WorldWideScience

Sample records for earth probe toms

  1. TOMS/Earth Probe UV Reflectivity Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe UV Reflectivity Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The shortname for this Level-3...

  2. TOMS/Earth Probe UV Aerosol Index Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe UV Aerosol Index Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The shortname for this...

  3. TOMS/Earth Probe UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The...

  4. TOMS/Earth Probe Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The shortname for this...

  5. TOMS/Earth-Probe Total Ozone Aerosol Index UV-Reflectivity UV-B Erythemal Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version 8 daily global gridded data consist of total column ozone, aerosol index, Lambertian effective surface...

  6. TOMS/EP UV Reflectivity Daily and Monthly Zonal Means V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/EP UV Reflectivity Daily and Monthly Zonal Means Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The shortname for this Level-3 Earth Probe TOMS...

  7. Probing Earth's State of Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorey, A. A.; Maceira, M.; Johnson, P. A.; Coblentz, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    The state of stress in the Earth's crust is a fundamental physical property that controls both engineered and natural systems. Engineered environments including those for hydrocarbon, geothermal energy, and mineral extraction, as well those for storage of wastewater, carbon dioxide, and nuclear fuel are as important as ever to our economy and environment. Yet, it is at spatial scales relevant to these activities where stress is least understood. Additionally, in engineered environments the rate of change in the stress field can be much higher than that of natural systems. In order to use subsurface resources more safely and effectively, we need to understand stress at the relevant temporal and spatial scales. We will present our latest results characterizing the state of stress in the Earth at scales relevant to engineered environments. Two important components of the state of stress are the orientation and magnitude of the stress tensor, and a measure of how close faults are to failure. The stress tensor at any point in a reservoir or repository has contributions from both far-field tectonic stress and local density heterogeneity. We jointly invert seismic (body and surface waves) and gravity data for a self-consistent model of elastic moduli and density and use the model to calculate the contribution of local heterogeneity to the total stress field. We then combine local and plate-scale contributions, using local indicators for calibration and ground-truth. In addition, we will present results from an analysis of the quantity and pattern of microseismicity as an indicator of critically stressed faults. Faults are triggered by transient stresses only when critically stressed (near failure). We show that tidal stresses can trigger earthquakes in both tectonic and reservoir environments and can reveal both stress and poroelastic conditions.

  8. Ionizing radiation environment for the TOMS mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriente, M.; Maloy, J. O.; Vampola, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) will fly on several different spacecraft, each having an orbit which is approximately polar and 800-980 km in altitude. A description is given of the computer-based tools used for characterizing the spacecraft interactions with the ionizing radiation environment in orbit and the susceptibility requirements for ionizing radiation compatibility. The peak flux from the model was used to derive the expected radiation-induced noise in the South Atlantic Anomaly for the new TOMS instruments intended to fly on Advanced Earth Observatory System and Earth Probe.

  9. SAFARI 2000 TOMS Aerosol Index Data, Southern Africa, Dry Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Daily Aerosol Index (AI) data from Earth Probe (EP) Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) for the period of August 12-September 25, 2000 were processed...

  10. SAFARI 2000 TOMS Tropospheric Ozone Data, Southern Africa Subset, Dry Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tropical Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) data from Earth Probe (EP) Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) for the period of August 8-September 29, 2000 were processed and...

  11. TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...

  12. Volumetric water content measurement probes in earth-dam construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardanis Michael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two frequency domain reflectometry (FDR probes have been used. They were used on compacted soils both in the laboratory and in the field. Measurements in the laboratory were intended for calibration. The range of densities and types of materials where insertion of the probes can be achieved was investigated first. The effect of sporadic presence of coarser grains and density on these calibrations, once insertion could be achieved, were investigated second. Measurements on laboratory prepared samples with the same moisture content were different when the sample was kept in the mould from when it was extruded from it. Also both these measurements were different from that in a sample of the same density but significantly larger in diameter. It was found that measurements with these probes are affected by dilation exhibited by soil around the rods of the probes during insertion. Readings immediately after insertion of the sensors on samples extruded from their moulds were the ones closer to measured values. These readings combined with total volume and mass obtained from sand-cone tests during the construction of an earth-dam allowed fairly accurate estimation of the dry unit weight but not the gravimetric water content.

  13. Depth Probing Soft X-ray Microprobe (DPSXRM) for High Resolution Probing of Earth's Microstructural Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikedi, P. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Cambrian explosion; occurrence of landslides in very dry weather conditions; rockslides; dead, shriveled-up and crumbled leaves possessing fossil records with the semblance of well preserved, flat leaves; abundance of trilobite tracks in lower and higher rock layers; and sailing stones are enigmas demanding demystifications. These enigmas could be elucidated when data on soil structure, texture and strength are provided by some device with submicrometre accuracy; for these and other reasons, the design of a Depth Probing Soft X-ray Microprobe (DPSXRM), is being proposed; it is expected to deliver soft X-rays, at spatial resolution, ϛ≥600nm and to probe at the depth of 0.5m in 17s. The microprobe is portable compared to a synchrotron radiation facility (Diamond Light Source has land size of 43,300m2); spatial resolution,ϛ , of the DPSXRM surpasses those of the X-ray Fluorescence microanalysis (10µm), electron microprobe (1-3µm) and ion microprobe (5->30µm); the DPSXRM has allowance for multiple targets. Vanadium and Manganese membranes are proposed owing to respective 4.952KeV VKα1 and 5.899KeV MnKα1 X-rays emitted, which best suits micro-probing of Earth's microstructural samples. Compound systems like the Kirk-Patrick and Baez and Wolter optics, aspheric mirrors like elliptical and parabolic optics, small apertures and Abbe sine condition are employed to reduce or remove astigmatism, obliquity, comatic and spherical aberrations—leading to good image quality. Results show that 5.899KeV MnKα1 and 4.952KeV VKα1 soft X-rays will travel a distance of 2.75mm to form circular patches of radii 2.2mm and 2.95mm respectively. Zone plate with nth zone radius of 1.5mm must be positioned 1.5mm and 2mm from the electron gun if circular patches must be formed from 4.952KeV VKα1 and 5.899KeV MnKα1 soft X-rays respectively. The focal lengths of 0.25μm≤ƒ≤1.50μm and 0.04μm≤ƒ≤0.2μm covered by 4.952KeV VKα1 and 5.899KeV Mn Kα1 soft X-Rays, will

  14. Researcher Interview: Tom Hudson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Hudson, M.D., President and Scientific Director of the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, describes the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC), which brings together cancer genomic data and research from across the world.

  15. Detecting 3D Vegetation Structure with the Galileo Space Probe: Can a Distant Probe Detect Vegetation Structure on Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Christopher E; Wolf, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Sagan et al. (1993) used the Galileo space probe data and first principles to find evidence of life on Earth. Here we ask whether Sagan et al. (1993) could also have detected whether life on Earth had three-dimensional structure, based on the Galileo space probe data. We reanalyse the data from this probe to see if structured vegetation could have been detected in regions with abundant photosynthetic pigments through the anisotropy of reflected shortwave radiation. We compare changing brightness of the Amazon forest (a region where Sagan et al. (1993) noted a red edge in the reflectance spectrum, indicative of photosynthesis) as the planet rotates to a common model of reflectance anisotropy and found measured increase of surface reflectance of 0.019 ± 0.003 versus a 0.007 predicted from only anisotropic effects. We hypothesize the difference was due to minor cloud contamination. However, the Galileo dataset had only a small change in phase angle (sun-satellite position) which reduced the observed anisotropy signal and we demonstrate that theoretically if the probe had a variable phase angle between 0-20°, there would have been a much larger predicted change in surface reflectance of 0.1 and under such a scenario three-dimensional vegetation structure on Earth could possibly have been detected. These results suggest that anisotropic effects may be useful to help determine whether exoplanets have three-dimensional vegetation structure in the future, but that further comparisons between empirical and theoretical results are first necessary.

  16. Detecting 3D Vegetation Structure with the Galileo Space Probe: Can a Distant Probe Detect Vegetation Structure on Earth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E Doughty

    Full Text Available Sagan et al. (1993 used the Galileo space probe data and first principles to find evidence of life on Earth. Here we ask whether Sagan et al. (1993 could also have detected whether life on Earth had three-dimensional structure, based on the Galileo space probe data. We reanalyse the data from this probe to see if structured vegetation could have been detected in regions with abundant photosynthetic pigments through the anisotropy of reflected shortwave radiation. We compare changing brightness of the Amazon forest (a region where Sagan et al. (1993 noted a red edge in the reflectance spectrum, indicative of photosynthesis as the planet rotates to a common model of reflectance anisotropy and found measured increase of surface reflectance of 0.019 ± 0.003 versus a 0.007 predicted from only anisotropic effects. We hypothesize the difference was due to minor cloud contamination. However, the Galileo dataset had only a small change in phase angle (sun-satellite position which reduced the observed anisotropy signal and we demonstrate that theoretically if the probe had a variable phase angle between 0-20°, there would have been a much larger predicted change in surface reflectance of 0.1 and under such a scenario three-dimensional vegetation structure on Earth could possibly have been detected. These results suggest that anisotropic effects may be useful to help determine whether exoplanets have three-dimensional vegetation structure in the future, but that further comparisons between empirical and theoretical results are first necessary.

  17. "Tom Byers: The New Colossus"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger Hunnerup

    2013-01-01

    Educational and social welcome strategies to American Society and Culture: SUSI director Tom Byers, The Statue of Liberty and Emma Lazarus' "New Colossus"......Educational and social welcome strategies to American Society and Culture: SUSI director Tom Byers, The Statue of Liberty and Emma Lazarus' "New Colossus"...

  18. SinoProbe - A Multidisciplinary Research Program of Earth Sciences in China (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S.; Li, T.

    2010-12-01

    China occupies a large region of central and eastern Asia and holds keys to resolving several first-order problems in Earth Sciences. Besides the importance in Earth Science research, the rapid growth of Chinese economy also demands a comprehensive and systematic evaluation of its natural resources and the impacts of geohazards on its societal development. In order to address the above issues, the Chinese government had initiated a new multidisciplinary research project in Earth Sciences - the SinoProbe Program. Its fundamental goal is to determine the three-dimensional structure, composition distribution, and geological evolution of the Chinese continental lithosphere. The results of the SinoProbe Program are expected to have broad impacts on the Chinese society and economy. In particular, the program will greatly enhance our current understanding on (1) the forming and distribution of mineral resources in the nation, (2) the locations and recurrence histories of major active fault zones capable of generating large earthquakes in highly populated regions, and (3) the distribution of major hazard-prone regions induced by geological processes. In 2009, more than 720 investigators and 70 engineers from Chinese institutions are currently involved with the research program. Sinoprobe hope that the joint forces by Chinese and international researchers will bring in modern approaches, new analytical tools, and advanced exploration technology into the successful operation of the program. In past year, 1,960km long seismic reflection profiling with broadband seismological studies and MT surveys separated from 6 profiles in China continent have completed. MT array coved the North China craton by 1°×1° network and 3-D exploration in larger ore deposits in selected area were carried out. A scientific drilling area operated in Tibet. We started to establish a geochemical reference framework for the values of 76 elements in a grid network with data-point spacing of 160 km in

  19. Tropospheric Ozone Pollution from Space: New Views from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.; Frolov, Alexander D.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Kucsera, Tom L.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    New products from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) >satellite instrument can resolve pollution events in tropical and mid-latitudes, Over the past several years, we have developed tropospheric ozone data sets by two methods. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses v. 7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMSdirect method [Hudson et at., 2000] represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone displaying high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution, Absorbing aerosols (dust and smoke; Herman et at., 1997 Hsu et al., 1999), a standard TOMS product, provide transport and/or source marker information to interpret tropospheric ozone. For the Nimbus 7/TOMS observing period (1979-1992), modified-residual TTO (tropical tropospheric ozone) appears as two maps/month at I-degree latitude 2-degree longitude resolution at a homepage and digital data are available (20S to 20N) by ftp at http://metosrv2. umd.edu/tropo/ 14y_data.d. Preliminary modified-residual TTO data from the operational Earth-Probe/TOMS (1996- present) are posted in near-real-time at the same website. Analyses with the new tropospheric ozone and aerosol data are illustrated by the following (I)Signals in tropical tropospheric ozone column and smoke amount during ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation) events, e.g. 1982-1983 and the intense ENSO induced biomass fires of 1997-1998 over the Indonesian region [Thompson et a[, 2000a, Thompson and Hudson, 1999]. (2) Trends in tropospheric ozone and smoke aerosols in various tropical regions (Atlantic, Pacific, Africa, Brazil). No significant trends were found for ozone from1980-1990 [Thompson and Hudson, 19991 although smoke aerosols increased during the period [Hsu et al.,1999]. (3) Temporal and spatial offsets

  20. Luminescence of Lanthanoides (Rare-earth elements) – Probes of structural variations in minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenz, C.

    2015-01-01

    This cumulative PhD thesis summarises several individual studies on the luminescence of REE (rare-earth elements; i.e., trivalent lanthanoides), which are typically incorporated in accessory minerals such as zircon, titanite, monazite–(Ce) and xenotime–(Y). A main objective of these studies is to examine the powerfulness of REE luminescence-spectroscopy as structural probe. In particular, this concerns the potential use of REE3+ emissions in characterising structural disorder of their accessory host minerals as caused by radiation damage and/or compositional heterogeneity. Especially the former (i.e., mineral disorder due to radiation damage) is of interest to Earth and materials scientists, for instance for the understanding of changed physicochemical properties of initially crystalline materials that are affected by structural damage as caused by the radioactive decay of actinides. Moreover, a substantial contribution of the studies presented lies in the field of basic properties of the REE luminescence of natural accessory minerals. First, the investigations have addressed the identification of diverse REE species in diverse natural host minerals (which is done using synthetic REE-doped analogues). Second, factors that may bias the quantitative estimation of spectroscopic parameters have been studied, including effects of experimental parameters (crystal orientation and temperature) and the samples’ compositional heterogeneity. The results will be particularly useful to the growing community of Earth scientists who apply REE luminescence-spectroscopy in studying geological materials. (author) [de

  1. Functional network macroscopes for probing past and present Earth system dynamics (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    probing past and present Earth system dynamics: Complex hierarchical interactions, tipping points, and beyond" by J.F. Donges, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany, 2012. URL: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:kobv:11-100207126.

  2. 75 FR 69470 - Tele Atlas North America, Inc., Currently Doing Business as Tom Tom Including Off-Site Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ...,839B; TA-W-70,839C] Tele Atlas North America, Inc., Currently Doing Business as Tom Tom Including Off... Business as Tom Tom, Concord, MA; Tele Atlas North America, Inc. Currently Doing Business as Tom Tom, Detroit, MI; Tele Atlas North America, Inc. Currently Doing Business as Tom Tom, Redwood, CA; Amended...

  3. Composition of the earth's atmosphere by shock-layer radiometry during the PAET entry probe experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, E. E.; Arnold, J. O.; Page, W. A.; Reynolds, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    A determination of the composition of the earth's atmosphere obtained from onboard radiometer measurements of the spectra emitted from the bow shock layer of a high-speed entry probe is reported. The N2, O2, CO2, and noble gas concentrations in the earth's atmosphere were determined to good accuracy by this technique. The results demonstrate unequivocally the feasibility of determining the composition of an unknown planetary atmosphere by means of a multichannel radiometer viewing optical emission from the heated atmospheric gases in the region between the bow shock wave and the vehicle surface. The spectral locations in this experiment were preselected to enable the observation of CN violet, N2(+) first negative and atomic oxygen emission at 3870, 3910, and 7775 A, respectively. The atmospheric gases were heated and compressed by the shock wave to a peak temperature of about 6100 K and a corresponding pressure of 0.4 atm. Complete descriptions of the data analysis technique and the onboard radiometer and its calibration are given.

  4. Occurrence of ozone anomalies over cloudy areas in TOMS version-7 level-2 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates anomalous ozone distributions over cloudy areas in Nimbus-7 (N7 and Earth-Probe (EP TOMS version-7 data and analyzes the causes for ozone anomaly formation. A 5°-longitude by 5°-latitude region is defined to contain a Positive Ozone Anomaly (POA or Negative Ozone Anomaly (NOA if the correlation coefficient between total ozone and reflectivity is > 0.5 or -0.5. The average fractions of ozone anomalies among all cloud fields are 31.8 ± 7.7% and 35.8 ± 7.7% in the N7 and EP TOMS data, respectively. Some ozone anomalies are caused by ozone retrieval errors, and others are caused by actual geophysical phenomena. Large cloud-height errors are found in the TOMS version-7 algorithm in comparison to the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR cloud data. On average, cloud-top pressures are overestimated by ~200 hPa (THIR cloud-top pressure 200 hPa for high-altitude clouds and underestimated by ~150 hPa for low-altitude clouds (THIR cloud-top pressure > 750 hPa. Most tropical NOAs result from negative errors induced by large cloud-height errors, and most tropical POAs are caused by positive errors due to intra-cloud ozone absorption enhancement. However, positive and negative errors offset each other, reducing the ozone anomaly occurrence in TOMS data. Large ozone/reflectivity slopes for mid-latitude POAs show seasonal variation consistent with total ozone fluctuation, indicating that they result mainly from synoptic and planetary wave disturbances. POAs with an occurrence fraction of 30--60% occur in regions of marine stratocumulus off the west coast of South Africa and off the west coast of South America. Both fractions and ozone/reflectivity slopes of these POAs show seasonal variations consistent with that in the tropospheric ozone. About half the ozone/reflectivity slope can be explained by ozone retrieval errors over clear and cloudy areas. The remaining slope may result from there being more ozone production

  5. System and method for earth probing with deep subsurface penetration using low frequency electromagnetic signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etten, P. van; Brown, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    An earth probing system uses deep penetration of electromagnetic waves into soil and other media. Advantage is taken of lower attenuation of radar in soil by frequencies of about three megahertz or less. Bursts of electromagnetic energy of various frequencies in this range are consecutively transmitted. The transmitting antenna is continuously tuned, so as to maintain resonance during each burst, allowing large circulating currents and high power output. In a receiving antenna system, a dual antenna arrangement is providing for obtaining improved reception. A corresponding dual antenna circuit employs 'a spatial notch filtering', automatic adjustment of antenna gain-frequency variations, as well as compensation for transmitter gain variation. The system may be implemented in a totally analog, totally digital, or hybrid manner. Preferably, a signal processing method detected and digitally samples signal reflected from subsurface layers and buried objects. The invention provides means for removing system distortions and interfering signals, for compensating for aliasing errors and frequency-dependent antenna gain and phase variations, and for avoiding masking errors introduced by strong reflections. (author)

  6. Van Allen Probes Mission Space Academy: Educating middle school students about Earth's mysterious radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, L.; Turney, D.; Matiella Novak, A.; Smith, D.; Simon, M.

    2013-12-01

    How's the weather in space? Why on Earth did NASA send two satellites above Earth to study radiation belts and space weather? To learn the answer to questions about NASA's Van Allen Probes mission, 450 students and their teachers from Maryland middle schools attended Space Academy events highlighting the Van Allen Probes mission. Sponsored by the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and Discovery Education, the events are held at the APL campus in Laurel, MD. Space Academies take students and teachers on behind-the-scenes exploration of how spacecraft are built, what they are designed to study, and introduces them to the many professionals that work together to create some of NASA's most exciting projects. Moderated by a public relations representative in the format of an official NASA press conference, the daylong event includes a student press conference with students as reporters and mission experts as panelists. Lunch with mission team members gives students a chance to ask more questions. After lunch, students don souvenir clean room suits, enjoy interactive science demonstrations, and tour APL facilities where the Van Allen Probes were built and tested before launch. Students may even have an opportunity to peek inside a clean room to view spacecraft being assembled. Prior to the event, teachers are provided with classroom activities, lesson plans, and videos developed by APL and Discovery Education to help prepare students for the featured mission. The activities are aligned to National Science Education Standards and appropriate for use in the classroom. Following their visit, student journalists are encouraged to write a short article about their field trip; selections are posted on the Space Academy web site. Designed to engage, inspire, and influence attitudes about space science and STEM careers, Space Academies provide an opportunity to attract underserved populations and emphasize that space science is for everyone. Exposing students to a diverse group of

  7. Impact of atmospheric refraction: how deeply can we probe exo-earth's atmospheres during primary eclipse observations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bétrémieux, Yan [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kaltenegger, Lisa, E-mail: betremieux@mpia.de [Also at Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. (United States)

    2014-08-10

    Most models used to predict or fit exoplanet transmission spectra do not include all the effects of atmospheric refraction. Namely, the angular size of the star with respect to the planet can limit the lowest altitude, or highest density and pressure, probed during primary eclipses as no rays passing below this critical altitude can reach the observer. We discuss this geometrical effect of refraction for all exoplanets and tabulate the critical altitude, density, and pressure for an exoplanet identical to Earth with a 1 bar N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} atmosphere as a function of both the incident stellar flux (Venus, Earth, and Mars-like) at the top of the atmosphere and the spectral type (O5-M9) of the host star. We show that such a habitable exo-Earth can be probed to a surface pressure of 1 bar only around the coolest stars. We present 0.4-5.0 μm model transmission spectra of Earth's atmosphere viewed as a transiting exoplanet, and show how atmospheric refraction modifies the transmission spectrum depending on the spectral type of the host star. We demonstrate that refraction is another phenomenon that can potentially explain flat transmission spectra over some spectral regions.

  8. A Type System for Tom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Kirchner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Extending a given language with new dedicated features is a general and quite used approach to make the programming language more adapted to problems. Being closer to the application, this leads to less programming flaws and easier maintenance. But of course one would still like to perform program analysis on these kinds of extended languages, in particular type checking and inference. In this case one has to make the typing of the extended features compatible with the ones in the starting language. The Tom programming language is a typical example of such a situation as it consists of an extension of Java that adds pattern matching, more particularly associative pattern matching, and reduction strategies. This paper presents a type system with subtyping for Tom, that is compatible with Java's type system, and that performs both type checking and type inference. We propose an algorithm that checks if all patterns of a Tom program are well-typed. In addition, we propose an algorithm based on equality and subtyping constraints that infers types of variables occurring in a pattern. Both algorithms are exemplified and the proposed type system is showed to be sound and complete.

  9. EXTASE - An Experimental Thermal Probe for Applications in Snow Research and Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeer, K.; Seiferlin, K.; Marczewski, W.; Gadomski, S.; Spohn, T.

    2002-12-01

    EXTASE is a spin-off project from the Rosetta Lander (MUPUS) thermal probe, funded by DLR. The application of this probe is to be tested in different fields, e.g. in snow research, agriculture, permafrost etc. The system consists of the probe itself with a portable field electronic and a computer for control of the system and storage of the data. The probe penetrates the surface ca. 32 cm deep and provides a temperature profile (16 sensors) and thermal conductivity profile of the penetrated layer. The main advantages of the probe in comparison to common temperature profile measurement methods are: - no need to excavate material - minimized influence of the probe on the temperature field - minimized modification of the microstructure of the studied medium. Presently we are concentrating on agriculture (soil humidity) and snow research. Further applications could be e.g.: monitoring waste deposits and the heat released by decomposition, volcanology and ground truth for remote sensing. We present the general concept of the probe and also data obtained during different field measurement campaigns with prototypes of the probe.

  10. Tom Ford Construction, LLC Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Ford Construction, LLC (the Company) is located in Brentwood, Tennessee. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Nashville, Tennessee.

  11. Antiferromagnetic Spin Coupling between Rare Earth Adatoms and Iron Islands Probed by Spin-Polarized Tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, David; Diez-Ferrer, José Luis; Serrate, David; Ciria, Miguel; de la Fuente, César; Arnaudas, José Ignacio

    2015-09-03

    High-density magnetic storage or quantum computing could be achieved using small magnets with large magnetic anisotropy, a requirement that rare-earth iron alloys fulfill in bulk. This compelling property demands a thorough investigation of the magnetism in low dimensional rare-earth iron structures. Here, we report on the magnetic coupling between 4f single atoms and a 3d magnetic nanoisland. Thulium and lutetium adatoms deposited on iron monolayer islands pseudomorphically grown on W(110) have been investigated at low temperature with scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. The spin-polarized current indicates that both kind of adatoms have in-plane magnetic moments, which couple antiferromagnetically with their underlying iron islands. Our first-principles calculations explain the observed behavior, predicting an antiparallel coupling of the induced 5d electrons magnetic moment of the lanthanides with the 3d magnetic moment of iron, as well as their in-plane orientation, and pointing to a non-contribution of 4f electrons to the spin-polarized tunneling processes in rare earths.

  12. Updating the Micro-Tom TILLING platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Yoshihiro; Ariizumi, Tohru; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    The dwarf tomato variety Micro-Tom is regarded as a model system for functional genomics studies in tomato. Various tomato genomic tools in the genetic background of Micro-Tom have been established, such as mutant collections, genome information and a metabolomic database. Recent advances in tomato genome sequencing have brought about a significant need for reverse genetics tools that are accessible to the larger community, because a great number of gene sequences have become available from public databases. To meet the requests from the tomato research community, we have developed the Micro-Tom Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) platform, which is comprised of more than 5000 EMS-mutagenized lines. The platform serves as a reverse genetics tool for efficiently identifying mutant alleles in parallel with the development of Micro-Tom mutant collections. The combination of Micro-Tom mutant libraries and the TILLING approach enables researchers to accelerate the isolation of desirable mutants for unraveling gene function or breeding. To upgrade the genomic tool of Micro-Tom, the development of a new mutagenized population is underway. In this paper, the current status of the Micro-Tom TILLING platform and its future prospects are described.

  13. Infrasound as a Geophysical Probe Using Earth as a Venus Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komjathy, A.; Cutts, J. A.; Pauken, M.; Kedar, S.; Smrekar, S. E.; Hall, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    JPL is in a process of developing an instrument to measure seismic activity on Venus by detecting infrasonic waves in the atmosphere. The overall objective of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of using sensitive barometers to detect infrasonic signals from seismic and explosive activity on Venus from a balloon platform. Because of Venus' dense atmosphere, seismic signatures from even small quakes (magnitude 3) are effectively coupled into the atmosphere. The seismic signals are known to couple about 60 times more efficiently into the atmosphere on Venus than on Earth. It was found that almost no attenuation below 80 km on Venus for frequency less than 1Hz. Whereas wind noise is a major source of background noise for terrestrial infrasonic arrays, it is expected that a balloon platform, which drifts with winds will be capable of very sensitive measurements with low noise. In our research we will demonstrate and apply techniques for discriminating upward propagating waves from a seismic event by making measurements with two or more infrasonic sensors using very sensitive barometers on a tether deployed from the balloon in a series of earth-based tests. We will first demonstrate and validate the technique using an artificial infrasound source in a deployment from a hot air balloon on Earth and then extend it with longer duration flights in the troposphere and stratosphere. We will report results on the first flight experiment that will focus on using the barometer instruments on a tethered helium-filled balloon. The balloon flight will be conducted in the vicinity of a known seismic source generated by a seismic hammer. Earlier tests conducted by Sandia National Laboratory demonstrated that this is a highly reproducible source of seismic and acoustic energy using infrasound sensors. The results of the experiments are intended to validate the two-barometer signal processing approach using a well-characterized point signal source.

  14. Tomás Carrasquilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Franco Castaño

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El reconocimiento de la obra del escritor antioqueño Tomás Carrasquilla, como una obra asociada al realismo y a los principios de interpretación de las relaciones sociales que esta propuesta implica permite que, desde la composición, el esquema de los personajes y los usos del lenguaje, pueda leerse una postura crítica que se distan - cia de las normas estéticas vigentes, para mostrar las contradicciones y los desacuerdos con los proyectos políticos e ideológicos que las respaldaban. Es así como Carrasquilla concreta en una novela como La Marquesa de Yolombó la expresión de una toma de posición que se respalda en la composición de un personaje femenino desde el cual expone no solo las implicaciones de una época de la sociedad colombiana sino, además, las posibilidades de comunicación con un presente que para el escritor amerita ser cuestionado y revelado desde la descomposición de la vida social y las contradicciones de los proyectos de liberación en Colombia.

  15. On preventing the destructive influence of the ionosphere on the resolution of a microwave trans-ionospheric radar system during remote Earth probing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtejnshleger, V.B.; Dzenkevich, A.V.; Manakov, V.Yu.; Misezhnikov, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    The results presented testify to the efficiency of the proposed two-dimensional adaptive compensation of dispersion and fluctuation ionospheric distortions of signals from space radar station with synthesized equipment (RSE) of USW range waves. This creates a prerequisite for remote probing of the Earth using trans-ionospheric RSE of USW range wave, possessing an increased capability of penetrating through the plant mantle and upper layer of the Earth surface [ru

  16. A novel fluorescent probe (dtpa-bis(cytosine)) for detection of Eu(III) in rare earth metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Ren, Peipei; Liu, Guanhong; Song, Youtao; Bu, Naishun; Wang, Jun

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a novel fluorescent probe, dtpa-bis(cytosine), was designed and synthesized for detecting europium (Eu3 +) ion. Upon addition of Eu3 + ions into the dtpa-bis(cytosine) solution, the fluorescence intensity can strongly be enhanced. Conversely, adding other rare earth metal ions, such as Y3 +, Ce3 +, Pr3 +, Nd3 +, Sm3 +, Gd3 +, Tb3 +, Dy3 +, Ho3 +, Er3 +, Yb3 + and Lu3 +, into dtpa-bis(cytosine) solution, the fluorescence intensity is decreased slightly. Some parameters affecting the fluorescence intensity of dtpa-bis(cytosine) solution in the presence of Eu3 + ions were investigated, including solution pH value, Eu3 + ion concentration and interfering substances. The detection mechanism of Eu3 + ion using dtpa-bis(cytosine) as fluorescent probe was proposed. Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence emission intensities of EuIII-dtpa-bis(cytosine) at 375 nm in the concentration range of 0.50 × 10- 5 mol • L- 1-5.00 × 10- 5 mol • L- 1 of Eu3 + ion display a better linear relationship. The limit of detection (LOD) was determined as 8.65 × 10- 7 mol • L- 1 and the corresponding correlation coefficient (R2) of the linear equation is 0.9807. It is wished that the proposed method could be applied for sensitively and selectively detecting Eu3 + ion.

  17. Rare earth(III) complexes for the development of new magnetic and luminescent probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonat, A.

    2007-10-01

    The simultaneous optimisation of the molecular parameters determining the relaxivity (number of coordinated water molecules, water-exchange, rotation dynamics of the whole complex, electronic relaxation, Gd(III)-proton distance) is essential to prepare efficient contrast agents. The aim of this work is on the one hand to design and study complexes with a high number of bound water molecules and to understand the influence of the coordination sphere on the stability and on the electronic relaxation and on the other hand, to use the ligand as a chromophore for the development of luminescent probes for biomedical imaging. We present the structure, the stability and the relaxivity of Gd(III) complexes of two series of tripodal ligands containing picolinate units based either on the 1,4,7-tri-aza-cyclononane ring or on a tertiary amine. These complexes show high relaxivity in water and in serum and can establish a non covalent interaction with serum albumin. The interpretation of the water proton relaxivity with the help of new relaxometric methods based on an auxiliary probe solute has allowed us to show that both the presence of the picolinate groups and the 1,4,7-tri-aza-cyclononane framework can lead to Gd(III) complexes with favourable electronic relaxation properties. This ligands have also been used for Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexation leading to strong luminescence in visible light. Other complexes derived from 8-hydroxyquinoline unit which display a very high luminescence in infrared are also studied. (author)

  18. Inner Core Tilt and Polar Motion: Probing the Dynamics Deep Inside the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumberry, M.; Bloxham, J.

    2003-12-01

    A tilted inner core permits exchange of angular momentum between the core and the mantle through gravitational and pressure torques and, as a result, changes in the direction of Earth's axis of rotation with respect to the mantle. Some of the observed variations in the direction of Earth's rotation could then be caused by equatorial torques on the inner core which tilt the latter out of its alignment with the mantle. In this work, we investigate whether such a scenario could explain the decade polar motion known as the Markowitz wobble. We show that a decade polar motion of the same amplitude as the observed Markowitz wobble requires a torque of 1020 N m which tilts the inner core by 0.07 degrees. This result critically depends on the viscosity of the inner core; for a viscosity less than 5 x 1017 Pa s, larger torques are required. A torque of 1020 N m with decadal periodicity can perhaps be produced by electromagnetic coupling between the inner core and a component of the flow in the outer core known as torsional oscillations, provided that the radial magnetic field at the inner core boundary is on the order of 3 to 4 mT and satisfies certain geometrical constraints. The resulting polar motion thus produced is eccentric and polarized, in agreement with the observations. Our model suggests that equatorial torques at the inner core boundary might also excite the Chandler wobble, provided shorter wavelength torsional oscillations with higher natural frequencies have enough power or provided there exists another physical mechanism that can generate a large torque at a 14 month period.

  19. Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This curriculum-based, easy-to-follow book teaches young readers about Earth as one of the eight planets in our solar system in astronomical terms. With accessible text, it provides the fundamental information any student needs to begin their studies in astronomy, such as how Earth spins and revolves around the Sun, why it's uniquely suitable for life, its physical features, atmosphere, biosphere, moon, its past, future, and more. To enhance the learning experience, many of the images come directly from NASA. This straightforward title offers the fundamental information any student needs to sp

  20. LILBID-mass spectrometry of the mitochondrial preprotein translocase TOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mager, Frauke; Lintzel, Julia; Nussberger, Stephan; Sokolova, Lucie; Brutschy, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    In the present work we applied a novel mass spectrometry method termed laser-induced liquid bead ion desorption mass spectrometry (LILBID-MS) to the outer mitochondrial membrane protein translocon TOM to analyze its subunit composition and stoichiometry. With TOM core complex, purified at high pH, we demonstrate that a TOM core complex of Neurospora crassa is composed of at least two Tom40 and Tom22 molecules, respectively, and more than five small Tom subunits between 5.5 and 6.4 kDa. We show that the multiprotein complex has a total molecular mass higher than 170 depending on the number of Tom5, Tom6 and Tom7 molecules bound.

  1. LILBID-mass spectrometry of the mitochondrial preprotein translocase TOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Frauke; Sokolova, Lucie; Lintzel, Julia; Brutschy, Bernhard; Nussberger, Stephan

    2010-11-01

    In the present work we applied a novel mass spectrometry method termed laser-induced liquid bead ion desorption mass spectrometry (LILBID-MS) to the outer mitochondrial membrane protein translocon TOM to analyze its subunit composition and stoichiometry. With TOM core complex, purified at high pH, we demonstrate that a TOM core complex of Neurospora crassa is composed of at least two Tom40 and Tom22 molecules, respectively, and more than five small Tom subunits between 5.5 and 6.4 kDa. We show that the multiprotein complex has a total molecular mass higher than 170 depending on the number of Tom5, Tom6 and Tom7 molecules bound.

  2. The Unseen Déjà-Vu: From Erkki Huhtamo's Topoi to Ken Jacobs' Remakes: Commentary to Edwin Carels "Revisiting Tom Tom: Performative anamnesis and autonomous vision in Ken Jacobs' appropriations of Tom Tom the Piper's Son".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauven, Wanda

    2018-01-01

    This commentary on Edwin Carels' essay "Revisiting Tom Tom : Performative anamnesis and autonomous vision in Ken Jacobs' appropriations of Tom Tom the Piper's Son " broadens up the media-archaeological framework in which Carels places his text. Notions such as Huhtamo's topos and Zielinski's "deep time" are brought into the discussion in order to point out the difficulty to see what there is to see and to question the position of the viewer in front of experimental films like Tom Tom the Piper's Son and its remakes.

  3. Tom Brown appointed Dean of Students

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Meghan

    2007-01-01

    James Thomas "Tom" Brown, former senior associate dean of the Dean of Students office, has been appointed as the Dean of Students. The Dean of Students office is responsible for the coordination of student advocacy, new student orientation and parent programs, and responding to student emergencies in collaboration with Judicial Affairs, Residence Life, Cook Counseling Center, Schiffert Health Center, and other departments and agencies.

  4. STS-98 Crew Interview: Tom Jones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The STS-98 Mission Specialist Tom Jones is seen being interviewed. He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut, his career path, and his training. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, and the payload and hardware it brings to the International Space Station (ISS). Mr. Jones discusses his role in the mission's spacewalks and activities.

  5. Tom Olaf Urb / intervjueerinud Siim Õ. Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Urb, Tom Olaf, 1985-

    2016-01-01

    Muusik, produtsent, kirjanik ja näitleja Tom-Olaf Urb, lavanimega Reket, arutleb disaini teemal ja nimetab kümme disainieset, mis teda elus köitnud on. Eesti Hip-Hop auhindade jagamisel valiti Reketi "Tuule tee" 2015.a. parimaks kodumaiseks hip-hop albumiks

  6. Tropospheric Ozone from the TOMS TDOT (TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) Technique During SAFARI-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J. B.; Thompson, A. M.; Frolov, A. D.; Hudson, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    There are a number of published residual-type methods for deriving tropospheric ozone from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer). The basic concept of these methods is that within a zone of constant stratospheric ozone, the tropospheric ozone column can be computed by subtracting stratospheric ozone from the TOMS Level 2 total ozone column, We used the modified-residual method for retrieving tropospheric ozone during SAFARI-2000 and found disagreements with in-situ ozone data over Africa in September 2000. Using the newly developed TDOT (TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) method that uses TOMS radiances and a modified lookup table based on actual profiles during high ozone pollution periods, new maps were prepared and found to compare better to soundings over Lusaka, Zambia (15.5 S, 28 E), Nairobi and several African cities where MOZAIC aircraft operated in September 2000. The TDOT technique and comparisons are described in detail.

  7. A comprehensive mission to planet Earth: Woods Hole Space Science and Applications Advisory Committee Planning Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA program Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is described in this set of visuals presented in Massachusetts on July 29, 1991. The problem presented in this document is that the earth system is changing and that human activity accelerates the rate of change resulting in increased greenhouse gases, decreasing levels of stratospheric ozone, acid rain, deforestation, decreasing biodiversity, and overpopulation. Various national and international organizations are coordinating global change research. The complementary space observations for this activity are sun-synchronous polar orbits, low-inclination, low altitude orbits, geostationary orbits, and ground measurements. The Geostationary Earth Observatory is the major proposed mission of MTPE. Other proposed missions are EOS Synthetic Aperture Radar, ARISTOTELES Magnetic Field Experiment, and the Global Topography Mission. Use of the NASA DC-8 aircraft is outlined as carrying out the Airborne Science and Applications Program. Approved Earth Probes Program include the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Other packages for earth observation are described.

  8. TOMS as a monitor of the ultraviolet radiation environment: applications to photobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The flux of biologically relevant ultraviolet radiation that reaches the surface of the Earth varies with the ozone amount, surface reflectivity, and cloudcover. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) provides information relevant to all three items. A recent application of satellite-based ozone measurements has been to develop climatologies of the biologically significant UV-B radiation reaching the Earth's surface. A growing body of research suggests that UV-B radiation tends to suppress the immune system of laboratory mice. At tropical latitudes, it is likely that parasitical diseases develop most readily in people who have experienced immune system suppression from UV-B exposure. The computed distribution of surface radiation combined with information on disease incidence may clarify the role of UV-B as a suppressor of the human immune system. TOMS used in conjunction with radiative transfer calculations can provide information of relevance in photobiology

  9. Clean Coal Power at Toms Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    On October 20, 1992 the US Department of Energy (DOE), through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, entered into Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-21-93MC92444 with TAMCO Power Partners to implement the Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined - Cycle Demonstration Project. The process design is proceeding as scheduled, and a draft Environmental Information Volume has been produced. The overall project schedule, however, may have to be adjusted when the Power Sales Agreement has been finalized

  10. Generation of EMIC Waves Observed by Van Allen Probes at Low L-shells of Earth's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Zhang, J.; Saikin, A.; Rassoul, H.

    2017-12-01

    In a multi-ion magnetospheric plasma, where the major species are H+, He+, and O+, the He-band of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is the dominant band observed in the inner magnetosphere, and waves are generally quasi-field-aligned inside the geostationary orbit. Almost all the satellite-based studies of EMIC waves before Van Allen Probes, however, have not reported waves below L 3.5. There is probably only one exception from the Akebono satellite where both the H-band and He-band EMIC waves were observed at L 2. The situation has changed dramatically after two Van Allen Probes spacecraft were launched on 30 August, 2012, and many EMIC wave events have been observed below L=4. The Van Allen Probes observations confirm that the He-band of EMIC waves is a dominant band in the inner magnetosphere, but the observation of the He-band waves below L=4 is a new and quite unexpected result compared to our knowledge about EMIC waves before the Van Allen Probes era. In addition, observations show that almost all the He-band EMIC waves are linearly polarized in the region L field, and energetic ion distribution functions will be taken from the Van Allen Probes observations during the EMIC wave event to calculate growth rates of EMIC waves. We will then identify the energetic ions responsible for instability, frequencies and normals generated, and physical mechanism of instability.

  11. Social versus Intrapersonal ToM: Social ToM Is a Cognitive Strength for Low- and Middle-SES Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucariello, Joan M.; Durand, Tina M.; Yarnell, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Metarepresentational theory of mind (ToM) was studied in middle- and low-SES five- and six-year-olds. Two aspects of ToM were distinguished. Reasoning about one's own mental states (Intrapersonal ToM) was assessed in the intrapersonal ToM task condition and reasoning about others' mental states (Social ToM) was assessed in the social ToM task…

  12. Hydrodynamic Aspects of the Toms Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strel‧nikova, S. A.; Tkachenko, G. V.; Uryukov, B. A.

    2015-11-01

    The physicomathematical model of migration of polymers in a liquid turbulent flow in a pipe is based on a comparison of forces transverse to the motion of the mainstream flow: the Saffman, Magnus, and turbophoresis forces. It has been shown that the polymer particles are grouped near a certain boundary within the limits of the boundary layer. On this basis, the authors have made assumptions on the mechanism of suppression of turbulent pulsations and decrease in the viscous friction near the wall, which makes up the Toms effect. The proposed model satisfies, at least, qualitatively, various actually observed manifestations of the effect.

  13. Analysis of Ozone (O3 and Erythemal UV (EUV measured by TOMS in the equatorial African belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Frette

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We presented time series of total ozone column amounts (TOCAs and erythemal UV (EUV doses derived from measurements by TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer instruments on board the Nimbus-7 (N7 and the Earth Probe (EP satellites for three locations within the equatorial African belt for the period 1979 to 2000. The locations were Dar-es-Salaam (6.8° S, 39.26° E in Tanzania, Kampala (0.19° N, 32.34° E in Uganda, and Serrekunda (13.28° N, 16.34° W in Gambia. Equatorial Africa has high levels of UV radiation, and because ozone shields UV radiation from reaching the Earth’s surface, there is a need to monitor TOCAs and EUV doses. In this paper we investigated the trend of TOCAs and EUV doses, the effects of annual and solar cycles on TOCAs, as well as the link between lightning and ozone production in the equatorial African belt. We also compared clear-sky simulated EUV doses with the corresponding EUV doses derived from TOMS measurements. The TOCAs were found to vary in the ranges 243 DU − 289 DU, 231 DU − 286 DU, and 236 DU − 296 DU, with mean values of 266.9 DU, 260.9 DU, and 267.8 DU for Dar-es-Salaam, Kampala and Serrekunda, respectively. Daily TOCA time series indicated that Kampala had the lowest TOCA values, which we attributed to the altitude effect. There were two annual ozone peaks in Dar-es-Salaam and Kampala, and one annual ozone peak in Serrekunda. The yearly TOCA averages showed an oscillation within a five-year period. We also found that the EUV doses were stable at all three locations for the period 1979−2000, and that Kampala and Dar-es-Salaam were mostly cloudy throughout the year, whereas Serrekunda was mostly free from clouds. It was also found that clouds were among the major factors determining the level of EUV reaching the Earth´s surface. Finally, we noted that during rainy seasons, horizontal advection effects augmented by lightning activity may be responsible for enhanced ozone production in the tropics.

  14. Tropical easterly jet located using TOMS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhofer, William C.

    1987-01-01

    The formative stages of the onset of the 1979 southwest monsoon was marked by a WNW-ESE oriented band of marine convection over the South Arabian Sea. This convection was first observed on June 10, 1979 using satellite cloud imagery. The marine convection appeared during a major acceleration of the upper troposphere easterly wind field. A composite vertical meridional cross-section of upper level winds for June 11, revealed the core of the Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ) at 115 mb, 9.5 deg N. Time analysis of the upper level wind field over the Tropical Wind Observing Ship (TWOS) polygon show a lowering of both the pressure level of maximum wind and tropopause level with acceleration of the upper level easterlies. The tropopause was as much as 20 mb lower on the equatorial side of the TEJ. Streamline analysis of the maximum observed easterly winds over India did not reveal the horizontal position of the TEJ. Careful analysis of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data for June 11, 1979 showed relatively high values of ozone south of India. It was observed that the latitudinal position of the TEJ on June 11, at approximately 70 deg E coincided with the northern edge of relatively high ozone values. Using this as a reference, the TEJ core was identified as far as NE Bay of Bengal (the limits of the available TOMS data).

  15. Ion distribution dynamics near the Earth's bow shock: first measurements with the 2D ion energy spectrometer CORALL on the INTERBALL/Tail-probe satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Yermolaev

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the ion distribution function near the Earth's bow shock is studied on the basis of quasi-3D measurements of ion energy spectra in the range of 30–24200 eV/q with the Russian-Cuban CORALL instrument on the INTERBALL/Tail-probe satellite. The instrument was designed for observations of magnetospheric plasma and measures ions, in an angular range of 36°–144° from the Earth-Sun direction. Ion populations generated by the Earth bow shock are often observed upstream from the bow shock. In the solar-wind stream compressed and heated by the passing of very dense magnetic cloud (CME, two types of these ion populations were measured upstream and before the bow shock crossing on 25 August 1995 at 07:37 UT. Both populations were observed in the energy range above 2 keV. At ~06:20 UT, when the angle between the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field and normal to the bow shock VBn was ≃ 43° the instrument observed a narrow, fast (~800 km/s field-aligned beam moving from the Earth. At ~07:30, when Bn ≃ 28°, the wide ion pitch-angle distribution was observed. A similar suprathermal ion population is observed in the magnetosheath simultaneously with the solar-wind ion population being heated and deflected from the Sun-Earth direction. The similarity of observations during the mentioned time-interval and under usual solar-wind conditions allows us to conclude that types of suprathermal ion populations upstream and downstream from the bow shock do not depend on the solar-wind disturbance generated by magnetic cloud.

  16. Longitudinal Theory of Mind (ToM) Development From Preschool to Adolescence With and Without ToM Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C; Wellman, Henry M

    2018-04-16

    Longitudinal tracking of 107 three- to-thirteen-year-olds in a cross-sequential design showed a 6-step theory of mind (ToM) sequence identified by a few past cross-sectional studies validly depicted longitudinal ToM development from early to middle childhood for typically developing (TD) children and those with ToM delays owing to deafness or autism. Substantively, all groups showed ToM progress throughout middle childhood. Atypical development was more extended and began and ended at lower levels than for TD children. Yet most children in all groups progressed over the study's mean 1.5 years. Findings help resolve theoretical debates about ToM development for children with and without delay and gain strength and weight via their applicability to three disparate groups varying in ToM timing and sequencing. © 2018 Society for Research in Child Development.

  17. Testicular morphometry and sperm reserves of local turkey toms fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphometry and sperm reserves of the testis, epididymis and vas deferens of three groups (n=5/ group) of sexually active adult local turkey toms fed isocaloric diet with varying levels (12 %, 16 %, 20 %) of protein were studied for sixteen weeks. The weights of the toms before treatment were between 3.5 – 4.5 kg, while ...

  18. 78 FR 12307 - Taylor, G. Tom; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ID-5705-001] Taylor, G. Tom; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 14, 2013, G. Tom Taylor filed an application to hold interlocking positions pursuant to section 305(b) of the Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 825d(b), Part 45 of the...

  19. Dispersive heterodyne probing method for laser frequency stabilization based on spectral hole burning in rare-earth doped crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobron, Olivier; Jung, K.; Galland, N.

    2017-01-01

    Frequency-locking a laser to a spectral hole in rare-earth doped crystals at cryogenic temperature has been shown to be a promising alternative to the use of high finesse Fabry-Perot cavities when seeking a very high short term stability laser (M. J. Thorpe et al., Nature Photonics 5, 688 (2011......)). We demonstrate here a novel technique for achieving such stabilization, based on generating a heterodyne beat-note between a master laser and a slave laser whose dephasing caused by propagation near a spectral hole generate the error signal of the frequency lock. The master laser is far detuned from...

  20. TOM9.2 Is a Calmodulin-Binding Protein Critical for TOM Complex Assembly but Not for Mitochondrial Protein Import in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, Nargis; Carrie, Chris; Pabst, Isabelle; Läßer, Antonia; Laha, Debabrata; Paul, Melanie V; Geigenberger, Peter; Heermann, Ralf; Jung, Kirsten; Vothknecht, Ute C; Chigri, Fatima

    2017-04-03

    The translocon on the outer membrane of mitochondria (TOM) facilitates the import of nuclear-encoded proteins. The principal machinery of mitochondrial protein transport seems conserved in eukaryotes; however, divergence in the composition and structure of TOM components has been observed between mammals, yeast, and plants. TOM9, the plant homolog of yeast Tom22, is significantly smaller due to a truncation in the cytosolic receptor domain, and its precise function is not understood. Here we provide evidence showing that TOM9.2 from Arabidopsis thaliana is involved in the formation of mature TOM complex, most likely by influencing the assembly of the pore-forming subunit TOM40. Dexamethasone-induced RNAi gene silencing of TOM9.2 results in a severe reduction in the mature TOM complex, and the assembly of newly imported TOM40 into the complex is impaired. Nevertheless, mutant plants are fully viable and no obvious downstream effects of the loss of TOM complex, i.e., on mitochondrial import capacity, were observed. Furthermore, we found that TOM9.2 can bind calmodulin (CaM) in vitro and that CaM impairs the assembly of TOM complex in the isolated wild-type mitochondria, suggesting a regulatory role of TOM9.2 and a possible integration of TOM assembly into the cellular calcium signaling network. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Spatial characterization of relativistic electron enhancements in the Earth's outer radiation belt during the Van Allen Probes era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, V. A.; Bortnik, J.; Moya, P. S.; Lyons, L. R.; Sibeck, D. G.; Kanekal, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    Using Van Allen Probes Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope (REPT) instrument we have identified 73 relativistic electron enhancement events in the outer radiation belt that occurred at different L values between L = 2.5 and L = 6.0. To determine an enhancement, we have used three different identification methods. We then determine the radial location, MLT location, timing and strength of those enhancements. We discuss the differences of each of the methods and test them to pinpoint the origin and spatial propagation of each enhancement. We have classified the events based on the radial propagation, speed of enhancement and intensity of fluxes and response for energy channels ranging from 1.8 MeV to 6.3 MeV. In addition, we have used OMNI data to study the statistical properties of the solar wind during each event and have classified similarities and differences that might be relevant for each group of enhancements and help us determine the physical process responsible for different types of enhancements. Additionally, we have used >2 MeV electron fluxes at geostationary orbit as measured by the GOES 13 and 15 Energetic Particle Sensor (EPS) instrument to compare our results with the geostationary orbit. Our results suggest that under certain conditions GOES data can be used to predict fluxes at the core of the radiation belt and vice-versa.

  2. Counting probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Haruya; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Yuasa, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Tomoaki

    1976-01-01

    Electron counting method has been devised and experimented for the purpose of measuring electron temperature and density, the most fundamental quantities to represent plasma conditions. Electron counting is a method to count the electrons in plasma directly by equipping a probe with the secondary electron multiplier. It has three advantages of adjustable sensitivity, high sensitivity of the secondary electron multiplier, and directional property. Sensitivity adjustment is performed by changing the size of collecting hole (pin hole) on the incident front of the multiplier. The probe is usable as a direct reading thermometer of electron temperature because it requires to collect very small amount of electrons, thus it doesn't disturb the surrounding plasma, and the narrow sweep width of the probe voltage is enough. Therefore it can measure anisotropy more sensitively than a Langmuir probe, and it can be used for very low density plasma. Though many problems remain on anisotropy, computer simulation has been carried out. Also it is planned to provide a Helmholtz coil in the vacuum chamber to eliminate the effect of earth magnetic field. In practical experiments, the measurement with a Langmuir probe and an emission probe mounted to the movable structure, the comparison with the results obtained in reverse magnetic field by using a Helmholtz coil, and the measurement of ionic sound wave are scheduled. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  3. Annual Quality Assurance Conference Files by Tom Mancuso

    Science.gov (United States)

    25th Annual Quality Assurance Conference. Abstract: Learn about the NEW EPA Method 325b for Refinery Fence Line Monitoring and TO-17 Extended for Soil Gas by Tom Mancuso and Abstract: Success Using Alternate Carrier Gases for Volatile Methods

  4. Tom Russell: "Õpetajakoolitust tuleks alustada praktikast" / Liisa Lumiste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lumiste, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    Eduko programmi raames Tallinna Ülikoolis toimunud avalikul loengul rääkis Kanada kasvatusteadlane Tom Russell praktika tähtsusest õpetajakoolituses ja viis läbi meistriklassi õpetajakoolituse õppejõududele

  5. Compare and analyse marketing strategies using consumer focused studies. The case of TomTom vs. Garmin

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanova, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    The following dissertation paper focuses on a central research question that is to compare and appraise strategic marketing activities of a first mover navigation organisation, TomTom B.V., to its most prominent competitor Garmin Ltd, a successful follower. The intense situation in the global positioning systems market provides a great possibility of investigating the two giant organisations' internal environment, competitive environment and customers' purchase behaviour. In this regard, mark...

  6. Dust storms and their impact on ocean and human health: dust in Earth's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Kellog, Christina A.

    2004-01-01

    Satellite imagery has greatly influenced our understanding of dust activity on a global scale. A number of different satellites such as NASA's Earth-Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Se-viewing Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquire daily global-scale data used to produce imagery for monitoring dust storm formation and movement. This global-scale imagery has documented the frequent transmission of dust storm-derived soils through Earth's atmosphere and the magnitude of many of these events. While various research projects have been undertaken to understand this normal planetary process, little has been done to address its impact on ocean and human health. This review will address the ability of dust storms to influence marine microbial population densities and transport of soil-associated toxins and pathogenic microorganisms to marine environments. The implications of dust on ocean and human health in this emerging scientific field will be discussed.

  7. Cryo-EM Structure of the TOM Core Complex from Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausewein, Thomas; Mills, Deryck J; Langer, Julian D; Nitschke, Beate; Nussberger, Stephan; Kühlbrandt, Werner

    2017-08-10

    The TOM complex is the main entry gate for protein precursors from the cytosol into mitochondria. We have determined the structure of the TOM core complex by cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM). The complex is a 148 kDa symmetrical dimer of ten membrane protein subunits that create a shallow funnel on the cytoplasmic membrane surface. In the core of the dimer, the β-barrels of the Tom40 pore form two identical preprotein conduits. Each Tom40 pore is surrounded by the transmembrane segments of the α-helical subunits Tom5, Tom6, and Tom7. Tom22, the central preprotein receptor, connects the two Tom40 pores at the dimer interface. Our structure offers detailed insights into the molecular architecture of the mitochondrial preprotein import machinery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Shallow ground-water conditions, Tom Green County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Most of the water needs of Tom Green County, Texas, are supplied by ground water; however, the city of San Angelo is supplied by surface water. Groundwater withdrawals during 1980 (latest year for which data are available) in Tom Green County totaled about 15,300 acre-feet, all derived from shallow aquifers. Shallow aquifers in this report refer to the ground-water system generally less than 400 feet deep that contains water with less than a 10,000 milligrams per liter concentration of dissolved solids; aquifers comprising this system include: The Leona, Comanche Peak, Trinity, Blaine, San Angelo, Choza, Bullwagon, Vale, Standpipe, and Arroyo aquifers.

  9. Single molecule tracking fluorescence microscopy in mitochondria reveals highly dynamic but confined movement of Tom40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, Anton; Tankov, Stoyan; English, Brian P.; Tarassov, Ivan; Tenson, Tanel; Kamenski, Piotr; Elf, Johan; Hauryliuk, Vasili

    2011-12-01

    Tom40 is an integral protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane, which as the central component of the Translocase of the Outer Membrane (TOM) complex forms a channel for protein import. We characterize the diffusion properties of individual Tom40 molecules fused to the photoconvertable fluorescent protein Dendra2 with millisecond temporal resolution. By imaging individual Tom40 molecules in intact isolated yeast mitochondria using photoactivated localization microscopy with sub-diffraction limited spatial precision, we demonstrate that Tom40 movement in the outer mitochondrial membrane is highly dynamic but confined in nature, suggesting anchoring of the TOM complex as a whole.

  10. Estimations of the Global Distribution and Time Series of UV Noontime Irradiance (305, 310, 324, 380 nm, and Erythemal) from TOMS and SeaWiFS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J.

    2004-01-01

    The amount of UV irradiance reaching the Earth's surface is estimated from the measured cloud reflectivity, ozone, aerosol amounts, and surface reflectivity time series from 1980 to 1992 and 1997 to 2000 to estimate changes that have occurred over a 21-year period. Recent analysis of the TOMS data shows that there has been an apparent increase in reflectivity (decrease in W) in the Southern Hemisphere that is related to a calibration error in EP-TOMS. Data from the well-calibrated SeaWiFS satellite instrument have been used to correct the EP-TOMS reflectivity and UV time series. After correction, some of the local trend features seen in the N7 time series (1980 to 1992) have been continued in the combined time series, but the overall zonal average and global trends have changed. In addition to correcting the EP-TOMS radiance calibration, the use of SeaWiFS cloud data permits estimation of UV irradiance at higher spatial resolution (1 to 4 km) than is available from TOMS (100 km) under the assumption that ozone is slowly varying over a scale of 100 km. The key results include a continuing decrease in cloud cover over Europe and North America with a corresponding increase in UV and a decrease in UV irradiance near Antarctica.

  11. Estimation of surface UV levels based on Meteor-3/TOMS ozone data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, Y A [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation); Geogdzhaev, I V [Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khattatov, V U [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The major consequence of ozone layer depletion for the environment is an increase of harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the Earth surface and in the upper ocean. This implies the importance of environmental UV monitoring. Since the direct global monitoring is not currently possible, indirect estimations of surface UV levels may be used based on satellite ozone data (Madronich, S. 1992). Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on board the METEOR-3 satellite provided regular set of data for such estimates. During the time of its operation (August, 1991 - December, 1994) the instrument registered several ozone hole events over Antarctica, when ozone levels dropped by as much as 60 % from their unperturbed values. Probably even more alarming ozone depletions were observed over highly populated regions of middle latitudes of northern hemisphere. Radiative transfer modeling was used to convert METEOR-3/TOMS daily ozone values into regional and global maps of biologically active UV. Calculations demonstrate the effect on surface UV levels produced by ozone hole over Antarctica and ozone depletions over the territory of Russia (March, 1994). UV contour lines deviate from the normal appearance which is determined by growing southward solar elevation. UV contour lines are almost perpendicular to the ozone ones in the ozone depletions areas. The 30 % ozone depletion, over Siberia caused more than 30 % increase in noontime erythemal UV levels, which is equivalent to 10-15 degrees southward latitude displacement. Higher UV radiation increases were found in ozone hole over South America (October 1992) equivalent to about 20 degrees southward displacement

  12. Estimation of surface UV levels based on Meteor-3/TOMS ozone data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, Y.A. [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation); Geogdzhaev, I.V. [Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khattatov, V.U. [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The major consequence of ozone layer depletion for the environment is an increase of harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the Earth surface and in the upper ocean. This implies the importance of environmental UV monitoring. Since the direct global monitoring is not currently possible, indirect estimations of surface UV levels may be used based on satellite ozone data (Madronich, S. 1992). Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on board the METEOR-3 satellite provided regular set of data for such estimates. During the time of its operation (August, 1991 - December, 1994) the instrument registered several ozone hole events over Antarctica, when ozone levels dropped by as much as 60 % from their unperturbed values. Probably even more alarming ozone depletions were observed over highly populated regions of middle latitudes of northern hemisphere. Radiative transfer modeling was used to convert METEOR-3/TOMS daily ozone values into regional and global maps of biologically active UV. Calculations demonstrate the effect on surface UV levels produced by ozone hole over Antarctica and ozone depletions over the territory of Russia (March, 1994). UV contour lines deviate from the normal appearance which is determined by growing southward solar elevation. UV contour lines are almost perpendicular to the ozone ones in the ozone depletions areas. The 30 % ozone depletion, over Siberia caused more than 30 % increase in noontime erythemal UV levels, which is equivalent to 10-15 degrees southward latitude displacement. Higher UV radiation increases were found in ozone hole over South America (October 1992) equivalent to about 20 degrees southward displacement

  13. Isepäine iseõppija Tom Dixon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Inglise disainerist Tom Dixonist (sünd. 1959) ja tema loomingust. 1998. aastast UK disainistuudio juht mööblifirma Habitat juures, mööblitööstuse Artek loominguline direktor. Aprillis 2007 esines Milano mööblimessil vaskvalgustite kollektsiooniga ja Triennale pargis koostöös Shigeru Baniga Arteki paviljoniga

  14. Culture of the Tomato Micro-Tom Cultivar in Greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothan, Christophe; Just, Daniel; Fernandez, Lucie; Atienza, Isabelle; Ballias, Patricia; Lemaire-Chamley, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Micro-Tom tomato cultivar is particularly adapted to the development of genomic approaches in tomato. Here, we describe the culture of this plant in greenhouse, including climate regulation, seed sowing and watering, vegetative development, plant maintenance, including treatment of phytosanitary problems, and reproductive development.

  15. Reducing the Language Content in ToM Tests: A Developmental Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnel, Morgane; Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Reboul, Anne; Baciu, Monica; Durrleman, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to statistically evaluate the reliable scalability of a set of tasks designed to assess Theory of Mind (ToM) without language as a confounding variable. This tool might be useful to study ToM in populations where language is impaired or to study links between language and ToM. Low verbal versions of the ToM tasks…

  16. 77 FR 39406 - Safety Zone; Tom Graves Memorial Fireworks, Port Bay, Wolcott, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Tom Graves Memorial Fireworks, Port Bay, Wolcott, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION..., NY. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Port Bay during the Tom Graves... necessary to ensure the safety of spectators and vessels during the Tom Graves Memorial Fireworks. This zone...

  17. Measuring Theory of Mind in Children. Psychometric Properties of the ToM Storybooks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijd-Hoogewys, E. M. A.; van Geert, P. L. C.; Serra, M.; Minderaa, R. B.

    Although research on Theory-of-Mind (ToM) is often based on single task measurements, more comprehensive instruments result in a better understanding of ToM development. The ToM Storybooks is a new instrument measuring basic ToM-functioning and associated aspects. There are 34 tasks, tapping various

  18. Alternative function for the mitochondrial SAM complex in biogenesis of alpha-helical TOM proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovski, Diana; Guiard, Bernard; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Meisinger, Chris

    2007-12-03

    The mitochondrial outer membrane contains two preprotein translocases: the general translocase of outer membrane (TOM) and the beta-barrel-specific sorting and assembly machinery (SAM). TOM functions as the central entry gate for nuclear-encoded proteins. The channel-forming Tom40 is a beta-barrel protein, whereas all Tom receptors and small Tom proteins are membrane anchored by a transmembrane alpha-helical segment in their N- or C-terminal portion. Synthesis of Tom precursors takes place in the cytosol, and their import occurs via preexisting TOM complexes. The precursor of Tom40 is then transferred to SAM for membrane insertion and assembly. Unexpectedly, we find that the biogenesis of alpha-helical Tom proteins with a membrane anchor in the C-terminal portion is SAM dependent. Each SAM protein is necessary for efficient membrane integration of the receptor Tom22, whereas assembly of the small Tom proteins depends on Sam37. Thus, the substrate specificity of SAM is not restricted to beta-barrel proteins but also includes the majority of alpha-helical Tom proteins.

  19. Measuring Theory of Mind in Children. Psychometric Properties of the ToM Storybooks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijd-Hoogewys, E. M. A.; van Geert, P. L. C.; Serra, M.; Minderaa, R. B.

    2008-01-01

    Although research on Theory-of-Mind (ToM) is often based on single task measurements, more comprehensive instruments result in a better understanding of ToM development. The ToM Storybooks is a new instrument measuring basic ToM-functioning and associated aspects. There are 34 tasks, tapping various

  20. Wave activity (planetary, tidal throughout the middle atmosphere (20-100km over the CUJO network: Satellite (TOMS and Medium Frequency (MF radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Planetary and tidal wave activity in the tropopause-lower stratosphere and mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT is studied using combinations of ground-based (GB and satellite instruments (2000-2002. The relatively new MFR (medium frequency radar at Platteville (40° N, 105° W has provided the opportunity to create an operational network of middle-latitude MFRs, stretching from 81° W-142° E, which provides winds and tides 70-100km. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity comprises systems at London (43° N, 81° W, Platteville (40° N, 105° W, Saskatoon (52° N, 107° W, Wakkanai (45° N, 142° E and Yamagawa (31° N, 131° E. It offers a significant 7000-km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12-14° at two longitudes. Satellite data mainly involve the daily values of the total ozone column measured by the Earth Probe (EP TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and provide a measure of tropopause-lower stratospheric planetary wave activity, as well as ozone variability. Climatologies of ozone and winds/tides involving frequency versus time (wavelet contour plots for periods from 2-d to 30-d and the interval from mid 2000 to 2002, show that the changes with altitude, longitude and latitude are very significant and distinctive. Geometric-mean wavelets for the region of the 40° N MFRs demonstrate occasions during the autumn, winter and spring months when there are similarities in the spectral features of the lower atmosphere and at mesopause (85km heights. Both direct planetary wave (PW propagation into the MLT, nonlinear PW-tide interactions, and disturbances in MLT tides associated with fluctuations in the ozone forcing are considered to be possible coupling processes. The complex horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in frequency contour plots for the TOMS satellite data to demonstrate the differences between lower atmospheric and MLT wave motions and their

  1. Wave activity (planetary, tidal) throughout the middle atmosphere (20-100km) over the CUJO network: Satellite (TOMS) and Medium Frequency (MF) radar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.; Chshyolkova, T.; Avery, S. K.; Thorsen, D.; MacDougall, J. W.; Hocking, W.; Murayama, Y.; Igarashi, K.

    2005-02-01

    Planetary and tidal wave activity in the tropopause-lower stratosphere and mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) is studied using combinations of ground-based (GB) and satellite instruments (2000-2002). The relatively new MFR (medium frequency radar) at Platteville (40° N, 105° W) has provided the opportunity to create an operational network of middle-latitude MFRs, stretching from 81° W-142° E, which provides winds and tides 70-100km. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity) comprises systems at London (43° N, 81° W), Platteville (40° N, 105° W), Saskatoon (52° N, 107° W), Wakkanai (45° N, 142° E) and Yamagawa (31° N, 131° E). It offers a significant 7000-km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12-14°) at two longitudes. Satellite data mainly involve the daily values of the total ozone column measured by the Earth Probe (EP) TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and provide a measure of tropopause-lower stratospheric planetary wave activity, as well as ozone variability. Climatologies of ozone and winds/tides involving frequency versus time (wavelet) contour plots for periods from 2-d to 30-d and the interval from mid 2000 to 2002, show that the changes with altitude, longitude and latitude are very significant and distinctive. Geometric-mean wavelets for the region of the 40° N MFRs demonstrate occasions during the autumn, winter and spring months when there are similarities in the spectral features of the lower atmosphere and at mesopause (85km) heights. Both direct planetary wave (PW) propagation into the MLT, nonlinear PW-tide interactions, and disturbances in MLT tides associated with fluctuations in the ozone forcing are considered to be possible coupling processes. The complex horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in frequency contour plots for the TOMS satellite data to demonstrate the differences between lower atmospheric and MLT wave motions and their

  2. Wave activity (planetary, tidal throughout the middle atmosphere (20-100km over the CUJO network: Satellite (TOMS and Medium Frequency (MF radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Planetary and tidal wave activity in the tropopause-lower stratosphere and mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT is studied using combinations of ground-based (GB and satellite instruments (2000-2002. The relatively new MFR (medium frequency radar at Platteville (40° N, 105° W has provided the opportunity to create an operational network of middle-latitude MFRs, stretching from 81° W-142° E, which provides winds and tides 70-100km. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity comprises systems at London (43° N, 81° W, Platteville (40° N, 105° W, Saskatoon (52° N, 107° W, Wakkanai (45° N, 142° E and Yamagawa (31° N, 131° E. It offers a significant 7000-km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12-14° at two longitudes. Satellite data mainly involve the daily values of the total ozone column measured by the Earth Probe (EP TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and provide a measure of tropopause-lower stratospheric planetary wave activity, as well as ozone variability.

    Climatologies of ozone and winds/tides involving frequency versus time (wavelet contour plots for periods from 2-d to 30-d and the interval from mid 2000 to 2002, show that the changes with altitude, longitude and latitude are very significant and distinctive. Geometric-mean wavelets for the region of the 40° N MFRs demonstrate occasions during the autumn, winter and spring months when there are similarities in the spectral features of the lower atmosphere and at mesopause (85km heights. Both direct planetary wave (PW propagation into the MLT, nonlinear PW-tide interactions, and disturbances in MLT tides associated with fluctuations in the ozone forcing are considered to be possible coupling processes. The complex horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in frequency contour plots for the TOMS satellite data to demonstrate the differences between lower atmospheric

  3. Biogenesis of the mitochondrial TOM complex: Mim1 promotes insertion and assembly of signal-anchored receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Thomas; Pfannschmidt, Sylvia; Guiard, Bernard; Stojanovski, Diana; Milenkovic, Dusanka; Kutik, Stephan; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Meisinger, Chris; Wiedemann, Nils

    2008-01-04

    The translocase of the outer membrane (TOM complex) is the central entry gate for nuclear-encoded mitochondrial precursor proteins. All Tom proteins are also encoded by nuclear genes and synthesized as precursors in the cytosol. The channel-forming beta-barrel protein Tom40 is targeted to mitochondria via Tom receptors and inserted into the outer membrane by the sorting and assembly machinery (SAM complex). A further outer membrane protein, Mim1, plays a less defined role in assembly of Tom40 into the TOM complex. The three receptors Tom20, Tom22, and Tom70 are anchored in the outer membrane by a single transmembrane alpha-helix, located at the N terminus in the case of Tom20 and Tom70 (signal-anchored) or in the C-terminal portion in the case of Tom22 (tail-anchored). Insertion of the precursor of Tom22 into the outer membrane requires pre-existing Tom receptors while the import pathway of the precursors of Tom20 and Tom70 is only poorly understood. We report that Mim1 is required for efficient membrane insertion and assembly of Tom20 and Tom70, but not Tom22. We show that Mim1 associates with SAM(core) components to a large SAM complex, explaining its role in late steps of the assembly pathway of Tom40. We conclude that Mim1 is not only required for biogenesis of the beta-barrel protein Tom40 but also for membrane insertion and assembly of signal-anchored Tom receptors. Thus, Mim1 plays an important role in the efficient assembly of the mitochondrial TOM complex.

  4. Design, fabrication and performance of the 10-in TOM HPD

    CERN Document Server

    Braem, André; Joram, C; Séguinot, Jacques; Weilhammer, P; Giunta, M; Malakhov, N; Menzione, A; Pegna, R; Piccioli, A; Raffaelli, F; Sartori, G

    2004-01-01

    The first sealed TOM Hybrid Photon Detector (HPD) with 10-in. diameter has been fabricated and successfully tested at CERN. This HPD has a spherical entrance window and a bialkali photocathode. The fountain focusing optics produces a demagnified image (D = 4) on the round segmented silicon sensor. The signals of the 2048 cells are read out through analog front-end electronics encapsulated in the vacuum envelope. We report on the design, fabrication technique and the experimental results obtained with laboratory test benches. The large TOM HPD is a prototype tube developed for the CLUE cosmic ray experiment. The final tubes, now under development, will be equipped with a solar-blind Rb//2Te photocathode and self triggering front-end electronics.

  5. Highlights of TOMS Version 9 Total Ozone Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, Pawan; Haffner, David

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental basis of TOMS total ozone algorithm was developed some 45 years ago by Dave and Mateer. It was designed to estimate total ozone from satellite measurements of the backscattered UV radiances at few discrete wavelengths in the Huggins ozone absorption band (310-340 nm). Over the years, as the need for higher accuracy in measuring total ozone from space has increased, several improvements to the basic algorithms have been made. They include: better correction for the effects of aerosols and clouds, an improved method to account for the variation in shape of ozone profiles with season, latitude, and total ozone, and a multi-wavelength correction for remaining profile shape errors. These improvements have made it possible to retrieve total ozone with just 3 spectral channels of moderate spectral resolution (approx. 1 nm) with accuracy comparable to state-of-the-art spectral fitting algorithms like DOAS that require high spectral resolution measurements at large number of wavelengths. One of the deficiencies of the TOMS algorithm has been that it doesn't provide an error estimate. This is a particular problem in high latitudes when the profile shape errors become significant and vary with latitude, season, total ozone, and instrument viewing geometry. The primary objective of the TOMS V9 algorithm is to account for these effects in estimating the error bars. This is done by a straightforward implementation of the Rodgers optimum estimation method using a priori ozone profiles and their error covariances matrices constructed using Aura MLS and ozonesonde data. The algorithm produces a vertical ozone profile that contains 1-2.5 pieces of information (degrees of freedom of signal) depending upon solar zenith angle (SZA). The profile is integrated to obtain the total column. We provide information that shows the altitude range in which the profile is best determined by the measurements. One can use this information in data assimilation and analysis. A side

  6. Design, fabrication and performance of the 10-in. TOM HPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braem, A.; Chesi, E.; Joram, C.; Seguinot, J.; Weilhammer, P.; Giunta, M.; Malakhov, N.; Menzione, A.; Pegna, R.; Piccioli, A.; Raffaelli, F.; Sartori, G.

    2004-01-01

    The first sealed TOM Hybrid Photon Detector (HPD) with 10-in. diameter has been fabricated and successfully tested at CERN. This HPD has a spherical entrance window and a bialkali photocathode. The fountain focusing optics produces a demagnified image (D=4) on the round segmented silicon sensor. The signals of the 2048 cells are read out through analog front-end electronics encapsulated in the vacuum envelope. We report on the design, fabrication technique and the experimental results obtained with laboratory test benches. The large TOM HPD is a prototype tube developed for the CLUE cosmic ray experiment. The final tubes, now under development, will be equipped with a solar-blind Rb 2 Te photocathode and self triggering front-end electronics

  7. Tom Bissel, Voglia di vincere/Extra Lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra Agnoletto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Leggere il libro di Tom Bissell Extra lives: Why Video Games Matter, tradotto in Italia con il titolo Voglia di vincere, è stata un’impresa. L’impresa di qualcuno abituato a muoversi in ambito cinematografico e musicale, ma che affronta con l’entusiasmo e le incertezze del neofita i videogames e tutto ciò che riguarda la sfera videoludica, nei suoi aspetti creativi, estetici, di design e meccanica di gioco.

  8. Derivation of Tropospheric Ozone Climatology and Trends from TOMS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newchurch, Michael J.; McPeters, Rich; Logan, Jennifer; Kim, Jae-Hwan

    2002-01-01

    This research addresses the following three objectives: (1) Derive tropospheric ozone columns from the TOMS instruments by computing the difference between total-ozone columns over cloudy areas and over clear areas in the tropics; (2) Compute secular trends in Nimbus-7 derived tropospheric Ozone column amounts and associated potential trends in the decadal-scale tropical cloud climatology; (3) Explain the occurrence of anomalously high ozone retrievals over high ice clouds.

  9. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of yeast mitochondrial protein Tom70p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yunkun [Department of Cell Biology, Center for Biophysical Sciences and Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham (United States); McCombs, Debbie; Nagy, Lisa; DeLucas, Lawrence [Center for Biophysical Sciences and Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham (United States); Sha, Bingdong, E-mail: bdsha@uab.edu [Department of Cell Biology, Center for Biophysical Sciences and Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Tom70p is an important translocase of the outer membrane complex member and a major surface receptor of the protein-translocation machinery in the outer mitochondrial membrane. To investigate the mechanism by which Tom70p functions to deliver the mitochondrial protein precursors, the cytosolic fragment of yeast Tom70p (cTom70p) has been crystallized. Protein translocations across mitochondrial membranes play critical roles in mitochondrion biogenesis. Protein transport from the cell cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix is carried out by the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) complex and the translocase of the inner membrane (TIM) complexes. Tom70p is an important TOM-complex member and a major surface receptor of the protein-translocation machinery in the outer mitochondrial membrane. To investigate the mechanism by which Tom70p functions to deliver the mitochondrial protein precursors, the cytosolic fragment of yeast Tom70p (cTom70p) was crystallized. The crystals diffract to 3.2 Å using a synchrotron X-ray source and belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.89, b = 168.78, c = 83.41 Å, α = 90.00, β = 102.74, γ = 90.00°. There are two Tom70p molecules in one asymmetric unit, which corresponds to a solvent content of approximately 51%. Structure determination by MAD methods is under way.

  10. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff Mathiasen, Anne-Gitte

    2013-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time and space......). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings point...... to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face). The development...

  11. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff, Anne-Gitte

    2012-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, which has been developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time...... and space). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings...... point to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face...

  12. Korea Earth Observation Satellite Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Myung-Jin; Kim, Zeen-Chul

    via Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as the prime contractor in the area of Korea earth observation satellite program to enhance Korea's space program development capability. In this paper, Korea's on-going and future earth observation satellite programs are introduced: KOMPSAT- 1 (Korea Multi Purpose Satellite-1), KOMPSAT-2 and Communication, Broadcasting and Meteorological Satellite (CBMS) program. KOMPSAT-1 satellite successfully launched in December 1999 with Taurus launch vehicle. Since launch, KOMPSAT-1 is downlinking images of Korea Peninsular every day. Until now, KOMPSAT-1 has been operated more than 2 and half years without any major hardware malfunction for the mission operation. KOMPSAT-1 payload has 6.6m panchromatic spatial resolution at 685 km on-orbit and the spacecraft bus had NASA TOMS-EP (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe) spacecraft bus heritage designed and built by TRW, U.S.A.KOMPSAT-1 program was international co-development program between KARI and TRW funded by Korean Government. be launched in 2004. Main mission objective is to provide geo-information products based on the multi-spectral high resolution sensor called Multi-Spectral Camera (MSC) which will provide 1m panchromatic and 4m multi-spectral high resolution images. ELOP of Israel is the prime contractor of the MSC payload system and KARI is the total system prime contractor including spacecraft bus development and ground segment. KARI also has the contract with Astrium of Europe for the purpose of technical consultation and hardware procurement. Based on the experience throughout KOMPSAT-1 and KOMPSAT-2 space system development, Korea is expecting to establish the infrastructure of developing satellite system. Currently, KOMPSAT-2 program is in the critical design stage. are scheduled to launch in 2008 and in 2014, respectively. The mission of CBMS consists of two areas. One is of space technology test for the communications mission, and the other is of a real

  13. Music and subversion in Tom Stoppard's rock 'n'roll

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, Susana Isabel Mendes de

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation aims at analysing music as a form of subversion in Tom Stoppard’s play Rock ‘N’ Roll. After a short summary of Stoppard’s career, the bands and songs chosen by him are analysed from the perspective of subversion against censorship and totalitarian regimes, relating them to the plot. The dissertation also focuses on the specific case of the Czech band the Plastic People of the Universe and its importance to the history of Czechoslovakia between 1968 and 1990. O presente tr...

  14. Novel TPR-containing subunit of TOM complex functions as cytosolic receptor for Entamoeba mitosomal transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiuchi, Takashi; Mi-ichi, Fumika; Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Under anaerobic environments, the mitochondria have undergone remarkable reduction and transformation into highly reduced structures, referred as mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs), which include mitosomes and hydrogenosomes. In agreement with the concept of reductive evolution, mitosomes of Entamoeba histolytica lack most of the components of the TOM (translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane) complex, which is required for the targeting and membrane translocation of preproteins into the canonical aerobic mitochondria. Here we showed, in E. histolytica mitosomes, the presence of a 600-kDa TOM complex composed of Tom40, a conserved pore-forming subunit, and Tom60, a novel lineage-specific receptor protein. Tom60, containing multiple tetratricopeptide repeats, is localized to the mitosomal outer membrane and the cytosol, and serves as a receptor of both mitosomal matrix and membrane preproteins. Our data indicate that Entamoeba has invented a novel lineage-specific shuttle receptor of the TOM complex as a consequence of adaptation to an anaerobic environment.

  15. Meta-analysis of Theory of Mind (ToM) impairment in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, E; Bartholomeusz, C; Pantelis, C

    2016-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) dysfunction is prominent in a number of psychiatric disorders, in particular, autism and schizophrenia, and can play a significant role in poor functioning. There is now emerging evidence suggesting that ToM abilities are also impaired in bipolar disorder (BP); however, the relationship between ToM deficits and mood state is not clear. We conducted a meta-analysis of ToM studies in BP. Thirty-four studies comparing 1214 patients with BP and 1097 healthy controls were included. BP groups included remitted (18 samples, 545 BP patients), subsyndromal (12 samples, 510 BP patients), and acute (manic and/or depressed) (10 samples, 159 BP patients) patients. ToM performance was significantly impaired in BP compared to controls. This impairment was evident across different types of ToM tasks (including affective/cognitive and verbal/visual) and was also evident in strictly euthymic patients with BP (d = 0.50). There were no significant differences between remitted and subsyndromal samples. However, ToM deficit was significantly more severe during acute episodes (d = 1.23). ToM impairment was significantly associated with neurocognitive and particularly with manic symptoms. Significant but modest sized ToM dysfunction is evident in remitted and subsyndromal BP. Acute episodes are associated with more robust ToM deficits. Exacerbation of ToM deficits may contribute to the more significant interpersonal problems observed in patients with acute or subsyndromal manic symptoms. There is a need for longitudinal studies comparing the developmental trajectory of ToM deficits across the course of the illness.

  16. Cognitive, affective, and conative theory of mind (ToM) in children with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Maureen; Simic, Nevena; Bigler, Erin D; Abildskov, Tracy; Agostino, Alba; Taylor, H Gerry; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2013-07-01

    We studied three forms of dyadic communication involving theory of mind (ToM) in 82 children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 61 children with orthopedic injury (OI): Cognitive (concerned with false belief), Affective (concerned with expressing socially deceptive facial expressions), and Conative (concerned with influencing another's thoughts or feelings). We analyzed the pattern of brain lesions in the TBI group and conducted voxel-based morphometry for all participants in five large-scale functional brain networks, and related lesion and volumetric data to ToM outcomes. Children with TBI exhibited difficulty with Cognitive, Affective, and Conative ToM. The perturbation threshold for Cognitive ToM is higher than that for Affective and Conative ToM, in that Severe TBI disturbs Cognitive ToM but even Mild-Moderate TBI disrupt Affective and Conative ToM. Childhood TBI was associated with damage to all five large-scale brain networks. Lesions in the Mirror Neuron Empathy network predicted lower Conative ToM involving ironic criticism and empathic praise. Conative ToM was significantly and positively related to the package of Default Mode, Central Executive, and Mirror Neuron Empathy networks and, more specifically, to two hubs of the Default Mode Network, the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex and the hippocampal formation, including entorhinal cortex and parahippocampal cortex. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Training older adults on Theory of Mind (ToM): transfer on metamemory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecce, Serena; Bottiroli, Sara; Bianco, Federica; Rosi, Alessia; Cavallini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Research on aging has shown a significant decline in ToM after 65 years of age. Despite these age-related difficulties, no study has yet investigated the possibility to improve ToM in older adults. To address this gap we tested the efficacy of a conversation-based ToM training with age-appropriate ToM tasks and its transfer effects on metamemory. We examined 72 older adults (Mage=67.61 years, SD=6.39 years) assigned to three training conditions: a ToM training, a physical-conversation training and a social-contact group. All participants took part in two 2-h testing and to two 2-h training sessions. Results showed that after the intervention, older adults in the ToM training group improved their mental states' understanding significantly more than participants in the physical-conversation training and in the social-contact groups. Crucially, the positive effect of the ToM intervention generalized to metamemory knowledge. This is the first study investigating the efficacy of a ToM training and its transfer effect on metacognition in older adults. From a theoretical point of view, it supports the relation between ToM and metamemory. Practical implications of these data are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Voyeuristi alla finestra: Peeping Tom, dalla leggenda al cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Staiano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay deals with voyeuristic attitudes and ʹscopic powerʹ, i.e. the power to gaze at forbidden things and people without being seen. Indeed, its object par excellence coincides with female nakedness, while its subject is an invisible masculinity, which takes delight in looking. The paper is based on a study of the Anglo-Saxon legend of Lady Godiva and it is strictly connected with the subject of my dissertation in progress – metaphorical and physical blindness in 18th century French literature (since several voyeurs got blind because of their instincts and desires. Lady Godiva’s voyeur, called Peeping Tom, is struck blind for having looked out of his window and seen the noblewoman riding naked. This legend has inspired many artists in different fields, and nowadays its heroine is very famous and venerated. In particular, this essay focuses on the relation between this legend and compulsive looking (or scopophilia in two renowned films, Rear Window by Alfred Hitchcock, and Peeping Tom by Michael Powell.

  19. Probing the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  20. EarthFinder: A Precise Radial Velocity Survey Probe Mission of our Nearest Stellar Neighbors for Earth-Mass Habitable Zone Analogs Using High-Resolution UV-Vis-NIR Echelle Spectroscopy on a Space Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavchan, Peter; EarthFinder Team

    2018-01-01

    We are investigating the science case for a 1.0-1.4 meter space telescope to survey the closest, brightest FGKM main sequence stars to search for Habitable Zone (HZ) Earth analogs using the precise radial velocity (PRV) technique at a precision of 1-10 cm/s. Our baseline instrument concept uses two diffraction-limited spectrographs operating in the 0.4-1.0 microns and 1.0-2.4 microns spectral regions each with a spectral resolution of R=150,000~200,000, with the possibility of a third UV arm. Because the instrument utilizes a diffraction-limited input beam, the spectrograph would be extremely compact, less than 50 cm on a side, and illumination can be stabilized with the coupling of starlight into single mode fibers. With two octaves of wavelength coverage and a cadence unimpeded by any diurnal, seasonal, and atmospheric effects, EarthFinder will offer a unique platform for recovering stellar activity signals from starspots, plages, granulation, etc. to detect exoplanets at velocity semi-amplitudes currently not obtainable from the ground. Variable telluric absorption and emission lines may potentially preclude achieving PRV measurements at or below 10 cm/s in the visible and advantage compared to an annual ~3-6 month observing season from the ground for mitigating stellar activity and detecting the orbital periods of HZ Earth-mass analogs (e.g. ~6-months to ~2 years). Finally, we are compiling a list of ancillary science cases for the observatory, ranging from asteroseismology to the direct measurement of the expansion of the Universe.

  1. Bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus at São Tomé Island (São ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus is one of the most common cetacean species around São Tomé Island, Gulf of Guinea, little research has focused on this species in this region. This study investigated the population of bottlenose dolphins around São Tomé Island by estimating the minimum population ...

  2. Meet TOM - the world's first open chest paediatric/adult manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Ann

    2016-07-20

    Aged 15, TOM is a model patient. He has suffered more than his fair share of life-threatening events and never complains. But then TOM is not your average sick teenager - he is the world's first open chest paediatric/adult manikin.

  3. 77 FR 51912 - Safety Zone; Tom Lyons Productions Fireworks, Long Island Sound, Sands Point, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket Number USCG-2012-0618] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Tom Lyons Productions Fireworks, Long Island Sound, Sands Point, NY AGENCY.... 165.T01-0618 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T01-0618 Safety Zone; Tom Lyons Productions Fireworks, Long...

  4. 33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. 80.170 Section 80.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River...

  5. 33 CFR 80.501 - Tom's River, NJ to Cape May, NJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tom's River, NJ to Cape May, NJ. 80.501 Section 80.501 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.501 Tom's River, NJ to Cape May, NJ...

  6. Challenges and Opportunities: My Personal Journey. Tomás Rivera Lecture Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Rachel F.

    2011-01-01

    Each year a distinguished scholar or prominent leader is selected to present the Tomás Rivera Lecture. Named in honor of the late Dr. Tomás Rivera, professor, scholar, poet, and former president of the University of California, Riverside, the American Association of Hispanics in Higher Education (AAHHE) is continuing this lecture at its annual…

  7. Hauntology of Responsibility: Tom Stoppard’s Darkside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tymon Adamczewski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article centres on the notion of responsibility in Tom Stoppard’s Darkside (2013. While Pink Floyd’s original album, which inspired the playwright, thematises its connection to ethics in a spectral and hauntological manner, through the use of field recording sound snippets interwoven in the music, the radio play explores the notion of responsibility through what is called “thought experiments.” The article identifies the subversive function of these narrative examples and, following Emanuel Levinas’ suggestions concerning the instability of the link between the philosophical discourse and that of examples, shows the latter’s insolent and disruptive nature. The notion of responsibility is further linked to its discussion by Jacques Derrida in his Gift of Death (1995 which consequently makes it possible to view the relation between responsibility and responding from a subversive, hauntological and undecidable perspective.

  8. The legacy of Tom Andersen: The ethics of reflecting processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehart, Diane R

    2018-03-08

    Tom Andersen and his pioneering work with reflecting conservations has had a lasting influence on the field of family therapy and mental health more broadly. Most family therapists are familiar with his contributions related to reflecting teams; however, fewer are familiar with his conceptualization of reflecting processes, which offer practical ways to approach therapeutic conversations to address challenging problems. This article provides a brief history of Andersen's career and reviews four key elements of his approach, including: (a) his way of being in relationship, (b) appropriately unusual comments, (c) inner and outer dialogs, and (d) ethics of dialogical relating. Finally, this article introduces readers to the context of the video that will be analyzed in the articles that follow in this special section. © 2018 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  9. Rare earth(III) complexes for the development of new magnetic and luminescent probes; Complexes de lanthanides(III) pour le developpement de nouvelles sondes magnetiques et luminescentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonat, A

    2007-10-15

    The simultaneous optimisation of the molecular parameters determining the relaxivity (number of coordinated water molecules, water-exchange, rotation dynamics of the whole complex, electronic relaxation, Gd(III)-proton distance) is essential to prepare efficient contrast agents. The aim of this work is on the one hand to design and study complexes with a high number of bound water molecules and to understand the influence of the coordination sphere on the stability and on the electronic relaxation and on the other hand, to use the ligand as a chromophore for the development of luminescent probes for biomedical imaging. We present the structure, the stability and the relaxivity of Gd(III) complexes of two series of tripodal ligands containing picolinate units based either on the 1,4,7-tri-aza-cyclononane ring or on a tertiary amine. These complexes show high relaxivity in water and in serum and can establish a non covalent interaction with serum albumin. The interpretation of the water proton relaxivity with the help of new relaxometric methods based on an auxiliary probe solute has allowed us to show that both the presence of the picolinate groups and the 1,4,7-tri-aza-cyclononane framework can lead to Gd(III) complexes with favourable electronic relaxation properties. This ligands have also been used for Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexation leading to strong luminescence in visible light. Other complexes derived from 8-hydroxyquinoline unit which display a very high luminescence in infrared are also studied. (author)

  10. The TOM Complex of Amoebozoans: the Cases of the Amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and the Slime Mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtkowska, Małgorzata; Buczek, Dorota; Stobienia, Olgierd; Karachitos, Andonis; Antoniewicz, Monika; Slocinska, Małgorzata; Makałowski, Wojciech; Kmita, Hanna

    2015-07-01

    Protein import into mitochondria requires a wide variety of proteins, forming complexes in both mitochondrial membranes. The TOM complex (translocase of the outer membrane) is responsible for decoding of targeting signals, translocation of imported proteins across or into the outer membrane, and their subsequent sorting. Thus the TOM complex is regarded as the main gate into mitochondria for imported proteins. Available data indicate that mitochondria of representative organisms from across the major phylogenetic lineages of eukaryotes differ in subunit organization of the TOM complex. The subunit organization of the TOM complex in the Amoebozoa is still elusive, so we decided to investigate its organization in the soil amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. They represent two major subclades of the Amoebozoa: the Lobosa and Conosa, respectively. Our results confirm the presence of Tom70, Tom40 and Tom7 in the A. castellanii and D. discoideum TOM complex, while the presence of Tom22 and Tom20 is less supported. Interestingly, the Tom proteins display the highest similarity to Opisthokonta cognate proteins, with the exception of Tom40. Thus representatives of two major subclades of the Amoebozoa appear to be similar in organization of the TOM complex, despite differences in their lifestyle. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  11. Plasticity of TOM complex assembly in skeletal muscle mitochondria in response to chronic contractile activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Anna-Maria; Hood, David A

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the assembly of the TOM complex within skeletal muscle under conditions of chronic contractile activity-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. Tom40 import into mitochondria was increased by chronic contractile activity, as was its time-dependent assembly into the TOM complex. These changes coincided with contractile activity-induced augmentations in the expression of key protein import machinery components Tim17, Tim23, and Tom22, as well as the cytosolic chaperone Hsp90. These data indicate the adaptability of the TOM protein import complex and suggest a regulatory role for the assembly of this complex in exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.

  12. Measuring theory of mind in children. Psychometric properties of the ToM Storybooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blijd-Hoogewys, E M A; van Geert, P L C; Serra, M; Minderaa, R B

    2008-11-01

    Although research on Theory-of-Mind (ToM) is often based on single task measurements, more comprehensive instruments result in a better understanding of ToM development. The ToM Storybooks is a new instrument measuring basic ToM-functioning and associated aspects. There are 34 tasks, tapping various emotions, beliefs, desires and mental-physical distinctions. Four studies on the validity and reliability of the test are presented, in typically developing children (n = 324, 3-12 years) and children with PDD-NOS (n = 30). The ToM Storybooks have good psychometric qualities. A component analysis reveals five components corresponding with the underlying theoretical constructs. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, construct validity and convergent validity are good. The ToM Storybooks can be used in research as well as in clinical settings.

  13. TOMS EP UV Aerosol Index Daily and Monthly Zonal Means V008 (TOMSEPL3zaer) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/EP UV Aerosol Index Daily and Monthly Zonal Means Version 8 data in ASCII format.The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Version...

  14. Study of the hyperfine magnetic field acting on Ce probes substituting for the rare earth and the magnetic ordering in intermetallic compounds RAg (R=rare earth) by first principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Luciano Fabricio Dias

    2006-01-01

    In this work the magnetic hyperfine field acting on Ce atoms substituting the rare-earths in R Ag compounds (R = Gd e Nd) was studied by means of first-principles electronic structure calculations. The employed method was the Augmented Plane Waves plus local orbitals (APW+lo), embodied in the WIEN2k program, within the framework of the Density Functional Theory (DFT) and with the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) for the exchange and correlation potential. The super-cell approach was utilized in order to simulate for the Ce atoms acting as impurities in the R Ag matrix. In order to improve for correlation effects within the 4f shells, a Hubbard term was added to the DFT Hamiltonian, within a procedure called GGA+U. It was found that the magnetic hyperfine field (MHF) generated by the Ce 4f electron is the main component of the total MHF and that the Ce 4f ground state level is probably a combination of the m l = -2 and m l = -1 sub-levels. In addition, the ground-state magnetic structure was determined for Ho Ag and Nd Ag by observing the behavior of the total energy as a function of the lattice volume for several possible magnetic ordering in these compounds, namely, ferromagnetic, and the (0,0,π), (π,π,0) and ((π,π,π) types of anti-ferromagnetic ordering of rare-earth atoms. It was found that the ground-state magnetic structure is anti-ferromagnetic of type (π,π,0) for both, the Ho Ag and Nd Ag compounds. The energy difference of the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic ordering is very small in the case of the Nd Ag compound. (author)

  15. 77 FR 57477 - Delegation of Certain Functions and Authority Under Section 5(a) of the Tom Lantos Block Burmese...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ...--Delegation of Certain Functions and Authority Under Section 5(a) of the Tom Lantos Block Burmese Junta's Anti... 5(a) of the Tom Lantos Block Burmese Junta's Anti-Democratic Efforts Act of 2008 Memorandum for the... section 5(a)(2) of the Tom Lantos Block Burmese Junta's Anti- Democratic Efforts Act of 2008 (Public Law...

  16. Hombres. Don Tomás Rueda Vargas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boletin Cultural y Bibliográfico Banco de la República

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available Quince años hizo el 25 de julio que desapareció de entre nosotros don Tomás Rueda Vargas. Su nombre, ejemplar por muchos conceptos, viene siempre nimbado de las virtudes cardinales que conformaron su tarea y su vida. Escritor nato,  sabía manejar el idioma con singular pericia sin caer en  rebuscamientos  ni  en  gongorismos. Su  pensamiento era diáfano por  lo cual no se  perdía en  el laberinto de  las palabras.   Apenas éstas eran  el dócil  instrumento para su dialéctica, para ese  generoso razo­  namiento intelectual que constituía el  Alfa  y el Omega   de  su diario batallar.

  17. Gravity Probe B Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The space vehicle Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. In this photograph, engineer Gary Reynolds is inspecting the inside of the probe neck during probe thermal repairs. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Gravity Probe B, Stanford University)

  18. São Tomé and Príncipe - Business Environment and Tax Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report is a summative evaluation of the Millennium Challenge Corporation's (MCC) Threshold Country Program (TCP) for São Tomé and Príncipe. The program was...

  19. Lateral release of proteins from the TOM complex into the outer membrane of mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, Max; Neupert, Walter; Deponte, Marcel

    2011-07-15

    The TOM complex of the outer membrane of mitochondria is the entry gate for the vast majority of precursor proteins that are imported into the mitochondria. It is made up by receptors and a protein conducting channel. Although precursor proteins of all subcompartments of mitochondria use the TOM complex, it is not known whether its channel can only mediate passage across the outer membrane or also lateral release into the outer membrane. To study this, we have generated fusion proteins of GFP and Tim23 which are inserted into the inner membrane and, at the same time, are spanning either the TOM complex or are integrated into the outer membrane. Our results demonstrate that the TOM complex, depending on sequence determinants in the precursors, can act both as a protein conducting pore and as an insertase mediating lateral release into the outer membrane.

  20. AuTom: a novel automatic platform for electron tomography reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Renmin

    2017-07-26

    We have developed a software package towards automatic electron tomography (ET): Automatic Tomography (AuTom). The presented package has the following characteristics: accurate alignment modules for marker-free datasets containing substantial biological structures; fully automatic alignment modules for datasets with fiducial markers; wide coverage of reconstruction methods including a new iterative method based on the compressed-sensing theory that suppresses the “missing wedge” effect; and multi-platform acceleration solutions that support faster iterative algebraic reconstruction. AuTom aims to achieve fully automatic alignment and reconstruction for electron tomography and has already been successful for a variety of datasets. AuTom also offers user-friendly interface and auxiliary designs for file management and workflow management, in which fiducial marker-based datasets and marker-free datasets are addressed with totally different subprocesses. With all of these features, AuTom can serve as a convenient and effective tool for processing in electron tomography.

  1. Staging Henry Fielding: The Author-Narrator in Tom Jones On Screen

    OpenAIRE

    Løfaldli, Eli

    2017-01-01

    As recent adaptation theory has shown, classic-novel adaptation typically sets issues connected to authorship and literal and figurative ownership into play. This key feature of such adaptations is also central to the screen versions of Henry Fielding’s Tom Jones (1749). In much of Fielding’s fiction, the narrator, typically understood as an embodiment of Fielding himself, is a particularly prominent presence. The author-narrator in Tom Jones is no exception: not only is his presence strongly...

  2. Short Note New hope for the critically endangered São Tomé ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, this new site lies outside the Ôbo Natural Park, São Tomé's only protected area, for which we alert the need to better protect its surroundings, which are relevant for many of the island's endemic species. Keywords: buffer zone, conservation, distribution, Ôbo Natural Park, playback, São Tomé and Príncipe

  3. Probe Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemelli, Marcellino; Abelmann, Leon; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; Khatib, M.G.; Koelmans, W.W.; Zaboronski, Olog; Campardo, Giovanni; Tiziani, Federico; Laculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of probe-based data storage research over the last three decades, encompassing all aspects of a probe recording system. Following the division found in all mechanically addressed storage systems, the different subsystems (media, read/write heads, positioning, data

  4. Cultural probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation.......The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation....

  5. Nimble Negotiators: How Theory of Mind (ToM) Interconnects with Persuasion Skills in Children with and without ToM Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C.; Slaughter, Virginia; Wellman, Henry M.

    2018-01-01

    Persuasion is an essential social skill. Yet its development and underpinnings are poorly understood. In 2 studies, a total of 167 children aged 3 to 12 years took theory of mind (ToM) tests and participated in unscripted, seminaturalistic persuasive conversations. Children were typically developing (TD) or had deafness or autism spectrum disorder…

  6. Probing the Proteome on Earth and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, P.

    2008-12-01

    Less than a decade ago, protein sequencing was the bane of paleobiology. Since that time researchers have completely sequenced proteins in >50 Ka fossils, been dazzled by reports of collagen peptides in dinosaur bones, and witnessed the development of phylogenetic trees from ancient protein sequences. Enlisting proteomics as biosignature is now in our grasp. In this talk the pitfalls and challenges of mass spectrometric approaches to protein sequencing will be illustrated and phylogenetic applications will be discussed. Work on extinct organisms at Michigan State University, University of Michigan and York University will provide a vantage point to assess methodologies, explore diagenetic alterations, evaluate mass spectra and illustrate issues associated with data base searching. Challenges encountered in the study of paleoproteomics, such as the absence of sequences for extinct organisms in commercially available databases, protein diagenesis and low concentrations of target are parallel to those that will be encountered when protein sequencing is extended to extreme and extraterrestrial environments. Thus, lessons learned from interrogating the ancient proteome are important and necessary step in developing proteomics as a biosignature tools.

  7. Mobile probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Jørgensen, Anna Neustrup; Noesgaard, Signe Schack

    2016-01-01

    A project investigating the effectiveness of a collection of online resources for teachers' professional development used mobile probes as a data collection method. Teachers received questions and tasks on their mobile in a dialogic manner while in their everyday context as opposed...... to in an interview. This method provided valuable insight into the contextual use, i.e. how did the online resource transfer to the work practice. However, the research team also found that mobile probes may provide the scaffolding necessary for individual and peer learning at a very local (intra-school) community...... level. This paper is an initial investigation of how the mobile probes process proved to engage teachers in their efforts to improve teaching. It also highlights some of the barriers emerging when applying mobile probes as a scaffold for learning....

  8. Optical probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, J.; Decaudin, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The probe includes optical means of refractive index n, refracting an incident light beam from a medium with a refractive index n1>n and reflecting an incident light beam from a medium with a refractive index n2 [fr

  9. An Expanded UV Irradiance Database from TOMS Including the Effects of Ozone, Clouds, and Aerosol Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J.; Krotkov, N.

    2003-01-01

    The TOMS UV irradiance database (1978 to 2003) has been expanded to include five new products (noon irradiance at 305,310,324, and 380 nm, and noon erythemal-weighted irradiance), in addition to the existing erythemal daily exposure, that permit direct comparisons with ground-based measurements from spectrometers and broadband instruments. The new data are available on http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/>http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov. Comparisons of the TOMS estimated irradiances with ground-based instruments are given along with a review of the sources of known errors, especially the recent improvements in accounting for aerosol attenuation. Trend estimations from the new TOMS irradiances permit the clear separation of changes caused by ozone and those caused by aerosols and clouds. Systematic differences in cloud cover are shown to be the most important factor in determining regional differences in UV radiation reaching the ground for locations at the same latitude (e.g., the summertime differences between Australia and the US southwest).

  10. Cooperation of TOM and TIM23 complexes during translocation of proteins into mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waegemann, Karin; Popov-Čeleketić, Dušan; Neupert, Walter; Azem, Abdussalam; Mokranjac, Dejana

    2015-03-13

    Translocation of the majority of mitochondrial proteins from the cytosol into mitochondria requires the cooperation of TOM and TIM23 complexes in the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes. The molecular mechanisms underlying this cooperation remain largely unknown. Here, we present biochemical and genetic evidence that at least two contacts from the side of the TIM23 complex play an important role in TOM-TIM23 cooperation in vivo. Tim50, likely through its very C-terminal segment, interacts with Tom22. This interaction is stimulated by translocating proteins and is independent of any other TOM-TIM23 contact known so far. Furthermore, the exposure of Tim23 on the mitochondrial surface depends not only on its interaction with Tim50 but also on the dynamics of the TOM complex. Destabilization of the individual contacts reduces the efficiency of import of proteins into mitochondria and destabilization of both contacts simultaneously is not tolerated by yeast cells. We conclude that an intricate and coordinated network of protein-protein interactions involving primarily Tim50 and also Tim23 is required for efficient translocation of proteins across both mitochondrial membranes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Extension of Tom Booth's Modified Power Method for Higher Eigen Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Peng; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung

    2015-01-01

    A possible technique to get the even higher modes is suggested, but it is difficult to be applied practically. In this paper, a general solution strategy is proposed, which can extend Tom Booth's modified power method to get the higher Eigenmodes and there is no limitation about the number of Eigenmodes that can be obtained with this method. In this paper, a general solution strategy is proposed, which can extend Tom Booth's modified power method to get the higher Eigenmodes and there is no limitation about the number of Eigenmodes that can be obtained with this method. It is more practical than the original solution strategy that Tom Booth proposed. The implementation of the method in Monte Carlo code shows significant advantages comparing to the original power method

  12. Micro-Tom Tomato as an Alternative Plant Model System: Mutant Collection and Efficient Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikata, Masahito; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Tomato is a model plant for fruit development, a unique feature that classical model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice do not have. The tomato genome was sequenced in 2012 and tomato is becoming very popular as an alternative system for plant research. Among many varieties of tomato, Micro-Tom has been recognized as a model cultivar for tomato research because it shares some key advantages with Arabidopsis including its small size, short life cycle, and capacity to grow under fluorescent lights at a high density. Mutants and transgenic plants are essential materials for functional genomics research, and therefore, the availability of mutant resources and methods for genetic transformation are key tools to facilitate tomato research. Here, we introduce the Micro-Tom mutant database "TOMATOMA" and an efficient transformation protocol for Micro-Tom.

  13. DNA probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelino, J.

    1992-01-01

    The creation of DNA probes for detection of specific nucleotide segments differs from ligand detection in that it is a chemical rather than an immunological reaction. Complementary DNA or RNA is used in place of the antibody and is labelled with 32 P. So far, DNA probes have been successfully employed in the diagnosis of inherited disorders, infectious diseases, and for identification of human oncogenes. The latest approach to the diagnosis of communicable and parasitic infections is based on the use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes. The genetic information of all cells is encoded by DNA and DNA probe approach to identification of pathogens is unique because the focus of the method is the nucleic acid content of the organism rather than the products that the nucleic acid encodes. Since every properly classified species has some unique nucleotide sequences that distinguish it from every other species, each organism's genetic composition is in essence a finger print that can be used for its identification. In addition to this specificity, DNA probes offer other advantages in that pathogens may be identified directly in clinical specimens

  14. DNA probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelino, J

    1993-12-31

    The creation of DNA probes for detection of specific nucleotide segments differs from ligand detection in that it is a chemical rather than an immunological reaction. Complementary DNA or RNA is used in place of the antibody and is labelled with {sup 32}P. So far, DNA probes have been successfully employed in the diagnosis of inherited disorders, infectious diseases, and for identification of human oncogenes. The latest approach to the diagnosis of communicable and parasitic infections is based on the use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes. The genetic information of all cells is encoded by DNA and DNA probe approach to identification of pathogens is unique because the focus of the method is the nucleic acid content of the organism rather than the products that the nucleic acid encodes. Since every properly classified species has some unique nucleotide sequences that distinguish it from every other species, each organism`s genetic composition is in essence a finger print that can be used for its identification. In addition to this specificity, DNA probes offer other advantages in that pathogens may be identified directly in clinical specimens 10 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Differential Regulation of Synaptic Vesicle Tethering and Docking by UNC-18 and TOM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracheva, Elena O; Maryon, Ed B; Berthelot-Grosjean, Martine; Richmond, Janet E

    2010-01-01

    The assembly of SNARE complexes between syntaxin, SNAP-25 and synaptobrevin is required to prime synaptic vesicles for fusion. Since Munc18 and tomosyn compete for syntaxin interactions, the interplay between these proteins is predicted to be important in regulating synaptic transmission. We explored this possibility, by examining genetic interactions between C. elegans unc-18(Munc18), unc-64(syntaxin) and tom-1(tomosyn). We have previously demonstrated that unc-18 mutants have reduced synaptic transmission, whereas tom-1 mutants exhibit enhanced release. Here we show that the unc-18 mutant release defect is associated with loss of two morphologically distinct vesicle pools; those tethered within 25 nm of the plasma membrane and those docked with the plasma membrane. In contrast, priming defective unc-13 mutants accumulate tethered vesicles, while docked vesicles are greatly reduced, indicating tethering is UNC-18-dependent and occurs in the absence of priming. C. elegans unc-64 mutants phenocopy unc-18 mutants, losing both tethered and docked vesicles, whereas overexpression of open syntaxin preferentially increases vesicle docking, suggesting UNC-18/closed syntaxin interactions are responsible for vesicle tethering. Given the competition between vertebrate tomosyn and Munc18, for syntaxin binding, we hypothesized that C. elegans TOM-1 may inhibit both UNC-18-dependent vesicle targeting steps. Consistent with this hypothesis, tom-1 mutants exhibit enhanced UNC-18 plasma membrane localization and a concomitant increase in both tethered and docked synaptic vesicles. Furthermore, in tom-1;unc-18 double mutants the docked, primed vesicle pool is preferentially rescued relative to unc-18 single mutants. Together these data provide evidence for the differential regulation of two vesicle targeting steps by UNC-18 and TOM-1 through competitive interactions with syntaxin.

  16. Differential regulation of synaptic vesicle tethering and docking by UNC-18 and TOM-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena O Gracheva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The assembly of SNARE complexes between syntaxin, SNAP-25 and synaptobrevin is required to prime synaptic vesicles for fusion. Since Munc18 and tomosyn compete for syntaxin interactions, the interplay between these proteins is predicted to be important in regulating synaptic transmission. We explored this possibility, by examining genetic interactions between C. elegans unc-18(Munc18, unc-64(syntaxin and tom-1(tomosyn. We have previously demonstrated that unc-18 mutants have reduced synaptic transmission, whereas tom-1 mutants exhibit enhanced release. Here we show that the unc-18 mutant release defect is associated with loss of two morphologically distinct vesicle pools; those tethered within 25nm of the plasma membrane and those docked with the plasma membrane. In contrast, priming defective unc-13 mutants accumulate tethered vesicles, while docked vesicles are greatly reduced, indicating tethering is UNC-18-dependent and occurs in the absence of priming. C. elegans unc-64 mutants phenocopy unc-18 mutants, losing both tethered and docked vesicles, whereas overexpression of open syntaxin preferentially increases vesicle docking, suggesting UNC-18/closed syntaxin interactions are responsible for vesicle tethering. Given the competition between vertebrate tomosyn and Munc18, for syntaxin binding, we hypothesized that C. elegans TOM-1 may inhibit both UNC-18-dependent vesicle targeting steps. Consistent with this hypothesis, tom-1 mutants exhibit enhanced UNC-18 plasma membrane localization and a concomitant increase in both tethered and docked synaptic vesicles. Furthermore, in tom-1;unc-18 double mutants the docked, primed vesicle pool is preferentially rescued relative to unc-18 single mutants. Together these data provide evidence for the differential regulation of two vesicle targeting steps by UNC-18 and TOM-1 through competitive interactions with syntaxin

  17. The pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim interacts with components of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Daniel O; Dengjel, Jörn; Wilfling, Florian; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Häcker, Georg; Weber, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-family protein Bim belongs to the BH3-only proteins known as initiators of apoptosis. Recent data show that Bim is constitutively inserted in the outer mitochondrial membrane via a C-terminal transmembrane anchor from where it can activate the effector of cytochrome c-release, Bax. To identify regulators of Bim-activity, we conducted a search for proteins interacting with Bim at mitochondria. We found an interaction of Bim with Tom70, Tom20 and more weakly with Tom40, all components of the Translocase of the Outer Membrane (TOM). In vitro import assays performed on tryptically digested yeast mitochondria showed reduced Bim insertion into the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) indicating that protein receptors may be involved in the import process. However, RNAi against components of TOM (Tom40, Tom70, Tom22 or Tom20) by siRNA, individually or in combination, did not consistently change the amount of Bim on HeLa mitochondria, either at steady state or upon de novo-induction. In support of this, the individual or combined knock-downs of TOM receptors also failed to alter the susceptibility of HeLa cells to Bim-induced apoptosis. In isolated yeast mitochondria, lack of Tom70 or the TOM-components Tom20 or Tom22 alone did not affect the import of Bim into the outer mitochondrial membrane. In yeast, expression of Bim can sensitize the cells to Bax-dependent killing. This sensitization was unaffected by the absence of Tom70 or by an experimental reduction in Tom40. Although thus the physiological role of the Bim-TOM-interaction remains unclear, TOM complex components do not seem to be essential for Bim insertion into the OMM. Nevertheless, this association should be noted and considered when the regulation of Bim in other cells and situations is investigated.

  18. The pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim interacts with components of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel O Frank

    Full Text Available The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-family protein Bim belongs to the BH3-only proteins known as initiators of apoptosis. Recent data show that Bim is constitutively inserted in the outer mitochondrial membrane via a C-terminal transmembrane anchor from where it can activate the effector of cytochrome c-release, Bax. To identify regulators of Bim-activity, we conducted a search for proteins interacting with Bim at mitochondria. We found an interaction of Bim with Tom70, Tom20 and more weakly with Tom40, all components of the Translocase of the Outer Membrane (TOM. In vitro import assays performed on tryptically digested yeast mitochondria showed reduced Bim insertion into the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM indicating that protein receptors may be involved in the import process. However, RNAi against components of TOM (Tom40, Tom70, Tom22 or Tom20 by siRNA, individually or in combination, did not consistently change the amount of Bim on HeLa mitochondria, either at steady state or upon de novo-induction. In support of this, the individual or combined knock-downs of TOM receptors also failed to alter the susceptibility of HeLa cells to Bim-induced apoptosis. In isolated yeast mitochondria, lack of Tom70 or the TOM-components Tom20 or Tom22 alone did not affect the import of Bim into the outer mitochondrial membrane. In yeast, expression of Bim can sensitize the cells to Bax-dependent killing. This sensitization was unaffected by the absence of Tom70 or by an experimental reduction in Tom40. Although thus the physiological role of the Bim-TOM-interaction remains unclear, TOM complex components do not seem to be essential for Bim insertion into the OMM. Nevertheless, this association should be noted and considered when the regulation of Bim in other cells and situations is investigated.

  19. Technical evaluation of Tom Scurry Associates: Model PM-203 doorway monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    Under a basic assignment by the Office of Safeguards and Security, the Tom Scurry Associates Model PM-203 Personnel Doorway SNM Monitor manufactured by Tom Scurry Associates was evaluated by LASL Group Q-2 against the DOE Personnel Doorway Monitor standards. During the evaluation, a small change was required in detector shielding to eliminate low sensitivity areas at the portal sides. With the modified shielding described, the PM-203 meets the Office of Safeguards and Security SNM doorway monitor specifications for detecting either 235 U or 239 Pu-- 233 U. This system is also capable of monitoring 238 Pu

  20. Genome-wide analysis of intraspecific DNA polymorphism in 'Micro-Tom', a model cultivar of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masaaki; Nagasaki, Hideki; Garcia, Virginie; Just, Daniel; Bres, Cécile; Mauxion, Jean-Philippe; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Brunel, Dominique; Suda, Kunihiro; Minakuchi, Yohei; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Toyoshima, Hiromi; Suzuki, Takayuki; Igarashi, Kaori; Rothan, Christophe; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Yano, Kentaro; Aoki, Koh

    2014-02-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is regarded as a model plant of the Solanaceae family. The genome sequencing of the tomato cultivar 'Heinz 1706' was recently completed. To accelerate the progress of tomato genomics studies, systematic bioresources, such as mutagenized lines and full-length cDNA libraries, have been established for the cultivar 'Micro-Tom'. However, these resources cannot be utilized to their full potential without the completion of the genome sequencing of 'Micro-Tom'. We undertook the genome sequencing of 'Micro-Tom' and here report the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion/deletions (indels) between 'Micro-Tom' and 'Heinz 1706'. The analysis demonstrated the presence of 1.23 million SNPs and 0.19 million indels between the two cultivars. The density of SNPs and indels was high in chromosomes 2, 5 and 11, but was low in chromosomes 6, 8 and 10. Three known mutations of 'Micro-Tom' were localized on chromosomal regions where the density of SNPs and indels was low, which was consistent with the fact that these mutations were relatively new and introgressed into 'Micro-Tom' during the breeding of this cultivar. We also report SNP analysis for two 'Micro-Tom' varieties that have been maintained independently in Japan and France, both of which have served as standard lines for 'Micro-Tom' mutant collections. Approximately 28,000 SNPs were identified between these two 'Micro-Tom' lines. These results provide high-resolution DNA polymorphic information on 'Micro-Tom' and represent a valuable contribution to the 'Micro-Tom'-based genomics resources.

  1. Gravity Probe B Encapsulated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being encapsulated atop the Delta II launch vehicle. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  2. Conductivity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air. The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air. The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Probe specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, J.M.

    1986-11-01

    Specificity and complementarity of hadron and electron probes must be systematically developed to answer three questions currently asked in intermediate energy nuclear physics: what is nucleus structure at short distances, what is nature of short range correlations, what is three body force nature [fr

  4. Tom Rüütel: Tööandjal on igal juhul kasud sees / intervjueerinud Helen Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rüütel, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Kui oluliseks peab Tom töötamist ning millisena näeb ta tööandjate suhtumst erivajadusega töötajasse? Millised on Tomi mõtted seoses töövõimetoetuse (TVK) reformiga? Tom Rüütel õpib Tallinna Ülikoolis magistrantuuri teisel kursusel rakenduslikku sotsiaaltööd

  5. Training Preschoolers on First-Order False Belief Understanding: Transfer on Advanced ToM Skills and Metamemory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecce, Serena; Bianco, Federica; Demicheli, Patrizia; Cavallini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between theory of mind (ToM) and metamemory knowledge using a training methodology. Sixty-two 4- to 5-year-old children were recruited and randomly assigned to one of two training conditions: A first-order false belief (ToM) and a control condition. Intervention and control groups were equivalent at pretest for…

  6. Sam37 is crucial for formation of the mitochondrial TOM-SAM supercomplex, thereby promoting β-barrel biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenz, Lena-Sophie; Ellenrieder, Lars; Qiu, Jian; Bohnert, Maria; Zufall, Nicole; van der Laan, Martin; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Wiedemann, Nils; Becker, Thomas

    2015-09-28

    Biogenesis of mitochondrial β-barrel proteins requires two preprotein translocases, the general translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) and the sorting and assembly machinery (SAM). TOM and SAM form a supercomplex that promotes transfer of β-barrel precursors. The SAM core complex contains the channel protein Sam50, which cooperates with Sam35 in precursor recognition, and the peripheral membrane protein Sam37. The molecular function of Sam37 has been unknown. We report that Sam37 is crucial for formation of the TOM-SAM supercomplex. Sam37 interacts with the receptor domain of Tom22 on the cytosolic side of the mitochondrial outer membrane and links TOM and SAM complexes. Sam37 thus promotes efficient transfer of β-barrel precursors to the SAM complex. We conclude that Sam37 functions as a coupling factor of the translocase supercomplex of the mitochondrial outer membrane. © 2015 Wenz et al.

  7. Collateral Damage: Veterans and Domestic Violence in Mari Sandoz's "The Tom-Walker"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    "The Tom-Walker" combines the best of Sandoz's realism with her worst attempts at moralizing. Unable to divine exactly what political configuration right-wing post-World War II sentiments might take, Sandoz nevertheless feared a fascist uprising in this country. Perhaps because these concerns dominated her thoughts at the time, she allowed her…

  8. Toward a Latino Attainment Agenda: Shaping Our Own Destiny. Tomás Rivera Lecture Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigarroa, Francisco G.

    2013-01-01

    In the 2013 Tomás Rivera lecture, Francisco Cigarroa, chancellor of the University of Texas system, discusses how a major shift in the demographics of the United States is having a profound effect on K-12 and higher education.

  9. ROMS/TOMS Tangent Linear and Adjoint Models: Testing and Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Arthur J; Cornuelle, Bruce D

    2004-01-01

    ... (Regional Ocean Modeling System/Terrain-Following Ocean Modeling System) that is suitable for general use by the ROMS/TOMS community and to develop computational platforms based on the TLM and ADM for 4D variational data assimilation (4DVar...

  10. Systematic Comparison of Brain Imaging Meta-Analyses of ToM with vPT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Aditi; Schurz, Matthias; Perner, Josef

    2017-01-01

    In visual perspective taking (vPT) one has to concern oneself with what other people see and how they see it. Since seeing is a mental state, developmental studies have discussed vPT within the domain of "theory of mind (ToM)" but imaging studies have not treated it as such. Based on earlier results from several meta-analyses, we tested for the overlap of visual perspective taking studies with 6 different kinds of ToM studies: false belief, trait judgments, strategic games, social animations, mind in the eyes, and rational actions. Joint activation was observed between the vPT task and some kinds of ToM tasks in regions involving the left temporoparietal junction (TPJ), anterior precuneus, left middle occipital gyrus/extrastriate body area (EBA), and the left inferior frontal and precentral gyrus. Importantly, no overlap activation was found for the vPT tasks with the joint core of all six kinds of ToM tasks. This raises the important question of what the common denominator of all tasks that fall under the label of "theory of mind" is supposed to be if visual perspective taking is not one of them.

  11. SIM PlanetQuest: The TOM-3 (Thermo-Optical-Mechanical) Siderostat Mirror Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Charles J.

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) PlanetQuest mission. It describes the mission, shows diagrams of the instrument, the collector bays, the Siderostat mirrors, the COL bay thermal environment, the TOM-3 replicating COL Bay Environment, the thermal hardware for the SID heater control, and the results of the test are shown

  12. Distinct forms of mitochondrial TOM-TIM supercomplexes define signal-dependent states of preprotein sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacinska, Agnieszka; van der Laan, Martin; Mehnert, Carola S; Guiard, Bernard; Mick, David U; Hutu, Dana P; Truscott, Kaye N; Wiedemann, Nils; Meisinger, Chris; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Rehling, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial import of cleavable preproteins occurs at translocation contact sites, where the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) associates with the presequence translocase of the inner membrane (TIM23) in a supercomplex. Different views exist on the mechanism of how TIM23 mediates preprotein sorting to either the matrix or inner membrane. On the one hand, two TIM23 forms were proposed, a matrix transport form containing the presequence translocase-associated motor (PAM; TIM23-PAM) and a sorting form containing Tim21 (TIM23(SORT)). On the other hand, it was reported that TIM23 and PAM are permanently associated in a single-entity translocase. We have accumulated distinct transport intermediates of preproteins to analyze the translocases in their active, preprotein-carrying state. We identified two different forms of active TOM-TIM23 supercomplexes, TOM-TIM23(SORT) and TOM-TIM23-PAM. These two supercomplexes do not represent separate pathways but are in dynamic exchange during preprotein translocation and sorting. Depending on the signals of the preproteins, switches between the different forms of supercomplex and TIM23 are required for the completion of preprotein import.

  13. AuTom: a novel automatic platform for electron tomography reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Renmin; Wan, Xiaohua; Wang, Zihao; Hao, Yu; Zhang, Jingrong; Chen, Yu; Gao, Xin; Liu, Zhiyong; Ren, Fei; Sun, Fei; Zhang, Fa

    2017-01-01

    -friendly interface and auxiliary designs for file management and workflow management, in which fiducial marker-based datasets and marker-free datasets are addressed with totally different subprocesses. With all of these features, AuTom can serve as a convenient

  14. evaluation of the nutritional quality of “tom brown” weaning diet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    nutritional quality of “Tom Brown” was evaluated from its total nitrogen and protein ... were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those for rats on reference diet; while protein .... Drug House (BDH) Chemical Ltd, Pole, England, and .... reproduction, protection and regulation of various body .... Official Methods of Analysis. 15th.

  15. Tom Brown to direct Office for Student Life at Virginia Tech

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Clara B.

    2004-01-01

    James Thomas "Tom" Brown of Blacksburg, Va., former interim director of the Office for Student Life and Advocacy, has been named director of the office, which has been renamed the Office for Student Life. The newly named office is responsible for multicultural programs, student advocacy, orientation, parent programs, and response to student emergencies.

  16. The Decade Ahead: Inquire, Innovate, Impact. Tomás Rivera Lecture Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Manuel T.

    2015-01-01

    In the 2015 Tomás Rivera lecture, Manuel T. Pacheco, President Emeritus of the University of Missouri System and the University of Arizona, discusses the importance of representing the Hispanic American population proportionately among college students, faculty, staff, and administration in higher education.

  17. Tom Beaver, Creek Television Reporter. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    A biography for elementary school students presents an account of an American Indian television reporter, Tom Beaver (Creek), and includes a map of Oklahoma showing the location of Indian tribes. A teacher's guide following the biography contains information about the Creek tribe and the history of television, learning objectives and directions…

  18. Camus' Actor as Tom Stoppard's Player; A Key to Interpreting "Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivanovic, Judith

    An examination of Albert Camus' definition of the actor in "The Myth on Sisyphus" helps to illuminate the character and role of The Player in Tom Stoppard's play and, hence, to bring light to an understanding of the philosophy of the play itself. The actor, for Camus, reveals our mortality in the face of the absurdity of our mortality,…

  19. Hydrology and Coastal Morphology at São Tomé

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giardino, A.; Bettencourt, S.; Carvalho, A.; Filatova, Tatiana; de Keizer, O.; Schellekens, J.; Ottow, B.

    2012-01-01

    The Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Principe is an archipelago comprised of two main islands and several islets located in the Gulf of Guinea 350 km off the west coast of Africa. Villages of in the archipelago are built close to the coastline and have historically suffered from high rates of

  20. Modeling Earth Albedo for Satellites in Earth Orbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan; Bak, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Many satellite are influences by the Earthøs albedo, though very few model schemes exist.in order to predict this phenomenon. Earth albedo is often treated as noise, or ignored completely. When applying solar cells in the attitude hardware, Earth albedo can cause the attitude estimate to deviate...... with as much as 20 deg. Digital Sun sensors with Earth albedo correction in hardware exist, but are expensive. In addition, albedo estimates are necessary in thermal calculations and power budgets. We present a modeling scheme base4d on Eartht reflectance, measured by NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer......, in which the Earth Probe Satellite has recorded reflectivity data daily since mid 1996. The mean of these data can be used to calculate the Earth albedo given the positions of the satellite and the Sun. Our results show that the albedo varies highly with the solar angle to the satellite's field of view...

  1. Errors resulting from assuming opaque Lambertian clouds in TOMS ozone retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Newchurch, M.J.; Loughman, R.; Bhartia, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate remote sensing retrieval of atmospheric constituents over cloudy areas is very challenging because of insufficient knowledge of cloud parameters. Cloud treatments are highly idealized in most retrieval algorithms. Using a radiative transfer model treating clouds as scattering media, we investigate the effects of assuming opaque Lambertian clouds and employing a Partial Cloud Model (PCM) on Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) ozone retrievals, especially for tropical high-reflectivity clouds. Assuming angularly independent cloud reflection is good because the Ozone Retrieval Errors (OREs) are within 1.5% of the total ozone (i.e., within TOMS retrieval precision) when Cloud Optical Depth (COD)≥20. Because of Intra-Cloud Ozone Absorption ENhancement (ICOAEN), assuming opaque clouds can introduce large OREs even for optically thick clouds. For a water cloud of COD 40 spanning 2-12 km with 20.8 Dobson Unit (DU) ozone homogeneously distributed in the cloud, the ORE is 17.8 DU in the nadir view. The ICOAEN effect depends greatly on solar zenith angle, view zenith angle, and intra-cloud ozone amount and distribution. The TOMS PCM is good because negative errors from the cloud fraction being underestimated partly cancel other positive errors. At COD≤5, the TOMS algorithm retrieves approximately the correct total ozone because of compensating errors. With increasing COD up to 20-40, the overall positive ORE increases and is finally dominated by the ICOAEN effect. The ICOAEN effect is typically 5-13 DU on average over the Atlantic and Africa and 1-7 DU over the Pacific for tropical high-altitude (cloud top pressure ≤300 hPa) and high-reflectivity (reflectivity ≥ 80%) clouds. Knowledge of TOMS ozone retrieval errors has important implications for remote sensing of ozone/trace gases from other satellite instruments

  2. Radioactive Probes on Ferromagnetic Surfaces

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On the (broad) basis of our studies of nonmagnetic radioactive probe atoms on magnetic surfaces and at interfaces, we propose to investigate the magnetic interaction of magnetic probe atoms with their immediate environment, in particular of rare earth (RE) elements positioned on and in ferromagnetic surfaces. The preparation and analysis of the structural properties of such samples will be performed in the UHV chamber HYDRA at the HMI/Berlin. For the investigations of the magnetic properties of RE atoms on surfaces Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) measurements and Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS) in the UHV chamber ASPIC (Apparatus for Surface Physics and Interfaces at CERN) are proposed.

  3. Transcultural differences in brain activation patterns during theory of mind (ToM) task performance in Japanese and Caucasian participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelkebeck, Katja; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Kawada, Ryousaku; Miyata, Jun; Saze, Teruyasu; Ubukata, Shiho; Itakura, Shoji; Kanakogi, Yasuhiro; Ohrmann, Patricia; Bauer, Jochen; Pedersen, Anya; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Murai, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) functioning develops during certain phases of childhood. Factors such as language development and educational style seem to influence its development. Some studies that have focused on transcultural aspects of ToM development have found differences between Asian and Western cultures. To date, however, little is known about transcultural differences in neural activation patterns as they relate to ToM functioning. The aim of our study was to observe ToM functioning and differences in brain activation patterns, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This study included a sample of 18 healthy Japanese and 15 healthy Caucasian subjects living in Japan. We presented a ToM task depicting geometrical shapes moving in social patterns. We also administered questionnaires to examine empathy abilities and cultural background factors. Behavioral data showed no significant group differences in the subjects' post-scan descriptions of the movies. The imaging results displayed stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) in the Caucasian sample during the presentation of ToM videos. Furthermore, the task-associated activation of the MPFC was positively correlated with autistic and alexithymic features in the Japanese sample. In summary, our results showed evidence of culturally dependent sociobehavioral trait patterns, which suggests that they have an impact on brain activation patterns during information processing involving ToM.

  4. Interpretation of TOMS Observations of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone with a Global Model and In Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Randall V.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.; Staudt, Amanda C.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Liu, Hongyu; Ginoux, Paul

    2004-01-01

    We interpret the distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone columns (TTOCs) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) by using a global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-CHEM) and additional information from in situ observations. The GEOS-CHEM TTOCs capture 44% of the variance of monthly mean TOMS TTOCs from the convective cloud differential method (CCD) with no global bias. Major discrepancies are found over northern Africa and south Asia where the TOMS TTOCs do not capture the seasonal enhancements from biomass burning found in the model and in aircraft observations. A characteristic feature of these northern topical enhancements, in contrast to southern tropical enhancements, is that they are driven by the lower troposphere where the sensitivity of TOMS is poor due to Rayleigh scattering. We develop an efficiency correction to the TOMS retrieval algorithm that accounts for the variability of ozone in the lower troposphere. This efficiency correction increases TTOC's over biomass burning regions by 3-5 Dobson units (DU) and decreases them by 2-5 DU over oceanic regions, improving the agreement between CCD TTOCs and in situ observations. Applying the correction to CCD TTOCs reduces by approximately DU the magnitude of the "tropical Atlantic paradox" [Thompson et al, 2000], i.e. the presence of a TTOC enhancement over the southern tropical Atlantic during the northern African biomass burning season in December-February. We reproduce the remainder of the paradox in the model and explain it by the combination of upper tropospheric ozone production from lightning NOx, peristent subsidence over the southern tropical Atlantic as part of the Walker circulation, and cross-equatorial transport of upper tropospheric ozone from northern midlatitudes in the African "westerly duct." These processes in the model can also account for the observed 13-17 DU persistent wave-1 pattern in TTOCs with a maximum above the tropical Atlantic and a minimum

  5. miR-126 is downregulated in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells and regulates TOM1 expression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oglesby, Irene K

    2010-02-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common lethal genetic diseases in which the role of microRNAs has yet to be explored. Predicted to be regulated by miR-126, TOM1 (target of Myb1) has been shown to interact with Toll-interacting protein, forming a complex to regulate endosomal trafficking of ubiquitinated proteins. TOM1 has also been proposed as a negative regulator of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha-induced signaling pathways. MiR-126 is highly expressed in the lung, and we now show for the first time differential expression of miR-126 in CF versus non-CF airway epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. MiR-126 downregulation in CF bronchial epithelial cells correlated with a significant upregulation of TOM1 mRNA, both in vitro and in vivo when compared with their non-CF counterparts. Introduction of synthetic pre-miR-126 inhibited luciferase activity in a reporter system containing the full length 3\\'-untranslated region of TOM1 and resulted in decreased TOM1 protein production in CF bronchial epithelial cells. Following stimulation with LPS or IL-1beta, overexpression of TOM1 was found to downregulate NF-kappaB luciferase activity. Conversely, TOM1 knockdown resulted in a significant increase in NF-kappaB regulated IL-8 secretion. These data show that miR-126 is differentially regulated in CF versus non-CF airway epithelial cells and that TOM1 is a miR-126 target that may have an important role in regulating innate immune responses in the CF lung. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report of a role for TOM1 in the TLR2\\/4 signaling pathways and the first to describe microRNA involvement in CF.

  6. Theory of mind broad and narrow: reasoning about social exchange engages ToM areas, precautionary reasoning does not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermer, Elsa; Guerin, Scott A; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John; Miller, Michael B

    2006-01-01

    Baron-Cohen (1995) proposed that the theory of mind (ToM) inference system evolved to promote strategic social interaction. Social exchange--a form of co-operation for mutual benefit--involves strategic social interaction and requires ToM inferences about the contents of other individuals' mental states, especially their desires, goals, and intentions. There are behavioral and neuropsychological dissociations between reasoning about social exchange and reasoning about equivalent problems tapping other, more general content domains. It has therefore been proposed that social exchange behavior is regulated by social contract algorithms: a domain-specific inference system that is functionally specialized for reasoning about social exchange. We report an fMRI study using the Wason selection task that provides further support for this hypothesis. Precautionary rules share so many properties with social exchange rules--they are conditional, deontic, and involve subjective utilities--that most reasoning theories claim they are processed by the same neurocomputational machinery. Nevertheless, neuroimaging shows that reasoning about social exchange activates brain areas not activated by reasoning about precautionary rules, and vice versa. As predicted, neural correlates of ToM (anterior and posterior temporal cortex) were activated when subjects interpreted social exchange rules, but not precautionary rules (where ToM inferences are unnecessary). We argue that the interaction between ToM and social contract algorithms can be reciprocal: social contract algorithms requires ToM inferences, but their functional logic also allows ToM inferences to be made. By considering interactions between ToM in the narrower sense (belief-desire reasoning) and all the social inference systems that create the logic of human social interaction--ones that enable as well as use inferences about the content of mental states--a broader conception of ToM may emerge: a computational model embodying

  7. Gravity Probe B Assembled

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being assembled at the Sunnyvale, California location of the Lockheed Martin Corporation. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  8. Social Infrastructure to Integrate Science and Practice: the Experience of the Long Tom Watershed Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Flitcroft

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological problem solving requires a flexible social infrastructure that can incorporate scientific insights and adapt to changing conditions. As applied to watershed management, social infrastructure includes mechanisms to design, carry out, evaluate, and modify plans for resource protection or restoration. Efforts to apply the best science will not bring anticipated results without the appropriate social infrastructure. For the Long Tom Watershed Council, social infrastructure includes a management structure, membership, vision, priorities, partners, resources, and the acquisition of scientific knowledge, as well as the communication with and education of people associated with and affected by actions to protect and restore the watershed. Key to integrating science and practice is keeping science in the loop, using data collection as an outreach tool, and the Long Tom Watershed Council's subwatershed enhancement program approach. Resulting from these methods are ecological leadership, restoration projects, and partnerships that catalyze landscape-level change.

  9. Santo Tomás y los demás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Rincón

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available La filosofia del medioevo. VIII Coloquio de la Sociedad Colombiana de Filosofia. J.A. Díaz, J.P. Margot, A.L. Gómez, E. Lákatos, A. Cárdenas, G. Soto, D. Herrera, A. Papacchini, J. Zabalza. Biblioteca Colombiana de Filosofía, Universidad de Santo Tomás, Bogotá, 1987, 138 págs.

  10. O tom, tshto ushlo : [luuletused] / Aleksander Suuman ; Lühibiograafia: T. L. [Toomas Liiv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suuman, Aleksander, 1927-2003

    1999-01-01

    Sisu: O tom, tshto ushlo ; "Gde-to dolzhno zhe bõt stshastje..." ; "Serõje lessa..." ; Zholtogolovõ ; "Teh iv serebristõh nelzja oboiti..." ; "Vzroslõje vkladtshinu pili..." ; "U nas tut, za Giperborejem..." / tlk. Svetlan Semenenko ; Odno hotshu skazat ; Los idjot / tlk. Boris Baljasnõi.Orig.: "Kusagil peab olema õnn..." ; Kullerkupud ; "Ei hõbepajust ma mööduda saand..." ; "Meil siin Hüperboreas..." ;

  11. Die soektog na 'n mitiese wêreld: Equatoria van Tom Dreyer

    OpenAIRE

    RENDERS, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Equatoria (2006) is Tom Dreyer's third novel. It is a historical novel, which is situated in 1912 in the Belgian Congo. Equatoria makes use of an age old narrative pattern, namely the quest, and combines historical and mythological sources. Dreyer loosely bases his novel on the expedition of Herbert Lang and James Chapin to the Congo from 1909 to 1915. With the historical facts Dreyer creates a fictional world with strongly mythical overtones. The hunt for the elusive okapi is the focal point...

  12. Molecular biology and riddle of cancer: the ‘Tom & Jerry’ show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Al Mamun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available From the conventional Bird’s eye, cancer initiation and metastasis are generally intended to be understood beneath the light of classical clonal genetic, epigenetic and cancer stem cell model. But inspite decades of investigation, molecular biology has shown hard success to give Eagle’s eye in unraveling the riddle of cancer. And it seems, tiring Tom runs in vague behind naughty Jerry.

  13. Spatial Politics in Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Kazemi; Mohsen Hanif

    2017-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2017v70n1p287 This article examines the notion of spatial politics in Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. The two courtiers enter the politically convulsive world of Hamlet, where no legitimate power structure takes hold of the state. Their regularized political rationality ceases to apply to the world; reality violates the empirical knowledge — emplacements, geographical and spiritual directions, and generally identity — of Rosencrant...

  14. El procesamiento informático de los materiales del Atlas Lingüístico de la Península Ibérica de Tomás Navarro Tomás

    OpenAIRE

    García Mouton, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Estas páginas dan noticia de la puesta en marcha de un proyecto intramural del CSIC para elaborar y editar definitivamente, en soporte informático, los materiales del Atlas Lingüístico de la Península Ibérica, que Tomás Navarro Tomás dirigió en la primera mitad del siglo XX.

  15. How Tom Moon's research highlighted the question of glucose tolerance in carnivorous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polakof, S; Panserat, S

    2016-09-01

    Fifteen years ago, Tom Moon wrote a review on this journal in order to propose some explanations to the exacerbated glycaemic response after a glucose load or a carbohydrate meal intake observed in fish, the so-called intolerance to glucose. Before, but in most of cases after this paper, several laboratories worldwide started to make important efforts in order to better understand this strange phenotype observed in fish and that so far seemed to belong to diabetic humans only. Tom had been worked on fish metabolism for at least 30years when he proposed that mini-review and the paths opened by him in 2001 were followed by tens of fish researchers, making this paper a breaking point on the field. Fifteen years later, we propose not only to have a look to the answers given to the questions rose in that paper, but also to summarize how his career over all these years impacted the domain of glucose metabolism in fish. In the review, we will show how Tom Moon analysed at different levels (from genes up to the whole organism), using distinct experimental tools (cells, hormone or glucose injection, pumps, drugs) the questions of glucose metabolism, tolerance and nutrition in fish species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance and Carcass characteristics of broad breasted bronze toms fed radappertized Diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, El-Din.M.H.; Mohamed, F.A.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of irradiated complete diets at dose level of 25 KGy was studied in broad breasted bronze tome evaluating their growing performances as well as characteristics of the carcasses. Two experimental groups received irradiated and non irradiated diets for 18 weeks (from the 5 t h to the 23 r d week of age). Four toms per treatment at the age of 23 weeks were slaughtered and the carcass was dissected. Radappertized diets improved body weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion and reduced mortality rate. No significant differences were observed between toms fed processed and non processed diets on carcasses components, while the gizzard weight was greater for those fed the processed diets. Dressing and drawn weights in toms fed processed diets were 3% higher than in those fed non processed diets. The results suggest that sterilization of turkeys feed may have a beneficial effect on the body weight and deed conversion of turkeys consuming these diets without harmful effect on the bird

  17. Constructing a coherent long-term global total ozone climatology from the BUV, MFR, and SBUV/TOMS data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.S.; Luther, F.M.

    1986-02-01

    The backscatter ultraviolet spectrometer (BUV) aboard the NIMBUS 4 satellite provided global ozone data until mid-1977. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument aboard the NIMBUS 7 satellite began providing global ozone in November 1978. The only satellite derived global total ozone data available between the termination of the BUV data and the startup of the SBUV/TOMS data is that from the Multichannel Filter Radiometer (MFR) instrument aboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) series of satellites. The MFR and the SBUV/TOMS data are compared during the data overlap period in order to determine how well the MFR data might be used to represent the SBUV/TOMS and BUV data during the data gap period. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Rare earths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranstone, D A

    1979-01-01

    Rare earth elements are commonly extracted from the minerals monazite, bastnaesite, and xenotine. New uses for these elements are constantly developing; they have found applications in glass polishing, television tube phosphors, high-strength low-alloy steels, magnets, catalysts, refractory ceramics, and hydrogen sponge alloys. In Canada, rare earths have been produced as byproducts of the uranium mining industry, but there was no production of rare earths in 1978 or 1979. The world sources of and markets for the rare earth elements are discussed.

  19. Effect of phosphate treatments on microbiological, physicochemical changes of spent hen muscle marinated with Tom Yum paste during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongwiwat, Pirinya; Wattanachant, Saowakon; Siripongvutikorn, Sunisa

    2010-06-01

    This research aimed to study the effect of phosphate on quality of ready-to-cook spent hen muscle marinated with Tom Yum paste, a famous Thai food made from chilli, lime leaves and garcinia (pH 2.5-2.9). The effects of phosphate treatments (phosphate types, soaking time, and phosphate concentration) on physical characteristics of spent hen muscle in high acid condition were investigated. Quality changes of muscles pretreated with or without phosphate and marinated with Tom Yum paste were determined during storage at 4 degrees C for 30 days. The acidified muscle pretreated with 40 g L(-1) sodium tripolyphosphate for 10 h had the highest marinade absorption, and the lowest cooking loss and shear force among all treatment samples. Microstructures of acidified muscle pretreated with and without sodium tripolyphosphate showed significant swelling with larger fibre diameter. Phosphate pretreatment had no influence on cooking loss, shear force and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance values of Tom Yum marinated muscle during storage. Tom Yum marination with phosphate pretreatment caused a higher increase in psychrophilic bacteria compared to that of marinating without phosphate. Phosphate pretreatment could not improve the physical quality of Tom-Yum marinated spent hen muscle and affected the antimicrobial property of Tom-Yum marinade, resulting in a reduction of shelf-life of the marinated muscle from 30 days to 20 days. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Evaluating Ultraviolet Radiation Exposures Determined from TOMS Satellite Data at Sites of Amphibian Declines in Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Many amphibian species have experienced substantial population declines, or have disappeared altogether, during the last several decades at a number of amphibian census sites in Central and South America. This study addresses the use of satellite-derived trends in solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-320 nm) radiation exposures at these sites over the last two decades, and is intended to demonstrate a role for satellite observations in determining whether UV-B radiation is a contributing factor in amphibian declines. UV-B radiation levels at the Earth's surface were derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite data, typically acquired daily since 1979. These data were used to calculate the daily erythemal (sunburning) UV-B, or UV-B(sub ery), exposures at the latitude, longitude, and elevation of each of 20 census sites. The annually averaged UV-B(sub ery) dose, as well as the maximum values, have been increasing in both Central and South America, with higher levels received at the Central American sites. The annually averaged UV-B(sub ery) exposures increased significantly from 1979-1998 at all 11 Central American sites examined (r(exp 2) = 0.60 - 0.79; P= 6750 J/sq m*d) to the annual UV-B(sub ery) total has increased from approx. 5% to approx. 15% in Central America over the 19 year period, but actual daily exposures for each species are unknown. Synergy among UV-B radiation and other factors, especially those associated with alterations of water chemistry (e.g., acidification) in aqueous habitats is discussed. These findings justify further research concerning whether UV-B(sub ery) radiation plays a role in amphibian population declines and extinctions.

  1. Investigating the genetic basis of theory of mind (ToM): the role of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Haiwei; Wu, Nan; Su, Yanjie

    2012-01-01

    The ability to deduce other persons' mental states and emotions which has been termed 'theory of mind (ToM)' is highly heritable. First molecular genetic studies focused on some dopamine-related genes, while the genetic basis underlying different components of ToM (affective ToM and cognitive ToM) remain unknown. The current study tested 7 candidate polymorphisms (rs4680, rs4633, rs2020917, rs2239393, rs737865, rs174699 and rs59938883) on the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. We investigated how these polymorphisms relate to different components of ToM. 101 adults participated in our study; all were genetically unrelated, non-clinical and healthy Chinese subjects. Different ToM tasks were applied to detect their theory of mind ability. The results showed that the COMT gene rs2020917 and rs737865 SNPs were associated with cognitive ToM performance, while the COMT gene rs5993883 SNP was related to affective ToM, in which a significant gender-genotype interaction was found (p = 0.039). Our results highlighted the contribution of DA-related COMT gene on ToM performance. Moreover, we found out that the different SNP at the same gene relates to the discriminative aspect of ToM. Our research provides some preliminary evidence to the genetic basis of theory of mind which still awaits further studies.

  2. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  3. Probe Techniques. Introductory Remarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emeleus, K. G. [School of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Queen' s University, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    1968-04-15

    In this brief introduction to the session on probes, the history of theii development is first touched on briefly. Reference is then made to the significance of the work to be described by Medicus, for conductivity and recombination calculations, and by Lam and Su, for a wide range of medium and higher pressure plasmas. Finally, a number of other probe topics are mentioned, including multiple probes; probes in electronegative plasmas; resonance probes; probes in noisy discharges; probes as oscillation detectors; use of probes where space-charge is not negligible. (author)

  4. Rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The conference was held from September 12 to 13, 1984 in Jetrichovice, Czechoslovakia. The participants heard 16 papers of which 4 were inputted in INIS. These papers dealt with industrial separation processes of rare earths, the use of chemical methods of separation from the concentrate of apatite and bastnesite, the effect of the relative permittivity of solvents in the elution of rare earth elements from a cation exchanger, and the determination of the content of different rare earth elements using X-ray fluorescence analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. (E.S.)

  5. Ratio superior, ratio inferior y el agustinismo de Tomás de Aquino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moya Cañas, Patricia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses Aquinas’ reception of the Augustinian distinction between ratio inferior and superior. Though not a central aspect of Aquinas’ thought, it is a signifi cant pointer to the presence of Augustinian patterns of thought in a non-theological part of his work. After a general survey of the presence of this distinction in the opera omnia of Aquinas, his use of this topic in some specific instances is discussed: the distinction between contemplative and active life, the division of human faculties, and the moral problem of peevish delight.El artículo discute la recepción que hace Tomás de Aquino de la distinción agustiniana entre razón superior e inferior. Si bien no se trata de uno de los tópicos centrales de la doctrina tomasiana, es un elemento significativo a la hora de considerar dentro de la obra de Tomás la presencia de patrones agustinianos de pensamiento que no sean primordialmente teológicos. Tras discutir de modo general la presencia de esta distinción en la obra del aquinate, y los estudios previos sobre este binomio, se procede a discutir su uso por parte de Tomás de Aquino ante tres problemas específicos: la distinción entre géneros de vida, la división de las facultades humanas, y el problema moral de la delectación morosa.

  6. Staging Henry Fielding: The Author-Narrator in Tom Jones On Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Løfaldli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As recent adaptation theory has shown, classic-novel adaptation typically sets issues connected to authorship and literal and figurative ownership into play. This key feature of such adaptations is also central to the screen versions of Henry Fielding’s Tom Jones (1749. In much of Fielding’s fiction, the narrator, typically understood as an embodiment of Fielding himself, is a particularly prominent presence. The author-narrator in Tom Jones is no exception: not only is his presence strongly felt throughout the novel, but through a variety of means, ‘The History of Tom Jones, A Foundling’ is also distinctly marked as being under his control and ownership. The two adaptations of Fielding’s novel, a 1963 film and a 1997 television series, both retain the figure of the author-narrator, but differ greatly in their handling of this device and its consequent thematic ramifications. Although the 1963 film de-emphasises Henry Fielding’s status as proprietor of the story, the author-narrator as represented in the film’s voiceover commentary is a figure of authority and authorial control. In contrast, the 1997 adaptation emphasises Fielding’s ownership of the narrative and even includes the author-narrator as a character in the series, but this ownership is undermined by the irreverent treatment to which he is consistently subjected. The representations of Henry Fielding in the form of the author-narrator in both adaptations are not only indicative of shifting conceptions of authorship, but also of the important interplay between authorship, ownership and adaptation more generally.

  7. Reciclando a Tropicália: Tom Zé e o lixo lógico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Oliveira Campos Augusto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2176-8552.2016n20p111 Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar e analisar a tese de Tom Zé sobre a Tropicália, presente em seu disco Tropicália lixo lógico, lançado em 2012. Primeiramente, destacam-se duas características importantes da música popular brasileira, que ajudam a entender a possibilidade de um disco--tese: além de ser definida como um “campo dialogal” (1, a música popular brasileira é dotada de uma “malha de permeabilidades”, pelo modo como a alta cultura se cruza com produções populares, tendo como resultado a “leveza” (2. Em seu álbum, Tom Zé não apenas assume o protagonismo da interpretação da Tropicália, mas, também, desloca a antropofagia do centro interpretativo dessa manifestação artística e cultural brasileira. Nesse sentido, o disco é compreendido, levando-se em conta tanto seus aspectos físicos quanto simbólicos, a partir do que Walter Moser denomina de reciclagem cultural, uma vez que Tom Zé processa a inclusão de “restos” e “dejetos” no espaço cultural e artístico. Ademais, com a reciclagem do lixo lógico, o espaço hegemônico incorpora materiais culturais de outras procedências, colocando-os em diálogo.

  8. Twin probes for space geodesy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertotti, B.

    1978-01-01

    The twin probe method, proposed by Bertotti and Colombo (1972) to get rid of nongravitational forces in interplanetary space, can be applied to a near-Earth orbit to eliminate the atmospheric drag. Two equal pairs of probes, each pair consisting of two passive, small and dense spheres of equal surface and different masses, are flown on a circular orbit at an altitude of about 300 km. Each pair determines the motion of an ideal point which feels only the gravitational forces. They are separated by a distance d of (100/200) km and are tracked from a spacecraft or the Space Shuttle, flying at the same altitude. The relative motion of the two ideal points is reconstructed and yields a measurement of the fine structure of the Earth gravitational field, corresponding to a harmonic order l approximately a/d (a is the radius of the Earth). The tracking can be done by laser ranging to the four spheres, covered by corner reflectors; Doppler ranging is more convenient for higher values of l and can also be used. The accuracy in the compensation of the non-gravitational forces and in the measurements one needs for a given l are discussed in detail. (author)

  9. A study on the growth of compound semiconductor single crystal by TOM technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.C.; Kwon, S.I.; Chung, M.K.; Chang, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the merit of the HgI 2 single crystals obtained by solution growth, 2- and 3-region temperature growth, and temperature oscillation growth for soft γ-ray detectors which can be operated at room temperature. Special efforts are put on the design, construction, and operation of the TOM (Temperature Oscillation Method) single crystal growing furnace. Experimental results show that HgI 2 detectors fabricated by vapour phase growth method usually exhibit sufficient enough detector characteristics for soft γ-ray spectrometry. However, further investigation should be carried out to eliminate detector deterioration due to polarization effect. (author)

  10. Ejercicios y penitencia en la obra de Tomé de Jesus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Javier Alonso Romo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present essay aims at approaching the classic Trabalhos de Jesus, posthumous work of the Augustinian friar of sixteenth century Tomé de Jesus, through a perspective of exercises of penance, inside the most extended field of the spiritual exercises. Questions are analysed like the methodology, the prayer practices and of spiritual discernment, the dualism between inner penitence and exterior penitences, as well as the advices to break down the temptations, and the uses for the examination of conscience and the confession. The author is placed in relation with other peninsular authors of that time specially saint Ignatius of Loyola.

  11. Spatial Politics in Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, Elham; Hanif, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

     http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2017v70n1p287This article examines the notion of spatial politics in Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. The two courtiers enter the politically convulsive world of Hamlet, where no legitimate power structure takes hold of the state. Their regularized political rationality ceases to apply to the world; reality violates the empirical knowledge — emplacements, geographical and spiritual directions, and generally identity — of Rosencrantz an...

  12. Earth Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  13. Empathy, ToM, and self-other differentiation: an fMRI study of internal states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, Renate L E P; Völlm, Birgit A; Elliott, Rebecca; Corcoran, Rhiannon

    2014-02-01

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural substrates of empathy, Theory of Mind (ToM), and self-other differentiation involved in the adaptive understanding of people's internal states. Three conditions were distinguished in both sad and neutral (no obvious emotion) contexts. The empathy condition involved imagining what another person is feeling while the more cognitively loaded ToM condition involved imagining what would make another person feel better. The self-reference condition required participants to imagine how they would feel in someone else's situation. Areas previously implicated in empathy, ToM, and self-other differentiation were identified within the different conditions, regardless of emotional context. Specifically, the frontal and temporal poles responded more strongly for ToM than for empathy. The self-reference condition was associated with stronger dorsolateral prefrontal response than the empathy condition, while the reverse comparison revealed a stronger role for right frontal pole. Activations in frontal pole and orbitofrontal cortex were shared between the three conditions. Contrasts of parameter estimates demonstrated modulation by emotional context. The findings of common and differential patterns of responding observed in prefrontal and temporal regions suggest that within the social cognition network empathy, ToM and self-other differentiation have distinct roles that are responsive to context.

  14. Plant nutritional status modulates glutamine synthetase levels in ripe tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpeci, Telma E; Marro, Martin L; Bortolotti, Santiago; Boggio, Silvana B; Valle, Estela M

    2007-02-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening implies that chloroplastic proteins are degraded and new proteins are synthesized. Supplementary nutrition is frequently required when tomato plants begin to fruit and continues until the end of the plant's life cycle. Ammonium assimilation is crucial in these fruit maturation and ripening processes. Glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2), the main ammonium-fixing enzyme in plants, could not be detected in red fruits of several tomato varieties when growing under standard nutrition. In this paper, we analyze the influence of the nutritional status on the ammonium assimilation capacity of ripe tomato (cv. Micro-Tom) fruit. For this purpose, GS expression and protein profiles were followed in mature green and red fruits harvested from plants grown under standard or supplemented nutrition. Under standard nutrient regime (weekly supplied with 0.5 x Hoagland solution) GS activity was found in chloroplasts (GS2) of mature green fruits, but it was not detected either in the chromoplasts or in the cytosol of red fruits. When plants were shifted to a supplemented nutritional regime (daily supplied with 0.5 x Hoagland solution), GS was found in red fruits. Also, cytosolic transcripts (gs1) preferentially accumulated in red fruits under high nutrition. These results indicate that mature green Micro-Tom fruits assimilate ammonia through GS2 under standard nutrition, while ripe red fruits accumulate GS1 under high nutrition, probably in order to assimilate the extra N-compounds made available through supplemented nutrition.

  15. Lope y Boccalini: Tres sonetos de Tomé de Burguillos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arellano, Ignacio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes three sonnets of Lope against Traiano Boccalini included in the Rhymes of Tomé de Burguillos, showing the need to compare the Lope´s text with the italian original version of Ragguagli di Parnaso, not with spanish translation of Perez de Sousa, because in this translation are deleted essential passages to understand the game of wit of Lope. These three sonnets are a good example of the complexity of this exercise of conceptism in Lope, whose poetry can not be described as plain, simple and clear: it is a difficult poetry full of games, intertextual allusions and references that should be clarified applying the type of appropiate reading.Se analizan tres sonetos de Lope contra el italiano Traiano Boccalini, incluidos en las Rimas de Tomé de Burguillos, mostrando la necesidad de comparar el texto de Lope con el de los Ragguagli di Parnaso, en su versión original italiana, y no en la traducción de Perez de Sousa, que elimina pasajes necesarios para entender los juegos de Lope. Estos tres sonetos son buena muestra de la complejidad que puede tener este ejercicio de agudeza de Lope, cuya poesía no se puede calificar sin más de llana, sencilla o clara: es una poesía conceptista llena de juegos, alusiones y referencias intertextuales que deben ser aclaradas si se quiere aplicar a estos poemas el tipo de lectura que exigen.

  16. Secret Guilt of an Artist: The Real Inspector Hound and Tom Stoppard’s Political Voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Drzakowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tom Stoppard once famously proclaimed his guilt that art is unimportant. The character Moon from Stoppard’s early farce The Real Inspector Hound presents surprising evidence that Stoppard’s view of art in his early years as a playwright may have been more complex than he let on. The circumstances behind Moon’s journey into the very art he criticizes are not unlike Tom Stoppard’s foray into politically conscious drama. Moon desperately wants the thriller he is reviewing to mean more than it really does. His wish becomes a reality when a third party, Puckeridge, forcibly pulls Moon into the fantasy. Like Moon, Stoppard had a fantasy, a dream-world in which art has the power to enact social change. Stoppard was unwilling or unable to act on that desire alone, until his own Puckeridge, an artist and dissident named Victor Fainberg, compelled him to act on his dream and merge art with politics.Keywords: Stoppard, The Real Inspector Hound, Fainberg, art, politics

  17. The Effect of New Ozone Cross Sections Applied to SBUV and TOMS Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeters, Richard D.; Labow, Gordon J.

    2010-01-01

    The ozone cross sections as measured by Bass and Paur have been used for processing of SBUV and TOMS data since 1986. While these cross sections were a big improvement over those previously available, there were known minor problems with accuracy for wavelengths longward of 330 nm and with the temperature dependance. Today's requirements to separate stratospheric ozone from tropospheric ozone and for the derivation of minor species such as BrO and N02 place stringent new requirements on the accuracy needed. The ozone cross section measurements of Brion, Daumont, and Malicet (BDM) are being considered for use in UV-based ozone retrievals. They have much better resolution, an extended wavelength range, and a more consistent temperature dependance. Tests show that BDM retrievals exhibit lower retrieval residuals in the satellite data; i.e., they explain our measured atmospheric radiances more accurately. Total column ozone retrieved by the TOMS instruments is about 1.5% higher than before. Ozone profiles retrieved from SBUV using the new cross sections are lower in the upper stratosphere and higher in the lower stratosphere and troposphere.

  18. Tomé, futuro turístico y renacer industrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Andaluz Sandoval

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La ciudad de Tomé, ubicada en la ribera N.E. de la bahía de Talcahuano, distante a sólo 32 kilómetros al norte del Gran Concepción, se ha desarrollado económica y territorialmente por los diferentes aconteceres que le ha correspondido presenciar durante la historia. Es así como encontramos vestigios de la grandeza de su apogeo pesquero, portuario, molinero, vitivinícola y textil, tanto en el ordenamiento de su trama urbana como en obras arquitectónicas que muestran un claro reflejo de las inmigraciones extranjeras que se vieron atraídas por esta próspera ciudad, que nació como caleta de pescadores y se transformó en un centro industrial de gran importancia nacional. Tal fue su significancia dentro de las zonas costeras del país que en el año 1858, el Congreso Nacional declaró a Tomé Puerto Mayor, lo que se tradujo en un aumento importante de la población, la industria y las actividades que esto conllevaba.

  19. Statecraft and Leadership in Europe: The Case of Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Tatinec

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Born to Slovaco-German-Czech poor servants, with no burning interest in politics until adult age, who even came to be called the enemy of the nation, Tomáš Masaryk managed to introduce the first Czechoslovak state on the world map in 1918, through tireless advocacy carried out (literally all around the world during the Great War, and the subsequent guidance in the newly formed republic. He was unanimously elected President four times and served in this function for eighteen years (1918-1935. Tomáš Masaryk was not a product of circumstances, but their producer and skillful employer. He showed himself particularly adroit in overcoming the against-all-odds situations, as well as the ‘regular’ crisis ones. Initially isolated, resourceless, and repudiated by his own people, he managed to unite them and to make them join his idea and struggle for a project aiming for common good. Such a CV seems remarkably appropriate for a potential leader in Europe’s most advanced uniting project, the EU (European Union. Considering the 100th anniversary of the beginning of Masaryk’s state-building journey, as well as the current crisis debates in the EU, it seems appropriate to remind ourselves of a leader with a vision, determination, skill, and principles. The EU may need precisely those to stay united.

  20. Polypeptide Translocation Through the Mitochondrial TOM Channel: Temperature-Dependent Rates at the Single-Molecule Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, Kozhinjampara R; Lamichhane, Usha; Romero-Ruiz, Mercedes; Nussberger, Stephan; Winterhalter, Mathias

    2013-01-03

    The TOM protein complex facilitates the transfer of nearly all mitochondrial preproteins across outer mitochondrial membranes. Here we characterized the effect of temperature on facilitated translocation of a mitochondrial presequence peptide pF1β. Ion current fluctuations analysis through single TOM channels revealed thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of substrate binding and allowed determining the energy profile of peptide translocation. The activation energy for the on-rate and off-rate of the presequence peptide into the TOM complex was symmetric with respect to the electric field and estimated to be about 15 and 22 kT per peptide. These values are above that expected for free diffusion of ions in water (6 kT) and reflect the stronger interaction in the channel. Both values are in the range for typical enzyme kinetics and suggest one process without involving large conformational changes within the channel protein.

  1. Technical Note: Adjoint formulation of the TOMCAT atmospheric transport scheme in the Eulerian backtracking framework (RETRO-TOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, P. E.; Esler, J. G.; Carver, G. D.

    2014-06-01

    A new methodology for the formulation of an adjoint to the transport component of the chemistry transport model TOMCAT is described and implemented in a new model, RETRO-TOM. The Eulerian backtracking method is used, allowing the forward advection scheme (Prather's second-order moments) to be efficiently exploited in the backward adjoint calculations. Prather's scheme is shown to be time symmetric, suggesting the possibility of high accuracy. To attain this accuracy, however, it is necessary to make a careful treatment of the "density inconsistency" problem inherent to offline transport models. The results are verified using a series of test experiments. These demonstrate the high accuracy of RETRO-TOM when compared with direct forward sensitivity calculations, at least for problems in which flux limiters in the advection scheme are not required. RETRO-TOM therefore combines the flexibility and stability of a "finite difference of adjoint" formulation with the accuracy of an "adjoint of finite difference" formulation.

  2. Gravity Probe B Gyroscope Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. This photograph is a close up of a niobium-coated gyroscope motor and its housing halves. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Don Harley.)

  3. Gravity Probe B Space Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The space vehicle for Gravity Probe B (GP-B) arrives at the launch site at Vandenburg Air Force Base. GP-B is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Scheduled for launch in 2003 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center, development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation.

  4. Rotational modes of a simple Earth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed-Mahmoud, B.; Rochester, M. G.; Rogister, Y. J. G.

    2017-12-01

    We study the tilt-over mode (TOM), the spin-over mode (SOM), the free core nutation (FCN), and their relationships to each other using a simple Earth model with a homogeneous and incompressible liquid core and a rigid mantle. Analytical solutions for the periods of these modes as well as that of the Chandler wobble is found for the Earth model. We show that the FCN is the same mode as the SOM of a wobbling Earth. The reduced pressure, in terms of which the vector momentum equation is known to reduce to a scalar second order differential equation (the so called Poincaŕe equation), is used as the independent variable. Analytical solutions are then found for the displacement eigenfucntions in a meridional plane of the liquid core for the aforementioned modes. We show that the magnitude of motion in the mantle during the FCN is comparable to that in the liquid core, hence very small. The displacement eigenfunctions for these aforementioned modes as well as those for the free inner core nutation (FICN), computed numerically, are also given for a three layer Earth model which also includes a rigid but capable of wobbling inner core. We will discuss the slow convergence of the period of the FICN in terms of the characteristic surfaces of the Poincare equation.

  5. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahavir

    2014-02-01

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  6. Mobile Game Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2006-01-01

    This paper will examine how probes can be useful for game designers in the preliminary phases of a design process. The work is based upon a case study concerning pervasive mobile phone games where Mobile Game Probes have emerged from the project. The new probes are aimed towards a specific target...... group and the goal is to specify the probes so they will cover the most relevant areas for our project. The Mobile Game Probes generated many interesting results and new issues occurred, since the probes came to be dynamic and favorable for the process in new ways....

  7. Can REDD+ help the conservation of restricted-range island species? Insights from the endemism hotspot of São Tomé

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lima, Ricardo Faustino; Olmos, Fábio; Dallimer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    , using São Tomé Island (Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe) as a case study. We quantified the abundance of bird and tree species, and calculated the aboveground carbon stocks across a gradient of land-use intensity. We found a strong spatial congruence between carbon and the presence...

  8. Instituciones microfinancieras y cajas de ahorro en Santo Tomás Hueyotlipan, Puebla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiano Raccanello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La exigua presencia de los intermediarios financieros formales en los municipios rurales mexicanos impulsa el uso de tandas y solicitud de dinero a prestamistas, familiares o amigos. Las cajas de ahorro constituyen una alternativa a estos métodos tradicionales y aprovechan el capital social comunitario. Esta investigación, fundamentado en una muestra realizada en el municipio de Santo Tomás Hueyotlipan (Puebla, México, analiza los factores que impulsan la participación en las cajas de ahorro informales y su interacción con otros intermediarios financieros informales. Los resultados del modelo probit indican que la participación responde a la posibilidad de poder ahorrar atrayendo a aquellos individuos que no utilizan tandas, prestamistas o deudas con familiares o amigos.

  9. Radioecological monitoring of the Tom' river ecosystem within zone of nuclear fuel cycle plants influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonova, G.A.; Bobrov, V.A.; Malikov, Yu.I.; Mel'gunov, M.S.; Makarova, I.V.; Toropov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    According to the results of 2000-2002 expeditions the estimation of radioactive contamination scales in water ecosystems within zone of Siberian Chemical Industrial Complex (SCC) influence was performed. The accumulation levels of short-lived artificial radionuclides in biota components of SCC technological channel (Romashka river), and spatial radionuclide distribution in biota of ecosystem of the Tom' and Ob' rivers at different distances from the local source have been determined using biochemical indication method. The most frequently occurring species of plants, filamentous green algae and fish were selected as indicator bioobjects for the monitoring. In spectrum of radioisotopes revealed in water plants, fish and water of the Romashka river there were determined twelve short-living isotopes that denoted continuing river burial. (author)

  10. Constructing Unfinalizability: A Subject Positioning Analysis of a Couple's Therapy Session Hosted by Tom Andersen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Michael

    2018-03-08

    The notion of subject positions is a useful tool in thinking through therapeutic interactions. In this article, I discuss positioning as an everyday phenomenon, and highlight the relational and social power dynamics that shape the subject positions persons may inhabit. Analysis is presented of the positional dynamics that play out in the couple's therapy session facilitated by Tom Andersen. Analysis suggests that Andersen adopts a not-knowing, uncertain, and curious position, while constructing the couple as competent, unfinalizable persons able to negotiate the choice-points that arise in front of them. However, if subject positions are grounded in social power dynamics, the session leaves a particular question unanswered: How will these emergent positions take hold outside of the consulting room? © 2018 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  11. Issuing and Responding to Unusual Questions: A Conversation Analytic Account of Tom Andersen's Therapeutic Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoliak, Olga; Le Couteur, Amanda; Quinn-Nilas, Christopher

    2018-03-08

    Tom Andersen is considered one of the key contributors to the development of postmodern practice. Little is known, however, about the ways in which his ideas and practices are routinely carried out in situ. We used Conversation Analysis (CA) to investigate a session of couple therapy facilitated by Andersen. We show how Andersen and client participants oriented to and addressed problems of understanding that occurred between them. The source of this trouble was Andersen's use of unusual question formulations. We offer preliminary evidence that such unusual formulations served particular interactional and institutional (i.e., therapeutic) functions in their local contexts of use. We conclude by considering some implications of this analysis-and of conversation analytic inquiry more generally-for the practice of family therapy. © 2018 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  12. Sarcoma de Kaposi en una paciente de Santo Tomé y Príncipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melba Elers Bandera

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso clínico de una paciente que fue asistida en el Hospital General "Dr. Ayres Menezes" de la República Democrática de Santo Tomé y Príncipe, por presentar fiebre y lesiones en la piel, a la cual se le diagnosticó sarcoma de Kaposi asociado a la infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana/sida. La evolución tórpida y el estadio tan avanzado de la enfermedad, así como la resistencia a los fármacos antirretrovirales, ocasionaron la muerte de la fémina

  13. Spatial Politics in Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Kazemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2017v70n1p287 This article examines the notion of spatial politics in Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. The two courtiers enter the politically convulsive world of Hamlet, where no legitimate power structure takes hold of the state. Their regularized political rationality ceases to apply to the world; reality violates the empirical knowledge — emplacements, geographical and spiritual directions, and generally identity — of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. The previously defined functions of places, or heterotopias (in Foucauldian terms, are in a state of abeyance. Therefore, they are lost in the midst of the unknown sets of spatial relations; any sorts of intentional act evade them; and they die and vanish absurdly in a placeless place.

  14. Reuniones, dispersiones. Notas sobre ideas literarias de Tomás Segovia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pascual Gay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo quiere dar cuenta de diferentes ideas expuestas por Tomás Segovia a lo largo de su oficio de escritor en ensayos, cuadernos de notas y entrevistas. Segovia no desarrolló un pensamiento unitario y sistemático, sino que, más bien, desarrolla esas ideas en diferentes contextos, textos y pretextos, pero esas ideas acaban por volver siem - pre a un ideario que otorga una cohesión insospechada en su obra. Además, muchas veces, sin decirlo, deja entrever la tradición literaria y cultural a la que se adscribe y que permea su obra entera.

  15. Probing the superconducting ground state of the rare-earth ternary boride superconductors R RuB2 (R = Lu,Y) using muon-spin rotation and relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J. A. T.; Singh, R. P.; Hillier, A. D.; Paul, D. McK.

    2018-03-01

    The superconductivity in the rare-earth transition-metal ternary borides R RuB2 (where R =Lu and Y) has been investigated using muon-spin rotation and relaxation. Measurements made in zero field suggest that time-reversal symmetry is preserved upon entering the superconducting state in both materials; a small difference in depolarization is observed above and below the superconducting transition in both compounds, however, this has been attributed to quasistatic magnetic fluctuations. Transverse-field measurements of the flux-line lattice indicate that the superconductivity in both materials is fully gapped, with a conventional s -wave pairing symmetry and BCS-like magnitudes for the zero-temperature gap energies. The electronic properties of the charge carriers in the superconducting state have been calculated, with effective masses m*/me=9.8 ±0.1 and 15.0 ±0.1 in the Lu and Y compounds, respectively, with superconducting carrier densities ns=(2.73 ±0.04 ) ×1028m-3 and (2.17 ±0.02 ) ×1028m-3 . The materials have been classified according to the Uemura scheme for superconductivity, with values for Tc/TF of 1 /(414 ±6 ) and 1 /(304 ±3 ) , implying that the superconductivity may not be entirely conventional in nature.

  16. TOMATOMA Update: Phenotypic and Metabolite Information in the Micro-Tom Mutant Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikata, Masahito; Hoshikawa, Ken; Ariizumi, Tohru; Fukuda, Naoya; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    TOMATOMA (http://tomatoma.nbrp.jp/) is a tomato mutant database providing visible phenotypic data of tomato mutant lines generated by ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) treatment or γ-ray irradiation in the genetic background of Micro-Tom, a small and rapidly growing variety. To increase mutation efficiency further, mutagenized M3 seeds were subjected to a second round of EMS treatment; M3M1 populations were generated. These plants were self-pollinated, and 4,952 lines of M3M2 mutagenized seeds were generated. We checked for visible phenotypes in the M3M2 plants, and 618 mutant lines with 1,194 phenotypic categories were identified. In addition to the phenotypic information, we investigated Brix values and carotenoid contents in the fruits of individual mutants. Of 466 samples from 171 mutant lines, Brix values and carotenoid contents were between 3.2% and 11.6% and 6.9 and 37.3 µg g(-1) FW, respectively. This metabolite information concerning the mutant fruits would be useful in breeding programs as well as for the elucidation of metabolic regulation. Researchers are able to browse and search this phenotypic and metabolite information and order seeds of individual mutants via TOMATOMA. Our new Micro-Tom double-mutagenized populations and the metabolic information could provide a valuable genetic toolkit to accelerate tomato research and potential breeding programs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Construction and modelling of a thermoelectric oxide module (TOM) as a demonstrator - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomes, P.; Weidenkaff, A.

    2010-08-15

    The project aims at the development of better thermoelectric materials for the direct conversion of solar heat into electricity. The maximum output power P{sub max} and the efficiency {eta} of the conversion was measured on a series of four-leg thermoelectric oxide modules (TOM). The modules were constructed by combining two p-type (La{sub 1.98}Sr{sub 0.02}CuO{sub 4}) and two n-type (CaMn{sub 0.98}Nb{sub 0.02}O{sub 3}) thermoelements connected electrically in series and thermally in parallel. The temperature gradient {Delta}T was provided by a High-Flux Solar Simulator source (HFSS) which generates a spectrum similar to solar radiation. This project was intended to be a feasibility study for the utilization of high temperature solar heat, which could not previously be demonstrated due to the low temperature stability of conventional materials. The direct conversion was proven by this study. The measurements show an almost linear temperature profile along the thermoelectric legs. However, the maximum output power resulted in 88.8 mW for a TOM with a leg length of 5 mm at {Delta}T = 622 K and has yet to be optimized by improving the converter design and the applied materials. The highest conversion efficiency {eta} was found for a heat flux of 4 to 8 W cm{sup -2}. The dependence of {eta} on the leg length was studied as well as the influence of a graphite coating on the hot Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface on {Delta}T, P{sub max} and {eta}. (authors)

  18. Modeling the Effects of Connecting Side Channels to the Long Tom River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, C.; McDowell, P. F.

    2015-12-01

    The lower Long Tom River is a heavily managed, highly modified stream in the southwestern Willamette Valley with many opportunities for habitat improvements and river restoration. In the 1940s and 1950s, the US Army Corps of Engineers dramatically altered this river system by constructing the Fern Ridge Dam and three, large drop structures, converting the River from a highly sinuous channel to a straight, channelized stream that is interrupted by these grade control structures, and removed the majority of the riparian vegetation. As a result, juvenile spring Chinook salmon are no longer found in the Watershed and the local population of coastal cutthroat trout face limited aquatic habitat. When the river was channelized, long sections of the historical channel were left abandoned on the floodplain. Reconnecting these historical channels as side channels may improve the quality and quantity of aquatic habitat and could allow fish passage around current barriers. However, such construction may also lead to undesirable threats to infrastructure and farmland. This study uses multiple HEC-RAS models to determine the impact of reconnecting two historical channels to the lower Long Tom River by quantifying the change in area of flood inundation and identifying infrastructure in jeapordy given current and post-restoration conditions for 1.5, 5, 10, and 25-year flood discharges. Bathymetric data from ADCP and RTK-GPS surveys has been combined with LiDAR-derived topographic data to create continuous elevation models. Several types of side channel connections are modeled in order to determine which type of connection will result in both the greatest quantity of accessible habitat and the fewest threats to public and private property. In the future, this study will also consider the change in the quantity of physical salmonid habitat and map the areas prone to sedimentation and erosion using CEASAR and PHABSIM tools.

  19. Fray Tomás de Torquemada, iconógrafo y promotor de las artes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caballero Escamilla, Sonia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the author analyses the Inquisitor Torquemada’s role in two Dominican foundations: the monasteries of Santo Tomás in Ávila and Santa Cruz in Segovia. The historical context in which they emerged and their association with inquisitorial activities converted them into ideal supports for a message designed by this Dominican friar for the purpose of conveying the prestige of the Order and the involvement of the Monarchy in the struggle against heretics. He used the arts to convey a propagandistic message, adapting older iconographic formulas to his current needs, aimed at promoting the expulsion of the Jews.

    En este trabajo se analiza la ascendencia del inquisidor Torquemada sobre dos fundaciones, el convento de Santo Tomás de Ávila y el de Santa Cruz de Segovia. El contexto histórico en el que surgen y su vinculación con la actividad inquisitorial las convierte en soportes de un mensaje hábilmente diseñado por el fraile dominico en el que pone de manifiesto el prestigio de la Orden de Santo Domingo y la implicación de la Monarquía en la lucha antiherética. Aprovechando la eficacia propagandística del lenguaje plástico, no dudará en acudir a fórmulas iconográficas del pasado adaptándolas a su momento presente, creando el caldo de cultivo necesario para lograr su objetivo, la expulsión de los judíos.

  20. The Van Allen Probes mission

    CERN Document Server

    Burch, James

    2014-01-01

    This collection of articles provides broad and detailed information about NASA’s Van Allen Probes (formerly known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes) twin-spacecraft Earth-orbiting mission. The mission has the objective of achieving predictive understanding of the dynamic, intense, energetic, dangerous, and presently unpredictable belts of energetic particles that are magnetically trapped in Earth’s space environment above the atmosphere. It documents the science of the radiation belts and the societal benefits of achieving predictive understanding. Detailed information is provided about the Van Allen Probes mission design, the spacecraft, the science investigations, and the onboard instrumentation that must all work together to make unprecedented measurements within a most unforgiving environment, the core of Earth’s most intense radiation regions.
 This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in space science, solar-terrestrial interactions and studies of the up...

  1. Mida teeb sinu organisatsioon, et olla keskkonnasõbralik? / Liis Elmi, Monika Kuzmina, Kairit Kolskar, Kristina Toms...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad: BEST-Esonia juhatuse liige Liisi Elmi, Rahvaliidu Noored juhatuse esimees Monika Kuzmina, Noored Sotsiaaldemokraadid president Kairit Kolskar, AIESEC president Kristina Toms, Eesti Psühholoogiaüliõpilaste Ühenduse juhatuse liige Andres Vegel

  2. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring

  3. Toward the problem of oil and gas bearing capacity of the East Tom-Kolyvan structural zone (Western Siberia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolbova, N F; Maerkov, P O

    2014-01-01

    The vast depression in the east Tom-Kolyvan folded zone (West Siberia) has been identified by the geophysical data. The well which uncovered 4000 m deep profile of the Jurassic and Paleozoic deposits has been drilled. The relevance of the research is the oil/gas-bearing capacity evaluation of the discovered depression in this West Siberia area

  4. Factorial structure of the 'ToM Storybooks': A test evaluating multiple components of Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgarelli, Daniela; Testa, Silvia; Molina, Paola

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the factorial structure of the Theory of Mind (ToM) Storybooks, a comprehensive 93-item instrument tapping the five components in Wellman's model of ToM (emotion recognition, understanding of desire and beliefs, ability to distinguish between physical and mental entities, and awareness of the link between perception and knowledge). A sample of 681 three- to eight-year-old Italian children was divided into three age groups to assess whether factorial structure varied across different age ranges. Partial credit model analysis was applied to the data, leading to the empirical identification of 23 composite variables aggregating the ToM Storybooks items. Confirmatory factor analysis was then conducted on the composite variables, providing support for the theoretical model. There were partial differences in the specific composite variables making up the dimensions for each of the three age groups. A single test evaluating distinct dimensions of ToM is a valuable resource for clinical practice which may be used to define differential profiles for specific populations. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Language and ToM Development in Autism versus Asperger Syndrome: Contrasting Influences of Syntactic versus Lexical/Semantic Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Jessica; Peterson, Candida

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) development by a sample of 63 children aged 5-12 years (24 with Asperger syndrome, 19 with high-functioning autism, and 20 age-matched typical developers) was assessed with a five-task false-belief battery in relation to both lexical (vocabulary) and syntactic (grammar) language skills. Contrary to some previous research, no…

  6. From the External to the Internal: Behavior Clarifications Facilitate Theory of Mind (ToM) Development in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanchun; Wang, Yijie; Luo, Rufan; Su, Yanjie

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated how Chinese children develop theory of mind (ToM) in a language environment with limited mental state talk that is rich in behavior discourse. In Study 1, 60 mothers shared a wordless storybook with their 3-4-year-olds. The children completed two false-belief tasks and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised at…

  7. Earth thermics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, M

    1960-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the Earth are described, including terrestrial heat flow, internal temperatures and thermal history. The value of the geothermal gradient has been considered to be 3/sup 0/C/100 m but measured values are slightly different. The values of terrestrial heat flow are relatively constant and are calculated be about 2.3 x 10 to the minus 6 cal/cm/sup 2/ sec (2.3 HFU). The Earth's internal temperature can be calculated from the adiabatic temperature gradient of adiabatic expansion. Using Simon's equation No. 9, a value of 2100-2500/sup 0/C is obtained, this is much lower than it was previously thought to be. The value of 2.3 HFU can easily be obtained from this internal temperature figure.

  8. Limited Evaluation of Image Quality Produced by a Portable Head CT Scanner (CereTom) in a Neurosurgery Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Ariz Chong; Adnan, Johari Siregar; Rahman, Noor Azman A.; Palur, Ravikant

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Computed tomography (CT) is the preferred diagnostic toolkit for head and brain imaging of head injury. A recent development is the invention of a portable CT scanner that can be beneficial from a clinical point of view. Aim To compare the quality of CT brain images produced by a fixed CT scanner and a portable CT scanner (CereTom). Methods This work was a single-centre retrospective study of CT brain images from 112 neurosurgical patients. Hounsfield units (HUs) of the images from CereTom were measured for air, water and bone. Three assessors independently evaluated the images from the fixed CT scanner and CereTom. Streak artefacts, visualisation of lesions and grey–white matter differentiation were evaluated at three different levels (centrum semiovale, basal ganglia and middle cerebellar peduncles). Each evaluation was scored 1 (poor), 2 (average) or 3 (good) and summed up to form an ordinal reading of 3 to 9. Results HUs for air, water and bone from CereTom were within the recommended value by the American College of Radiology (ACR). Streak artefact evaluation scores for the fixed CT scanner was 8.54 versus 7.46 (Z = −5.67) for CereTom at the centrum semiovale, 8.38 (SD = 1.12) versus 7.32 (SD = 1.63) at the basal ganglia and 8.21 (SD = 1.30) versus 6.97 (SD = 2.77) at the middle cerebellar peduncles. Grey–white matter differentiation showed scores of 8.27 (SD = 1.04) versus 7.21 (SD = 1.41) at the centrum semiovale, 8.26 (SD = 1.07) versus 7.00 (SD = 1.47) at the basal ganglia and 8.38 (SD = 1.11) versus 6.74 (SD = 1.55) at the middle cerebellar peduncles. Visualisation of lesions showed scores of 8.86 versus 8.21 (Z = −4.24) at the centrum semiovale, 8.93 versus 8.18 (Z = −5.32) at the basal ganglia and 8.79 versus 8.06 (Z = −4.93) at the middle cerebellar peduncles. All results were significant with P-value < 0.01. Conclusions Results of the study showed a significant difference in image quality produced by the fixed CT scanner and

  9. The Sheath-less Planar Langmuir Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Langmuir probe is one of the oldest plasma diagnostics, provided the plasma density and species temperature from analysis of a current-voltage curve as the voltage is swept over a practically chosen range. The analysis depends on a knowledge or theory of the many factors that influence the current-voltage curve including, probe shape, size, nearby perturbations, and the voltage reference. For applications in Low Earth Orbit, the Planar Langmuir Probe, PLP, is an attractive geometry because the ram ion current is very constant over many Volts of a sweep, allowing the ion density and electron temperature to be determined independently with the same instrument, at different points on the sweep. However, when the physical voltage reference is itself small and electrically floating as with a small spacecraft, the spacecraft and probe system become a double probe where the current collection theory depends on the interaction of the spacecraft with the plasma which is generally not as simple as the probe itself. The Sheath-less PLP, SPLP, interlaces on a single ram facing surface, two variably biased probe elements, broken into many small and intertwined segments on a scale smaller than the plasma Debye length. The SPLP is electrically isolated from the rest of the spacecraft. For relative bias potentials of a few volts, the ion current to all segments of each element will be constant, while the electron currents will vary as a function of the element potential and the electron temperature. Because the segments are small, intertwined, and floating, the assembly will always present the same floating potential to the plasma, with minimal growth as a function of voltage, thus sheath-less and still planar. This concept has been modelled with Nascap, and tested with a physical model inserted into a Low Earth Orbit-like chamber plasma. Results will be presented.

  10. Probe-diverse ptychography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, I., E-mail: isaac.russellpeterson@rmit.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science, the University of Melbourne, School of Physics, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Harder, R. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Robinson, I.K. [Research Complex at Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    We propose an extension of ptychography where the target sample is scanned separately through several probes with distinct amplitude and phase profiles and a diffraction image is recorded for each probe and each sample translation. The resulting probe-diverse dataset is used to iteratively retrieve high-resolution images of the sample and all probes simultaneously. The method is shown to yield significant improvement in the reconstructed sample image compared to the image obtained using the standard single-probe ptychographic phase-retrieval scheme.

  11. Traversing probe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashburn, D.N.; Stevens, R.H.; Woodall, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention comprises a rotatable annular probe-positioner which carries at least one radially disposed sensing probe, such as a Pitot tube having a right-angled tip. The positioner can be coaxially and rotatably mounted within a compressor casing or the like and then actuated to orient the sensing probe as required to make measurements at selected stations in the annulus between the positioner and compressor casing. The positioner can be actuated to (a) selectively move the probe along its own axis, (b) adjust the yaw angle of the right-angled probe tip, and (c) revolve the probe about the axis common to the positioner and casing. A cam plate engages a cam-follower portion of the probe and normally rotates with the positioner. The positioner includes a first-motor-driven ring gear which effects slidable movement of the probe by rotating the positioner at a time when an external pneumatic cylinder is actuated to engage the cam plate and hold it stationary. When the pneumatic cylinder is not actuated, this ring gear can be driven to revolve the positioner and thus the probe to a desired circumferential location about the above-mentioned common axis. A second motor-driven ring gear included in the positioner can be driven to rotate the probe about its axis, thus adjusting the yaw angle of the probe tip. The positioner can be used in highly corrosive atmosphere, such as gaseous uranium hexafluoride. 10 claims, 6 figures

  12. Traversing probe system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashburn, Douglas N.; Stevens, Richard H.; Woodall, Harold C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention comprises a rotatable annular probe-positioner which carries at least one radially disposed sensing probe, such as a Pitot tube having a right-angled tip. The positioner can be coaxially and rotatably mounted within a compressor casing or the like and then actuated to orient the sensing probe as required to make measurements at selected stations in the annulus between the positioner and compressor casing. The positioner can be actuated to (a) selectively move the probe along its own axis, (b) adjust the yaw angle of the right-angled probe tip, and (c) revolve the probe about the axis common to the positioner and casing. A cam plate engages a cam-follower portion of the probe and normally rotates with the positioner. The positioner includes a first-motor-driven ring gear which effects slidable movement of the probe by rotating the positioner at a time when an external pneumatic cylinder is actuated to engage the cam plate and hold it stationary. When the pneumatic cylinder is not actuated, this ring gear can be driven to revolve the positioner and thus the probe to a desired circumferential location about the above-mentioned common axis. A second motor-driven ring gear included in the positioner can be driven to rotate the probe about its axis, thus adjusting the yaw angle of the probe tip. The positioner can be used in highly corrosive atmosphere, such as gaseous uranium hexafluoride.

  13. Electrical resistivity probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  14. Influence of earth's gravity on (g - 2) measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widom, A.; Chen, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental probes of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, which are sufficiently sensitive to probe electro-weak unification contributions to (g - 2), are also sufficiently sensitive to test an interesting feature of general relativity. The gravitational field of the earth produces a background space-time metric which will influence (g - 2) measurements

  15. Comet mission hopes to uncover Earth's origins

    CERN Multimedia

    Henderson, M

    2004-01-01

    "A European spacecraft that will hunt down a comet in search of clues to the origin of life on Earth will blast off tomorrow from the Kourou spaceport in French Guiana. The Rosetta probe will take 12 years to catch up with Churyumov-Gerasimenko before becoming the first spacecraft to make a soft, controlled landing on a comet's nucleus" (1 page).

  16. Study of the hyperfine magnetic field acting on Ce probes substituting for the rare earth and the magnetic ordering in intermetallic compounds RAg (R=rare earth) by first principles calculations; Estudo do campo hiperfino magnetico na sonda de Ce colocada nos compostos intermetalicos do tipo RAg (R=terra rara) e do ordenamento magnetico desses compostos usando calculos de primeiros principios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Luciano Fabricio Dias

    2006-07-01

    In this work the magnetic hyperfine field acting on Ce atoms substituting the rare-earths in R Ag compounds (R = Gd e Nd) was studied by means of first-principles electronic structure calculations. The employed method was the Augmented Plane Waves plus local orbitals (APW+lo), embodied in the WIEN2k program, within the framework of the Density Functional Theory (DFT) and with the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) for the exchange and correlation potential. The super-cell approach was utilized in order to simulate for the Ce atoms acting as impurities in the R Ag matrix. In order to improve for correlation effects within the 4f shells, a Hubbard term was added to the DFT Hamiltonian, within a procedure called GGA+U. It was found that the magnetic hyperfine field (MHF) generated by the Ce 4f electron is the main component of the total MHF and that the Ce 4f ground state level is probably a combination of the m{sub l} = -2 and m{sub l} = -1 sub-levels. In addition, the ground-state magnetic structure was determined for Ho Ag and Nd Ag by observing the behavior of the total energy as a function of the lattice volume for several possible magnetic ordering in these compounds, namely, ferromagnetic, and the (0,0,{pi}), ({pi},{pi},0) and (({pi},{pi},{pi}) types of anti-ferromagnetic ordering of rare-earth atoms. It was found that the ground-state magnetic structure is anti-ferromagnetic of type ({pi},{pi},0) for both, the Ho Ag and Nd Ag compounds. The energy difference of the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic ordering is very small in the case of the Nd Ag compound. (author)

  17. Sulfur Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, B. H.

    2007-12-01

    Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to

  18. Transformation of PRT6 RNAi construct into tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv. Micro-Tom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suka, Intan Elya; Chew, Bee Lynn; Goh, Hoe-Han; Isa, Nurulhikma Md

    2018-04-01

    PROTEOLYSIS 6 plays major role in the N-end rule pathway as N-recognin which functions as E3 ligase enzyme. It mediates ubiquitin processes that lead to degradation of unstable substrate protein. The aim of the current study is to transform the PRT6 gene into tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) from the cultivar Micro-Tom and to investigate its function in regulating ripening in tomato fruits. The PRT6_RNAi construct was successfully transformed into Agrobacterium C58 via heat shock method and transformed into seven days old cotyledon explants. Factors affecting transformation efficiency such as co-cultivation time and type of plant growth regulator combination were evaluated. Results from this study found that pre-cultured cotyledons from seven days old seedlings incubated for 2 days in co-cultivation medium increased shoot regeneration. Plant growth hormones zeatin combine with auxin produced a higher number of callus formation but lower shoot proliferation and transformation frequency compared to treatments of single plant hormone in the selection medium. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on the regenerated shoots to confirm the integration of PRT6 fragment into the genome of transgenic plants. Based on PCR analysis, all putative shoots were positive transformants.

  19. Test-retest reliability and validity of the Sniffin' TOM odor memory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Ilona; Zehner, Cora; Larsson, Maria; Zucco, Gesualdo M; Hummel, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Few attempts have been made to develop an olfactory test that captures episodic retention of olfactory information. Assessment of episodic odor memory is of particular interest in aging and in the cognitively impaired as both episodic memory deficits and olfactory loss have been targeted as reliable hallmarks of cognitive decline and impending dementia. Here, 96 healthy participants (18-92 years) and an additional 19 older people with mild cognitive impairment were tested (73-82 years). Participants were presented with 8 common odors with intentional encoding instructions that were followed by a yes-no recognition test. After recognition completion, participants were asked to identify all odors by means of free or cued identification. A retest of the odor memory test (Sniffin' TOM = test of odor memory) took place 17 days later. The results revealed satisfactory test-retest reliability (0.70) of odor recognition memory. Both recognition and identification performance were negatively affected by age and more pronounced among the cognitively impaired. In conclusion, the present work presents a reliable, valid, and simple test of episodic odor recognition memory that may be used in clinical groups where both episodic memory deficits and olfactory loss are prevalent preclinically such as Alzheimer's disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Dementia and well-being: A conceptual framework based on Tom Kitwood's model of needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Elke G; Engel, Sabine A

    2016-07-01

    The topic of well-being is becoming increasingly significant as a key outcome measure in dementia care. Previous work on personhood of individuals with dementia suggests that their subjective well-being can be described in terms of comfort, inclusion, identity, occupation and attachment The study aimed to examine Tom Kitwood's model of psychological needs and well-being in dementia based on the self-report of individuals with moderate or severe dementia and to differentiate and elaborate this model in the light of the empirical qualitative data. Nineteen inhabitants of a special long-term care unit were interviewed using a semi-structured interview. Data were analysed using content analysis. Thirty components within Kitwood's model have been identified. A conceptual framework of subjective well-being in dementia was developed based on a theoretical background. The study was able to find indications that Kitwood's model has empirical relevance. Nevertheless, it requires to be extended by the domain agency. Furthermore, the study suggests that individuals with dementia are important informants of their subjective well-being. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Polo gastronómico Tomás Jofré

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina G. Schlüter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El turismo gastronómico está adquiriendo cada vez mayor importancia en el mundo, independientemente de si se trata de un país desarrollado o no. En Argentina este tipo de turismo cuenta con una larga tradición, en particular referida al enoturismo que se refleja en la Fiesta Nacional de la Vendimia que se lleva a cabo desde 1936 en la provincia de Mendoza. Hacia fines del siglo XX un plan nacional de turismo hace referencias explícitas a las rutas alimentarias y a partir de allí, desde el sector privado, surgen iniciativas para desarrollar destinos en función de su gastronomía. Una de estas iniciativas se relaciona con la transformación de un pequeño pueblo en un polo gastronómico de gran atracción. En este artículo se presentan los resultados de un estudio que se hizo en el mismo para determinar el perfil de los visitantes y las motivaciones que tienen las personas para desplazarse hacia Tomás Jofré los días domingos.

  2. Averroes y Tomás de Aquino sobre el concepto de ciencia natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lértora Mendoza, Celina Ana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Al comienzo del libro I de la Physica, Aristóteles plantea la pregunta por la materia y el sujeto de la ciencia natural. Esta cuestión se refiere al concepto de la ciencia cuya indagación inicia. La ciencia natural (philosophia naturalis ha sido en lo sucesivo objeto de indagaciones específicas, sobre todo en función del comentario al original aristotélico. Averroes1 dedica al tema un conciso y a la vez comprehensivo Proemio. Tomás de Aquino,2 en cambio, y al contrario de otros casos, omite un proemio metodológico, si bien el tema en sí se desarrolla al hilo del comentario del texto del Libro I. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las aproximaciones y las diferencias entre la lección I del Comentario al Libro I del Aquinate (donde trata el método de la philosophia naturalis y la exégesis de Averroes en su Proemio y la Summa Prima, a fin de establecer las relaciones entre ambos

  3. Intercomparison of preliminary MFR, SBUV, TOMS, and TOVS total ozone data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    The High Altitude Pollution Program of the Federal Aviation Administration is sponsoring a comparative study of total ozone data derived from various satellite instruments. The instruments included in the study are the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Multichannel Filter Radiometer (MFR), the NASA Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Ozone Experiment (SBUV), the NASA Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), and the NOAA Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS). The two periods chosen for data intercomparison are January 1 - February 15, 1979 and June 1-30, 1979. These two data periods cover summer and winter regimes in both hemispheres. The January 1 - February 15, 1979 period includes a significant stratospheric warming event that began about January 15. Each of the satellite instruments has its own strengths and weaknesses. No instrument is universally better than or worse than any other in terms of accuracy, although they appear to have definite biases in certain geographical areas. The differences between the satellite systems is greatest at high latitudes where cloudiness and ozone variabilities are greatest. The Dobson data show a bias and differing degrees of ozone variability between nearby Dobson stations, which indicates there may be problems with using the Dobson data as a standard for comparison. The data used in this comparative study are preliminary in nature

  4. Some assembly required: Contributions of Tom Stevens' lab to the V-ATPase field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Laurie A; Finnigan, Gregory C; Kane, Patricia M

    2018-06-01

    Tom Stevens' lab has explored the subunit composition and assembly of the yeast V-ATPase for more than 30 years. Early studies helped establish yeast as the predominant model system for study of V-ATPase proton pumps and led to the discovery of protein splicing of the V-ATPase catalytic subunit. The Vma - phenotype, characteristic of loss-of-V-ATPase activity in yeast was key in determining the enzyme's subunit composition via yeast genetics. V-ATPase subunit composition proved to be highly conserved among eukaryotes. Genetic screens for new vma mutants led to identification of a set of dedicated V-ATPase assembly factors and helped unravel the complex pathways for V-ATPase assembly. In later years, exploration of the evolutionary history of several V-ATPase subunits provided new information about the enzyme's structure and function. This review highlights V-ATPase work in the Stevens' lab between 1987 and 2017. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. India and England in the Mirror. A Post-imperial Portrait of Tom Stoppard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Esposito

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on a sophisticated radio play by Tom Stoppard, In the Native State (1991, in which the dramatist approaches the problems linked to the ethics of the British Empire in dealing with Indian culture in both the colonial and post-colonial periods. To do this, the play confronts and complexly interlaces two different sets, India in the Thirties and London in 1990, as if they were two worlds reflecting themselves in a time mirror. The issues dealt with, such as the centuries-old westernization of the Indian minds and culture on one side, and the Indianization of British language and customs on the other, are subtlety treated in art terms, as the reciprocal relationship between the two worlds conflates in the hybrid style of the portraits executed by the hand of an Indian painter who, notwithstanding, or thanks to, his mimic identity (in Homi Bhabha’s terms, becomes the mouthpiece of a fundamental ‘change of perspective’, from the Eurocentric representation of the Orient (in Edward Said’s terms to the re-appropriation of a different point of view translating the achievement of the Nationalist movement that led India to independence in the Forties.

  6. Tom McCarthy, Karl Marx, and the Money on the Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Huber

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available By way of contrast to recent work on the problematic of representation of capital and its prioritized aesthetic mode, visuality, this article addresses the problematic of mediation in financialized capitalism through an attention to the relationship between writing and contemporary money forms. To elaborate this problematic, mediation is deployed methodologically as well: selections from two bodies of work concerned with capitalist monetary phenomena—those of Karl Marx and the novelist Tom McCarthy—are analyzed in parallel. McCarthy’s 'oeuvre' is presented as preoccupied with monetary-inscriptive techniques and pockmarked by Marxian concepts and concerns. It is argued that 'Remainder', specifically, can be read as theorizing the relationship between money and writing under early 21st-century regimes of finance capital through its elaboration of retail loyalty accounts and the multivalent concept of ‘remainder’ or ‘surplus’. The article reads this theorization against neglected sections of Marx’s second volume of 'Capital' in which money is enigmatically treated from the perspective of bookkeeping.

  7. La libertad humana como valor primordial en Tomás de Aquino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Lorenz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Me he propuesto en este artículo acercarme a la relación que existe en Tomás de Aquino entre el concepto de persona, libertad y felicidad, teniendo presente que, en este autor, aquel que es llamado a pensar su felicidad y sus deseos, no es el hombre en abstracto, como se tiende a pensar, sino este hombre (hoc aliquid de frente y en relación a la naturaleza de la cual forma parte, frente a otros hombres con quienes convive, y frente al fin último que lo ayuda a orientarseIn this article, the author attempts to disclose the relationship between the concepts of person, liberty and happiness in Thomas Aquinas thought. To do so, the author emphasizes the point that in Aquinas' work Man is not an abstraction, as it is usually thought, but a real Man who is called to think of his happiness and desires. This man (hoc aliquid is the one who faces and relates to nature, of which he is part of, the one who faces other men he lives with, and the one who faces the ultimate end, which helps him find his orientation

  8. Analysis of cohesive devices in a short text: 'Whiskey. No water. No ice.' by Tom Hart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Anita V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was two-fold. Primarily, based on literature review, it presented various takes on what constitutes a text and what makes it cohesive. Secondly, it reported the results of the cohesion analysis performed on a short drama by Tom Hart. This drama was written as a submission for the London Royal Court Theatre competition '100 Word Play'. The author used the model of analysis of a dramatic dialogue proposed by Halliday and Hassan. The dramatic dialogue here is characterized as a speaking text, for the stage; therefore, the stage directions were excluded from the analysis as para-linguistic phenomena. The results of the analysis revealed immediate ellipsis of anaphoric direction as the most common cohesive device in 47 percent of the text. Second in frequency are referencing mechanisms, and finally lexical devices and connectors. Furthermore, the analysis exposed the use of reiteration, both lexical and structural, which is not predicted by the model. However, these instances were explained by Hoey's model of lexical repetition. The thematic progression in the text is linear which is characteristic of dialogues. The analysis noted no usage of substitution nor parallelism, which is in itself indicative of the set hypothesis because parallelisms are characteristic of poetry and political discourse.

  9. Língua Gestual de São Tomé e Príncipe : retrato dos primeiros gestos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mineiro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to portray the genesis of São Tomé and Príncipe Sign Language. At the request of the Government of São Tomé and Principe (Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, Cell Special Education, the Portuguese Catholic University together with the Marquês of Valle Flôr Institute and Hospital CUF Infante Santo collaborated on a common project: to implement a Sign Language for the deaf Santomean. This project, funded by the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, was given the name of Without Barriers. The paper is structured in two parts: the first part, which describes, in summary, the main lines of action of the project, the participants enrolled in the project and the methodology used and the second part that analyzes the emergence of the first signs, using sometimes, comparison with other emerging languages.

  10. Gastronomía y turismo en Argentina. Polo gastronómico Tomás Jofré

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlüter, Regina G.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Culinary Tourism in Argentina. The Case of Tomás Jofré. The importance of culinary tourism is growing steadily both in developing and industrialized societies. Argentina has a long tradition regarding this kind of tourism, mainly wine tourism, reflected in the National Wine Festival held since 1936 en the province of Mendoza. By the end of the 20th century culinary tourism was brought into the national tourism plan and it was the start for the private sector to develop own initiatives in order to develop small towns into culinary attractions for visitors. This article presents the results of a study undertaken in order to get acquainted with the visitor profile and motivations for visitors to Tomás Jofré during Sun-days.

  11. ‘My country’s heart is in the market place’: Tom Stannage interviewed by Peter Read

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Shellam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tom Stannage was one among many historians in the 1970s uncovering histories of Australia which were to challenge national narratives and community memories. In 1971, Tom returned to Western Australia after writing his PhD in Cambridge with the passion to write urban history and an understanding that in order to do so, he needed an emotional engagement with place. What he had yet to realize was the power of community memories in Western Australia to shape and preserve ideas about their place. As part of his research on the history of Perth, Tom saw how the written histories of Western Australia had been shaped by community mythologies – in particular that of the rural pioneer. He identified the consensus or ‘gentry tradition’ in Western Australian writing. In teasing out histories of conflict, he showed how the gentry tradition of rural pioneer histories silenced those of race and gender relations, convictism and poverty which were found in both rural and urban areas. His versions of history began to unsettle parts of the Perth community who found the ‘pioneer myth’ framed their consensus world-view and whose families were themselves the living links to these ‘pioneers’.

  12. Magnetic nanostructures: radioactive probes and recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prandolini, M J

    2006-01-01

    The miniaturization of magnetic sensors and storage devices down to the nano-scale leads to drastic changes in magnetic phenomena compared with the same devices with a larger size. Excited-nuclear-probe (radioactive probe) techniques are ideal for investigating these new magnetic nanostructures. By observing the magnetic hyperfine fields (and in some cases the electric-field-gradients (EFGs)) at the nuclei of radioactive probes, microscopic information about the magnetic environment of the probes is acquired. The magnetic hyperfine field is particularly sensitive to the s-spin polarization of the conduction electrons and to the orbital magnetic moment of the probe atom. Three methods of inserting radioactive probes into magnetic nanostructures are presented; neutron activation, recoil implantation and 'soft-landing', followed by descriptions of their application to selected examples. In some cases, these methods offer the simultaneous creation and observation of new magnetic materials at the atomic scale. This review focuses firstly on the induced magnetism in noble-metal spacer layers between either ferromagnetic (FM) or FM/antiferromagnetic (AFM) layers in a trilayer structure. Using the method of low-temperature nuclear orientation, the s-spin polarization of noble-metal probes was measured and was found to be very sensitive to the magnetic properties at both the FM and AFM interfaces. Secondly, the recoil implantation of radioactive Fe probes into rare-earth hosts and d-band alloys and subsequent measurement using time-differential perturbed angular distribution offer the possibility of controlling the chemical composition and number of nearest-neighbours. This method was used to prepare local 3d-magnetic clusters in a non-magnetic matrix and to observe their magnetic behaviour. Finally, non-magnetic radioactive probes were 'soft-landed' onto Ni surfaces and extremely lattice-expanded ultrathin Ni films. By measuring the magnetic hyperfine fields and EFGs at

  13. Race Matters… Still. Rezension zu Tom Angotti und Sylvia Morse (Hg. (2016: Zoned Out! Race, Displacement, and City Planning in New York City. New York City: Terreform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuca Meubrink

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In ihrem Sammelband Zoned Out! identifizieren Tom Angotti und Sylvia Morse zoning als eines der Planungsinstrumente, welches die historischen Muster ethnischer Diskriminierung und Segregation in New York bis heute immer wieder reproduziert hat. [...

  14. TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Aerosol Index UV-Reflectivity UV-B Erythemal Irradiances Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version 8 Daily Gridded Data consist of daily, global coverage of total column ozone, aerosol index, Lambertian effective...

  15. THIR/Nimbus-7 Level 1 Cloud Data for SBUV/TOMS V001 (THIRN7L1BCLT) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — THIRN7L1BCLT is the Nimbus-7 Temperature-Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) Level 1 Cloud Data for SBUV/TOMS (BCLT) product and contains total cloud amounts;...

  16. OMI/Aura TOMS-Like Ozone and Radiative Cloud Fraction Daily L3 Global 0.25x0.25 deg V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Version-003 of Level-3 Aura/OMI daily global TOMS-Like Total Column Ozone gridded product (OMTO3e) is generated by the NASA OMI science team by picking the best...

  17. Probe tests microweld strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Probe is developed to test strength of soldered, brazed or microwelded joints. It consists of a spring which may be adjusted to the desired test pressure by means of a threaded probe head, and an indicator lamp. Device may be used for electronic equipment testing.

  18. Teenage pregnancy - a study in São Tomé and Príncipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fábia; Medeiros, Inês de; Faria, Catarina; Cotu, Djamilla; Will, Endza Paula; Neves, Edgar; Pontes, Teresa

    2017-08-22

    Introduction The increasing number of pregnant teenagers in São Tomé and Príncipe (STP) represents a serious public health issue. The aim of this study was to characterize the population of pregnant adolescents followed in a health facility dedicated to maternal health in STP. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant teenagers that attended the Mother and Child Protection Center during the first quarter of 2017. The survey contained questions on sociodemographic characteristics, sexual and risk behaviors, family, partners and health support. Results The mean age of the 51 pregnant teenagers included was 16.37 ± 0.8 years. Eight girls reported that they had planned to fall pregnant. Teenagers whose pregnancy was unplanned usually present with a previous family history of adolescent pregnancy. About 59% of girls engaged in sexual activity before 16 years of age with a mean number of sexual partners of 1.84 ± 0.88. In this study, 51% of the girls do not use any contraceptive method, usually because their partner refuses to do so. The preferred contraceptive method are condoms. Information on contraception is given mainly at school. Pregnant girls' first medical consultation was at a mean gestational age of 6 weeks. Abortion was considered by 51% of girls after pregnancy was confirmed. Conclusion Teenage pregnancy imposes health problems for the mother and child and contributes to educational and socioeconomic disadvantages. The collaboration of healthcare providers, teachers and parents is needed to enhance sexual health education. This is the first study in STP on teenage pregnancy; although the sample is small, the authors believe that the results are representative of the general population.

  19. The Former Miss Barstow with every Tom, Dick and Harry in a doll's house

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Newton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Julie Holledge, panel chairperson and member of the International Ibsen Committee, invited myself along with 3 others to participate in the Inaugural Artists’ Keynote Panel: Applied Ibsen on Four Continents: The Artists’ Intentions. My presentation focused on “The Former Miss Barstow with every Tom, Dick and Harry in a doll’s house.” This was an adaptation of Ibsen’s “A Doll’s House” produced and staged in Los Angeles, California, 1987.  For the XIIIth International Ibsen Conference at the University of Tromsø, Norway, I projected images; a few found on the internet, and many from the production itself, as well as a video clip shown streaming live from YouTube. The article describes the social context of the 80s, analyzes the reinterpretation of Ibsen’s characters, and sets out to explain the symbology of the sets and costumes. I also touch on the differences between this production and Ibsen’s original in four important aspects. These would be the macaroons, the Tarantella, the silk stockings and the end of the play. Finally, I explain my decision to upload this version of “A Doll’s House,’ scene by scene, to my page on YouTube. Having shown films and videos for many years at festivals around the globe, I was looking for a way to step outside that box and reach an international audience just beyond my keyboard. In all of these ways, the goal has been to illuminate the ways in which an artist takes Ibsen’s text and applies it to the specific social context of their time and culture.

  20. Ecologization of water-land property matters on the territory of the Tom lower course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, V. K.; Kozina, M. V.; Levak, Yu Yu; Shvagrukova, E. V.

    2016-03-01

    In the present paper the water-land property complex is considered as a strategic resource of the city development. The formulated question is expounded through the example of water-land property complex usage on the territory of the Tom lower course for land-use planning and developing the systems of water recourses management and land tenure. Consequences of liquid radioactive waste (LRW) landfilling are investigated in terms of arable farming. Also, forming a water budget of the soils spread on the area of the Tomsk underground water supply cone of depression and its role in the development of agricultural industry are studied. The main aspect of the analysis is the incorporation of social, economic, and ecological requirements for the system of life-supporting branches of municipal economy and social services. As far as the system of land tax payments plays an important role in land property complex management, the common issues and tendencies are specified in the paper. These problems are concerned with the inadequate incorporation of an ecological constituent in the methods of cadastral valuation of lands, as well as the situation of the narrow area of its results usage in the Russian Federation. Natural factors (hydrological, territorial, geological (geomorphologic) territory conditions) are combined by the authors into a special group. These factors should be reflected in the results of cadastral valuation. Also, in order to protect the interests of water consumers, it is offered to establish the Water Consumers Association based on the international experience of such countries as Spain and Uzbekistan.

  1. Metabolite profile of the tomato dwarf cultivar Micro-Tom and comparative response to saline and nutritional stresses with regard to a commercial cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Pilar; Hernández, Virginia; Hellín, Pilar; Fenoll, Jose; Cava, Juana; Mestre, Teresa; Martínez, Vicente

    2016-03-30

    The dwarf tomato variety Micro-Tom has been used as a plant model for studies of plant development. However, its response to environmental and agricultural factors has not been well studied. This work studies the phytochemical content of Micro-Tom tomato and its comparative response to saline and nutritional (N, K and Ca) stresses with regard to a commercial variety. The chromatographic profiles of Micro-Tom were similar to those of the commercial variety and the only differences appear to be the concentration of the components. In Micro-Tom, the concentrations of sugars and organic acids increased by salinity in a lesser extent than in Optima. Moreover, contrary to that observed in the commercial variety, phenolic compounds and vitamin C did not increase by salinity in the dwarf variety. However, both varieties increased similarly the concentrations of carotenoids under saline conditions. Finally, fruit yield and most primary and secondary metabolite concentrations in Micro-Tom were not affected by N, K or Ca limitation. The mutations leading to the dwarf phenotype did not greatly alter the metabolite profiles but studies using Micro-Tom as a plant model should consider the lower capacity for sugars and organic acids under saline conditions and the greater tolerance to nutrient limitation of the dwarf variety. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Scientific Value of a Saturn Atmospheric Probe Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Miller, A. A.; Lunine, J. I.; Atreya, S. K.; Spilker, T. R.; Coustenis, A.; Atkinson, D. H.

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric entry probe mISSions to the giant planets can uniquely discriminate between competing theories of solar system formation and the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres. This provides for important comparative studies of the gas and ice giants, and to provide a laboratory for studying the atmospheric chemistries, dynamics, and interiors of all the planets including Earth. The giant planets also represent a valuable link to extrasolar planetary systems. As outlined in the recent Planetary Decadal Survey, a Saturn Probe mission - with a shallow probe - ranks as a high priority for a New Frontiers class mission [1].

  3. J. W. Goethe - poet engaged in Earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The famous German poet Johann Wolfgang Goethe (1749 - 1832) was a man of an outstanding interest for the Earth sciences. In the Czech geological dictionary his own biography remembers his frequent visits to the famous West Bohemian health resorts. In this region he was focusing his attention to the geological history, petrography and mineralogy, genesis of mineral water springs etc. Some of his studies were published. His geological points of view were not always correct (as seen from a recent knowledge) but his efforts to deepen studies of this territory cannot be forgotten. - In his rich correspondence with the count Kaspar Maria Sternberg (1761 - 1838) - founder of the (nowadays) National Museum in Prague - the author of this article has recently discovered in the Prague archives a letter written just one week before the death of the poet. It is a confession of his deep relation especially to the region if West Bohemia where he found lot of enjoyment and new knowledge in the course of numerous visits and stays. - Goethe had the largest private collection of minerals in all of Europe (17800 rock samples). A mineral goethite has been named after him. - The Czech composer Václav Jan Tomášek (1774 - 1850) describing his visit paid to Goethe in Cheb (Eger) in 1822 remembers also mineralogical interest of the poet and his excursions to the region for collecting local minerals. The main reason for personal contact in this case was the art (Tomášek composed songs using Goethe's poems). But Tomášek described also his frequent talks on science with the famous Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1779 - 1848) in Karlsbad (1822). From other sources a common stay of Berzelius, Goethe and Sternberg in Marienbad (also 1822) is reported.

  4. Geo-neutrinos and earth's interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorentini, Gianni; Lissia, Marcello; Mantovani, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    The deepest hole that has ever been dug is about 12 km deep. Geochemists analyze samples from the Earth's crust and from the top of the mantle. Seismology can reconstruct the density profile throughout all Earth, but not its composition. In this respect, our planet is mainly unexplored. Geo-neutrinos, the antineutrinos from the progenies of U, Th and 40 K decays in the Earth, bring to the surface information from the whole planet, concerning its content of natural radioactive elements. Their detection can shed light on the sources of the terrestrial heat flow, on the present composition, and on the origins of the Earth. Geo-neutrinos represent a new probe of our planet, which can be exploited as a consequence of two fundamental advances that occurred in the last few years: the development of extremely low background neutrino detectors and the progress on understanding neutrino propagation. We review the status and the prospects of the field

  5. CO{sub 2} geothermal heat probe - Phase 2; CO{sub 2}-Erdwaermesonde - Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grueniger, A.; Wellig, B.

    2009-12-15

    In this project the fluid dynamics and thermodynamics inside a CO{sub 2} geothermal heat probe have been investigated. The functionality of such a probe, which works like a thermosyphon, was analyzed by means of a simulation model in MATLAB. The model couples the behaviour inside the heat probe with the heat conduction in the earth. A parameter study revealed that the self-circulation character of such a probe leads to flattening of the vertical earth temperature profile near the probe and, hence, leads to more uniform heat removal along the probe. The circulation of CO{sub 2} even goes on when the heat pump is off. This might be advantageous for the regeneration phase. The heat transfer resistance of the evaporating CO{sub 2} film flowing down the probe wall is very small compared to the conduction resistance of the earth. Therefore, no difference has been found between the performances of a conventional heat pipe and a configuration where the liquid phase injection is distributed on different height stages along the probe. It is estimated that the seasonal performance factor of heat pumps can be improved by 15-25% with a CO{sub 2} geothermal heat probe. The main advantage is that the heat transfer to the evaporator of the heat pump (condensation of CO{sub 2} / evaporation of refrigerant) is much more efficient than in a conventional brine probe without phase change. Furthermore, no circulation pump is needed. (authors)

  6. Hard probes 2006 Asilomar

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "The second international conference on hard and electromagnetic probes of high-energy nuclear collisions was held June 9 to 16, 2006 at the Asilomar Conference grounds in Pacific Grove, California" (photo and 1/2 page)

  7. Neutrons as a probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizumi, Masashi

    1993-01-01

    As an introduction to the symposium a brief overview will be given about the features of neutrons as a probe. First it will be pointed out that the utilization of neutrons as a probe for investigating the structural and dynamical properties of condensed matters is a benign gift eventuated from the release of atomic energy initiated by Enrico Fermi exactly half century ago. Features of neutrons as a probe are discussed in accordance with the four basic physical properties of neutrons as an elementary particle; (1) no electric charge (the interaction with matter is nuclear), (2) the mass of neutron is 1 amu, (3) spin is 1/2 and (4) neutrons have magnetic dipole moment. Overview will be given on the uniqueness of neutrons as a probe and on the variety in the way they are used in the wide research area from the pure science to the industrial applications. (author)

  8. Adjustable Pitot Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Robbins, W. Eugene; Horsley, Lewis A.

    1991-01-01

    Probe readily positionable in core of uniform flow in hypersonic wind tunnel. Formed of pair of mating cylindrical housings: transducer housing and pitot-tube housing. Pitot tube supported by adjustable wedge fairing attached to top of pitot-tube housing with semicircular foot. Probe adjusted both radially and circumferentially. In addition, pressure-sensing transducer cooled internally by water or other cooling fluid passing through annulus of cooling system.

  9. Physico-chemical and sensory characterization of fruit jams of S. Tomé and Príncipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Ramalhosa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: São Tomé and Príncipe has a wide variety of fruit trees, being most of the fruits consumed in fresh. In certain periods of the year, fruits are available at significant amounts; however, it is not common to use the surplus of those fruits. Thus, this excess may be used in the preparation of other fruit based products (ex. jams, in order to increase product diversity and allow the annual consumption of these seasonal fruits. Objetives: Valorise fruits’ production in S. Tomé and Príncipe. Methods: Preparation of jams of banana, ambarella, guava (dark and light and papaya, with two levels of sugar, and perform their physico-chemical characterization (color, pH, moisture and acidity. Furthermore, sensory analysis was also done, through preference and acceptability tests. Results: The jams prepared had different colours, acidity values, and moisture and ash contents, demonstrating the possibility of producing different products by changing the formulation. Regarding jams preference, 60% of the consumers preferred the less sweet in the case of banana and guava (light, whereas, over 67% of the panellists preferred the sweetest ambarella jam. Concerning dark guava and papaya, the percentages were similar for both sugar contents. For all attributes analysed (appearance, colour, taste, acidity, sweetness and global evaluation, most of the panellists liked slightly all jams. Conclusion: Jams production in S. Tomé and Príncipe may be a promising activity.

  10. The TOMS V9 Algorithm for OMPS Nadir Mapper Total Ozone: An Enhanced Design That Ensures Data Continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, D. P.; McPeters, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K.; Labow, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    The TOMS V9 total ozone algorithm will be applied to the OMPS Nadir Mapper instrument to supersede the exisiting V8.6 data product in operational processing and re-processing for public release. Becuase the quality of the V8.6 data is already quite high, enchancements in V9 are mainly with information provided by the retrieval and simplifcations to the algorithm. The design of the V9 algorithm has been influenced by improvements both in our knowledge of atmospheric effects, such as those of clouds made possible by studies with OMI, and also limitations in the V8 algorithms applied to both OMI and OMPS. But the namesake instruments of the TOMS algorithm are substantially more limited in their spectral and noise characterisitics, and a requirement of our algorithm is to also apply the algorithm to these discrete band spectrometers which date back to 1978. To achieve continuity for all these instruments, the TOMS V9 algorithm continues to use radiances in discrete bands, but now uses Rodgers optimal estimation to retrieve a coarse profile and provide uncertainties for each retrieval. The algorithm remains capable of achieving high accuracy results with a small number of discrete wavelengths, and in extreme cases, such as unusual profile shapes and high solar zenith angles, the quality of the retrievals is improved. Despite the intended design to use limited wavlenegths, the algorithm can also utilitze additional wavelengths from hyperspectral sensors like OMPS to augment the retreival's error detection and information content; for example SO2 detection and correction of Ring effect on atmospheric radiances. We discuss these and other aspects of the V9 algorithm as it will be applied to OMPS, and will mention potential improvements which aim to take advantage of a synergy with OMPS Limb Profiler and Nadir Mapper to further improve the quality of total ozone from the OMPS instrument.

  11. Strong enhancement of Penning ionization for asymmetric atom pairs in cold Rydberg gases: the Tom and Jerry effect

    KAUST Repository

    Efimov, D K

    2016-05-18

    We consider Penning ionization of Rydberg atom pairs as an Auger-type process induced by the dipole-dipole interaction and employ semiclassical formulae for dipole transitions to calculate the autoionization width as a function of the principal quantum numbers, n d, n i, of both atoms. While for symmetric atom pairs with the well-known increase of the autoionization width with increasing n 0 is obtained, the result for asymmetric pairs is counterintuitive - for a fixed n i of the ionizing atom of the pair, the autoionization width strongly increases with decreasing n d of the de-excited atom. For H Rydberg atoms this increase reaches two orders of magnitude at the maximum of the n d dependence, and the same type of counterintuitive behavior is exhibited also by Na, Rb and Cs atoms. This is a purely quantum-mechanical effect, which points towards existence of optimal (we call them \\'Tom\\' and \\'Jerry\\' for \\'big\\' and \\'small\\') pairs of Rydberg atoms with respect to autoionization efficiency. Building on the model of population redistribution in cold Rydberg gases proposed in [1], we demonstrate that population evolution following the initial laser excitation of Rydberg atoms in state n 0 would eventually lead to the formation of such Tom-Jerry pairs with which feature autoionization widths that are enhanced by several orders of magnitude compared to that of two atoms in the initial laser-excited state n 0. We also show that in the high-density regime of cold Rydberg gas experiments the ionization rate of Tom-Jerry pairs can be substantially larger than the blackbody radiation-induced photoionization rate. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  12. Semen quality and interval to sterility in tom cats treated with a 9.4 mg deslorelin implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Stefano; Baldan, Anna; Righetti, Camilla; Milani, Chiara; Mollo, Antonio; Stelletta, Calogero

    2017-02-01

    Objectives Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists like deslorelin are being increasingly used in tom cats for their efficacy in controlling reproductive behaviour and fertility. Deslorelin implants have been widely available in Europe since 2008. Little, if anything, is known about the interval between treatment and onset of sterility, as well as semen quality, after treatment in tom cats. The purpose of this study was to investigate semen quality and interval to sterility in tom cats treated with a 9.4 mg deslorelin implant. Methods Fifteen healthy adult tom cats were treated with a 9.4 mg deslorelin implant (Suprelorin 12). For each cat, semen collection and a GnRH stimulation test (intramuscular administration of 50 μg gonadorelin [Fertagyl], followed by blood sampling 1 h later, to assay serum testosterone) were performed on the first consultation and then repeated every 15 days until complete sterility was achieved. Semen collection was performed by introducing a 14 cm, open-end feline catheter (Argyle) 9 cm into the distal urethra 10 mins after sedation by intramuscular injection of 100 μg/kg medetomidine (Domitor). Results Semen collection was not successful in all cats at each attempt. In the first month after treatment, the semen of only four cats could be evaluated, while the semen of eight cats could be evaluated during the second and third months of the study. Semen quality (ejaculate volume, progressive motility and morphological abnormalities) improved slightly during the first 19-25 days in 2/4 cats, and in 1/4 cats motility was still very high (80%) 25 days post-treatment (PT), but we have no data regarding fertility prior to treatment in this cat. The last cat never produced spermatozoa. Subsequently, semen quality gradually worsened in all cats from 30 days onwards. At 70 days PT, one cat was still potentially fertile. After 72 days all cats were sterile. Conclusions and relevance Semen quality increased slightly in treated cats during

  13. Recuperación del borde costero, la transformación de una ciudad. Tomé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Moraga Mansoulet

    2007-11-01

    Desde la visión de una ciudad industrial y textil; declarada en 1958, Puerto Mayor, para el comercio e intercambio con el extranjero, a la decadencia de este mismo puerto, producto de la llegada de ferrocarriles, y el cambio paulatino de rol de la ciudad, es que actualmente Tomé se puede definir como una ciudad en proceso de transformación y transición, dejando atrás su histórico pasado, para transformarse en una ciudad enfocada principalmente al desarrollo de turismo, como objetivo principal, de acuerdo a las necesidades de los tiempos que hoy transcurren.

  14. Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Figueiredo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A catalogue of the flowering plants of the islands of São Tomé and Príncipe (Gulf of Guinea is presented. Flowering plant diversity figures are updated to: 135 families (20 introduced, 624 genera (172 introduced, 1 104 species (301 introduced plus 15 additional infraspecific taxa. At present 119 taxa (107 species and 12 infraspecific taxa are known to be endemic to the two islands. The catalogue includes accepted names, synonyms used in recent literature, common names, voucher specimens and information on habit and habitat and on plant uses, particularly medicinally.

  15. Cruzando fronteras nacionales: hacia una cartografía del ensayismo de Tomás Segovia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houvenaghel, E.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    El poeta y ensayista hispanomexicano Tomás Segovia (Valencia 1927 – México 2011) vivió entre diferentes mundos: es de origen español y se exilió primero a Francia y después a a México, país en el que residió durante más de cuatro décadas, antes de regresar a Francia y España en 1985. Con el fin de

  16. Earth mortars and earth-lime renders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth surface coatings play a decorative architectural role, apart from their function as wall protection. In Portuguese vernacular architecture, earth mortars were usually applied on stone masonry, while earth renders and plasters were used on indoors surface coatings. Limestone exists only in certain areas of the country and consequently lime was not easily available everywhere, especially on granite and schist regions where stone masonry was a current building technique. In the central west coast of Portugal, the lime slaking procedure entailed slaking the quicklime mixed with earth (sandy soil, in a pit; the resulting mixture would then be combined in a mortar or plaster. This was also the procedure for manufactured adobes stabilized with lime. Adobe buildings with earth-lime renderings and plasters were also traditional in the same region, using lime putty and lime wash for final coat and decoration. Classic decoration on earth architecture from the 18th-19th century was in many countries a consequence of the François Cointeraux (1740-1830 manuals - Les Cahiers d'Architecture Rurale" (1793 - a French guide for earth architecture and building construction. This manual arrived to Portugal in the beginning of XIX century, but was never translated to Portuguese. References about decoration for earth houses were explained on this manual, as well as procedures about earth-lime renders and ornamentation of earth walls; in fact, these procedures are exactly the same as the ones used in adobe buildings in this Portuguese region. The specific purpose of the present paper is to show some cases of earth mortars, renders and plasters on stone buildings in Portugal and to explain the methods of producing earth-lime renders, and also to show some examples of rendering and coating with earth-lime in Portuguese adobe vernacular architecture.

  17. Why Earth Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

  18. Pico Reentry Probes: Affordable Options for Reentry Measurements and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailor, William H.; Kapoor, Vinod B.; Allen, Gay A., Jr.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Arnold, James O.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    It is generally very costly to perform in-space and atmospheric entry experiments. This paper presents a new platform - the Pico Reentry Probe (PREP) - that we believe will make targeted flight-tests and planetary atmospheric probe science missions considerably more affordable. Small, lightweight, self-contained, it is designed as a "launch and forget" system, suitable for experiments that require no ongoing communication with the ground. It contains a data recorder, battery, transmitter, and user-customized instrumentation. Data recorded during reentry or space operations is returned at end-of-mission via transmission to Iridium satellites (in the case of earth-based operations) or a similar orbiting communication system for planetary missions. This paper discusses possible applications of this concept for Earth and Martian atmospheric entry science. Two well-known heritage aerodynamic shapes are considered as candidates for PREP: the shape developed for the Planetary Atmospheric Experiment Test (PAET) and that for the Deep Space II Mars Probe.

  19. Image Processing in Optical Guidance for Autonomous Landing of Lunar Probe

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Ding; Yun-feng, Cao; Qing-xian, Wu; Zhen, Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Because of the communication delay between earth and moon, the GNC technology of lunar probe is becoming more important than ever. Current navigation technology is not able to provide precise motion estimation for probe landing control system Computer vision offers a new approach to solve this problem. In this paper, author introduces an image process algorithm of computer vision navigation for autonomous landing of lunar probe. The purpose of the algorithm is to detect and track feature poin...

  20. Model for resonant plasma probe.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Hebner, Gregory Albert; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Coats, Rebecca Sue

    2007-04-01

    This report constructs simple circuit models for a hairpin shaped resonant plasma probe. Effects of the plasma sheath region surrounding the wires making up the probe are determined. Electromagnetic simulations of the probe are compared to the circuit model results. The perturbing effects of the disc cavity in which the probe operates are also found.

  1. Convective heat flow probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  2. Expectations for neutrons as microscopic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date, M.

    1993-01-01

    Neutrons have been used as microscopic probes to study structural and dynamical properties of various materials. In this paper I shall give a comparative study of the neutron research in the condensed matter physics with other typical microscopic methods such as X-rays, laser optics, magnetic resonances, Moessbauer effect and μSR. It is emphasized that the neutron study will extensively be important in future beyond the condensed matter physics. Chemistry, biology, earth sciences, material engineerings and medical sciences will become new frontiers for neutron study. (author)

  3. Theory of NMR probe design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnall, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    The NMR probe is the intrinsic part of the NMR system which allows transmission of a stimulus to a sample and the reception of a resulting signal from a sample. NMR probes are used in both imaging and spectroscopy. Optimal probe design is important to the production of adequate signal/moise. It is important for anyone using NMR techniques to understand how NMR probes work and how to optimize probe design

  4. TOM1L Is Involved in a Novel Signaling Pathway Important for the IL-2 Production in Jurkat T Cells Stimulated by CD3/CD28 CoLigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elmarghani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available TOM1L (target of Myb-1 Like was identified as a binding partner for the full length and catalytically-active Lck in a yeast 2-hybrid screening assay. Here we show that in Jurkat T cells stimulated by CD3/CD28 coligation where the expression of TOM1L is reduced by lenti virus mediated-siRNA results in a dramatically lower IL-2 production. The production of IL-2 in siRNA treated cells stimulated with PMA/ionomycin was not affected indicating an involvement of TOM1L in a pathway proximal of TCR and CD28. The coexpression of Fyn with TOM1L increased the level of the phosphorylated form of Fyn indicating that TOM1L has the ability to activate Fyn. The ability of TOM1L to activate Fyn was further shown in a kinase assay using angiotensin II as a substrate. By confocal microscopy, we show that the expression of TOM1L in non-treated HeLa and SK-N-SH cells colocalizes with the mitochondrial membrane but not with lysosomal compartments or the trans-Golgi network. Furthermore, we show that the over-expression of TOM1L in Jurkat cells causes an increase of the STAT3 expression . Based on our results, we here propose that TOM1L is involved in a novel signaling pathway that is important for the IL-2 production in T cells.

  5. Finishing broiler toms using an estradiol 17 beta implant together with a high energy-low protein final feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, E T; Etches, R J

    1983-06-01

    Wrolstad Small White toms were implanted with 10 mg of estradiol 17 beta monopalmitate (EMP) at 8 weeks of age. Common corn-soybean meal feeds were given through to 12 weeks, then one-half the birds from control and EMP groups received either an adequate (16% protein, 3166 kcal ME/kg) or high energy-low protein (HE-LP, 12%, 3373 kcal) feed to 14 weeks. No differences in weight gain and feed conversion occurred between EMP and control treatments at 12 weeks but at 14 weeks when the HE-LP diet had been fed the implanted birds performed better than controls. The HE-LP feed led to body weights and feed efficiencies below that of toms given adequate diet. In all cases, EMP elicited male secondary sex characteristics rather than feminization. Processing losses were increased with EMP and when the HE-LP feed had been given. Both treatments also improved finish assessment and were additive to the extent that a substantial increase in grade occurred. Effects on carcass composition, yield of commercial cuts, and cooking loss were small. Implantation, reduced meat yield percentage of breast and thigh. The increase in grade advantage from combining EMP with a feed that forced fat deposition more than compensated for the adverse effects.

  6. Mapping of Micro-Tom BAC-End Sequences to the Reference Tomato Genome Reveals Possible Genome Rearrangements and Polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamizu, Erika; Shirasawa, Kenta; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Yano, Kentaro; Ariizumi, Tohru; Shibata, Daisuke; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    A total of 93,682 BAC-end sequences (BESs) were generated from a dwarf model tomato, cv. Micro-Tom. After removing repetitive sequences, the BESs were similarity searched against the reference tomato genome of a standard cultivar, “Heinz 1706.” By referring to the “Heinz 1706” physical map and by eliminating redundant or nonsignificant hits, 28,804 “unique pair ends” and 8,263 “unique ends” were selected to construct hypothetical BAC contigs. The total physical length of the BAC contigs was 495, 833, 423 bp, covering 65.3% of the entire genome. The average coverage of euchromatin and heterochromatin was 58.9% and 67.3%, respectively. From this analysis, two possible genome rearrangements were identified: one in chromosome 2 (inversion) and the other in chromosome 3 (inversion and translocation). Polymorphisms (SNPs and Indels) between the two cultivars were identified from the BLAST alignments. As a result, 171,792 polymorphisms were mapped on 12 chromosomes. Among these, 30,930 polymorphisms were found in euchromatin (1 per 3,565 bp) and 140,862 were found in heterochromatin (1 per 2,737 bp). The average polymorphism density in the genome was 1 polymorphism per 2,886 bp. To facilitate the use of these data in Micro-Tom research, the BAC contig and polymorphism information are available in the TOMATOMICS database. PMID:23227037

  7. Orfandad, exilio y utopía en el pensamiento literario de Tomás Segovia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pascual Gay

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este texto pretende una aproximación al desarrollo de ciertas ideas centrales presentes en la obra de Tomás Segovia: exilio, orfandad y utopía. En el caso del exilio se hablará del que se corresponde con una noción más bien abstracta antes que la histórica concreta; el estado de orfandad como un exilio radical conculcado por el reconocimiento, y la utopía como un lugar posible de ser vivido desde el respeto por el otro, por el mero hecho de ser hombre. This text aims to an approach to the development of certain central ideas present in the work of Tomás Segovia: exile, orphanhood, and utopia. In the case of the exile will discuss which corresponds to a rather abstract notion rather than the historic concrete; the State of orphanhood as a radical exile violated by the recognition, and utopia as a possible place of living out of respect on the other, by the mere fact of being a man.

  8. Availability of Micro-Tom mutant library combined with TILLING in molecular breeding of tomato fruit shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Yoshihiro; Asamizu, Erika; Ariizumi, Tohru; Shirasawa, Kenta; Tabata, Satoshi; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    Novel mutant alleles of an ethylene receptor Solanum lycopersicum ETHYLENE RESPONSE1 (SlETR1) gene, Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2, were isolated from the Micro-Tom mutant library by TILLING in our previous study. They displayed different levels of impaired fruit ripening phenotype, suggesting that these alleles could be a valuable breeding material for improving shelf life of tomato fruit. To conduct practical use of the Sletr1 alleles in tomato breeding, genetic complementation analysis by transformation of genes carrying each allele is required. In this study, we generated and characterized transgenic lines over-expressing Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2. All transgenic lines displayed ethylene insensitive phenotype and ripening inhibition, indicating that Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2 associate with the ethylene insensitive phenotype. The level of ethylene sensitivity in the seedling was different between Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2 transgenic lines, whereas no apparent difference was observed in fruit ripening phenotype. These results suggested that it is difficult to fine-tune the extent of ripening by transgenic approach even if the weaker allele (Sletr1-2) was used. Our present and previous studies indicate that the Micro-Tom mutant library combined with TILLING could be an efficient tool for exploring genetic variations of important agronomic traits in tomato breeding.

  9. Availability of Micro-Tom mutant library combined with TILLING in molecular breeding of tomato fruit shelf-life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Yoshihiro; Asamizu, Erika; Ariizumi, Tohru; Shirasawa, Kenta; Tabata, Satoshi; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Novel mutant alleles of an ethylene receptor Solanum lycopersicum ETHYLENE RESPONSE1 (SlETR1) gene, Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2, were isolated from the Micro-Tom mutant library by TILLING in our previous study. They displayed different levels of impaired fruit ripening phenotype, suggesting that these alleles could be a valuable breeding material for improving shelf life of tomato fruit. To conduct practical use of the Sletr1 alleles in tomato breeding, genetic complementation analysis by transformation of genes carrying each allele is required. In this study, we generated and characterized transgenic lines over-expressing Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2. All transgenic lines displayed ethylene insensitive phenotype and ripening inhibition, indicating that Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2 associate with the ethylene insensitive phenotype. The level of ethylene sensitivity in the seedling was different between Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2 transgenic lines, whereas no apparent difference was observed in fruit ripening phenotype. These results suggested that it is difficult to fine-tune the extent of ripening by transgenic approach even if the weaker allele (Sletr1-2) was used. Our present and previous studies indicate that the Micro-Tom mutant library combined with TILLING could be an efficient tool for exploring genetic variations of important agronomic traits in tomato breeding. PMID:23136532

  10. The Gravity Probe B Flight Dewar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. This photograph is of the Gravity Probe B flight dewar, a metal container made like a vacuum bottle that is used especially for storing liquefied gases, that will maintain the experiment at a temperature just above absolute zero, staying cold for two years. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies -- technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched in 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center, development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Photo Credit: Lockheed Martin Corporation/R. Underwood)

  11. Artist's Concept of Gravity Probe-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies -- technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Scheduled for launch in 2003 and managed for NASA by Marshall Space Flight Center, development of GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation.

  12. Gravity Probe B Number 4 Gyro Inspected

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. In this photograph, Stanford engineer, Chris Gray, is inspecting the number 4 gyro under monochromatic light. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Stanford University.)

  13. Gravity Probe B Completed With Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is completed during the solar array installation. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  14. Miscellanea Herpetologica Sanctithomae, with a provisional checklist of the terrestrial herpetofauna of São Tomé, Príncipe and Annobon islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CerÍaco, Luis M P; Marques, Mariana P; Bauer, Aaron M

    2018-02-26

    Five problematic cases regarding the presence of reptile taxa on the island of São Tomé (Gulf of Guinea) are reviewed. These cases deal with 1) the past presence of crocodilians in the island, 2) the putative type locality of Dipsas pulverulenta Fischer, 1856, 3) the dubious presence of a mamba (genus Dendroaspis) on the island, 4) an erroneous reference to the presence of Gastropyxis smaragdina, and 5) two specimens (Psammophis lineatus and Psammophis elegans) from Carl Weiss collection, currently deposited in the Zoological Museum of Hamburg and wrongly labelled as being from São Tomé island. A provisional checklist to the terrestrial herpetofauna of the three oceanic islands of the Gulf of Guinea-São Tomé, Príncipe and Annobon-is presented in order to clarify the current numbers of the endemics of each island, as well as to review and present current research.

  15. The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juuti, Kalle

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the…

  16. Rare earth sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komissarova, L.N.; Shatskij, V.M.; Pokrovskij, A.N.; Chizhov, S.M.; Bal'kina, T.I.; Suponitskij, Yu.L.

    1986-01-01

    Results of experimental works on the study of synthesis conditions, structure and physico-chemical properties of rare earth, scandium and yttrium sulfates, have been generalized. Phase diagrams of solubility and fusibility, thermodynamic and crystallochemical characteristics, thermal stability of hydrates and anhydrous sulfates of rare earths, including normal, double (with cations of alkali and alkaline-earth metals), ternary and anion-mixed sulfates of rare earths, as well as their adducts, are considered. The state of ions of rare earths, scandium and yttrium in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions is discussed. Data on the use of rare earth sulfates are given

  17. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    Rare earth germanates attract close attention both as an independent class of compounds and analogues of a widely spread class of natural and synthetic minerals. The methods of rare earth germanate synthesis (solid-phase, hydrothermal) are considered. Systems on the basis of germanium and rare earth oxides, phase diagrams, phase transformations are studied. Using different chemical analysese the processes of rare earth germanate formation are investigated. IR spectra of alkali and rare earth metal germanates are presented, their comparative analysis being carried out. Crystal structures of the compounds, lattice parameters are studied. Fields of possible application of rare earth germanates are shown

  18. Effects of packaging materials on the aroma stability of Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder as determined by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelaphiwat, Pattarin; Harte, Janice B; Auras, Rafael A; Ong, Peter Kc; Chonhenchob, Vanee

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the aroma characteristics of Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder, containing lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf, as affected by different packaging materials were assessed using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The descriptive aroma attributes for lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf powders were developed by the QDA panel. The mixed herb and spice seasoning powder was kept in glass jars closed with different packaging materials (Nylon 6, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polylactic acid (PLA)) stored at 38 °C (accelerated storage condition), and evaluated by the trained QDA panel during storage for 49 days. The descriptive words for Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder developed by the trained panelists were lemongrass, vinegary and leafy for lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf dried powder, respectively. The aroma intensities significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased with increased storage time. However, the intensity scores for aroma attributes were not significantly (P > 0.05) different among the packaging materials studied. The major components in Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder, quantified by GC-MS, were estragole, bicyclo[3.1.1]heptane, β-bisabolene, benzoic acid and 2-ethylhexyl salicylate. The concentrations of major aroma compounds significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased with storage time. Aroma stability of Thai 'tom yam' powder can be determined by descriptive sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis. Nylon, PET and PLA exhibited similar aroma barrier properties against key aroma compounds in Thai 'tom yam'. This information can be used for prediction of aroma loss through packaging materials during storage of Thai 'tom yam'. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. NMR investigations of the dual targeting peptide of Thr-tRNA synthetase and its interaction with the mitochondrial Tom20 receptor in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Weihua; Spånning, Erika; Unnerståle, Sofia; Gotthold, David; Glaser, Elzbieta; Mäler, Lena

    2012-10-01

    Most mitochondrial proteins are synthesized in the cytosol as precursor proteins containing an N-terminal targeting peptide and are imported into mitochondria through the import machineries, the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) and the translocase of the inner mitochondrial membrane (TIM). The N-terminal targeting peptide of precursor proteins destined for the mitochondrial matrix is recognized by the Tom20 receptor and plays an important role in the import process. Protein import is usually organelle specific, but several plant proteins are dually targeted into mitochondria and chloroplasts using an ambiguous dual targeting peptide. We present NMR studies of the dual targeting peptide of Thr-tRNA synthetase and its interaction with Tom20 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our findings show that the targeting peptide is mostly unstructured in buffer, with a propensity to form α-helical structure in one region, S6-F27, and a very weak β-strand propensity for Q34-Q38. The α-helical structured region has an amphiphilic character and a φχχφφ motif, both of which have previously been shown to be important for mitochondrial import. Using NMR we have mapped out two regions in the peptide that are important for Tom20 recognition: one of them, F9-V28, overlaps with the amphiphilic region, and the other comprises residues L30-Q39. Our results show that the targeting peptide may interact with Tom20 in several ways. Furthermore, our results indicate a weak, dynamic interaction. The results provide for the first time molecular details on the interaction of the Tom20 receptor with a dual targeting peptide. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  20. One-Probe Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östlin, Anna; Pagh, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    We consider dictionaries that perform lookups by probing a single word of memory, knowing only the size of the data structure. We describe a randomized dictionary where a lookup returns the correct answer with probability 1 - e, and otherwise returns don't know. The lookup procedure uses an expan...

  1. Probing the Solar Interior

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 3. Probing the Solar Interior Hearing the Heartbeats of the Sun. Ashok Ambastha. General ... Author Affiliations. Ashok Ambastha1. Joint In-Charge Udaipur Solar Observatory Physical Research laboratory P.O. Box No. 198 Udaipur 313 001, India ...

  2. Flexible position probe assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    The combination of a plurality of tubular transducer sections and a flexible supporting member extending through the tubular transducer sections forms a flexible elongated probe of a design suitable for monitoring the level of an element, such as a nuclear magnetically permeable control rod or liquid. 3 claims, 23 figures

  3. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  4. EDITORIAL: Probing the nanoworld Probing the nanoworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Mervyn

    2009-10-01

    In nanotechnology, it is the unique properties arising from nanometre-scale structures that lead not only to their technological importance but also to a better understanding of the underlying science. Over the last twenty years, material properties at the nanoscale have been dominated by the properties of carbon in the form of the C60 molecule, single- and multi-wall carbon nanotubes, nanodiamonds, and recently graphene. During this period, research published in the journal Nanotechnology has revealed the amazing mechanical properties of such materials as well as their remarkable electronic properties with the promise of new devices. Furthermore, nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanorods, and nanowires from metals and dielectrics have been characterized for their electronic, mechanical, optical, chemical and catalytic properties. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has become the main characterization technique and atomic force microscopy (AFM) the most frequently used SPM. Over the past twenty years, SPM techniques that were previously experimental in nature have become routine. At the same time, investigations using AFM continue to yield impressive results that demonstrate the great potential of this powerful imaging tool, particularly in close to physiological conditions. In this special issue a collaboration of researchers in Europe report the use of AFM to provide high-resolution topographical images of individual carbon nanotubes immobilized on various biological membranes, including a nuclear membrane for the first time (Lamprecht C et al 2009 Nanotechnology 20 434001). Other SPM developments such as high-speed AFM appear to be making a transition from specialist laboratories to the mainstream, and perhaps the same may be said for non-contact AFM. Looking to the future, characterisation techniques involving SPM and spectroscopy, such as tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, could emerge as everyday methods. In all these advanced techniques, routinely available probes will

  5. Methods for Probing New Physics at High Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Peter B.

    This dissertation covers two broad topics. The title, " Methods for Probing New Physics at High Energies," hopefully encompasses both of them. The first topic is located in part I of this work and is about integral dispersion relations. This is a technique to probe for new physics at energy scales near to the machine energy of a collider. For example, a hadron collider taking data at a given energy is typically only sensitive to new physics occurring at energy scales about a factor of five to ten beneath the actual machine energy due to parton distribution functions. This technique is sensitive to physics happening directly beneath the machine energy in addition to the even more interesting case: directly above. Precisely where this technique is sensitive is one of the main topics of this area of research. The other topic is located in part II and is about cosmic ray anisotropy at the highest energies. The unanswered questions about cosmic rays at the highest energies are numerous and interconnected in complicated ways. What may be the first piece of the puzzle to fall into place is determining their sources. This work looks to determine if and when the use of spherical harmonics becomes sensitive enough to determine these sources. The completed papers for this work can be found online. For part I on integral dispersion relations see reference published in Physical Review D. For part II on cosmic ray anisotropy, there are conference proceedings published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The analysis of the location of an experiment on anisotropy reconstruction is, and the comparison of different experiments' abilities to reconstruct anisotropies is published in The Astrophysical Journal and the Journal of High Energy Astrophysics respectively. While this dissertation is focused on three papers completed with Tom Weiler at Vanderbilt University, other papers were completed at the same time. The first was with Nicusor Arsene, Lauretiu Caramete, and

  6. Enhancing Nanos expression via the bacterial TomO protein is a conserved strategy used by the symbiont Wolbachia to fuel germ stem cell maintenance in infected Drosophila females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ote, Manabu; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2018-04-27

    The toxic manipulator of oogenesis (TomO) protein has been identified in the wMel strain of Wolbachia that symbioses with the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster, as a protein that affects host reproduction. TomO protects germ stem cells (GSCs) from degeneration, which otherwise occurs in ovaries of host females that are mutant for the gene Sex-lethal (Sxl). We isolated the TomO homologs from wPip, a Wolbachia strain from the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. One of the homologs, TomO w Pip 1, exerted the GSC rescue activity in fly Sxl mutants when lacking its hydrophobic stretches. The GSC-rescuing action of the TomO w Pip 1 variant was ascribable to its abilities to associate with Nanos (nos) mRNA and to enhance Nos protein expression. The analysis of structure-activity relationships with TomO homologs and TomO deletion variants revealed distinct modules in the protein that are each dedicated to different functions, i.e., subcellular localization, nos mRNA binding or Nos expression enhancement. We propose that modular reshuffling is the basis for structural and functional diversification of TomO protein members. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Tomás Romay Chacón y Carlos J. Finlay Barres hitos de pensamiento cubano en salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Macías Llanes

    Full Text Available El objetivo del texto radica en resaltar algunos elementos de pensamiento en salud de los notables médicos cubanos Tomás Romay y Carlos J. Finlay. Se analizan sus posturas y connotación acerca del nexo entre la ciencia y la sociedad. El método investigativo utilizado ha sido la revisión documental en publicaciones periódicas, libros y repositorio de tesis. Destaca en este acercamiento la conmemoración en agosto del centenario de la muerte de Finlay (La Habana, 20 de agosto de 1915. Por lo cual este sucinto trabajo constituye un homenaje a su obra y, a su vez, al ideario de vanguardia manifiesto en la labor médica de ambos hombres de ciencia.

  8. The effect of the Tom Thumb dwarfing gene on grain size and grain number of wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, M.D.; Flintham, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Tom Thumb dwarfing gene, Rht3, like the related genes Rht1 and Rht2 from Norin 10, has pleiotropic effects on individual ear yields, and grain protein concentrations. An experiment was conducted in which tiller number per plant and grain number per spike were restricted to ascertain whether reduced grain size and protein content are primary or secondary competitive effects in near-isogenic lines. The potential for grain growth was shown to be identical in Rht3 and rht genotypes when grain set was restricted, indicating that the primary effect of the gene is to increase spikelet fertility. Nitrogen accumulation within the grain was also affected by inter-grain competition but decreased nitrogen yields per plant indicated that reduced protein levels are, in part, a primary effect of the gene. Analysis of individual grain yields within Rht3 and rht spikes showed that the gene affected developmental 'dominance' relationships within the spike. (author)

  9. Black Humour Spaces in Cinema and Literature: Yorgos Lanthimos' The Lobster and Tom McCarthy's Satin Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Maggitti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Maggitti’s essay is focused on two different expressions of black humour in today’s film and literature. After commenting on a recent proposal, by the British writer Jonathan Coe, on the whereabouts of contemporary humour, the author examines a film  (The Lobster by YorgosLanthimos and a novel (Satin Island by T. McCarthy, both portraying the present world through humorous lenses, with a disrespectful attitude to an ecologically correct behaviour. In The Lobster hunting is claimed a universal role in man to animal relation whereas Tom McCarthy turns environmental disasters into acts of worthy ecologism. In his approach to humour, Maggitti draws on its anthropological turn as its most estranging function.

  10. Modular Rake of Pitot Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Timothy A.; Henry, Michael W.; Homyk, Raymond P.

    2004-01-01

    The figure presents selected views of a modular rake of 17 pitot probes for measuring both transient and steady-state pressures in a supersonic wind tunnel. In addition to pitot tubes visible in the figure, the probe modules contain (1) high-frequency dynamic-pressure transducers connected through wires to remote monitoring circuitry and (2) flow passages that lead to tubes that, in turn, lead to remote steady-state pressure transducers. Prior pitot-probe rakes were fabricated as unitary structures, into which the individual pitot probes were brazed. Repair or replacement of individual probes was difficult, costly, and time-consuming because (1) it was necessary to remove entire rakes in order to unbraze individual malfunctioning probes and (2) the heat of unbrazing a failed probe and of brazing a new probe in place could damage adjacent probes. In contrast, the modules in the present probe are designed to be relatively quickly and easily replaceable with no heating and, in many cases, without need for removal of the entire rake from the wind tunnel. To remove a malfunctioning probe, one first removes a screw-mounted V-cross-section cover that holds the probe and adjacent probes in place. Then one removes a screw-mounted cover plate to gain access to the steady-state pressure tubes and dynamicpressure wires. Next, one disconnects the tube and wires of the affected probe. Finally, one installs a new probe in the reverse of the aforementioned sequence. The wire connections can be made by soldering, but to facilitate removal and installation, they can be made via miniature plugs and sockets. The connections between the probe flow passages and the tubes leading to the remote pressure sensors can be made by use of any of a variety of readily available flexible tubes that can be easily pulled off and slid back on for removal and installation, respectively.

  11. Heavy ion beam probing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickok, R.L.

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included

  12. Mission to Planet Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.

    1994-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  13. Mission to Planet Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.S.; Backlund, P.W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment. 8 refs

  14. Probing lipid membrane electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi

    The electrostatic properties of lipid bilayer membranes play a significant role in many biological processes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is highly sensitive to membrane surface potential in electrolyte solutions. With fully characterized probe tips, AFM can perform quantitative electrostatic analysis of lipid membranes. Electrostatic interactions between Silicon nitride probes and supported zwitterionic dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayer with a variable fraction of anionic dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) were measured by AFM. Classical Gouy-Chapman theory was used to model the membrane electrostatics. The nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation was numerically solved with finite element method to provide the potential distribution around the AFM tips. Theoretical tip-sample electrostatic interactions were calculated with the surface integral of both Maxwell and osmotic stress tensors on tip surface. The measured forces were interpreted with theoretical forces and the resulting surface charge densities of the membrane surfaces were in quantitative agreement with the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model of membrane charge regulation. It was demonstrated that the AFM can quantitatively detect membrane surface potential at a separation of several screening lengths, and that the AFM probe only perturbs the membrane surface potential by external field created by the internai membrane dipole moment. The analysis yields a dipole moment of 1.5 Debye per lipid with a dipole potential of +275 mV for supported DOPC membranes. This new ability to quantitatively measure the membrane dipole density in a noninvasive manner will be useful in identifying the biological effects of the dipole potential. Finally, heterogeneous model membranes were studied with fluid electric force microscopy (FEFM). Electrostatic mapping was demonstrated with 50 nm resolution. The capabilities of quantitative electrostatic measurement and lateral charge density mapping make AFM a unique and powerful

  15. Induced current heating probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, G.; Ferguson, B.G.; Winstanley, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    An induced current heating probe is of thimble form and has an outer conducting sheath and a water flooded flux-generating unit formed from a stack of ferrite rings coaxially disposed in the sheath. The energising coil is made of solid wire which connects at one end with a coaxial water current tube and at the other end with the sheath. The stack of ferrite rings may include non-magnetic insulating rings which help to shape the flux. (author)

  16. Effective dose in two different dental CBCT Systems: NewTom VGi and Planmeca 3D Mid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaedizirgar, Mohammad; Faghihi, Reza; Paydar, Reza; Sina, Sedigheh

    2017-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography, CBCT, is a kind of CT scanner producing conical diverging X-rays, in which a large area of a two-dimensional detector is irradiated in each rotation. Different investigations have been performed on dosimetry of dental CBCT. As there is no special protocol for dental CBCT, CT scan protocols are used for dosimetry. The purpose of this study is measurement of dose to head and neck organs in two CBCT systems, i.e. Planmeca 3D Mid (PM) and NewTom VGi (NT), using thermoluminescence dosimetry and Rando phantom. The thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD)-100 chips were put at the position of different organs of the head and neck. Two TLD-100 chips were inserted at each position, the dose values were measured for several different field sizes, i.e. 8 x 8, 12 x 8 and 15 x 15 cm"2 for NewTom, and 10 x 10 and 20 x 17 cm"2 for Planmeca systems. According to the results, the average effective dose in PM is much more than the NT system in the same field size, because of the greater mAs values. For routine imaging protocols used for NT, the effective dose values are 70, 73 and 121 μSv for 8 x 8, 12 x 8 and 15 x 15 cm"2 field sizes, respectively. In PM, the effective dose in 10 x 10 cm"2 and 17 x 20 cm"2 is 259 and 341 μSv, respectively. (authors)

  17. Validation of the thermal code of RadTherm-IR, IR-Workbench, and F-TOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenger, Frédéric; Grossmann, Peter; Malaplate, Alain

    2009-05-01

    System assessment by image simulation requires synthetic scenarios that can be viewed by the device to be simulated. In addition to physical modeling of the camera, a reliable modeling of scene elements is necessary. Software products for modeling of target data in the IR should be capable of (i) predicting surface temperatures of scene elements over a long period of time and (ii) computing sensor views of the scenario. For such applications, FGAN-FOM acquired the software products RadTherm-IR (ThermoAnalytics Inc., Calumet, USA; IR-Workbench (OKTAL-SE, Toulouse, France). Inspection of the accuracy of simulation results by validation is necessary before using these products for applications. In the first step of validation, the performance of both "thermal solvers" was determined through comparison of the computed diurnal surface temperatures of a simple object with the corresponding values from measurements. CUBI is a rather simple geometric object with well known material parameters which makes it suitable for testing and validating object models in IR. It was used in this study as a test body. Comparison of calculated and measured surface temperature values will be presented, together with the results from the FGAN-FOM thermal object code F-TOM. In the second validation step, radiances of the simulated sensor views computed by RadTherm-IR and IR-Workbench will be compared with radiances retrieved from the recorded sensor images taken by the sensor that was simulated. Strengths and weaknesses of the models RadTherm-IR, IR-Workbench and F-TOM will be discussed.

  18. Growth analysis partitioning of assimilate in tomato plants cv. Micro-Tom submitted to nitrogen and pyraclostrobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Garbin Martinazzo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at comparing the growth and partitioning of assimilate in tomato plants cv. Micro-Tom subjected to nitrogen and pyraclostrobin. This substance favors the development of chloroplasts and the synthesis of chlorophyll. Tomato plants were submitted to the treatments: T1, complete nutrient solution without pyraclostrobin, T2, complete nutrient solution + pyraclostrobin, T3, ½ strength nutrient solution without N pyraclostrobin and T4, ½ strength nutrient solution N + pyraclostrobin. Plants were collected at regular intervals of seven days after transplantation throughout the crop cycle, with dry mass and leaf area being determined. From the primary data, growth analysis was carried out to calculate total dry matter (Wt, the instantaneous rates of dry matter production (Ct, relative growth (Rw e net assimilation (Ea, leaf area (Af, production rates (Ca and relative growth of leaf area index (Ra and leaf weight (Fw specific leaf area (Sa the dry matter partitioning between organs and number (Nfr and fresh fruit weight (Wfr. Plants of T1 showed higher Wt, Ct and Wfr compared to those of other treatments. However, the T2 plants exhibited similar Nfr to T1 plants, being superior to others. Also allocated on the total dry matter and at the end of the cycle, a higher percentage of dry matter in the seafood compared to T3 and T4 plants. Also they allocated relative to the total dry matter and at the end of the cycle, a higher percentage in fruits of plants to T3 and T4. The association between nitrogen and pyraclostrobin changes the growth and assimilated partition on tomato plants cv. Micro – Tom, and those submitted to ½ dose of nitrogen have a higher total dry matter and less final percentage of total dry matter in fruits , comparatively to those submitted to the association ½ dose of nitrogen and pyraclostrobin.

  19. Far Western: probing membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarson, Margret B; Pugacheva, Elena N; Orlinick, Jason R

    2007-08-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe far-Western technique described in this protocol is fundamentally similar to Western blotting. In Western blots, an antibody is used to detect a query protein on a membrane. In contrast, in a far-Western blot (also known as an overlay assay) the antibody is replaced by a recombinant GST fusion protein (produced and purified from bacteria), and the assay detects the interaction of this protein with target proteins on a membrane. The membranes are washed and blocked, incubated with probe protein, washed again, and subjected to autoradiography. The GST fusion (probe) proteins are often labeled with (32)P; alternatively, the membrane can be probed with unlabeled GST fusion protein, followed by detection using commercially available GST antibodies. The nonradioactive approach is substantially more expensive (due to the purchase of antibody and detection reagents) than using radioactively labeled proteins. In addition, care must be taken to control for nonspecific interactions with GST alone and a signal resulting from antibody cross-reactivity. In some instances, proteins on the membrane are not able to interact after transfer. This may be due to improper folding, particularly in the case of proteins expressed from a phage expression library. This protocol describes a way to overcome this by washing the membrane in denaturation buffer, which is then serially diluted to permit slow renaturation of the proteins.

  20. NASA's interstellar probe mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liewer, P.C.; Ayon, J.A.; Wallace, R.A.; Mewaldt, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Interstellar Probe will be the first spacecraft designed to explore the nearby interstellar medium and its interaction with our solar system. As envisioned by NASA's Interstellar Probe Science and Technology Definition Team, the spacecraft will be propelled by a solar sail to reach >200 AU in 15 years. Interstellar Probe will investigate how the Sun interacts with its environment and will directly measure the properties and composition of the dust, neutrals and plasma of the local interstellar material which surrounds the solar system. In the mission concept developed in the spring of 1999, a 400-m diameter solar sail accelerates the spacecraft to ∼15 AU/year, roughly 5 times the speed of Voyager 1 and 2. The sail is used to first bring the spacecraft to ∼0.25 AU to increase the radiation pressure before heading out in the interstellar upwind direction. After jettisoning the sail at ∼5 AU, the spacecraft coasts to 200-400 AU, exploring the Kuiper Belt, the boundaries of the heliosphere, and the nearby interstellar medium

  1. Einstein Inflationary Probe (EIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2004-01-01

    I will discuss plans to develop a concept for the Einstein Inflation Probe: a mission to detect gravity waves from inflation via the unique signature they impart to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. A sensitive CMB polarization satellite may be the only way to probe physics at the grand-unified theory (GUT) scale, exceeding by 12 orders of magnitude the energies studied at the Large Hadron Collider. A detection of gravity waves would represent a remarkable confirmation of the inflationary paradigm and set the energy scale at which inflation occurred when the universe was a fraction of a second old. Even a strong upper limit to the gravity wave amplitude would be significant, ruling out many common models of inflation, and pointing to inflation occurring at much lower energy, if at all. Measuring gravity waves via the CMB polarization will be challenging. We will undertake a comprehensive study to identify the critical scientific requirements for the mission and their derived instrumental performance requirements. At the core of the study will be an assessment of what is scientifically and experimentally optimal within the scope and purpose of the Einstein Inflation Probe.

  2. Reconstituted TOM core complex and Tim9/Tim10 complex of mitochondria are sufficient for translocation of the ADP/ATP carrier across membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljev, Andreja; Ahting, Uwe; Nargang, Frank E; Go, Nancy E; Habib, Shukry J; Kozany, Christian; Panneels, Valérie; Sinning, Irmgard; Prokisch, Holger; Neupert, Walter; Nussberger, Stephan; Rapaport, Doron

    2004-03-01

    Precursor proteins of the solute carrier family and of channel forming Tim components are imported into mitochondria in two main steps. First, they are translocated through the TOM complex in the outer membrane, a process assisted by the Tim9/Tim10 complex. They are passed on to the TIM22 complex, which facilitates their insertion into the inner membrane. In the present study, we have analyzed the function of the Tim9/Tim10 complex in the translocation of substrates across the outer membrane of mitochondria. The purified TOM core complex was reconstituted into lipid vesicles in which purified Tim9/Tim10 complex was entrapped. The precursor of the ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) was found to be translocated across the membrane of such lipid vesicles. Thus, these components are sufficient for translocation of AAC precursor across the outer membrane. Peptide libraries covering various substrate proteins were used to identify segments that are bound by Tim9/Tim10 complex upon translocation through the TOM complex. The patterns of binding sites on the substrate proteins suggest a mechanism by which portions of membrane-spanning segments together with flanking hydrophilic segments are recognized and bound by the Tim9/Tim10 complex as they emerge from the TOM complex into the intermembrane space.

  3. TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping...

  4. TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV Aerosol Index Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV Aerosol Index Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping...

  5. Obraz hilsneriády ve vzájemné korespondenci Tomáše Garrigua Masaryka a Josefa Adolfa Bulovy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Květová, Miroslava

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2017), s. 51-84 ISSN 1803-9448 Institutional support: RVO:67985921 Keywords : Masaryk, Tomáš Garrigue * Bulova, Josef Adolf * correspondence Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  6. Overseas dispersal of Hyperolius reed frogs from Central Africa to the oceanic islands of Sao Tomé and Príncipe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bell, R. C.; Drewes, R. C.; Channing, A.; Gvoždík, Václav; Kielgast, J.; Lötters, S.; Stuart, B. L.; Zamudio, K. R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2015), s. 65-75 ISSN 0305-0270 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Central Africa * Congo River * Gulf of Guinea * Hyperolius * long -distance dispersal * oceanic island * biogeography * phylogeography * Príncipe * Sao Tomé * species tree Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.997, year: 2015

  7. TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV Aerosol Index Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV Aerosol Index Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping...

  8. TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone...

  9. Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk v českých diskusích o literárním realismu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrdina, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2014), s. 183-203 ISSN 1213-2144 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP406/12/P839 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : Masaryk, Tomáš Garrigue * Zola, Émile * literary realism * naturalism * empirical aesthetics Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  10. Role of PINK1 binding to the TOM complex and alternate intracellular membranes in recruitment and activation of the E3 ligase Parkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarou, Michael; Jin, Seok Min; Kane, Lesley A; Youle, Richard J

    2012-02-14

    Mutations in the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 and the cytosolic E3 ligase Parkin can cause Parkinson's disease. Damaged mitochondria accumulate PINK1 on the outer membrane where, dependent on kinase activity, it recruits and activates Parkin to induce mitophagy, potentially maintaining organelle fidelity. How PINK1 recruits Parkin is unknown. We show that endogenous PINK1 forms a 700 kDa complex with the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) selectively on depolarized mitochondria whereas PINK1 ectopically targeted to the outer membrane retains association with TOM on polarized mitochondria. Inducibly targeting PINK1 to peroxisomes or lysosomes, which lack a TOM complex, recruits Parkin and activates ubiquitin ligase activity on the respective organelles. Once there, Parkin induces organelle selective autophagy of peroxisomes but not lysosomes. We propose that the association of PINK1 with the TOM complex allows rapid reimport of PINK1 to rescue repolarized mitochondria from mitophagy, and discount mitochondrial-specific factors for Parkin translocation and activation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Theory of Mind (ToM) in Children with Autism or Typical Development: Links between Eye-Reading and False Belief Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C.; Slaughter, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    Previous research shows that high-functioning children with autism are slow to pass "litmus" false belief tests of ToM but how this may relate to other aspects of mindreading (e.g., discerning thoughts from facial expressions) is less clear, partly for methodological reasons. Thus the joint methodological and conceptual goals of this…

  12. TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping...

  13. Ignacio Arellano, El ingenio de Lope de Vega. Escolios a las «Rimas humanas y divinas del licenciado Tomé de Burguillos»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bienvenido Morros Mestres

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of Ignacio Arellano,El ingenio de Lope de Vega. Escolios a las «Rimas humanas y divinas del licenciado Tomé de Burguillos», IDEA/IGAS, New York, 2012, 305 pp. ISBN: 978-1-938795-84-8.

  14. Nine New Fluorescent Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-I.; Jovanovic, Misa V.; Dowben, Robert M.

    1989-06-01

    Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic studies are reported here for nine new fluorescent probes recently synthesized in our laboratories: four pyrene derivatives with substituents of (i) 1,3-diacetoxy-6,8-dichlorosulfonyl, (ii) 1,3-dihydroxy-6,8-disodiumsulfonate, (iii) 1,3-disodiumsulfonate, and (iv) l-ethoxy-3,6,8-trisodiumsulfonate groups, and five [7-julolidino] coumarin derivatives with substituents of (v) 3-carboxylate-4-methyl, (vi) 3- methylcarboxylate, (vii) 3-acetate-4-methyl, (viii) 3-propionate-4-methyl, and (ix) 3-sulfonate-4-methyl groups. Pyrene compounds i and ii and coumarin compounds v and vi exhibit interesting absorbance and fluorescence properties: their absorption maxima are red shifted compared to the parent compound to the blue-green region, and the band width broadens considerably. All four blue-absorbing dyes fluoresce intensely in the green region, and the two pyrene compounds emit at such long wavelengths without formation of excimers. The fluorescence properties of these compounds are quite environment-sensitive: considerable spectral shifts and fluorescence intensity changes have been observed in the pH range from 3 to 10 and in a wide variety of polar and hydrophobic solvents with vastly different dielectric constants. The high extinction and fluorescence quantum yield of these probes make them ideal fluorescent labeling reagents for proteins, antibodies, nucleic acids, and cellular organelles. The pH and hydrophobicity-dependent fluorescence changes can be utilized as optical pH and/or hydrophobicity indicators for mapping environmental difference in various cellular components in a single cell. Since all nine probes absorb in the UV, but emit at different wavelengths in the visible, these two groups of compounds offer an advantage of utilizing a single monochromatic light source (e.g., a nitrogen laser) to achieve multi-wavelength detection for flow cytometry application. As a first step to explore potential application in

  15. SNAP: Small Next-generation Atmospheric Probe Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayanagi, K. M.; Dillman, R. A.; Atkinson, D. H.; Li, J.; Saikia, S.; Simon, A. A.; Spilker, T. R.; Wong, M. H.; Hope, D.

    2017-12-01

    We present a concept for a small, atmospheric probe that could be flexibly added to future missions that orbit or fly-by a giant planet as a secondary payload, which we call the Small Next-generation Atmospheric Probe (SNAP). SNAP's main scientific objectives are to determine the vertical distribution of clouds and cloud-forming chemical species, thermal stratification, and wind speed as a function of depth. As a case study, we present the advantages, cost and risk of adding SNAP to the future Uranus Orbiter and Probe flagship mission; in combination with the mission's main probe, SNAP would perform atmospheric in-situ measurements at a second location, and thus enable and enhance the scientific objectives recommended by the 2013 Planetary Science Decadal Survey and the 2014 NASA Science Plan to determine atmospheric spatial variabilities. We envision that the science objectives can be achieved with a 30-kg entry probe 0.5m in diameter (less than half the size of the Galileo probe) that reaches 5-bar pressure-altitude and returns data to Earth via the carrier spacecraft. As the baseline instruments, the probe will carry an Atmospheric Structure Instrument (ASI) that measures the temperature, pressure and acceleration, a carbon nanotube-based NanoChem atmospheric composition sensor, and an Ultra-Stable Oscillator (USO) to conduct a Doppler Wind Experiment (DWE). We also catalog promising technologies currently under development that will strengthen small atmospheric entry probe missions in the future. While SNAP is applicable to multiple planets, we examine the feasibility, benefits and impacts of adding SNAP to the Uranus Orbiter and Probe flagship mission. Our project is supported by NASA PSDS3 grant NNX17AK31G.

  16. Wearable probes for service design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullane, Aaron; Laaksolahti, Jarmo Matti; Svanæs, Dag

    2014-01-01

    Probes are used as a design method in user-centred design to allow end-users to inform design by collecting data from their lives. Probes are potentially useful in service innovation, but current probing methods require users to interrupt their activity and are consequently not ideal for use...... by service employees in reflecting on the delivery of a service. In this paper, we present the ‘wearable probe’, a probe concept that captures sensor data without distracting service employees. Data captured by the probe can be used by the service employees to reflect and co-reflect on the service journey......, helping to identify opportunities for service evolution and innovation....

  17. From Extrasolar Planets to Exo-Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Debra

    2018-06-01

    The ancient Greeks debated whether the Earth was unique, or innumerable worlds existed around other Suns. Twenty five years ago, technology and human ingenuity enabled the discovery of the first extrasolar planet candidates. The architectures of these first systems, with gas giant planets in star-skirting orbits, were unexpected and again raised an echo of that ancient question: is the Earth typical or unique? We are interested in this seemingly anthropocentric question because with all of our searching and discoveries, Earth is the only place where life has been found. It is the question of whether life exists elsewhere that energizes the search for exoplanets. The trajectory of this field has been stunning. After a steady stream of detections with the radial velocity method, a burst of discovery was made possible with the NASA Kepler mission. While thousands of smaller planets have now been found, true Earth analogs have eluded robust detection. However, we are sharpening the knives of our technology and without a doubt we now stand at the threshold of detecting hundreds of Earth analogs. Using Gaia, TESS, WFIRST, JWST and new ground-based spectrographs, we will learn the names and addresses of the worlds that orbit nearby stars and we will be ready to probe their atmospheres. We will finally resolve the ancient question of whether life is unique or common.

  18. Space and Earth Sciences, Computer Systems, and Scientific Data Analysis Support, Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Ronald H. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This Final Progress Report covers the specific technical activities of Hughes STX Corporation for the last contract triannual period of 1 June through 30 Sep. 1993, in support of assigned task activities at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). It also provides a brief summary of work throughout the contract period of performance on each active task. Technical activity is presented in Volume 1, while financial and level-of-effort data is presented in Volume 2. Technical support was provided to all Division and Laboratories of Goddard's Space Sciences and Earth Sciences Directorates. Types of support include: scientific programming, systems programming, computer management, mission planning, scientific investigation, data analysis, data processing, data base creation and maintenance, instrumentation development, and management services. Mission and instruments supported include: ROSAT, Astro-D, BBXRT, XTE, AXAF, GRO, COBE, WIND, UIT, SMM, STIS, HEIDI, DE, URAP, CRRES, Voyagers, ISEE, San Marco, LAGEOS, TOPEX/Poseidon, Pioneer-Venus, Galileo, Cassini, Nimbus-7/TOMS, Meteor-3/TOMS, FIFE, BOREAS, TRMM, AVHRR, and Landsat. Accomplishments include: development of computing programs for mission science and data analysis, supercomputer applications support, computer network support, computational upgrades for data archival and analysis centers, end-to-end management for mission data flow, scientific modeling and results in the fields of space and Earth physics, planning and design of GSFC VO DAAC and VO IMS, fabrication, assembly, and testing of mission instrumentation, and design of mission operations center.

  19. Digital Earth – A sustainable Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahavir

    2014-01-01

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth

  20. The solar probe mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, W.C.; Anderson, J.; Bohlin, J.D.; Burlaga, L.F.; Farquhar, R.; Gloeckler, G.; Goldstein, B.E.; Harvey, J.W.; Holzer, T.E.; Jones, W.V.; Kellogg, P.J.; Krimigis, S.M.; Kundu, M.R.; Lazarus, A.J.; Mellott, M.M.; Parker, E.N.; Rosner, R.; Rottman, G.J.; Slavin, J.A.; Suess, S.T.; Tsurutani, B.T.; Woo, R.T.; Zwickl, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Solar Probe will deliver a 133.5 kg science payload into a 4 R s perihelion solar polar orbit (with the first perihelion passage in 2004) to explore in situ one of the last frontiers in the solar system---the solar corona. This mission is both affordable and technologically feasible. Using a payload of 12 (predominantly particles and fields) scientific experiments, it will be possible to answer many long-standing, fundamental problems concerning the structure and dynamics of the outer solar atmosphere, including the acceleration, storage, and transport of energetic particles near the Sun and in the inner ( s ) heliosphere

  1. Mobile Probing Kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Sørensen, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Mobile Probing Kit is a low tech and low cost methodology for obtaining inspiration and insights into user needs, requirements and ideas in the early phases of a system's development process. The methodology is developed to identify user needs, requirements and ideas among knowledge workers...... characterized as being highly nomadic and thus potential users of mobile and ubiquitous technologies. The methodology has been applied in the 1ST MAGNET Beyond project in order to obtain user needs and requirements in the process of developing pilot services. We report on the initial findings from applying...

  2. High spatial resolution Kelvin probe force microscopy with coaxial probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Keith A; Westervelt, Robert M; Satzinger, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is a widely used technique to measure the local contact potential difference (CPD) between an AFM probe and the sample surface via the electrostatic force. The spatial resolution of KPFM is intrinsically limited by the long range of the electrostatic interaction, which includes contributions from the macroscopic cantilever and the conical tip. Here, we present coaxial AFM probes in which the cantilever and cone are shielded by a conducting shell, confining the tip–sample electrostatic interaction to a small region near the end of the tip. We have developed a technique to measure the true CPD despite the presence of the shell electrode. We find that the behavior of these probes agrees with an electrostatic model of the force, and we observe a factor of five improvement in spatial resolution relative to unshielded probes. Our discussion centers on KPFM, but the field confinement offered by these probes may improve any variant of electrostatic force microscopy. (paper)

  3. Downhole instrument including a flexible probe which can travel freely around bends in a borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson III, B. W. O.

    1985-01-01

    Bore hole instrument and methods of manufacturing and using the same. The instrument includes an elongated flexible probe which is inserted into a bore hole and can travel freely around bends of relatively short radius in the hole. The probe includes a plurality of sensors, explosive charges or the like which are spaced apart and embedded in a flexible body comprising a mass of cushioning material, with a flexible outer casing of fabric having a high tensile strength. The probe is driven into a bore hole in piston-like fashion, and the flexible body enables the probe to travel freely around bends of relatively short radius. Instrumentation for processing signals from the probe is located at the surface of the earth, and a flexible cable interconnects the instrumentation with the probe

  4. The earth's gravitational field

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.

    . But to say that gravity acts downwards is not correct. Gravity acts down, no matter where you stand on the Earth. It is better to say that on Earth gravity pulls objects towards the centre of the Earth. So no matter where you are on Earth all objects fall... pull than objects at the poles. In combination, the equatorial bulge and the effects of centrifugal force mean that sea-level gravitational acceleration increases from about 9.780 m/s² at the equator to about 9.832 m/s² at the poles, so an object...

  5. Geomagnetic field of earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delipetrev, Marjan; Delipetrev, Blagoj; Panovska, Sanja

    2008-01-01

    In this paper is introduced the theory of geomagnetic field of the Earth. A homogenous and isotropic sphere is taken for a model of Earth with a bar magnet at its center as a magnetic potential. The understanding of the real origin of geomagnetic field produced from differential rotation of inner core with respect to the outer core of Earth is here presented. Special attention is given to the latest observed data of the established net of geomagnetic repeat stations in the Republic of Macedonia. Finally, the maps of elements of geomagnetic field and the equation for calculation of normal magnetic field of Earth are provided. (Author)

  6. Rare earth octacyanomolybdates(4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubritskaya, D.I.; Sergeeva, A.N.; Pisak, Yu.V.

    1980-01-01

    Optimal conditions for synthesis of rare-earth octacyanomolybdates(4) of the Ln 4 [Mo(CN) 8 ] 3 xnH 2 O composition (where Ln is a rare-earth element, other than Pr, Pm, Lu, Tb) have been worked out. The synthesis has been accomplished by neutralization with octacianomolybdic acid with rare-earth carbonates. The composition and structure of the compounds synthesized have been studied by infrared-spectroscopy. It has been established that rare-earth octacyanomolybdates(4) form three isostructural groups

  7. Gravity Probe B Detector Mount Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) detector mount assembly is shown in comparison to the size of a dime. The assembly is used to detect exactly how much starlight is coming through different beams from the beam splitter in the telescope. The measurements from the tiny chips inside are what keeps GP-B aimed at the guide star. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Paul Ehrensberger, Stanford University.)

  8. Neutral helium beam probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Rezwanul

    1999-10-01

    This article discusses the development of a code where diagnostic neutral helium beam can be used as a probe. The code solves numerically the evolution of the population densities of helium atoms at their several different energy levels as the beam propagates through the plasma. The collisional radiative model has been utilized in this numerical calculation. The spatial dependence of the metastable states of neutral helium atom, as obtained in this numerical analysis, offers a possible diagnostic tool for tokamak plasma. The spatial evolution for several hypothetical plasma conditions was tested. Simulation routines were also run with the plasma parameters (density and temperature profiles) similar to a shot in the Princeton beta experiment modified (PBX-M) tokamak and a shot in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor tokamak. A comparison between the simulation result and the experimentally obtained data (for each of these two shots) is presented. A good correlation in such comparisons for a number of such shots can establish the accurateness and usefulness of this probe. The result can possibly be extended for other plasma machines and for various plasma conditions in those machines.

  9. Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Zaki; Lamb, Christopher A.; Ross, Shane D.

    2012-12-01

    The list of detected near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) is constantly growing. NEAs are likely targets for resources to support space industrialization, as they may be the least expensive source of certain needed raw materials. The limited supply of precious metals and semiconducting elements on Earth may be supplemented or even replaced by the reserves floating in the form of asteroids around the solar system. Precious metals make up a significant fraction NEAs by mass, and even one metallic asteroid of ˜1km size and fair enrichment in platinum-group metals would contain twice the tonnage of such metals already harvested on Earth. There are ˜1000 NEAs with a diameter of greater than 1 km. Capturing these asteroids around the Earth would expand the mining industry into an entirely new dimension. Having such resources within easy reach in Earth's orbit could provide an off-world environmentally friendly remedy for impending terrestrial shortages, especially given the need for raw materials in developing nations. In this paper, we develop and implement a conceptually simple algorithm to determine trajectory characteristics necessary to move NEAs into capture orbits around the Earth. Altered trajectories of asteroids are calculated using an ephemeris model. Only asteroids of eccentricity less than 0.1 have been studied and the model is restricted to the ecliptic plane for simplicity. We constrain the time of retrieval to be 10 years or less, based on considerations of the time to return on investment. For the heliocentric phase, constant acceleration is assumed. The acceleration required for transporting these asteroids from their undisturbed orbits to the sphere of influence of the Earth is the primary output, along with the impulse or acceleration necessary to effect capture to a bound orbit once the Earth's sphere of influence is reached. The initial guess for the constant acceleration is provided by a new estimation method, similar in spirit to Edelbaum's. Based on the

  10. Rare earth impact on glass structure and alteration kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molieres, E.

    2012-01-01

    This work is related to the question of the geological deep repository of high-level waste glass. These wastes include fission products and minor actinides, elements which can be simulated by rare earths. As new glass compositions could enable increased rare earth concentrations, it is crucial to know and understand rare earth impact on glass structure on the one hand, and on glass alteration kinetics or their incorporation into an altered layer. This work studied simplified borosilicate glasses in order to limit synergetic effects between rare earths and other elements. Various complementary techniques were used to characterize pristine and altered glasses (solid-high resolution NMR, Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence, SIMS, SAXS). Firstly, the structural role of a rare earth is discussed and is compared to a calcium cation. The local environment of rare earths is also probed. Secondly, rare earth (nature and concentration) impact on several alteration regimes was studied (initial rate, rate drop). Then, after alteration, rare earth elements being retained within the altered layer, the structural impact of rare earth elements (and their local environment) in this alteration layer was also investigated. (author) [fr

  11. Arte y revolución: Sobre los fotomontajes olvidados de Tomás Maldonado Art and revolution: on the forgotten photomontages of Tomás Maldonado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lucena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un análisis sobre los fotomontajes realizados por el artista Tomás Maldonado entre 1946 y 1947 para Orientación, el periódico oficial del Partido Comunista Argentino. Estas producciones eran desconocidas (o silenciadas por los historiadores del arte argentino hasta los inicios de la investigación que emprendí en el año 2003 y que se materializó en mi tesis doctoral (2010, e incluso hasta hace muy poco tiempo no se incluían en el repertorio de obras del artista. Desde la perspectiva aquí propuesta, en cambio,los fotomontajes de Maldonado constituyen dos intervenciones cruciales para abordar el intenso vínculo entre arte, revolución y política que atraviesa el proyecto de la vanguardia de arte concreto argentina. Por un lado, porque remiten a la militancia de varios miembros de la Asociación Arte ConcretoInvención en las filas del comunismo local. Por otro, porque son producciones en las cuales es posible observar la estrecha relación existente entre la propuesta del concretismo argentino impulsado por Maldonado y el programa puesto en marcha por las vanguardias soviéticas en los años posteriores a la revolución bolchevique

  12. A Comparison of Seasonal and Interannual Variability of Soil Dust Aerosols Over the Atlantic Ocean as Inferred by the Toms AI and AVHRR AOT Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmur, R. V.; Miller, R. L.; Tegen, Ina; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The seasonal cycle and interannual variability of two estimates of soil (or 'mineral') dust aerosols are compared: Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index (AI), Both data sets, comprising more than a decade of global, daily images, are commonly used to evaluate aerosol transport models. The present comparison is based upon monthly averages, constructed from daily images of each data set for the period between 1984 and 1990, a period that excludes contamination from volcanic eruptions. The comparison focuses upon the Northern Hemisphere subtropical Atlantic Ocean, where soil dust aerosols make the largest contribution to the aerosol load, and are assumed to dominate the variability of each data set. While each retrieval is sensitive to a different aerosol radiative property - absorption for the TOMS AI versus reflectance for the AVHRR AOT - the seasonal cycles of dust loading implied by each retrieval are consistent, if seasonal variations in the height of the aerosol layer are taken into account when interpreting the TOMS AI. On interannual time scales, the correlation is low at most locations. It is suggested that the poor interannual correlation is at least partly a consequence of data availability. When the monthly averages are constructed using only days common to both data sets, the correlation is substantially increased: this consistency suggests that both TOMS and AVHRR accurately measure the aerosol load in any given scene. However, the two retrievals have only a few days in common per month so that these restricted monthly averages have a large uncertainty. Calculations suggest that at least 7 to 10 daily images are needed to estimate reliably the average dust load during any particular month, a threshold that is rarely satisfied by the AVHRR AOT due to the presence of clouds in the domain. By rebinning each data set onto a coarser grid, the availability of

  13. The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, A.; Carsey, F.; Lane, A.; Engelhardt, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe mission is a glaciological investigation, scheduled for November 2000-2001, that will place a probe in a hot-water drilled hole in the West Antartic ice sheet. The objectives of the probe are to observe ice-bed interactions with a downward looking camera, and ice inclusions and structure, including hypothesized ice accretion, with a side-looking camera.

  14. The Galaxy Evolution Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jason; Galaxy Evolution Probe Team

    2018-01-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Probe (GEP) is a concept for a far-infrared observatory to survey large regions of sky for star-forming galaxies from z = 0 to beyond z = 3. Our knowledge of galaxy formation is incomplete and requires uniform surveys over a large range of redshifts and environments to accurately describe mass assembly, star formation, supermassive black hole growth, interactions between these processes, and what led to their decline from z ~ 2 to the present day. Infrared observations are sensitive to dusty, star-forming galaxies, which have bright polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features and warm dust continuum in the rest-frame mid infrared and cooler thermal dust emission in the far infrared. Unlike previous far-infrared continuum surveys, the GEP will measure photometric redshifts commensurate with galaxy detections from PAH emission and Si absorption features, without the need for obtaining spectroscopic redshifts of faint counterparts at other wavelengths.The GEP design includes a 2 m diameter telescope actively cooled to 4 K and two instruments: (1) An imager covering 10 to 300 um with 25 spectral resolution R ~ 8 bands (with lower R at the longest wavelengths) to detect star-forming galaxies and measure their redshifts photometrically. (2) A 23 – 190 um, R ~ 250 dispersive spectrometer for redshift confirmation and identification of obscured AGN using atomic fine-structure lines. Lines including [Ne V], [O IV], [O III], [O I], and [C II] will probe gas physical conditions, radiation field hardness, and metallicity. Notionally, the GEP will have a two-year mission: galaxy surveys with photometric redshifts in the first year and a second year devoted to follow-up spectroscopy. A comprehensive picture of star formation in galaxies over the last 10 billion years will be assembled from cosmologically relevant volumes, spanning environments from field galaxies and groups, to protoclusters, to dense galaxy clusters.Commissioned by NASA, the

  15. EARTH FROM SPACE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. EARTH FROM SPACE · Slide 2 · Earth System · Slide 4 · Global water cycle · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Direct Observations of Recent Climate Change · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Snow cover and Arctic sea ice are decreasing · Polar Melting & Global Heat Transport · Antarctica: Melting and Thickening · Slide 14 · Slide 15.

  16. Earth and Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosygin, Yu A

    1986-12-01

    Rocks, the age of which according to certain data exceeds considerably the recognized age of the Earth and approximates the age of the Universe, have been detected on the Earth. There is a necessity to coordinate the geological data with cosmological structures.

  17. Hands On Earth Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisgarber, Sherry L.; Van Doren, Lisa; Hackathorn, Merrianne; Hannibal, Joseph T.; Hansgen, Richard

    This publication is a collection of 13 hands-on activities that focus on earth science-related activities and involve students in learning about growing crystals, tectonics, fossils, rock and minerals, modeling Ohio geology, geologic time, determining true north, and constructing scale-models of the Earth-moon system. Each activity contains…

  18. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  19. Earth System Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Sandra; Coffman, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    For several decades, science teachers have used bottles for classroom projects designed to teach students about biology. Bottle projects do not have to just focus on biology, however. These projects can also be used to engage students in Earth science topics. This article describes the Earth System Science Project, which was adapted and developed…

  20. What is life ? on Earth and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Approaches from the sciences, philosophy and theology, including the emerging field of astrobiology, can provide fresh perspectives to the age-old question 'what is life?'. Has the secret of life been unveiled and is it nothing more than physical chemistry? Modern philosophers will ask if we can even define life at all, as we still don't know much about its origins here on Earth. Others regard life as something that cannot simply be reduced to just physics and chemistry, while biologists emphasize the historical component intrinsic to life on Earth. How can theology constructively interpret scientific findings? Can it contribute constructively to scientific discussions? Written for a broad interdisciplinary audience, this probing volume discusses life, intelligence and more against the background of contemporary biology and the wider contexts of astrobiology and cosmology. It also considers the challenging implications for science and theology if extraterrestrial life is discovered in the future.

  1. Renewable energies in the French DOM-TOM : a study of the costs and benefits of transitioning from fossil fuels to renewable energies in the French Départements d’Outre Mer et Territoires d’Outre Mer

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley-Smith, Adam P.

    2010-01-01

    The French Départements d’Outre Mer et Territoires d’Outre Mer (DOM-TOM) are not the most populous region of France. Nor are they the most prosperous, the most important, or even centers of industrial production. Rather, the DOM-TOM possessions have a unique value in French culture: they represent the past glory of the state and its people, and the courage that lead French explorers and settlers to roam the world. Unfortunately, the DOM-TOM represents an ever growing burden upon...

  2. Probing the Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Runa

    2016-01-01

    Whether manifest in built structures or invisible infrastructures, architectures of control in the occupied Palestinian West Bank is structurally defined by endemic uncertainty. Shifting lines and frontiers are recorded on the terrain, creating elastic zones of uncertainty necessitating navigatio...... to the territory through its lines and laws, and how the very structure of the occupation has changed over the years, I seek to make visible the ways in which architectures of uncertainty compensate for the fleeting terrain that HH is probing.......Whether manifest in built structures or invisible infrastructures, architectures of control in the occupied Palestinian West Bank is structurally defined by endemic uncertainty. Shifting lines and frontiers are recorded on the terrain, creating elastic zones of uncertainty necessitating...

  3. Heat transfer probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jeffrey I.; Rosengart, Axel J.; Kasza, Ken; Yu, Wenhua; Chien, Tai-Hsin; Franklin, Jeff

    2006-10-10

    Apparatuses, systems, methods, and computer code for, among other things, monitoring the health of samples such as the brain while providing local cooling or heating. A representative device is a heat transfer probe, which includes an inner channel, a tip, a concentric outer channel, a first temperature sensor, and a second temperature sensor. The inner channel is configured to transport working fluid from an inner inlet to an inner outlet. The tip is configured to receive at least a portion of the working fluid from the inner outlet. The concentric outer channel is configured to transport the working fluid from the inner outlet to an outer outlet. The first temperature sensor is coupled to the tip, and the second temperature sensor spaced apart from the first temperature sensor.

  4. Solar Probe Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Solar Probe Plus mission is planned to be launched in 2018 to study the upper solar corona with both.in-situ and remote sensing instrumentation. The mission will utilize 6 Venus gravity assist maneuver to gradually lower its perihelion to 9.5 Rs below the expected Alfven pOint to study the sub-alfvenic solar wind that is still at least partially co-rotates with the Sun. The detailed science objectives of this mission will be discussed. SPP will have a strong synergy with The ESA/NASA Solar orbiter mission to be launched a year ahead. Both missions will focus on the inner heliosphere and will have complimentary instrumentations. Strategies to exploit this synergy will be also presented.

  5. Cosmological Probes for Supersymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Khlopov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The multi-parameter character of supersymmetric dark-matter models implies the combination of their experimental studies with astrophysical and cosmological probes. The physics of the early Universe provides nontrivial effects of non-equilibrium particles and primordial cosmological structures. Primordial black holes (PBHs are a profound signature of such structures that may arise as a cosmological consequence of supersymmetric (SUSY models. SUSY-based mechanisms of baryosynthesis can lead to the possibility of antimatter domains in a baryon asymmetric Universe. In the context of cosmoparticle physics, which studies the fundamental relationship of the micro- and macro-worlds, the development of SUSY illustrates the main principles of this approach, as the physical basis of the modern cosmology provides cross-disciplinary tests in physical and astronomical studies.

  6. Trapping and Probing Antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtele, Jonathan [UC Berkeley and LBNL

    2013-03-27

    Precision spectroscopy of antihydrogen is a promising path to sensitive tests of CPT symmetry. The most direct route to achieve this goal is to create and probe antihydrogen in a magnetic minimum trap. Antihydrogen has been synthesized and trapped for 1000s at CERN by the ALPHA Collaboration. Some of the challenges associated with achieving these milestones will be discussed, including mixing cryogenic positron and antiproton plasmas to synthesize antihydrogen with kinetic energy less than the trap potential of .5K. Recent experiments in which hyperfine transitions were resonantly induced with microwaves will be presented. The opportunity for gravitational measurements in traps based on detailed studies of antihydrogen dynamics will be described. The talk will conclude with a discussion future antihydrogen research that will use a new experimental apparatus, ALPHA-I.

  7. Traversing incore probe device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Michiko.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To measure the neutron flux distribution in the reactor core always at a high accuracy. Constitution: A nuclear fission ionizing chamber type detector is disposed at the end of a cable for sending a detection signal of a traversing incore probe device and, further, a gamma-ray ionizing chamber type detector is connected in adjacent therewith and a selection circuit for selecting both of the detection signals and inputting them to a display device is disposed. Then, compensation for the neutron monitors is conducted by the gamma-ray ionizing chamber type detector during normal operation in which control rods are not driven and the positioning is carried out by the nuclear fission ionizing chamber type detector. Furthermore, both of the compensation for the neutron detector and the positioning are carried out by the nuclear fission ionizing chamber type detector upon starting where the control rods are driven. (Sekiya, K.)

  8. Probing Mantle Heterogeneity Across Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, A.; Moulik, P.; Lekic, V.

    2017-12-01

    Inferences of mantle heterogeneity in terms of temperature, composition, grain size, melt and crystal structure may vary across local, regional and global scales. Probing these scale-dependent effects require quantitative comparisons and reconciliation of tomographic models that vary in their regional scope, parameterization, regularization and observational constraints. While a range of techniques like radial correlation functions and spherical harmonic analyses have revealed global features like the dominance of long-wavelength variations in mantle heterogeneity, they have limited applicability for specific regions of interest like subduction zones and continental cratons. Moreover, issues like discrepant 1-D reference Earth models and related baseline corrections have impeded the reconciliation of heterogeneity between various regional and global models. We implement a new wavelet-based approach that allows for structure to be filtered simultaneously in both the spectral and spatial domain, allowing us to characterize heterogeneity on a range of scales and in different geographical regions. Our algorithm extends a recent method that expanded lateral variations into the wavelet domain constructed on a cubed sphere. The isolation of reference velocities in the wavelet scaling function facilitates comparisons between models constructed with arbitrary 1-D reference Earth models. The wavelet transformation allows us to quantify the scale-dependent consistency between tomographic models in a region of interest and investigate the fits to data afforded by heterogeneity at various dominant wavelengths. We find substantial and spatially varying differences in the spectrum of heterogeneity between two representative global Vp models constructed using different data and methodologies. Applying the orthonormality of the wavelet expansion, we isolate detailed variations in velocity from models and evaluate additional fits to data afforded by adding such complexities to long

  9. Power supply connection for ionizing radiation detection probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajic, J.

    1990-01-01

    One wire of the supply line is connected, through a diode in the forward direction, to the input terminal of the voltage stabilizer, and through the first resistor to the current limiter terminal of the voltage stabilizer, and also directly to the pulse separator terminal. The current limiter terminal of the voltage stabilizer is connected, through the second resistor, to the output terminal of the voltage stabilizer, and through the first capacitor to the voltage stabilizer earthing terminal, the earthing terminal of the pulse separator and through the other wire of the supply line to the earthing terminal of the detection probe. Furthermore, the input terminal of the voltage stabilizer is connected to a parallel combination of the third resistor with the second capacitor, whose other end is connected to the earthing terminal of the voltage stabilizer. The main asset of this connection consists in the high-frequency matching of the supply line being accomplished by a suitable choice of the resistor value without affecting the voltage for the detection probe. (M.D.)

  10. Changes in melatonin levels in transgenic 'Micro-Tom' tomato overexpressing ovine AANAT and ovine HIOMT genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Zhao, Yu; Reiter, Russel J; He, Changjiu; Liu, Guoshi; Lei, Qiong; Zuo, Bixiao; Zheng, Xiao Dong; Li, Qingtian; Kong, Jin

    2014-03-01

    In animals, the melatonin biosynthesis pathway has been well defined after the isolation and identification of the four key genes that are involved in the conversion of tryptophan to melatonin. In plants, there are special alternative catalyzing steps, and plant genes share very low homology with the animal genes. It was of interest to examine the phenotype of transgenic Micro-Tom tomato plants overexpressing the homologous sheep oAANAT and oHIOMT genes responsible for the last two steps of melatonin synthesis. The oAANAT transgenic plants have higher melatonin levels and lower indoleacetic acid (IAA) contents than control due to the competition for tryptophan, the same precursor for both melatonin and IAA. Therefore, the oAANAT lines lose the 'apical dominance' inferring that melatonin likely lacks auxin activity. The significantly higher melatonin content in oHIOMT lines than oAANAT lines provides new proof for the important role of ASMT in plant melatonin synthesis. In addition, the enhanced drought tolerance of oHIOMT lines will also be an important contribution for plant engineering. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. As inovações de Tom Zé na linguagem da canção popular dos anos 1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herom Vargas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir alguns aspectos da experimentação do compositor brasileiro Tom Zé em três de seus cinco discos lançados nos anos 1970, dentro de um cenário de exceção institucional por conta da ditadura militar e de expansão das indústrias culturais. Do cantor, serão tratadas canções dos discos: Se o caso é chorar (Continental - 1972, Todos os olhos (Continental - 1973 e Estudando o samba (Continental - 1975. A noção básica de experimentação utilizada é de Umberto Eco (1970. Outro conceito para a discussão do experimentalismo é o de “canção crítica”, desenvolvido por S.C. Naves (2010. Como horizonte teórico, a canção popular será tratada como “texto semiótico”, conforme a semiótica da cultura de I.M. Lótman (1996. Os aspectos de inovação serão analisados internamente à própria linguagem híbrida da canção (letra, canto, música e performance e nas relações externas entre canção e contexto cultural.

  12. The Rg1 allele as a valuable tool for genetic transformation of the tomato 'Micro-Tom' model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quecini Vera

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cultivar Micro-Tom (MT is regarded as a model system for tomato genetics due to its short life cycle and miniature size. However, efforts to improve tomato genetic transformation have led to protocols dependent on the costly hormone zeatin, combined with an excessive number of steps. Results Here we report the development of a MT near-isogenic genotype harboring the allele Rg1 (MT-Rg1, which greatly improves tomato in vitro regeneration. Regeneration was further improved in MT by including a two-day incubation of cotyledonary explants onto medium containing 0.4 μM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA before cytokinin treatment. Both strategies allowed the use of 5 μM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, a cytokinin 100 times less expensive than zeatin. The use of MT-Rg1 and NAA pre-incubation, followed by BAP regeneration, resulted in high transformation frequencies (near 40%, in a shorter protocol with fewer steps, spanning approximately 40 days from Agrobacterium infection to transgenic plant acclimatization. Conclusions The genetic resource and the protocol presented here represent invaluable tools for routine gene expression manipulation and high throughput functional genomics by insertional mutagenesis in tomato.

  13. Emergencia de la conciencia intelectiva. La teoría creacionista según Tomás de Aquino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Vicente Burgoa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available La pregunta «¿de dónde venimos?" sigue siendo de interés, para saber qué somos y hacia dónde vamos ... Una vez aceptada la evolución transespecífica de los seres vivos, actualmente todos o casi todos aceptan el origen filogenético del cuerpo humano. Pero hay notables reticencias y hasta serias dificultades para aceptar ese mismo origen para el alma humana. Esas dificultades provienen tanto de un supuesto dogma acerca de la creación del alma directamente por Dios, como de posiciones metafísicas muy serias, entre las que cabe destacar la argumentación de Tomás de Aquino. El autor de este trabajo, dejando de lado el aspecto teológico -aunque señalando de paso su duda fundada respecto de la existencia de tal dogma creacionista- se enfrenta a los argumentos metafísicos, desde las mismas bases sistemáticas en que tales argumentos parecen fundarse. Su conclusión es que esos argumentos no son decisivos; y que, por tanto, se puede y se debe seguir buscando un origen filogenético común para el hombre en su totalidad, dejando de lado el dualismo antropológico accidentalista, de tipo platónico y racionalista.

  14. Máscaras a la deriva: acerca de la narrativa de Tomás de Mattos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel González Álvarez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende indagar en aspectos estructurales y temáticos de la novela La fragata de las máscaras (1996 del narrador uruguayo Tomás de Mattos. Tomando como punto de partida el Benito Cereno de Herman Melville, De Mattos construye un texto denso y laberíntico que no desmerece la prosa del escritor norteamericano. Aprovechando los cabos sueltos dejados por Melville en Benito Cereno, el uruguayo osa reescribir el episodio del motín acaecido pero invirtiendo las voces y dando protagonismo a los esclavos. Erige así una novela sugestiva en su planteamiento y compleja en su estructura, con un auténtico homenaje a la noción de transtextualidad en sentido lato, acuñada por Gérard Genette; intertextos, paratextos e hipertextos y continuas puestas en abismo se entrecruzan para conformar una novela polifónica pero no por ello estrictamente posmoderna, si nos atenemos al pensamiento del autor, muy distante del descreimiento que gobierna otros textos de la nueva novela histórica uruguaya coetáneos al que aquí analizamos.

  15. Multi year changes of Aerosol Optical Depth in the monsoon region of the Indian Ocean since 1986 as seen in the AVHRR and TOMS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. George

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD data based on AVHRR and TOMS was analyzed to find out the changes in the Indian Ocean from 1981 to 2004. Four regions covering Indian Ocean north of 10° S were studied in detail. The results strongly suggest that the mean value of AOD in these regions decreased from 1986–1990 to 1995–1999. The Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal show increase thereafter whereas in the equatorial part it decreased further, during 2000–2004. The drop in AOD from the first to second period is evident in AVHRR and TOMS in the case of the Arabian Sea (North West Indian Ocean. The decrease in this case is prominent in summer. These results in general agree with the recently reported global decrease in AOD, "global brightening" and also the reversal of trend in some of the anthropogenic emissions.

  16. Los principios del método teológico de Santo Tomás a partir de la noción de sacra doctrina

    OpenAIRE

    Scarabino, Juan Lisandro

    2012-01-01

    Con el presente artículo queremos señalar los principios del método teológico de Santo Tomás. Dicho objetivo lo abordamos desde la noción de sacra doctrina, la cual es hoy en día es una noción olvidada y de ahí proviene la dificultad para su correcta comprensión. De ahí que se tienda a identificarla con la teología, restringiéndola fuertemente. Para Santo Tomás es una noción muy importante. Por esta razón toda la primera cuestión de la Suma Teológica gira sobre ella, pues la...

  17. Earth as art three

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    For most of us, deserts, mountains, river valleys, coastlines even dry lakebeds are relatively familiar features of the Earth's terrestrial environment. For earth scientists, they are the focus of considerable scientific research. Viewed from a unique and unconventional perspective, Earth's geographic attributes can also be a surprising source of awe-inspiring art. That unique perspective is space. The artists for the Earth as Art Three exhibit are the Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 satellites, which orbit approximately 705 kilometers (438 miles) above the Earth's surface. While studying the images these satellites beam down daily, researchers are often struck by the sheer beauty of the scenes. Such images inspire the imagination and go beyond scientific value to remind us how stunning, intricate, and simply amazing our planet's features can be. Instead of paint, the medium for these works of art is light. But Landsat satellite sensors don't see light as human eyes do; instead, they see radiant energy reflected from Earth's surface in certain wavelengths, or bands, of red, green, blue, and infrared light. When these different bands are combined into a single image, remarkable patterns, colors, and shapes emerge. The Earth as Art Three exhibit provides fresh and inspiring glimpses of different parts of our planet's complex surface. The images in this collection were chosen solely based on their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation only for your viewing pleasure. Enjoy!

  18. Effect of object location on the density measurement and Hounsfield conversion in a NewTom 3G cone beam computed tomography unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagravère, M O; Carey, J; Ben-Zvi, M; Packota, G V; Major, P W

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an object's location in a cone beam CT imaging chamber (CBCT-NewTom 3G) on its apparent density and to develop a linear conversion coefficient for Hounsfield units (HU) to material density (g cm(-3)) for the NewTom 3G Scanner. Three cylindrical models of materials with different densities were constructed and scanned at five different locations in a NewTom 3G Volume Scanner. The average HU value for each model at each location was obtained using two different types of software. Next, five cylinders of different known densities were scanned at the exact centre of a NewTom 3G Scanner. The collected data were analysed using the same two types of software to determine a standard linear relationship between density and HU for each type of software. There is no statistical significance of location of an object within the CBCT scanner on determination of its density. A linear relationship between the density of an object and the HU of a scan was rho = 0.001(HU)+1.19 with an R2 value of 0.893 (where density, rho, is measured in g cm(-3)). This equation is to be used on a range between 1.42 g cm(-3) and 0.4456 g cm(-3). A linear relationship can be used to determine the density of materials (in the density range of bone) from the HU values of a CBCT scan. This relationship is not affected by the object's location within the scanner itself.

  19. Optimisation of tomato Micro-tom regeneration and selection on glufosinate/Basta and dependency of gene silencing on transgene copy number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuong, Thi Thu Huong; Crété, Patrice; Robaglia, Christophe; Caffarri, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    An efficient protocol of transformation and selection of transgenic lines of Micro-tom, a widespread model cultivar for tomato, is reported. RNA interference silencing efficiency and stability have been investigated and correlated with the number of insertions. Given its small size and ease of cultivation, the tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) cultivar Micro-tom is of widespread use as a model tomato plant. To create and screen transgenic plants, different selectable markers are commonly used. The bar marker carrying the resistance to the herbicide glufosinate/Basta, has many advantages, but it has been little utilised and with low efficiency for identification of tomato transgenic plants. Here we describe a procedure for accurate selection of transgenic Micro-tom both in vitro and in soil. Immunoblot, Southern blot and phenotypic analyses showed that 100 % of herbicide-resistant plants were transgenic. In addition, regeneration improvement has been obtained by using 2 mg/l Gibberellic acid in the shoot elongation medium; rooting optimisation on medium containing 1 mg/l IAA allowed up to 97 % of shoots developing strong and very healthy roots after only 10 days. Stable transformation frequency by infection of leaf explants with Agrobacterium reached 12 %. Shoots have been induced by combination of 1 mg/l zeatin-trans and 0.1 mg/l IAA. Somatic embryogenesis of cotyledon on medium containing 1 mg/l zeatin + 2 mg/l IAA is described in Micro-tom. The photosynthetic psbS gene has been used as reporter gene for RNA silencing studies. The efficiency of gene silencing has been found equivalent using three different target gene fragments of 519, 398 and 328 bp. Interestingly, silencing efficiency decreased from T0 to the T3 generation in plants containing multiple copies of the inserted T-DNA, while it was stable in plants containing a single insertion.

  20. Bivariate genome-wide association meta-analysis of pediatric musculoskeletal traits reveals pleiotropic effects at the SREBF1/TOM1L2 locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Kemp, John P; Dimou, Niki L

    2017-01-01

    bone mineral density loci: WNT4, GALNT3, MEPE, CPED1/WNT16, TNFSF11, RIN3, and PPP6R3/LRP5. Variants in the TOM1L2/SREBF1 locus exert opposing effects TB-LM and TBLH-BMD, and have a stronger association with the former trait. We show that SREBF1 is expressed in murine and human osteoblasts, as well...

  1. Apostolate of the laity: a re-discovery of holistic post-war missiology in Scotland, with reference to the ministry of Tom Allan

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, Alexander Craig

    2014-01-01

    This thesis offers principles for Christian mission in the present Western milieu derived from a retrieval of the missiology in post-war Scotland of Tom Allan. Allan was a minister, evangelist and theologian of particular public prominence in Scotland and beyond in the period from 1946 to 1964. His missiology focused upon the ‘apostolate of the laity’ through the ‘contextualisation’ of Christianity and Church. It was drawn from diverse, rich sources in Scottish and European theolo...

  2. Nanobits: customizable scanning probe tips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajendra; Shaik, Hassan Uddin; Sardan Sukas, Özlem

    2009-01-01

    We present here a proof-of-principle study of scanning probe tips defined by planar nanolithography and integrated with AFM probes using nanomanipulation. The so-called 'nanobits' are 2-4 mu m long and 120-150 nm thin flakes of Si3N4 or SiO2, fabricated by electron beam lithography and standard s...

  3. Gene probes: principles and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aquino de Muro, Marilena; Rapley, Ralph

    2002-01-01

    ... of labeled DNA has allowed genes to be mapped to single chromosomes and in many cases to a single chromosome band, promoting significant advance in human genome mapping. Gene Probes: Principles and Protocols presents the principles for gene probe design, labeling, detection, target format, and hybridization conditions together with detailed protocols, accom...

  4. Non-inductive current probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christen Kjeldahl

    1977-01-01

    The current probe described is a low-cost, shunt resistor for monitoring current pulses in e.g., pulsed lasers. Rise time is......The current probe described is a low-cost, shunt resistor for monitoring current pulses in e.g., pulsed lasers. Rise time is...

  5. Replacing critical rare earth materials in high energy density magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, R. William

    2012-02-01

    High energy density permanent magnets are crucial to the design of internal permanent magnet motors (IPM) for hybride and electric vehicles and direct drive wind generators. Current motor designs use rare earth permanent magnets which easily meet the performance goals, however, the rising concerns over cost and foreign control of the current supply of rare earth resources has motivated a search for non-rare earth based permanent magnets alloys with performance metrics which allow the design of permanent magnet motors and generators without rare earth magnets. This talk will discuss the state of non-rare-earth permanent magnets and efforts to both improve the current materials and find new materials. These efforts combine first principles calculations and meso-scale magnetic modeling with advance characterization and synthesis techniques in order to advance the state of the art in non rare earth permanent magnets. The use of genetic algorithms in first principle structural calculations, combinatorial synthesis in the experimental search for materials, atom probe microscopy to characterize grain boundaries on the atomic level, and other state of the art techniques will be discussed. In addition the possibility of replacing critical rare earth elements with the most abundant rare earth Ce will be discussed.

  6. Earth Science Informatics - Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes over 180 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies.The talk will present an overview of current efforts in ESI, the role members of IEEE GRSS play, and discuss

  7. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    From the viewpoint of structural chemistry and general regularities controlling formation reactions of compounds and phases in melts, solid and gaseous states, recent achievements in the chemistry of rare earth germanates are generalized. Methods of synthesizing germanates, systems on the base of germanium oxides and rare earths are considered. The data on crystallochemical characteristics are tabulated. Individual compounds of scandium germanate are also characterized. Processes of germanate formation using the data of IR-spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis are studied. The structure and morphotropic series of rare earth germanates and silicates are determined. Fields of their present and possible future application are considered

  8. Project Earth Science

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    Project Earth Science: Astronomy, Revised 2nd Edition, involves students in activities that focus on Earth's position in our solar system. How do we measure astronomical distances? How can we look back in time as we gaze across vast distances in space? How would our planet be different without its particular atmosphere and distance to our star? What are the geometries among Earth, the Moon, and the Sun that yield lunar phases and seasons? Students explore these concepts and others in 11 teacher-tested activities.

  9. Earth formation porosity log

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D.; Smith, M.P.; Schultz, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for determining the porosity of earth formations in the vicinity of a cased well borehole is described, comprising the steps of: irradiating the earth formations in the vicinity of the cased well borehole with fast neutrons from a source of fast neutrons passed into the borehole; and generating a signal representative of the fast neutron population present in the well borehole at a location in the borehole, the signal is functionally related to the porosity of the earth formations in the vicinity of the borehole

  10. Earth before life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban, Caren; Viswanathan, Raju; Yurtsever, Ulvi

    2014-01-09

    A recent study argued, based on data on functional genome size of major phyla, that there is evidence life may have originated significantly prior to the formation of the Earth. Here a more refined regression analysis is performed in which 1) measurement error is systematically taken into account, and 2) interval estimates (e.g., confidence or prediction intervals) are produced. It is shown that such models for which the interval estimate for the time origin of the genome includes the age of the Earth are consistent with observed data. The appearance of life after the formation of the Earth is consistent with the data set under examination.

  11. Efficient isolation of pure and functional mitochondria from mouse tissues using automated tissue disruption and enrichment with anti-TOM22 magnetic beads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Franko

    Full Text Available To better understand molecular mechanisms regulating changes in metabolism, as observed e.g. in diabetes or neuronal disorders, the function of mitochondria needs to be precisely determined. The usual isolation methods such as differential centrifugation result in isolates of highly variable quality and quantity. To fulfill the need of a reproducible isolation method from solid tissues, which is suitable to handle parallel samples simultaneously, we developed a protocol based on anti-TOM22 (translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 22 homolog antibody-coupled magnetic beads. To measure oxygen consumption rate in isolated mitochondria from various mouse tissues, a traditional Clark electrode and the high-throughput XF Extracellular Flux Analyzer were used. Furthermore, Western blots, transmission electron microscopic and proteomic studies were performed to analyze the purity and integrity of the mitochondrial preparations. Mitochondrial fractions isolated from liver, brain and skeletal muscle by anti-TOM22 magnetic beads showed oxygen consumption capacities comparable to previously reported values and little contamination with other organelles. The purity and quality of isolated mitochondria using anti-TOM22 magnetic beads was compared to traditional differential centrifugation protocol in liver and the results indicated an obvious advantage of the magnetic beads method compared to the traditional differential centrifugation technique.

  12. Mobile Probes in Mobile Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Blomhøj, Ulla; Duvaa, Uffe

    In this paper experiences from using mobile probes in educational design of a mobile learning application is presented. The probing process stems from the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. In the project, the mobile phone was not only acting...... as an agent for acquiring empirical data (as the situation in hitherto mobile probe settings) but was also the technological medium for which data should say something about (mobile learning). Consequently, not only the content of the data but also the ways in which data was delivered and handled, provided...... a valuable dimension for investigating mobile use. The data was collected at the same time as design activities took place and the collective data was analysed based on user experience goals and cognitive processes from interaction design and mobile learning. The mobile probe increased the knowledge base...

  13. Water cooled static pressure probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagen, Nicholas T. (Inventor); Eves, John W. (Inventor); Reece, Garland D. (Inventor); Geissinger, Steve L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved static pressure probe containing a water cooling mechanism is disclosed. This probe has a hollow interior containing a central coolant tube and multiple individual pressure measurement tubes connected to holes placed on the exterior. Coolant from the central tube symmetrically immerses the interior of the probe, allowing it to sustain high temperature (in the region of 2500 F) supersonic jet flow indefinitely, while still recording accurate pressure data. The coolant exits the probe body by way of a reservoir attached to the aft of the probe. The pressure measurement tubes are joined to a single, larger manifold in the reservoir. This manifold is attached to a pressure transducer that records the average static pressure.

  14. Resolução e apreensão de princípios em Tomás de Aquino [Resolution and apprehension of principles in Aquinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Pazos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O escopo do presente artigo consiste em investigar a função da resolução na apreensão de princípios em Tomás de Aquino. Para tanto, examino o sentido da resolução do ente efetuada por Tomás em De veritate, q. 1, a. 1. Com o intuito de elucidar esse extrato textual, tenho por objetivo explicitar como Tomás associa o emprego da resolução, entendida como método próprio da razão humana, com a apreensão intelectual do ente que, de acordo com Tomás, é o princípio geral sem o qual todo conhecimento humano encontrar-se-ia desprovido de fundamentação.

  15. Tom Tabor, the owner of Tabor Communications, presents Wolfgang von Rüden with the Editors Choice Award of HPCwire, which was awarded to CERN for its commitment to educating the public about high-performance computing.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Tom Tabor, the owner of Tabor Communications, presents Wolfgang von Rüden with the Editors Choice Award of HPCwire, which was awarded to CERN for its commitment to educating the public about high-performance computing.

  16. Nuclear and subnuclear geophysics. Neutrinos from the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorentini, G.

    2005-01-01

    The deepest hole that has ever been dug is about 12 km deep, a mere dent in planetary terms. Geochemists analyze samples from the Earth's crust and from the top of the mantle. Seismology can reconstruct the density profile throughout all Earth, but not its composition. In this respect, our planet is mainly unexplored. Geo-neutrinos, the antineutrinos from the progenies of U, Th and 40 K decays in the Earth, bring to the surface information from the whole planet, concerning its content of radioactive elements. Their detection can shed light on the sources of the terrestrial heat flow, on the present composition and on the origin of the Earth. They represent a new probe of our planet which is becoming practical as a consequence of two fundamental advances that occurred in the last few years: the development of extremely low background neutrino detectors and the progress in understanding neutrino propagation. (author)

  17. Steerable Doppler transducer probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidel, H.F.; Greenwood, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    An ultrasonic diagnostic probe is described which is capable of performing ultrasonic imaging and Doppler measurement consisting of: a hollow case having an acoustic window which passes ultrasonic energy and including chamber means for containing fluid located within the hollow case and adjacent to a portion of the acoustic window; imaging transducer means, located in the hollow case and outside the fluid chamber means, and oriented to direct ultrasonic energy through the acoustic window toward an area which is to be imaged; Doppler transducer means, located in the hollow case within the fluid chamber means, and movably oriented to direct Doppler signals through the acoustic window toward the imaged area; means located within the fluid chamber means and externally controlled for controllably moving the Doppler transducer means to select one of a plurality of axes in the imaged area along which the Doppler signals are to be directed; and means, located external to the fluid chamber means and responsive to the means for moving, for providing an indication signal for identifying the selected axis

  18. Earth's variable rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hide, Raymond; Dickey, Jean O.

    1991-01-01

    Recent improvements in geodetic data and practical meteorology have advanced research on fluctuations in the earth's rotation. The interpretation of these fluctuations is inextricably linked with studies of the dynamics of the earth-moon system and dynamical processes in the liquid metallic core of the earth (where the geomagnetic field originates), other parts of the earth's interior, and the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Fluctuations in the length of the day occurring on decadal time scales have implications for the topographay of the core-mantle boundary and the electrical, magnetic, ande other properties of the core and lower mantle. Investigations of more rapid fluctuations bear on meteorological studies of interannual, seasonal, and intraseasonal variations in the general circulation of the atmosphere and the response of the oceans to such variations.

  19. Near Earth Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    , Near Earth Objects: Asteroids and comets following paths that bring them near the Earth. NEOs have collided with the Earth since its formation, some causing local devastation, some causing global climate changes, yet the threat from a collision with a near Earth object has only recently been recognised...... and accepted. The European Space Agency mission Gaia is a proposed space observatory, designed to perform a highly accurate census of our galaxy, the Milky Way, and beyond. Through accurate measurement of star positions, Gaia is expected to discover thousands of extra-solar planets and follow the bending...... of starlight by the Sun, and therefore directly observe the structure of space-time. This thesis explores several aspects of the observation of NEOs with Gaia, emphasising detection of NEOs and the quality of orbits computed from Gaia observations. The main contribution is the work on motion detection...

  20. Earth study from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, A. V.

    1981-01-01

    The significance that space studies are making to all Earth sciences in the areas of geography, geodesy, cartography, geology, meteorology, oceanology, agronomy, and ecology is discussed. It is predicted that cosmonautics will result in a revolution in science and technology.

  1. Earth's electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    The earth becomes charged during thunderstorm activity and discharges through the weak conducting atmosphere. Balloon and rocket studies infer that a high altitude electric field penetrates virtually unattenuated through the atmosphere, at least as far as balloon heights. The field has two primary sources. At low and mid latitudes, interaction between the earth's magnetic field and the neutral wind creates electric fields. At latitudes above 60 0 , the high altitude electrical structure is dominated by the interaction between the solar wind and the earth's magnetic field. The auroral light is emitted by atmospheric atoms and molecules excited by electrons with potentials of many thousands volts. The potentials are induced by the solar wind. Recent satellite data shows that the electrons get this energy by passing through a localized electric field about 6000 km above the auroral zone. Several rocket and satellite experiments used to study the earth's electric field are discussed

  2. Near Earth Asteroid Scout

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Near-Earth Asteroid Scout, or NEA Scout, is a 6U CubeSat developed jointly between NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. NASA...

  3. Gambling with the earth

    CERN Multimedia

    Muir, H

    2000-01-01

    The probability that dangerous Earth-devouring particles will be born at a new accelerator in the US may be tiny, but scientists have played down the devastating potential costs in their risk assessments according to a physicist (1 page).

  4. Jupiter and planet Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of Jupiter and Earth are discussed along with their atmospheres, the radiation belts around both planets, natural satellites, the evolution of life, and the Pioneer 10. Educational study projects are also included

  5. Earth retaining structures manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-29

    The objectives of this policy are to obtain statewide uniformity, establish standard : procedures and delineate responsibility for the preparation and review of plans, : design and construction control of earth retaining structures. In addition, it i...

  6. Earliest life on earth

    CERN Document Server

    Golding, Suzanne D

    2010-01-01

    This volume integrates the latest findings on earliest life forms, identified and characterized in some of the oldest rocks on Earth. It places emphasis on the integration of analytical methods with observational techniques and experimental simulations.

  7. A base sócio-histórica na construção do protagonista em As Aventuras de Tom Sawyer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Tavares Nates Moreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A obra The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, escrita pelo autor norte americano Samuel Langhorne Clemens, mais conhecido pelo pseudônimo Mark Twain, é considerada, hoje, a narrativa que inaugurou a literatura infanto-juvenil, no século XIX. Essa narrativa ganha maior expressividade devido a sua escrita de caráter regionalista utilizado pelo autor. Com a publicação de As Aventuras de Tom Sawyer, Mark Twain percorre o ambiente literário, com traços marcados pelo humor, pelo Realismo e pelo Regionalismo. Este trabalho objetiva analisar os fragmentos da fala de Tom e aspectos sócio-históricos de uma época de mudanças.  A finalidade é considerar o processo de transição do protagonista, dentro do romance. Desse modo, foram selecionados alguns fragmentos que revelam pontos Realistas. Após a leitura da obra, foram verificados e extraídos fragmentos representativos do jovem protagonista, tais como crenças religiosas, compreensão de mundo e valores morais. O filtro analítico se pauta no trabalho de teóricos como Bakhtin (2010, Watt (2010 e Blair (1967, entre outros, que contribuíram com informações sobre o desenvolvimento político, cultural e religioso das famílias americanas do Centro-Oeste dos Estados Unidos do século XIX. Serão abordadas as teorias sobre o personagem, a partir das reflexões de Gancho (2006 e Candido (2007. Os vários fragmentos analisados permitiram-nos chegar à conclusão sobre o modo como a transição do jovem protagonista foi influenciada, quais as características que revelam suas preferências e opiniões, e, por acréscimo, verificar que muitas dessas respostas poderão ser constatadas em conformidade com o período da época que, “irrevogavelmente”, são considerados intrínsecos na vida de Tom Sawyer.Palavras-chave: protagonista; regionalismo; realismo; Tom Sawyer.

  8. Large-scale analysis of full-length cDNAs from the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar Micro-Tom, a reference system for the Solanaceae genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Koh; Yano, Kentaro; Suzuki, Ayako; Kawamura, Shingo; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suda, Kunihiro; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Tsugane, Taneaki; Watanabe, Manabu; Ooga, Kazuhide; Torii, Maiko; Narita, Takanori; Shin-I, Tadasu; Kohara, Yuji; Yamamoto, Naoki; Takahashi, Hideki; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Egusa, Mayumi; Kodama, Motoichiro; Ichinose, Yuki; Kikuchi, Mari; Fukushima, Sumire; Okabe, Akiko; Arie, Tsutomu; Sato, Yuko; Yazawa, Katsumi; Satoh, Shinobu; Omura, Toshikazu; Ezura, Hiroshi; Shibata, Daisuke

    2010-03-30

    The Solanaceae family includes several economically important vegetable crops. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is regarded as a model plant of the Solanaceae family. Recently, a number of tomato resources have been developed in parallel with the ongoing tomato genome sequencing project. In particular, a miniature cultivar, Micro-Tom, is regarded as a model system in tomato genomics, and a number of genomics resources in the Micro-Tom-background, such as ESTs and mutagenized lines, have been established by an international alliance. To accelerate the progress in tomato genomics, we developed a collection of fully-sequenced 13,227 Micro-Tom full-length cDNAs. By checking redundant sequences, coding sequences, and chimeric sequences, a set of 11,502 non-redundant full-length cDNAs (nrFLcDNAs) was generated. Analysis of untranslated regions demonstrated that tomato has longer 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions than most other plants but rice. Classification of functions of proteins predicted from the coding sequences demonstrated that nrFLcDNAs covered a broad range of functions. A comparison of nrFLcDNAs with genes of sixteen plants facilitated the identification of tomato genes that are not found in other plants, most of which did not have known protein domains. Mapping of the nrFLcDNAs onto currently available tomato genome sequences facilitated prediction of exon-intron structure. Introns of tomato genes were longer than those of Arabidopsis and rice. According to a comparison of exon sequences between the nrFLcDNAs and the tomato genome sequences, the frequency of nucleotide mismatch in exons between Micro-Tom and the genome-sequencing cultivar (Heinz 1706) was estimated to be 0.061%. The collection of Micro-Tom nrFLcDNAs generated in this study will serve as a valuable genomic tool for plant biologists to bridge the gap between basic and applied studies. The nrFLcDNA sequences will help annotation of the tomato whole-genome sequence and aid in tomato functional

  9. Large-scale analysis of full-length cDNAs from the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cultivar Micro-Tom, a reference system for the Solanaceae genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Mari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Solanaceae family includes several economically important vegetable crops. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum is regarded as a model plant of the Solanaceae family. Recently, a number of tomato resources have been developed in parallel with the ongoing tomato genome sequencing project. In particular, a miniature cultivar, Micro-Tom, is regarded as a model system in tomato genomics, and a number of genomics resources in the Micro-Tom-background, such as ESTs and mutagenized lines, have been established by an international alliance. Results To accelerate the progress in tomato genomics, we developed a collection of fully-sequenced 13,227 Micro-Tom full-length cDNAs. By checking redundant sequences, coding sequences, and chimeric sequences, a set of 11,502 non-redundant full-length cDNAs (nrFLcDNAs was generated. Analysis of untranslated regions demonstrated that tomato has longer 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions than most other plants but rice. Classification of functions of proteins predicted from the coding sequences demonstrated that nrFLcDNAs covered a broad range of functions. A comparison of nrFLcDNAs with genes of sixteen plants facilitated the identification of tomato genes that are not found in other plants, most of which did not have known protein domains. Mapping of the nrFLcDNAs onto currently available tomato genome sequences facilitated prediction of exon-intron structure. Introns of tomato genes were longer than those of Arabidopsis and rice. According to a comparison of exon sequences between the nrFLcDNAs and the tomato genome sequences, the frequency of nucleotide mismatch in exons between Micro-Tom and the genome-sequencing cultivar (Heinz 1706 was estimated to be 0.061%. Conclusion The collection of Micro-Tom nrFLcDNAs generated in this study will serve as a valuable genomic tool for plant biologists to bridge the gap between basic and applied studies. The nrFLcDNA sequences will help annotation of the

  10. STM-SQUID probe microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Tadayuki; Tachiki, Minoru; Itozaki, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a STM-SQUID probe microscope. A high T C SQUID probe microscope was combined with a scanning tunneling microscope for investigation of samples at room temperature in air. A high permeability probe needle was used as a magnetic flux guide to improve the spatial resolution. The probe with tip radius of less than 100 nm was prepared by microelectropolishing. The probe was also used as a scanning tunneling microscope tip. Topography of the sample surface could be measured by the scanning tunneling microscope with high spatial resolution prior to observation by SQUID microscopy. The SQUID probe microscope image could be observed while keeping the distance from the sample surface to the probe tip constant. We observed a topographic image and a magnetic image of Ni fine pattern and also a magnetically recorded hard disk. Furthermore we have investigated a sample vibration method of the static magnetic field emanating from a sample with the aim of achieving a higher signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio

  11. The AMEMIYA probe. Theoretical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belitz, Hans Joahim; Althausen, Bernhard; Uehara, Kazuya; Amemiya, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    The present probe was developed in order to measure the temperature T i of positive ions in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of tokamak where T i is usually larger than the electron temperature Ti so that the presheath in front of the probe need not be considered and the ions reach the probe with the thermal velocity. The axis of the cylindrical probe is placed parallel to the magnetic field. The important parameter are L/a, the ratio of the length to the radius of the cylindrical probe and κ, the ratio of the probe radius to (π/4) 1/2 , where is the mean ion Larmor radius. The ion current densities to the side and the end surfaces are expressed by the double integral, which can give an analytical formula with respect to the value of κ. If two electrodes with different lengths are placed parallel to the magnetic field, the difference of current densities can be reduced to κ and hence to Ti. Some examples of the application of the probe to tokamaks, JFT-2M and Textor, are demonstrated. (author)

  12. Population Genetics of the São Tomé Caecilian (Gymnophiona: Dermophiidae: Schistometopum thomense) Reveals Strong Geographic Structuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelting, Ricka E.; Measey, G. John; Drewes, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Islands provide exciting opportunities for exploring ecological and evolutionary mechanisms. The oceanic island of São Tomé in the Gulf of Guinea exhibits high diversity of fauna including the endemic caecilian amphibian, Schistometopum thomense. Variation in pigmentation, morphology and size of this taxon over its c. 45 km island range is extreme, motivating a number of taxonomic, ecological, and evolutionary hypotheses to explain the observed diversity. We conducted a population genetic study of S. thomense using partial sequences of two mitochondrial DNA genes (ND4 and 16S), together with morphological examination, to address competing hypotheses of taxonomic or clinal variation. Using Bayesian phylogenetic analysis and Spatial Analysis of Molecular Variance, we found evidence of four geographic clades, whose range and approximated age (c. 253 Kya – 27 Kya) are consistent with the spread and age of recent volcanic flows. These clades explained 90% of variation in ND4 (φCT = 0.892), and diverged by 4.3% minimum pairwise distance at the deepest node. Most notably, using Mismatch Distributions and Mantel Tests, we identified a zone of population admixture that dissected the island. In the northern clade, we found evidence of recent population expansion (Fu's Fs = −13.08 and Tajima's D = −1.80) and limited dispersal (Mantel correlation coefficient = 0.36, p = 0.01). Color assignment to clades was not absolute. Paired with multinomial regression of chromatic data, our analyses suggested that the genetic groups and a latitudinal gradient together describe variation in color of S. thomense. We propose that volcanism and limited dispersal ability are the likely proximal causes of the observed genetic structure. This is the first population genetic study of any caecilian and demonstrates that these animals have deep genetic divisions over very small areas in accordance with previous speculations of low dispersal abilities. PMID:25171066

  13. Integrated microfluidic probe station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, C M; Qasaimeh, M A; Brastaviceanu, T; Anderson, K; Kabakibo, Y; Juncker, D

    2010-11-01

    The microfluidic probe (MFP) consists of a flat, blunt tip with two apertures for the injection and reaspiration of a microjet into a solution--thus hydrodynamically confining the microjet--and is operated atop an inverted microscope that enables live imaging. By scanning across a surface, the microjet can be used for surface processing with the capability of both depositing and removing material; as it operates under immersed conditions, sensitive biological materials and living cells can be processed. During scanning, the MFP is kept immobile and centered over the objective of the inverted microscope, a few micrometers above a substrate that is displaced by moving the microscope stage and that is flushed continuously with the microjet. For consistent and reproducible surface processing, the gap between the MFP and the substrate, the MFP's alignment, the scanning speed, the injection and aspiration flow rates, and the image capture need all to be controlled and synchronized. Here, we present an automated MFP station that integrates all of these functionalities and automates the key operational parameters. A custom software program is used to control an independent motorized Z stage for adjusting the gap, a motorized microscope stage for scanning the substrate, up to 16 syringe pumps for injecting and aspirating fluids, and an inverted fluorescence microscope equipped with a charge-coupled device camera. The parallelism between the MFP and the substrate is adjusted using manual goniometer at the beginning of the experiment. The alignment of the injection and aspiration apertures along the scanning axis is performed using a newly designed MFP screw holder. We illustrate the integrated MFP station by the programmed, automated patterning of fluorescently labeled biotin on a streptavidin-coated surface.

  14. Short recovery time NMR probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramia, M.E.; Martin, C.A.; Jeandrevin, S.

    2011-01-01

    A NMR probe for low frequency and short recovery time is presented in this work. The probe contains the tuning circuit, diode expanders and quarter wavelength networks to protect the receiver from both the amplifier noise and the coil ringing following the transmitter power pulse. It also possesses a coil damper which is activated by of non active components. The probe performance shows a recovery time of about of 15μs a sensitive Q factor reduction and an increase of the signal to noise ratio of about 68% during the reception at a work frequency of 2 MHz. (author)

  15. Optimal Safety EarthingEarth Electrode Sizing Using A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a deterministic approach in the sizing of earth electrode using the permissible touch voltage criteria is presented. The deterministic approach is effectively applied in the sizing of the length of earth rod required for the safe earthing of residential and facility buildings. This approach ensures that the earthing ...

  16. Prospection and catalogue of sites for geothermal probes in the canton of Jura. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieben, C.; Adatte, P.

    1996-10-01

    The aim of this report is to establish the different possibilities of using so called 'Earth Probes' in Karstic areas. In Switzerland, most of the existing vertical Earth Probes are located on the plateau. In calcareous regions, whether in the Jura or in the Prealps, this type of equipment has not yet been used much because of its interference with the Karstic aquifers which bear important drinking water resources. However, an important demand exists in these areas, as can be witnessed in the canton of Jura for example where some 300 vertical probes have already been drilled. In 1996, almost 10% of the licence's request for heating installations involved Geothermic Probes. Unfortunately, in the absence of a coherent management policy, both local and regional water resources are being endangered by the multiplication of these Geothermic Probes. It would therefore appear to be necessary to elaborate a site implantation assessment methodology specific to limestone areas. Such an assessment methodology should not only further groundwater conservation, but also promote Geothermy in the future. This multicriteria approach should integrate Karstic aquifer specificities by taking into account both the above ground factors but also the underground parameters. The result of the application of this particular approach in the canton Jura is shown on a 1:50'000 scale map where potential Earth Probe sites are localised and on a 1:5'000 scale land registry map of the City of Delement. In comparison with the current unmanaged situation, this approach has the effect of restricting the use of Earth Probes, as it would be forbid their use in eight townships. However, it must be underlined that 97% of the Jura population lives in built-up areas where the unrestricted exploitation of Geothermy is permitted. The application of this particular approach as regards to other Karstic areas would enable a wide expansion of implantation possibilities of this type of equipment. (author) figs

  17. The Albedos of Kepler's Close-in super-Earths

    OpenAIRE

    Demory, Brice-Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Exoplanet research focusing on the characterization of super-Earths is currently limited to those handful targets orbiting bright stars that are amenable to detailed study. This Letter proposes to look at alternative avenues to probe the surface and atmospheric properties of this category of planets, known to be ubiquitous in our galaxy. I conduct Markov Chain Monte Carlo lightcurve analyses for 97 Kepler close-in $R_P \\lesssim 2.0 R_{\\oplus}$ super-Earth candidates with the aim to detect the...

  18. Possible concepts for an in situ Saturn probe mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, Athena; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Mousis, Olivier; Atkinson, David H.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Reh, Kim R.; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Atreya, Sushil; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Cavalie, Thibault; Colaprete, Anthony; Gautier, Daniel; Guillot, Tristan; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Marty, Bernard; Morse, Andy; Sims, Jon; Spilker, Tom; Spilker, Linda

    2014-05-01

    In situ exploration of Saturn's atmosphere would bring insights in two broad themes: the formation history of our solar system and the processes at play in planetary atmospheres. The science case for in situ measurements at Saturn are developed in [1] and two companion abstracts (see Mousis et al., and Atkinson et al.). They are summarized here. Measurements of Saturn's bulk chemical and isotopic composition would place important constraints on the volatile reservoirs in the protosolar nebula and hence on the formation mechanisms. An in situ probe, penetrating from the upper atmosphere (μbar level) into the convective weather layer to a minimum depth of 10 bar, would also contribute to our knowledge of Saturn's atmospheric structure, dynamics, composition, chemistry and cloud-forming processes. Different mission architectures are envisaged, all based on an entry probe that would descend through Saturn's stratosphere and troposphere under parachute down to a minimum of 10 bars [1]. Future studies will focus on the trade-offs between science return and the added design complexity of a probe that could operate at pressures larger than 10 bars. Accelerometry measurements may also be performed during the entry phase in the higher part of the stratosphere prior to starting measurements under parachute. A carrier system would be required to deliver the probe along its interplanetary trajectory to the desired atmospheric entry point at Saturn. The entry site would be carefully selected. Three possible mission configurations are currently under study (with different risk/cost trades): • Configuration 1: Probe + Carrier. After probe delivery, the carrier would follow its path and be destroyed during atmospheric entry, but could perform pre-entry science. The carrier would not be used as a radio relay, but the probe would transmit its data to the ground system via a direct-to-Earth (DTE) RF link; • Configuration 2: Probe + Carrier/Relay. The probe would detach from the

  19. Lepton probes in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvieux, J. [Laboratoire National Saturne, Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1994-12-31

    Facilities are overviewed which use the lepton probe to learn about nuclear physics. The lepton accelerating methods out some existing facilities are considered. The ELFE project is discussed in detail. (K.A.). 43 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Probing of flowing electron plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himura, H.; Nakashima, C.; Saito, H.; Yoshida, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Probing of streaming electron plasmas with finite temperature is studied. For the first time, a current-voltage characteristic of an electric probe is measured in electron plasmas. Due to the fast flow of the electron plasmas, the characteristic curve spreads out significantly and exhibits a long tail. This feature can be explained calculating the currents collected to the probe. In flowing electron plasmas, the distribution function observed in the laboratory frame is non-Maxwellian even if the plasmas come to a state of thermal equilibrium. Another significant feature of the characteristic is that it determines a floating potential where the current equals zero, despite there being very few ions in the electron plasma. A high impedance probe, which is popularly used to determine the space potential of electron plasmas, outputs the potential. The method is available only for plasmas with density much smaller than the Brillouin limit

  1. Monitoring probe for groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, B.B.; Ballard, S.

    1994-08-23

    A monitoring probe for detecting groundwater migration is disclosed. The monitor features a cylinder made of a permeable membrane carrying an array of electrical conductivity sensors on its outer surface. The cylinder is filled with a fluid that has a conductivity different than the groundwater. The probe is placed in the ground at an area of interest to be monitored. The fluid, typically saltwater, diffuses through the permeable membrane into the groundwater. The flow of groundwater passing around the permeable membrane walls of the cylinder carries the conductive fluid in the same general direction and distorts the conductivity field measured by the sensors. The degree of distortion from top to bottom and around the probe is precisely related to the vertical and horizontal flow rates, respectively. The electrical conductivities measured by the sensors about the outer surface of the probe are analyzed to determine the rate and direction of the groundwater flow. 4 figs.

  2. Pneumatic probe with laser interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkens, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    Improvements to upgrade the accuracy of Rotacon probes by a complete redesign of probe to include a Michelson interferometer to replace the existing long-range capacity transducer are described. This has resulted in a compact and interchangeable probe cartridge with a 3 μin. resolution and accuracy; the cartridge can be installed and replaced in the Rotacon gauge with the minimum of realignment, which should reduce our dependence on operator skill. In addition, the stylus contact force can be reduced to 750 mg for the contacting types, but an alternative feature, which we are still developing, will use a gas jet cushion in place of the stylus to provide a noncontacting version of the same basic probe cartridge. This device is very sensitive to external vibration effects because it is virtually frictionless

  3. Lepton probes in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvieux, J.

    1994-01-01

    Facilities are overviewed which use the lepton probe to learn about nuclear physics. The lepton accelerating methods out some existing facilities are considered. The ELFE project is discussed in detail. (K.A.). 43 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs

  4. The Sun and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2012-01-01

    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  5. Earth and planetary sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherill, G.W.; Drake, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    The earth is a dynamic body. The major surface manifestation of this dynamism has been fragmentation of the earth's outer shell and subsequent relative movement of the pieces on a large scale. Evidence for continental movement came from studies of geomagnetism. As the sea floor spreads and new crust is formed, it is magnetized with the polarity of the field at the time of its formation. The plate tectonics model explains the history, nature, and topography of the oceanic crust. When a lithospheric plate surmounted by continental crust collides with an oceanic lithosphere, it is the denser oceanic lithosphere that is subducted. Hence the ancient oceans have vanished and the knowledge of ancient earth will require deciphering the complex continental geological record. Geochemical investigation shows that the source region of continental rocks is not simply the depleted mantle that is characteristic of the source region of basalts produced at the oceanic ridges. The driving force of plate tectonics is convection within the earth, but much remains to be learned about the convection and interior of the earth. A brief discussion of planetary exploration is given

  6. The earth's hydrological cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, R-M; Calisto, M; Destouni, G; Gurney, R; Johannessen, J; Kerr, Y; Lahoz, WA; Rast, M

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive presentation of our present understanding of the Earth's Hydrological cycle and the problems, consequences and impacts that go with this topic. Water is a central component in the Earth's system. It is indispensable for life on Earth in its present form and influences virtually every aspect of our planet's life support system. On relatively short time scales, atmospheric water vapor interacts with the atmospheric circulation and is crucial in forming the Earth's climate zones. Water vapor is the most powerful of the greenhouse gases and serves to enhance the tropospheric temperature. The dominant part of available water on Earth resides in the oceans. Parts are locked up in the land ice on Greenland and Antarctica and a smaller part is estimated to exist as groundwater. If all the ice over the land and all the glaciers were to melt, the sea level would rise by some 80 m. In comparison, the total amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is small; it amounts to ~ 25 kg/m2, or the ...

  7. Modeling the earth system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojima, D. [ed.

    1992-12-31

    The 1990 Global Change Institute (GCI) on Earth System Modeling is the third of a series organized by the Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies to look in depth at particular issues critical to developing a better understanding of the earth system. The 1990 GCI on Earth System Modeling was organized around three themes: defining critical gaps in the knowledge of the earth system, developing simplified working models, and validating comprehensive system models. This book is divided into three sections that reflect these themes. Each section begins with a set of background papers offering a brief tutorial on the subject, followed by working group reports developed during the institute. These reports summarize the joint ideas and recommendations of the participants and bring to bear the interdisciplinary perspective that imbued the institute. Since the conclusion of the 1990 Global Change Institute, research programs, nationally and internationally, have moved forward to implement a number of the recommendations made at the institute, and many of the participants have maintained collegial interactions to develop research projects addressing the needs identified during the two weeks in Snowmass.

  8. The Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, Mark; Rood, Richard B.; Hildebrand, Peter; Raymond, Carol

    2003-01-01

    The Earth System Model is the natural evolution of current climate models and will be the ultimate embodiment of our geophysical understanding of the planet. These models are constructed from components - atmosphere, ocean, ice, land, chemistry, solid earth, etc. models and merged together through a coupling program which is responsible for the exchange of data from the components. Climate models and future earth system models will have standardized modules, and these standards are now being developed by the ESMF project funded by NASA. The Earth System Model will have a variety of uses beyond climate prediction. The model can be used to build climate data records making it the core of an assimilation system, and it can be used in OSSE experiments to evaluate. The computing and storage requirements for the ESM appear to be daunting. However, the Japanese ES theoretical computing capability is already within 20% of the minimum requirements needed for some 2010 climate model applications. Thus it seems very possible that a focused effort to build an Earth System Model will achieve succcss.

  9. Rare earths and actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coqblin, B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews the different properties of rare-earths and actinides, either as pure metals or as in alloys or compounds. Three different cases are considered: (i) First, in the case of 'normal' rare-earths which are characterized by a valence of 3, we discuss essentially the magnetic ordering, the coexistence between superconductivity and magnetism and the properties of amorphous rare-earth systems. (ii) Second, in the case of 'anomalous' rare-earths, we distinguish between either 'intermediate-valence' systems or 'Kondo' systems. Special emphasis is given to the problems of the 'Kondo lattice' (for compounds such as CeAl 2 ,CeAl 3 or CeB 6 ) or the 'Anderson lattice' (for compounds such as TmSe). The problem of neutron diffraction in these systems is also discussed. (iii) Third, in the case of actinides, we can separate between the d-f hybridized and almost magnetic metals at the beginning of the series and the rare-earth like the metals after americium. (orig.)

  10. DNA probe for lactobacillus delbrueckii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delley, M.; Mollet, B.; Hottinger, H. (Nestle Research Centre, Lausanne (Switzerland))

    1990-06-01

    From a genomic DNA library of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, a clone was isolated which complements a leucine auxotrophy of an Escherichia coli strain (GE891). Subsequent analysis of the clone indicated that it could serve as a specific DNA probe. Dot-blot hybridizations with over 40 different Lactobacillus strains showed that this clone specifically recognized L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, bulgaricus, and lactis. The sensitivity of the method was tested by using an {alpha}-{sup 32}P-labeled probe.

  11. DNA probe for lactobacillus delbrueckii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delley, M.; Mollet, B.; Hottinger, H.

    1990-01-01

    From a genomic DNA library of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, a clone was isolated which complements a leucine auxotrophy of an Escherichia coli strain (GE891). Subsequent analysis of the clone indicated that it could serve as a specific DNA probe. Dot-blot hybridizations with over 40 different Lactobacillus strains showed that this clone specifically recognized L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, bulgaricus, and lactis. The sensitivity of the method was tested by using an α- 32 P-labeled probe

  12. Videnskabsretorik eller tom retorik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Leif Becker

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler videnskabsretorik såvel i den videnskabelige undersøgelse som i fremlæggelsen inden for forskellige paradigmer, herunder argumetnation set i lyset af Toulmins argumentationsmodel....

  13. Response to Tom Cobb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In this article Paul Nation responds to Thomas Cobb's "Numbers or Numerology? A Response to Nation (2014) and McQuillan (2016)" (EJ1117024). Nation begins by clarifying his own position on vocabulary learning and goes on to highlight points made in Cobb's article with which he is in agreement, while drawing from his 2014 article,…

  14. Trouble in Toms River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugg, Catherine A.; Tooms, Autumn K.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a recent New Jersey Supreme Court decision (2007), this case addresses a school district's responsibility regarding homophobic bullying, school culture, and the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender students to be free of discrimination.

  15. Earth's Trojan asteroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Martin; Wiegert, Paul; Veillet, Christian

    2011-07-27

    It was realized in 1772 that small bodies can stably share the same orbit as a planet if they remain near 'triangular points' 60° ahead of or behind it in the orbit. Such 'Trojan asteroids' have been found co-orbiting with Jupiter, Mars and Neptune. They have not hitherto been found associated with Earth, where the viewing geometry poses difficulties for their detection, although other kinds of co-orbital asteroid (horseshoe orbiters and quasi-satellites) have been observed. Here we report an archival search of infrared data for possible Earth Trojans, producing the candidate 2010 TK(7). We subsequently made optical observations which established that 2010 TK(7) is a Trojan companion of Earth, librating around the leading Lagrange triangular point, L(4). Its orbit is stable over at least ten thousand years.

  16. How Big is Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Bonnie B.

    2015-08-01

    How Big is Earth celebrates the Year of Light. Using only the sunlight striking the Earth and a wooden dowel, students meet each other and then measure the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes did it over 2,000 years ago. In Cosmos, Carl Sagan shared the process by which Eratosthenes measured the angle of the shadow cast at local noon when sunlight strikes a stick positioned perpendicular to the ground. By comparing his measurement to another made a distance away, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth. How Big is Earth provides an online learning environment where students do science the same way Eratosthenes did. A notable project in which this was done was The Eratosthenes Project, conducted in 2005 as part of the World Year of Physics; in fact, we will be drawing on the teacher's guide developed by that project.How Big Is Earth? expands on the Eratosthenes project by providing an online learning environment provided by the iCollaboratory, www.icollaboratory.org, where teachers and students from Sweden, China, Nepal, Russia, Morocco, and the United States collaborate, share data, and reflect on their learning of science and astronomy. They are sharing their information and discussing their ideas/brainstorming the solutions in a discussion forum. There is an ongoing database of student measurements and another database to collect data on both teacher and student learning from surveys, discussions, and self-reflection done online.We will share our research about the kinds of learning that takes place only in global collaborations.The entrance address for the iCollaboratory is http://www.icollaboratory.org.

  17. Teaching earth science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpha, Tau Rho; Diggles, Michael F.

    1998-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains 17 teaching tools: 16 interactive HyperCard 'stacks' and a printable model. They are separated into the following categories: Geologic Processes, Earthquakes and Faulting, and Map Projections and Globes. A 'navigation' stack, Earth Science, is provided as a 'launching' place from which to access all of the other stacks. You can also open the HyperCard Stacks folder and launch any of the 16 stacks yourself. In addition, a 17th tool, Earth and Tectonic Globes, is provided as a printable document. Each of the tools can be copied onto a 1.4-MB floppy disk and distributed freely.

  18. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Méndez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  19. IR and the Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf; Stevenson, Hayley

    2017-01-01

    , in the end, one finite interconnected space. Together these two starting points make for the basic conundrum of Inter- national Relations and the Earth: how does a divided world live on a single globe? This introduction first provides an overview of the recent rise of ‘the environment’ in international......, ‘what has the environment ever done for IR?’, before the plan for the rest of the book sketches the content and direction of the ensuing chapters that explore the problematique of International Relations and the Earth....

  20. The Earth's Plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's plasmasphere is an inner part of the magneteosphere. It is located just outside the upper ionosphere located in Earth's atmosphere. It is a region of dense, cold plasma that surrounds the Earth. Although plasma is found throughout the magnetosphere, the plasmasphere usually contains the coldest plasma. Here's how it works: The upper reaches of our planet's atmosphere are exposed to ultraviolet light from the Sun, and they are ionized with electrons that are freed from neutral atmospheric particles. The results are electrically charged negative and positive particles. The negative particles are electrons, and the positive particles are now called ions (formerly atoms and molecules). If the density of these particles is low enough, this electrically charged gas behaves differently than it would if it were neutral. Now this gas is called plasma. The atmospheric gas density becomes low enough to support the conditions for a plasma around earth at about 90 kilometers above Earth's surface. The electrons in plasma gain more energy, and they are very low in mass. They move along Earth's magnetic field lines and their increased energy is enough to escape Earth's gravity. Because electrons are very light, they don't have to gain too much kinetic energy from the Sun's ultraviolet light before gravity loses its grip on them. Gravity is not all that holds them back, however. As more and more electrons begin to escape outward, they leave behind a growing net positive electric charge in the ionosphere and create a growing net negative electric charge above the ionosphere; an electric field begins to develop (the Pannekoek-Rosseland E-field). Thus, these different interacting charges result in a positively charged ionosphere and negatively charged region of space above it. Very quickly this resulting electric field opposed upward movement of the electrons out of the ionosphere. The electrons still have this increased energy, however, so the electric field doesn't just

  1. IVVS probe mechanical concept design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.rossi@enea.it; Neri, Carlo; De Collibus, Mario Ferri; Mugnaini, Giampiero; Pollastrone, Fabio; Crescenzi, Fabio

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • ENEA designed, developed and tested a laser based In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS). • IVVS mechanical design has been revised from 2011 to 2013 to meet ITER requirements. • Main improvements are piezoceramic actuators and a step focus system. • Successful qualification activities validated the concept design for ITER environment. - Abstract: ENEA has been deeply involved in the design, development and testing of a laser based In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) required for the inspection of ITER plasma-facing components. The IVVS probe shall be deployed into the vacuum vessel, providing high resolution images and metrology measurements to detect damages and possible erosion. ENEA already designed and manufactured an IVVS probe prototype based on a rad-hard concept and driven by commercial micro-step motors, which demonstrated satisfying viewing and metrology performances at room conditions. The probe sends a laser beam through a reflective rotating prism. By rotating the axes of the prism, the probe can scan all the environment points except those present in a shadow cone and the backscattered light signal is then processed to measure the intensity level (viewing) and the distance from the probe (metrology). During the last years, in order to meet all the ITER environmental conditions, such as high vacuum, gamma radiation lifetime dose up to 5 MGy, cumulative neutron fluence of about 2.3 × 10{sup 17} n/cm{sup 2}, temperature of 120 °C and magnetic field of 8 T, the probe mechanical design was significantly revised introducing a new actuating system based on piezo-ceramic actuators and improved with a new step focus system. The optical and mechanical schemes have been then modified and refined to meet also the geometrical constraints. The paper describes the mechanical concept design solutions adopted in order to fulfill IVVS probe functional performance requirements considering ITER working environment and geometrical constraints.

  2. Interstellar Probe: First Step to the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, R. L., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    The idea of an "Interstellar Probe," a robotic spacecraft traveling into the nearby interstellar medium for the purpose of scientific investigation, dates to the mid-1960s. The Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM), an "accidental" 40-year-old by-product of the Grand Tour of the solar system, has provided initial answers to the problem of the global heliospheric configuration and the details of its interface with interstellar space. But the twin Voyager spacecraft have, at most, only another decade of lifetime, and only Voyager 1 has emerged from the heliosheath interaction region. To understand the nature of the interaction, a near-term mission to the "near-by" interstellar medium with modern and focused instrumentation remains a compelling priority. Imaging of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) by the Ion Neutral CAmera (INCA) on Cassini and from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) in Earth orbit have provided significant new insights into the global interaction region but point to discrepancies with our current understanding. Exploring "as far as possible" into "pristine" interstellar space can resolve these. Hence, reaching large heliocentric distances rapidly is a driver for an Interstellar Probe. Such a mission is timely; understanding the interstellar context of exoplanet systems - and perhaps the context for the emergence of life both here and there - hinges upon what we can discover within our own stellar neighborhood. With current spacecraft technology and high-capability launch vehicles, such as the Space Launch System (SLS), a small, but extremely capable spacecraft, could be dispatched to the near-by interstellar medium with at least twice the speed of the Voyagers. Challenges remain with payload mass and power constraints for optimized science measurements. Mission longevity, as experienced by, but not designed into, the Voyagers, communications capability, and radioisotope power system performance and lifetime are solvable engineering challenges. Such

  3. Up-to-date concentrations of long-lived artificial radionuclides in the Tom and Ob rivers in the area influenced by discharges from Siberian chemical combine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, A.I.; Kryshev, I.I.; Bashkirov, N.I.; Valetova, N.K.; Dunaev, G.E.; Kabanov, A.I.; Katrich, I.Yu; Krutovsky, A.O.; Nikitin, V.A.; Petrenko, G.I.; Polukhina, A.M.; Selivanova, G.V.; Shkuro, V.N.

    2012-01-01

    The Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC) is located in Seversk (formerly known as Tomsk-7) in the Tomsk Region of the Russian Federation. The main contribution of radionuclides in the SCC process water discharged into the Tom River was from the single-pass reactors, now removed from service (the last SCC reactor was shutdown on June 5, 2008). The data on the concentrations of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239,240 Pu and other artificial radionuclides in water, bottom sediments and flood-plain soils of the Tom and Ob rivers from Tomsk to the confluence of the rivers, are presented and discussed. The results of measurements carried out after shutdown of the last SCC single-pass reactor indicated no radiologically significant consequences of SCC activities for the studied water environment compartments. Contemporary activity concentrations of long-lived artificial radionuclides 3 H, 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu in river water were below the intervention levels established by current regulations of the Russian Federation for these radionuclides. The results of 3 H analysis in water from the Tom and Samuska rivers demonstrated no inflow of contaminated formation water to surface water from the sites where liquid radioactive wastes of the SCC were injected below the surface. However, the density of flood-plain soil contamination by long-lived 137 Cs in the area influenced by SCC liquid discharges was higher than regional technogenic background. There were local flood-plain areas contaminated not only by 137 Cs, but also other gamma-emitters, such as 60 Co and 152 Eu.

  4. "Galileo Calling Earth..."

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This guide presents an activity for helping students understand how data from the Galileo spacecraft is sent to scientists on earth. Students are asked to learn about the concepts of bit-rate and resolution and apply them to the interpretation of images from the Galileo Orbiter. (WRM)

  5. Bones of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Jose Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The film "Bones of the Earth" (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014) is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective…

  6. Our bubbling Earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    In several places on earth large volumes of gas are seen to escape. These gases are usually dominated by CO2. The emissions are associated with volcanic activity, and are attributed to magma degassing. It will be shown that in the case of Milos this explanation is unacceptable for quantitative

  7. Cosmic rays on earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allkofer, O.C.; Grieder, P.K.F.

    1984-01-01

    A data collection is presented that covers cosmic rays on earth. Included are all relevant data on flux and intensity measurements, energy spectra, and related data of all primary and secondary components of the cosmic radiation at all levels in the atmosphere, at sea level and underground. In those cases where no useful experimental data have been available, theoretical predictions were substituted. (GSCH)

  8. Earth as art 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2016-03-29

    Landsat 8 is the latest addition to the long-running series of Earth-observing satellites in the Landsat program that began in 1972. The images featured in this fourth installment of the Earth As Art collection were all acquired by Landsat 8. They show our planet’s diverse landscapes with remarkable clarity.Landsat satellites see the Earth as no human can. Not only do they acquire images from the vantage point of space, but their sensors record infrared as well as visible wavelengths of light. The resulting images often reveal “hidden” details of the Earth’s land surface, making them invaluable for scientific research.As with previous Earth As Art exhibits, these Landsat images were selected solely for their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation—only for your viewing pleasure. What do you see in these unique glimpses of the Earth’s continents, islands, and coastlines?

  9. Google Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, William H.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Secrest, Jeffery A.

    2015-01-01

    Google Earth has made a wealth of aerial imagery available online at no cost to users. We examine some of the potential uses of that data in illustrating basic physics and astronomy, such as finding the local magnetic declination, using landmarks such as the Washington Monument and Luxor Obelisk as gnomons, and showing how airport runways get…

  10. How life shaped Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael

    2015-10-05

    Earth is much more complex than all the other solar system objects that we know. Thanks to its rich and diverse geology, our planet can offer habitats to a wide range of living species. Emerging insights suggest that this is not just a happy coincidence, but that life itself has in many ways helped to shape the planet.

  11. Magnetic rare earth superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majkrzak, C.F.; Kwo, J.; Hong, M.

    1991-01-01

    Advances in molecular beam epitaxy deposition techniques have recently made it possible to grow, an atomic plane at a time, single crystalline superlattices composed of alternating layers of a magnetic rare earth, such as Gd, Dy, Ho, or Er, and metallic Y, which has an identical chemical structure...

  12. Understanding Earth's Albedo Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Chuck

    2012-01-01

    Earth and space science in the middle school classroom are composed of intricately intertwined sets of conceptual systems (AAAS 1993; NRC 1996). Some systems of study, such as the water and rock cycles, are quite explicit and often found as stand-alone middle school science units. Other phenomena are not so apparent, yet they play an extremely…

  13. Earth Science Misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, William C.

    1991-01-01

    Presented is a list of over 50 commonly held misconceptions based on a literature review found in students and adults. The list covers earth science topics such as space, the lithosphere, the biosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the cryosphere. (KR)

  14. The earths innermost core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    A new earth model is advanced with a solid innermost core at the centre of the Earth where elements heavier than iron, over and above what can be retained in solution in the iron core, are collected. The innermost core is separated from the solid iron-nickel core by a shell of liquid copper. The innermost core has a natural vibration measured on the earth's surface as the long period 26 seconds microseisms. The earth was formed initially as a liquid sphere with a relatively thin solid crust above the Byerly discontinuity. The trace elements that entered the innermost core amounted to only 0.925 ppm of the molten mass. Gravitational differentiation must have led to the separation of an explosive thickness of pure 235 U causing a fission explosion that could expel beyond the Roche limit a crustal scab which would form the centre piece of the moon. A reservoir of helium floats on the liquid copper. A small proportion of helium-3, a relic of the ancient fission explosion present there will spell the exciting magnetic field. The field is stable for thousands of years because of the presence of large quantity of helium-4 which accounts for most of the gaseous collisions that will not disturb the atomic spin of helium-3 atoms. This field is prone to sudden reversals after long periods of stability. (author). 14 refs

  15. La iglesia de los santos Ildefonso y Tomás de Villanueva en Roma: un monumento barroco a la pietas hispanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Tornel, Pablo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1667 the construction of the Hospice of Saints Ildefonso and Tomás de Villanueva began on the Roman Via Sistina. The headquarters of the Augustinian Recollects in Rome took on a particular architectural configuration directly inspired by Francesco Borromini’s Chapel of the Three Kings and a very concrete iconography linked to the political situation during the second half of the 17th century. Thus the church was decorated to create a monument to the Immaculate Conception with images of the Loreto litany adorning its walls, reinforced by paintings of the Virgins of Copacabana and Guadalupe inside. All of this, combined with the dedication of the building to Saint Tomás de Villanueva (canonized in 1658, turns the temple into a celebration of the pietas hispanica in an area of the Holy City scene of clashes for power between France and Spain.En 1667 se pone la primera piedra del Hospicio de los santos Ildefonso y Tomás de Villanueva en la Via Sistina romana. La sede de la orden de los agustinos recoletos en Roma toma una particular configuración arquitectónica, directamente inspirada en la Capilla de los Reyes Magos de Francesco Borromini, y una muy definida iconografía vinculada con la situación política de la segunda mitad del siglo XVII. Así, la iglesia se erige en un monumento a la Inmaculada Concepción concretado en las imágenes de la letanía lauretana que ornan sus muros y reforzado por las pinturas de las vírgenes de Copacabana y Guadalupe en su interior. Todo ello, junto a la advocación a Santo Tomás de Villanueva, canonizado en 1658, convierte el templo en un alegato a la pietas hispanica en un área de la ciudad que fue escenario de los enfrentamientos entre Francia y España.

  16. HIV-1 infection, response to treatment and establishment of viral latency in a novel humanized T cell-only mouse (TOM) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Jenna B; Wahl, Angela; Archin, Nancie; Choudhary, Shailesh; Margolis, David; Garcia, J Victor

    2013-10-24

    The major targets of HIV infection in humans are CD4⁺ T cells. CD4⁺ T cell depletion is a hallmark of AIDS. Previously, the SCID-hu thy/liv model was used to study the effect of HIV on thymopoeisis in vivo. However, these mice did not develop high levels of peripheral T cell reconstitution and required invasive surgery for infection and analysis. Here, we describe a novel variant of this model in which thy/liv implantation results in systemic reconstitution with human T cells in the absence of any other human hematopoietic lineages. NOD/SCID-hu thy/liv and NSG-hu thy/liv mice were created by implanting human fetal thymus and liver tissues under the kidney capsule of either NOD/SCID or NSG mice. In contrast to NOD/SCID-hu thy/liv mice that show little or no human cells in peripheral blood or tissues, substantial systemic human reconstitution occurs in NSG-hu thy/liv. These mice are exclusively reconstituted with human T cells (i.e. T-cell only mice or TOM). Despite substantial levels of human T cells no signs of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were noted in these mice over a period of 14 months. TOM are readily infected after parenteral exposure to HIV-1. HIV replication is sustained in peripheral blood at high levels and results in modest reduction of CD4⁺ T cells. HIV-1 replication in TOM responds to daily administration of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) resulting in strong suppression of virus replication as determined by undetectable viral load in plasma. Latently HIV infected resting CD4⁺ T cells can be isolated from suppressed mice that can be induced to express HIV ex-vivo upon activation demonstrating the establishment of latency in vivo. NSG-hu thy/liv mice are systemically reconstituted with human T cells. No other human lymphoid lineages are present in these mice (i.e. monocytes/macrophages, B cells and DC are all absent). These T cell only mice do not develop GVHD, are susceptible to HIV-1 infection and can efficiently maintain virus

  17. La Chartreuse de Parme,Tom Jones et Vanity Fair : la représentation autoconsciente dans trois stades de développement

    OpenAIRE

    Vågslid, Gudfrid

    2007-01-01

    En résumé INTRODUCTION Pour ce mémoire j ai choisi trois uvres réalistes, notamment The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling publié par Henry Fielding en 1749, La Chartreuse de Parme de Stendhal (1839) et Vanity Fair, a novel without a hero de William Makepeace Thackeray qui est paru en feuilleton en 1847-48. Je me concentrerai sur la Chartreuse et me servirai d exemples des deux autres uvres pour mettre en relief celle de Stendhal. Stendhal et Fielding partageaient « le m...

  18. 6 June 2008 - Chancellor F. Tomàs Vert, University of Valencia, visiting ATLAS control room and experimental area with Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni.

    CERN Multimedia

    Mona Schweizer

    2008-01-01

    6 June 2008 - Chancellor F. Tomàs Vert, University of Valencia, visiting ATLAS control room and experimental area with Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni. Other participants: Prof. Francisco José Botella, Director, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, University of València and CSIC Prof. José Peñarrocha, Dean, Faculty of Physics Prof. Antonio Ferrer, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, University of València and CSIC Prof. Antonio Pich, University of València, Member of IFIC (CSIC - Univ. València), Coordinator of CPAN, Spanish National Centre for Particle, Astroparticle and Nuclear Physics.

  19. El modelo universitario europeo en Asia: la universidad de Santo Tomás de Manila (1611) y la civilización filipina

    OpenAIRE

    Donoso Jiménez, Isaac

    2008-01-01

    La introducción del modelo universitario europeo en Asia se produjo a finales del siglo XVI por medio de la doctrina dominica en el Archipiélago Filipino, teniendo como pilar fundamental el desarrollo de la imprenta tipográfica. En 1611 se dará carta de naturaleza a la Universidad de Santo Tomás, considerada como la primera universidad de Asia, que desarrollará una labor determinante en la definición moderna del concepto de Civilización Filipina. The introduction of the European university...

  20. Eddy-current probe design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kincaid, T.G.; McCary, R.O.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes theoretical and experimental work directed toward finding the optimum probe dimensions and operating frequency for eddy current detection of half-penny surface cracks in nonmagnetic conducting materials. The study applies to probes which excite an approximately uniform spatial field over the length of the crack at the surface of the material. In practical terms, this means that the probe is not smaller than the crack length in any of its critical dimensions. The optimization of a simple coil probe is first analyzed in detail. It is shown that signal-to-noise ratio and lift-off discrimination are maximized by a pancake coil with mean radius not greater than the crack length, operated at a frequency which gives a skin depth equal to the crack depth. The results obtained for the simple coil are then used as a basis for discussion of the design of coils with ferrite cores and shields, and for the design of recording head type probes

  1. Nanomaterials and MRI molecular probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inubushi, Toshiro

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the current state and future prospect of enhancing probes in MRI which enable to image specific cells and molecules mainly from the aspect of cell trafficking. Although MRI requires such probes for specific imaging, it has an advantage that anatomical images are simultaneously available even during surgical operation without radiation exposure, differing from X-CT, -transillumination and positron emission tomography (PET). In the development of novel MRI molecular probes, the recent topic concerns the cell trafficking biology where cells related with transplantation and immunological therapy can be traced. Although superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) has been used as a commercially available enhancer, this nanoparticle has problems like a difficulty to penetrate cell, cytotoxicity and others. For these, authors have developed the nanoparticle SPIO covered with silica shell, which can be chemically modified, e.g., by binding fluorescent pigments to possibly allow MR bimodal molecular imaging. For penetration of particles in cells, envelop of Sendai virus is used. PET-CT has been more popular these days; however, MRI is superior to CT for imaging soft tissues, and development of PET-MRI is actively under progress aiming the multi-modal imaging. At present, molecular probes for MRI are certainly not so many as those for PET and cooperative efforts to develop the probes are required in medical, technological and pharmaceutical fields. (R.T.)

  2. The radioactive earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant, J.A.; Saunders, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    Uranium, thorium and potassium are the main elements contributing to natural terrestrial radioactivity. The isotopes 238 U, 235 U, 232 Th and 40 K decay with half-lives so long that significant amounts remain in the earth, providing a continuing source of heat. The slow decay of these isotopes also provides the basis for radiometric age dating and isotopic modelling of the evolution of the earth and its crust. There is a complex interplay between their heat production and the processes involved in crust formation. Phenomena such as volcanism, earthquakes, and large-scale hydrothermal activity associated with ore deposition reflect the dissipation of heat energy from the earth, much of which is derived from natural radioactivity. The higher levels of radioactive elements during the early history of the earth resulted in higher heat flow. All three of the radioactive elements are strongly partitioned into the continental crust, but within the crust their distribution is determined by their different chemical properties. The behaviour of U, which has two commonly occurring oxidation states, is more complex than that of Th and K. Uranium deposits are diverse, and are mostly associated with granites, acid volcanics, or detrital sedimentary rocks. The most important U deposits economically are unconformity-type ores of Proterozoic age, in which U is enriched by up to 5 x 10 6 with respect to bulk earth values. In some cases natural radioactivity can be of environmental concern. The most significant risk is posed by accumulations of radon, the gaseous daughter product of U. (author)

  3. The Earth's Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In the last five years, scientists have been able to monitor our changing planet in ways never before possible. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, has given researchers an unprecedented view of the biological engine that drives life on Earth-the countless forms of plants that cover the land and fill the oceans. 'There is no question the Earth is changing. SeaWiFS has enabled us, for the first time, to monitor the biological consequences of that change-to see how the things we do, as well as natural variability, affect the Earth's ability to support life,' said Gene Carl Feldman, SeaWiFS project manager at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. SeaWiFS data, based on continuous daily global observations, have helped scientists make a more accurate assessment of the oceans' role in the global carbon cycle. The data provide a key parameter in a number of ecological and environmental studies as well as global climate-change modeling. The images of the Earth's changing land, ocean and atmosphere from SeaWiFS have documented many previously unrecognized phenomena. The image above shows the global biosphere from June 2002 measured by SeaWiFS. Data in the oceans is chlorophyll concentration, a measure of the amount of phytoplankton (microscopic plants) living in the ocean. On land SeaWiFS measures Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, an indication of the density of plant growth. For more information and images, read: SeaWiFS Sensor Marks Five Years Documenting Earth'S Dynamic Biosphere Image courtesy SeaWiFS project and copyright Orbimage.

  4. Gradiometry coexperiments to the gravity probe B and step missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapley, M.; Breakwell, J.; Everitt, C.W.F.; Vanpatten, R.; Worden, P.

    1990-01-01

    The Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) spacecraft, designed to test predictions of general relativity, will fly in the mid 1990s. It will carry four electrostatically suspended gyroscopes in a cryogenic environment and will have a drag-free control system to minimize disturbances on the gyroscopes. The Stanford Test of Equivalence Principle (STEP) spacecraft, to fly later, will carry a set of test masses under very similar conditions. The possibility of using differential measurements of the GP-B gyroscopes suspension forces and the STEP tests mass displacement readout to form single-axis gravity gradiometers is explored. It is shown that the noise in the suspension systems is sufficiently small in the relevant frequency range, and that enough information is collected to compensate for the spacecrafts' attitude motion. Finally, using Breakwell's flat-earth approximation, these experiments are compared to other geodesy experiments and predict the contribution they can make to the knowledge of the Earth's geopotential

  5. Radiation physics of non-metallic crystals. Volume III, No. 3. Radiatsionnaya fizika nemetallicheskikh kristallov. Tom III, Chast 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konozenko, I D [ed.

    1971-01-01

    Separate articles are presented on studies concerned with radiation phenomena in ionic crystals and dielectrics. Topics include energy losses and electron escape in monocrystals, non-stationary acoustic absorption in monocrystals, charge behavior in radioactive dielectrics, the effects of electron radiation on the electroconductivity of organic dielectrics, adsorption of polyatomic gases in adsorbents, catalysis and inhibition of solid inorganic salt radiolysis, and the formation of additive paramagnetic centers in gamma radiated salts of alkaline earth metals. 253 references.

  6. Gamma-ray imaging probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    External nuclear medicine diagnostic imaging of early primary and metastatic lung cancer tumors is difficult due to the poor sensitivity and resolution of existing gamma cameras. Nonimaging counting detectors used for internal tumor detection give ambiguous results because distant background variations are difficult to discriminate from neighboring tumor sites. This suggests that an internal imaging nuclear medicine probe, particularly an esophageal probe, may be advantageously used to detect small tumors because of the ability to discriminate against background variations and the capability to get close to sites neighboring the esophagus. The design, theory of operation, preliminary bench tests, characterization of noise behavior and optimization of such an imaging probe is the central theme of this work

  7. Scanning vector Hall probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, V.; Gregusova, D.; Fedor, J.; Kudela, R.; Bending, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a scanning vector Hall probe microscope for mapping magnetic field vector over magnetic samples. The microscope is based on a micromachined Hall sensor and the cryostat with scanning system. The vector Hall sensor active area is ∼5x5 μm 2 . It is realized by patterning three Hall probes on the tilted faces of GaAs pyramids. Data from these 'tilted' Hall probes are used to reconstruct the full magnetic field vector. The scanning area of the microscope is 5x5 mm 2 , space resolution 2.5 μm, field resolution ∼1 μT Hz -1/2 at temperatures 10-300 K

  8. Spaser as a biological probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Weingold, Robert; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Nolan, Jacqueline; Harrington, Walter; Kuchyanov, Alexander S.; Parkhomenko, Roman G.; Watanabe, Fumiya; Nima, Zeid; Biris, Alexandru S.; Plekhanov, Alexander I.; Stockman, Mark I.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2017-06-01

    Understanding cell biology greatly benefits from the development of advanced diagnostic probes. Here we introduce a 22-nm spaser (plasmonic nanolaser) with the ability to serve as a super-bright, water-soluble, biocompatible probe capable of generating stimulated emission directly inside living cells and animal tissues. We have demonstrated a lasing regime associated with the formation of a dynamic vapour nanobubble around the spaser that leads to giant spasing with emission intensity and spectral width >100 times brighter and 30-fold narrower, respectively, than for quantum dots. The absorption losses in the spaser enhance its multifunctionality, allowing for nanobubble-amplified photothermal and photoacoustic imaging and therapy. Furthermore, the silica spaser surface has been covalently functionalized with folic acid for molecular targeting of cancer cells. All these properties make a nanobubble spaser a promising multimodal, super-contrast, ultrafast cellular probe with a single-pulse nanosecond excitation for a variety of in vitro and in vivo biomedical applications.

  9. The Earth System Science Pathfinder VOLCAM Volcanic Hazard Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Arlin J.

    1999-01-01

    The VOLCAM mission is planned for research on volcanic eruptions and as a demonstration of a satellite system for measuring the location and density of volcanic eruption clouds for use in mitigating hazards to aircraft by the operational air traffic control systems. A requirement for 15 minute time resolution is met by flight as payloads of opportunity on geostationary satellites. Volcanic sulfur dioxide and ash are detected using techniques that have been developed from polar orbiting TOMS (UV) and AVHRR (IR) data. Seven band UV and three band IR filter wheel cameras are designed for continuous observation of the full disk of the earth with moderate (10 - 20 km) ground resolution. This resolution can be achieved with small, low cost instruments but is adequate for discrimination of ash and sulfur dioxide in the volcanic clouds from meteorological clouds and ozone. The false alarm rate is small through use of sulfur dioxide as a unique tracer of volcanic clouds. The UV band wavelengths are optimized to detect very small sulfur dioxide amounts that are present in pre-eruptive outgassing of volcanoes. The system is also capable of tracking dust and smoke clouds, and will be used to infer winds at tropopause level from the correlation of total ozone with potential vorticity.

  10. Spectroscopic properties of rare earths in optical materials

    CERN Document Server

    Parisi, Jürgen; Osgood, R; Warlimont, Hans; Liu, Guokui; Jacquier, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Aimed at researchers and graduate students, this book provides up-to-date information for understanding electronic interactions that impact the optical properties of rare earth ions in solids. Its goal is to establish a connection between fundamental principles and the materials properties of rare-earth activated luminescent and laser optical materials. The theoretical survey and introduction to spectroscopic properties include electronic energy level structure, intensities of optical transitions, ion-phonon interactions, line broadening, and energy transfer and up-conversion. An important aspect of the book lies in its deep and detailed discussions on materials properties and the potential of new applications such as optical storage, information processing, nanophotonics, and molecular probes that have been identified in recent experimental studies. This volume will be a valuable reference book on advanced topics of rare earth spectroscopy and materials science.

  11. Completed Gravity Probe B Undergoes Thermal Vacuum Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. In this photograph, the completed space vehicle is undergoing thermal vacuum environment testing. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation.)

  12. DNA Probe for Lactobacillus delbrueckii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delley, Michèle; Mollet, Beat; Hottinger, Herbert

    1990-01-01

    From a genomic DNA library of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, a clone was isolated which complements a leucine auxotrophy of an Escherichia coli strain (GE891). Subsequent analysis of the clone indicated that it could serve as a specific DNA probe. Dot-blot hybridizations with over 40 different Lactobacillus strains showed that this clone specifically recognizes L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, bulgaricus, and lactis. The sensitivity of the method was tested by using an α-32P-labeled DNA probe. Images PMID:16348233

  13. Radical probing of spliceosome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Charnpal S; Kent, Oliver A; MacMillan, Andrew M

    2017-08-01

    Here we describe the synthesis and use of a directed hydroxyl radical probe, tethered to a pre-mRNA substrate, to map the structure of this substrate during the spliceosome assembly process. These studies indicate an early organization and proximation of conserved pre-mRNA sequences during spliceosome assembly. This methodology may be adapted to the synthesis of a wide variety of modified RNAs for use as probes of RNA structure and RNA-protein interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Architectural Probes of the Infraordinary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen

    2017-01-01

    of the city plays a vital role for the social coexistence of and the correlation between its inhabitants. In an era of explosive growth of our cities, it is crucial to critically examine the everyday social dimension, if our cities are to be liveable in the future. To enquire into the everyday topography...... approaches for probing into and interrogating the infraordinary: frameworks of perception and situated probes. Both are deployed in order to get at distance of the familiar and by-pass the usual hierarchies of perception to gain new knowledge. These critical spatial practices span an interdisciplinary...

  15. Detecting device of atomic probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonenkov, N.V.

    1979-01-01

    Operation of an atomic-probe recording device is discussed in detail and its flowsheet is given. The basic elements of the atomic-probe recording device intented for microanalysis of metals and alloys in an atomic level are the storage oscillograph with a raster-sweep unit, a two-channel timer using frequency meters, a digital printer, and a control unit. The digital printer records information supplied by four digital devices (two frequency meters and two digital voltmeters) in a four-digit binary-decimal code. The described device provides simultaneous recording of two ions produced per one vaporation event

  16. Probing nuclear matter with dileptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1986-06-01

    Dileptons are shown to be of interest in helping probe extreme conditions of temperature and density in nuclear matter. The current state of experimental knowledge about dileptons is briefly described, and their use in upcoming experiments with light ions at CERN SPS are reviewed, including possible signatures of quark matter formation. Use of dileptons in an upcoming experiment with a new spectrometer at Berkeley is also discussed. This experiment will probe the nuclear matter equation of state at high temperature and density. 16 refs., 8 figs

  17. Visualizing Earth Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A.; Stibbon, E.; Harris, R.

    2016-12-01

    Earth materials are fundamental to art. They are pigments, they are clay, they provide form and color. Earth scientists, however, rarely attempt to make the physical properties of Earth materials visible through art, and similarly many artists use Earth materials without fully understanding their physical and chemical properties. Here we explore the intersection between art and science through study of the physical properties of Earth materials as characterized in the laboratory, and as transferred to paper using different techniques and suspending media. One focus of this collaboration is volcanic ash. Ash is interesting scientifically because its form provides information on the fundamental processes that drive volcanic eruptions, and determines its transport properties, and thus its potential to affect populations far downwind of the volcano. Ash properties also affect its behavior as an art material. From an aesthetic point of view, ash lends a granular surface to the image; it is also uncontrollable, and thus requires engagement between artist and medium. More fundamentally, using ash in art creates an exchange between the medium and the subject matter, and imparts something of the physical, visceral experience of volcanic landscapes to the viewer. Another component of this work uses powdered rock as a printing medium for geologic maps. Because different types of rock create powders with different properties (grain size distributions and shapes), the geology is communicated not only as color, but also by the physical characteristics of the material as it interacts with the paper. More importantly, the use of actual rocks samples as printing material for geologic maps not only makes a direct connection between the map and the material it represents, but also provides an emotional connection between the map, the viewer and the landscape, its colors, textures and geological juxtapositions. Both case studies provide examples not only of ways in which artists can

  18. Towards earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Meijer, R. J.; Smit, F. D.; Brooks, F. D.; Fearick, R. W.; Wortche, H. J.; Mantovani, F.

    2006-01-01

    The programme Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH) proposes to build ten underground facilities each hosting a telescope. Each telescope consists of many detector modules, to map the radiogenic heat sources deep in the interior of the Earth by utilising direction sensitive geoneutrino detection.

  19. Inaugeral lecture - Meteorite impacts on Earth and on the Earth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is some controversial evidence for the theory that the first life on Earth itself may have been transported here on meteorites from Mars. The possibility of a major meteorite impact on Earth in the near future emphasizes the dramatic nature of these recent discoveries, which are having deep impacts in the Earth sciences ...

  20. Comments about "Earth 3.0"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dator, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Dr. Christopher P. McKay, Planetary Scientist with the Space Science Division of NASA Ames. Chris received his Ph.D. in AstroGeophysics from the University of Colorado in 1982 and has been a research scientist with the NASA Ames Research Center since that time. His current research focuses on the evolution of the solar system and the origin of life. He is also actively involved in planning for future Mars missions including human exploration. Chris been involved in research in Mars-like environments on Earth, traveling to the Antarctic dry valleys, Siberia, the Canadian Arctic, and the Atacama desert to study life in these Mars-like environments. His was a co-I on the Titan Huygen s probe in 2005, the Mars Phoenix lander mission for 2007, and the Mars Science Lander mission for 2009.

  1. Effect of deslorelin on testicular function, serum dihydrotestosterone and oestradiol concentrations during and after suppression of sexual activity in tom cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gültiken, Nilgün; Aslan, Selim; Ay, Serhan Serhat; Gülbahar, Mustafa Yavuz; Thuróczy, Julianna; Koldaş, Ece; Kaya, Duygu; Fındık, Murat; Schäfer-Somi, Sabine

    2017-02-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a 4.7 mg deslorelin implant in tom cats. Methods Nine mature male cats were included in the deslorelin group and five cats in the control group. Before the study started, all cats were confirmed to have distinct sexually dimorphic behaviour. Blood samples were taken on the implantation day, at day 7 and at day 15, then monthly, in order to measure serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 17beta(β)-oestradiol concentrations. The deslorelin group (n = 9) was divided into two subgroups: five cats (cats 1-5) were neutered in the postimplantation period during suppression of sexually dimorphic behaviour, and four cats (cats 6-9) were neutered after re-expression of sexually dimorphic behaviour. The control group cats (n = 5) were castrated without administration of the implant. Results Sexually dimorphic behaviours ceased within a mean ± SD of 13-58 days (23.30 ± 14.17) after implantation. DHT concentration decreased within 30 days. The mean duration of suppression was 26.5 ± 7.42 months and reactivation coincided with increased DHT values reaching preimplantation concentrations within 1 month. 17β-oestradiol concentrations significantly correlated with DHT concentrations ( P tom cats without any side effects and with full reversibility; however, duration of suppression is highly individual.

  2. Wolbachia Protein TomO Targets nanos mRNA and Restores Germ Stem Cells in Drosophila Sex-lethal Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ote, Manabu; Ueyama, Morio; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2016-09-12

    Wolbachia, endosymbiotic bacteria prevalent in invertebrates, manipulate their hosts in a variety of ways: they induce cytoplasmic incompatibility, male lethality, male-to-female transformation, and parthenogenesis. However, little is known about the molecular basis for host manipulation by these bacteria. In Drosophila melanogaster, Wolbachia infection makes otherwise sterile Sex-lethal (Sxl) mutant females capable of producing mature eggs. Through a functional genomic screen for Wolbachia genes with growth-inhibitory effects when expressed in cultured Drosophila cells, we identified the gene WD1278 encoding a novel protein we call toxic manipulator of oogenesis (TomO), which phenocopies some of the Wolbachia effects in Sxl mutant D. melanogaster females. We demonstrate that TomO enhances the maintenance of germ stem cells (GSCs) by elevating Nanos (Nos) expression via its interaction with nos mRNA, ultimately leading to the restoration of germ cell production in Sxl mutant females that are otherwise without GSCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Physics of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Frank D.; Davis, Paul M.

    he fourth edition of Physics of the Earth maintains the original philosophy of this classic graduate textbook on fundamental solid earth geophysics, while being completely revised, updated, and restructured into a more modular format to make individual topics even more accessible. Building on the success of previous editions, which have served generations of students and researchers for nearly forty years, this new edition will be an invaluable resource for graduate students looking for the necessary physical and mathematical foundations to embark on their own research careers in geophysics. Several completely new chapters have been added and a series of appendices, presenting fundamental data and advanced mathematical concepts, and an extensive reference list, are provided as tools to aid readers wishing to pursue topics beyond the level of the book. Over 140 student exercises of varying levels of difficulty are also included, and full solutions are available online at www.cambridge.org/9780521873628.

  4. Alkaline earth metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Paul L.; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The beryllium ion has a relatively small ionic radius. As a consequence of this small size, its hydrolysis reactions begin to occur at a relatively low pH. To determine the stability and solubility constants, however, the Gibbs energy of the beryllium ion is required. In aqueous solution calcium, like the other alkaline earth metals, only exists as a divalent cation. The size of the alkaline earth cations increases with increasing atomic number, and the calcium ion is bigger than the magnesium ion. The hydrolysis of barium(II) is weaker than that of strontium(II) and also occurs in quite alkaline pH solutions, and similarly, only the species barium hydroxide has been detected. There is only a single experimental study on the hydrolysis of radium. As with the stability constant trend, it would be expected that the enthalpy of radium would be lower than that of barium due to the larger ionic radius.

  5. Heat-pipe Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G

    2013-09-26

    The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics.

  6. Earth before life

    OpenAIRE

    Marzban, Caren; Viswanathan, Raju; Yurtsever, Ulvi

    2014-01-01

    Background A recent study argued, based on data on functional genome size of major phyla, that there is evidence life may have originated significantly prior to the formation of the Earth. Results Here a more refined regression analysis is performed in which 1) measurement error is systematically taken into account, and 2) interval estimates (e.g., confidence or prediction intervals) are produced. It is shown that such models for which the interval estimate for the time origin of the genome i...

  7. Electromagnetic compatibility and earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duque Henao, Alan; Casas Ospina, Favio

    2001-01-01

    It is such the increment of applications of electric and electronic equipment in the modern companies that the lack of control of the electromagnetic perturbations, brings, get big losses and difficulties in the normal operations. The paper contribute to ago with base in the challenges that day-by-day are confronting, where the settings to earth, to be the foundation of the electric building, are fundamental for a good coexistence among the different equipment s

  8. Earth-ionosphere cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, A.; Polk, C.

    1976-01-01

    To analyze ELF wave propagation in the earth-ionosphere cavity, a flat earth approximation may be derived from the exact equations, which are applicable to the spherical cavity, by introducing a second-order or Debye approximation for the spherical Hankel functions. In the frequency range 3 to 30 Hz, however, the assumed conditions for the Debye approximation are not satisfied. For this reason an exact evaluation of the spherical Hankel functions is used to study the effects of the flat earth approximation on various propagation and resonance parameters. By comparing the resonance equation for a spherical cavity with its flat earth counterpart and by assuming that the surface impedance Z/sub i/ at the upper cavity boundary is known, the relation between the eigenvalue ν and S/sub v/, the sine of the complex angle of incidence at the lower ionosphere boundary, is established as ν(ν + 1) = (kaS/sub v/) 2 . It is also shown that the approximation ν(ν + 1) approximately equals (ν + 1/2) 2 which was used by some authors is not adequate below 30 Hz. Numerical results for both spherical and planar stratification show that (1) planar stratification is adequate for the computation of the lowest three ELF resonance frequencies to within 0.1 Hz; (2) planar stratification will lead to errors in cavity Q and wave attenuation which increase with frequency; (3) computation of resonance frequencies to within 0.1 Hz requires the extension of the lower boundary of the ionosphere to a height where the ratio of conduction current to displacement current, (sigma/ωepsilon 0 ), is less than 0.3; (4) atmospheric conductivity should be considered down to ground level in computing cavity Q and wave attenuation

  9. Superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T [Clinton, TN; D& #x27; Urso, Brian R [Clinton, TN

    2012-07-10

    A superhydrophobic powder is prepared by coating diatomaceous earth (DE) with a hydrophobic coating on the particle surface such that the coating conforms to the topography of the DE particles. The hydrophobic coating can be a self assembly monolayer of a perfluorinated silane coupling agent. The DE is preferably natural-grade DE where organic impurities have been removed. The superhydrophobic powder can be applied as a suspension in a binder solution to a substrate to produce a superhydrophobic surface on the substrate.

  10. Relaciones entre masculinidades: Controversia en La cabaña del tío Tom Relations among Masculinities: Controversy in Uncle Tom’s Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Gómez R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The American novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, written by Harriet Beecher-Stowe, has caused historical debate because of its notion of masculinity between white men and African-American slaves in the antebellum period. The description of these two antagonist forces are said to be defined by the author on extreme foundations of sentimentalist and romantic racialism that seem to distort the real objective events related to slavery in America . Beecher-Stowe was condemned by both white and black races because of the denunciation she makes of slavery as a hegemonic male institution. This article examines this polemic in Uncle Tom’s cabin, based on the sociologist R.W. Connell’s theory of relations among masculinities. From this theory, the article argues that while whites’ masculinity is determined by a sense of power based on hegemony, complicity, and subordination, blacks’, represented by uncle Tom, is portrayed as adopting weak submission and resigned marginalization. As Uncle Tom’s Cabin is the inspiration of a historical reality, this article also studies the novel in relation to factual events in which the ideals of hegemonic masculinity established slavery as a powerful institution in America .La cabaña del tío Tom, escrita por Beecher-Stowe ha causado debate histórico debido a su noción de masculinidad entre el hombre blanco y el hombre africano durante el período de la esclavitud. Se dice que la autora describe estas dos fuerzas antagónicas con fundamentos extremos de sentimentalismo y romanticismo racial, que parecen distorsionar los hechos reales relacionados con la esclavitud en Estados Unidos. Ambas razas condenaron a la novelista por la denuncia que hace de la esclavitud como una institución hegemónicamente masculina. En este artículo se examina tal polémica en La cabaña del tío Tom, a la luz de la teoría que propone el sociólogo R.W. Connell sobre relaciones entre masculinidades. A partir de ésta, se argumenta el

  11. Sun, Earth and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    This Second Edition of Sun, Earth and Sky updates the popular text by providing comprehensive accounts of the most recent discoveries made by five modern solar spacecraft during the past decade. Their instruments have used sound waves to peer deep into the Sun’s inner regions and measure the temperature of its central nuclear reactor, and extended our gaze far from the visible Sun to record energetic outbursts that threaten Earth. Breakthrough observations with the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are also included, which explain the new physics of ghostly neutrinos and solve the problematic mismatch between the predicted and observed amounts of solar neutrinos. This new edition of Sun, Earth and Sky also describes our recent understanding of how the Sun’s outer atmosphere is heated to a million degrees, and just where the Sun’s continuous winds come from. As humans we are more intimately linked with our life-sustaining Sun than with any other astronomical object, and the new edition therefore p...

  12. Characterising Super-Earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia D.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The era of Super-Earths has formally begun with the detection of transiting low-mass exoplanets CoRoT-7b and GJ 1214b. In the path of characterising super-Earths, the first step is to infer their composition. While the discovery data for CoRoT-7b, in combination with the high atmospheric mass loss rate inferred from the high insolation, suggested that it was a rocky planet, the new proposed mass values have widened the possibilities. The combined mass range 1−10 M⊕ allows for a volatile-rich (and requires it if the mass is less than 4 M⊕ , an Earth-like or a super-Mercury-like composition. In contrast, the radius of GJ 1214b is too large to admit a solid composition, thus it necessarily to have a substantial gas layer. Some evidence suggests that within this gas layer H/He is a small but non-negligible component. These two planets are the first of many transiting low-mass exoplanets expected to be detected and they exemplify the limitations faced when inferring composition, which come from the degenerate character of the problem and the large error bars in the data.

  13. Afganistan and rare earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian M. Dobrescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available On our planet, over a quarter of new technologies for the economic production of industrial goods, are using rare earths, which are also called critical minerals and industries that rely on these precious items being worth of an estimated nearly five trillion dollars, or 5 percent of world gross domestic product. In the near future, competition will increase for the control of rare earth minerals embedded in high-tech products. Rare minerals are in the twenty-first century what oil accounted for in the twentieth century and coal in the nineteenth century: the engine of a new industrial revolution. Future energy will be produced increasingly by more sophisticated technological equipment based not just on steel and concrete, but incorporating significant quantities of metals and rare earths. Widespread application of these technologies will result in an exponential increase in demand for such minerals, and what is worrying is that minerals of this type are almost nowhere to be found in Europe and in other industrialized countries in the world, such as U.S. and Japan, but only in some Asian countries, like China and Afghanistan.

  14. Characterization of near-field optical probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, Brian; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation and collection characteristics of four different near-field optical-fiber probes, namely, three uncoated probes and an aluminium-coated small-aperture probe, are investigated and compared. Their radiation properties are characterized by observation of light-induced topography changes...... in a photo-sensitive film illuminated with the probes, and it is confirmed that the radiated optical field is unambigiously confined only for the coated probe. Near-field optical imaging of a standing evanescent-wave pattern is used to compare the detection characteristics of the probes, and it is concluded...... that, for the imaging of optical-field intensity distributions containing predominantly evanescent-wave components, a sharp uncoated tip is the probe of choice. Complementary results obtained with optical phase-conjugation experiments with he uncoated probes are discussed in relation to the probe...

  15. Nuclear physics with electroweak probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhar, Omar

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the italian theoretical Nuclear Physics community has played a leading role in the development of a unified approach, allowing for a consistent and fully quantitative description of the nuclear response to electromagnetic and weak probes. In this paper I review the main achievements in both fields, point out some of the open problems, and outline the most promising prospects

  16. Resolution analysis by random probing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fichtner, Andreas; van Leeuwen, T.

    2015-01-01

    We develop and apply methods for resolution analysis in tomography, based on stochastic probing of the Hessian or resolution operators. Key properties of our methods are (i) low algorithmic complexity and easy implementation, (ii) applicability to any tomographic technique, including full‐waveform

  17. A fluorescent probe for ecstasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masseroni, D; Biavardi, E; Genovese, D; Rampazzo, E; Prodi, L; Dalcanale, E

    2015-08-18

    A nanostructure formed by the insertion in silica nanoparticles of a pyrene-derivatized cavitand, which is able to specifically recognize ecstasy in water, is presented. The absence of effects from interferents and an efficient electron transfer process occurring after complexation of ecstasy, makes this system an efficient fluorescent probe for this popular drug.

  18. Probing Pharmaceutical Mixtures during Milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walker, Greg; Römann, Philipp; Poller, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    interpret the spectral changes. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of low-frequency Raman spectroscopy, which has several practical advantages over XRPD, for probing (dis-)order during pharmaceutical processing, showcasing its potential for future development, and implementation as an in...

  19. The effects of refraction on transit transmission spectroscopy: application to Earth-like exoplanets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Amit; Meadows, Victoria [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Crisp, Dave, E-mail: amit0@astro.washington.edu [NAI Virtual Planetary Laboratory, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We quantify the effects of refraction in transit transmission spectroscopy on spectral absorption features and on temporal variations that could be used to obtain altitude-dependent spectra for planets orbiting stars of different stellar types. We validate our model against altitude-dependent transmission spectra of the Earth from ATMOS and against lunar eclipse spectra from Pallé et al. We perform detectability studies to show the potential effects of refraction on hypothetical observations of Earth analogs with the James Webb Space Telescope NIRSPEC. Due to refraction, there will be a maximum tangent pressure level that can be probed during transit for each given planet-star system. We show that because of refraction, for an Earth-analog planet orbiting in the habitable zone of a Sun-like star only the top 0.3 bars of the atmosphere can be probed, leading to a decrease in the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of absorption features by 60%, while for an Earth-analog planet orbiting in the habitable zone of an M5V star it is possible to probe almost the entire atmosphere with minimal decreases in S/N. We also show that refraction can result in temporal variations in the transit transmission spectrum which may provide a way to obtain altitude-dependent spectra of exoplanet atmospheres. Additionally, the variations prior to ingress and subsequent to egress provide a way to probe pressures greater than the maximum tangent pressure that can be probed during transit. Therefore, probing the maximum range of atmospheric altitudes, and in particular the near-surface environment of an Earth-analog exoplanet, will require looking at out-of-transit refracted light in addition to the in-transit spectrum.

  20. The effects of refraction on transit transmission spectroscopy: application to Earth-like exoplanets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Amit; Meadows, Victoria; Crisp, Dave

    2014-01-01

    We quantify the effects of refraction in transit transmission spectroscopy on spectral absorption features and on temporal variations that could be used to obtain altitude-dependent spectra for planets orbiting stars of different stellar types. We validate our model against altitude-dependent transmission spectra of the Earth from ATMOS and against lunar eclipse spectra from Pallé et al. We perform detectability studies to show the potential effects of refraction on hypothetical observations of Earth analogs with the James Webb Space Telescope NIRSPEC. Due to refraction, there will be a maximum tangent pressure level that can be probed during transit for each given planet-star system. We show that because of refraction, for an Earth-analog planet orbiting in the habitable zone of a Sun-like star only the top 0.3 bars of the atmosphere can be probed, leading to a decrease in the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of absorption features by 60%, while for an Earth-analog planet orbiting in the habitable zone of an M5V star it is possible to probe almost the entire atmosphere with minimal decreases in S/N. We also show that refraction can result in temporal variations in the transit transmission spectrum which may provide a way to obtain altitude-dependent spectra of exoplanet atmospheres. Additionally, the variations prior to ingress and subsequent to egress provide a way to probe pressures greater than the maximum tangent pressure that can be probed during transit. Therefore, probing the maximum range of atmospheric altitudes, and in particular the near-surface environment of an Earth-analog exoplanet, will require looking at out-of-transit refracted light in addition to the in-transit spectrum.