audiences: EarthSpace, an education clearinghouse for the undergraduate classroom; and NASA SMD Scientist Speaker’s Bureau, an online portal to help bring science - and scientists - to the public. Are you looking for Earth and space science higher education resources and materials? Come explore EarthSpace, a searchable database of undergraduate classroom materials for faculty teaching Earth and space sciences at both the introductory and upper division levels! In addition to classroom materials, EarthSpace provides news and information about educational research, best practices, and funding opportunities. All materials submitted to EarthSpace are peer reviewed, ensuring that the quality of the EarthSpace materials is high and also providing important feedback to authors. Your submission is a reviewed publication! Learn more, search for resources, join the listserv, sign up to review materials, and submit your own at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace. Join the new NASA SMD Scientist Speaker’s Bureau, an online portal to connect scientists interested in getting involved in E/PO projects (e.g., giving public talks, classroom visits, and virtual connections) with audiences! The Scientist Speaker’s Bureau helps educators and institutions connect with NASA scientists who are interested in giving presentations, based upon the topic, logistics, and audience. The information input into the database will be used to help match scientists (you!) with the requests being placed by educators. All Earth and space scientists funded by NASA - and/or engaged in active research using NASA’s science - are invited to become part of the Scientist Speaker’s Bureau. Submit your information into the short form at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/speaker.

  17. Confirmation study of the effectiveness of prospect techniques for deep geothermal resources. Deep-seated geothermal resources survey report (Fiscal year 1993); 1993 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Drilling and survey of deep geothermal exploration wells were conducted in order to grasp the existing situation of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of geothermal systems in the area where geothermal resource was already developed. Following fiscal 1992, the well was drilled in fiscal 1993 down to depths of 605m-1505m, and a 13-3/8 inch casing was inserted down to a depth of 1500m. In the drilling, four cores including oriented cores were sampled, and microscopic observation, X-ray diffraction analysis, fluid inclusion survey, core property test, etc. were conducted. In the FMI logging, detected were 273 bedding planes, 483 fractures, etc. Further made were a velocity structure survey, a gravity survey in the area of 270 km{sup 2} including deep exploration wells, a quality survey of the Kakkonda river water, etc. As to geothermal structure models in the Kakkonda area, results of the drilling were added to prediction models before drilling deep exploration wells, but the revision was not very much. Besides, studies were made of a survey method using microearthquakes, a survey technique using resistivity, etc. 61 refs., 259 figs., 95 tabs.

  18. [Simulation-based anaesthesia crisis resource management training. Results of a survey on learning success].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, T; von Heymann, C H; Ortwein, H; Rau, J; Wernecke, K D; Spies, C

    2009-10-01

    Up to as many as 38,000 people die in German hospitals each year as a result of preventable medical errors. Anesthetic procedures are generally safer than internal medical procedures and the mortality associated with anesthesia is estimated to be 3.3-5 cases per million. However, this is still 10 times higher than the risk associated with civilian aviation for example. Up to 80% of mistakes are attributable to inadequate execution of non-technical skills (NTS) such as communication, teamwork and organization of the working environment. Training in non-technical skills through Anesthesia Crisis Resource Management (ACRM) is an integral part of the Berlin Simulation Training (BeST) curriculum. The aim of this study was to describe the subjective evaluation of change in routine clinical behavior as a result of simulator training using latent outcome variables such as "subjective evaluation of learning outcome", with special emphasis on communication. In total 235 doctors with varying levels of professional experience received BeST training between 2001 and 2004. An anonymous postal questionnaire was sent to 228 of these participants and the response rate was 64% The questionnaire contained 13 questions covering evaluation of the workshop and learning outcome with respect to communication in the operating room (OR), teamwork in the OR and medical knowledge. Following factor analysis 3 latent outcome variables (subjective evaluation of the learning outcome, workshop-related change in perception of the value of communication and general value and relevance) were generated. Logistic regression was used to determine whether there was any relationship between the latent outcome variables and a number of independent factors. It was not possible to demonstrate any relationship between the level of professional training, age or date of the workshop and the variables selected to describe subjective evaluation of behavioral change as a result of the workshop. How realistic the

  19. Survey of stranded gas and delivered costs to Europe of selected gas resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Two important trends affecting the expected growth of global gas markets are (1) the shift by many industrialized countries from coal-fired electricity generation to the use of natural gas to generate electricity and (2) the industrialization of the heavily populated Asian countries of India and China. This paper surveys discovered gas in stranded conventional gas accumulations and presents estimates of the cost of developing and producing stranded gas in selected countries. Stranded gas is natural gas in discovered or identified fields that is not currently commercially producible for either physical or economic reasons. Published reserves of gas at the global level do not distinguish between volumes of gas in producing fields and volumes in nonproducing fields. Data on stranded gas reported here-that is the volumes, geographical distribution, and size distributions of stranded gas fields at the country and regional level-are based on the examination of individual-field data and represent a significant improvement in information available to industry and government decision makers. Globally, stranded gas is pervasive, but large volumes in large accumulations are concentrated in only a few areas. The cost component of the paper focuses on stranded conventional gas accumulations in Africa and South America that have the potential to augment supplies to Europe. The methods described for the computation of extraction and transport costs are innovative in that they use information on the sizes and geographical distribution of the identified stranded gas fields. The costs are based on industry data specific to the country and geologic basin where the stranded gas is located. Gas supplies to Europe can be increased significantly at competitive costs by the development of stranded gas. Net extraction costs of producing the identified gas depend critically on the natural-gas-liquids (NGLs) content, the prevailing prices of liquids, the size of the gas accumulation, and the

  20. A THEMIS Survey of Flux Ropes and Traveling Compression Regions: Location of the Near-Earth Reconnection Site During Solar Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, S. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Auster, H. U.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2011-01-01

    A statistical study of flux ropes and traveling compression regions (TCRs) during the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) second tail season has been performed. A combined total of 135 flux ropes and TCRs in the range GSM X approx -14 to -31 R(sub E) were identified, many of these occurring in series of two or more events separated by a few tens of seconds. Those occurring within 10 min of each other were combined into aggregated reconnection events. For the purposes of this survey, these are most likely the products of reconnect ion occurring simultaneously at multiple, closely spaced x-lines as opposed to statistically independent episodes of reconnection. The 135 flux ropes and TCRs were grouped into 87 reconnection events; of these, 28 were moving tailward and 59 were moving Earthward. The average location of the near-Earth x-line determined from statistical analysis of these reconnection events is (X(sub GSM), Y*(sub GSM)) = (-30R(sub E), 5R(sub E)), where Y* includes a correction for the solar aberration angle. A strong east-west asymmetry is present in the tailward events, with >80% being observed at GSM Y* > O. Our results indicate that the Earthward flows are similarly asymmetric in the midtail region, becoming more symmetric inside - 18 R(sub E). Superposed epoch analyses indicate that the occurrence of reconnection closer to the Earth, i.e., X > -20 R(sub E), is associated with elevated solar wind velocity and enhanced negative interplanetary magnetic field B(sub z). Reconnection events taking place closer to the Earth are also far more effective in producing geomagnetic activity, judged by the AL index, than reconnection initiated beyond X approx -25 R(sub E).

  1. Solutions for Large Amount of Images in Aerial Photograph Control Surveying Using Google Earth%利用Google Earth解决控制测量生产中大数据量影像带来的难题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙睿英; 李玉成; 吕国志

    2012-01-01

    探讨了利用Google Earth辅助进行像片控制测量控制点布设的优点,介绍了利用Google Earth进行像控点布设的方法和作业流程.%This paper discusses the advantages of the planning of ground control points for aerial photograph control surveying using Google Earth, and introduces the method and working flowchart of the planning of ground control points for aerial photograph control surveying using Google Earth.

  2. Using Survey Responses to Determine the Value-Added Features of a Webinar Portal System for Adoption by Natural Resource Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharis, Laurie; Bardon, Robert E.; Hubbard, William; Taylor, Eric; Gonzalez-Jeuck, Grizel

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a recent survey of natural resource webinar providers. Respondents were asked a range of questions regarding their webinar services. Findings showed that respondents most commonly marketed their webinars through email or websites and targeted an audience of professionals. Respondents noted that the greatest…

  3. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  4. A two-stage cluster sampling method using gridded population data, a GIS, and Google EarthTM imagery in a population-based mortality survey in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galway LP

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality estimates can measure and monitor the impacts of conflict on a population, guide humanitarian efforts, and help to better understand the public health impacts of conflict. Vital statistics registration and surveillance systems are rarely functional in conflict settings, posing a challenge of estimating mortality using retrospective population-based surveys. Results We present a two-stage cluster sampling method for application in population-based mortality surveys. The sampling method utilizes gridded population data and a geographic information system (GIS to select clusters in the first sampling stage and Google Earth TM imagery and sampling grids to select households in the second sampling stage. The sampling method is implemented in a household mortality study in Iraq in 2011. Factors affecting feasibility and methodological quality are described. Conclusion Sampling is a challenge in retrospective population-based mortality studies and alternatives that improve on the conventional approaches are needed. The sampling strategy presented here was designed to generate a representative sample of the Iraqi population while reducing the potential for bias and considering the context specific challenges of the study setting. This sampling strategy, or variations on it, are adaptable and should be considered and tested in other conflict settings.

  5. Human resources issues and Australian Disaster Medical Assistance Teams: results of a national survey of team members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Aitken

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calls for disaster medical assistance teams (DMATs are likely to continue in response to international disasters. As part of a national survey, this study was designed to evaluate Australian DMAT experience in relation to the human resources issues associated with deployment. Methods: Data was collected via an anonymous mailed survey distributed via State and Territory representatives on the Australian Health Protection Committee, who identified team members associated with Australian DMAT deployments from the 2004 South East Asian Tsunami disaster. Results: The response rate for this survey was 50% (59/118. Most personnel had deployed to the Asian Tsunami affected areas with DMAT members having significant clinical and international experience. While all except one respondent stated they received a full orientation prior to deployment, only 34% of respondents (20/59 felt their role was clearly defined pre deployment. Approximately 56% (33/59 felt their actual role matched their intended role and that their clinical background was well suited to their tasks. Most respondents were prepared to be available for deployment for 1 month (34%, 20/59. The most common period of notice needed to deploy was 6–12 hours for 29% (17/59 followed by 12–24 hours for 24% (14/59. The preferred period of overseas deployment was 14–21 days (46%, 27/59 followed by 1 month (25%, 15/59 and the optimum shift period was felt to be 12 hours by 66% (39/59. The majority felt that there was both adequate pay (71%, 42/59 and adequate indemnity (66%, 39/59. Almost half (49%, 29/59 stated it was better to work with people from the same hospital and, while most felt their deployment could be easily covered by staff from their workplace (56%, 33/59 and caused an inconvenience to their colleagues (51%, 30/59, it was less likely to interrupt service delivery in their workplace (10%, 6/59 or cause an inconvenience to patients (9%, 5/59. Deployment was felt to

  6. LINX: managing Earth Sciences free web resources at Milano Bicocca University Library = LINX: la gestione delle risorse web di Scienze della Terra della biblioteca di Ateneo di Milano-Bicocca

    OpenAIRE

    Papalia, Chiara; Saccenti, Luisanna; Verga, Francesca

    2007-01-01

    The library of the Università degli Studi Milano-Bicocca has adopted the Scout Portal Toolkit (SPT) open-source software to catalog, display, and share collections of data about web resources. The result was the creation of “LINX – Link e strumenti X la ricerca”, which has a dedicated Earth Sciences section. LINX is a collection of free resources for education and research selected by the library staff and/or recommended by users: web sites, databases, virtual reference desks, repositories, e...

  7. Study on rare earth resources management policies in the new international situation%国际新形势下我国稀土资源管理政策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方一平; 张福良; 李晓宇; 杜轶伦; 马骋

    2013-01-01

    International situation in rare earth is complex in recent years and rare earth in the world situation has undergone significant changes .Rare earth demand will remain strong in the world in the future and China's rare earth still has strong international competitiveness in the next two years .Strategy for the large-scale enterprise groups are an inevitable choice for raising the level of development of rare earth industry and improving the international competitiveness .Firstly ,The paper tracks the new trends of development and utilization of rare earth in foreign countries ,such as rare earth mine restart ,new rare earth project start ,new technology research and development of rare earth accelerate .Secondly ,The paper analyze and conclude the situation of rare earth resources management policies in China ,such as a series of new rare earth management policies were implemented ,the force of exploration and planned was strengthened ,the development of rare earth industry is tending to healthy ,stable and sustainable .Thirdly ,the paper sorts out the issues in the management and utilization of rare earth in China .The paper also analyzes the international rare earths market situation ,for instance ,supply and demand international situation ,international competitiveness in China .Finally ,the paper give some policy advices ,such as development of rare earth resources in domestic and foreign simultaneously ,equal stress on development and protection ,joint regulation by law ,improvement of environmental entry threshold for enterprise .%近年,国际稀土形势错综复杂,世界稀土格局发生重大变化。未来国际市场的稀土需求将持续旺盛,我国在未来两年内的国际稀土市场上依然具有较强竞争力,大企业集团战略是我国稀土工业提升发展水平和提高国际竞争力的必然选择。本文从国外稀土开发利用新动态入手,阐述了国外稀土矿山重启、稀土新项目上马、稀土新技

  8. New mission for surveying, mapping and geomatics in Smart Earth era%智慧地球时代测绘地理信息学的新使命

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德仁; 姚远; 邵振峰

    2012-01-01

    本文首先指出智慧地球是数字地球、物联网和云计算等有机的融合,随后分析了智慧地球的主要特性,并重点阐述了智慧地球时代测绘地理信息学的新使命.作者认为我们已经从绘制地形图为主的小测绘发展成为当今以地理空间信息服务为主的大测绘,现在必须抓住机遇,不失时机地拓展智慧地球时代测绘地理信息学的新使命,将传统测绘提升为能够实时、智能地采集和处理海量空间数据、提供空间信息和知识服务的智慧测绘新阶段.%This paper first pointed out that Smart Earth is consisted of Digital Earth, Internet of Thing9( IOT) , and cloud computing. Next, il analyzed the main features of Smart Earth and focused on the new missions of surveying, mapping and geomatics in the Smart Earth era. The authors believed that we have walked through the so called "small surveying and mapping" that mainly serves topographic maps, and developed into the so called "big surveying and mapping", the services of geospatial information. At present, we should seize the opportunity and expand new mission of surveying, mapping and geomatics in the Smart Earth era, and make surveying and mapping upgraded to smart surveying and mapping stage which could facilitate real-time intelligence collecting and processing massive spatial data, in order to provide service of spatial information and knowledge.

  9. Coal Fields - COAL_NCRDS_IN: Coal Resource Data in Indiana, Derived from the National Coal Resource Data System (Indiana Geological Survey, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This ESRI ArcInfo point shapefile depicts the location of 9,117 public point-source coal resource data points in Indiana. This shapefile includes location and coal...

  10. What Are Probability Surveys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) use probability-survey designs to assess the condition of the nation’s waters. In probability surveys (also known as sample-surveys or statistical surveys), sampling sites are selected randomly.

  11. Marine Resource Survey in waters surrounding Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (SE1002, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goals of the cruise were to collect a variety of data to assess the status of marine resources in waters surrounding Guam and CNMI. Marine resource habitats were...

  12. Free Open Access Medical Education resource knowledge and utilisation amongst Emergency Medicine trainees: A survey in four countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Thurtle

    2016-03-01

    The Emergency Medicine trainees in both developed and low resource settings studied were aware that Free Open Access Medical Education resources exist, but trainees in lower income settings were generally less aware of specific resources. Lack of internet and device access was not a barrier to use in this group.

  13. Partnership‐Driven Resources to Improve and Enhance Research (PRIMER): A Survey of Community‐Engaged Researchers and Creation of an Online Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolor, Rowena J.; Greene, Sarah M.; Thompson, Ella; Baldwin, Laura‐Mae; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This project aimed to develop an open‐access website providing adaptable resources to facilitate best practices for multisite research from initiation to closeout. Methods: A web‐based assessment was sent to the leadership of the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Community Engagement Key Functions Committee (n= 38) and the CTSA‐affiliated Primary Care Practice‐based Research Networks (PBRN, n= 55). Respondents rated the benefits and barriers of multisite research, the utility of available resources, and indicated their level of interest in unavailable resources. Then, existing research resources were evaluated for relevance to multisite research, adaptability to other projects, and source credibility. Results: Fifty‐five (59%) of invited participants completed the survey. Top perceived benefits of multisite research were the ability to conduct community‐relevant research through academic–community partnerships (34%) and accelerating translation of research into practice (31%). Top perceived barriers were lack of research infrastructure to support PBRNs and community partners (31%) and inadequate funding to support multisite collaborations (26%). Over 200 resources were evaluated, of which 120 unique resources were included in the website. Conclusion: The PRIMER Research Toolkit (http://www.researchtoolkit.org) provides an array of peer‐reviewed resources to facilitate translational research for the conduct of multisite studies within PBRNs and community‐based organizations. Clin Trans Sci 2011; Volume 4: 259–265 PMID:21884512

  14. Astronomical Resources. The Solar System: An Introductory Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    This reference surveys resources of astronomical information including books and articles about the solar system, Mercury, Venus, Earth, the Moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, Asteroids, Comets, and Meteors. Also included is a list of seven available slide sets about the solar system. (CW)

  15. Extraction of the anomaly magnetic field of the earth from stratospheric balloon magnetic surveys at altitudes of 20-40 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, Yu. P.; Kuznetsov, V. D.; Golovkov, V. P.; Brekhov, O. M.; Pelle, V. A.; Krapivnyi, A. V.; Nikolaev, N. S.

    2011-01-01

    The solution to the problem of extraction of the anomaly Earth's magnetic field (EMF) from stratospheric balloon magnetic surveys with the help of global analytical models of the normal EMF is proposed. In the problem solution, errors for the analytical models of the normal EMF and its secular variation at a set moment of time are assessed; the found error is introduced as a correction to the extracted anomaly EMF. The error of the model is determined in the places where significant magnetic anomalies are absent. In this case, the error of the model corresponds to deviations of the normal EMF components, synthesized by coefficients of analytical models, and to deviations of the EMF secular variations from the measured values at quite a low value of the variable EMF or one being taken into account. These places are determined when carrying out additional measurements in vertical gradients of the EMF with the use of scalar magnetometers at the gauge length of 6 km. It has been shown that the found places can be considered as nonanomaly, if the difference of values of the anomaly EMF at the gauge length of 6 km does not exceed 1.5 nT within the profile's portion of about 100 km in length. An experiment in nature has revealed that errors for the IGRF-2005 and IGRF-2010 models, corrected for secular variation of the EMF, can reach 200 and 140 nT, respectively, within the limits of the territory where the Kama-Emba magnetic anomaly is located; these errors are determined by the considered causes. Comparison of aerostatic profiles of magnetic anomalies with data on the anomaly EMF, derived from the maps, has shown that the realizations derived from the maps contain overestimated negative values of the anomaly EMF, because they reflect processes in the near-surface layer of the Earth's crust. This fact causes the situation when attempts to recalculate the anomaly EMF into the upper half-space by the near-surface data still have not been successful. Only realizations

  16. 中央公益性地质调查人才队伍激励探讨%Discussion on the incentive of human resources,China Geological Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈元旭; 张小海

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the current situation and problems of human resources of China geological survey ,puts forward some measures on the base of human resource incentive theory,such as strengthen work incentives,allocate incentive,evaluate incentive,training incentive.%本文在分析了中央公益性地质调查人才现状及问题,利用人力资源激励理论,提出加强工作激励、分配激励、评估激励、培训激励等具体措施。

  17. High School Physics Textbooks, Resources and Teacher Resourcefulness: Results from the 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Casey Langer; White, Susan

    2014-01-01

    What textbooks are physics teachers using? How highly do they rate those textbooks? What other types of materials do teachers use? The textbooks and other resources used by high school physics teachers in the US have evolved along with the changing demands of physics classes and the evolving set of options available to teachers. In this report,…

  18. Hunan Rare Earth Group Approved

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Following Guangdong,Guangxi,Fujian and Jiangxi,Hunan announced that it would consolidate its rare earth resources-the consolidation plan of Hunan Rare Earth Group has been approved. Consolidation of the rare earth industry of south China is in full swing.According to "Several Opinions of the State Council on Promoting the Sustainable and Healthy Development of Rare Earth Industry"(hereinafter referred to as "Several Opinions")released in 2011,

  19. “The Effects of Limited Resources and Opportunities on Women’s Careers in Physics: Results from the Global Survey of Physicists

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The results of the Global Survey of Physicists draw attention to the need to focus on factors other than representation when discussing the situation of women in physics. Previous studies of women in physics have mostly focused on the lack of women in the field. This study goes beyond the obvious shortage of women and shows that there are much deeper issues. For the first time, a multinational study was conducted with 15000 respondents from 130 countries, showing that problems for women in physics transcend national borders. Across all countries, women have fewer resources and opportunities and are more affected by cultural expectations concerning child care. We show that limited resources and opportunities hurt career progress, and because women have fewer opportunities and resources, their careers progress more slowly. We also show the disproportionate effects of children on women physicists' careers. Cultural expectations about home and family are difficult to change. However, for women to have successful ...

  20. A Cultural Resources LIterature Search, Record Review and Cultural Resources Survey of the Belle Fountain Ditch Enlargement Project within Pemiscot and Dunklin Counties, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    iffrentlated Alluvium braided St~ream Terrace 2 (Late wlcosinl*f) 2 braded Stroan Terraece I Figutr. 1. Projoct st-.. location PROJECT LOCATION The BFD project...Archeologist 8 (2). Anderson David G. 1976 A Preliminary Report of the Zebree Proeect: New ApDroaches in Contract Archeology in Arkansas. Assembled and...00402. Bennett, Jayne and David Higginbotham 1984 Cultural Resources Mitiaation along Ditch 19. Site 23DU227. Dunklin County, Missouri. Prepared by AR

  1. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Menzie, W. David

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the amount and location of undiscovered mineral resources that are likely to be economically recoverable is important for assessing the long-term adequacy and availability of mineral supplies. This requires an economic evaluation of estimates of undiscovered resources generated by traditional resource assessments (Singer and Menzie, 2010). In this study, simplified engineering cost models were used to estimate the economic fraction of resources contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, predicted in a global assessment of copper resources. The cost models of Camm (1991) were updated with a cost index to reflect increases in mining and milling costs since 1989. The updated cost models were used to perform an economic analysis of undiscovered resources estimated in porphyry copper deposits in six tracts located in North America. The assessment estimated undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the land surface in three depth intervals.

  2. SLJ's Spending Survey: As the Economy Limps along and Federal Dollars Dwindle, School Librarians Are Turning into Resourceful Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Lesley

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of the latest "SLJ" survey of school expenditures and collections for 2009-2010. The survey reveals that librarians have used a variety of coping techniques to weather this economic storm, whether it is servicing more than one school, using additional volunteers, taking on more tasks, or seeking outside funding.…

  3. Study on the Exploitation and Utilization of Traditional Food Safety and Chinese Medicine Resources in Rural Areas-based on the Survey of Tongcheng Anhui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Bo Xu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a study on the exploitation and utilization of traditional food safety and Chinese medicine resources in rural areas based on the survey of Tongcheng Anhui. There are a large variety and effectiveness of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM resources in vast rural areas and they are the material basis for the development of TCM cause and research of TCM products. For a long time, however, because of various objective and subjective factors such as lacking of due attention to development and utilization of the resources of TCM, the cause of traditional Chinese medicine in rural areas are lack of development potential. By selecting a representative sample of rural Tongcheng in Anhui and on the basis of investigation on development and utilization of local traditional Chinese medicine resources, we should analyze current problems of development and utilization of existing rural medicine resource and propose suggestions from the aspects of government and farmers research. In this way, we can provide a reference to the motherland researchers and workers of the pharmaceutical industry.

  4. 包头混合稀土矿清洁冶炼资源综合提取技术研究%Techniques for Clean Smelting and Resource Comprehensive Recycle of Baotou Rare Earth Concentrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许延辉; 刘海蛟; 崔建国; 孟志军; 赵文怡; 李良才

    2012-01-01

    研究了烧碱溶液连续焙烧分解包头混合稀土精矿综合提取有价元素制备氯化稀土的工艺.对混合稀土精矿和烧碱溶液的混合矿浆进行了不同温度的连续焙烧,研究了焙烧温度对稀土分解率、铈氧化率和氟、磷溶出行为的影响,考察了该工艺对不同稀土品位精矿的适应性.结果表明:使用56%品位的稀土精矿,300℃以上焙烧时稀土分解率达到97%以上,铈的氧化率达到93%以上.提出了包头混合稀土矿液碱连续焙烧分解、水洗除氟、盐酸分步溶解、萃取回收磷和铁,中和除钍后得到氯化稀土溶液的资源综合提取工艺,精矿中稀土、氟、磷、钙、铁和钍得到综合回收.%The techniques for decomposition of the bastnasite and monazite rare earth concentrates by alkali solution was investigated. The mixed slurries of the rare earth concentrates and the alkali solutions were calcined at different temperatures. The impacts of calcination temperatures on the decomposition efficiency of rare earth and the oxidation ratio of cerium, and the stripping of fluorine and phosphorous after calcinations , as well as the adaptability of the techniques to the mixed rare earth concentrates of different grade were studied. The results showed that if the grade of rare earth concentrates was larger than 56% , and the calcinations temperature was higher than 300℃,the decomposition efficiency of rare earth and the oxidation ratio of cerium could reach 97% and 93% , respectively. The techniques for resource comprehensive recycle was brought forward, which included procedures of continuous fluid alkali calcinations and decomposition, removing fluorine by washing, fractional dissolving by HC1, recycle of phosphor and iron by extraction, removing thorium by neutralization and finally obtaining the solution of rare earth chloride. The chemical elements such as rare earth , fluorine, phosphorus , calcium, iron and thorium could be recycled.

  5. U.S. Geological Survey 2010 Petroleum Resource Assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA): GIS Play Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The 2010 updated assessment of NPRA evaluated each of the 24 plays based on the availability of new geologic data available from exploration activities and...

  6. Cultural Resources Survey, Harry S. Truman Dam and Reservoir Project, Missouri. Volume 5. Lithic and Ceramic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    History Site Testing Pomme de Terre River Architectural Survey Rock Shelters Grand River Archeological Survey Environmental Studies Deepwater Creek...the lower Pomme de Terre River valley. Volume VII is a study of the re- sults of preliminary testing at several sites in the lower Pomme de Terre ...Mound. Missouri Archaeologist 7(1): 2-8. *1954 Preliminary Salvage in the Pomme de Terre Reservoir Area, Missouri. Missouri Archaeologist 16(3-4): 1-113

  7. St. John’s Bayou Cultural Resources Survey and Testing in Scott, Mississippi and New Madrid Counties, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Objectives 22 Natural Environment and Site Locations 22 Landforms 23 Biotic Communities 24 Soil Associations 24 Site Significance and Lithic Analysis 25 Nature...survey records accumulated over many decades and should be tested by intensive on-the-ground pedestrian survey. SITE SIGNIFICANUE AND LITHIC ANALYSIS While... lithic analysis has been an important part of the overall research effort in the Lower Valley for the past decade, there are still many basic

  8. Fish survey, fishing duration, shellfish resource assessment, and other data from the COMMANDO and other platforms as part of Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 21 May 1976 to 16 September 1976 (NODC Accession 7700432)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish survey, fishing duration, shellfish resource assessment, and other data were collected from the COMMANDO and other platforms from 21 May 1976 to 16 September...

  9. Fish survey - fishing duration, shellfish resource assessment, and other data from the Beaufort Sea as part of Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 22 June 1976 to 21 September 1976 (NODC Accession 7800003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish survey, fishing duration, shellfish resource assessment, and other data were collected from the Beaufort Sea from 22 June 1976 to 21 September 1976. Data were...

  10. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 10: Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietzke, K. R.

    1974-01-01

    The economic benefits of an ERS system in the area of industrial resources are discussed. Contributions of ERTS imagery to the improvement of shipping routes, detection of previously unknown and potentially active faults in construction areas, and monitoring industrial pollution are described. Due to lack of economic research concerning the subject of ERS applications in this resource area the benefit estimations reported are regarded as tentative and preliminary.

  11. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - SAND_GRAVEL_RESOURCES_IN: Sand and Gravel Resource Potential in Mapped Surficial Material in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:500,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — SAND_GRAVEL_RESOURCES_IN is a polygon shapefile that identifies sand and gravel permissive tracts in the surficial unconsolidated deposits of Indiana. Permissive...

  12. Expanding earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    Arguments in favor of an expanding earth are presented. The author believes that the theory of plate tectonics is a classic error in the history of geology. The case for the expanding earth is organized in the following way: introductory review - face of the earth, development of expanding earth concept, necessity for expansion, the subduction myth, and definitions; some principles - scale of tectonic phenomena, non-uniformitarianism, tectonic profile, paleomagnetism, asymmetry of the earth, rotation of the earth, and modes of crustal extension; regional studies - western North America, Central America, South-East Asia, and the rift oceans; tests and cause of expansion. 824 references, 197 figures, 11 tables. (RWR)

  13. Cultural Resources Intensive Survey and Testing of Mississippi River Levee Berms, Crittenden and Desha Counties, Arkansas and Mississippi, Scott, Cape Girardeau and Pemiscot Counties, Missouri Item R-618 Knowlton; Desha County, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    distribucion of cultural resources within the project area . In addition, information obtained in the background and literature search should be of such scope...DAC0W66-83-C-0030, Item R-618, to conduct a background, archi- val and literature search, and an intensive resources survey of teroject area of proposed...seepage through the levee during periods of flooding. The area surveyed included: 152.4 meters (500 feet) right-of-way perpen- dicular and landside frow

  14. A Survey on Delay-Aware Resource Control for Wireless Systems --- Large Deviation Theory, Stochastic Lyapunov Drift and Distributed Stochastic Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Ying; Wang, Rui; Huang, Huang; Zhang, Shunqing

    2011-01-01

    In this tutorial paper, a comprehensive survey is given on several major systematic approaches in dealing with delay-aware control problems, namely the equivalent rate constraint approach, the Lyapunov stability drift approach and the approximate Markov Decision Process (MDP) approach using stochastic learning. These approaches essentially embrace most of the existing literature regarding delay-aware resource control in wireless systems. They have their relative pros and cons in terms of performance, complexity and implementation issues. For each of the approaches, the problem setup, the general solution and the design methodology are discussed. Applications of these approaches to delay-aware resource allocation are illustrated with examples in single-hop wireless networks. Furthermore, recent results regarding delay-aware multi-hop routing designs in general multi-hop networks are elaborated. Finally, the delay performance of the various approaches are compared through simulations using an example of the upl...

  15. Laurel Clark Earth Camp: Building a Framework for Teacher and Student Understanding of Earth Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colodner, D.; Buxner, S.; Schwartz, K.; Orchard, A.; Titcomb, A.; King, B.; Baldridge, A.; Thomas-Hilburn, H.; Crown, D. A.

    2013-04-01

    Laurel Clark Earth Camp is designed to inspire teachers and students to study their world through field experiences, remote sensing investigations, and hands on exploration, all of which lend context to scientific inquiry. In three different programs (for middle school students, for high school students, and for teachers) participants are challenged to understand Earth processes from the perspectives of both on-the ground inspection and from examination of satellite images, and use those multiple perspectives to determine best practices on both a societal and individual scale. Earth Camp is a field-based program that takes place both in the “natural” and built environment. Middle School Earth Camp introduces students to a variety of environmental science, engineering, technology, and societal approaches to sustainability. High School Earth Camp explores ecology and water resources from southern Arizona to eastern Utah, including a 5 day rafting trip. In both camps, students compare environmental change observed through repeat photography on the ground to changes observed from space. Students are encouraged to utilize their camp experience in considering their future course of study, career objectives, and lifestyle choices. During Earth Camp for Educators, teachers participate in a series of weekend workshops to explore relevant environmental science practices, including water quality testing, biodiversity surveys, water and light audits, and remote sensing. Teachers engage students, both in school and after school, in scientific investigations with this broad based set of tools. Earth Stories from Space is a website that will assist in developing skills and comfort in analyzing change over time and space using remotely sensed images. Through this three-year NASA funded program, participants will appreciate the importance of scale and perspective in understanding Earth systems and become inspired to make choices that protect the environment.

  16. Survey Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    Survey Says is a lesson plan designed to teach college students how to access Internet resources for valid data related to the sexual health of young people. Discussion questions based on the most recent available data from two national surveys, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance-United States, 2003 (CDC, 2004) and the National Survey of…

  17. Using economic valuation techniques to inform water resources management: a survey and critical appraisal of available techniques and an application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birol, Ekin; Karousakis, Katia; Koundouri, Phoebe

    2006-07-15

    The need for economic analysis for the design and implementation of efficient water resources management policies is well documented in the economics literature. This need is also emphasised in the European Union's recent Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), and is relevant to the objectives of Euro-limpacs, an EU funded project which inter alia, aims to provide a decision-support system for valuing the effects of future global change on Europe's freshwater ecosystems. The purpose of this paper is to define the role of economic valuation techniques in assisting in the design of efficient, equitable and sustainable policies for water resources management in the face of environmental problems such as pollution, intensive land use in agriculture and climate change. The paper begins with a discussion of the conceptual economic framework that can be used to inform water policy-making. An inventory of the available economic valuation methods is presented and the scope and suitability of each for studying various aspects of water resources are critically discussed. Recent studies that apply these methods to water resources are reviewed. Finally, an application of one of the economic valuation methods, namely the contingent valuation method, is presented using a case study of the Cheimaditida wetland in Greece.

  18. Student Academic Performance and the Allocation of School Resources: Results from a Survey of Junior Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yuhong; Hu, Yongmei

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the increasing cost of education has been a global trend, and there is a growing demand for increasing efficiency in different countries. As a result, education economists began focusing on the issue of efficient allocation of educational resources and borrowed production function from economics to study educational production…

  19. Selected water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in New England in 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskel, Peter K.

    2017-06-22

    The New England Water Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is headquartered in Pembroke, New Hampshire, with offices in East Hartford, Connecticut; Augusta, Maine; Northborough, Massachusetts; and Montpelier, Vermont. The areas of expertise covered by the water science center’s staff of 130 include aquatic biology, chemistry, geographic information systems, geology, hydrologic sciences and engineering, and water use.

  20. Prices of Rare Earth Products Tend to Rise(Continued)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    8. Ji Daiyu, General Manager of Baotou Xinyuan RareEarth Hi-Tech Materials Co. LtdControl gross to stabilize prices. Chinese rare earth is precious strategic resource. The more it is exploit, the less it will be. The State has put forward rare earth policy of "strengthen management, protect resource, develop scientifically and face international". Chinese rare earth

  1. Topographic Lidar Survey of the Alabama, Mississippi, and Southeast Louisiana Barrier Islands, from September 5 to October 11, 2012 -- Bare Earth Digital Elevation Models

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A topographic lidar survey was conducted from September 5 to October 11, 2012, for the barrier islands of Alabama, Mississippi and southeast Louisiana, including the...

  2. Topographic Lidar Survey of Dauphin Island, Alabama and Chandeleur, Stake, Grand Gosier and Breton Islands, Louisiana, July 12-14, 2013 -- Bare Earth Digital Elevation Models (DEMs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A topographic lidar survey was conducted on July 12-14, 2013 over Dauphin Island, Alabama and Chandeleur, Stake, Grand Gosier and Breton Islands, Louisiana. The data...

  3. Topographic Lidar Survey of the Alabama, Mississippi, and Southeast Louisiana Barrier Islands, from September 5 to October 11, 2012 -- Bare Earth Digital Elevation Models

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A topographic lidar survey was conducted from September 5 to October 11, 2012, for the barrier islands of Alabama, Mississippi and southeast Louisiana, including...

  4. Topographic Lidar Survey of the Alabama, Mississippi, and Southeast Louisiana Barrier Islands, from September 5 to October 11, 2012 -- Bare Earth Digital Elevation Models

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A topographic lidar survey was conducted from September 5 to October 11, 2012, for the barrier islands of Alabama, Mississippi and southeast Louisiana, including the...

  5. Topographic Lidar Survey of Dauphin Island, Alabama and Chandeleur, Stake, Grand Gosier and Breton Islands, Louisiana, July 12-14, 2013 -- Bare Earth Digital Elevation Models (DEMs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A topographic lidar survey was conducted on July 12-14, 2013 over Dauphin Island, Alabama and Chandeleur, Stake, Grand Gosier and Breton Islands, Louisiana. The data...

  6. Mapping wetlands in the Lower Mekong Basin for wetland resource and conservation management using Landsat ETM images and field survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAlister, Charlotte; Mahaxay, Manithaphone

    2009-05-01

    The Mekong River Basin is considered to be the second most species rich river basin in the world. The 795,000 km(2) catchment encompasses several ecoregions, incorporating biodiverse and productive wetland systems. Eighty percent of the rapidly expanding population of the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB), made up in part by Lao PDR, Thailand, Cambodia and Viet Nam, live in rural areas and are heavily reliant on wetland resources. As the populations of Cambodia and Lao PDR will double in the next 20 years, pressure on natural resources and particularly wetlands can only increase. For development planning, resource and conservation management to incorporate wetland issues, information on the distribution and character of Mekong wetlands is essential. The existing but outdated wetland maps were compiled from secondary landuse-landcover data, have limited coverage, poor thematic accuracy and no meta-data. Therefore the Mekong River Commission (MRC) undertook to produce new wetland coverage for the LMB. As resources, funding and regional capacity are limited, it was determined that the method applied should use existing facilities, be easily adaptable, and replicable locally. For the product to be useful it must be accepted by local governments and decision makers. The results must be of acceptable accuracy (>75%) and the methodology should be relatively understandable to non-experts. In the first stage of this exercise, field survey was conducted at five pilot sites covering a range of typical wetland habitats (MRC wetland classification) to supply data for a supervised classification of Landsat ETM images from the existing MRC archive. Images were analysed using ERDAS IMAGINE and applying Maximum Likelihood Classification. Field data were reserved to apply formal accuracy assessment to the final wetland habitat maps, with resulting accuracy ranging from 77 to 94%. The maps produced are now in use at a Provincial and National level in three countries for resource and

  7. Earth Resources Technology Satellite-1 (ERTS-1) data and anthropology: Use of these data in carrying capacity estimates for sites in Upper Volta and Niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reining, P. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Repetitively derived multispectral band imagery from ERTS-1 is now available for many parts of the earth's land surface and represents major new data sources for anthropological work in habitat, land use, and settlement patterns. A completed first step test of ERTS-1 data is available in carrying capacity estimates for Mossi, Hausa, and Sonrai sites derived from: (1) field work; (2) aerial photography; and (3) ERTS-1. Data can test more than one carrying capacity formula.

  8. "Will a Black Hole Eventually Swallow the Earth?" Fifth Graders' Interest in Questions from a Textbook, an Open Educational Resource, and Other Students' Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swirski, Hani; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2015-01-01

    Can questions sent to Open-Educational-Resource (OER) websites such as Ask-An-Expert serve as indicators for students' interest in science? This issue was examined using an online questionnaire which included an equal number of questions about the topics "space" and "nutrition" randomly selected from three different sources: a…

  9. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 8: Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, R.; Fawkes, G.

    1974-01-01

    The economic value of an ERS system in the resource area of atmosphere is determined. Benefits which arise from air pollution and cloud observations correlated to ground stations are discussed along with cost savings associated with air pollution monitoring by satellite. Social benefits due to more precise knowledge of the effects of pollution are presented.

  10. GREAT (Groundwater Resources & Educational Activities for Teaching). An Iowa Project for Earth/Life/General Science, 7th-9th Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Gail, Ed.

    These resource materials are a part of a larger plan for groundwater education, as detailed in the Iowa Groundwater Education Strategy. The six units are arranged in priority order. The first unit covers the basics of groundwater and hydrogeology in Iowa. The other five units cover Iowa's groundwater issues in priority order, as outlined in the…

  11. "Will a Black Hole Eventually Swallow the Earth?" Fifth Graders' Interest in Questions from a Textbook, an Open Educational Resource, and Other Students' Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swirski, Hani; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2015-01-01

    Can questions sent to Open-Educational-Resource (OER) websites such as Ask-An-Expert serve as indicators for students' interest in science? This issue was examined using an online questionnaire which included an equal number of questions about the topics "space" and "nutrition" randomly selected from three different sources: a…

  12. Water Resources Investigation. St. Louis Metropolitan Area, Missouri and Illinois. Maline Creek, Missouri Survey Report. Volume 2. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    the extension of Chippewa Street) against a 52-foot Mississippi River flood stage ( Market Street gage). Details regarding the overall city of St. Louis...significantly contribute to outdoor recreation objective by increasing the opportunity for such activities as nature hiking and birdwatching . wildlife...resources related to any proposed project. The changes may be of a market or non- market character, but generally the latter. Such effects are inextricably

  13. Tombs, tunnels, and terraces a cultural resources survey of a former ammunition supply point in Okinawa, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaaren, B. T.; Levenson, J. B.; Komine, G.

    2000-02-09

    U.S. forces serving at military bases on foreign soil are obligated to act as good stewards of the cultural and natural resources under their control. However, cultural resources management presents special challenges at U.S. bases in other countries where cultural properties laws differ in emphasis and detail from those in the United States and issues of land ownership and occupancy are not always clear. Where status of forces agreements (SOFAs) exist, environmental governing standards bridge the gap between U.S. and host nation cultural priorities. In Japan, the Department of Defense Japan Environmental Governing Standards (JEGS) fill this function. Under Criteria 12-4.2 and 12-4.3 of the JEGS, U.S. Forces Japan commit themselves to inventory and protect cultural properties found on the lands they control or use. Cultural properties include archaeological sites, tombs, historic buildings, and shrines. Natural monuments, such as landscape features or plant and animal species, may also be designated as cultural properties. As part of this commitment, in February 1999 a cultural resources inventory was conducted in Area 1, part of Kadena Air Base (AB), Okinawa, Japan. Area 1, the former U.S. army Ammunition Supply Point 1, is currently used primarily for training exercises and recreational paint ball.

  14. Sun-Earth Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Ng, C.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.

    2010-08-01

    Sun-Earth Day is a well-coordinated series of programs, resources and events under a unique yearly theme highlighting the fundamentals of heliophysics research and missions. A menu of activities, conducted throughout the year, inspire and educate participants. Sun-Earth Day itself can vary in date, but usually is identified by a celebration on or near the spring equinox. Through the Sun-Earth Day framework we have been able to offer a series of coordinated events that promote and highlight the Sun, its connection to Earth and the other planets. Sun-Earth Day events are hosted by educators, museums, amateur astronomers and scientists and occur at schools, community groups, parks, planetaria and science centers around the globe. Sun-Earth Day raises the awareness and knowledge of formal and informal education audiences concerning space weather and heliophysics. By building on the success of Sun-Earth Day yearly celebrations, we seek to affect people of all backgrounds and ages with the wonders of heliophysics science, discovery, and exploration in ways that are both tangible and meaningful to their lives.

  15. A Cultural Resource Survey of the East Shore of Lake Oahe, South Dakota. Volume 1. Covering Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    limited evidence of several small debris scatters, none of which were investigated (Roetzel and Woolworth 1978). One of these sites (39CA15) is...flake fragments were recorded during a reconnaissance of the southern shore of Pollock Bay (Roetzel and Woolworth 1978). In 1979, more extensive remains...K.A., and N.L. Woolworth 1978 The archeological and historical survey and report on a proposed project near Pollock and Herried, South Dakota

  16. A Cultural Resources Intensive Survey of the Ensley Berm Construction Site, Shelby County, Tennessee. A Negative Finding Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-16

    gathering bands are postulated. Early Paleo-Indian sites, identified by fluted Clovis projectile points, are rare in the Mississippi drainage of west...Russel, C. Vance Haynes, Donald Johnson and Marven Kay I 1981 Kimmswick: A Clovis -Mastodon Association in Eastern Missouri. Science 213:1115-1117. U...on-the-ground survey of an area, of sufficient intensity to determine the number, types, extent and distribution of cultura ] rescurces ;resent and

  17. Quality of Life, Depression, and Healthcare Resource Utilization among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Concomitant Hypertension and Obesity: A Prospective Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Green

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study compared quality of life, depression, and healthcare resource utilization among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and comorbid hypertension (HTN and obesity with those of adults reporting T2DM alone. Methods. Respondents to the US SHIELD survey self-reported their height, weight, comorbid conditions, hospitalizations, and outpatient visits and completed the Short Form-12 (SF-12 and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Respondents reporting T2DM and HTN and obesity (body mass index, BMI, ≥30 kg/m2 were compared with a T2DM-alone group. Results. Respondents with T2DM, HTN, and obesity (n=1292 had significantly lower SF-12 Physical and Mental Component Summary scores (37.3 and 50.9, resp. than T2DM-alone respondents (n=349 (45.8 and 53.5, resp., P<0.0001. Mean PHQ-9 scores were significantly higher among T2DM respondents with comorbid HTN and obesity (5.0 versus 2.5, P<0.0001, indicating greater depression burden. Respondents with T2DM, HTN, and obesity had significantly more resource utilization with respect to physician visits and emergency room visits but not hospitalizations than respondents with T2DM alone (P=0.03. Conclusions. SHIELD respondents with comorbid conditions of T2DM, HTN, and obesity reported greater healthcare resource utilization, more depression symptoms, and lower quality of life than the T2DM-alone group.

  18. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using a Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR and Kinematic Structural Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teplow, William J. [US Geothermal, Inc., Boise, ID (United States); Warren, Ian [US Geothermal, Inc., Boise, ID (United States)

    2015-08-12

    The DOE cost-share program applied innovative and cutting edge seismic surveying and processing, permanent scatter interferometry-synthetic aperture radar (PSInSAR) and structural kinematics to the exploration problem of locating and mapping largeaperture fractures (LAFs) for the purpose of targeting geothermal production wells. The San Emidio geothermal resource area, which is under lease to USG, contains production wells that have encountered and currently produce from LAFs in the southern half of the resource area (Figure 2). The USG lease block, incorporating the northern extension of the San Emidio geothermal resource, extends 3 miles north of the operating wellfield. The northern lease block was known to contain shallow thermal waters but was previously unexplored by deep drilling. Results of the Phase 1 exploration program are described in detail in the Phase 1 Final Report (Teplow et al., 2011). The DOE cost shared program was completed as planned on September 30, 2014. This report summarizes results from all of Phase 1 and 2 activities.

  19. Magnetic resonance sounding survey data collected in the North Platte, Twin Platte, and South Platte Natural Resource Districts, Western Nebraska, Fall 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Mason A.; Bloss, Benjamin R.; Irons, Trevor P.; Cannia, James C.; Abraham, Jared D.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a release of digital data and associated survey descriptions from a series of magnetic resonance soundings (MRS, also known as surface nuclear magnetic resonance) that was conducted during October and November of 2012 in areas of western Nebraska as part of a cooperative hydrologic study by the North Platte Natural Resource District (NRD), South Platte NRD, Twin Platte NRD, the Nebraska Environmental Trust, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The objective of the study was to delineate the base-of-aquifer and refine the understanding of the hydrologic properties in the aquifer system. The MRS technique non-invasively measures water content in the subsurface, which makes it a useful tool for hydrologic investigations in the near surface (up to depths of approximately 150 meters). In total, 14 MRS production-level soundings were acquired by the USGS over an area of approximately 10,600 square kilometers. The data are presented here in digital format, along with acquisition information, survey and site descriptions, and metadata.

  20. Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Zaki; Lamb, Christopher A.; Ross, Shane D.

    2012-12-01

    The list of detected near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) is constantly growing. NEAs are likely targets for resources to support space industrialization, as they may be the least expensive source of certain needed raw materials. The limited supply of precious metals and semiconducting elements on Earth may be supplemented or even replaced by the reserves floating in the form of asteroids around the solar system. Precious metals make up a significant fraction NEAs by mass, and even one metallic asteroid of ˜1km size and fair enrichment in platinum-group metals would contain twice the tonnage of such metals already harvested on Earth. There are ˜1000 NEAs with a diameter of greater than 1 km. Capturing these asteroids around the Earth would expand the mining industry into an entirely new dimension. Having such resources within easy reach in Earth's orbit could provide an off-world environmentally friendly remedy for impending terrestrial shortages, especially given the need for raw materials in developing nations. In this paper, we develop and implement a conceptually simple algorithm to determine trajectory characteristics necessary to move NEAs into capture orbits around the Earth. Altered trajectories of asteroids are calculated using an ephemeris model. Only asteroids of eccentricity less than 0.1 have been studied and the model is restricted to the ecliptic plane for simplicity. We constrain the time of retrieval to be 10 years or less, based on considerations of the time to return on investment. For the heliocentric phase, constant acceleration is assumed. The acceleration required for transporting these asteroids from their undisturbed orbits to the sphere of influence of the Earth is the primary output, along with the impulse or acceleration necessary to effect capture to a bound orbit once the Earth's sphere of influence is reached. The initial guess for the constant acceleration is provided by a new estimation method, similar in spirit to Edelbaum's. Based on the

  1. Mineral Resources Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral resource occurrence data covering the world, most thoroughly within the U.S. This database contains the records previously provided in the Mineral Resource...

  2. Remote Sensing Survey of Grassland Resources and Study of Grass-livestock Balance in Hangjin Banner of Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Terigele; Yanhong; XU; Ying; LI; Quan; WU

    2015-01-01

    The data of this paper mainly include statistics,field survey data and MODIS remote sensing image data. This paper estimates the aboveground biomass of grassland and theoretical livestock carrying capacity of natural grassland in Hangjin Banner and draws a grass- livestock balance table in accordance with the actual and theoretical livestock carrying capacity of natural grassland. Studies have shown that the grass and livestock balance is good in Hangjin Banner,and the overloading rate is 1. 5%; there was no overloading in 2010 and 2011.

  3. Quality Assurance System of Mineral Resource Survey Project%矿产资源调查项目质量保障体系构建研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘保琦; 王仁志; 匡建超

    2012-01-01

    文章对矿产资源调查项目的质量保障体系进行了研究,其目的是探索一种科学合理的质量保障体系供矿产勘查项目借鉴.通过归纳总结和对比分析,论文提出基于TQM-ISO矿产资源调查项目的质量保障体系克服了单一质量体系的缺陷,提高了矿产资源调查项目质量管理水平,对提高矿产勘查工作的效率和保证勘查成果的质量,将具有积极意义.%This thesis makes research on the quality assurance system of mineral resource exploration projects. This paper based on these points, carries out the researches in terms of quality assurance system of mineral resource survey projects. The goal is to set up a quality assurance system which is more reasonable and more scientific, so as to provide an example for other mineral resource projects. The quality assurance system of mineral resource exploration projects based on TOM-ISO, which is proposed in this thesis, overcomes the shortcomings of single quality system and improves the project management quality. Therefore, in the respect of improving the efficiency of mineral prospect and guaranteeing the quality of exploration results, this thesis will make a great difference.

  4. Confirmation study of the effectiveness of prospect techniques for geothermal resources. Deep-seated geothermal resources survey report (Fiscal year 1994); 1994 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Drilling and survey of deep geothermal exploration wells were conducted to grasp the existing situation of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of geothermal systems in the area where geothermal resource was already developed. In the drilling work in fiscal 1994, 4000m-class rigs and the top drive system were planned to be used for drilling of 12-1/4 inch wells, but 9-5/8 inch liners were used for drilling down to depths of 2550m or deeper since the amount of lost circulation is large and the withdrawal of devices may be very difficult. And in 8-1/2 inch wells, the well was drilled down to a depth of 2950m. As to the deep resistivity exploration technology using electromagnetic method, studies were made of a multiple-frequency array induction logging (MAIL) method, a vertical electromagnetic profiling (VEMP) method, a joint analysis method, etc. Concerning the synthetic fluid inclusion logging technology, containers were lowered into the well and a comparison was made between data of the homogenization temperature analysis of the formed fluid inclusion and those of the temperature log analysis. With relation to the making of deep geothermal structural models, revision was made according to the determination of depths of Miocene formations, Pre-tertiary formations, and the Kakkonda granite. 65 refs., 268 figs., 79 tabs.

  5. RESCUE OF CACAO GENETIC RESOURCES RELATED TO THE NACIONAL VARIETY: SURVEYS IN THE ECUADORIAN AMAZON (2010-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rey Gastón Loor Solorzano

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional cocoa plantations in Ecuador are mostly composed of a complex mix of highly variable hybrid progenies, which has greatly reduced the population of native trees of the “Nacional” variety, to such a point that they are considered today as heading for extinction, which is increasingly worrying the international chocolate industry. Some years ago, we used genetic molecular markers to identify trees considered to be relics of the ancient original population of the “Nacional” variety, and some wild cocoa trees in a particular region of the southern Ecuadorian Amazon were identified as highly related to the “Nacional” variety. This paper presents the results of two surveys carried out in the southern Ecuadorian Amazon, in the Zamora-Chinchipe Province, in 2010 and 2013. The objective of these surveys was to search for, identify and rescue cocoa trees that might be the wild ancestors of the “Nacional” variety. In 2010, 83 mother trees were collected (budwood, pods and leaves and 48 in 2013. They were preserved at the Granja Domono experimental farm, near Macas (Morona-Santiago province and at the Tropical Experimental station Pichilingue, near Quevedo. The trees collected are currently being characterized for their genetic diversity, using molecular markers, and for the biochemical diversity of their beans.

  6. Earth Observing-1 Hyperion: 2001-Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Earth Observing-1(EO-1) satellite was launched on November 21, 2000 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration...

  7. Earth Observing One - Hyperion (2001 - present) Privileged

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Earth Observing-1(EO-1) satellite was launched on November 21, 2000 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration...

  8. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 7: Nonreplenishable natural resources: Minerals, fossil fuels and geothermal energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietzke, K. R.

    1974-01-01

    The application of remotely-sensed information to the mineral, fossil fuel, and geothermal energy extraction industry is investigated. Public and private cost savings are documented in geologic mapping activities. Benefits and capabilities accruing to the ERS system are assessed. It is shown that remote sensing aids in resource extraction, as well as the monitoring of several dynamic phenomena, including disturbed lands, reclamation, erosion, glaciation, and volcanic and seismic activity.

  9. Active microwave remote sensing research program plan. Recommendations of the Earth Resources Synthetic Aperture Radar Task Force. [application areas: vegetation canopies, surface water, surface morphology, rocks and soils, and man-made structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A research program plan developed by the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications to provide guidelines for a concentrated effort to improve the understanding of the measurement capabilities of active microwave imaging sensors, and to define the role of such sensors in future Earth observations programs is outlined. The focus of the planned activities is on renewable and non-renewable resources. Five general application areas are addressed: (1) vegetation canopies, (2) surface water, (3) surface morphology, (4) rocks and soils, and (5) man-made structures. Research tasks are described which, when accomplished, will clearly establish the measurement capabilities in each area, and provide the theoretical and empirical results needed to specify and justify satellite systems using imaging radar sensors for global observations.

  10. Chapter 8: US geological survey Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA): Introduction and summary of organization and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, R.R.; Gautier, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    The USGS has assessed undiscovered petroleum resources in the Arctic through geological mapping, basin analysis and quantitative assessment. The new map compilation provided the base from which geologists subdivided the Arctic for burial history modelling and quantitative assessment. The CARA was a probabilistic, geologically based study that used existing USGS methodology, modified somewhat for the circumstances of the Arctic. The assessment relied heavily on analogue modelling, with numerical input as lognormal distributions of sizes and numbers of undiscovered accumulations. Probabilistic results for individual assessment units were statistically aggregated taking geological dependencies into account. Fourteen papers in this Geological Society volume present summaries of various aspects of the CARA. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  11. Rethinking resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, W.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We class energy and mineral resources as finite because we are reasonably certain that they do not form at a rate remotely approaching man`s rate of use. We have certain environments of the earth that have limits in carrying capacity, and we presume that the global environment does as well. These facts and presumptions, coupled with anxieties over growth in population and consumption, have posed pictures of impending catastrophe from Malthus through the Club of Rome and currently, among certain advocates of what is called sustainable development. To avoid future calamity, command and control management of resource use is urged by many. But, quite simply, such management would presume a wisdom that historical experience suggests does not exist. As a recent example, consider natural gas resources. A decade and a half ago, the resource base of natural gas in the United States was judged to be near exhaustion. Estimates of remaining resources by governmental agencies, academicians, and several major energy companies indicated the ultimate resource would be at about 100 tcf today, with essential depletion by the end of the century. Such was the near universal wisdom that compelled Congress to enact legislation to outright prohibit certain use of natural gas. Today, after nearly eight years of gas supply in excess of demand and with entirely new appreciation of the impact of technology, estimates of the remaining gas resource by industry, government, and others are an order of magnitude greater than those made just 15 yr ago, and the same government that then sought to husband a resource presumed to be near depletion now aggressively promotes its use and consumption. Limits to resources and limits to environmental carrying capacity do indeed exist, but we have yet to define those limits and the paths thereto.

  12. Earth\\'s Mass Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Mawad, Ramy

    2014-01-01

    The perturbation of the Earth caused by variability of mass of Earth as additional reason with gravity of celestial bodies and shape of the Earth. The Earth eating and collecting matters from space and loss or eject matters to space through its flying in the space around the Sun. The source of the rising in the global sea level is not closed in global warming and icebergs, but the outer space is the additional important source for this rising. The Earth eats waters from space in unknown mechanism. The mass of the Earth become greater in November i.e. before transit apoapsis two months, and become latter in February i.e. after transit apoapsis to two months.

  13. Water Resources Research Program. Transport of oily pollutants in the coastal waters of Lake Michigan. An application of rare earth tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCown, D. L.; Saunders, K. D.; Allender, J. H.; Ditmars, J. D.; Harrison, W.

    1978-11-01

    An experimental method was developed to tag and to trace oily pollutants in fresh water environments. The use of two rare earth element tags (Dy and Sm) permitted simultaneous tracing of small oil spills at the water surface and of the underlying water. Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the tracer concentrations in numerous, small water samples collected from a moving boat. The method was applied in two field experiments with simulated oily pollutants in the Indiana Harbor Canal (IHC). Tagged oily pollutants and IHC waters were traced under both floating- and sinking-plume conditions. Floating-plume results indicated that oily waste artificially mixed downward by a ship did not resurface, no differences were seen in the movement of the oily waste and the underlying water, and mixing coefficients for tagged oil and water were similar to those measured by others on the Great Lakes. Sinking-plume results gave unequivocal evidence of the intake of IHC effluent at Chicago's South Water Filtration Plant and indicated partitioning of the oily wastes and water. Simple dilution estimates for the sinking plume were supported by the tracer data and similar estimates indicated plume center-line dilution ratios for the entire IHC effluent at the water intakes could be as low as 2.8.

  14. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Assess Estuary Health and Enhance Management of Water Resources in Coastal Texas through Land Cover and Precipitation Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepps, G.; Gonsoroski, E.; Lynn, T.; Schick, R.; Pereira da Silva, R.

    2015-12-01

    This project partnered with the National Park Service (NPS) to help analyze the correlation between mesquite trees and the salinity of the Laguna Madre of Padre Island National Seashore. The lagoon is a hypersaline estuary; however, there is historical evidence that this was not always the case. It is hypothesized that the increase in the number of honey mesquite trees (Prosopis grandulosa var. glandulosa) in the area has contributed to the Laguna Madre's increased salinity by decreasing the groundwater inflow to the lagoon. These mesquite trees have long taproots capable of extracting significant amounts of groundwater. This project utilized Earth observation data in ERDAS IMAGINE and ArcGIS software to create map time series and analyze the data. Landsat 5, 7, and 8 data were used to create land use/land cover (LULC) maps in order to analyze the change in the occurrence of mesquite trees over time. Thermal maps of the lagoon were generated using Landsat 5, 7, and 8 data to understand changes in groundwater inflow. In addition, TRMM and GRACE derived changes in root zone soil moisture content data were compared over the study period. By investigating the suspected positive correlation between the mesquite trees and the salinity of the Laguna Madre, the NPS can improve future land management practices.

  15. Major Land Resource Areas (MLRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of the Land Resource Regions and Major Land Resource Areas of the conterminous United States. Land resource regions are geographic areas...

  16. Enhancing participatory approach in water resources management: development of a survey to evaluate stakeholders needs and priorities related to software capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglia, L.; Rossetto, R.; Borsi, I.; Josef, S.; Boukalova, Z.; Triana, F.; Ghetta, M.; Sabbatini, T.; Bonari, E.; Cannata, M.; De Filippis, G.

    2016-12-01

    The EU H2020 FREEWAT project (FREE and open source software tools for WATer resource management) aims at simplifying the application of EU-water related Directives, by developing an open source and public domain, GIS-integrated platform for planning and management of ground- and surface-water resources. The FREEWAT platform is conceived as a canvas, where several distributed and physically-based simulation codes are virtually integrated. The choice of such codes was supported by the result of a survey performed by means of questionnaires distributed to 14 case study FREEWAT project partners and several stakeholders. This was performed in the first phase of the project within the WP 6 (Enhanced science and participatory approach evidence-based decision making), Task 6.1 (Definition of a "needs/tools" evaluation grid). About 30% among all the invited entities and institutions from several EU and non-EU Countries expressed their interest in contributing to the survey. Most of them were research institutions, government and geoenvironmental companies and river basin authorities.The result of the questionnaire provided a spectrum of needs and priorities of partners/stakeholders, which were addressed during the development phase of the FREEWAT platform. The main needs identified were related to ground- and surface-water quality, sustainable water management, interaction between groundwater/surface-water bodies, and design and management of Managed Aquifer Recharge schemes. Needs and priorities were then connected to the specific EU Directives and Regulations to be addressed.One of the main goals of the questionnaires was to collect information and suggestions regarding the use of existing commercial/open-source software tools to address needs and priorities, and regarding the needs to address specific water-related processes/problems.

  17. Survey on Resource of Medicinal Plants in Guiding County of Guizhou Province%贵州贵定县药用植物资源调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张天伦; 吴家其; 徐文芬; 何顺志

    2012-01-01

    Resource of medicinal plants in Guiding County of Guizhou Province were investigated through field survey, sample collection, data study and species identification. More than 693 species of vascular plants belonging to 151 families and 439 genera were found. Based on the fundamental traditional Chinese medicine theory, treat- ments accepted by folk and drug use from clinical practices, all medicinal plants were divided into 18 classes ac- cording to their medicinal functions. Suggestions were made for sustainable development of twenty new medicinal resources and five protected plants in Guiding County.%通过野外考察、标本采集、资料收集与资料考证及标本鉴定,对贵定县药用植物资源进行了调查研究。发现贵定县有药用维管属植物151科439属693余种,根据中医理论基础,民间及临床用药,按其药用功能划分为18类。贵定县有20种药用新资源,5种保护植物,并对该县的中草药资源可持续发展提出建议。

  18. Common Earth Science Misconceptions in Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Chris

    2012-01-01

    A survey of the Earth science content of science textbooks found a wide range of misconceptions. These are discussed in this article with reference to the published literature on Earth science misconceptions. Most misconceptions occurred in the "sedimentary rocks and processes" and "Earth's structure and plate tectonics" categories; the most…

  19. Selection of population controls for a Salmonella case-control study in the UK using a market research panel and web-survey provides time and resource savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook, P; Kanagarajah, S; Maguire, H; Adak, G K; Dabrera, G; Waldram, A; Freeman, R; Charlett, A; Oliver, I

    2016-04-01

    Timely recruitment of population controls in infectious disease outbreak investigations is challenging. We evaluated the timeliness and cost of using a market research panel as a sampling frame for recruiting controls in a case-control study during an outbreak of Salmonella Mikawasima in the UK in 2013. We deployed a web-survey by email to targeted members of a market research panel (panel controls) in parallel to the outbreak control team interviewing randomly selected public health staff by telephone and completing paper-based questionnaires (staff controls). Recruitment and completion of exposure history web-surveys for panel controls (n = 123) took 14 h compared to 15 days for staff controls (n = 82). The average staff-time cost per questionnaire for staff controls was £13·13 compared to an invoiced cost of £3·60 per panel control. Differences in the distribution of some exposures existed between these control groups but case-control studies using each group found that illness was associated with consumption of chicken outside of the home and chicken from local butchers. Recruiting market research panel controls offers time and resource savings. More rapid investigations would enable more prompt implementation of control measures. We recommend that this method of recruiting controls is considered in future investigations and assessed further to better understand strengths and limitations.

  20. A survey of university students' perceptions of learning management systems in a low-resource setting using a technology acceptance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipps, Jennifer; Kerr, Jane; Brysiewicz, Petra; Walters, Fiona

    2015-02-01

    Learning management systems have been widely advocated for the support of distance learning. In low-resource settings, the uptake of these systems by students has been mixed. This study aimed to identify, through the use of the Technology Acceptance Model, the individual, organizational, and technological factors that could be influencing the use of learning management systems. A simple quantitative descriptive survey was conducted of nursing and health science students at a university in South Africa as part of their first exposure to a learning management system. A total of 274 respondents (56.7%) completed the survey questionnaire, made up of 213 nursing respondents (87.7%) and 61 health sciences respondents (25%). Overall, the respondents found the learning management system easy to use and useful for learning. There were significant differences between the two groups of respondents, with the respondents from health sciences being both younger and more computer literate. The nursing respondents, who received more support and orientations, reported finding the learning management system more useful. Recommendations are made for training and support to ensure uptake.

  1. Utilization of the Family and Medical Leave Act in Radiology Practices According to the 2016 ACR Commission on Human Resources Workforce Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arleo, Elizabeth Kagan; Parikh, Jay R; Wolfman, Darcy; Gridley, Daniel; Bender, Claire; Bluth, Edward

    2016-12-01

    To assess gender utilization of the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) in radiology practices across the United States. The Practice of Radiology Environment Database was utilized to identify U.S. practice leaders, who were asked to complete an electronic survey developed by the ACR Human Resources (HR) Commission. In 2016, new survey questions asked about number of radiologists in each practice who took FMLA, the reasons why, the average number of weeks taken, and how such absences were covered. Thirty-two percent (579/1815) of practice group leaders responded to the survey and of these, 73% (432/579) answered FMLA questions, with 15% of those (64/432) answering affirmatively that a radiologist in their practice had taken FMLA leave. Reasons for this in 2015 included to care for a newborn/adopted child (49%), because of a personal serious health condition (42%), to care for an immediate family member (8%), or for active military duty (1%). Women took a greater number of weeks of FMLA leave than men for all reasons (care of newborn/adopted child: 10.7 versus 4.7; personal serious health condition: 10.3 versus 8.0; care of immediate family member: 9.7 versus 8.7) except for military duty (24 weeks taken, all by men). At least 69% of leave time was paid, irrespective of reason for leave or gender of person taking it. Most practices (82%) made no workforce changes to cover FMLA leave. Both genders of radiologists needed absences from work for FMLA-sanctioned reasons. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. EuroGeoSurveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demicheli, L.; Ludden, J. N.; Robida, F.

    2012-04-01

    information and advice, EGS runs a number of Expert Groups in areas such as Carbon Capture and Storage, Earth Observation, Geochemistry, Spatial Information, Marine Geology, Mineral Resources, Water Resources, GeoEnergy, Natural Hazards, Soils Resources, as well as International Cooperation and Development or Communication to improve on external relations, dissemination and outreach. The Expert Groups consist of a panel of leading scientists from the member organisations of EGS who meet on a regular basis and provide technical support to the Secretariat. Having built its reputation as the leading source of European geological expertise to the European Institutions, EGS is now looking to develop their reputation in the private sector as well as their public profile through the Communication Strategy 2010-2016. EGS international profile, already consolidated through association with international geological organisations such as the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) or as a participating organisation in the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), has recently gaining momentum through participation in outstanding projects (such as OneGeology). Most notably in 2010 agreements were signed for increased collaboration with the European Environment Agency (EEA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Already consolidated EU priorities and emerging ones, such as those induced by globalization and the financial crisis, have opened a series of challenges for geosciences, forcing geological surveys to re-organise themselves. EGS is preparing to evolve again to even more successfully deal with those challenges. In this framework the cooperation with EPOS is being followed with much interest, as it is clear for EGS that only an open access data policy and the exploitation of synergies with other geoscientific bodies can reinforce our joint capacity to improve the security, health and wealth of European citizens.

  3. Phase 1 archaeological investigation, cultural resources survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana districts, south shore of Maui, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkelens, C. [International Archaeological Research Inst., Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This report details the archaeological investigation of a 200 foot wide sample corridor extending approximately 9 miles along the southern portion of Maui within the present districts of Hana and Makawao. The survey team documented a total of 51 archaeological sites encompassing 233 surface features. Archaeological sites are abundant throughout the region and only become scarce where vegetation has been bulldozed for ranching activities. At the sea-land transition points for the underwater transmission cable, both Ahihi Bay and Huakini Bay are subjected to seasonal erosion and redeposition of their boulder shorelines. The corridor at the Ahihi Bay transition point runs through the Maonakala Village Complex which is an archaeological site on the State Register of Historic Places within a State Natural Area Reserve. Numerous other potentially significant archaeological sites lie within the project corridor. It is likely that rerouting of the corridor in an attempt to avoid known sites would result in other undocumented sites located outside the sample corridor being impacted. Given the distribution of archaeological sites, there is no alternative route that can be suggested that is likely to avoid encountering sites. Twelve charcoal samples were obtained for potential taxon identification and radiocarbon analysis. Four of these samples were subsequently submitted for dating and species identification. Bird bones from various locations within a lava tube were collected for identification. Sediment samples for subsequent pollen analysis were obtained from within two lava tubes. With these three sources of information it is hoped that paleoenvironmental data can be recovered that will enable a better understanding of the setting for Hawaiian habitation of the area.

  4. Research report of fiscal 1997. Survey on creation of high-efficiency renewable resources, and bioconversion technology; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kokoritsu saisei kano shigen no sosei narabi ni bioconversion gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Survey was made on material production technology using creation technology of high-efficiency renewable resources (photosynthesis reaction of plants). Industrially usable plant resources in overseas countries and Japan were arranged, and plant resources unused for food were also surveyed. The present state of genetic engineering necessary for metabolic engineering of higher plants such as fit and high-expression technology of genes, plant cell cultivation, and control technology of plant cell multiplication is described, and elementary technologies required for future gene-recombined plants are predicted. Survey was also made on the trend of creation technology of industrial plants for fat and oil, biodegradable polyester, amino acid, cellulose, fiber (cotton) and forest wood. A patent list on plant biotechnology was prepared, and study on bioconversion of plant resources was also surveyed. Overseas R & D trends on conversion and effective use technologies of renewable bio- resources are reported, and process design and its profitability were evaluated through a case study. 414 refs., 87 figs., 55 tabs.

  5. NASA's Earth Data Coherent Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, R.; Murphy, K. J.; Cechini, M. F.

    2011-12-01

    activities. A. Consolidate ESDIS supported sites into a single URL powered by a Content Management System. 1. Perform trade studies and selection of a Content Management System 2. earthdata.nasa.gov has launched 3. Consistent look and feel for all content 4. Define roles, responsibilities, and workflow for content management 5. Define content governance 6. Define the process and provide the infra-structure for system enhancements B. Encourage cross data center linkages by implementing a uniform 'Top Hat' at all Data Centers 1. Improves user awareness of other EOSDIS resources 2. Facilitates initial cross-linking between data centers C. Create a process and roadmap for future modifications 1. Surveys completed and analyzed 2. Key Focus Areas Identified 3. Develop a concept of operation for future phases by defining operational goals and user scenarios to address the identified key focus area We will present details on these Phase I activities, how they were addressed, the benefits to the Earth Data users, and lessons learned. In addition, we will discuss the survey results and near term objectives to achieve EOSDIS vision.

  6. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits–A deposit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2011-01-01

    The rare earth elements are not as rare in nature as their name implies, but economic deposits with these elements are not common and few deposits have been large producers. In the past 25 years, demand for rare earth elements has increased dramatically because of their wide and diverse use in high-technology applications. Yet, presently the global production and supply of rare earth elements come from only a few sources. China produces more than 95 percent of the world's supply of rare earth elements. Because of China's decision to restrict exports of these elements, the price of rare earth elements has increased and industrial countries are concerned about supply shortages. As a result, understanding the distribution and origin of rare earth elements deposits, and identifying and quantifying our nation's rare earth elements resources have become priorities. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusive complexes, as well as their weathering products, are the primary sources of rare earth elements. The general mineral deposit model summarized here is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new descriptive mineral deposit models to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related REE deposits are discussed together because of their spatial association, common enrichment in incompatible elements, and similarities in genesis. A wide variety of commodities have been exploited from carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks, such as rare earth elements, niobium, phosphate, titanium, vermiculite, barite, fluorite, copper, calcite, and zirconium. Other enrichments include manganese, strontium, tantalum, thorium, vanadium, and uranium.

  7. Geochemical survey of medium temperature geothermal resources from the Baja California Peninsula and Sonora, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán R, R. M.; Birkle, P.; Portugal M, E.; Arellano G, V. M.; Alvarez R, J.

    2001-09-01

    Waters from hot springs and deep wells from Cerritos in the northern Baja California Peninsula and deep wells from the Riı´to zone (Sonora state) were studied in order to classify medium temperature geothermal resources to be exploited in NW-Mexico. Geochemical characteristics of San Felipe and Punta Estrella coastal springs indicate the mixing of seawater and meteoric components with secondary leaching of evaporates. Reservoir temperatures for both zones were estimated up to 225°C. Mixing of high portions of seawater (>80 wt%) with local waters could be the origin for the Puertecitos coastal spring, with a reservoir temperature estimation of 195°C. The El Coloradito coastal spring is composed of meteoric water with a reservoir temperature of 127°C. The formation of thermal manifestations along the Baja California coast could be related to the heating up of convecting seawater along extensional tectonic structures, as observed for submarine hydrothermal vents at the Gulf of California and along the East Pacific Rise. Volcanic steam-heated waters with a reservoir temperature of 135°C were found at the Valle Chico inland springs from the Baja California Peninsula. Deep fluids from the Riı´to zone originated by evaporation of infiltrated waters with similar characteristics to those located in the Mexicali Valley. Reservoir temperature of 192 and 126°C are estimated for the Riı´to deep wells ER-1B (ER) and R-1, respectively. The Riı´to artesian wells M-1, M-2 and M-4 indicate reservoir temperatures from 109 to 118°C. Isotopic data define the artesian wells as typical surface water or shallow groundwater from the Mexicali Valley. The Cerritos deep fluids of the Mexicali Valley show a close chemical and isotopic relationship to the adjacent Cerro Prieto reservoir fluids suggesting a similar origin and a possible connection of both aquifer systems. Conductive cooling of Cerro Prieto discharge fluids could originate the cooler Cerritos system (130

  8. Phase I Archaeological Investigation Cultural Resources Survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana Districts, South Shore of Maui, Hawaii (DRAFT )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkelens, Conrad

    1994-03-01

    . Charcoal, molluscan and fish remains, basalt tools, and other artifacts were recovered. This material, while providing an extremely small sample, will greatly enhance our understanding of the use of the area. Recommendations regarding the need for further investigation and the preservation of sites within the project corridor are suggested. All sites within the project corridor must be considered potentially significant at this juncture. Further archaeological investigation consisting of a full inventory survey will be required prior to a final assessment of significance for each site and the development of a mitigation plan for sites likely to be impacted by the Hawaii Geothermal Project.

  9. The ESA earth observation polar platform programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, M.; Readings, C. J.

    1991-08-01

    The overall scenario of ESA earth observation polar platform program is reviewed with particular attention given to instruments currently being considered for flight on the first European polar platforms. The major objectives of the mission include monitoring the earth's environment on various scales; management and monitoring of the earth's resources; improvement of the service provided to the worldwide operational meteorological community, investigation of the structure and dynamics of the earth's crust and interior. The program encompasses four main elements: an ERS-1 follow-on mission (ERS-2), a solid earth gravity mission (Aristoteles), a Meteosat Second Generation, and a series of polar orbit earth observation missions.

  10. Earth materials and earth dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, K; Shankland, T. [and others

    2000-11-01

    In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  11. 中巴地球资源卫星社会效益支付意愿的影响因素%Influencing Factors of the Willingness to Pay for the Social Benefit of the China-Brazil Earth Resource Satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳芳; 敖长林; 焦扬; 李一军

    2012-01-01

    为了更好地发挥中巴地球资源卫星的社会效益,同时为中巴地球资源卫星的使用和管理部门提供决策参考依据,应用条件价值法(CVM),采用支付意愿问卷调查的方式,通过数据统计和回归分析,对中巴地球资源卫星的社会效益进行定量评价,得到了影响中巴地球资源卫星社会效益支付意愿的主要因素.共发放问卷2330份,收回有效问卷2285份,通过对问卷数据的描述性统计,得到支付意愿的分布情况和在各单一因素影响下的变化规律.用主成分分析简化影响因素,运用二元Logit回归模型和Tobit模型,得到在所有的影响因素中,对中巴地球资源卫星的重视性、个人平均年收入是影响被调查者对中巴地球资源卫星社会效益的支付意愿的主要因素.研究结论使得中巴地球资源卫星的收益和成本的比较成为可能,为政府制定相关政策提供理论基础.%In order to better promote the social benefit of the China-Brazil earth resource satellite and to provide decision reference for its application and administration, this article conducted the quantitative evaluation on the China-Brazil earth resource satellite's social benefit by the means of the contingent valuation method (CVM) and the questionnaire surveys and concluded the major factors that influence the willingness to pay for the social benefit through data statistics and regression analysis. 2330 questionnaires had been sent out and 2285 valid questionnaires were received. Based on the descriptive statistics of valid and reliable questionnaires, it describes the distribution of the willingness to pay and the variation rules under each single factor. The influencing factors are simplified by principal component analysis. In accordance with the application of the binary logit model and the tobit model, it is concluded that the importance attached to the China-Brazil earth resource satellite and the average annual income are the

  12. National Earth Science Teachers Association Achievements in Earth Science Education Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, M. J.; Johnson, R. M.; Pennington, P.; Herrold, A.; Holzer, M.; Ervin, T.; Hall, B.

    2008-12-01

    The National Earth Science Teachers Association (NESTA) continues its 25-year-long effort to advance geoscience education at all levels. NESTA especially employs multiple approaches to provide leadership, support, and resources to teachers so that all K - 12 students may receive a quality Earth and Space Science education. NESTA presents Share-a-thons, Earth and Space Science Resources Days, lectures, Rock and Mineral Raffles, field experiences, and social events that foster networking at national and regional science education conferences. Our quarterly journal,The Earth Scientist,provides quality classroom activities as well as background science information and news of opportunities of value to classroom teachers and their students. Recent issues have focused on the International Polar Year, professional development in the Earth Sciences, and recent advances in astronomy. These have included contributions from classroom and university educators and researchers. NESTA's web site, www.nestanet.org, provides timely information about upcoming events and opportunities, links to useful resources for geoscience teachers, access to the current and archived journals, and organizational information. A revised website, supported by an NSF grant, will be unveiled before the next NSTA National Conference on Science Education. These are supplemented by a monthly E-News and special "e-blasts". NESTA's leadership engages in frequent teleconferences to keep current with organizational planning. Among other accomplishments during the past year, NESTA revitalized our State contact network, identifying a member in almost every state plus some Canadian Provinces. This network will help disseminate information from NESTA, as well as provide feedback on issues of importance to members around the country. NESTA leaders and members interact with other national geoscience education organizations, including NAGT, GSA, AGI, AMS, and the Triangle Coalition. NESTA representatives also serve

  13. Teaching through Trade Books: Humans and the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Christine Anne

    2016-01-01

    This column includes activities inspired by children's literature. Elementary students are beginning to understand the Earth's natural processes and humans' impact on the Earth. Humans need the natural resources that the Earth produces, use these resources to develop civilizations, and make decisions to offset the damage they cause, as well as…

  14. Earth Day 1990: Lesson Plan and Home Survey--K-6. Energy, Solid Waste/Recycling, Toxics, and Water, with Follow-up Activities and Action Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sly, Carolie; Ruskey, Abby

    The purpose of this K-6 curriculum is to provide teachers and other educators with classroom lessons and home surveys that are a starting point for understanding four significant environmental issues--water, toxics, energy, and solid waste/recycling. While each of these environmental issues is complex and has far-reaching implications, the lessons…

  15. Earth Day 1990: Lesson Plan and Home Survey--7-12. Energy, Solid Waste/Recycling, Toxics, Transportation, and Water with Fact Sheets and Action Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Shuett, Amy; Shuett, Greg

    The purpose of this 7-12 curriculum is to provide teachers and other educators with classroom lessons and home surveys that are a starting point for understanding five significant environmental issues - water, toxics, energy, transportation, and solid waste/recycling. While each of these environmental issues is complex and has far-reaching…

  16. The effect of educational attainment levels on use of non-traditional health information resources: Findings from the Canadian survey of experiences with primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Hardiman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Canadian provincial governments have made significant investments in nurse advice telephone lines and Internet resources as non-traditional options to reduce emergency department visits and improve access to health care for the population. However, little is known about the characteristics of users of these services, and who chooses to use them first, before accessing other sources of health advice. Additionally, individuals with lower levels of education tend to be late adopters of technology and have inconsistent utilization of health services. The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of educational attainment levels on the use of non-traditional health information sources first, before other more conventional sources of health information. The study utilized Canadian Survey of Experiences with Primary Health Care (CSE-PHC, 2007-2008 survey data. Logistic regression models were constructed to examine the relationship between use of non-traditional health information sources first, and educational attainment, adjusted for confounders. Relative to someone with less than secondary education, individuals with secondary education (OR = 4.30, 95% CI: 2.44 – 7.59, and individuals with post-secondary education (OR 4.91, 95% CI: 2.78 – 8.67, had significantly greater odds of using non-traditional health information sources first. These findings suggest that educational attainment has a significant effect on the use of non-traditional health information sources first. Future providers of non-traditional health information sources, especially in the design of future eHealth tools and consideration of eHealth literacy, should consider these results in development and implementation of their communications strategies to maximize the reach of their services.

  17. U.S. Geological Survey Virginia and West Virginia Water Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastram, John D.

    2017-08-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) serves the Nation by providing reliable scientific information to describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life. In support of this mission, the USGS Virginia and West Virginia Water Science Center works in cooperation with many entities to provide reliable, impartial scientific information to resource managers, planners, and the public.

  18. 2007 China Rare Earths Import & Export Analysis and Suggestions (continued)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Jianhua; Zuo Xichao

    2008-01-01

    @@ 4. Increasing import of rare earth resources products As a big producer and an important export country of rare earth products for years, rare earths import is in an auxiliary position in China. import volume is rather small. However, since the strengthened macro control measures and restriction of mining scale in 2007, domestic rare earth supply was tight in China.

  19. Potential health hazards of the water resources development: a health survey in the Phitsanulok Irrigation Project, Nan River Basin, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnag, T; Sornmani, S; Impand, P; Harinasuta, C

    1980-12-01

    A health survey was carried out among residents of 33 villages under the Phitsanulok Irrigation Project Area, Nan River Basin, Northern Thailand, whereby general health conditions were examined including intradermal tests for schistosomiasis japonica, stools for intestinal parasites and sera tested by circumoval precipitin test for antibodies to S. japonicum and by agglutination test for leptospiral infection. Health investigations revealed that 913 (60.9%) of 1,499 people examined had experienced gastro-intestinal disorders, 254 (17%) had poor oral hygiene and a few had mild anemia. 799 (62%) of 1,298 examined had intestinal parasites. Hookworm (45%) was most common, followed by Opisthorchis viverrini (20%), Entamoeba coli (10%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6%), intestinal flukes (2%), Enterobius vermicularis (1%) and Giardia lamblia (1%). 149 (10%) of 1,422 people gave positive skin reaction to crude S. japonicum antigen. Circumoval precipitin test was strongly positive in 7 (1.6%) persons out of 449 tested for schistosome infection and 6 (4.0%) out of 1,358 people were positive for leptospiral infection. The significant endemic diseases as potential health problems in this water resources development are discussed.

  20. Snowball Earth

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In the ongoing quest to better understand where life may exist elsewhere in the Universe, important lessons may be gained from our own planet. In particular, much can be learned from planetary glaciation events that Earth suffered ∼600 million years ago, so-called `Snowball Earth' episodes. I begin with an overview of how the climate works. This helps to explain how the ice-albedo feedback effect can destabilise a planet's climate. The process relies on lower temperatures causing more ice to ...