Sample records for earth pressure

  1. Earth Pressure on Tunnel Crown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars

    Two different analyses have been carried out in order to find the vertical earth pressure, or overburden pressure, at the crown of a tunnel going through a dike. Firstly, a hand calculation is performed using a simple dispersion of the stresses over depth. Secondly, the finite‐element program...

  2. Seismic induced earth pressures in buried vaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.A.; Costantino, C.J.


    The magnitude and distribution of earth pressures acting on buried structures and induced by a seismic event are considered in this paper. A soil-structure-interaction analysis is performed for typical Department of Energy high level waste storage tanks using a lumped parameter model. The resulting soil pressure distributions are determined and compared with the static soil pressure to assess the design significance of the seismic induced soil pressures. It is found that seismic pressures do not control design unless the peak ground acceleration exceeds about 0.3 G. The effect of soil non linearities (resulting from local soil failure) are also found to have little effect on the predictions of the seismic response of the buried structure. The seismic induced pressures are found to be very similar to those predicted using the elastic model in ASCE 4-86

  3. Dynamic active earth pressure on retaining structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This theory is based on a pseudo- static forced-based approach ... large enough to induce a limit or failure state in the soil, and hence full mobilization of earth pressure is ... The base of the soil layer is excited by a harmonic excitation to simu-.

  4. Development of an earth pressure model for design of earth retaining structures in piedmont soil. (United States)


    Anecdotal evidence suggests that earth pressure in Piedmont residual soils is typically over estimated. Such estimates of earth pressure impact the design of earth retaining structures used on highway projects. Thus, the development of an appropriate...

  5. Fundamental characteristics and simplified evaluation method of dynamic earth pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nukui, Y.; Inagaki, Y.; Ohmiya, Y.


    In Japan, a method is commonly used in the evaluation of dynamic earth pressure acting on the underground walls of a deeply embedded nuclear reactor building. However, since this method was developed on the basis of the limit state of soil supported by retaining walls, the behavior of dynamic earth pressure acting on the embedded part of a nuclear reactor building may differ from the estimated by this method. This paper examines the fundamental characteristics of dynamic earth pressure through dynamic soil-structure interaction analysis. A simplified method to evaluate dynamic earth pressure for the design of underground walls of a nuclear reactor building is described. The dynamic earth pressure is fluctuating earth pressure during earthquake

  6. Rigidly framed earth retaining structures thermal soil structure interaction of buildings supporting unbalanced lateral earth pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Aboumoussa, Walid


    Structures placed on hillsides often present a number of challenges and a limited number of economical choices for site design. An option sometimes employed is to use the building frame as a retaining element, comprising a Rigidly Framed Earth Retaining Structure (RFERS). The relationship between temperature and earth pressure acting on RFERS, is explored in this monograph through a 4.5 year monitoring program of a heavily instrumented in service structure. The data indicated that the coefficient of earth pressure behind the monitored RFERS had a strong linear correlation with temperature. The study also revealed that thermal cycles, rather than lateral earth pressure, were the cause of failure in many structural elements. The book demonstrates that depending on the relative stiffness of the retained soil mass and that of the structural frame, the developed lateral earth pressure, during thermal expansion, can reach magnitudes several times larger than those determined using classical earth pressure theories....

  7. Rankine earth pressure theory considering microstructure of porous materials (United States)

    Li, Junhu; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Wenchao; Xu, Riqing


    Soil as an engineering material has very complex properties, such as non-continuous, non-uniformity and nonlinear mechanical. In a certain extent, macroscopic properties of soil are affected by the changes of the microstructure. And microscopic porosity of soft clay and its influencing factors, the relationship between macro and micro porosity, the average contact area rate and its influencing factors are studied. Some mechanics problems were analyzed by using the relationship between macro-porosity and the average contact area rate. Combining soil lateral stress transfer principle, a calculation theory of earth pressure considering soil contact area was got. The possible reason of the differences between earth pressure and the actual monitoring earth pressure was analyzed by the case.

  8. The last stage of Earth's formation: Increasing the pressure (United States)

    Lock, S. J.; Stewart, S. T.; Mukhopadhyay, S.


    A range of high-energy, high-angular momentum (AM) giant impacts have been proposed as a potential trigger for lunar origin. High-energy, high-AM collisions create a previously unrecognized planetary object, called a synestia. Terrestrial synestias exceed the corotation limit for a rocky planet, forming an extended structure with a corotating inner region and disk-like outer region. We demonstrate that the internal pressures of Earth-like planets do not increase monotonically during the giant impact stage, but can vary substantially in response to changes in rotation and thermal state. The internal pressures in an impact-generated synestia are much lower than in condensed, slowly rotating planets of the same mass. For example, the core-mantle boundary (CMB) pressure can be as low as 60 GPa for a synestia with Earth mass and composition, compared to 136 GPa in the present-day Earth. The lower pressures are due to the low density and rapid rotation of the post-impact structure. After a high-AM Moon-forming impact, the internal pressures in the interior of the synestia would have increased to present-day Earth values in two stages: first by vapor condensation and second by removal of AM from the Earth during the tidal evolution of the Moon. The pressure evolution of the Earth has several implications. Metal-silicate equilibration after the impact would have occurred at much lower pressures than has previously been assumed. The observed moderately siderophile element abundances in the mantle may be consistent with equilibration at the bottom of a deep, lower-pressure magma ocean. In addition, the pressure at the CMB during cooling is coincident with, or lower than, the proposed intersection of liquid adiabats with the mantle liquidus. The mantle would hence freeze from the bottom up and there would be no basal magma ocean. The subsequent pressure increase and tidal heating due to the Moon's orbital evolution likely induces melting in the lowermost mantle. Increasing

  9. Inversion of the Earth spherical albedo from radiation-pressure (United States)

    Wilkman, Olli; Herranen, Joonas; Näränen, Jyri; Virtanen, Jenni; Koivula, Hannu; Poutanen, Markku; Penttilä, Antti; Gritsevich, Maria; Muinonen, Karri


    We are studying the retrieval of the spherical albedo and net radiation of the Earth from the perturbations caused by the planet's radiation on the dynamics of its satellites. The spherical or Bond albedo gives the ratio of the fluxes incident on and scattered by the planet. The net radiation represents the net heat input into the planet's climate system and drives changes in its atmospheric, surface, and ocean temperatures. The ultimate aim of the study is inverting the problem and estimating the Earth albedo based on observations of satellites, simultaneously improving the space-geodetic positioning accuracy. Here we investigate the effect of the spherical albedo on satellite orbits with the help of a simplified model. We simulate the propagation of satellite orbits using a new simulation software. The simulation contains the main perturbing forces on medium and high Earth orbits, used by, e.g., navigation satellites, including the radiation pressure of reflected sunlight from the Earth. An arbitrary satellite shape model can be used, and the rotation of the satellite is modeled. In this first study, we use a box-wing satellite model with a simple surface BRDF. We also assume a diffusely reflecting Earth with a single global albedo value. We vary the Earth albedo and search for systematic effects on different orbits. Thereafter, we estimate the dependence of the albedo accuracy on the satellite positioning and timing data available. We show that the inversion of the spherical albedo with reasonable accuracy is feasible from the current space-geodetic measurements.

  10. High pressure behaviour of heavy rare earth antimonides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagare, Gitanjali; Soni, Pooja; Srivastava, Vipul; Sanyal, S.P.


    We have investigated theoretically the high-pressure structural phase transition and cohesive properties of two heavy rare earth mono anyimonides (LnSb; Ln = Dy and Lu) by using two body interionic potential with necessary modifications to include the effect of Coulomb screening by the delocalized 4f electrons of the RE ion. The peculiar properties of these compounds have been interpreted in terms of the hybridization of f electrons with the conduction band. The calculated compression curves and the values of high-pressure behaviour have been discussed and compared with the experimental results. These compounds exhibits first order crystallographic phase transition from their NaCl (B 1 ) phase to CsCl (B 2 ) phase at 23.6 GPa and 25.4 GPa respectively. At phase transition the % volume collapse for both the compounds are little higher than the measured ones. The NaCl phase possesses lower energy than CsCl phase and stable at ambient pressure. The bulk moduli of LnSb compounds are obtained from the P-V curve fitted by the Birch equation of state. We also calculated the Ln-Ln distance as a function of pressure. (author)

  11. Rare-earth-metal nitridophosphates through high-pressure metathesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloss, Simon David; Schnick, Wolfgang


    Developing a synthetic method to target an broad spectrum of unknown phases can lead to fascinating discoveries. The preparation of the first rare-earth-metal nitridophosphate LiNdP_4N_8 is reported. High-pressure solid-state metathesis between LiPN_2 and NdF_3 was employed to yield a highly crystalline product. The in situ formed LiF is believed to act both as the thermodynamic driving force and as a flux to aiding single-crystal formation in dimensions suitable for crystal structure analysis. Magnetic properties stemming from Nd"3"+ ions were measured by SQUID magnetometry. LiNdP_4N_8 serves as a model system for the exploration of rare-earth-metal nitridophosphates that may even be expanded to transition metals. High-pressure metathesis enables the systematic study of these uncharted regions of nitride-based materials with unprecedented properties. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Active earth pressure model tests versus finite element analysis (United States)

    Pietrzak, Magdalena


    The purpose of the paper is to compare failure mechanisms observed in small scale model tests on granular sample in active state, and simulated by finite element method (FEM) using Plaxis 2D software. Small scale model tests were performed on rectangular granular sample retained by a rigid wall. Deformation of the sample resulted from simple wall translation in the direction `from the soil" (active earth pressure state. Simple Coulomb-Mohr model for soil can be helpful in interpreting experimental findings in case of granular materials. It was found that the general alignment of strain localization pattern (failure mechanism) may belong to macro scale features and be dominated by a test boundary conditions rather than the nature of the granular sample.

  13. Solar radiation pressure resonances in Low Earth Orbits (United States)

    Alessi, Elisa Maria; Schettino, Giulia; Rossi, Alessandro; Valsecchi, Giovanni B.


    The aim of this work is to highlight the crucial role that orbital resonances associated with solar radiation pressure can have in Low Earth Orbit. We review the corresponding literature, and provide an analytical tool to estimate the maximum eccentricity which can be achieved for well-defined initial conditions. We then compare the results obtained with the simplified model with the results obtained with a more comprehensive dynamical model. The analysis has important implications both from a theoretical point of view, because it shows that the role of some resonances was underestimated in the past, and also from a practical point of view in the perspective of passive deorbiting solutions for satellites at the end-of-life.

  14. Redistribution Principle Approach for Evaluation of Seismic Active Earth Pressure Behind Retaining Wall (United States)

    Maskar, A. D.; Madhekar, S. N.; Phatak, D. R.


    The knowledge of seismic active earth pressure behind the rigid retaining wall is very essential in the design of retaining wall in earthquake prone regions. Commonly used Mononobe-Okabe (MO) method considers pseudo-static approach. Recently there are many pseudo-dynamic methods used to evaluate the seismic earth pressure. However, available pseudo-static and pseudo-dynamic methods do not incorporate the effect of wall movement on the earth pressure distribution. Dubrova (Interaction between soils and structures, Rechnoi Transport, Moscow, 1963) was the first, who considered such effect and till date, it is used for cohesionless soil, without considering the effect of seismicity. In this paper, Dubrova's model based on redistribution principle, considering the seismic effect has been developed. It is further used to compute the distribution of seismic active earth pressure, in a more realistic manner, by considering the effect of wall movement on the earth pressure, as it is displacement based method. The effects of a wide range of parameters like soil friction angle (ϕ), wall friction angle (δ), horizontal and vertical seismic acceleration coefficients (kh and kv); on seismic active earth pressure (Kae) have been studied. Results are presented for comparison of pseudo-static and pseudo-dynamic methods, to highlight the realistic, non-linearity of seismic active earth pressure distribution. The current study results in the variation of Kae with kh in the same manner as that of MO method and Choudhury and Nimbalkar (Geotech Geol Eng 24(5):1103-1113, 2006) study. To increase in ϕ, there is a reduction in static as well as seismic earth pressure. Also, by keeping constant ϕ value, as kh increases from 0 to 0.3, earth pressure increases; whereas as δ increases, active earth pressure decreases. The seismic active earth pressure coefficient (Kae) obtained from the present study is approximately same as that obtained by previous researchers. Though seismic earth

  15. Effect of chemical pressure, misfit strain and hydrostatic pressure on structural and magnetic behaviors of rare-earth orthochromates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Hong Jian; Chen, Xiang Ming; Ren, Wei; Bellaiche, L


    First-principles calculations are performed to investigate structural and magnetic behaviors of rare-earth orthochromates as a function of ‘chemical’ pressure (that is, the rare-earth ionic radius), epitaxial misfit strain and hydrostatic pressure. From a structural point of view, (i) ‘chemical’ pressure significantly modifies antipolar displacements, Cr–O–Cr bond angles and the resulting oxygen octahedral tiltings; (ii) hydrostatic pressure mostly changes Cr–O bond lengths; and (iii) misfit strain affects all these quantities. The correlations between magnetic properties (Néel temperature and weak ferromagnetic moments) and unit cell volume are similar when varying the misfit strain or hydrostatic pressure, but differ from those associated with the ‘chemical’ pressure. Origins of such effects are also discussed. (paper)

  16. The Effect of Displacement Mode of Rigid Retaining Walls on Shearing Bands by Active Earth Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sekkel


    Full Text Available This work treats the physical modeling of failure mechanisms by active earth pressure. This last is developed by retaining wall movement. A lot of research showed that wall displacement has a significant effect on active earth pressure. A good comprehension of active earth pressure phenomenon and its failure mechanisms help us to better conceive retaining walls. The conception of a small-scale model allowed the realization of active earth pressure tests, while displacing the mobile wall toward the outside of the massif. The studied material is that of Schneebeli; light two-dimensional material made of cylindrical plastic rollers, simulating granular non-cohesive soil. The evolution of shearing zones under continuous and discontinuous displacement modes of mobile walls by correlation pictures allows the investigation of the localization of deformations and failure mechanisms.

  17. Acid pressure leaching of a concentrate containing uranium, thorium and rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Xinghua; Peng Ruqing.


    The acid pressure leaching of a concentrate containing rinkolite for recovering uranium, thorium and rare earth elements is described. The laboratory and the pilot plant test results are given. Under the optimum leaching conditions, the recovery of uranium, thorium and rare earth elements are 82.9%, 86.0% and 88.3% respectively. These results show that the acid pressure leaching process is a effective process for treating the concentrate

  18. Study on the Seismic Active Earth Pressure by Variational Limit Equilibrium Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangong Chen


    Full Text Available In the framework of limit equilibrium theory, the isoperimetric model of functional extremum regarding the seismic active earth pressure is deduced according to the variational method. On this basis, Lagrange multipliers are introduced to convert the problem of seismic active earth pressure into the problem on the functional extremum of two undetermined function arguments. Based on the necessary conditions required for the existence of functional extremum, the function of the slip surface and the normal stress distribution on the slip surface is obtained, and the functional extremum problem is further converted into a function optimization problem with two undetermined Lagrange multipliers. The calculated results show that the slip surface is a plane and the seismic active earth pressure is minimal when the action point is at the lower limit position. As the action point moves upward, the slip surface becomes a logarithmic spiral and the corresponding value of seismic active earth pressure increases in a nonlinear manner. And the seismic active earth pressure is maximal at the upper limit position. The interval estimation constructed by the minimum and maximum values of seismic active earth pressure can provide a reference for the aseismic design of gravity retaining walls.

  19. Assessing the Impact of Earth Radiation Pressure Acceleration on Low-Earth Orbit Satellites (United States)

    Vielberg, Kristin; Forootan, Ehsan; Lück, Christina; Kusche, Jürgen; Börger, Klaus


    The orbits of satellites are influenced by several external forces. The main non-gravitational forces besides thermospheric drag, acting on the surface of satellites, are accelerations due to the Earth and Solar Radiation Pres- sure (SRP and ERP, respectively). The sun radiates visible and infrared light reaching the satellite directly, which causes the SRP. Earth also emits and reflects the sunlight back into space, where it acts on satellites. This is known as ERP acceleration. The influence of ERP increases with decreasing distance to the Earth, and for low-earth orbit (LEO) satellites ERP must be taken into account in orbit and gravity computations. Estimating acceler- ations requires knowledge about energy emitted from the Earth, which can be derived from satellite remote sensing data, and also by considering the shape and surface material of a satellite. In this sensitivity study, we assess ERP accelerations based on different input albedo and emission fields and their modelling for the satellite missions Challenging Mini-Satellite Payload (CHAMP) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). As input fields, monthly 1°x1° products of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant En- ergy System (CERES), L3 are considered. Albedo and emission models are generated as latitude-dependent, as well as in terms of spherical harmonics. The impact of different albedo and emission models as well as the macro model and the altitude of satellites on ERP accelerations will be discussed.

  20. High-pressure phase transitions of deep earth materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Kei


    Recent developments in synchrotron XRD measurements combined with laser-heated diamond-anvil cell (LHDAC) techniques have enabled us to search for a novel phase transition at extremely high pressure and temperature. A phase transition from MgSiO 3 perovskite to post-perovskite was discovered through a drastic change in XRD patterns above 120 GPa and 2500 K, corresponding to the condition in the lowermost mantle (Murakami et al., 2004; Oganov and Ono, 2004). A pressure-induced phase transformation from ABO 3 -type perovskite to any denser structures was not known at that time. This new MgSiO 3 polymorph called post-perovskite has an orthorhombic symmetry (space group: Cmcm) with a sheet-stacking structure. The Mg site in post-perovskite is smaller than that in perovskite, which results in a volume reduction by 1.0-1.5% from perovskite structure. The electrical conductivity of post-perovskite is higher by three orders of magnitude than that of perovskite at similar pressure range (Ohta et al., 2008). This is likely due to a shorter Fe-Fe distance in post-perovskite structure, while conduction mechanism is yet to be further examined. Phase transition boundary between perovskite and post-perovskite has been determined in a wide temperature range up to 4400 K at 170 GPa (Tateno et al., 2008). Phase relations of Fe alloys have been also studied at core pressures (>135 GPa), although the generation of high temperature is more difficult at higher pressures. A new high-pressure B2 phase of B2 phase of FeS was recently discovered above 180 GPa (Sata et al., 2008). The Fe-Ni alloys have a wide pressure-temperature stability field of fcc phase at the core pressure range, depending on the Ni content (Kuwayama et al., 2008). (author)

  1. Lateral Earth Pressure behind Walls Rotating about Base considering Arching Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Li


    Full Text Available In field, the earth pressure on a retaining wall is the common effect of kinds of factors. To figure out how key factors act, it has taken into account the arching effects together with the contribution from the mode of displacement of a wall to calculate earth pressure in the proposed method. Based on Mohr circle, a conversion factor is introduced to determine the shear stresses between artificial slices in soil mass. In the light of this basis, a modified differential slices solution is presented for calculation of active earth pressure on a retaining wall. Comparisons show that the result of proposed method is identical to observations from model tests in prediction of lateral pressures for walls rotating about the base.

  2. Calculation of passive earth pressure of cohesive soil based on Culmann's method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-feng Lu


    Full Text Available Based on the sliding plane hypothesis of Coulumb earth pressure theory, a new method for calculation of the passive earth pressure of cohesive soil was constructed with Culmann's graphical construction. The influences of the cohesive force, adhesive force, and the fill surface form were considered in this method. In order to obtain the passive earth pressure and sliding plane angle, a program based on the sliding surface assumption was developed with the VB.NET programming language. The calculated results from this method were basically the same as those from the Rankine theory and Coulumb theory formulas. This method is conceptually clear, and the corresponding formulas given in this paper are simple and convenient for application when the fill surface form is complex.

  3. Interstitial pressure dependence of the thermal conductivity of some rare earth oxide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep, P.


    Thermal transport properties of powdered materials depend upon interstitial gas pressure. The present study reports the experimental results for the effective thermal conductivity of three rare earth oxide powders viz. yttrium oxide, samarium oxide, and gadolinium oxide, at various interstitial pressures by using transient plane source (TPS) method. A theoretical model is also proposed for the interpretation of the variation of the effective thermal conductivity with interstitial gas pressure. Its validity is found to be good in low pressure range of 45 mm Hg to normal pressure when compared with the experimental results. Also an attempt has been made to calculate the variation of thermal conductivity with interstitial pressure in the high pressure range up to 2 kbar using the proposed model. (author)

  4. Physical and numerical modelling of earth pressure on anchored sheet pile walls in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette Susanne; Fuglsang, Leif D


    The influence of wall flexibility on earth pressure, bending moments and failure modes is studied. Numerical models are compared to results from model tests carried out in a geotechnical centrifuge. The back-fill is dry sand and failure is introduced by allowing the wall to rotate around the anchor...

  5. Earth Pressure at rest of Søvind Marl – a highly overconsolidated Eocene clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech, Gitte Lyng; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl


    The present study evaluated earth pressure at rest, K0, in highly overconsolidated Eocene clay called Søvind Marl, which exhibits extremely high plasticity indices of up to 300%, a highly fissured structure, and preconsolidation stresses up to 6,800 kPa. Continuous Loading Oedometer (CLO) tests...

  6. Exposure of phototrophs to 548 days in low Earth orbit: microbial selection pressures in outer space and on early earth. (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S; Rettberg, Petra; Rabbow, Elke; Olsson-Francis, Karen


    An epilithic microbial community was launched into low Earth orbit, and exposed to conditions in outer space for 548 days on the European Space Agency EXPOSE-E facility outside the International Space Station. The natural phototroph biofilm was augmented with akinetes of Anabaena cylindrica and vegetative cells of Nostoc commune and Chroococcidiopsis. In space-exposed dark controls, two algae (Chlorella and Rosenvingiella spp.), a cyanobacterium (Gloeocapsa sp.) and two bacteria associated with the natural community survived. Of the augmented organisms, cells of A. cylindrica and Chroococcidiopsis survived, but no cells of N. commune. Only cells of Chroococcidiopsis were cultured from samples exposed to the unattenuated extraterrestrial ultraviolet (UV) spectrum (>110 nm or 200 nm). Raman spectroscopy and bright-field microscopy showed that under these conditions the surface cells were bleached and their carotenoids were destroyed, although cell morphology was preserved. These experiments demonstrate that outer space can act as a selection pressure on the composition of microbial communities. The results obtained from samples exposed to >200 nm UV (simulating the putative worst-case UV exposure on the early Earth) demonstrate the potential for epilithic colonization of land masses during that time, but that UV radiation on anoxic planets can act as a strong selection pressure on surface-dwelling organisms. Finally, these experiments have yielded new phototrophic organisms of potential use in biomass and oxygen production in space exploration.

  7. Measuring the initial earth pressure of granite using hydraulic fracturing test; Goseong and Yuseong areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Young Kwon; Won, Kyung Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)


    This report provides the initial earth pressure of granitic rocks obtained from Deep Core Drilling Program which is carried out as part of the assessment of deep geological environmental condition. These data are obtained by hydraulic fracturing test in three boreholes drilled up to 350{approx}500 m depth at the Yuseong and Goseong sites. These sites were selected based on the result of preliminary site evaluation study. The boreholes are NX-size (76 mm) and vertical. The procedure of hydraulic fracturing test is as follows: - Selecting the testing positions by preliminary investigation using BHTV logging. - Performing the hydraulic fracturing test at each selected position with depth.- Estimating the shut-in pressure by the bilinear pressure-decay-rate method. - Estimating the fracture reopening pressure from the pressure-time curves.- Estimating the horizontal principal stresses and the direction of principal stresses. 65 refs., 39 figs., 12 tabs. (Author)

  8. A Newly Designed Fiber-Optic Based Earth Pressure Transducer with Adjustable Measurement Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou-Zhen Wei


    Full Text Available A novel fiber-optic based earth pressure sensor (FPS with an adjustable measurement range and high sensitivity is developed to measure earth pressures for civil infrastructures. The new FPS combines a cantilever beam with fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors and a flexible membrane. Compared with a traditional pressure transducer with a dual diaphragm design, the proposed FPS has a larger measurement range and shows high accuracy. The working principles, parameter design, fabrication methods, and laboratory calibration tests are explained in this paper. A theoretical solution is derived to obtain the relationship between the applied pressure and strain of the FBG sensors. In addition, a finite element model is established to analyze the mechanical behavior of the membrane and the cantilever beam and thereby obtain optimal parameters. The cantilever beam is 40 mm long, 15 mm wide, and 1 mm thick. The whole FPS has a diameter of 100 mm and a thickness of 30 mm. The sensitivity of the FPS is 0.104 kPa/με. In addition, automatic temperature compensation can be achieved. The FPS’s sensitivity, physical properties, and response to applied pressure are extensively examined through modeling and experiments. The results show that the proposed FPS has numerous potential applications in soil pressure measurement.

  9. Elastic, thermal and high pressure structural properties of heavy rare earth antimonides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, P.; Pagare, G.; Sanyal, S.P.


    Pressure induced structural phase transition of two heavy rare earth antimonides (RESb; RE=Ho, Er) have been studied theoretically by using an inter-ionic potential theory. This method has been found quite satisfactory in the case of pnictides of rare earth and describes the crystal properties in the framework of rigid-ion modal. The long-range Coulomb interaction, short-range repulsive interaction and van der Waals (vdW) interactions are properly incorporated in this theory. These compounds exhibit first order crystallographic phase transition from their NaCl-type structure to CsCl-type structure at 27 GPa and 33.2 GPa, respectively. The bulk moduli of RESb compounds are compared with the experimental values of elastic constants. We have also calculated the Debye temperature by incorporating the elastic constants for both the rare earth antimonides. (author)

  10. Pressure dependence of magnetic ordering temperatures of rare earth-Sn/sub 3/ compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foner, S [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Francis Bitter National Magnet Lab.


    Measurements of the hydrostatic pressure dependence of the Neel temperatures, Tsub(N), are reported for PrSn/sub 3/, NdSn/sub 3/, GdSn/sub 3/ and CeIn/sub 3/. Tsub(N) is found to increase with applied pressure for PrSn/sub 3/ and NdSn/sub 3/, whereas Tsub(N) is pressure independent within experimental error for GdSn/sub 3/ and CeIn/sub 3/. Slightly Sn-deficient RESn/sub 3/ (RE = rare earth) compounds are found consistently to be weakly ferromagnetic. The physical properties of the RESn/sub 3/ compounds exhibit analogies with the corresponding properties of dilute superconducting (LaRE)Sn/sub 3/ alloys. The high pressure data for PrSn/sub 3/ and CeIn/sub 3/ are qualitatively consistent with a 'Kondo necklace' model for magnetically ordered RE compounds with unstable 4f shells.

  11. Pressure dependence of magnetic ordering temperatures of rare earth - Sn/sub 3/ compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLong, L E [Virginia Univ., Charlottesville (USA). Dept. of Physics; Guertin, R P; Foner, S


    Measurements of the hydrostatic pressure dependence of the Neel temperatures, Tsub(N), are reported for PrSn/sub 3/, NdSn/sub 3/, GdSn/sub 3/ and CeIn/sub 3/. Tsub(N) is found to increase with applied pressure for PrSn/sub 3/ and NdSn/sub 3/, whereas Tsub(N) is pressure independent within experimental error for GdSn/sub 3/ and CeIn/sub 3/. Slightly Sn-deficient RESn/sub 3/ (RE=rare earth) compounds are found consistently to be weakly ferromagnetic. The physical properties of the RESn/sub 3/ compounds exhibit analogies with the corresponding properties of dilute superconducting (LaRE)Sn/sub 3/ alloys. The high pressure data for PrSn/sub 3/ and CeIn/sub 3/ are qualitatively consistent with a 'Kondo necklace' model for magnetically ordered RE compounds with unstable 4f shells.

  12. High-pressure metallization of FeO and implications for the earth's core (United States)

    Knittle, Elise; Jeanloz, Raymond


    The phase diagram of FeO has been experimentally determined to pressures of 155 GPa and temperatures of 4000 K using shock-wave and diamond-cell techniques. A metallic phase of FeO is observed at pressures greater than 70 GPa and temperatures exceeding 1000 K. The metallization of FeO at high pressures implies that oxygen can be present as the light alloying element of the earth's outer core, in accord with the geochemical predictions of Ringwood (1977 and 1979). The high pressures necessary for this metallization suggest that the core has acquired its composition well after the initial stages of the earth's accretion. Direct experimental observations at elevated pressures and temperatures indicate that core-forming alloy can react chemically with oxides such as those forming the mantle. The core and mantle may never have reached complete chemical equilibrium, however. If this is the case, the core-mantle boundary is likely to be a zone of active chemical reactions.

  13. Viscosity measurements on metal melts at high pressure and viscosity calculations for the earth's core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineev, Vladimir N; Funtikov, Aleksandr I


    A review is given of experimental and calculated data on the viscosity of iron-based melts on the melting curve. The interest in these data originates in the division of opinion on whether viscosity increases rather moderately or considerably in the high-pressure range. This disagreement is especially pronounced in the interpretation of the values of molten iron and its compounds in the environment of the earth's outer core. The conclusion on a substantial rise in viscosity mostly follows from the universal law, proposed by Brazhkin and Lyapin [1], of viscosity changing along the metal melting curve in the high-pressure range. The review analyzes available experimental and computational data, including the most recent ones. Data on viscosity of metals under shock wave compression in the megabar pressure range are also discussed. It is shown that data on viscosity of metal melts point to a small increase of viscosity on the melting curve. Specifics are discussed of the phase diagram of iron made more complex by the presence of several phase transitions and by the uncertainty in the position of the melting curve in the high-pressure range. Inaccuracies that arise in extrapolating the results of viscosity measurements to the pressure range corresponding to the earth's core environment are pointed out. (reviews of topical problems)

  14. High pressure {mu}SR studies: rare earths and related materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalvius, G.M., E-mail:; Schreier, E. [Technical University Munich, Physics Department (Germany)], E-mail:; Ekstroem, M.; Hartmann, O. [Uppsala University, Physics Department (Sweden); Henneberger, S., E-mail:; Kratzer, A. [Technical University Munich, Physics Department (Germany)], E-mail:; Waeppling, R. [Uppsala University, Physics Department (Sweden); Martin, E., E-mail:; Burghart, F.J. [Technical University Munich, Physics Department (Germany)], E-mail:; Ballou, R.; Deportes, J. [CNRS, Laboratoire Louis Neel (France); Niedermayer, Ch. [University of Constance, Faculty of Physics (Germany)


    After a short introduction to {mu}SR with respect to the study of magnetic properties, followed by a brief outline of the principle of the high pressure-low temperature {mu}SR spectrometer installed at the Paul Scherrer Institute, we discuss some measurements on rare earth materials employing this instrument. They are concerned with: (1) The pressure dependence of the spin turning process in ferromagnetic Gd. (2) The volume dependence of the internal magnetic field in the heavy rare earth metals Gd, Dy, and Ho in their ordered magnetic states. (3) The response of the (first order) magnetic transition in the frustrated antiferromagnets of type RMn{sub 2} (R = Y,Gd) to pressure. (4) The variation of magnetic parameters with pressure in La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} (powder sample), the antiferromagnetic parent compound of the high T{sub C} superconductors of type La{sub 2-x}(Sr, Ba){sub x}CuO{sub 4}. In conclusion a short outlook on further developments is given.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamenkovic, Vlada; Noack, Lena; Spohn, Tilman [Institute of Planetology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 10, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Breuer, Doris, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center DLR, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)


    We study the thermal evolution of super-Earths with a one-dimensional (1D) parameterized convection model that has been adopted to account for a strong pressure dependence of the viscosity. A comparison with a 2D spherical convection model shows that the derived parameterization satisfactorily represents the main characteristics of the thermal evolution of massive rocky planets. We find that the pressure dependence of the viscosity strongly influences the thermal evolution of super-Earths-resulting in a highly sluggish convection regime in the lower mantles of those planets. Depending on the effective activation volume and for cooler initial conditions, we observe with growing planetary mass even the formation of a conductive lid above the core-mantle boundary (CMB), a so-called CMB-lid. For initially molten planets our results suggest no CMB-lids but instead a hot lower mantle and core as well as sluggish lower mantle convection. This implies that the initial interior temperatures, especially in the lower mantle, become crucial for the thermal evolution-the thermostat effect suggested to regulate the interior temperatures in terrestrial planets does not work for massive planets if the viscosity is strongly pressure dependent. The sluggish convection and the potential formation of the CMB-lid reduce the convective vigor throughout the mantle, thereby affecting convective stresses, lithospheric thicknesses, and heat fluxes. The pressure dependence of the viscosity may therefore also strongly affect the propensity of plate tectonics, volcanic activity, and the generation of a magnetic field of super-Earths.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladilo, Giovanni; Murante, Giuseppe; Silva, Laura [INAF-Trieste Astronomical Observatory, Trieste (Italy); Provenzale, Antonello [Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate-CNR, Torino (Italy); Ferri, Gaia; Ragazzini, Gregorio, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy)


    As a contribution to the study of the habitability of extrasolar planets, we implemented a one-dimensional energy balance model (EBM), the simplest seasonal model of planetary climate, with new prescriptions for most physical quantities. Here we apply our EBM to investigate the surface habitability of planets with an Earth-like atmospheric composition but different levels of surface pressure. The habitability, defined as the mean fraction of the planet's surface on which liquid water could exist, is estimated from the pressure-dependent liquid water temperature range, taking into account seasonal and latitudinal variations of surface temperature. By running several thousands of EBM simulations we generated a map of the habitable zone (HZ) in the plane of the orbital semi-major axis, a, and surface pressure, p, for planets in circular orbits around a Sun-like star. As pressure increases, the HZ becomes broader, with an increase of 0.25 AU in its radial extent from p = 1/3 to 3 bar. At low pressure, the habitability is low and varies with a; at high pressure, the habitability is high and relatively constant inside the HZ. We interpret these results in terms of the pressure dependence of the greenhouse effect, the efficiency of horizontal heat transport, and the extent of the liquid water temperature range. Within the limits discussed in the paper, the results can be extended to planets in eccentric orbits around non-solar-type stars. The main characteristics of the pressure-dependent HZ are modestly affected by variations of planetary properties, particularly at high pressure.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladilo, Giovanni; Murante, Giuseppe; Silva, Laura; Provenzale, Antonello; Ferri, Gaia; Ragazzini, Gregorio


    As a contribution to the study of the habitability of extrasolar planets, we implemented a one-dimensional energy balance model (EBM), the simplest seasonal model of planetary climate, with new prescriptions for most physical quantities. Here we apply our EBM to investigate the surface habitability of planets with an Earth-like atmospheric composition but different levels of surface pressure. The habitability, defined as the mean fraction of the planet's surface on which liquid water could exist, is estimated from the pressure-dependent liquid water temperature range, taking into account seasonal and latitudinal variations of surface temperature. By running several thousands of EBM simulations we generated a map of the habitable zone (HZ) in the plane of the orbital semi-major axis, a, and surface pressure, p, for planets in circular orbits around a Sun-like star. As pressure increases, the HZ becomes broader, with an increase of 0.25 AU in its radial extent from p = 1/3 to 3 bar. At low pressure, the habitability is low and varies with a; at high pressure, the habitability is high and relatively constant inside the HZ. We interpret these results in terms of the pressure dependence of the greenhouse effect, the efficiency of horizontal heat transport, and the extent of the liquid water temperature range. Within the limits discussed in the paper, the results can be extended to planets in eccentric orbits around non-solar-type stars. The main characteristics of the pressure-dependent HZ are modestly affected by variations of planetary properties, particularly at high pressure.

  18. Atomic scale study of vacancies in Earth's inner core: effect of pressure and chemistry (United States)

    Ritterbex, S.; Tsuchiya, T.


    Seismic observations of the Earth's inner core [1] remain ambiguously related to mineral physics studies of the inner core stable crystalline iron phase [2,3,4,5]. This makes it difficult to clarify the role of plastic deformation as one of the primary candidates responsible for the observed seismic anisotropy of Earth's inner core. Nonetheless, atomic self-diffusion mechanisms provide a direct link between plastic deformation and the mechanical properties of Earth's inner core stable iron phase(s). Using first-principles density functional based calculation techniques, we have studied the conjugate effect of pressure and chemistry on vacancy diffusion in HCP-, BCC- and FCC-iron by taking into account potential light alloying elements as hydrogen, silicon and sulfur. Our results show that inner core pressure highly inhibits the rate of intrinsic self-diffusion by suppressing defect concentration rather than by effecting the mobility of the defects. Moreover, we found light elements to be able to affect metallic bonding which allows for extrinsic diffusion mechanisms in iron under inner core conditions. The latter clearly enables to enhance defect concentration and hence to enhance the rate of plastic deformation. This suggests that inner core chemistry affects the rheological properties (e.g.viscosity) of iron alloys which finally should match with seismic observations. references: [1] Deuss, A., 2014. Heterogeneity and Anisotropy of Earth's inner core. An. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 42, 103-126. [2] Anzellini, S., Dewaele, A., Mezouar, M., Loubeyre, P., Morard, G., 2013. Melting of iron at Earth's inner core boundary based on fast X-ray diffraction. Science 340, 464-466. [3] Godwal, B.K., Gonzales-Cataldo, F., Verma, A.K., Stixrude, L., Jeanloz, R., 2015. Stability of iron crystal structures at 0.3-1.5 TPa. [4] Vocadlo, L., 2007. Ab initio calculations of the elasticity of iron and iron alloys at inner core conditions: evidence for a partially molten inner core

  19. The Effect of Varying Atmospheric Pressure upon Habitability and Biosignatures of Earth-like Planets. (United States)

    Keles, Engin; Grenfell, John Lee; Godolt, Mareike; Stracke, Barbara; Rauer, Heike


    Understanding the possible climatic conditions on rocky extrasolar planets, and thereby their potential habitability, is one of the major subjects of exoplanet research. Determining how the climate, as well as potential atmospheric biosignatures, changes under different conditions is a key aspect when studying Earth-like exoplanets. One important property is the atmospheric mass, hence pressure and its influence on the climatic conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to understand the influence of atmospheric mass on climate, hence habitability, and the spectral appearance of planets with Earth-like, that is, N 2 -O 2 dominated, atmospheres orbiting the Sun at 1 AU. This work utilizes a 1D coupled, cloud-free, climate-photochemical atmospheric column model; varies atmospheric surface pressure from 0.5 to 30 bar; and investigates temperature and key species profiles, as well as emission and brightness temperature spectra in a range between 2 and 20 μm. Increasing the surface pressure up to 4 bar leads to an increase in the surface temperature due to increased greenhouse warming. Above this point, Rayleigh scattering dominates, and the surface temperature decreases, reaching surface temperatures below 273 K (approximately at ∼34 bar surface pressure). For ozone, nitrous oxide, water, methane, and carbon dioxide, the spectral response either increases with surface temperature or pressure depending on the species. Masking effects occur, for example, for the bands of the biosignatures ozone and nitrous oxide by carbon dioxide, which could be visible in low carbon dioxide atmospheres. Key Words: Planetary habitability and biosignatures-Atmospheres-Radiative transfer. Astrobiology 18, 116-132.

  20. Evolution of the Oxidation State of the Earth's Mantle: Challenges of High Pressure Quenching (United States)

    Danielson, L. R.; Righter, K.; Keller, L.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.


    The oxidation state of the Earth's mantle during formation remains an unresolved question, whether it was constant throughout planetary accretion, transitioned from reduced to oxidized, or from oxidized to reduced. We investigate the stability of Fe3+ at depth, in order to constrain processes (water, late accretion, dissociation of FeO) which may reduce or oxidize the Earth's mantle. Experiments of more mafic compositions and at higher pressures commonly form a polyphase quench intergrowth composed primarily of pyroxenes, with interstitial glass which hosts nearly all of the more volatile minor elements. In our previous experiments on shergottite compositions, variable fO2, T, and P is less than 4 GPa, Fe3+/TotFe decreased slightly with increasing P, similar to terrestrial basalt. For oxidizing experiments less than 7GPa, Fe3+/TotFe decreased as well, but it's unclear from previous modelling whether the deeper mantle could retain significant Fe3+. Our current experiments expand our pressure range deeper into the Earth's mantle and focus on compositions and conditions relevant to the early Earth. Experiments with Knippa basalt as the starting composition were conducted at 1-8 GPa and 1800 C, using a molybdenum capsule to set the fO2 near IW, by buffering with Mo-MoO3. TEM and EELS analyses revealed the run products from 7-8 GPa quenched to polycrystalline phases, with the major phase pyroxene containing approximately equal Fe3+/2+. A number of different approaches have been employed to produce glassy samples that can be measured by EELS and XANES. A more intermediate andesite was used in one experiment, and decompression during quenching was attempted after, but both resulted in a finer grained polyphase texture. Experiments are currently underway to test different capsule materials may affect quench texture. A preliminary experiment using liquid nitrogen to greatly enhance the rate of cooling of the assembly has also been attempted and this technique will be

  1. Lateral Earth Pressure at Rest and Shear Modulus Measurements on Hanford Sludge Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Bauman, Nathan N.; Guzman, Anthony D.; Arduino, P.; Keller, P. J.


    This report describes the equipment, techniques, and results of lateral earth pressure at rest and shear modulus measurements on kaolin clay as well as two chemical sludge simulants. The testing was performed in support of the problem of hydrogen gas retention and release encountered in the double- shell tanks (DSTs) at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Wastes from single-shell tanks (SSTs) are being transferred to double-shell tanks (DSTs) for safety reasons (some SSTs are leaking or are in danger of leaking), but the available DST space is limited.

  2. Satellite Earth observation data to identify anthropogenic pressures in selected protected areas (United States)

    Nagendra, Harini; Mairota, Paola; Marangi, Carmela; Lucas, Richard; Dimopoulos, Panayotis; Honrado, João Pradinho; Niphadkar, Madhura; Mücher, Caspar A.; Tomaselli, Valeria; Panitsa, Maria; Tarantino, Cristina; Manakos, Ioannis; Blonda, Palma


    Protected areas are experiencing increased levels of human pressure. To enable appropriate conservation action, it is critical to map and monitor changes in the type and extent of land cover/use and habitat classes, which can be related to human pressures over time. Satellite Earth observation (EO) data and techniques offer the opportunity to detect such changes. Yet association with field information and expert interpretation by ecologists is required to interpret, qualify and link these changes to human pressure. There is thus an urgent need to harmonize the technical background of experts in the field of EO data analysis with the terminology of ecologists, protected area management authorities and policy makers in order to provide meaningful, context-specific value-added EO products. This paper builds on the DPSIR framework, providing a terminology to relate the concepts of state, pressures, and drivers with the application of EO analysis. The type of pressure can be inferred through the detection of changes in state (i.e. changes in land cover and/or habitat type and/or condition). Four broad categories of changes in state are identified, i.e. land cover/habitat conversion, land cover/habitat modification, habitat fragmentation and changes in landscape connectivity, and changes in plant community structure. These categories of change in state can be mapped through EO analyses, with the goal of using expert judgement to relate changes in state to causal direct anthropogenic pressures. Drawing on expert knowledge, a set of protected areas located in diverse socio-ecological contexts and subject to a variety of pressures are analysed to (a) link the four categories of changes in state of land cover/habitats to the drivers (anthropogenic pressure), as relevant to specific target land cover and habitat classes; (b) identify (for pressure mapping) the most appropriate spatial and temporal EO data sources as well as interpretations from ecologists and field data


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamenković, Vlada; Noack, Lena; Spohn, Tilman; Breuer, Doris


    We study the thermal evolution of super-Earths with a one-dimensional (1D) parameterized convection model that has been adopted to account for a strong pressure dependence of the viscosity. A comparison with a 2D spherical convection model shows that the derived parameterization satisfactorily represents the main characteristics of the thermal evolution of massive rocky planets. We find that the pressure dependence of the viscosity strongly influences the thermal evolution of super-Earths—resulting in a highly sluggish convection regime in the lower mantles of those planets. Depending on the effective activation volume and for cooler initial conditions, we observe with growing planetary mass even the formation of a conductive lid above the core-mantle boundary (CMB), a so-called CMB-lid. For initially molten planets our results suggest no CMB-lids but instead a hot lower mantle and core as well as sluggish lower mantle convection. This implies that the initial interior temperatures, especially in the lower mantle, become crucial for the thermal evolution—the thermostat effect suggested to regulate the interior temperatures in terrestrial planets does not work for massive planets if the viscosity is strongly pressure dependent. The sluggish convection and the potential formation of the CMB-lid reduce the convective vigor throughout the mantle, thereby affecting convective stresses, lithospheric thicknesses, and heat fluxes. The pressure dependence of the viscosity may therefore also strongly affect the propensity of plate tectonics, volcanic activity, and the generation of a magnetic field of super-Earths.

  4. Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Jason


    This curriculum-based, easy-to-follow book teaches young readers about Earth as one of the eight planets in our solar system in astronomical terms. With accessible text, it provides the fundamental information any student needs to begin their studies in astronomy, such as how Earth spins and revolves around the Sun, why it's uniquely suitable for life, its physical features, atmosphere, biosphere, moon, its past, future, and more. To enhance the learning experience, many of the images come directly from NASA. This straightforward title offers the fundamental information any student needs to sp

  5. X-ray absorption experiments on rare earth and uranium compounds under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmiester, G.


    After an introduction into the phenomenon of the mixed valency and the method of measuring the microstructures by X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the area of the L edges under pressure, the results of investigations at selected substitutes of the chalcogenides and puictides of the rare earths and the uranium were given. Thus, pressure-induced valency transitions in YbS and YbTe, instabilities in valency and structural phase transitions in EUS and SmTe as well as the change in the electron structure in USb under pressure were investigated in order to answer questions of solid state physics (e.g. semiconductor-metal transitions, correlation between valency and structural phase transitions). Hybridization effects in L III spectra of formally tetravalent Ca are analyzed at CeF 4 and CeO 2 (insulators) and the role of final state effects in the L III spectra are analyzed at EuP 2 P 2 and TmSe-TmTe (semiconductor systems). (RB) [de

  6. Electron spin transition causing structure transformations of earth's interiors under high pressure (United States)

    Yamanaka, T.; Kyono, A.; Kharlamova, S.; Alp, E.; Bi, W.; Mao, H.


    To elucidate the correlation between structure transitions and spin state is one of the crucial problems for understanding the geophysical properties of earth interiors under high pressure. High-pressure studies of iron bearing spinels attract extensive attention in order to understand strong electronic correlation such as the charge transfer, electron hopping, electron high-low spin transition, Jahn-Teller distortion and charge disproponation in the lower mantle or subduction zone [1]. Experiment Structure transitions of Fe3-xSixO4, Fe3-xTixO4 Fe3-xCrxO4 spinel solid solution have been investigated at high pressure up to 60 GPa by single crystal and powder diffraction studies using synchrotron radiation with diamond anvil cell. X-ray emission experiment (XES) at high pressure proved the spin transition of Fe-Kβ from high spin (HS) to intermediate spin state (IS) or low spin state (LS). Mössbauer experiment and Raman spectra study have been also conducted for deformation analysis of Fe site and confirmation of the configuration change of Fe atoms. Jahn-Teller effect A cubic-to-tetragonal transition under pressure was induced by Jahn-Teller effect of IVFe2+ (3d6) in the tetrahedral site of Fe2TiO4 and FeCr2O4, providing the transformation from 43m (Td) to 42m (D2d). Tetragonal phase is formed by the degeneracy of e orbital of Fe2+ ion. Their c/a ratios are c/adisordered in the M2 site. At pressures above 53 GPa, Fe2TiO4 structure further transforms to Pmma. This structure change results in the order-disorder transition [2]. New structure of Fe2SiO4 The spin transition exerts an influence to Fe2SiO4 spinel structure and triggers two distinct curves of the lattice constant in the spinel phase. The reversible structure transition from cubic to pseudo-rhombohedral phase was observed at about 45 GPa. This transition is induced by the 20% shrinkage of ionic radius of VIFe2+at the low sin state. Laser heating experiment at 1500 K has confirmed the decomposition from the

  7. Solar radiation pressure application for orbital motion stabilization near the Sun-Earth collinear libration point (United States)

    Polyakhova, Elena; Shmyrov, Alexander; Shmyrov, Vasily


    Orbital maneuvering in a neighborhood of the collinear libration point L1 of Sun-Earth system has specific properties, primarily associated with the instability L1. For a long stay in this area of space the stabilization problem of orbital motion requires a solution. Numerical experiments have shown that for stabilization of motion it is requires very small control influence in comparison with the gravitational forces. On the other hand, the stabilization time is quite long - months, and possibly years. This makes it highly desirable to use solar pressure forces. In this paper we illustrate the solar sail possibilities for solving of stabilization problem in a neighborhood L1 with use of the model example.

  8. Structure and Stability of High-Pressure Dolomite with Implications for the Earth's Deep Carbon Cycle (United States)

    Solomatova, N. V.; Asimow, P. D.


    Carbon is subducted into the mantle primarily in the form of metasomatically calcium-enriched basaltic rock, calcified serpentinites and carbonaceous ooze. The fate of these carbonates in subduction zones is not well understood. End-member CaMg(CO3)2 dolomite typically breaks down into two carbonates at 2-7 GPa, which may further decompose to oxides and CO2-bearing fluid. However, high-pressure X-ray diffraction experiments have recently shown that the presence of iron may be sufficient to stabilize dolomite I to high pressures, allowing the transformation to dolomite II at 17 GPa and subsequently to dolomite III at 35 GPa [1][2]. Such phases may be a principal host for deeply subducted carbon. The structure and equation of state of these high-pressure phases is debated and the effect of varying concentrations of iron is unknown, creating a need for theoretical calculations. Here we compare calculated dolomite structures to experimentally observed phases. Using the Vienna ab-initio simulation package (VASP) interfaced with a genetic algorithm that predicts crystal structures (USPEX), a monoclinic phase with space group 5 ("dolomite sg5") was found for pure end-member dolomite. Dolomite sg5 has a lower energy than reported dolomite structures and an equation of state that resembles that of dolomite III. It is possible that dolomite sg5 is not achieved experimentally due to a large energy barrier and a correspondingly large required volume drop, resulting in the transformation to metastable dolomite II. Due to the complex energy landscape for candidate high-pressure dolomite structures, it is likely that several competing polymorphs exist. Determining the behavior of high-pressure Ca-Mg-Fe(-Mn) dolomite phases in subduction environments is critical for our understanding of the Earth's deep carbon cycle and supercell calculations with Fe substitution are in progress. [1] Mao, Z., Armentrout, M., Rainey, E., Manning, C. E., Dera, P., Prakapenka, V. B., and Kavner, A

  9. Stability and anisotropy of (FexNi1-x)2O under high pressure and implications in Earth's and super-Earths' core. (United States)

    Huang, Shengxuan; Wu, Xiang; Qin, Shan


    Oxygen is thought to be an important light element in Earth's core but the amount of oxygen in Earth's core remains elusive. In addition, iron-rich iron oxides are of great interest and significance in the field of geoscience and condensed matter physics. Here, static calculations based on density functional theory demonstrate that I4/mmm-Fe 2 O is dynamically and mechanically stable and becomes energetically favorable with respect to the assemblage of hcp-Fe and [Formula: see text]-FeO above 270 GPa, which indicates that I4/mmm-Fe 2 O can be a strong candidate phase for stable iron-rich iron oxides at high pressure, perhaps even at high temperature. The elasticity and anisotropy of I4/mmm-(Fe x Ni 1-x ) 2 O at high pressures are also determined. Based on these results, we have derived the upper limit of oxygen to be 4.3 wt% in Earth's lower outer core. On the other hand, I4/mmm-(Fe x Ni 1-x ) 2 O with high AV S is likely to exist in a super-Earth's or an ocean planet's solid core causing the locally seismic heterogeneity. Our results not only give some clues to explore and synthesize novel iron-rich iron oxides but also shed light on the fundamental information of oxygen in the planetary core.

  10. Unusual pressure dependence of the crystallographic structure in RNiO{sub 3} perovskites (R = rare earth)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medarde, M.; Mesot, J.; Rosenkranz, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Lacorre, P. [Lab. Fluorures, Le Mans (France); Marshall, W.; Loveday, J.S. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom); Klotz, S.; Hamel, G. [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France)


    We report the first experimental observation of a pressure-induced structural phase transition in the RNiO{sub 3} series (R = rare earth). At {approx_equal} 40 kbar, the space group of NdNiO{sub 3} changes from Pbnm(orthorhombic) to the PrNiO{sub 3} indicating that the symmetry of the structure increases with pressure. (author) 1 fig., 7 refs.

  11. Study on passive earth pressure acting on the embedment of an earth retaining wall for braced excavation work in cohesive soil; Nenseido jiban ni okeru kussaku dodomeheki neirebu no judo doatsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H. [Pacific Consultants K.K., Tokyo (Japan); Hirashima, K. [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Passive earth pressure exerts a great influence on the stress and deformation of earth retaining walls in braced excavation. To calculate this pressure, conventional ultimate earth pressure equation, or Rankine-Resals and Coulomb`s equation, are currently applied respectively to cohesive and sandy soil. However, these intentional equation to determine passive earth pressure do not adequately take into account the excavation width during work and the shearing resistance on the earth retaining wall surface. This paper deals with cohesive soil only, deriving a calculation equation for passive earth pressure, which takes into account excavation width and the shearing resistance of the earth retaining wall surface. Then, constants in this equation are determined using the calculation results obtained from the finite element method with blasts-plastic elements. The calculation results are also compared with measured values in the model test in order to check the applicability of the calculation equation for passive earth pressure thus obtained. Finally, this paper proposes a practicable calculation equation for passive earth pressure. 13 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Universal viscosity growth in metallic melts at megabar pressures: the vitreous state of the Earth's inner core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazhkin, Vadim V; Lyapin, A G


    Experimental data on and theoretical models for the viscosity of various types of liquids and melts under pressure are reviewed. Experimentally, the least studied melts are those of metals, whose viscosity is considered to be virtually constant along the melting curve. The authors' new approach to the viscosity of melts involves the measurement of the grain size in solidified samples. Measurements on liquid metals at pressures up to 10 GPa using this method show, contrary to the empirical approach, that the melt viscosity grows considerably along the melting curves. Based on the experimental data and on the critical analysis of current theories, a hypothesis of a universal viscosity behavior is introduced for liquids under pressure. Extrapolating the liquid iron results to the pressures and temperatures at the Earth's core reveals that the Earth's outer core is a very viscous melt with viscosity values ranging from 10 2 Pa s to 10 11 Pa s depending on the depth. The Earth's inner core is presumably an ultraviscous (>10 11 Pa s) glass-like liquid - in disagreement with the current idea of a crystalline inner core. The notion of the highly viscous interior of celestial bodies sheds light on many mysteries of planetary geophysics and astronomy. From the analysis of the pressure variation of the melting and glass-transition temperatures, an entirely new concept of a stable metallic vitreous state arises, calling for further experimental and theoretical study. (reviews of topical problems)

  13. Discovery of earth-abundant nitride semiconductors by computational screening and high-pressure synthesis (United States)

    Hinuma, Yoyo; Hatakeyama, Taisuke; Kumagai, Yu; Burton, Lee A.; Sato, Hikaru; Muraba, Yoshinori; Iimura, Soshi; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Tanaka, Isao; Hosono, Hideo; Oba, Fumiyasu


    Nitride semiconductors are attractive because they can be environmentally benign, comprised of abundant elements and possess favourable electronic properties. However, those currently commercialized are mostly limited to gallium nitride and its alloys, despite the rich composition space of nitrides. Here we report the screening of ternary zinc nitride semiconductors using first-principles calculations of electronic structure, stability and dopability. This approach identifies as-yet-unreported CaZn2N2 that has earth-abundant components, smaller carrier effective masses than gallium nitride and a tunable direct bandgap suited for light emission and harvesting. High-pressure synthesis realizes this phase, verifying the predicted crystal structure and band-edge red photoluminescence. In total, we propose 21 promising systems, including Ca2ZnN2, Ba2ZnN2 and Zn2PN3, which have not been reported as semiconductors previously. Given the variety in bandgaps of the identified compounds, the present study expands the potential suitability of nitride semiconductors for a broader range of electronic, optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications. PMID:27325228

  14. RAM analysis of earth pressure balance tunnel boring machines: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasel Amini Khoshalan


    Full Text Available Earth pressure balance tunnel boring machines (EPB-TBMs are favorably applied in urban tunneling projects. Despite their numerous advantages, considerable delays and high maintenance cost are the main disadvantages these machines suffer from. Reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM analysis is a practical technique that uses failure and repair dataset obtained over a reasonable time for dealing with proper machine operation, maintenance scheduling, cost control, and improving the availability and performance of such machines. In the present study, a database of failures and repairs of an EBP-TBM was collected in line 1 of Tabriz subway project over a 26-month interval of machine operation. In order to model the reliability of the TBM, this machine was divided into five distinct subsystems including mechanical, electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic, and water systems in a series configuration. According to trend and serial correlation tests, the renewal processes were applied, for analysis of all subsystems. After calculating the reliability and maintainability functions for all subsystems, it was revealed that the mechanical subsystem with the highest failure frequency has the lowest reliability and maintainability. Similarly, estimating the availability of all subsystems indicated that the mechanical subsystem has a relatively low availability level of 52.6%, while other subsystems have acceptable availability level of 97%. Finally, the overall availability of studied machine was calculated as 48.3%.

  15. Research on Earth's rotation and the effect of atmospheric pressure on vertical deformation and sea level variability (United States)

    Wahr, John


    The work done under NASA grant NAG5-485 included modelling the deformation of the earth caused by variations in atmospheric pressure. The amount of deformation near coasts is sensitive to the nature of the oceanic response to the pressure. The PSMSL (Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level) data suggest the response is inverted barometer at periods greater than a couple months. Green's functions were constructed to describe the perturbation of the geoid caused by atmospheric and oceanic loading and by the accompanying load-induced deformation. It was found that perturbation of up to 2 cm are possible. Ice mass balance data was used for continental glaciers to look at the glacial contributions to time-dependent changes in polar motion, the lod, the earth's gravitational field, the position of the earth's center-of-mass, and global sea level. It was found that there can be lateral, non-hydrostatic structure inside the fluid core caused by gravitational forcing from the mantle, from the inner core, or from topography at the core/mantle or inner core/outer core boundaries. The nutational and tidal response of a non-hydrostatic earth with a solid inner core was modeled. Monthly, global tide gauge data from PSMSL was used to look at the 18.6-year ocean tide, the 14-month pole tide, the oceanic response to pressure, the linear trend and inter-annual variability in the earth's gravity field, the global sea level rise, and the effects of post glacial rebound. The effects of mantle anelasticity on nutations, earth tides, and tidal variation in the lod was modeled. Results of this model can be used with Crustal Dynamics observations to look at the anelastic dissipation and dispersion at tidal periods. The effects of surface topography on various components of crustal deformation was also modeled, and numerical models were developed of post glacial rebound.

  16. Spin crossover and Mott—Hubbard transition under high pressure and high temperature in the low mantle of the Earth (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, S. G.; Ovchinnikova, T. M.; Plotkin, V. V.; Dyad'kov, P. G.


    Effect of high pressure induced spin crossover on the magnetic, electronic and structural properties of the minerals forming the Earth's low mantle is discussed. The low temperature P, T phase diagram of ferropericlase has the quantum phase transition point Pc = 56 GPa at T = 0 confirmed recently by the synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy. The LDA+GTB calculated phase diagram describes the experimental data. Its extension to the high temperature resulted earlier in prediction of the metallic properties of the Earth's mantle at the depth 1400 km insulator transition and compare them with the experimental seismic and geomagnetic field data.

  17. Aqueous magnesium as an environmental selection pressure in the evolution of phospholipid membranes on early earth (United States)

    Dalai, Punam; Ustriyana, Putu; Sahai, Nita


    Early compartmentalization of simple biomolecules by membrane bilayers was, presumably, a critical step in the emergence of the first cell-like entities, protocells. Their membranes were likely composed of single chain amphiphiles (SCAs), but pure SCA membranes especially those with short-chains are highly unstable towards divalent cations, which are ubiquitous in aqueous environments. The prebiotic synthesis of phospholipids (PLs), even in only trace amounts, may also have been possible. PL membranes are much more stable towards divalent cations. Here, we show the transition of fatty acid membranes to mixed fatty acid-PL and, finally, to PL membranes in the presence of Mg2+, which acts as an environmental selection pressure, and we propose different mechanisms for the observed increased Mg2+-immunity. The "fatal" concentration ([Mg2+]fatal) at which vesicles are disrupted increased dramatically by an order of magnitude from OA to mixed to POPC vesicles. Two mechanisms for the increasing immunity were determined. The negative charge density of the vesicles decreased with increasing POPC content, so more Mg2+ was required for disruption. More interestingly, Mg2+ preferentially bound to and abstracted OA from mixed lipid membranes, resulting in relatively POPC-enriched vesicles compared to the initial ratio. The effect was the most dramatic for the largest initial OA-POPC ratio representing the most primitive protocells. Thus, Mg2+ acted to evolve the mixed membrane composition towards PL enrichment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of selective lipid abstraction from mixed SCA-PL vesicles. These results may hold implications for accommodating prebiotic Mg2+-promoted processes such as non-enzymatic RNA polymerization on early Earth.

  18. Pressure-induced structural change in MgSiO3 glass at pressures near the Earth's core-mantle boundary. (United States)

    Kono, Yoshio; Shibazaki, Yuki; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Wang, Yanbin; Shen, Guoyin


    Knowledge of the structure and properties of silicate magma under extreme pressure plays an important role in understanding the nature and evolution of Earth's deep interior. Here we report the structure of MgSiO 3 glass, considered an analog of silicate melts, up to 111 GPa. The first (r1) and second (r2) neighbor distances in the pair distribution function change rapidly, with r1 increasing and r2 decreasing with pressure. At 53-62 GPa, the observed r1 and r2 distances are similar to the Si-O and Si-Si distances, respectively, of crystalline MgSiO 3 akimotoite with edge-sharing SiO 6 structural motifs. Above 62 GPa, r1 decreases, and r2 remains constant, with increasing pressure until 88 GPa. Above this pressure, r1 remains more or less constant, and r2 begins decreasing again. These observations suggest an ultrahigh-pressure structural change around 88 GPa. The structure above 88 GPa is interpreted as having the closest edge-shared SiO 6 structural motifs similar to those of the crystalline postperovskite, with densely packed oxygen atoms. The pressure of the structural change is broadly consistent with or slightly lower than that of the bridgmanite-to-postperovskite transition in crystalline MgSiO 3 These results suggest that a structural change may occur in MgSiO 3 melt under pressure conditions corresponding to the deep lower mantle.

  19. Seasonal Variations of the Earth's Gravitational Field: An Analysis of Atmospheric Pressure, Ocean Tidal, and Surface Water Excitation (United States)

    Dong, D,; Gross, R.S.; Dickey, J.


    Monthly mean gravitational field parameters (denoted here as C(sub even)) that represent linear combinations of the primarily even degree zonal spherical harmonic coefficients of the Earth's gravitational field have been recovered using LAGEOS I data and are compared with those derived from gridded global surface pressure data of the National meteorological center (NMC) spanning 1983-1992. The effect of equilibrium ocean tides and surface water variations are also considered. Atmospheric pressure and surface water fluctuations are shown to be the dominant cause of observed annual C(sub even) variations. Closure with observations is seen at the 1sigma level when atmospheric pressure, ocean tide and surface water effects are include. Equilibrium ocean tides are shown to be the main source of excitation at the semiannual period with closure at the 1sigma level seen when both atmospheric pressure and ocean tide effects are included. The inverted barometer (IB) case is shown to give the best agreement with the observation series. The potential of the observed C(sub even) variations for monitoring mass variations in the polar regions of the Earth and the effect of the land-ocean mask in the IB calculation are discussed.

  20. The high-pressure phase diagram of Fe(0.94)O - A possible constituent of the earth's core (United States)

    Knittle, Elise; Jeanloz, Raymond


    Electrical resistivity measurements to pressures of 83 GPa and temperatures ranging from 300 K to 4300 K confirm the presence of both crystalline and liquid metallic phases of FeO at pressures above 60-70 GPa and temperatures above 1000 K. By experimentally determinig the melting temperature of FeO to 100 GPa and of a model-core composition at 83 GPa, it is found that the solid-melt equilibria can be described by complete solid solution across the Fe-FeO system at pressures above 70 GPa. The results indicate that oxygen is a viable and likely candidate for the major light alloying element of the earth's liquid outer core. The data suggest that the temperature at the core-mantle boundary is close to 4800 K and that heat lost out of the core accounts for more than 20 percent of the heat flux observed at the surface.

  1. The pressure-induced structural response of rare earth hafnate and stannate pyrochlore from 0.1-50 GPa (United States)

    Turner, K. M.; Rittman, D.; Heymach, R.; Turner, M.; Tracy, C.; Mao, W. L.; Ewing, R. C.


    Complex oxides with the pyrochlore (A2B2O7) and defect-fluorite ((A,B)4O7) structure-types undergo structural transformations under high-pressure. These compounds are under consideration for applications including as a proposed waste-form for actinides generated in the nuclear fuel cycle. High-pressure transformations in rare earth hafnates (A2Hf2O7, A=Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Y, Yb) and stannates (A2Sn2O7, A=Nd, Gd, Er) were investigated to 50 GPa by in situ Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD). Rare-earth hafnates form the pyrochlore structure for A=La-Tb and the defect-fluorite structure for A=Dy-Lu. Lanthanide stannates form the pyrochlore structure. Raman spectra revealed that at ambient pressure all compositions have pyrochlore-type short-range order. Stannate compositions show a larger degree of pyrochlore-type short-range ordering relative to hafnates. In situ high-pressure synchrotron XRD showed that rare earth hafnates and stannates underwent a pressure-induced phase transition to a cotunnite-like (Pnma) structure that begins between 18-25 GPa in hafnates and between 30-33 GPa in stannates. The phase transition is not complete at 50 GPa, and upon decompression, XRD indicates that all compositions transform to defect-fluorite with an amorphous component. In situ Raman spectroscopy showed that disordering in stannates and hafnates occurs gradually upon compression. Pyrochlore-structured hafnates retain short-range order to a higher pressure (30 GPa vs. <10 GPa) than defect-fluorite-structured hafnates. Hafnates and stannates decompressed from 50 GPa show Raman spectra consistent with weberite-type structures, also reported in irradiated stannates. The second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state fit gives a bulk modulus of 250 GPa for hafnate compositions with the pyrochlore structure, and 400 GPa for hafnate compositions with the defect-fluorite structure. Stannates have a lower bulk modulus relative to hafnates (between 80-150 GPa

  2. Pressure-induced structural phase transition and elastic properties in rare earth CeBi and LaBi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankad, Venu; Gupta, Sanjay D.; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Jha, Prafulla


    Pressure is one of the external parameters by which the interplay of the f-electrons with the normal conduction electrons may be varied. At ambient conditions the rare-earth compounds are characterized by a fixed f n configuration of atomic-like f-electrons, but the decreased lattice spacing resulting from the application of pressure eventually leads to the destabilization of the f-shell. The theoretical description of this electronic transition remains a challenge. The present study reports a comprehensive study on structural, electronic band structures, elastic and lattice dynamical properties of rare earth monopnictides CeBi and LaBi using first principles density functional calculations within the pseudopotential approximation. Both compounds possess NaCI (B1) structure at ambient pressure and transform either to CsCI or body centered tetragonal (BCT) structure. Our results concerning equilibrium lattice parameter and bulk modulus agree well with the available experimental and previous theoretical data. The volume change at the crystallographic transition is attributed to a decrease of the cerium valence or a lowering of the p-f hybridization due to the larger interatomic distances in both high pressure phases. The equation of state for rare earth bismuth compounds are calculated and compared with available experimental results. From the total energy and relative volume one can clearly see the relative stabilities of the high pressure phases of both compounds. As the primitive tetragonal phase of both compounds. As the primitive tetragonal phase can be viewed as a CsCl structure, one may think of a transition from B1 to B2. We have also calculated band structure for both phase and here we have presented for B1 case. The narrow bands originating above the Fermi level are mainly due to Ce 'f'-like states, and the major contribution to the density of states is mainly from Ce 'd'-like states. Furthermore, in high-pressure CsCI phase, there is an appreciable

  3. Influence of geomagnetic activity and earth weather changes on heart rate and blood pressure in young and healthy population. (United States)

    Ozheredov, V A; Chibisov, S M; Blagonravov, M L; Khodorovich, N A; Demurov, E A; Goryachev, V A; Kharlitskaya, E V; Eremina, I S; Meladze, Z A


    There are many references in the literature related to connection between the space weather and the state of human organism. The search of external factors influence on humans is a multi-factor problem and it is well known that humans have a meteo-sensitivity. A direct problem of finding the earth weather conditions, under which the space weather manifests itself most strongly, is discussed in the present work for the first time in the helio-biology. From a formal point of view, this problem requires identification of subset (magnetobiotropic region) in three-dimensional earth's weather parameters such as pressure, temperature, and humidity, corresponding to the days when the human body is the most sensitive to changes in the geomagnetic field variations and when it reacts by statistically significant increase (or decrease) of a particular physiological parameter. This formulation defines the optimization of the problem, and the solution of the latter is not possible without the involvement of powerful metaheuristic methods of searching. Using the algorithm of differential evolution, we prove the existence of magnetobiotropic regions in the earth's weather parameters, which exhibit magneto-sensitivity of systolic, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate of healthy young subjects for three weather areas (combinations of atmospheric temperature, pressure, and humidity). The maximum value of the correlation confidence for the measurements attributable to the days of the weather conditions that fall into each of three magnetobiotropic areas is an order of 0.006, that is almost 10 times less than the confidence, equal to 0.05, accepted in many helio-biological researches.

  4. Stability of the high pressure phase Fe3S2 up to Earth's core pressures in the Fe-S-O and the Fe-S-Si systems (United States)

    Zurkowski, C. C.; Chidester, B.; Davis, A.; Brauser, N.; Greenberg, E.; Prakapenka, V. B.; Campbell, A.


    Earth's core is comprised of an iron-nickel alloy that contains 5-15% of a light element component. The abundance and alloying capability of sulfur, silicon and oxygen in the bulk Earth make them important core alloy candidates; therefore, the high-pressure phase equilibria of the Fe-S-O and Fe-S-Si systems are relevant for understanding the possible chemistry of Earth's core. Previously, a Fe3S2 phase was recognized as a low-pressure intermediate phase in the Fe-FeS system that is stable from 14-21 GPa, but the structure of this phase has not been resolved. We report in-situ XRD and chemical analysis of recovered samples to further examine the stability and structure of Fe3S2 as it coexists with other phases in the Fe-S-O and Fe-S-Si systems. In situ high P-T synchrotron XRD experiments were conducted in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell to determine the equilibrium phases in Fe75S7O18 and Fe80S5Si15 compositions between 30 and 174 GPa and up to 3000 K. In the S,O-rich samples, an orthorhombic Fe3S2 phase coexists with hcp-Fe, Fe3S and FeO and undergoes two monoclinic distortions between 60 and 174 GPa. In the S,Si-rich samples, the orthorhombic Fe3S2 phase was observed up to 115 GPa. With increasing pressure, the Fe3S2 phase becomes stable to higher temperatures in both compositions, suggesting possible Fe3(S,O)2 or Fe3(S,Si)2 solid solutions. SEM analysis of a laser heated Fe75S7O18 sample recovered from 40 GPa and 1450 K confirms a Fe3(S,O)2 phase with O dissolved into the structure. Based on the current melting data in the Fe-S-O and Fe-S-Si systems, the Fe3(S,O)2 stability field intersects the solidus in the outer core and could be a possible liquidus phase in Fe,S,O-rich planetary cores, whereas Fe3S is the stable sulfide at outer core pressures in Fe,S,Si-rich systems.

  5. PuBr3-type as high pressure modification of rare earth trihalides LnX3 (X = Cl, Br, I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, H.P.; Gladrow, E.


    High pressure experiments in a belt-type apparatus were performed on rare earth trichlorides, -bromides and -iodides. The results underline the importance of the PuBr 3 -type arrangement. The range of existence of this structure type is considerably increased under pressure. X-ray high temperature investigations at ambient pressure on the quenched high pressure phases show a marked correlation between the transformation pressures, which rise with smaller cations, and the temperatures at which the high pressure phases are reconverted to the thermodynamically stable ones. (author)

  6. Direct qualitative and quantitative determination of rare earths after separation by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weuster, W.; Specker, H.


    The rare earths from lanthanum to erbium can be separated by means of HPLC in an eluent system containing di-isopropylether/tetrahydrofuran/nitric acid (100:30:3), and they are determined qualitatively and quantitatively after calibration. Fluorescence quenching of THF at break-through of the single elements serves as indication method. This quenching is proportional to the concentration. The calibration curve is linear within 0.2 to 0.02 moles input. Standards, ores (monazites, cerite earths, yttriae) and technical products were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. The results obtained are in good agreement with analytical values from different methods. The relative standard deviation is 1.8-3% (N = 10). The procedure takes 50 min from dissolution of the analytical sample. (orig.) [de

  7. Effect of pressure on the crystal field splitting in rare earth pnictides and chalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirber, J.E.; Weaver, H.T.


    The experimental situation for the pressure dependence of the crystal field of praseodymium pnictides and chalcogenides is reviewed and compared with the predictions of the point charge model. The problem of separating exchange and crystal field contributions from the measured NMR frequency shift or susceptibility measurements is discussed as well as problems explaining these effects with conduction electron related models

  8. Satellite Earth observation data to identify climate and anthropogenic pressures on Bucharest periurban forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoran, Maria; Savastru, Roxana; Savastru, Dan [National Institute of R& D for Optoelectronics, MG5 Bucharest-Magurele, 077125 Romania (Romania); Dida, Adrian [University Transylvania of Brasov, Brasov (Romania)


    Satellite Earth observation data in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) wavelengths represent a useful source of information for forest systems monitoring through derived biogeophysical parameters (vegetation index, leaf area index, canopy cover, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, chlorophyll content, net primary production, canopy water stress, etc.). Use of satellite remote sensing data to assess forest spatio-temporal changes due to climatic or anthropogenic stressors is an excellent example of the value of multispectral and multitemporal observations. Fusion technique was applied to time-series multispectral and multitemporal satellite imagery (NOAA AVHRR, MODIS Terra/Aqua, Landsat ETM and IKONOS satellite data) for periurban forest areas Cernica-Branesti, placed in the neighboring of Bucharest town, Romania, over 2002-2014 period.

  9. Satellite Earth observation data to identify climate and anthropogenic pressures on Bucharest periurban forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoran, Maria; Savastru, Roxana; Savastru, Dan; Dida, Adrian


    Satellite Earth observation data in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) wavelengths represent a useful source of information for forest systems monitoring through derived biogeophysical parameters (vegetation index, leaf area index, canopy cover, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, chlorophyll content, net primary production, canopy water stress, etc.). Use of satellite remote sensing data to assess forest spatio-temporal changes due to climatic or anthropogenic stressors is an excellent example of the value of multispectral and multitemporal observations. Fusion technique was applied to time-series multispectral and multitemporal satellite imagery (NOAA AVHRR, MODIS Terra/Aqua, Landsat ETM and IKONOS satellite data) for periurban forest areas Cernica-Branesti, placed in the neighboring of Bucharest town, Romania, over 2002-2014 period.

  10. Windsock memory COnditioned RAM (CO-RAM) pressure effect: Forced reconnection in the Earth's magnetotail (United States)

    Vörös, Z.; Facskó, G.; Khodachenko, M.; Honkonen, I.; Janhunen, P.; Palmroth, M.


    Magnetic reconnection (MR) is a key physical concept explaining the addition of magnetic flux to the magnetotail and closed flux lines back-motion to the dayside magnetosphere. This scenario elaborated by Dungey (1963) can explain many aspects of solar wind-magnetosphere interaction processes, including substorms. However, neither the Dungey model nor its numerous modifications were able to explain fully the onset conditions for MR in the tail. In this paper, we introduce new onset conditions for forced MR in the tail. We call our scenario the "windsock memory conditioned ram pressure effect." Our nonflux transfer-associated forcing is introduced by a combination of the large-scale windsock motions exhibiting memory effects and solar wind dynamic pressure actions on the nightside magnetopause during northward oriented interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Using global MHD Grand Unified Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling Simulation version 4 simulation results, upstream data from Wind, magnetosheath data from Cluster 1 and distant tail data from the two-probe Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun mission, we show that the simultaneous occurrence of vertical windsock motions of the magnetotail and enhanced solar wind dynamic pressure introduces strong nightside disturbances, including enhanced electric fields and persistent vertical cross-tail shear flows. These perturbations, associated with a stream interaction region in the solar wind, drive MR in the tail during episodes of northward oriented interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We detect MR indirectly, observing plasmoids in the tail and ground-based signatures of earthward moving fast flows. We also consider the application to solar system planets and close-in exoplanets, where the proposed scenario can elucidate some new aspects of solar/stellar wind-magnetosphere interactions.

  11. Development of in situ Brillouin spectroscopy at high pressure and high temperature with synchrotron radiation and infrared laser heating system: Application to the Earth's deep interior (United States)

    Murakami, Motohiko; Asahara, Yuki; Ohishi, Yasuo; Hirao, Naohisa; Hirose, Kei


    Seismic wave velocity profiles in the Earth provide one of the strongest constraints on structure, mineralogy and elastic properties of the Earth's deep interior. Accurate sound velocity data of deep Earth materials under relevant high-pressure and high-temperature conditions, therefore, are essential for interpretation of seismic data. Such information can be directly obtained from Brillouin scattering measurement. Here we describe an in situ Brillouin scattering system for measurements at high pressure and high temperature using a laser heated diamond anvil cell and synchrotron radiation for sample characterization. The system has been used with single-crystal and polycrystalline materials, and with glass and fluid phase. It provided high quality sound velocity and elastic data with X-ray diffraction data at high pressure and/or high temperature. Those combined techniques can potentially offer the essential information for resolving many remaining issues in mineral physics.

  12. Noninvasive Intracranial Pressure and Tissue Oxygen Measurements for Space and Earth (United States)

    Hargens, A. R.; Ballard, R. E.; Murthy, G.; Watenpaugh, D. E.


    The paper discusses the following: Increasing intracranial pressure in humans during simulated microgravity. and near-infrared monitoring of model chronic compartment syndrome in exercising skeletal muscle. Compared to upright-seated posture, 0 deg. supine, 6 deg. HDT, and 15 deg. HDT produced TMD changes of 317 +/- 112, 403 +/- 114, and 474 +/- 112 n1 (means +/- S.E.), respectively. Furthermore, postural transitions from 0 deg. supine to 6 deg. HDT and from 6 deg. to 15 deg. HDT generated significant TMD changes (p less than 0.05). There was no hysteresis when postural transitions to HDT were compared to reciprocal transitions toward upright seated posture. Currently, diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome (CCS) depends on measurement of intramuscular pressure by invasive catheterization. We hypothesized that this syndrome can be detected noninvasively by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, which tracks variations in muscle hemoglobin/myoglobin oxygen saturation. CCS was simulated in the tibialis anterior muscle of 7 male and 3 female subjects by gradual inflation of a cuff placed around the leg to 40 mmHg during 14 minutes of cyclic isokinetic dorsiflexion exercise. On a separate day, subjects underwent the identical exercise protocol with no external compression. In both cases, tissue oxygenation (T(sub O2) was measured in the tibialis anterior by NIR spectroscopy and normalized to a percentage scale between baseline and a T(sub O2) nadir reached during exercise to ischemic exhaustion. Over the course of exercise, T(sub O2) declined at a rate of 1.4 +/- 0.3% per minute with model CCS, yet did not decrease during control exercise. Post-exercise recovery of T(sub O2) was slower with model CCS (2.5 +/- 0.6 min) than in control (1.3 +/- 0.2 min). These results demonstrate that NIR spectroscopy can detect muscle deoxygenation caused by pathologically elevated intramuscular pressure in exercising skeletal muscle. Consequently, this technique shows promise as a

  13. Isostructural crystal hydrates of rare-earth metal oxalates at high pressure. From strain anisotropy to dehydration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharov, Boris A.; Matvienko, Alexander A. [Russian Academy of Ssciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry; Novosibirsk State Univ. (Russian Federation); Gribov, Pavel A.; Boldyreva, Elena V. [Russian Academy of Ssciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry


    The crystal structures of a series of isostructural rare-earth metal oxalates, (REE){sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O (REE=Sm, Y) and a 1:1 YSm(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O solid solution, have been studied in situ by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. The structures were followed from ambient pressure to 6 GPa in a DAC with paraffin as the hydrostatic fluid. Bulk compressibilities, anisotropic lattice strain on hydrostatic compression and the corresponding changes in the atomic coordinates were followed. Discontinuities/sharp changes in the slopes of the pressure dependences of volume and selected cell parameters have been observed for yttrium-containing salts at ∝3.5 GPa. This may be related to the re-distribution of water molecules within the crystal structure. Y{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O undergoes a partial dehydration at 1 GPa, forming monoclinic Y{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O as single-crystalline inclusions in the original phase.

  14. High pressure studies of magnetic, electronic, and local structure properties in the rare-earth orthoferrites RFeO3 (R = Nd, Lu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavriliuk, A.G.; Stepanov, G.N.; Lyubutin, I.S.; Stepin, A.S.; Trojan, I.A.; Sidorov, V.A.


    The high pressure modification of the electronic structure, magnetic properties, and local crystal structure have been studied in the rare-earth RFeO 3 (R=Nd, Lu) orthoferrites in both pure single crystals and polycrystalline samples doped with Sn. The pressure dependences of the unit cell parameters, Neel temperatures, supertransferred hyperfine magnetic fields at tin nuclei H Sn , and the optical absorption edge have been obtained. The relations of the obtained values with the geometry of exchange interactions were analyzed

  15. Teacher Resource Book for Population Pressure in Indonesia, Problems of Industrialization in Eurasia, Power Blocs in Eurasia. Man on the Earth Series. (United States)

    Gunn, Angus

    This teacher's resource book is a guide to three intermediate texts about Eurasia entitled Population Pressure in Indonesia, Problems of Industrialization in Eurasia, and Power Blocs in Eurasia. The texts are part of the series, Man on the Earth, which probes broad-based issues confronting mankind. The resource book distinguishes 18 major concepts…

  16. Study of the earth's deep interior and crystallography. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments under high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Takehiko


    History of the study of the Earth's deep interior was reviewed. In order to understand Earth's deep interior from the view point of materials science, X-ray diffraction under high pressure and high temperature played very important role. Use of synchrotron radiation dramatically advanced this experimental technique and it is now possible to make precise X-ray study under the P-T conditions corresponding even to the center of the Earth. In order to clarify the behavior of light elements such as hydrogen, however, studies using neutron diffraction are also required. A new neutron beam line dedicated for high-pressure science is constructed at J-PARC and is now ready for use. (author)

  17. The elastic constants of MgSiO3 perovskite at pressures and temperatures of the Earth's mantle. (United States)

    Oganov, A R; Brodholt, J P; Price, G D


    The temperature anomalies in the Earth's mantle associated with thermal convection can be inferred from seismic tomography, provided that the elastic properties of mantle minerals are known as a function of temperature at mantle pressures. At present, however, such information is difficult to obtain directly through laboratory experiments. We have therefore taken advantage of recent advances in computer technology, and have performed finite-temperature ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of the elastic properties of MgSiO3 perovskite, the major mineral of the lower mantle, at relevant thermodynamic conditions. When combined with the results from tomographic images of the mantle, our results indicate that the lower mantle is either significantly anelastic or compositionally heterogeneous on large scales. We found the temperature contrast between the coldest and hottest regions of the mantle, at a given depth, to be about 800 K at 1,000 km, 1,500 K at 2,000 km, and possibly over 2,000 K at the core-mantle boundary.

  18. Education and Outreach Programs Offered by the Center for High Pressure Research and the Consortium for Materials Properties Research in Earth Sciences (United States)

    Richard, G. A.


    Major research facilities and organizations provide an effective venue for developing partnerships with educational organizations in order to offer a wide variety of educational programs, because they constitute a base where the culture of scientific investigation can flourish. The Consortium for Materials Properties Research in Earth Sciences (COMPRES) conducts education and outreach programs through the Earth Science Educational Resource Center (ESERC), in partnership with other groups that offer research and education programs. ESERC initiated its development of education programs in 1994 under the administration of the Center for High Pressure Research (CHiPR), which was funded as a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center from 1991 to 2002. Programs developed during ESERC's association with CHiPR and COMPRES have targeted a wide range of audiences, including pre-K, K-12 students and teachers, undergraduates, and graduate students. Since 1995, ESERC has offered inquiry-based programs to Project WISE (Women in Science and Engineering) students at a high school and undergraduate level. Activities have included projects that investigated earthquakes, high pressure mineral physics, and local geology. Through a practicum known as Project Java, undergraduate computer science students have developed interactive instructional tools for several of these activities. For K-12 teachers, a course on Long Island geology is offered each fall, which includes an examination of the role that processes in the Earth's interior have played in the geologic history of the region. ESERC has worked with Stony Brook's Department of Geosciences faculty to offer courses on natural hazards, computer modeling, and field geology to undergraduate students, and on computer programming for graduate students. Each summer, a four-week residential college-level environmental geology course is offered to rising tenth graders from the Brentwood, New York schools in partnership with

  19. Pressure-induced valence and structure change in some anti-Th3P4 structure rare earth compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, A.; Hochheimer, H.D.; Jayaraman, A.; Bucher, E.


    The anti-Th 3 P 4 structure compounds Yb 4 Bi 3 and Yb 4 Sb 3 have been investigated to 350 kbar by high pressure X-ray diffraction, using the diamond anvil cell. From the P-V data it is found that Yb 4 Bi 3 and Yb 4 Sb 3 are much more compressible, compared to Sm 4 Bi 3 before the valence transition. This suggests that a continuous change in the valence state of Yb takes place with pressure in the two compounds and that they may be in the mixed valent state already at ambient pressure. The ''collapsed'' anti-Th 3 P 4 structure becomes unstable in Yb 4 Bi 3 and Yb 4 Sb 3 and new lines appear at high pressure, that fit the NaCl structure. The latter structure change seems to occur also in the electronically collapsed Sm 4 Bi 3 . The results are presented and discussed. (Auth.)

  20. Chemical Reactions Between Fe and H2O up to Megabar Pressures and Implications for Water Storage in the Earth's Mantle and Core (United States)

    Yuan, Liang; Ohtani, Eiji; Ikuta, Daijo; Kamada, Seiji; Tsuchiya, Jun; Naohisa, Hirao; Ohishi, Yasuo; Suzuki, Akio


    We investigated the phase relations of the Fe-H2O system at high pressures based on in situ X-ray diffraction experiments and first-principles calculations and demonstrate that FeHx and FeO are present at pressures less than 78 GPa. A recently reported pyrite-structured FeO2 was identified in the Fe-H2O system at pressures greater than 78 GPa after laser heating. The phase observed in this study has a unit cell volume 8%-11% larger than that of FeO2, produced in the Fe-O binary system reported previously, suggesting that hydrogen might be retained in a FeO2Hx crystal structure. Our observations indicate that H2O is likely introduced into the deep Earth through reaction between iron and water during the accretion and separation of the metallic core. Additionally, reaction between Fe and H2O would occur at the core-mantle boundary, given water released from hydrous subducting slabs that intersect with the metallic core. Accumulation of volatile-bearing iron compounds may provide new insights into the enigmatic seismic structures observed at the base of the lower mantle.

  1. Improved estimation of geocenter motion and changes in the Earth's dynamic oblateness from GRACE data and an ocean bottom pressure model (United States)

    Sun, Y.; Ditmar, P.; Riva, R.


    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, since the launch in 2002, has enabled the monitoring of mass transport in the Earth's system on a monthly basis. In spite of continuous improvements in data processing techniques, an estimation of very low-degree spherical harmonic coefficients remains problematic. GRACE is insensitive to variations in the degree-1 coefficients (ΔC11, ΔS11 and ΔC10), which reflect the motion of the geocenter. The variations of C20 coefficients, which characterize changes in the Earth's dynamic oblateness (Δ J2) are corrupted by ocean tide aliases and usually replaced with estimates from other techniques.In this study, the methodology proposed by Swenson et al. (2008) to estimate geocenter motion is updated and extended to co-estimate changes in the Earth's dynamic oblateness. The algorithm uses monthly GRACE gravity solutions (in the form of spherical harmonic coefficients), an ocean bottom pressure model (over the oceans), and a glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) model (globally). GRACE solutions over coastal areas may suffer from signal leakage due to their limited spectral content and to filtering. We effectively avoid the influence of this effect by introducing a carefully chosen buffer zone. We also take into account self-attraction and loading effects when dealing with water redistribution in the oceans. The estimated annual amplitude of ΔC10 , i.e. the Z component of the geocenter motion, is significantly amplified compared to the original estimations of Swenson et al. (2008) and it is in line with estimates from other techniques, such as the global GPS inversion. The resulting ΔC20 time-series agree remarkably well with a solution based on satellite laser ranging data, which is currently believed to be one of the most accurate sources of information on changes in the Earth's dynamic oblateness. Trends in both geocenter position and the Earth's oblateness are estimated as well. The results show a

  2. Mineralizer-assisted high-pressure high-temperature synthesis and characterization of novel phosphorus nitride imides and luminescent alkaline earth metal (oxo)nitridophosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchuk, Alexey


    The main objectives of this thesis were the synthesis, identification and structural characterization of new alkaline earth metal (oxo)nitridophopshates and phosphorus nitrides. Furthermore, luminescence properties of the resulting materials should be investigated and a connection between these properties and the respective structures should be established. For this purpose, a range of synthesis strategies was employed, including conventional solid-state syntheses in silica ampoules and high-pressure high-temperature syntheses using the multianvil technique. The emphasis of the synthetic part of this thesis lies on the development of new synthetic strategies in order to increase crystallinity of alkaline earth metal (oxo)nitridophosphates and thus accelerate their structure determination. This involves the selection of a suitable mineralizer and the investigation of its interaction with the respective starting materials. In addition, the analytical methods applied in this thesis in order to identify and characterize the compounds are just as essential as the synthesis strategies. X-ray diffraction on single crystals and on powders was carried out as the main analytical method while being supported by quantitative and qualitative 1 H and 31 P solid-state NMR measurements, FTIR and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, as well as electron microscopy methods including both imaging and diffraction techniques. Implied by the large number of novel structures investigated, theoretical studies including topological analysis, calculations of lattice energies and bond-valence sums also played a major role in this thesis. Optical analysis methods such as reflectance spectroscopy, luminescence microscopy and photoluminescence measurements helped to determine the luminescence properties of some of the presented compounds.

  3. X-ray Raman scattering study of MgSiO₃ glass at high pressure: Implication for triclustered MgSiO₃ melt in Earth's mantle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Keun; Lin, Jung-Fu; Cai, Yong Q.; Hiraoka, Nozomu; Eng, Peter J.; Okuchi, Takuo; Mao, Ho-kwang; Meng, Yue; Hu, Michael Y.; Chow, Paul; Shu, Jinfu; Li, Baosheng; Fukui, Hiroshi; Lee, Bum Han; Kim, Hyun Na; Yoo, Choong-Shik [SNU; (LLNL); (NSRRC); (Okayama); (UC); (CIW); (Wash State U); (Nagoya); (SBU)


    Silicate melts at the top of the transition zone and the core-mantle boundary have significant influences on the dynamics and properties of Earth's interior. MgSiO3-rich silicate melts were among the primary components of the magma ocean and thus played essential roles in the chemical differentiation of the early Earth. Diverse macroscopic properties of silicate melts in Earth's interior, such as density, viscosity, and crystal-melt partitioning, depend on their electronic and short-range local structures at high pressures and temperatures. Despite essential roles of silicate melts in many geophysical and geodynamic problems, little is known about their nature under the conditions of Earth's interior, including the densification mechanisms and the atomistic origins of the macroscopic properties at high pressures. Here, we have probed local electronic structures of MgSiO3 glass (as a precursor to Mg-silicate melts), using high-pressure x-ray Raman spectroscopy up to 39 GPa, in which high-pressure oxygen K-edge features suggest the formation of tricluster oxygens (oxygen coordinated with three Si frameworks; [3]O) between 12 and 20 GPa. Our results indicate that the densification in MgSiO3 melt is thus likely to be accompanied with the formation of triculster, in addition to a reduction in nonbridging oxygens. The pressure-induced increase in the fraction of oxygen triclusters >20 GPa would result in enhanced density, viscosity, and crystal-melt partitioning, and reduced element diffusivity in the MgSiO3 melt toward deeper part of the Earth's lower mantle.

  4. CaCO3-III and CaCO3-VI, high-pressure polymorphs of calcite: Possible host structures for carbon in the Earth's mantle (United States)

    Merlini, M.; Hanfland, M.; Crichton, W. A.


    time, Mg and Fe solubility in aragonite is hindered energetically in the 9-fold coordination site. Above 15 GPa, and up to the maximum pressure investigated (40 GPa), we observe the high-pressure polymorph CaCO3-VI, triclinic [a=3.3187(12) Å, b=4.8828(14) Å, c=5.5904(14) Å, α=103.30(2)°, β=94.73(2)°, γ=89.21(2)°, V=87.86(20) Å3 at 30.4 GPa] with 10 atoms in the unit cell. It is characterised by coplanar CO3 groups but the structure is no longer layered, as in the lower pressure polymorphs. The density of the CaCO3-VI structure (3.78 g/cm3 at 30.4 GPa) is higher than aragonite. For this reason it could be supposed that a region may exist where this polymorph replaces aragonite in the Earth's intermediate mantle. The lower coordination number for the Ca site [7+2] instead of [9] in aragonite suggests that this structure could be easily adopted by an extended solid-solution range from calcite towards the dolomite [CaMg(CO3)2]-ankerite [CaFe(CO3)2] compositional join. The transitions from calcite to CaCO3-III, CaCO3-IIIb and CaCO3-VI are perfectly reversible and after pressure release we always observe the calcite structure, with the sample recovered as a single-crystal. Indeed, it is highly unlikely that these structures can be observed in samples recovered from high-pressure environments.

  5. Microstructure and property evaluation of high-pressure die-cast Mg–La–rare earth (Nd, Y or Gd) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavras, Serge; Easton, Mark A.; Gibson, Mark A.; Zhu, Suming; Nie, Jian-Feng


    Highlights: • Different rare earth elements have remarkably different effects on Mg castability. • For the addition of each RE element, the alloy castability follows a unique pattern. • The effects of RE elements on the castability can be modelled. - Abstract: Microstructure, castability and tensile properties were investigated in high-pressure die-cast Mg–La–Nd, Mg–La–Y and Mg–La–Gd alloy series, with a constant La concentration at approximately 2.5 wt.% and the concentrations of Nd, Y or Gd were varied. All three alloy series had a dendritic microstructure with a Mg–La-rich eutectic with increasing Nd, Y or Gd content and containing a Mg 12 RE intermetallic phase. The morphology of the eutectic at ternary alloying additions of equal to or less than 1.0 wt.% was lamellar but became increasingly divorced at higher ternary concentrations. This was however more obvious in Mg–La–Y and Mg–La–Gd than Mg–La–Nd alloys. The hot tearing susceptibility in all three alloy series increased markedly with even micro-alloying additions of Nd, Y or Gd, and began to decrease again in alloys with more than 0.5 wt.% Y or 1.0 wt.% Gd, but did not decrease significantly for Mg–La–Nd. A model using the temperature–fraction solid curves as input parameters was used to estimate hot tearing susceptibility for Mg–La–Nd alloys. Tensile testing at room temperature showed that Mg–La–Nd alloy series had higher 0.2% proof stress and lower elongation to failure than either the Mg–La–Y or the Mg–La–Gd alloy series for Nd concentrations greater than 1 wt.% due to a greater effectiveness of grain boundary reinforcement

  6. Separation of the rare earths by high pressure liquid chromatography and the fission yield on sup(148m)Pm and sup(148g)Pm using thermal neutron induced fission of 233U and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwicky, H.U.


    This report is in two parts: in the first part, the method of high pressure liquid chromatography is described with particular reference to rare earth nuclei produced in nuclear reactions; in the second part, the results of a study of the fission yield of sup(148m)Pm and sup(148g)Pm from the thermal fission of 233 U and 239 Pu are presented. (G.T.H.)

  7. Estudio experimental del empuje sobre estructuras de contención en suelos reforzados con geomallas Experimental study of the lateral earth pressure on retaining structures in soils reinforced with geogrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lissette Ruiz-Tagle


    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un estudio experimental de la variación de las tensiones de empuje sobre una pared que soporta un suelo reforzado con geomallas. Para ello se utilizó un equipo diseñado y construido especialmente para ejecutar ensayos de empuje bajo condiciones de deformación plana. Se describe el equipo de ensayo y los instrumentos de medición, así como el suelo y la preparación de las muestras de arena y la geomalla utilizada. En la primera etapa de la investigación se ensayan muestras sin reforzar y se comparan los resultados con aquellos provenientes de las teorías clásicas de empuje. Posteriormente se presentan los resultados de ensayos de empuje en suelo reforzado con una, dos, tres y cuatro geomallas. Se concluye que la incorporación de geomallas como refuerzo en el suelo disminuye el empuje ejercido por el suelo sobre la estructura de contención. Esta disminución del empuje es de aproximadamente un 25% cuando se usa una geomalla, un 50% con dos o tres geomallas y de un 75% con cuatro geomallas para los espaciamientos, sobrecargas e incremento de desplazamientos usados. Resultó posible identificar que la distribución de la tensión de empuje con la profundidad no sólo no sigue la variación triangular sino que se desarrollan arcos de tensiones en el suelo entre las geomallas.This article presents an experimental study on the variation with depth of the stresses due to lateral earth pressure on a wall retaining a soil reinforced with geogrids. To this end, an apparatus was designed and constructed especially tailored for performing lateral earth pressure tests under plain strain conditions. The experimental apparatus and the measurement instruments as well as the soil and the sample preparation and the geogrids used, are described. In a first stage of research, samples without reinforcing are tested and the results are compared with those from classic earth pressure theories. Subsequently, results from lateral earth

  8. Observation of vapor pressure enhancement of rare-earth metal-halide salts in the temperature range relevant to metal-halide lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, J. J.; Henins, A.; Hardis, J. E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Estupinan, E. G. [Osram Sylvania Inc., Beverly, Massachusetts 01915 (United States); Lapatovich, W. P. [Independent Consultant, 51 Pye Brook Lane, Boxford, Massachusetts 01921 (United States); Shastri, S. D. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)


    Total vapor-phase densities of Dy in equilibrium with a DyI{sub 3}/InI condensate and Tm in equilibrium with a TmI{sub 3}/TlI condensate have been measured for temperatures between 900 K and 1400 K. The measurements show strong enhancements in rare-earth vapor densities compared to vapors in equilibrium with the pure rare-earth metal-halides. The measurements were made with x-ray induced fluorescence on the sector 1-ID beam line at the Advanced Photon Source. The temperature range and salt mixtures are relevant to the operation of metal-halide high-intensity discharge lamps.

  9. Statistical study of phase relationships between magnetic and plasma thermal pressures in the near-earth magnetosphere using the THEMIS satellites (United States)

    Nishi, K.; Kazuo, S.


    The auroral finger-like structures appear in the equatorward part of the auroral oval in the diffuse auroral region, and contribute to the auroral fragmentation into patches during substorm recovery phase. In our previous presentations, we reported the first conjugate observation of auroral finger-like structures using the THEMIS GBO cameras and the THEMIS satellites, which was located at a radial distance of 9 Re in the dawnside plasma sheet. In this conjugate event, we found anti-phase fluctuation of plasma pressure and magnetic pressure with a time scale of 5-20 min in the plasma sheet. This observational fact is consistent with the idea that the finger-like structures are caused by a pressure-driven instability in the balance of plasma and magnetic pressures in the magnetosphere. Then we also searched simultaneous observation events of auroral finger-like structures with the RBSP satellites which have an apogee of 5.8 Re in the inner magnetosphere. Contrary to the first result, the observed variation of plasma and magnetic pressures do not show systematic phase relationship. In order to investigate these phase relationships between plasma and magnetic pressures in the magnetosphere, we statistically analyzed these pressure data using the THEMIS-E satellite for one year in 2011. In the preliminary analysis of pressure variation spectra, we found that out of phase relationship between magnetic and plasma pressures occupied 40 % of the entire period of study. In the presentation, we will discuss these results in the context of relationships between the pressure fluctuations and the magnetospheric instabilities that can cause auroral finger-like structures.

  10. High-pressure densified solid solutions of alkaline earth hexaborides (Ca/Sr, Ca/Ba, Sr/Ba) and their high-temperature thermoelectric properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gürsoy, M.; Takeda, M.; Albert, B.


    Solid solutions of alkaline earth hexaborides were synthesized and densified by spark plasma sintering at 100 MPa. The high-temperature thermoelectric properties (Seebeck coefficients, electrical and thermal diffusivities, heat capacities) were measured between room temperature and 1073 K. CaB 6 , SrB 6 , BaB 6 and the ternary hexaborides Ca x Sr 1−x B 6 , Ca x Ba 1−x B 6 , Sr x Ba 1−x B 6 (x = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75) are n-type conducting compounds over the whole compositional and thermal ranges. The values of the figure of merit ZT for CaB 6 (ca. 0.3 at 1073 K) were found to be significantly increased compared to earlier investigations which is attributed to the densification process. - Highlights: • Solid solutions of alkaline earth hexaborides were synthesized. • High-temperature thermoelectric properties of mixed calcium borides are excellent. • Spark plasma source densification results in high ZT values. • Borides are rare-earth free and refractory materials

  11. Anomalous density and elastic properties of basalt at high pressure: Reevaluating of the effect of melt fraction on seismic velocity in the Earth's crust and upper mantle (United States)

    Clark, Alisha N.; Lesher, Charles E.; Jacobsen, Steven D.; Wang, Yanbin


    Independent measurements of the volumetric and elastic properties of Columbia River basalt glass were made up to 5.5 GPa by high-pressure X-ray microtomography and GHz-ultrasonic interferometry, respectively. The Columbia River basalt displays P and S wave velocity minima at 4.5 and 5 GPa, respectively, violating Birch's law. These data constrain the pressure dependence of the density and elastic moduli at high pressure, which cannot be modeled through usual equations of state nor determined by stepwise integrating the bulk sound velocity as is common practice. We propose a systematic variation in compression behavior of silicate glasses that is dependent on the degree of polymerization and arises from the flexibility of the aluminosilicate network. This behavior likely persists into the liquid state for basaltic melts resulting in weak pressure dependence for P wave velocities perhaps to depths of the transition zone. Modeling the effect of partial melt on P wave velocity reductions suggests that melt fraction determined by seismic velocity variations may be significantly overestimated in the crust and upper mantle.


    The verification test of the SeparmaticTM DE Pressure Type Filter System Model 12P-2 was conducted at the UNH Water Treatment Technology Assistance Center (WTTAC) in Durham, New Hampshire. The source water was finished water from the Arthur Rollins Treatment Plant that was pretr...

  13. Rare earths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranstone, D A


    Rare earth elements are commonly extracted from the minerals monazite, bastnaesite, and xenotine. New uses for these elements are constantly developing; they have found applications in glass polishing, television tube phosphors, high-strength low-alloy steels, magnets, catalysts, refractory ceramics, and hydrogen sponge alloys. In Canada, rare earths have been produced as byproducts of the uranium mining industry, but there was no production of rare earths in 1978 or 1979. The world sources of and markets for the rare earth elements are discussed.

  14. First-principles investigations on structural, elastic, dynamical, and thermal properties of earth-abundant nitride semiconductor CaZn{sub 2}N{sub 2} under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Ying-Qin; Liu, Lei; Cheng, Yan [Sichuan Univ. (China). College of Physical Science and Technology; Hu, Cui E. [Chongqing Normal Univ. (China). College of Physics and Electronic Engineering; Cai, Ling-Cang [CAEP, Mianyang (China). National Key Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research


    We presented a detailed first-principal calculation to study the structural, elastic, dynamical, and thermal properties of a new synthetic ternary zinc nitride semiconductors CaZn{sub 2}N{sub 2} using the generalised gradient approximation (GGA) method. The obtained lattice parameters of CaZn{sub 2}N{sub 2} at 0 K and 0 GPa are in good agreement with the experimental data and other theoretical findings. The pressure dependences of the elastic constants C{sub ij} together with other derived mechanical properties of CaZn{sub 2}N{sub 2} compound have also been systematically investigated. The results reveal that CaZn{sub 2}N{sub 2} is mechanically stable up to 20 GPa. The calculated the phonon curves and phonon density of states under different pressures indicate that the CaZn{sub 2}N{sub 2} compound maintains its dynamical stability up to 20 GPa. An analysis in terms of the irreducible representations of group theory obtained the optical vibration modes of this system, and we obtained the frequencies of the optical vibrational modes at Γ points together with the atoms that contributed to these vibrations of CaZn{sub 2}N{sub 2}. Meanwhile, the pressure dependencies of the frequencies Raman-active and IR-active modes at 0-20 GPa have been studied. The quasi-harmonic approximation (QHA) was applied to calculate the thermal properties of CaZn{sub 2}N{sub 2} as functions of pressures and temperatures such as the heat capacity, thermal expansions, the entropy, and Grueneisen parameter γ.

  15. Rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The conference was held from September 12 to 13, 1984 in Jetrichovice, Czechoslovakia. The participants heard 16 papers of which 4 were inputted in INIS. These papers dealt with industrial separation processes of rare earths, the use of chemical methods of separation from the concentrate of apatite and bastnesite, the effect of the relative permittivity of solvents in the elution of rare earth elements from a cation exchanger, and the determination of the content of different rare earth elements using X-ray fluorescence analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. (E.S.)

  16. Earth Rotation (United States)

    Dickey, Jean O.


    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  17. Melting in super-earths. (United States)

    Stixrude, Lars


    We examine the possible extent of melting in rock-iron super-earths, focusing on those in the habitable zone. We consider the energetics of accretion and core formation, the timescale of cooling and its dependence on viscosity and partial melting, thermal regulation via the temperature dependence of viscosity, and the melting curves of rock and iron components at the ultra-high pressures characteristic of super-earths. We find that the efficiency of kinetic energy deposition during accretion increases with planetary mass; considering the likely role of giant impacts and core formation, we find that super-earths probably complete their accretionary phase in an entirely molten state. Considerations of thermal regulation lead us to propose model temperature profiles of super-earths that are controlled by silicate melting. We estimate melting curves of iron and rock components up to the extreme pressures characteristic of super-earth interiors based on existing experimental and ab initio results and scaling laws. We construct super-earth thermal models by solving the equations of mass conservation and hydrostatic equilibrium, together with equations of state of rock and iron components. We set the potential temperature at the core-mantle boundary and at the surface to the local silicate melting temperature. We find that ancient (∼4 Gyr) super-earths may be partially molten at the top and bottom of their mantles, and that mantle convection is sufficiently vigorous to sustain dynamo action over the whole range of super-earth masses.

  18. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth (United States)



    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  19. Earth thermics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, M


    The thermodynamics of the Earth are described, including terrestrial heat flow, internal temperatures and thermal history. The value of the geothermal gradient has been considered to be 3/sup 0/C/100 m but measured values are slightly different. The values of terrestrial heat flow are relatively constant and are calculated be about 2.3 x 10 to the minus 6 cal/cm/sup 2/ sec (2.3 HFU). The Earth's internal temperature can be calculated from the adiabatic temperature gradient of adiabatic expansion. Using Simon's equation No. 9, a value of 2100-2500/sup 0/C is obtained, this is much lower than it was previously thought to be. The value of 2.3 HFU can easily be obtained from this internal temperature figure.

  20. Determining Atmospheric Pressure Using a Water Barometer (United States)

    Lohrengel, C. Frederick, II; Larson, Paul R.


    The atmosphere is an envelope of compressible gases that surrounds Earth. Because of its compressibility and nonuniform heating by the Sun, it is in constant motion. The atmosphere exerts pressure on Earth's surface, but that pressure is in constant flux. This experiment allows students to directly measure atmospheric pressure by measuring the…

  1. Sulfur Earth (United States)

    de Jong, B. H.


    Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to

  2. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.


    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  3. Models of the earth's core (United States)

    Stevenson, D. J.


    Combined inferences from seismology, high-pressure experiment and theory, geomagnetism, fluid dynamics, and current views of terrestrial planetary evolution lead to models of the earth's core with five basic properties. These are that core formation was contemporaneous with earth accretion; the core is not in chemical equilibrium with the mantle; the outer core is a fluid iron alloy containing significant quantities of lighter elements and is probably almost adiabatic and compositionally uniform; the more iron-rich inner solid core is a consequence of partial freezing of the outer core, and the energy release from this process sustains the earth's magnetic field; and the thermodynamic properties of the core are well constrained by the application of liquid-state theory to seismic and labroatory data.

  4. Free oscillation of the Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Abedini


    Full Text Available   This work is a study of the Earths free oscillations considering a merge of solid and liquid model. At the turn of 19th century Geophysicists presented the theory of the free oscillations for a self-gravitating, isotropic and compressible sphere. Assuming a steel structure for an Earth size sphere, they predicted a period of oscillation of about 1 hour. About 50 years later, the free oscillations of stars was studied by Cowling and others. They classified the oscillation modes of the stars into acoustic and gravity modes on the basis of their driving forces. These are pressure and buoyancy forces respectively. The earliest measurements for the period of the free oscillations of the Earth was made by Benyove from a study of Kamchathca earthquake. Since then, the Geophysicists have been trying to provide a theoretical basis for these measurements. Recently, the theory concerning oscillations of celestial fluids is extended by Sobouti to include the possible oscillations of the Earthlike bodies. Using the same technique, we study the free oscillations of a spherically symmetric, non-rotating and elastic model for the Earth.   We used the actual data of the Earths interior structure in our numerical calculations. Numerical results show that there exist three distinct oscillation modes namely acoustic, gravity and toroidal modes. These modes are driven by pressure, buoyancy and shear forces respectively. The shear force is due to the elastic properties of the solid part of the Earth. Our numerical results are consistent with the seismic data recorded from earthquake measurements.

  5. Behaviour of Rare Earth Elements during the Earth's core formation (United States)

    Faure, Pierre; Bouhifd, Mohamed Ali; Boyet, Maud; Hammouda, Tahar; Manthilake, Geeth


    Rare Earth Elements (REE) are classified in the refractory group, which means that they have a high temperature condensation and their volatility-controlled fractionation is limited to high-temperature processes. Anomalies have been measured for Eu, Yb and Sm, which are the REE with the lowest condensation temperatures in CAIs and chondrules (e.g. [1]). REE are particularly abundant in the sulfides of enstatite chondrites, 100 to 1000 times the CI value [e.g. 2,3], proving that these elements are not strictly lithophile under extremely reducing conditions. However by investigating experimentally the impact of Earth's core formation on the behavior of Sm and Nd, we have shown the absence of fractionation between Sm and Nd during the segregation of the metallic phase [4]. Recently, Wohlers and Wood [5] proposed that Nd and Sm could be fractionated in presence of a S-rich alloy phase. However, their results were obtained at pressure and temperature conditions below the plausible conditions of the Earth's core formation. Clearly, large pressure range needs to be covered before well-constrained model can be expected. Furthermore, our preliminary metal-silicate partitioning results show that Ce and Eu have higher metal/silicate partition coefficients than their neighboring elements, and that the presence of sulphur enhances the relative difference between partition coefficients. In this presentation, we will present and discuss new metal-silicate partition coefficients of all REE at a deep magma ocean at pressures ranging from those of the uppermost upper mantle ( 5 GPa) to a maximum pressure expected in the range of 20 GPa, temperatures ranging from 2500 to about 3000 K, and oxygen fugacities within IW-1 to IW-5 (1 to 5 orders of magnitude lower than the iron-wüstite buffer). We will discuss the effect of S, as well as the effect of H2O on the behaviour of REE during the Earth's core formation: recent models suggest that contrary to currently accepted beliefs, the

  6. Space exercise and Earth benefits. (United States)

    Macias, Brandon R; Groppo, Eli R; Eastlack, Robert K; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Lee, Stuart M C; Schneider, Suzanne M; Boda, Wanda L; Smith, Scott M; Cutuk, Adnan; Pedowitz, Robert A; Meyer, R Scott; Hargens, Alan R


    The detrimental impact of long duration space flight on physiological systems necessitates the development of exercise countermeasures to protect work capabilities in gravity fields of Earth, Moon and Mars. The respective rates of physiological deconditioning for different organ systems during space flight has been described as a result of data collected during and after missions on the Space Shuttle, International Space Station, Mir, and bed rest studies on Earth. An integrated countermeasure that simulates the body's hydrostatic pressure gradient, provides mechanical stress to the bones and muscles, and stimulates the neurovestibular system may be critical for maintaining health and well being of crew during long-duration space travel, such as a mission to Mars. Here we review the results of our studies to date of an integrated exercise countermeasure for space flight, lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treadmill exercise, and potential benefits of its application to athletic training on Earth. Additionally, we review the benefits of Lower Body Positive Pressure (LBPP) exercise for rehabilitation of postoperative patients. Presented first are preliminary data from a 30-day bed rest study evaluating the efficacy of LBNP exercise as an integrated exercise countermeasure for the deconditioning effects of microgravity. Next, we review upright LBNP exercise as a training modality for athletes by evaluating effects on the cardiovascular system and gait mechanics. Finally, LBPP exercise as a rehabilitation device is examined with reference to gait mechanics and safety in two groups of postoperative patients.

  7. Earth mortars and earth-lime renders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernandes


    Full Text Available Earth surface coatings play a decorative architectural role, apart from their function as wall protection. In Portuguese vernacular architecture, earth mortars were usually applied on stone masonry, while earth renders and plasters were used on indoors surface coatings. Limestone exists only in certain areas of the country and consequently lime was not easily available everywhere, especially on granite and schist regions where stone masonry was a current building technique. In the central west coast of Portugal, the lime slaking procedure entailed slaking the quicklime mixed with earth (sandy soil, in a pit; the resulting mixture would then be combined in a mortar or plaster. This was also the procedure for manufactured adobes stabilized with lime. Adobe buildings with earth-lime renderings and plasters were also traditional in the same region, using lime putty and lime wash for final coat and decoration. Classic decoration on earth architecture from the 18th-19th century was in many countries a consequence of the François Cointeraux (1740-1830 manuals - Les Cahiers d'Architecture Rurale" (1793 - a French guide for earth architecture and building construction. This manual arrived to Portugal in the beginning of XIX century, but was never translated to Portuguese. References about decoration for earth houses were explained on this manual, as well as procedures about earth-lime renders and ornamentation of earth walls; in fact, these procedures are exactly the same as the ones used in adobe buildings in this Portuguese region. The specific purpose of the present paper is to show some cases of earth mortars, renders and plasters on stone buildings in Portugal and to explain the methods of producing earth-lime renders, and also to show some examples of rendering and coating with earth-lime in Portuguese adobe vernacular architecture.

  8. Why Earth Science? (United States)

    Smith, Michael J.


    This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

  9. EarthLabs - Investigating Hurricanes: Earth's Meteorological Monsters (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Dahlman, L.; Barstow, D.


    which students investigate the different interactions involved in hurricane generation, steering, and intensification. Students analyze a variety of visualization resources looking for patterns in occurrence and to develop an understanding of hurricane structure. They download archived data about past hurricanes and produce temporal and spatial plots to discover patterns in hurricane life cycles. They investigate the relationship between hurricane wind speed and factors such as barometric pressure and sea surface temperature by conducting spreadsheet analyses on archived data. They also conduct hands-on laboratory experiments in order to understand the physical processes that underpin energy transfer in convection, condensation, and latent heat. These activities highlight Earth science as a vital, rich, invigorating course, employing state-of-the-art technologies and in-depth labs with high relevance for our daily lives and the future.

  10. The earth's radius and the G variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, V.M.; City Coll., New York


    It has been assumed that if the gravitational constant G was larger in the past, the Earth's radius had to be smaller. The assertion holds provided the input from microphysics (in particular the equation of state) is independent of G. While this is true for some theories of gravity with variable G it is not so in the scale covariant theory, where the pressure can be affected by a variable G in a way that, for a constant mass of the Earth, a larger G in the past implies a larger Earth's radius. Comparison with recent palaeomagnetic data is presented. (author)

  11. The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth (United States)

    Juuti, Kalle


    The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the…

  12. Rare earth sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komissarova, L.N.; Shatskij, V.M.; Pokrovskij, A.N.; Chizhov, S.M.; Bal'kina, T.I.; Suponitskij, Yu.L.


    Results of experimental works on the study of synthesis conditions, structure and physico-chemical properties of rare earth, scandium and yttrium sulfates, have been generalized. Phase diagrams of solubility and fusibility, thermodynamic and crystallochemical characteristics, thermal stability of hydrates and anhydrous sulfates of rare earths, including normal, double (with cations of alkali and alkaline-earth metals), ternary and anion-mixed sulfates of rare earths, as well as their adducts, are considered. The state of ions of rare earths, scandium and yttrium in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions is discussed. Data on the use of rare earth sulfates are given

  13. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.


    Rare earth germanates attract close attention both as an independent class of compounds and analogues of a widely spread class of natural and synthetic minerals. The methods of rare earth germanate synthesis (solid-phase, hydrothermal) are considered. Systems on the basis of germanium and rare earth oxides, phase diagrams, phase transformations are studied. Using different chemical analysese the processes of rare earth germanate formation are investigated. IR spectra of alkali and rare earth metal germanates are presented, their comparative analysis being carried out. Crystal structures of the compounds, lattice parameters are studied. Fields of possible application of rare earth germanates are shown

  14. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  15. Earth's Paleomagnetosphere and Planetary Habitability (United States)

    Tarduno, J. A.; Blackman, E. G.; Oda, H.; Bono, R. K.; Carroll-Nellenback, J.; Cottrell, R. D.; Nimmo, F.


    The geodynamo is thought to play an important role in protecting Earth's hydrosphere, vital for life as we know it, from loss due to the erosive potential of the solar wind. Here we consider the mechanisms and history of this shielding. A larger core dynamo magnetic field strength provides more pressure to abate the solar wind dynamic pressure, increasing the magnetopause radius. However, the larger magnetopause also implies a larger collecting area for solar wind flux during phases of magnetic reconnection. The important variable is not mass capture but energy transfer, which does not scale linearly with magnetosphere size. Moreover, the ordered field provides the magnetic topology for recapturing atmospheric components in the opposite hemisphere such that the net global loss might not be greatly affected. While a net protection role for magnetospheres is suggested, forcing by the solar wind will change with stellar age. Paleomagnetism utilizing the single silicate crystal approach, defines a relatively strong field some 3.45 billion years ago (the Paleoarchean), but with a reduced magnetopause of 5 Earth radii, implying the potential for some atmospheric loss. Terrestrial zircons from the Jack Hills (Western Australia) and other localities host magnetic inclusions, whose magnetization has now been recorded by a new generation of ultra-sensitive 3-component SQUID magnetometer (U. Rochester) and SQUID microscope (GSJ/AIST). Paleointensity data suggest the presence of a terrestrial dynamo and magnetic shielding for Eoarchean to Hadean times, at ages as old as 4.2 billion years ago. However, the magnetic data suggest that for intervals >100,000 years long, magnetopause standoff distances may have reached 3 to 4 Earth radii or less. The early inception of the geodynamo, which probably occurred shortly after the lunar-forming impact, its continuity, and an early robust hydrosphere, appear to be key ingredients for Earth's long-term habitability.

  16. Blood pressure (United States)

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  17. Mission to Planet Earth (United States)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.


    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  18. Mission to Planet Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.S.; Backlund, P.W.


    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment. 8 refs

  19. Thermal structure of the accreting earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, D.L.; Pflugrath, J.C.


    The energy associated with the accretion of the earth and the segregation of the core is more than sufficient to melt the entire earth. In order to understand the thermal evolution of the early earth it is necessary to study the relevant heat transfer mechanisms. In this paper we postulate the existence of a global magma ocean and carry out calculations of the heat flux through it in order to determine its depth. In the solid mantle heat is transferred by the upward migration of magma. This magma supplies the magma ocean. The increase in the mantle liquidus with depth (pressure) is the dominant effect influencing heat transfer through the magma ocean. We find that a magma ocean with a depth of the order of 20 km would have existed as the earth accreted. We conclude that the core segregated and an atmosphere was formed during accretion

  20. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Investigations on development of technology to utilize heat of deep earth pressure type hot water in Hungary; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Hungary koku shinso chiatsugata onsui no netsuriyo gijutsu kaihatsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Investigations and discussions were given on a project to implement district heating, greenhouse heating, and binary power generation by utilizing geothermal resources in Hungary. Hungary has deep earth pressure type hot water areas distributed, that flow hot water of about 90 to 180 degrees C by the bed pressure. The areas that can utilize the hot water were extracted and investigated by using literatures and data. The project plans district heating of about 15,000 households using the geothermal water, heating of greenhouses equivalent to 100,000 m{sup 2}, gas engine power generation by using the flowing fluid pressure and combustion of the generated methane gas, and binary power generation by using the geothermal water. As a result of the discussions, it was revealed that the energy saving effect would save 5,008 Ktoe in 20 years as converted to crude oil, and the greenhouse effect gas reducing effect would reduce 14.2 million t-CO2 in 20 years. The total project cost would be about 16.62 billion yen. The internal profit rate of this project is 11.34%, largely exceeding the opportunity cost, and indicating the financial effect possibility. (NEDO)

  1. Measuring N2 Pressure Using Cyanobacteria (United States)

    Silverman, S. N.; Kopf, S.; Gordon, R.; Bebout, B.; Som, S.


    We have shown that cyanobacteria can record information about N2 partial pressure both morphologically and isotopically, and thus may serve as useful geobarometers to help us better understand Earth's ancient atmosphere.

  2. Digital Earth – A sustainable Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth

  3. The earth's gravitational field

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.

    . But to say that gravity acts downwards is not correct. Gravity acts down, no matter where you stand on the Earth. It is better to say that on Earth gravity pulls objects towards the centre of the Earth. So no matter where you are on Earth all objects fall... pull than objects at the poles. In combination, the equatorial bulge and the effects of centrifugal force mean that sea-level gravitational acceleration increases from about 9.780 m/s² at the equator to about 9.832 m/s² at the poles, so an object...

  4. Geomagnetic field of earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delipetrev, Marjan; Delipetrev, Blagoj; Panovska, Sanja


    In this paper is introduced the theory of geomagnetic field of the Earth. A homogenous and isotropic sphere is taken for a model of Earth with a bar magnet at its center as a magnetic potential. The understanding of the real origin of geomagnetic field produced from differential rotation of inner core with respect to the outer core of Earth is here presented. Special attention is given to the latest observed data of the established net of geomagnetic repeat stations in the Republic of Macedonia. Finally, the maps of elements of geomagnetic field and the equation for calculation of normal magnetic field of Earth are provided. (Author)

  5. Rare earth octacyanomolybdates(4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubritskaya, D.I.; Sergeeva, A.N.; Pisak, Yu.V.


    Optimal conditions for synthesis of rare-earth octacyanomolybdates(4) of the Ln 4 [Mo(CN) 8 ] 3 xnH 2 O composition (where Ln is a rare-earth element, other than Pr, Pm, Lu, Tb) have been worked out. The synthesis has been accomplished by neutralization with octacianomolybdic acid with rare-earth carbonates. The composition and structure of the compounds synthesized have been studied by infrared-spectroscopy. It has been established that rare-earth octacyanomolybdates(4) form three isostructural groups

  6. Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth (United States)

    Hasnain, Zaki; Lamb, Christopher A.; Ross, Shane D.


    The list of detected near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) is constantly growing. NEAs are likely targets for resources to support space industrialization, as they may be the least expensive source of certain needed raw materials. The limited supply of precious metals and semiconducting elements on Earth may be supplemented or even replaced by the reserves floating in the form of asteroids around the solar system. Precious metals make up a significant fraction NEAs by mass, and even one metallic asteroid of ˜1km size and fair enrichment in platinum-group metals would contain twice the tonnage of such metals already harvested on Earth. There are ˜1000 NEAs with a diameter of greater than 1 km. Capturing these asteroids around the Earth would expand the mining industry into an entirely new dimension. Having such resources within easy reach in Earth's orbit could provide an off-world environmentally friendly remedy for impending terrestrial shortages, especially given the need for raw materials in developing nations. In this paper, we develop and implement a conceptually simple algorithm to determine trajectory characteristics necessary to move NEAs into capture orbits around the Earth. Altered trajectories of asteroids are calculated using an ephemeris model. Only asteroids of eccentricity less than 0.1 have been studied and the model is restricted to the ecliptic plane for simplicity. We constrain the time of retrieval to be 10 years or less, based on considerations of the time to return on investment. For the heliocentric phase, constant acceleration is assumed. The acceleration required for transporting these asteroids from their undisturbed orbits to the sphere of influence of the Earth is the primary output, along with the impulse or acceleration necessary to effect capture to a bound orbit once the Earth's sphere of influence is reached. The initial guess for the constant acceleration is provided by a new estimation method, similar in spirit to Edelbaum's. Based on the

  7. Pressure Sores (United States)

    Pressure sores are areas of damaged skin caused by staying in one position for too long. They commonly ... wheelchair, or are unable to change your position. Pressure sores can cause serious infections, some of which are ...

  8. Intracranial Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvedstrup, Jeppe; Radojicic, Aleksandra; Moudrous, Walid


    OBJECTIVE: To compare a new method of noninvasive intracranial pressure (nICP) measurement with conventional lumbar puncture (LP) opening pressure. METHODS: In a prospective multicenter study, patients undergoing LP for diagnostic purposes underwent intracranial pressure measurements with HeadSen...

  9. Pressure Ulcers


    Monfre, Jill M.


    Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers, which affect up to one third of people in hospitals or community care, and one fifth of nursing home residents. Pressure ulcers are more likely in people with reduced mobility and poor skin condition, such as older people or those with vascular disease.


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. EARTH FROM SPACE · Slide 2 · Earth System · Slide 4 · Global water cycle · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Direct Observations of Recent Climate Change · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Snow cover and Arctic sea ice are decreasing · Polar Melting & Global Heat Transport · Antarctica: Melting and Thickening · Slide 14 · Slide 15.

  11. Earth and Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosygin, Yu A


    Rocks, the age of which according to certain data exceeds considerably the recognized age of the Earth and approximates the age of the Universe, have been detected on the Earth. There is a necessity to coordinate the geological data with cosmological structures.

  12. Hands On Earth Science. (United States)

    Weisgarber, Sherry L.; Van Doren, Lisa; Hackathorn, Merrianne; Hannibal, Joseph T.; Hansgen, Richard

    This publication is a collection of 13 hands-on activities that focus on earth science-related activities and involve students in learning about growing crystals, tectonics, fossils, rock and minerals, modeling Ohio geology, geologic time, determining true north, and constructing scale-models of the Earth-moon system. Each activity contains…

  13. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity (United States)

    Oostra, Benjamin


    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  14. Earth System Science Project (United States)

    Rutherford, Sandra; Coffman, Margaret


    For several decades, science teachers have used bottles for classroom projects designed to teach students about biology. Bottle projects do not have to just focus on biology, however. These projects can also be used to engage students in Earth science topics. This article describes the Earth System Science Project, which was adapted and developed…

  15. Rare earth industries: Upstream business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Evidently, many factors contribute to the rush to invest in the unprecedented revival of rare earths. One major reason has to do with the rapidly growing world demand. The other reason relates to the attractive price of rare earths which is projected to stay strong in the coming years. This is because supply is predicted to have difficulty keeping pace with demand. Experts believe a major driver of global rare earths demand is the forecasted expansion in the green economy. Climate change is a major driver of the green economy. With climate change, there is concern that the uncontrolled emission of the greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide, can lead to catastrophic consequences for the world. This has been documented in countless studies and reports. Another important driver of the green economy is the growing shortfall in many resources. The world is now experiencing declines in key resources to meet a growing global demand. With more than 6 billion people now in the world and growing, the pressure exerted on global resources including energy, water and food is a major concern. Recent demand surge in China and India has dented the supply position of major world resources. The much quoted Stern Report from the UK has warned that, unless immediate steps are taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, it may be a costly exercise to undertake the corrections later. Since energy use, especially fossil fuels, is a major contributor to climate change, greener options are being sought. Add to that the fact that the fossil energy resources of the world are declining, the need to seek alternatives becomes even more urgent. One option is to change to renewable energy sources. These include such potentials as solar, wind and biomass. Rare earths have somehow become a critical feature of the technologies in such renewable. Another option is to improve the efficient use of energy in transport, buildings and all the other energy intensive industries. Again the technologies in

  16. Earth as art three (United States)



    For most of us, deserts, mountains, river valleys, coastlines even dry lakebeds are relatively familiar features of the Earth's terrestrial environment. For earth scientists, they are the focus of considerable scientific research. Viewed from a unique and unconventional perspective, Earth's geographic attributes can also be a surprising source of awe-inspiring art. That unique perspective is space. The artists for the Earth as Art Three exhibit are the Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 satellites, which orbit approximately 705 kilometers (438 miles) above the Earth's surface. While studying the images these satellites beam down daily, researchers are often struck by the sheer beauty of the scenes. Such images inspire the imagination and go beyond scientific value to remind us how stunning, intricate, and simply amazing our planet's features can be. Instead of paint, the medium for these works of art is light. But Landsat satellite sensors don't see light as human eyes do; instead, they see radiant energy reflected from Earth's surface in certain wavelengths, or bands, of red, green, blue, and infrared light. When these different bands are combined into a single image, remarkable patterns, colors, and shapes emerge. The Earth as Art Three exhibit provides fresh and inspiring glimpses of different parts of our planet's complex surface. The images in this collection were chosen solely based on their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation only for your viewing pleasure. Enjoy!

  17. Earth Science Informatics - Overview (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.


    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes over 180 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies.The talk will present an overview of current efforts in ESI, the role members of IEEE GRSS play, and discuss

  18. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.


    From the viewpoint of structural chemistry and general regularities controlling formation reactions of compounds and phases in melts, solid and gaseous states, recent achievements in the chemistry of rare earth germanates are generalized. Methods of synthesizing germanates, systems on the base of germanium oxides and rare earths are considered. The data on crystallochemical characteristics are tabulated. Individual compounds of scandium germanate are also characterized. Processes of germanate formation using the data of IR-spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis are studied. The structure and morphotropic series of rare earth germanates and silicates are determined. Fields of their present and possible future application are considered

  19. Project Earth Science

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, Geoff


    Project Earth Science: Astronomy, Revised 2nd Edition, involves students in activities that focus on Earth's position in our solar system. How do we measure astronomical distances? How can we look back in time as we gaze across vast distances in space? How would our planet be different without its particular atmosphere and distance to our star? What are the geometries among Earth, the Moon, and the Sun that yield lunar phases and seasons? Students explore these concepts and others in 11 teacher-tested activities.

  20. Earth formation porosity log

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D.; Smith, M.P.; Schultz, W.E.


    A method for determining the porosity of earth formations in the vicinity of a cased well borehole is described, comprising the steps of: irradiating the earth formations in the vicinity of the cased well borehole with fast neutrons from a source of fast neutrons passed into the borehole; and generating a signal representative of the fast neutron population present in the well borehole at a location in the borehole, the signal is functionally related to the porosity of the earth formations in the vicinity of the borehole

  1. Earth before life. (United States)

    Marzban, Caren; Viswanathan, Raju; Yurtsever, Ulvi


    A recent study argued, based on data on functional genome size of major phyla, that there is evidence life may have originated significantly prior to the formation of the Earth. Here a more refined regression analysis is performed in which 1) measurement error is systematically taken into account, and 2) interval estimates (e.g., confidence or prediction intervals) are produced. It is shown that such models for which the interval estimate for the time origin of the genome includes the age of the Earth are consistent with observed data. The appearance of life after the formation of the Earth is consistent with the data set under examination.

  2. Earth's variable rotation (United States)

    Hide, Raymond; Dickey, Jean O.


    Recent improvements in geodetic data and practical meteorology have advanced research on fluctuations in the earth's rotation. The interpretation of these fluctuations is inextricably linked with studies of the dynamics of the earth-moon system and dynamical processes in the liquid metallic core of the earth (where the geomagnetic field originates), other parts of the earth's interior, and the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Fluctuations in the length of the day occurring on decadal time scales have implications for the topographay of the core-mantle boundary and the electrical, magnetic, ande other properties of the core and lower mantle. Investigations of more rapid fluctuations bear on meteorological studies of interannual, seasonal, and intraseasonal variations in the general circulation of the atmosphere and the response of the oceans to such variations.

  3. Near Earth Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Stefan


    , Near Earth Objects: Asteroids and comets following paths that bring them near the Earth. NEOs have collided with the Earth since its formation, some causing local devastation, some causing global climate changes, yet the threat from a collision with a near Earth object has only recently been recognised...... and accepted. The European Space Agency mission Gaia is a proposed space observatory, designed to perform a highly accurate census of our galaxy, the Milky Way, and beyond. Through accurate measurement of star positions, Gaia is expected to discover thousands of extra-solar planets and follow the bending...... of starlight by the Sun, and therefore directly observe the structure of space-time. This thesis explores several aspects of the observation of NEOs with Gaia, emphasising detection of NEOs and the quality of orbits computed from Gaia observations. The main contribution is the work on motion detection...

  4. Earth study from space (United States)

    Sidorenko, A. V.


    The significance that space studies are making to all Earth sciences in the areas of geography, geodesy, cartography, geology, meteorology, oceanology, agronomy, and ecology is discussed. It is predicted that cosmonautics will result in a revolution in science and technology.

  5. Earth's electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, M.C.


    The earth becomes charged during thunderstorm activity and discharges through the weak conducting atmosphere. Balloon and rocket studies infer that a high altitude electric field penetrates virtually unattenuated through the atmosphere, at least as far as balloon heights. The field has two primary sources. At low and mid latitudes, interaction between the earth's magnetic field and the neutral wind creates electric fields. At latitudes above 60 0 , the high altitude electrical structure is dominated by the interaction between the solar wind and the earth's magnetic field. The auroral light is emitted by atmospheric atoms and molecules excited by electrons with potentials of many thousands volts. The potentials are induced by the solar wind. Recent satellite data shows that the electrons get this energy by passing through a localized electric field about 6000 km above the auroral zone. Several rocket and satellite experiments used to study the earth's electric field are discussed

  6. Near Earth Asteroid Scout (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Near-Earth Asteroid Scout, or NEA Scout, is a 6U CubeSat developed jointly between NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. NASA...

  7. Gambling with the earth

    CERN Multimedia

    Muir, H


    The probability that dangerous Earth-devouring particles will be born at a new accelerator in the US may be tiny, but scientists have played down the devastating potential costs in their risk assessments according to a physicist (1 page).

  8. Jupiter and planet Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The evolution of Jupiter and Earth are discussed along with their atmospheres, the radiation belts around both planets, natural satellites, the evolution of life, and the Pioneer 10. Educational study projects are also included

  9. Earth retaining structures manual (United States)


    The objectives of this policy are to obtain statewide uniformity, establish standard : procedures and delineate responsibility for the preparation and review of plans, : design and construction control of earth retaining structures. In addition, it i...

  10. Earliest life on earth

    CERN Document Server

    Golding, Suzanne D


    This volume integrates the latest findings on earliest life forms, identified and characterized in some of the oldest rocks on Earth. It places emphasis on the integration of analytical methods with observational techniques and experimental simulations.

  11. Optimal Safety EarthingEarth Electrode Sizing Using A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a deterministic approach in the sizing of earth electrode using the permissible touch voltage criteria is presented. The deterministic approach is effectively applied in the sizing of the length of earth rod required for the safe earthing of residential and facility buildings. This approach ensures that the earthing ...

  12. Sulfur in Earth's Mantle and Its Behavior During Core Formation (United States)

    Chabot, Nancy L.; Righter,Kevin


    The density of Earth's outer core requires that about 5-10% of the outer core be composed of elements lighter than Fe-Ni; proposed choices for the "light element" component of Earth's core include H, C, O, Si, S, and combinations of these elements [e.g. 1]. Though samples of Earth's core are not available, mantle samples contain elemental signatures left behind from the formation of Earth's core. The abundances of siderophile (metal-loving) elements in Earth's mantle have been used to gain insight into the early accretion and differentiation history of Earth, the process by which the core and mantle formed, and the composition of the core [e.g. 2-4]. Similarly, the abundance of potential light elements in Earth's mantle could also provide constraints on Earth's evolution and core composition. The S abundance in Earth's mantle is 250 ( 50) ppm [5]. It has been suggested that 250 ppm S is too high to be due to equilibrium core formation in a high pressure, high temperature magma ocean on early Earth and that the addition of S to the mantle from the subsequent accretion of a late veneer is consequently required [6]. However, this earlier work of Li and Agee [6] did not parameterize the metalsilicate partitioning behavior of S as a function of thermodynamic variables, limiting the different pressure and temperature conditions during core formation that could be explored. Here, the question of explaining the mantle abundance of S is revisited, through parameterizing existing metal-silicate partitioning data for S and applying the parameterization to core formation in Earth.

  13. The Sun and Earth (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk


    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  14. Earth and planetary sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherill, G.W.; Drake, C.L.


    The earth is a dynamic body. The major surface manifestation of this dynamism has been fragmentation of the earth's outer shell and subsequent relative movement of the pieces on a large scale. Evidence for continental movement came from studies of geomagnetism. As the sea floor spreads and new crust is formed, it is magnetized with the polarity of the field at the time of its formation. The plate tectonics model explains the history, nature, and topography of the oceanic crust. When a lithospheric plate surmounted by continental crust collides with an oceanic lithosphere, it is the denser oceanic lithosphere that is subducted. Hence the ancient oceans have vanished and the knowledge of ancient earth will require deciphering the complex continental geological record. Geochemical investigation shows that the source region of continental rocks is not simply the depleted mantle that is characteristic of the source region of basalts produced at the oceanic ridges. The driving force of plate tectonics is convection within the earth, but much remains to be learned about the convection and interior of the earth. A brief discussion of planetary exploration is given

  15. The earth's hydrological cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, R-M; Calisto, M; Destouni, G; Gurney, R; Johannessen, J; Kerr, Y; Lahoz, WA; Rast, M


    This book gives a comprehensive presentation of our present understanding of the Earth's Hydrological cycle and the problems, consequences and impacts that go with this topic. Water is a central component in the Earth's system. It is indispensable for life on Earth in its present form and influences virtually every aspect of our planet's life support system. On relatively short time scales, atmospheric water vapor interacts with the atmospheric circulation and is crucial in forming the Earth's climate zones. Water vapor is the most powerful of the greenhouse gases and serves to enhance the tropospheric temperature. The dominant part of available water on Earth resides in the oceans. Parts are locked up in the land ice on Greenland and Antarctica and a smaller part is estimated to exist as groundwater. If all the ice over the land and all the glaciers were to melt, the sea level would rise by some 80 m. In comparison, the total amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is small; it amounts to ~ 25 kg/m2, or the ...

  16. Modeling the earth system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojima, D. [ed.


    The 1990 Global Change Institute (GCI) on Earth System Modeling is the third of a series organized by the Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies to look in depth at particular issues critical to developing a better understanding of the earth system. The 1990 GCI on Earth System Modeling was organized around three themes: defining critical gaps in the knowledge of the earth system, developing simplified working models, and validating comprehensive system models. This book is divided into three sections that reflect these themes. Each section begins with a set of background papers offering a brief tutorial on the subject, followed by working group reports developed during the institute. These reports summarize the joint ideas and recommendations of the participants and bring to bear the interdisciplinary perspective that imbued the institute. Since the conclusion of the 1990 Global Change Institute, research programs, nationally and internationally, have moved forward to implement a number of the recommendations made at the institute, and many of the participants have maintained collegial interactions to develop research projects addressing the needs identified during the two weeks in Snowmass.

  17. The Earth System Model (United States)

    Schoeberl, Mark; Rood, Richard B.; Hildebrand, Peter; Raymond, Carol


    The Earth System Model is the natural evolution of current climate models and will be the ultimate embodiment of our geophysical understanding of the planet. These models are constructed from components - atmosphere, ocean, ice, land, chemistry, solid earth, etc. models and merged together through a coupling program which is responsible for the exchange of data from the components. Climate models and future earth system models will have standardized modules, and these standards are now being developed by the ESMF project funded by NASA. The Earth System Model will have a variety of uses beyond climate prediction. The model can be used to build climate data records making it the core of an assimilation system, and it can be used in OSSE experiments to evaluate. The computing and storage requirements for the ESM appear to be daunting. However, the Japanese ES theoretical computing capability is already within 20% of the minimum requirements needed for some 2010 climate model applications. Thus it seems very possible that a focused effort to build an Earth System Model will achieve succcss.

  18. Rare earths and actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coqblin, B.


    This paper reviews the different properties of rare-earths and actinides, either as pure metals or as in alloys or compounds. Three different cases are considered: (i) First, in the case of 'normal' rare-earths which are characterized by a valence of 3, we discuss essentially the magnetic ordering, the coexistence between superconductivity and magnetism and the properties of amorphous rare-earth systems. (ii) Second, in the case of 'anomalous' rare-earths, we distinguish between either 'intermediate-valence' systems or 'Kondo' systems. Special emphasis is given to the problems of the 'Kondo lattice' (for compounds such as CeAl 2 ,CeAl 3 or CeB 6 ) or the 'Anderson lattice' (for compounds such as TmSe). The problem of neutron diffraction in these systems is also discussed. (iii) Third, in the case of actinides, we can separate between the d-f hybridized and almost magnetic metals at the beginning of the series and the rare-earth like the metals after americium. (orig.)

  19. Pressure transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, A.V.


    Strain gauges pressure transducers types are presented. Models, characteristics and calibration procedures were also analysed. Initially, a theoretical study was accomplished to evaluate metallic alloys behavior on sensing elements manufacturing, and diaphragm was used as deflecting elements. Electrical models for potenciometric transducers were proposed at the beginning and subsequently comproved according our experiments. Concerning bridge transducers, existing models confirmed the conditions of linearity and sensitivity related to the electrical signal. All the work done was of help on the calibration field and pressure measurements employing unbounded strain gauge pressure transducers

  20. Electronic structure and properties of rare earth and actinide intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchmayr, H.R.


    There are 188 contributions, experimental and theoretical, a few on rare earth and actinide elements but mostly on rare earth and actinide intermetallic compounds and alloys. The properties dealt with include 1) crystal structure, 2) magnetic properties and magnetic structure, 3) magnetic phase transformations and valence fluctuations, 4) electrical properties and superconductivity and their temperature, pressure and magnetic field dependence. A few papers deal with crystal growth and novel measuring methods. (G.Q.)

  1. Earth's Trojan asteroid. (United States)

    Connors, Martin; Wiegert, Paul; Veillet, Christian


    It was realized in 1772 that small bodies can stably share the same orbit as a planet if they remain near 'triangular points' 60° ahead of or behind it in the orbit. Such 'Trojan asteroids' have been found co-orbiting with Jupiter, Mars and Neptune. They have not hitherto been found associated with Earth, where the viewing geometry poses difficulties for their detection, although other kinds of co-orbital asteroid (horseshoe orbiters and quasi-satellites) have been observed. Here we report an archival search of infrared data for possible Earth Trojans, producing the candidate 2010 TK(7). We subsequently made optical observations which established that 2010 TK(7) is a Trojan companion of Earth, librating around the leading Lagrange triangular point, L(4). Its orbit is stable over at least ten thousand years.

  2. How Big is Earth? (United States)

    Thurber, Bonnie B.


    How Big is Earth celebrates the Year of Light. Using only the sunlight striking the Earth and a wooden dowel, students meet each other and then measure the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes did it over 2,000 years ago. In Cosmos, Carl Sagan shared the process by which Eratosthenes measured the angle of the shadow cast at local noon when sunlight strikes a stick positioned perpendicular to the ground. By comparing his measurement to another made a distance away, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth. How Big is Earth provides an online learning environment where students do science the same way Eratosthenes did. A notable project in which this was done was The Eratosthenes Project, conducted in 2005 as part of the World Year of Physics; in fact, we will be drawing on the teacher's guide developed by that project.How Big Is Earth? expands on the Eratosthenes project by providing an online learning environment provided by the iCollaboratory,, where teachers and students from Sweden, China, Nepal, Russia, Morocco, and the United States collaborate, share data, and reflect on their learning of science and astronomy. They are sharing their information and discussing their ideas/brainstorming the solutions in a discussion forum. There is an ongoing database of student measurements and another database to collect data on both teacher and student learning from surveys, discussions, and self-reflection done online.We will share our research about the kinds of learning that takes place only in global collaborations.The entrance address for the iCollaboratory is

  3. Peer Pressure (United States)

    ... for: Teens Dealing With Bullying Emotional Intelligence Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Coping With Stressful Situations Prom Pressure What Stresses You Out About School? Virginity: A Very Personal Decision Stress & Coping Center ...

  4. Teaching earth science (United States)

    Alpha, Tau Rho; Diggles, Michael F.


    This CD-ROM contains 17 teaching tools: 16 interactive HyperCard 'stacks' and a printable model. They are separated into the following categories: Geologic Processes, Earthquakes and Faulting, and Map Projections and Globes. A 'navigation' stack, Earth Science, is provided as a 'launching' place from which to access all of the other stacks. You can also open the HyperCard Stacks folder and launch any of the 16 stacks yourself. In addition, a 17th tool, Earth and Tectonic Globes, is provided as a printable document. Each of the tools can be copied onto a 1.4-MB floppy disk and distributed freely.

  5. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Méndez


    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  6. IR and the Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf; Stevenson, Hayley


    , in the end, one finite interconnected space. Together these two starting points make for the basic conundrum of Inter- national Relations and the Earth: how does a divided world live on a single globe? This introduction first provides an overview of the recent rise of ‘the environment’ in international......, ‘what has the environment ever done for IR?’, before the plan for the rest of the book sketches the content and direction of the ensuing chapters that explore the problematique of International Relations and the Earth....

  7. Seismic rehabilitation and analysis of Chaohe earth dam (United States)

    Fu, Lei; Zeng, Xiangwu


    Stability of earth dams during earthquakes has been a major concern for geotechnical engineers in seismic active regions. Liquefaction induced slope failure occurred at the upstream slope of a major earth dam in the suburb of Beijing, China, during the 1976 Tangshan Earthquake. The gravelly soil with loose initial condition liquefied under relatively small ground vibration. In recent years, a major seismic rehabilitation project was carried out on a similar earth dam nearby using dumped quarry stone. Seismic stability analysis was carried out using model test, finite element simulation, and pseudo-static slope stability program after taking into account the influence of excess pore pressure.

  8. The Earth's Plasmasphere (United States)

    Gallagher, D. L.


    The Earth's plasmasphere is an inner part of the magneteosphere. It is located just outside the upper ionosphere located in Earth's atmosphere. It is a region of dense, cold plasma that surrounds the Earth. Although plasma is found throughout the magnetosphere, the plasmasphere usually contains the coldest plasma. Here's how it works: The upper reaches of our planet's atmosphere are exposed to ultraviolet light from the Sun, and they are ionized with electrons that are freed from neutral atmospheric particles. The results are electrically charged negative and positive particles. The negative particles are electrons, and the positive particles are now called ions (formerly atoms and molecules). If the density of these particles is low enough, this electrically charged gas behaves differently than it would if it were neutral. Now this gas is called plasma. The atmospheric gas density becomes low enough to support the conditions for a plasma around earth at about 90 kilometers above Earth's surface. The electrons in plasma gain more energy, and they are very low in mass. They move along Earth's magnetic field lines and their increased energy is enough to escape Earth's gravity. Because electrons are very light, they don't have to gain too much kinetic energy from the Sun's ultraviolet light before gravity loses its grip on them. Gravity is not all that holds them back, however. As more and more electrons begin to escape outward, they leave behind a growing net positive electric charge in the ionosphere and create a growing net negative electric charge above the ionosphere; an electric field begins to develop (the Pannekoek-Rosseland E-field). Thus, these different interacting charges result in a positively charged ionosphere and negatively charged region of space above it. Very quickly this resulting electric field opposed upward movement of the electrons out of the ionosphere. The electrons still have this increased energy, however, so the electric field doesn't just

  9. "Galileo Calling Earth..." (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This guide presents an activity for helping students understand how data from the Galileo spacecraft is sent to scientists on earth. Students are asked to learn about the concepts of bit-rate and resolution and apply them to the interpretation of images from the Galileo Orbiter. (WRM)

  10. Bones of the Earth (United States)

    Correa, Jose Miguel


    The film "Bones of the Earth" (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014) is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective…

  11. Our bubbling Earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, R.D.


    In several places on earth large volumes of gas are seen to escape. These gases are usually dominated by CO2. The emissions are associated with volcanic activity, and are attributed to magma degassing. It will be shown that in the case of Milos this explanation is unacceptable for quantitative

  12. Cosmic rays on earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allkofer, O.C.; Grieder, P.K.F.


    A data collection is presented that covers cosmic rays on earth. Included are all relevant data on flux and intensity measurements, energy spectra, and related data of all primary and secondary components of the cosmic radiation at all levels in the atmosphere, at sea level and underground. In those cases where no useful experimental data have been available, theoretical predictions were substituted. (GSCH)

  13. Earth as art 4 (United States)



    Landsat 8 is the latest addition to the long-running series of Earth-observing satellites in the Landsat program that began in 1972. The images featured in this fourth installment of the Earth As Art collection were all acquired by Landsat 8. They show our planet’s diverse landscapes with remarkable clarity.Landsat satellites see the Earth as no human can. Not only do they acquire images from the vantage point of space, but their sensors record infrared as well as visible wavelengths of light. The resulting images often reveal “hidden” details of the Earth’s land surface, making them invaluable for scientific research.As with previous Earth As Art exhibits, these Landsat images were selected solely for their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation—only for your viewing pleasure. What do you see in these unique glimpses of the Earth’s continents, islands, and coastlines?

  14. Google Earth Science (United States)

    Baird, William H.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Secrest, Jeffery A.


    Google Earth has made a wealth of aerial imagery available online at no cost to users. We examine some of the potential uses of that data in illustrating basic physics and astronomy, such as finding the local magnetic declination, using landmarks such as the Washington Monument and Luxor Obelisk as gnomons, and showing how airport runways get…

  15. How life shaped Earth. (United States)

    Gross, Michael


    Earth is much more complex than all the other solar system objects that we know. Thanks to its rich and diverse geology, our planet can offer habitats to a wide range of living species. Emerging insights suggest that this is not just a happy coincidence, but that life itself has in many ways helped to shape the planet.

  16. Magnetic rare earth superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majkrzak, C.F.; Kwo, J.; Hong, M.


    Advances in molecular beam epitaxy deposition techniques have recently made it possible to grow, an atomic plane at a time, single crystalline superlattices composed of alternating layers of a magnetic rare earth, such as Gd, Dy, Ho, or Er, and metallic Y, which has an identical chemical structure...

  17. Understanding Earth's Albedo Effect (United States)

    Fidler, Chuck


    Earth and space science in the middle school classroom are composed of intricately intertwined sets of conceptual systems (AAAS 1993; NRC 1996). Some systems of study, such as the water and rock cycles, are quite explicit and often found as stand-alone middle school science units. Other phenomena are not so apparent, yet they play an extremely…

  18. Earth Science Misconceptions. (United States)

    Philips, William C.


    Presented is a list of over 50 commonly held misconceptions based on a literature review found in students and adults. The list covers earth science topics such as space, the lithosphere, the biosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the cryosphere. (KR)

  19. The earths innermost core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, J.N.


    A new earth model is advanced with a solid innermost core at the centre of the Earth where elements heavier than iron, over and above what can be retained in solution in the iron core, are collected. The innermost core is separated from the solid iron-nickel core by a shell of liquid copper. The innermost core has a natural vibration measured on the earth's surface as the long period 26 seconds microseisms. The earth was formed initially as a liquid sphere with a relatively thin solid crust above the Byerly discontinuity. The trace elements that entered the innermost core amounted to only 0.925 ppm of the molten mass. Gravitational differentiation must have led to the separation of an explosive thickness of pure 235 U causing a fission explosion that could expel beyond the Roche limit a crustal scab which would form the centre piece of the moon. A reservoir of helium floats on the liquid copper. A small proportion of helium-3, a relic of the ancient fission explosion present there will spell the exciting magnetic field. The field is stable for thousands of years because of the presence of large quantity of helium-4 which accounts for most of the gaseous collisions that will not disturb the atomic spin of helium-3 atoms. This field is prone to sudden reversals after long periods of stability. (author). 14 refs

  20. The radioactive earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant, J.A.; Saunders, A.D.


    Uranium, thorium and potassium are the main elements contributing to natural terrestrial radioactivity. The isotopes 238 U, 235 U, 232 Th and 40 K decay with half-lives so long that significant amounts remain in the earth, providing a continuing source of heat. The slow decay of these isotopes also provides the basis for radiometric age dating and isotopic modelling of the evolution of the earth and its crust. There is a complex interplay between their heat production and the processes involved in crust formation. Phenomena such as volcanism, earthquakes, and large-scale hydrothermal activity associated with ore deposition reflect the dissipation of heat energy from the earth, much of which is derived from natural radioactivity. The higher levels of radioactive elements during the early history of the earth resulted in higher heat flow. All three of the radioactive elements are strongly partitioned into the continental crust, but within the crust their distribution is determined by their different chemical properties. The behaviour of U, which has two commonly occurring oxidation states, is more complex than that of Th and K. Uranium deposits are diverse, and are mostly associated with granites, acid volcanics, or detrital sedimentary rocks. The most important U deposits economically are unconformity-type ores of Proterozoic age, in which U is enriched by up to 5 x 10 6 with respect to bulk earth values. In some cases natural radioactivity can be of environmental concern. The most significant risk is posed by accumulations of radon, the gaseous daughter product of U. (author)

  1. The Earth's Biosphere (United States)


    In the last five years, scientists have been able to monitor our changing planet in ways never before possible. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, has given researchers an unprecedented view of the biological engine that drives life on Earth-the countless forms of plants that cover the land and fill the oceans. 'There is no question the Earth is changing. SeaWiFS has enabled us, for the first time, to monitor the biological consequences of that change-to see how the things we do, as well as natural variability, affect the Earth's ability to support life,' said Gene Carl Feldman, SeaWiFS project manager at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. SeaWiFS data, based on continuous daily global observations, have helped scientists make a more accurate assessment of the oceans' role in the global carbon cycle. The data provide a key parameter in a number of ecological and environmental studies as well as global climate-change modeling. The images of the Earth's changing land, ocean and atmosphere from SeaWiFS have documented many previously unrecognized phenomena. The image above shows the global biosphere from June 2002 measured by SeaWiFS. Data in the oceans is chlorophyll concentration, a measure of the amount of phytoplankton (microscopic plants) living in the ocean. On land SeaWiFS measures Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, an indication of the density of plant growth. For more information and images, read: SeaWiFS Sensor Marks Five Years Documenting Earth'S Dynamic Biosphere Image courtesy SeaWiFS project and copyright Orbimage.

  2. Rotational modes of a simple Earth model (United States)

    Seyed-Mahmoud, B.; Rochester, M. G.; Rogister, Y. J. G.


    We study the tilt-over mode (TOM), the spin-over mode (SOM), the free core nutation (FCN), and their relationships to each other using a simple Earth model with a homogeneous and incompressible liquid core and a rigid mantle. Analytical solutions for the periods of these modes as well as that of the Chandler wobble is found for the Earth model. We show that the FCN is the same mode as the SOM of a wobbling Earth. The reduced pressure, in terms of which the vector momentum equation is known to reduce to a scalar second order differential equation (the so called Poincaŕe equation), is used as the independent variable. Analytical solutions are then found for the displacement eigenfucntions in a meridional plane of the liquid core for the aforementioned modes. We show that the magnitude of motion in the mantle during the FCN is comparable to that in the liquid core, hence very small. The displacement eigenfunctions for these aforementioned modes as well as those for the free inner core nutation (FICN), computed numerically, are also given for a three layer Earth model which also includes a rigid but capable of wobbling inner core. We will discuss the slow convergence of the period of the FICN in terms of the characteristic surfaces of the Poincare equation.

  3. Accretion disc origin of the Earth's water. (United States)

    Vattuone, Luca; Smerieri, Marco; Savio, Letizia; Asaduzzaman, Abu Md; Muralidharan, Krishna; Drake, Michael J; Rocca, Mario


    Earth's water is conventionally believed to be delivered by comets or wet asteroids after the Earth formed. However, their elemental and isotopic properties are inconsistent with those of the Earth. It was thus proposed that water was introduced by adsorption onto grains in the accretion disc prior to planetary growth, with bonding energies so high as to be stable under high-temperature conditions. Here, we show both by laboratory experiments and numerical simulations that water adsorbs dissociatively on the olivine {100} surface at the temperature (approx. 500-1500 K) and water pressure (approx. 10⁻⁸ bar) expected for the accretion disc, leaving an OH adlayer that is stable at least up to 900 K. This may result in the formation of many Earth oceans, provided that a viable mechanism to produce water from hydroxyl exists. This adsorption process must occur in all disc environments around young stars. The inevitable conclusion is that water should be prevalent on terrestrial planets in the habitable zone around other stars.

  4. Visualizing Earth Materials (United States)

    Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A.; Stibbon, E.; Harris, R.


    Earth materials are fundamental to art. They are pigments, they are clay, they provide form and color. Earth scientists, however, rarely attempt to make the physical properties of Earth materials visible through art, and similarly many artists use Earth materials without fully understanding their physical and chemical properties. Here we explore the intersection between art and science through study of the physical properties of Earth materials as characterized in the laboratory, and as transferred to paper using different techniques and suspending media. One focus of this collaboration is volcanic ash. Ash is interesting scientifically because its form provides information on the fundamental processes that drive volcanic eruptions, and determines its transport properties, and thus its potential to affect populations far downwind of the volcano. Ash properties also affect its behavior as an art material. From an aesthetic point of view, ash lends a granular surface to the image; it is also uncontrollable, and thus requires engagement between artist and medium. More fundamentally, using ash in art creates an exchange between the medium and the subject matter, and imparts something of the physical, visceral experience of volcanic landscapes to the viewer. Another component of this work uses powdered rock as a printing medium for geologic maps. Because different types of rock create powders with different properties (grain size distributions and shapes), the geology is communicated not only as color, but also by the physical characteristics of the material as it interacts with the paper. More importantly, the use of actual rocks samples as printing material for geologic maps not only makes a direct connection between the map and the material it represents, but also provides an emotional connection between the map, the viewer and the landscape, its colors, textures and geological juxtapositions. Both case studies provide examples not only of ways in which artists can

  5. Towards earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Meijer, R. J.; Smit, F. D.; Brooks, F. D.; Fearick, R. W.; Wortche, H. J.; Mantovani, F.


    The programme Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH) proposes to build ten underground facilities each hosting a telescope. Each telescope consists of many detector modules, to map the radiogenic heat sources deep in the interior of the Earth by utilising direction sensitive geoneutrino detection.

  6. Inaugeral lecture - Meteorite impacts on Earth and on the Earth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is some controversial evidence for the theory that the first life on Earth itself may have been transported here on meteorites from Mars. The possibility of a major meteorite impact on Earth in the near future emphasizes the dramatic nature of these recent discoveries, which are having deep impacts in the Earth sciences ...

  7. Physics and Chemistry of Earth Materials (United States)

    Navrotsky, Alexandra


    Stressing the fundamental solid state behavior of minerals, and emphasizing both theory and experiment, this text surveys the physics and chemistry of earth materials. The author begins with a systematic tour of crystal chemistry of both simple and complex structures (with completely new structural drawings) and discusses how to obtain structural and thermodynamic information experimentally. Dr. Navrotsky also reviews the quantitative concepts of chemical bonding--band theory, molecular orbit and ionic models. She then covers physical properties and relates microscopic features to macroscopic thermodynamic behavior and treats high pressure phase transitions, amorphous materials and solid state reactions. The author concludes with a look at the interface between mineral physics and materials science. Highly illustrated throughout, this book fills the gap between undergraduate texts and specialized review volumes and is appropriate for students and researchers in earth science and materials science.

  8. Heliotropic dust rings for Earth climate engineering (United States)

    Bewick, R.; Lücking, C.; Colombo, C.; Sanchez, J. P.; McInnes, C. R.


    This paper examines the concept of a Sun-pointing elliptical Earth ring comprised of dust grains to offset global warming. A new family of non-Keplerian periodic orbits, under the effects of solar radiation pressure and the Earth's J2 oblateness perturbation, is used to increase the lifetime of the passive cloud of particles and, thus, increase the efficiency of this geoengineering strategy. An analytical model is used to predict the orbit evolution of the dust ring due to solar-radiation pressure and the J2 effect. The attenuation of the solar radiation can then be calculated from the ring model. In comparison to circular orbits, eccentric orbits yield a more stable environment for small grain sizes and therefore achieve higher efficiencies when the orbit decay of the material is considered. Moreover, the novel orbital dynamics experienced by high area-to-mass ratio objects, influenced by solar radiation pressure and the J2 effect, ensure the ring will maintain a permanent heliotropic shape, with dust spending the largest portion of time on the Sun facing side of the orbit. It is envisaged that small dust grains can be released from a circular generator orbit with an initial impulse to enter an eccentric orbit with Sun-facing apogee. Finally, a lowest estimate of 1 × 1012 kg of material is computed as the total mass required to offset the effects of global warming.

  9. Physics of the Earth (United States)

    Stacey, Frank D.; Davis, Paul M.

    he fourth edition of Physics of the Earth maintains the original philosophy of this classic graduate textbook on fundamental solid earth geophysics, while being completely revised, updated, and restructured into a more modular format to make individual topics even more accessible. Building on the success of previous editions, which have served generations of students and researchers for nearly forty years, this new edition will be an invaluable resource for graduate students looking for the necessary physical and mathematical foundations to embark on their own research careers in geophysics. Several completely new chapters have been added and a series of appendices, presenting fundamental data and advanced mathematical concepts, and an extensive reference list, are provided as tools to aid readers wishing to pursue topics beyond the level of the book. Over 140 student exercises of varying levels of difficulty are also included, and full solutions are available online at

  10. Alkaline earth metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Paul L.; Ekberg, Christian


    The beryllium ion has a relatively small ionic radius. As a consequence of this small size, its hydrolysis reactions begin to occur at a relatively low pH. To determine the stability and solubility constants, however, the Gibbs energy of the beryllium ion is required. In aqueous solution calcium, like the other alkaline earth metals, only exists as a divalent cation. The size of the alkaline earth cations increases with increasing atomic number, and the calcium ion is bigger than the magnesium ion. The hydrolysis of barium(II) is weaker than that of strontium(II) and also occurs in quite alkaline pH solutions, and similarly, only the species barium hydroxide has been detected. There is only a single experimental study on the hydrolysis of radium. As with the stability constant trend, it would be expected that the enthalpy of radium would be lower than that of barium due to the larger ionic radius.

  11. Heat-pipe Earth. (United States)

    Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G


    The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics.

  12. Earth before life


    Marzban, Caren; Viswanathan, Raju; Yurtsever, Ulvi


    Background A recent study argued, based on data on functional genome size of major phyla, that there is evidence life may have originated significantly prior to the formation of the Earth. Results Here a more refined regression analysis is performed in which 1) measurement error is systematically taken into account, and 2) interval estimates (e.g., confidence or prediction intervals) are produced. It is shown that such models for which the interval estimate for the time origin of the genome i...

  13. Electromagnetic compatibility and earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duque Henao, Alan; Casas Ospina, Favio


    It is such the increment of applications of electric and electronic equipment in the modern companies that the lack of control of the electromagnetic perturbations, brings, get big losses and difficulties in the normal operations. The paper contribute to ago with base in the challenges that day-by-day are confronting, where the settings to earth, to be the foundation of the electric building, are fundamental for a good coexistence among the different equipment s

  14. Earth-ionosphere cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, A.; Polk, C.


    To analyze ELF wave propagation in the earth-ionosphere cavity, a flat earth approximation may be derived from the exact equations, which are applicable to the spherical cavity, by introducing a second-order or Debye approximation for the spherical Hankel functions. In the frequency range 3 to 30 Hz, however, the assumed conditions for the Debye approximation are not satisfied. For this reason an exact evaluation of the spherical Hankel functions is used to study the effects of the flat earth approximation on various propagation and resonance parameters. By comparing the resonance equation for a spherical cavity with its flat earth counterpart and by assuming that the surface impedance Z/sub i/ at the upper cavity boundary is known, the relation between the eigenvalue ν and S/sub v/, the sine of the complex angle of incidence at the lower ionosphere boundary, is established as ν(ν + 1) = (kaS/sub v/) 2 . It is also shown that the approximation ν(ν + 1) approximately equals (ν + 1/2) 2 which was used by some authors is not adequate below 30 Hz. Numerical results for both spherical and planar stratification show that (1) planar stratification is adequate for the computation of the lowest three ELF resonance frequencies to within 0.1 Hz; (2) planar stratification will lead to errors in cavity Q and wave attenuation which increase with frequency; (3) computation of resonance frequencies to within 0.1 Hz requires the extension of the lower boundary of the ionosphere to a height where the ratio of conduction current to displacement current, (sigma/ωepsilon 0 ), is less than 0.3; (4) atmospheric conductivity should be considered down to ground level in computing cavity Q and wave attenuation

  15. Superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth (United States)

    Simpson, John T [Clinton, TN; D& #x27; Urso, Brian R [Clinton, TN


    A superhydrophobic powder is prepared by coating diatomaceous earth (DE) with a hydrophobic coating on the particle surface such that the coating conforms to the topography of the DE particles. The hydrophobic coating can be a self assembly monolayer of a perfluorinated silane coupling agent. The DE is preferably natural-grade DE where organic impurities have been removed. The superhydrophobic powder can be applied as a suspension in a binder solution to a substrate to produce a superhydrophobic surface on the substrate.

  16. Sun, Earth and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R


    This Second Edition of Sun, Earth and Sky updates the popular text by providing comprehensive accounts of the most recent discoveries made by five modern solar spacecraft during the past decade. Their instruments have used sound waves to peer deep into the Sun’s inner regions and measure the temperature of its central nuclear reactor, and extended our gaze far from the visible Sun to record energetic outbursts that threaten Earth. Breakthrough observations with the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are also included, which explain the new physics of ghostly neutrinos and solve the problematic mismatch between the predicted and observed amounts of solar neutrinos. This new edition of Sun, Earth and Sky also describes our recent understanding of how the Sun’s outer atmosphere is heated to a million degrees, and just where the Sun’s continuous winds come from. As humans we are more intimately linked with our life-sustaining Sun than with any other astronomical object, and the new edition therefore p...

  17. Characterising Super-Earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia D.


    Full Text Available The era of Super-Earths has formally begun with the detection of transiting low-mass exoplanets CoRoT-7b and GJ 1214b. In the path of characterising super-Earths, the first step is to infer their composition. While the discovery data for CoRoT-7b, in combination with the high atmospheric mass loss rate inferred from the high insolation, suggested that it was a rocky planet, the new proposed mass values have widened the possibilities. The combined mass range 1−10 M⊕ allows for a volatile-rich (and requires it if the mass is less than 4 M⊕ , an Earth-like or a super-Mercury-like composition. In contrast, the radius of GJ 1214b is too large to admit a solid composition, thus it necessarily to have a substantial gas layer. Some evidence suggests that within this gas layer H/He is a small but non-negligible component. These two planets are the first of many transiting low-mass exoplanets expected to be detected and they exemplify the limitations faced when inferring composition, which come from the degenerate character of the problem and the large error bars in the data.

  18. Afganistan and rare earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian M. Dobrescu


    Full Text Available On our planet, over a quarter of new technologies for the economic production of industrial goods, are using rare earths, which are also called critical minerals and industries that rely on these precious items being worth of an estimated nearly five trillion dollars, or 5 percent of world gross domestic product. In the near future, competition will increase for the control of rare earth minerals embedded in high-tech products. Rare minerals are in the twenty-first century what oil accounted for in the twentieth century and coal in the nineteenth century: the engine of a new industrial revolution. Future energy will be produced increasingly by more sophisticated technological equipment based not just on steel and concrete, but incorporating significant quantities of metals and rare earths. Widespread application of these technologies will result in an exponential increase in demand for such minerals, and what is worrying is that minerals of this type are almost nowhere to be found in Europe and in other industrialized countries in the world, such as U.S. and Japan, but only in some Asian countries, like China and Afghanistan.

  19. Models of the earth's core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, D.J.


    The combination of seismology, high pressure experiment and theory, geomagnetism, fluid dynamics, and current views of terrestrial planetary evolution lead to strong constraints on core models. The synthesis presented here is devoted to the defense of the following properties: (1) core formation was contemporaneous with earth accretion; (2) the outer, liquid core is predominately iron but cannot be purely iron; (3) the inner core-outer core boundary represents a thermodynamic equilibrium between a liquid alloys and a predominanately iron solid; (4) thermodynamic and transport properties of outer core can be estimated from liquid-state theories; and (5) the outer core is probably adiabatic and uniform in composition. None of these propositions are universally accepted by geophysicists. But, the intent of this paper is to present a coherent picture which explains most of the data with the fewest ad hoc assumptions. Areas in which future progress is both essential and likely are geo- and cosmochronology, seismological determinations of core structure, fluid dynamics of the core and mantle, and condensed matter physics

  20. Computer simulation at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, B.J.


    The use of either the Monte Carlo or molecular dynamics method to generate equations-of-state data for various materials at high pressure is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to phase diagrams, such as the generation of various types of critical lines for mixtures, melting, structural and electronic transitions in solids, two-phase ionic fluid systems of astrophysical interest, as well as a brief aside of possible eutectic behavior in the interior of the earth. Then the application of the molecular dynamics method to predict transport coefficients and the neutron scattering function is discussed with a view as to what special features high pressure brings out. Lastly, an analysis by these computational methods of the measured intensity and frequency spectrum of depolarized light and also of the deviation of the dielectric measurements from the constancy of the Clausius--Mosotti function is given that leads to predictions of how the electronic structure of an atom distorts with pressure

  1. Anisotropy in the deep Earth (United States)

    Romanowicz, Barbara; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf


    Seismic anisotropy has been found in many regions of the Earth's interior. Its presence in the Earth's crust has been known since the 19th century, and is due in part to the alignment of anisotropic crystals in rocks, and in part to patterns in the distribution of fractures and pores. In the upper mantle, seismic anisotropy was discovered 50 years ago, and can be attributed for the most part, to the alignment of intrinsically anisotropic olivine crystals during large scale deformation associated with convection. There is some indication for anisotropy in the transition zone, particularly in the vicinity of subducted slabs. Here we focus on the deep Earth - the lower mantle and core, where anisotropy is not yet mapped in detail, nor is there consensus on its origin. Most of the lower mantle appears largely isotropic, except in the last 200-300 km, in the D″ region, where evidence for seismic anisotropy has been accumulating since the late 1980s, mostly from shear wave splitting measurements. Recently, a picture has been emerging, where strong anisotropy is associated with high shear velocities at the edges of the large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) in the central Pacific and under Africa. These observations are consistent with being due to the presence of highly anisotropic MgSiO3 post-perovskite crystals, aligned during the deformation of slabs impinging on the core-mantle boundary, and upwelling flow within the LLSVPs. We also discuss mineral physics aspects such as ultrahigh pressure deformation experiments, first principles calculations to obtain information about elastic properties, and derivation of dislocation activity based on bonding characteristics. Polycrystal plasticity simulations can predict anisotropy but models are still highly idealized and neglect the complex microstructure of polyphase aggregates with strong and weak components. A promising direction for future progress in understanding the origin of seismic anisotropy in the deep mantle

  2. Earth as an Exoplanet: Lessons in Recognizing Planetary Habitability (United States)

    Meadows, Victoria; Robinson, Tyler; Misra, Amit; Ennico, Kimberly; Sparks, William B.; Claire, Mark; Crisp, David; Schwieterman, Edward; Bussey, D. Ben J.; Breiner, Jonathan


    Earth will always be our best-studied example of a habitable world. While extrasolar planets are unlikely to look exactly like Earth, they may share key characteristics, such as oceans, clouds and surface inhomogeneity. Earth's globally-averaged characteristics can therefore help us to recognize planetary habitability in data-limited exoplanet observations. One of the most straightforward ways to detect habitability will be via detection of 'glint', specular reflectance from an ocean (Robinson et al., 2010). Other methods include undertaking a census of atmospheric greenhouse gases, or attempting to measure planetary surface temperature and pressure, to determine if liquid water would be feasible on the planetary surface. Here we present recent research on detecting planetary habitability, led by the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory Team. This work includes a collaboration with the NASA Lunar Science Institute on the detection of ocean glint and ozone absorption using Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Earth observations (Robinson et al., 2014). This data/model comparison provides the first observational test of a technique that could be used to determine exoplanet habitability from disk-integrated observations at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. We find that the VPL spectral Earth model is in excellent agreement with the LCROSS Earth data, and can be used to reliably predict Earth's appearance at a range of phases relevant to exoplanet observations. Determining atmospheric surface pressure and temperature directly for a potentially habitable planet will be challenging due to the lack of spatial-resolution, presence of clouds, and difficulty in spectrally detecting many bulk constituents of terrestrial atmospheres. Additionally, Rayleigh scattering can be masked by absorbing gases and absorption from the underlying surface. However, new techniques using molecular dimers of oxygen (Misra et al., 2014) and nitrogen

  3. Rare Earth Polyoxometalates. (United States)

    Boskovic, Colette


    Longstanding and important applications make use of the chemical and physical properties of both rare earth metals and polyoxometalates of early transition metals. The catalytic, optical, and magnetic features of rare earth metal ions are well-known, as are the reversible multielectron redox and photoredox capabilities of polyoxomolybdates and polyoxotungstates. The combination of rare earth ions and polyoxometalates in discrete molecules and coordination polymers is of interest for the unique combination of chemical and physical properties that can arise. This Account surveys our efforts to synthesize and investigate compounds with rare earth ions and polyoxometalates (RE-POMs), sometimes with carboxylate-based organic coligands. Our general synthetic approach is "bottom-up", which affords well-defined nanoscale molecules, typically in crystalline form and amenable to single-crystal X-ray diffraction for structure determination. Our particular focus is on elucidation of the physical properties conferred by the different structural components with a view to ultimately being able to tune these properties chemically. For this purpose, we employ a variety of spectroscopic, magnetochemical, electrochemical, and scattering techniques in concert with theoretical modeling and computation. Studies of RE-POM single-molecule magnets (SMMs) have utilized magnetic susceptibility, inelastic neutron scattering, and ab initio calculations. These investigations have allowed characterization of the crystal field splitting of the rare earth(III) ions that is responsible for the SMM properties of slow magnetic relaxation and magnetization quantum tunneling. Such SMMs are promising for applications in quantum computing and molecular spintronics. Photophysical measurements of a family of hybrid RE-POMs with organic ligands have afforded insights into sensitization of Tb(III) and Eu(III) emission through both organic and polyoxometalate chromophores in the same molecule. Detailed

  4. Responding to complex societal challenges: A decade of Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) interdisciplinary research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignaciuk, A.; Rice, M.; Bogardi, J.; Canadell, J.G.; Dhakal, S.; Ingram, J.; Leemans, R.; Rosenberg, M.


    The Earth system is an integrated, self-regulating system under increasing pressure from anthropogenic transformation. The Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP), which was established by the international global environmental change research programs (i.e., DIVERSITAS, IGBP, IHDP and WCRP)

  5. Stovetop Earth Pecan Pie (United States)

    Robin, C. M.


    Many fluid mechanical experiments with direct applications to Earth Science are performed with sugary syrups using conceptually straightforward procedures. Corn syrup has indeed proven to be a godsend for those studying convection and related non-linear phenomena. In addition, however, it gives experimentalists a deep physical intuition for the interior workings of hot planets. The basic concepts behind plate tectonics and mantle convection are not difficult; indeed, although they may not be aware of it, most students probably have a basic intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics gained in their daily life. However, the large size and long time scale of geophysical processes may be quite intimidating to young students. Even a simple geophysical experiment requires a complicated array of coolers, heaters and measuring and recording equipment. It is of interest to introduce students to the geodynamical concepts that can be visualized in a high-tech lab using familiar processes and equipment. Using a homemade apparatus and grocery store supplies, I propose using a 'Stove-top Earth pecan pie' to introduce simple geodynamic concepts to middle- and high-school students. The initially cold syrup heats up and the pecans begin to float (continent formation), the syrup begins to convect (mantle convection), and convection slows down after the heat is removed (secular cooling). Even Wilson cycles can be simulated by moving the pan to one side or the other of the stovetop or heating element. The activity formally introduces students to convection and its application to the earth, and makes them think about plate motion, heat transfer, scaling, and experimental procedures. As an added bonus, they can eat their experiments after recess!

  6. Bones of the Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Correa


    Full Text Available The film Bones of the Earth (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014 is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective creation is built. A sense of community, on-going inquiry, connections and social commitment inform the creative process. As a result, the video’s nearly five intense minutes are a metaphor for the search for personal meaning, connection with nature and intersubjective positioning in a world that undergoes constant change.

  7. The Solid Earth (United States)

    Fowler, C. M. R.


    The second edition of this acclaimed textbook has been brought fully up-to-date to reflect the latest advances in geophysical research. It is designed for students in introductory geophysics courses who have a general background in the physical sciences, including introductory calculus. New to this edition are a section of color plates and separate sections on the earth's mantle and core. The book also contains an extensive glossary of terms, and includes numerous exercises for which solutions are available to instructors from First Edition Hb (1990): 0-521-37025-6 First Edition Pb (1990): 0-521-38590-3

  8. Between Earth and Sky

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Adrian


    to rescue architecture from the sterile impasse of late-modernism. In his works the basic elements of lived space become present: the earth, the sky and the `between` of human existence." Jørn Utzon's architecture ranges from the modest to the monumental; from the Kingo courtyard houses, the finest...... of form, material and function, motivated by social values. To this essentially regional response, Utzon combines a fascination for the architectural legacies of foreign cultures. These influences include the architecture of the ancient Mayan civilisation, as well as the Islamic world, China and Japan...

  9. Climate in Earth history (United States)

    Berger, W. H.; Crowell, J. C.


    Complex atmosphere-ocean-land interactions govern the climate system and its variations. During the course of Earth history, nature has performed a large number of experiments involving climatic change; the geologic record contains much information regarding these experiments. This information should result in an increased understanding of the climate system, including climatic stability and factors that perturb climate. In addition, the paleoclimatic record has been demonstrated to be useful in interpreting the origin of important resources-petroleum, natural gas, coal, phosphate deposits, and many others.

  10. Earth's ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasa, J.


    The paper contain the actual results of investigations of the influence of the human activity on the Earth's ozone layer. History of the ozone measurements and of the changes in its concentrations within the last few years are given. The influence of the trace gases on both local and global ozone concentrations are discussed. The probable changes of the ozone concentrations are presented on the basis of the modelling investigations. The effect of a decrease in global ozone concentration on human health and on biosphere are also presented. (author). 33 refs, 36 figs, 5 tabs

  11. Blood Pressure Test (United States)

    ... pressure monitors may have some limitations. Tracking your blood pressure readings It can be helpful in diagnosing or ... more Stage 2 high blood pressure (hypertension) Elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 high blood pressure ( ...

  12. Modeling Earth Albedo for Satellites in Earth Orbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan; Bak, Thomas


    Many satellite are influences by the Earthøs albedo, though very few model schemes order to predict this phenomenon. Earth albedo is often treated as noise, or ignored completely. When applying solar cells in the attitude hardware, Earth albedo can cause the attitude estimate to deviate...... with as much as 20 deg. Digital Sun sensors with Earth albedo correction in hardware exist, but are expensive. In addition, albedo estimates are necessary in thermal calculations and power budgets. We present a modeling scheme base4d on Eartht reflectance, measured by NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer......, in which the Earth Probe Satellite has recorded reflectivity data daily since mid 1996. The mean of these data can be used to calculate the Earth albedo given the positions of the satellite and the Sun. Our results show that the albedo varies highly with the solar angle to the satellite's field of view...

  13. Destiny's Earth Observation Window (United States)


    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  14. Mapping Earth's electromagnetic dimensionality (United States)

    Love, J. J.; Kelbert, A.; Bedrosian, P.


    The form of a magnetotelluric impedance tensor, obtained for a given geographic site through simultaneous measurement of geomagnetic and geoelectric field variation, is affected by electrical conductivity structure beneath the measurement site. Building on existing methods for characterizing the symmetry of magnetotelluric impedance tensors, a simple scalar measure is developed for measuring the (frequency dependent) proportion of the impedance tensor that is not just a one-dimensional (1D) function of depth ("non-1D-ness"). These measures are applied to nearly 1000 impedance tensors obtained during magnetotelluric surveys, those for the continental United States and obtained principally through the National Science Foundation's EarthScope project. Across geomagnetic/geoelectric variational periods ranging from 30 s to 3,000 s, corresponding to crustal and upper mantle depths, it is shown that local Earth structure is very often not simply 1D-depth-dependent - often less than 50% of magnetotelluric impedance is 1D. For selected variational frequencies, non-1D-ness is mapped and the relationship between electromagnetic dimensionality and known geological and tectonic structures is discussed. The importance of using realistic surface impedances to accurately evaluate magnetic-storm geoelectric hazards is emphasized.

  15. Is dying the earth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Garzon, Gustavo


    December 21 of 1968, on board the capsule Apollo 8, three astronauts, James A. Lovell, Frank Borman and William Anders, went toward what would be the first orbital flight around the moon. That experience like Lovell said, it makes us realize the insignificant that we are in comparison with the vastness of the universe. With the revolution lovelockiane, the life doesn't already consist on a group of organisms only adapted to its atmosphere by a certain action for external laws. The terrestrial environment, instead of being a physical world regulated by own autonomous laws, is part of an evolutionary system that contains the life and that it should to the phenomena vital part of its rules, its mechanisms and components. The alive beings connected to each other and to the atmosphere they manufacture and they maintain of continuous their atmosphere forming an everything at planetary level, according to Ricard Guerrero (1988). The theory of the earth then, he says, it has found their owner Darwin in James lovelock. The document treats topics like the science concept that it is the life, the earth and the contemporary environment

  16. High-pressure phase transitions of strontianite (United States)

    Speziale, S.; Biedermann, N.; Reichmann, H. J.; Koch-Mueller, M.; Heide, G.


    Strontianite (SrCO3) is isostructural to aragonite, a major high-pressure polymorph of calcite. Thus it is a material of interest to investigate the high-pressure phase behavior of aragonite-group minerals. SrCO3 is a common component of natural carbonates and knowing its physical properties at high pressures is necessary to properly model the thermodynamic properties of complex carbonates, which are major crustal minerals but are also present in the deep Earth [Brenker et al., 2007] and control carbon cycling in the Earth's mantle. The few available high-pressure studies of SrCO3 disagree regarding both pressure stability and structure of the post-aragonite phase [Lin & Liu, 1997; Ono et al., 2005; Wang et al. 2015]. To clarify such controversies we investigated the high-pressure behavior of synthetic SrCO3 by Raman spectroscopy. Using a diamond anvil cell we compressed single-crystals or powder of strontianite (synthesized at 4 GPa and 1273 K for 24h in a multi anvil apparatus), and measured Raman scattering up to 78 GPa. SrCO3 presents a complex high-pressure behavior. We observe mode softening above 20 GPa and a phase transition at 25 - 26.9 GPa, which we interpret due to the CO3 groups rotation, in agreement with Lin & Liu [1997]. The lattice modes in the high-pressure phase show dramatic changes which may indicate a change from 9-fold coordinated Sr to a 12-fold-coordination [Ono, 2007]. Our results confirm that the high-pressure phase of strontianite is compatible with Pmmn symmetry. References Brenker, F.E. et al. (2007) Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 260, 1; Lin, C.-C. & Liu, L.-G. (1997) J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 58, 977; Ono, S. et al. (2005) Phys. Chem. Minerals, 32, 8; Ono, S. (2007) Phys. Chem. Minerals, 34, 215; Wang, M. et al. (2015) Phys Chem Minerals 42, 517.

  17. School, Earth and Imagination (United States)

    Merlini, Anna; Grieco, Giovanni; Oneta, Cristina


    Geology needs to be explained and narrated to the people, focusing on the goal of making that big change of mindset that will allow individuals and the entire community to tune into the timing and the ways in which the Earth evolves. In order to achieve these important goals it is necessary to educate children from an early age so that they learn to live an environmentally friendly life. With the project "School, Earth and imagination" we introduce, with a fun and new way, notions and topics in geological and environmental sciences in schools at all levels with the final goal of improving both knowledge and sensibility for these topics into the community. Through this project we start from the children (kindergarten and primary school, ages between 3 and 8 years) because they are the foundation of our society, and without foundations nothing can be built. The "School, Earth and imagination" project wants to give the children a real opportunity to approach reality and in general the surrounding environment, for the first time even before the traditional scholastic experience, with a scientific point of view, experimenting some basic physical concepts like temperature, weight, hardness and so on directly through their body. The project is structured and developed in modules that provide a high flexibility in order to meet needs and requirements of different schools in different situations. Each module is part of the journey of Mariolino, a character that represents a very curious child who introduces basic concepts associating them to geological processes. The Journey of Mariolino, as each module, follows an insistent scheme that starts from the presentation of the problem, follows with its discussion through direct questions and ends with experimentation of the hypotheses that children have proposed to validate the solution of the problem. Each module is independent and never ends without giving children a solution and is always structured with a practical activity

  18. The Earth's core: its composition, formation and bearing upon the origin of the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwood, A.E.


    The density of the outer core is about 3% smaller than pure iron, which implies that the core contains a substantial amount of one or more low atomic mass elements. New experimental data on the solubility of FeO in molten iron are compatible with oxygen being the other element. At atmospheric pressure FeO is extensively soluble in iron at 2500 0 C, completely miscible above 2800 0 C. Also the solubility of FeO in molten iron is considerably increased at higher pressures. The density measurements can be explained if the core contains about 35% FeO; the new data show this to be possible. A model for the formation of the core based on a high FeO content in the Bulk Earth can be explained if the Earth accreted from a mixture of two components: A, a highly reduced, metal-rich devolatilized assemblage and B, a highly oxidized, volatile-rich assemblage similar to Cl chondrites. The formation of these components in the solar nebula is discussed. The large amount of FeO now inferred to be present in the Earth was mainly produced during accretion by oxidation of metallic iron from component A by water from component B. (U.K.)

  19. Cosmic rays and Earth's climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik


    During the last solar cycle the Earth's cloud cover underwent a modulation in phase with the cosmic ray flux. Assuming that there is a causal relationship between the two, it is expected and found that the Earth's temperature follows more closely decade variations in cosmic ray flux than other...... solar activity parameters. If the relationship is real the state of the Heliosphere affects the Earth's climate....

  20. Acoustic and Thermal Vibrational Behavior of Rare Earth Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senin, H. B.; Kancono, W.; Sidek, H. A. A.


    The ultrasonic wave velocity and the thermal expansion of the rare earth glasses have been measured as functions of temperature and pressure to test predictions of the soft potential model for the acoustic and thermal properties. The longitudinal ultrasonic wave velocities increase under pressure. The hydrostatic pressure derivative of the bulk modulus is positive: these glasses show a normal elastic response as compressed. However, the pressure derivative of the shear modulus is negative and small, indicating weak softening of shear modes under pressure. The results found are used to determine the Gruneisen parameters. This is to obtain the acoustic mode contribution to thermal expansion. After subtraction of the relaxation and anharmonic contributions, the temperature dependence of the shear wave ultrasound velocity follows a linear law as predicted by the Soft Potential Model

  1. Testing Reproducibility in Earth Sciences (United States)

    Church, M. A.; Dudill, A. R.; Frey, P.; Venditti, J. G.


    Reproducibility represents how closely the results of independent tests agree when undertaken using the same materials but different conditions of measurement, such as operator, equipment or laboratory. The concept of reproducibility is fundamental to the scientific method as it prevents the persistence of incorrect or biased results. Yet currently the production of scientific knowledge emphasizes rapid publication of previously unreported findings, a culture that has emerged from pressures related to hiring, publication criteria and funding requirements. Awareness and critique of the disconnect between how scientific research should be undertaken, and how it actually is conducted, has been prominent in biomedicine for over a decade, with the fields of economics and psychology more recently joining the conversation. The purpose of this presentation is to stimulate the conversation in earth sciences where, despite implicit evidence in widely accepted classifications, formal testing of reproducibility is rare.As a formal test of reproducibility, two sets of experiments were undertaken with the same experimental procedure, at the same scale, but in different laboratories. Using narrow, steep flumes and spherical glass beads, grain size sorting was examined by introducing fine sediment of varying size and quantity into a mobile coarse bed. The general setup was identical, including flume width and slope; however, there were some variations in the materials, construction and lab environment. Comparison of the results includes examination of the infiltration profiles, sediment mobility and transport characteristics. The physical phenomena were qualitatively reproduced but not quantitatively replicated. Reproduction of results encourages more robust research and reporting, and facilitates exploration of possible variations in data in various specific contexts. Following the lead of other fields, testing of reproducibility can be incentivized through changes to journal

  2. Rare earth superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMorrow, D.F.


    A review is given of recent experiments on the magnetism of rare earth superlattices. Early experiments in this field were concerned mainly with systems formed by combining a magnetic and a non-magnetic element in a superlattice structure. From results gathered on a variety of systems it has been established that the propagation of magnetic order through the non-magnetic spacer can be understood mostly on the basis of an RKKY-like model, where the strength and range of the coupling depends on the details of the conduction electron susceptibility of the spacer. Recent experiments on more complex systems indicate that this model does not provide a complete description. Examples include superlattices where the constituents can either be both magnetic, adopt different crystal structures (Fermi surfaces), or where one of the constituents has a non-magnetic singlet ground state. The results from such systems are presented and discussed in the context of the currently accepted model. (au)

  3. Earth's Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume provides a comprehensive view on the different sources of the geomagnetic field both in the Earth’s interior and from the field’s interaction with the terrestrial atmosphere and the solar wind. It combines expertise from various relevant areas of geomagnetic and near Earth space...... research with the aim to better characterise the state and dynamics of Earth’s magnetic field. Advances in the exploitation of geomagnetic observations hold a huge potential not only for an improved quantitative description of the field source but also for a better understanding of the underlying processes...... and space observations, and on state-of-the-art empirical models and physics-based simulations. Thus, it provides an in-depth overview over recent achievements, current limitations and challenges, and future opportunities in the field of geomagnetism and space sciences....

  4. Rare earth (3) pivalates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'mina, N.P.; Martynenko, L.I.; Zoan An' Tu; Ch'eu Tkhi Nguet; Troyanov, S.I.; Rykov, A.N.; Korenev, Yu.M.


    Depending on synthesis conditions rare earth pivalates can be obtained in the form of either adducts NPiv·HPiv or hydrates MPiv 3 ·mH 2 O. Adducts are the most stable form of pivalates. Heating of adducts result in formation of corresponding MPiv 3 . MPiv 3 ·nHPiv compounds are characterized by IR-spectroscopy and thermal analysis data. Behaviour of MPiv 3 was studied in the regime of vacuum sublemation. Using mass spectroscopy of NdPiv 3 it was shown that gaseous phase above MPiv 3 had complex composition and contained ligomer fragments. X-ray structure analysis of [NdPiv 3 ·3HPiv] was conducted

  5. One Day on Earth

    CERN Multimedia


    In collaboration with the CineGlobe Film Festival, the One Day on Earth global film project invites you to share your story of scientific inspiration, scientific endeavors and technological advancement on 11 November 2011 (11.11.11).   Technology in the 21st century continuously inspires us to re-imagine the world. From outer-space to cyberspace, new ideas that we hope will improve the lives of future generations keep us in a state of change. However, these new technologies may alter the nature of our shared existence in ways not yet known. On 11.11.11, we invite you to record the exciting ways that science is a part of your life, together with people around the world who will be documenting their lives on this day of global creation. See for details on how to participate.

  6. Earth's radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslehi Fard, M.


    The theory of trapped particles in a magnetic field of approximated dipole is described completely in the first part. Second part contains experimental results. The mechanism of radiation belt source ''albedo neutrons'' and also types of dissipation mechanism about radiation belt is explained. The trapped protons and electrons by radiation belt is discussed and the life-time of trapped particles are presented. Finally the magnetic fields of Moon, Venus, Mars, and Saturn, measured by passengers Mariner 4,10 and pioneer 10,11 are indicated. The experimental and theoretical results for the explanation of trapped plasma around the earth which is looked like two internal and external belt have almost good correspondence

  7. Earth's early biosphere (United States)

    Des Marais, D. J.


    Understanding our own early biosphere is essential to our search for life elsewhere, because life arose on Earth very early and rocky planets shared similar early histories. The biosphere arose before 3.8 Ga ago, was exclusively unicellular and was dominated by hyperthermophiles that utilized chemical sources of energy and employed a range of metabolic pathways for CO2 assimilation. Photosynthesis also arose very early. Oxygenic photosynthesis arose later but still prior to 2.7 Ga. The transition toward the modern global environment was paced by a decline in volcanic and hydrothermal activity. These developments allowed atmospheric O2 levels to increase. The O2 increase created new niches for aerobic life, most notably the more advanced Eukarya that eventually spawned the megascopic fauna and flora of our modern biosphere.

  8. Seismic passive earth resistance using modified pseudo-dynamic method (United States)

    Pain, Anindya; Choudhury, Deepankar; Bhattacharyya, S. K.


    In earthquake prone areas, understanding of the seismic passive earth resistance is very important for the design of different geotechnical earth retaining structures. In this study, the limit equilibrium method is used for estimation of critical seismic passive earth resistance for an inclined wall supporting horizontal cohesionless backfill. A composite failure surface is considered in the present analysis. Seismic forces are computed assuming the backfill soil as a viscoelastic material overlying a rigid stratum and the rigid stratum is subjected to a harmonic shaking. The present method satisfies the boundary conditions. The amplification of acceleration depends on the properties of the backfill soil and on the characteristics of the input motion. The acceleration distribution along the depth of the backfill is found to be nonlinear in nature. The present study shows that the horizontal and vertical acceleration distribution in the backfill soil is not always in-phase for the critical value of the seismic passive earth pressure coefficient. The effect of different parameters on the seismic passive earth pressure is studied in detail. A comparison of the present method with other theories is also presented, which shows the merits of the present study.

  9. Pressure balance between lobe and plasma sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumjohann, W.; Paschmann, G.; Luehr, H.


    Using eight months of AMPTE/IRM plasma and magnetic field data, the authors have done a statistical survey on the balance of total (thermal and magnetic) pressure in the Earth's plasma sheet and tail lobe. About 300,000 measurements obtained in the plasma sheet and the lobe were compared for different levels of magnetic activity as well as different distances from the Earth. The data show that lobe and plasma sheet pressure balance very well. Even in the worst case they do not deviate by more than half of the variance in the data itself. Approximately constant total pressure was also seen during a quiet time pass when IRM traversed nearly the whole magnetotail in the vertical direction, from the southern hemisphere lobe through the neutral sheet and into the northern plasma sheet boundary layer

  10. The earth and the moon

    CERN Document Server

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T


    The moon is the only body in the solar system outside of the Earth that has been visited by humans. More than 440 pounds of lunar material are brought by NASA and Soviet space missions to Earth for study. The information gleaned about the moon from this relatively small pile of rocks is mind-boggling and stands as the greatest proof that Martian planetary science would be greatly enhanced by returning samples to Earth. Compositional studies of lunar rocks show that the moon and the Earth are made of similar material, and because lunar material has not been reworked through erosion and plate te

  11. Theory of Earth (United States)

    Anderson, D. L.


    Earth is an isolated, cooling planet that obeys the 2nd law. Interior dynamics is driven from the top, by cold sinking slabs. High-resolution broad-band seismology and geodesy has confirmed that mantle flow is characterized by narrow downwellings and ~20 broad slowly rising updrafts. The low-velocity zone (LVZ) consists of a hot melange of sheared peridotite intruded with aligned melt-rich lamellae that are tapped by intraplate volcanoes. The high temperature is a simple consequence of the thermal overshoot common in large bodies of convecting fluids. The transition zone consists of ancient eclogite layers that are displaced upwards by slabs to become broad passive, and cool, ridge feeding updrafts of ambient mantle. The physics that is overlooked in canonical models of mantle dynamics and geochemistry includes; the 2nd law, convective overshoots, subadiabaticity, wave-melt interactions, Archimedes' principle, and kinetics (rapid transitions allow stress-waves to interact with melting and phase changes, creating LVZs; sluggish transitions in cold slabs keep eclogite in the TZ where it warms up by extracting heat from mantle below 650 km, creating the appearance of slab penetration). Canonical chemical geodynamic models are the exact opposite of physics and thermodynamic based models and of the real Earth. A model that results from inverting the assumptions regarding initial and boundary conditions (hot origin, secular cooling, no external power sources, cooling internal boundaries, broad passive upwellings, adiabaticity and whole-mantle convection not imposed, layering and self-organization allowed) results in a thick refractory-yet-fertile surface layer, with ancient xenoliths and cratons at the top and a hot overshoot at the base, and a thin mobile D" layer that is an unlikely plume generation zone. Accounting for the physics that is overlooked, or violated (2nd law), in canonical models, plus modern seismology, undermines the assumptions and conclusions of these

  12. Resonance in the restricted problem caused by solar radiation pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, K.B.; Gupta, B.


    Resonance is discussed in the motion of an artificial Earth satellite caused by solar radiation pressure. The Hamiltonian and the generating functions occurring in the problem are expanded in the power series of small parameter β, which depends on solar radiation pressure. Also the perturbations in the osculating elements are obtained up to O(βsup(1/2)). (author)

  13. High pressure phases of terbium: Possibility of a thcp phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staun Olsen, J.; Steenstrup, S.; Gerward, L.


    High pressure phases of trivalent Tb studied by energy dispersive X-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation exhibits the closed packed sequence (hcp -> Sm -> dhcp -> fcc) typical of the trivalent rare earth metals. Furthermore, a phase consistent with a triple hexagonal closed packed (thcp) structure was observed in a narrow pressure range around 30 GPa. (orig.)

  14. Eutectic propeties of primitive Earth's magma ocean (United States)

    Lo Nigro, G.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Perillat, J.-P.


    It is widely accepted that the early Earth was partially molten (if not completely) due to the high energy dissipated by terrestrial accretion [1]. After core formation, subsequent cooling of the magma ocean has led to fractional crystallization of the primitive mantle. The residual liquid corresponds to what is now called the fertile mantle or pyrolite. Melting relations of silicates have been extensively investigated using the multi-anvil press, for pressures between 3 and 25 GPa [2,3]. Using the quench technique, it has been shown that the pressure affects significantly the solidus and liquidus curves, and most probably the composition of the eutectic liquid. At higher pressures, up to 65 GPa, melting studies were performed on pyrolite starting material using the laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC) technique [4]. However, the quench technique is not ideal to define melting criteria, and furthermore these studies were limited in pressure range of investigation. Finally, the use of pyrolite may not be relevant to study the melting eutectic temperature. At the core-mantle boundary conditions, melting temperature is documented by a single data point on (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 olivine, provided by shock wave experiments at around 130-140 GPa [5]. These previous results present large uncertainties of ~1000 K. The aim of this study is to determine the eutectic melting temperature in the chemically simplified system composed of the two major lower mantle phases, the MgSiO3 perovskite and MgO periclase. We investigated melting in-situ using the laser-heated diamond anvil cell coupled with angle dispersive X-ray diffraction at the ID27 beamline of the ESRF [6]. Melting relations were investigated in an extended P-T range comparable to those found in the Earth's lower mantle, i.e. from 25 to 120 GPa and up to more than 5000 K. Melting was evidenced from (a) disappearance of one of the two phases in the diffraction pattern, (b) drastic changes of the diffraction image itself, and

  15. China's rare-earth industry (United States)

    Tse, Pui-Kwan


    Introduction China's dominant position as the producer of over 95 percent of the world output of rare-earth minerals and rapid increases in the consumption of rare earths owing to the emergence of new clean-energy and defense-related technologies, combined with China's decisions to restrict exports of rare earths, have resulted in heightened concerns about the future availability of rare earths. As a result, industrial countries such as Japan, the United States, and countries of the European Union face tighter supplies and higher prices for rare earths. This paper briefly reviews China's rare-earth production, consumption, and reserves and the important policies and regulations regarding the production and trade of rare earths, including recently announced export quotas. The 15 lanthanide elements-lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium (atomic numbers 57-71)-were originally known as the rare earths from their occurrence in oxides mixtures. Recently, some researchers have included two other elements-scandium and yttrium-in their discussion of rare earths. Yttrium (atomic number 39), which lies above lanthanum in transition group III of the periodic table and has a similar 3+ ion with a noble gas core, has both atomic and ionic radii similar in size to those of terbium and dysprosium and is generally found in nature with lanthanides. Scandium (atomic number 21) has a smaller ionic radius than yttrium and the lanthanides, and its chemical behavior is intermediate between that of aluminum and the lanthanides. It is found in nature with the lanthanides and yttrium. Rare earths are used widely in high-technology and clean-energy products because they impart special properties of magnetism, luminescence, and strength. Rare earths are also used in weapon systems to obtain the same properties.

  16. Rare earths 1998 market update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourre, J.M.


    The rare earth industry has always been a world of rapid change with the emergence of new markets, new ores and new players, as well as the disappearance of old applications. Rare earth based products are used in a great diversity of applications such as hard disk drives, CD drives, batteries, capacitors, pigments, ceramics, polishing powders, fuel cells, flints, catalyst converter, fluid cracking catalysts, etc. South East Asia holds the largest share of the known reserve of rare earth ores and is one of the major markets for rare earth compounds; in the last ten years, China has become the largest producer of rare earth intermediates as well as an important exporter of separated rare earth elements. Today, China has approximately 150 factories producing rare earth compounds, most of which are experiencing financial difficulties due to the lack of knowledge of true market needs, lack of control of their distribution channels and production over-capacity. Recently the Chinese rare earth producers have recognized the situation and efforts are underway to rationalize rare earth production. Japan has dominated many of the major application markets, and is by far the largest market for metal and alloy products. This will remain the case for the next five years; however, new countries are emerging as significant users of rare earth products such as Korea, Taiwan and Malaysia. During the last ten years rare earth producers adjusted to several radical changes that affected the raw materials, the application mix and the price structure. New producers have emerged, especially from China; some have subsequently stopped their activities while others have focused their efforts in a specific market segment

  17. Regional positioning using a low Earth orbit satellite constellation (United States)

    Shtark, Tomer; Gurfil, Pini


    Global and regional satellite navigation systems are constellations orbiting the Earth and transmitting radio signals for determining position and velocity of users around the globe. The state-of-the-art navigation satellite systems are located in medium Earth orbits and geosynchronous Earth orbits and are characterized by high launching, building and maintenance costs. For applications that require only regional coverage, the continuous and global coverage that existing systems provide may be unnecessary. Thus, a nano-satellites-based regional navigation satellite system in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), with significantly reduced launching, building and maintenance costs, can be considered. Thus, this paper is aimed at developing a LEO constellation optimization and design method, using genetic algorithms and gradient-based optimization. The preliminary results of this study include 268 LEO constellations, aimed at regional navigation in an approximately 1000 km × 1000 km area centered at the geographic coordinates [30, 30] degrees. The constellations performance is examined using simulations, and the figures of merit include total coverage time, revisit time, and geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) percentiles. The GDOP is a quantity that determines the positioning solution accuracy and solely depends on the spatial geometry of the satellites. Whereas the optimization method takes into account only the Earth's second zonal harmonic coefficient, the simulations include the Earth's gravitational field with zonal and tesseral harmonics up to degree 10 and order 10, Solar radiation pressure, drag, and the lunisolar gravitational perturbation.

  18. Next-generation digital earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodchild, M.F.; Guo, H.; Annoni, A.; Bian, L.; Bie, de K.; Campbell, F.; Craglia, M.; Ehlers, M.; Genderen, van J.; Skidmore, A.K.; Wang, C.; Woodgate, P.


    A speech of then-Vice President Al Gore in 1998 created a vision for a Digital Earth, and played a role in stimulating the development of a first generation of virtual globes, typified by Google Earth, that achieved many but not all the elements of this vision. The technical achievements of Google


    In Thoreau's Walden, a lake is described as the landscape's most expressive feature and the earth's eye. Collectively, scientists are charged by society to assess, monitor, and remedy maladies of earth's eye in the same way optometrists maintain the health of the human eye. This ...

  20. Flooding Effect on Earth Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Banimahd


    Full Text Available Earth building is a sustainable, environmentally friendly and economical method of construction that has been used worldwide for many centuries. For the past three decades, earth has seen a revival as a building material for a modern construction method due to its benefits in terms of low carbon content, low cost and energy involved during construction, as well as the fact that it is a sustainable technology of building. Climate change is influencing precipitation levels and patterns around the world, and as a consequence, flood risk is increasing rapidly. When flooding occurs, earth buildings are exposed to water by submersion, causing an increase in the degree of saturation of the earth structures and therefore a decrease of the suction between particles. This study investigated the effect of cycles of flooding (consecutive events of flooding followed by dry periods on earth walls. A series of characterization tests were carried out to obtain the physical and mechanical properties of the studied earth material. In a second stage, Flooding Simulation Tests (FST were performed to explore the earth walls’ response to repeated flooding events. The results obtained for the tested earth wall/samples with reinforced material (straw reveal hydraulic hysteresis when wall/samples are subject to cycles of wetting and drying.

  1. Introductory mathematics for earth scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She


    Any quantitative work in earth sciences requires mathematical analysis and mathematical methods are essential to the modelling and analysis of the geological, geophysical and environmental processes involved. This book provides an introduction to the fundamental mathematics that all earth scientists need.

  2. Teaching Waves with Google Earth (United States)

    Logiurato, Fabrizio


    Google Earth is a huge source of interesting illustrations of various natural phenomena. It can represent a valuable tool for science education, not only for teaching geography and geology, but also physics. Here we suggest that Google Earth can be used for introducing in an attractive way the physics of waves. (Contains 9 figures.)

  3. Low Blood Pressure (United States)

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  4. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension) (United States)

    ... lowest at night and rises sharply on waking. Blood pressure: How low can you go? What's considered low ... low blood pressure. Medications that can cause low blood pressure Some medications can cause low blood pressure, including: ...

  5. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  6. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a pressure sore required? play_arrow How long is the typical healing time for a pressure ... arrow Why do some pressure sores take so long to heal? play_arrow Can a pressure sore ...

  7. Thermodynamics of the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, Frank D


    Applications of elementary thermodynamic principles to the dynamics of the Earth lead to robust, quantitative conclusions about the tectonic effects that arise from convection. The grand pattern of motion conveys deep heat to the surface, generating mechanical energy with a thermodynamic efficiency corresponding to that of a Carnot engine operating over the adiabatic temperature gradient between the heat source and sink. Referred to the total heat flux derived from the Earth's silicate mantle, the efficiency is 24% and the power generated, 7.7 x 10 12 W, causes all the material deformation apparent as plate tectonics and the consequent geological processes. About 3.5% of this is released in seismic zones but little more than 0.2% as seismic waves. Even major earthquakes are only localized hiccups in this motion. Complications that arise from mineral phase transitions can be used to illuminate details of the motion. There are two superimposed patterns of convection, plate subduction and deep mantle plumes, driven by sources of buoyancy, negative and positive respectively, at the top and bottom of the mantle. The patterns of motion are controlled by the viscosity contrasts (>10 4 : 1) at these boundaries and are self-selected as the least dissipative mechanisms of heat transfer for convection in a body with very strong viscosity variation. Both are subjects of the thermodynamic efficiency argument. Convection also drives the motion in the fluid outer core that generates the geomagnetic field, although in that case there is an important energy contribution by compositional separation, as light solute is rejected by the solidifying inner core and mixed into the outer core, a process referred to as compositional convection. Uncertainty persists over the core energy balance because thermal conduction is a drain on core energy that has been a subject of diverse estimates, with attendant debate over the need for radiogenic heat in the core. The geophysical approach to

  8. Rotation of a Moonless Earth (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Barnes, Jason W.; Chambers, John E.


    We numerically explore the obliquity (axial tilt) variations of a hypothetical moonless Earth. Previous work has shown that the Earth's Moon stabilizes Earth's obliquity such that it remains within a narrow range, between 22.1 deg and 24.5 deg. Without lunar influence, a frequency-map analysis by Laskar et al. showed that the obliquity could vary between 0 deg. and 85 deg. This has left an impression in the astrobiology community that a large moon is necessary to maintain a habitable climate on an Earth-like planet. Using a modified version of the orbital integrator mercury, we calculate the obliquity evolution for moonless Earths with various initial conditions for up to 4 Gyr. We find that while obliquity varies significantly more than that of the actual Earth over 100,000 year timescales, the obliquity remains within a constrained range, typically 20-25 deg. in extent, for timescales of hundreds of millions of years. None of our Solar System integrations in which planetary orbits behave in a typical manner show obliquity accessing more than 65% of the full range allowed by frequency-map analysis. The obliquities of moonless Earths that rotate in the retrograde direction are more stable than those of pro-grade rotators. The total obliquity range explored for moonless Earths with rotation periods shorter than 12 h is much less than that for slower-rotating moonless Earths. A large moon thus does not seem to be needed to stabilize the obliquity of an Earth-like planet on timescales relevant to the development of advanced life.

  9. Changes in earth's dipole. (United States)

    Olson, Peter; Amit, Hagay


    The dipole moment of Earth's magnetic field has decreased by nearly 9% over the past 150 years and by about 30% over the past 2,000 years according to archeomagnetic measurements. Here, we explore the causes and the implications of this rapid change. Maps of the geomagnetic field on the core-mantle boundary derived from ground-based and satellite measurements reveal that most of the present episode of dipole moment decrease originates in the southern hemisphere. Weakening and equatorward advection of normal polarity magnetic field by the core flow, combined with proliferation and growth of regions where the magnetic polarity is reversed, are reducing the dipole moment on the core-mantle boundary. Growth of these reversed flux regions has occurred over the past century or longer and is associated with the expansion of the South Atlantic Anomaly, a low-intensity region in the geomagnetic field that presents a radiation hazard at satellite altitudes. We address the speculation that the present episode of dipole moment decrease is a precursor to the next geomagnetic polarity reversal. The paleomagnetic record contains a broad spectrum of dipole moment fluctuations with polarity reversals typically occurring during dipole moment lows. However, the dipole moment is stronger today than its long time average, indicating that polarity reversal is not likely unless the current episode of moment decrease continues for a thousand years or more.

  10. When the earth shudders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltese, G.

    The enormous damage that can be caused by earthquakes (500,000 deaths in Tangshan, China, 1976) makes the art and science of earthquake predicting one of the principal objectives of modern geophysics. In this review of the state-of-the-art in earthquake predicting, brief notes are given on several topics: plate tectonics theory, geographic distribution of earthquakes, elastic potential energy storage of rocks, seismic wave typology, comparison of Mercalli and Richter scales, pre-warning signs in nature (strange behaviour of animals, preliminary reduction of seismic wave velocity, variations in local micro-seismicity and physical properties of rocks, etc.), comparison of earthquake energy release models, historical origin of the science of earthquake predicting, implication of fault slip rates and earthquake recurrence models to probabilistic seismic hazard estimates, the time element in prediction making, analysis of examples of correct predictions, pattern recognition instrumentation, earthquake intensity control through fluid injection, correlations between water reservoir level and seismicity, the creation of government programs for the monitoring of the earth's crust and seismic data acquisition, comparison of earthquake prediction and preparedness approaches in Japan and the USA.

  11. Our sustainable Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbach, Raymond L


    Recent evidence demonstrates that the Earth has been warming monotonically since 1980. Transient to equilibrium temperature changes take centuries to develop, as oceans are slow to respond to atmospheric temperature changes. Atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, from ice core and observatory measurements, display consistent increases from historical averages, beginning in about 1880, and can be associated with the industrial revolution. The climactic consequences of this human dominated increase in atmospheric CO 2 define a geologic epoch that has been termed the 'Anthropocene.' The issue is whether this is a short term, relatively minor change in global climate, or an extreme deviation that lasts for thousands of years. Eight 'myths' that posit the former are examined in light of known data. The analysis strongly suggests the latter. In order to stabilize global temperatures, sharp reductions in CO 2 emissions are required: an 80% reduction beginning in 2050. Two examples of economically sustainable CO 2 emission reduction demonstrate that technological innovation has the potential to maintain our standard of living while stabilizing global temperatures.

  12. Space sickness on earth (United States)

    Nooij, S. A. E.; Bos, J. E.; Groen, E. L.; Bles, W.; Ockels, W. J.


    During the first days in space, i.e., after a transition from 1G to 0G, more than 50% of the astro- (and cosmonauts) suffer from the Space Adaptation Syndrome (SAS).The symptoms of SAS, like nausea and dizziness, are especially provoked by head movements. Astronauts have mentioned close similarities between the symptoms of SAS and the symptoms they experienced after a 1 hour centrifuge run on Earth, i.e., after a transition from 3G to 1G (denoted by Sickness Induced by Centrifugation, SIC). During several space missions, we related susceptibility to SAS and to SIC in 11 astronauts and found 4 of them being susceptible to both SIC and SAS, and 7 being not susceptible to SIC nor to SAS. This correspondence in susceptibility suggests that SIC and SAS share the same underlying mechanism. To further study this mechanism, several vestibular parameters have been investigated (e.g. postural stability, vestibularly driven eye movements, subjective vertical). We found some striking changes in individual cases that are possibly due to the centrifuge run. However, the variability between subjects generally is very large, making physiological links to SIC and SAS still hard to find.

  13. High-Pressure Polymorphism in Orthoamphiboles (United States)

    Finkelstein, G. J.; Zhang, D.; Shelton, H.; Dera, P.


    Amphiboles are double-chain silicate minerals that are the structurally hydrated counterpart to single-chain, anhydrous pyroxenes. They may play an important role in the earth as a carrier for volatiles in subduction zones, as well as a generator for seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle. Recent work has described previously unrecognized high-pressure polymorphism at low temperatures in a variety of pyroxene minerals, which may be relevant for the structure and dynamics of thick, cold, subducted slabs. However, high-pressure polymorphism in amphiboles above a few GPa in pressure has not been well explored, and if similar polymorphism to pyroxenes exists in this mineral family, it may affect the extent and depth of volatile transport in amphiboles, as well as their rheological properties. At low temperatures and high pressures, orthopyroxenes undergo crystal structure transitions at lower pressures than clinopyroxenes (10-30 GPa vs. > 50 GPa), so for this study we have investigated polymorphism in the anthophyllite-gedrite (Al-free and Al rich) orthoamphibole solid solution series. Using neon gas-loaded diamond anvil cells, we compressed both phases to a maximum pressure of 31 GPa, and observed transitions to new monoclinic structures in both endmembers. In this presentation, we will discuss the details of these transitions and implications for the earth's interior.

  14. Magnetic field of the Earth (United States)

    Popov, Aleksey


    The magnetic field of the Earth has global meaning for a life on the Earth. The world geophysical science explains: - occurrence of a magnetic field of the Earth it is transformation of kinetic energy of movements of the fused iron in the liquid core of Earth - into the magnetic energy; - the warming up of a kernel of the Earth occurs due to radioactive disintegration of elements, with excretion of thermal energy. The world science does not define the reasons: - drift of a magnetic dipole on 0,2 a year to the West; - drift of lithospheric slabs and continents. The author offers: an alternative variant existing in a world science the theories "Geodynamo" - it is the theory « the Magnetic field of the Earth », created on the basis of physical laws. Education of a magnetic field of the Earth occurs at moving the electric charge located in a liquid kernel, at rotation of the Earth. At calculation of a magnetic field is used law the Bio Savara for a ring electric current: dB = . Magnetic induction in a kernel of the Earth: B = 2,58 Gs. According to the law of electromagnetic induction the Faradey, rotation of a iron kernel of the Earth in magnetic field causes occurrence of an electric field Emf which moves electrons from the center of a kernel towards the mantle. So of arise the radial electric currents. The magnetic field amplifies the iron of mantle and a kernel of the Earth. As a result of action of a radial electric field the electrons will flow from the center of a kernel in a layer of an electric charge. The central part of a kernel represents the field with a positive electric charge, which creates inverse magnetic field Binv and Emfinv When ?mfinv = ?mf ; ?inv = B, there will be an inversion a magnetic field of the Earth. It is a fact: drift of a magnetic dipole of the Earth in the western direction approximately 0,2 longitude, into a year. Radial electric currents a actions with the basic magnetic field of a Earth - it turn a kernel. It coincides with laws

  15. Radiation environment of the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Masahide


    The radiation environment of the earth consists of natural and artificial radiation. This paper explains the distribution and some exposure examples of natural radiation and the relation between life and natural radiation. The earth was born before about 46 hundreds of millions of years. In the present earth, there are some natural radiations with long half-life originated by the earth. They are 232 Th (141 hundreds of millions of years of half-life), 238 U (45 hundreds of millions of years of half-life) and 40 K (13 hundreds of millions of years of half-life). Natural radiation (α-, β-, and γ-ray) from natural radionuclides exists everywhere in the earth. Natural radio nuclides are heat source of the earth, which is about 0.035 μcal/g/y. γ-ray from them is called as ''the earth's crust γ-ray'', which is about 55 nGy/h average of the world and about 50 nGy/h in Japan. The distribution of γ-ray is depended on the kinds of soil and rock. 222 Rn and 230 Rn are rare gases and the concentration of them in a room is larger than outside. Natural radiations originated from the cosmos are proton, ionizing components, neutron component with muon and electron, 3 H, 14 C and 10 Be. Effect of cosmic rays on birth of life, change of temperature, amount of cloud and ultra resistant cell are stated. (S.Y.)

  16. Earth Science Enterprise Technology Strategy (United States)


    NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) is dedicated to understanding the total Earth system and the effects of natural and human-induced changes on the global environment. The goals of ESE are: (1) Expand scientific knowledge of the Earth system using NASA's unique vantage points of space, aircraft, and in situ platforms; (2) Disseminate information about the Earth system; and (3) Enable the productive use of ESE science and technology in the public and private sectors. ESE has embraced the NASA Administrator's better, faster, cheaper paradigm for Earth observing missions. We are committed to launch the next generation of Earth Observing System (EOS) missions at a substantially lower cost than the EOS first series. Strategic investment in advanced instrument, spacecraft, and information system technologies is essential to accomplishing ESE's research goals in the coming decades. Advanced technology will play a major role in shaping the ESE fundamental and applied research program of the future. ESE has established an Earth science technology development program with the following objectives: (1) To accomplish ESE space-based and land-based program elements effectively and efficiently; and (2) To enable ESE's fundamental and applied research programs goals as stated in the NASA Strategic Plan.

  17. Our Sustainable Earth (United States)

    Orbach, Raymond L.


    Recent evidence demonstrates that the Earth has been warming monotonically since 1980. Transient to equilibrium temperature changes take centuries to develop, as the upper levels of the ocean are slow to respond to atmospheric temperature changes. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations, from ice core and observatory measurements, display consistent increases from historical averages, beginning in about 1880. They can be associated with the use of coal ecause of the spread of the industrial revolution from Great Britain to the European continent and beyond. The climactic consequence of this human-dominated increase in atmospheric CO2 has been suggested to define a geologic epoch, termed the ``Anthropocene.'' This could be a short term, relatively minor change in global climate, or an extreme deviation that lasts for thousands of years. In order to stabilize global temperatures, sharp reductions in CO2 emissions are required: an 80% reduction beginning in 2050. U.S. emissions have declined sharply recently because of market conditions leading to the substitution of natural gas for coal for electricity generation. Whether this is the best use for this resource may be questioned, but it nevertheless reduces CO2 production by 67% from a coal-fired power plant, well on the way to the 80% reduction required for global temperature stabilization. Current methods for CO2 capture and storage are not cost effective, and have been slow (if not absent) to introduce at scale. This paper describes research into some potentially economically feasible approaches: cost-effective capture and storage of CO2 from injection of flue gas into subterranean methane-saturated aquifers at the surface; fuels from sunlight without CO2 production; and large-scale electrical energy storage for intermittent (and even constant) electricity generating sources.

  18. Earth - South America (first frame of Earth Spin Movie) (United States)


    This color image of the Earth was obtained by Galileo at about 6:10 a.m. Pacific Standard Time on Dec. 11, 1990, when the spacecraft was about 1.3 million miles from the planet during the first of two Earth flybys on its way to Jupiter. The color composite used images taken through the red, green and violet filters. South America is near the center of the picture, and the white, sunlit continent of Antarctica is below. Picturesque weather fronts are visible in the South Atlantic, lower right. This is the first frame of the Galileo Earth spin movie, a 500- frame time-lapse motion picture showing a 25-hour period of Earth's rotation and atmospheric dynamics.

  19. Chemical evolution of the Earth: Equilibrium or disequilibrium process? (United States)

    Sato, M.


    To explain the apparent chemical incompatibility of the Earth's core and mantle or the disequilibrium process, various core forming mechanisms have been proposed, i.e., rapid disequilibrium sinking of molten iron, an oxidized core or protocore materials, and meteorite contamination of the upper mantle after separation from the core. Adopting concepts used in steady state thermodynamics, a method is devised for evaluating how elements should distribute stable in the Earth's interior for the present gradients of temperature, pressure, and gravitational acceleration. Thermochemical modeling gives useful insights into the nature of chemical evolution of the Earth without overly speculative assumptions. Further work must be done to reconcile siderophile elements, rare gases, and possible light elements in the outer core.

  20. A magma ocean and the Earth's internal water budget (United States)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.


    There are lines of evidence which relate bounds on the primordial water content of the Earth's mantle to a magma ocean and the accompanying Earth accretion process. We assume initially (before a magma ocean could form) that as the Earth accreted, it grew from volatile- (H2O, CO2, NH3, CH4, SO2, plus noble) gas-rich planetesimals, which accreted to form an initial 'primitive accretion core' (PAC). The PAC retained the initial complement of planetesimal gaseous components. Shock wave experiments in which both solid, and more recently, the gaseous components of materials such as serpentine and the Murchison meteorite have demonstrated that planetesimal infall velocities of less than 0.5 km/sec, induce shock pressures of less than 0.5 GPa and result in virtually complete retention of planetary gases.

  1. An advanced regulator for the helium pressurization systems of the Space Shuttle OMS and RCS (United States)

    Wichmann, H.


    The Space Shuttle Orbit Maneuvering System and Reaction Control System are pressure-fed rocket propulsion systems utilizing earth storable hypergolic propellants and featuring engines of 6000 lbs and 900 lbs thrust, respectively. The helium pressurization system requirements for these propulsion systems are defined and the current baseline pressurization systems are described. An advanced helium pressure regulator capable of meeting both OMS and RCS helium pressurization system requirements is presented and its operating characteristics and predicted performance characteristics are discussed.

  2. Earth observation from the manned low Earth orbit platforms (United States)

    Guo, Huadong; Dou, Changyong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Han, Chunming; Yue, Xijuan


    The manned low Earth orbit platforms (MLEOPs), e.g., the U.S. and Russia's human space vehicles, the International Space Station (ISS) and Chinese Tiangong-1 experimental space laboratory not only provide laboratories for scientific experiments in a wide range of disciplines, but also serve as exceptional platforms for remote observation of the Earth, astronomical objects and space environment. As the early orbiting platforms, the MLEOPs provide humans with revolutionary accessibility to the regions on Earth never seen before. Earth observation from MLEOPs began in early 1960s, as a part of manned space flight programs, and will continue with the ISS and upcoming Chinese Space Station. Through a series of flight missions, various and a large amount of Earth observing datasets have been acquired using handheld cameras by crewmembers as well as automated sophisticated sensors onboard these space vehicles. Utilizing these datasets many researches have been conducted, demonstrating the importance and uniqueness of studying Earth from a vantage point of MLEOPs. For example, the first, near-global scale digital elevation model (DEM) was developed from data obtained during the shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM). This review intends to provide an overview of Earth observations from MLEOPs and present applications conducted by the datasets collected by these missions. As the ISS is the most typical representative of MLEOPs, an introduction to it, including orbital characteristics, payload accommodations, and current and proposed sensors, is emphasized. The advantages and challenges of Earth observation from MLEOPs, using the ISS as an example, is also addressed. At last, a conclusive note is drawn.

  3. EarthN: A new Earth System Nitrogen Model


    Johnson, Benjamin W.; Goldblatt, Colin


    The amount of nitrogen in the atmosphere, oceans, crust, and mantle have important ramifications for Earth's biologic and geologic history. Despite this importance, the history and cycling of nitrogen in the Earth system is poorly constrained over time. For example, various models and proxies contrastingly support atmospheric mass stasis, net outgassing, or net ingassing over time. In addition, the amount available to and processing of nitrogen by organisms is intricately linked with and prov...

  4. Sun-Earth Day, 2001 (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Mortfield, P.; Hathaway, D. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)


    To promote awareness of the Sun-Earth connection, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the Stanford SOLAR Center, sponsored a one-day Sun-Earth Day event on April 27, 2001. Although "celebrated" on only one day, teachers and students from across the nation, prepared for over a month in advance. Workshops were held in March to train teachers. Students performed experiments, results of which were shared through video clips and an internet web cast. Our poster includes highlights from student experiments (grades 2 - 12), lessons learned from the teacher workshops and the event itself, and plans for Sun-Earth Day 2002.

  5. The earth's shape and gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, G D; Wilson, J T


    The Earth's Shape and Gravity focuses on the progress of the use of geophysical methods in investigating the interior of the earth and its shape. The publication first offers information on gravity, geophysics, geodesy, and geology and gravity measurements. Discussions focus on gravity measurements and reductions, potential and equipotential surfaces, absolute and relative measurements, and gravity networks. The text then elaborates on the shape of the sea-level surface and reduction of gravity observations. The text takes a look at gravity anomalies and structures in the earth's crust; interp

  6. Line pressure effects on differential pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, G.G.; Evans, R.P.


    The performance of differential pressure transducers in experimental pressurized water reactor (PWR) systems was evaluated. Transient differential pressure measurements made using a simple calibration proportionality relating differential pressure to output voltage could have large measurement uncertainties. A more sophisticated calibration equation was derived to incorporate the effects of zero shifts and sensitivity shifts as pressure in the pressure sensing line changes with time. A comparison made between the original calibration proportionality equation and the derived compensation equation indicates that potential measurement uncertainties can be reduced

  7. Extremophiles: Link between earth and astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Dejan B.


    Full Text Available Astrobiology studies the origin, evolution, distribution and future of life in the universe. The most promising worlds in Solar system, beyond Earth, which may harbor life are Mars and Jovian moon Europa. Extremophiles are organisms that thrive on the edge of temperature, hypersalinity, pH extremes, pressure, dryness and so on. In this paper, some extremophile cyanobacteria have been discussed as possible life forms in a scale of astrobiology. Samples were taken from solenetz and solonchak types of soil from the Vojvodina region. The main idea in this paper lies in the fact that high percentage of salt found in solonchak and solonetz gives the possibility of comparison these types of soil with 'soil' on Mars, which is also rich in salt.

  8. Radon transport processes below the earth's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkening, M.


    Processes by which 222 Rn is transported from the soil to the earth's surface are reviewed. The mechanisms effective in transporting 222 Rn to the surface are related to the size and configuration of the spaces occupied by the soil gas which may vary from molecular interstices to large underground caverns. The near-surface transport processes are divided into two categories: (1) a microscopic process that includes molecular diffusion and viscous flow in fine capillaries and (2) macroscopic flow in fissures and channels. Underground air rich in 222 Rn can also reach the surface through cracks, fissures, and underground channels. This type of transport is shown for (1) a horizontal tunnel penetrating a fractured hillside, (2) a large underground cave, and (3) volcanic activity. Pressure differentials having various natural origins and thermal gradients are responsible for the transport in these examples. 222 Rn transport by ordinary molecular diffusion appears to be the dominant process

  9. Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture (United States)

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Novascone, Stephen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Wright, Jerry P [Idaho Falls, ID


    Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an earth analysis method includes engaging a device with the earth, analyzing the earth in a single substantially lineal direction using the device during the engaging, and providing information regarding a subsurface feature of the earth using the analysis.

  10. Safety aspects in rare earths recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, R.


    Recovery of rare earths involves mining of beach sands, mineral separation to obtain monazite and its chemical processing to obtain rare earth composites. The composites are then subjected to further chemical treatment to obtain individual rare earths. Although the separated out rare earths are not radioactive, the process for recovery of rare earths involve both radiological as well as conventional hazards. This paper highlights the safety aspects in the mining, mineral separation and chemical processing of monazite to obtain rare earths

  11. Atmospheres of partially differentiated super-Earth exoplanets (United States)

    Schaefer, Laura; Sasselov, Dimitar


    Terrestrial exoplanets have been discovered in a range of sizes, densities and orbital locations that defy our expectations based upon the Solar System. Planets discovered to date with radii less than ~1.5-1.6 Earth radii all seem to fall on an iso-density curve with the Earth [1]. However, mass and radius determinations, which depend on the known properties of the host star, are not accurate enough to distinguish between a fully differentiated three-layer planet (core, mantle, ocean/atmosphere) and an incompletely differentiated planet [2]. Full differentiation of a planet will depend upon the conditions at the time of accretion, including the abundance of short-lived radioisotopes, which will vary from system to system, as well as the number of giant impacts the planet experiences. Furthermore, separation of metal and silicates at the much larger pressures found inside super-Earths will depend on how the chemistry of these materials change at high pressures. There are therefore hints emerging that not all super-Earths will be fully differentiated. Incomplete differentiation will result in a more reduced mantle oxidation state and may have implications for the composition of an outgassed atmosphere. Here we will present the first results from a chemical equilibrium model of the composition of such an outgassed atmosphere and discuss the possibility of distinguishing between fully and incompletely differentiated planets through atmospheric observations.[1] Rogers, L. 2015. ApJ, 801, 41. [2] Zeng, L. & Sasselov, D. 2013. PASP, 125, 227.

  12. Evolution of the Oxidation State of the Earth's Mantle (United States)

    Danielson, L. R.; Righter, K.; Keller, L.; Christoffersen, E.; Rahman, Z.


    The oxidation state of the Earth's mantle during formation remains an unresolved question, whether it was constant throughout planetary accretion, transitioned from reduced to oxidized, or from oxidized to reduced. We investigate the stability of Fe3(+) at depth, in order to constrain processes (water, late accretion, dissociation of FeO) which may reduce or oxidize the Earth's mantle. In our previous experiments on shergottite compositions, variable fO2, T, and P less than 4 GPa, Fe3(+)/sigma Fe decreased slightly with increasing P, similar to terrestrial basalt. For oxidizing experiments less than 7GPa, Fe3(+)/sigma Fe decreased as well, but it's unclear from previous modelling whether the deeper mantle could retain significant Fe3(+). Our current experiments expand our pressure range deeper into the Earth's mantle and focus on compositions and conditions relevant to the early Earth. Preliminary multi-anvil experiments with Knippa basalt as the starting composition were conducted at 5-7 GPa and 1800 C, using a molybdenum capsule to set the fO2 near IW, by buffering with Mo-MoO3. TEM and EELS analyses revealed the run products quenched to polycrystalline phases, with the major phase pyroxene containing approximately equal to Fe3(+)/2(+). Experiments are underway to produce glassy samples that can be measured by EELS and XANES, and are conducted at higher pressures.

  13. Rare earth metals, rare earth hydrides, and rare earth oxides as thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasgnier, M.


    The review deals with pure rare earth materials such as rare earth metals, rare earth hydrides, and rare earth oxides as thin films. Several preparation techniques, control methods, and nature of possible contaminations of thin films are described. These films can now be produced in an extremely well-known state concerning chemical composition, structure and texture. Structural, electric, magnetic, and optical properties of thin films are studied and discussed in comparison with the bulk state. The greatest contamination of metallic rare earth thin films is caused by reaction with hydrogen or with water vapour. The compound with an f.c.c. structure is the dihydride LnH 2 (Ln = lanthanides). The oxygen contamination takes place after annealing at higher temperatures. Then there appears a compound with a b.c.c. structure which is the C-type sesquioxide C-Ln 2 O 3 . At room atmosphere dihydride light rare earth thin films are converted to hydroxide Ln(OH) 3 . For heavy rare earth thin films the oxinitride LnNsub(x)Osub(y) is observed. The LnO-type compound was never seen. The present review tries to set the stage anew for the investigations to be undertaken in the future especially through the new generations of electron microscopes

  14. Hydrogen storage in Earth's mantle and core (United States)

    Prewitt, Charles T.


    Two different approaches to explaining how hydrogen might be stored in the mantle are illustrated by a number of papers published over the past 25-30 years, but there has been little attempt to provide objective comparisons of the two. One approach invokes the presence in the mantle of dense hydrous magnesium silicates (DHMS) stable at elevated pressures and temperatures. The other involves nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) that contain hydrogen as a minor constituent on the ppm level. Experimental studies on DHMS indicate these phases may be stable to pressures and temperatures as high at 16 GPa and 1200 C. This temperature is lower than that indicated by a mantle geotherm at 16 GPa, but may be reasonable for a subducting slab. It is possible that other DHMS could be stable to even higher pressures, but little is known about maximum temperature limits. For NAM, small amounts of hydrogen (up to several hundred ppm) have been detected in olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and garnet recovered from xenoliths in kimberlites, eclogites, and alkali basalts; it has been demonstrated that synthetic wadsleyite and perovskite can accommodate significant amounts of hydrogen. A number of problems are associated with each possibility. For NAM originating in the mantle, one would like to assume that the hydrogen measured in samples recovered on Earth's surface was incorporated when the phase-crystallized at high temperatures and pressures, but it could have been introduced during transport to the surface. Major problems for the DHMS proponents are that none of these phases have been found as minerals and little is yet known about their stabilities in systems containing other cations such as Fe, Al, and Ca.

  15. Bringing the environment down to earth. (United States)

    Reinhardt, F L


    The debate on business and the environment has typically been framed in simple yes-or-no terms: "Does it pay to be green?" But the environment, like other business issues, requires a more complex approach--one that demands more than such all-or-nothing thinking. Managers need to ask instead, "Under what circumstances do particular kinds of environmental investments deliver returns to shareholders?" This article presents five approaches that managers can take to identify those circumstances and integrate the environment into their business thinking. These approaches will enable companies with the right industry structure, competitive position, and managerial skills to reconcile their responsibility to shareholders with the pressure to be faithful stewards of the earth's resources. Some companies can distance themselves from competitors by differentiating their products and commanding higher prices for them. Others may be able to "manage" their competitors by imposing a set of private regulations or by helping to shape the rules written by government officials. Still others may be able to cut costs and help the environment simultaneously. Almost all can learn to improve their management of risk and thus reduce the outlays associated with accidents, lawsuits, and boycotts. And some companies may even be able to make systemic changes that will redefine competition in their markets. All five approaches can help managers bring the environment down to earth. And that means bringing the environment back into the fold of business problems and determining when it really pays to be green.

  16. Carbon dioxide warming of the early Earth (United States)

    Arrhenius, G.


    Svante Arrhenius' research in atmospheric physics extended beyond the recent past and the near future states of the Earth, which today are at the center of sociopolitical attention. His plan encompassed all of the physical phenomena known at the time to relate to the formation and evolution of stars and planets. His two-volume textbook on cosmic physics is a comprehensive synopsis of the field. The inquiry into the possible cause of the ice ages and the theory of selective wavelength filter control led Arrhenius to consider the surface states of the other terrestrial planets, and of the ancient Earth before it had been modified by the emergence of life. The rapid escape of hydrogen and the equilibration with igneous rocks required that carbon in the early atmosphere prevailed mainly in oxidized form as carbon dioxide, together with other photoactive gases exerting a greenhouse effect orders of magnitude larger than in our present atmosphere. This effect, together with the ensuing chemical processes, would have set the conditions for life to evolve on our planet, seeded from spores spreading through an infinite Universe, and propelled, as Arrhenius thought, by stellar radiation pressure.

  17. Tire Shred Backfill in Mechanically Stabilized Earth Wall Applications


    Balunaini, Umashankar; Yoon, Sungmin; Prezzi, Monica; Salgado, Rodrigo


    Tire shred-soil mixture backfill for use in mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls has several advantages over traditional backfill materials: 1) good drainage, 2) high shear strength, 3) low compacted unit weight and 4) low lateral pressure exerted on retaining structures. This work presents the results of laboratory tests performed on tire shred-sand mixtures focusing on determining the properties required for their use as backfill in MSE wall applications. Three sizes of tire shreds are...

  18. Children's knowledge of the Earth (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Nobes, Gavin; Panagiotaki, Georgia


    Children everywhere are fascinated by the sky, stars and Sun. Emerging evidence from cultures throughout the world suggests that even young children can acquire knowledge of the Earth and its place in the Universe.

  19. Encyclopedia of earth system science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nierenberg, William Aaron


    .... The very diversity of the articles attests to the complexity of earth system science as a unique interdisciplinary venture to place humanity in a position to move wisely to protect the global habitat...

  20. Measuring Earth's Magnetic Field Simply. (United States)

    Stewart, Gay B.


    Describes a method for measuring the earth's magnetic field using an empty toilet paper tube, copper wire, clear tape, a battery, a linear variable resistor, a small compass, cardboard, a protractor, and an ammeter. (WRM)

  1. Earth Science Education in Morocco (United States)

    Bouabdelli, Mohamed


    The earth sciences are taught in twelve universities in Morocco and in three other institutions. In addition there are three more earth science research institutions. Earth science teaching has been taking place since 1957. The degree system is a four-year degree, split into two two-year blocks and geology is taught within the geology-biology programme for the first part of the degree. 'Classical' geology is taught in most universities, although applied geology degrees are also on offer in some universities. Recently-formed technical universities offer a more innovative approach to Earth Science Education. Teaching is in French, although school education is in Arabic. There is a need for a reform of the curriculum, although a lead is being taken by the technical universities. A new geological mapping programme promises new geological and mining discoveries in the country and prospects of employment for geology graduates.

  2. The Search for Another Earth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    /fulltext/reso/021/07/0641-0652. Keywords. Stars, planets, planetary systems, detection. Abstract. Is there life anywhere else in the vast cosmos?Are there planets similar to the Earth? For centuries,these questions baffled ...

  3. Earth Charter and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grippi, Sidney


    The chapter presents Earth Charter, where are listed the principles in 4 sections: 1) respect and take care of the life community; 2) environmental integrity; social and economic welfare; 4) democracy, no-violence and peace

  4. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.


    NASA's Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Program has evolved over the last two decades, and currently has several core and community components. Core components provide the basic operational capabilities to process, archive, manage and distribute data from NASA missions. Community components provide a path for peer-reviewed research in Earth Science Informatics to feed into the evolution of the core components. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a core component consisting of twelve Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and eight Science Investigator-led Processing Systems spread across the U.S. The presentation covers how the ESDS Program continues to evolve and benefits from as well as contributes to advances in Earth Science Informatics.

  5. A umbrella for the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunzig, R.


    In front of the global warming threat, the 'geo-engineers' foresee some solutions to change the climate of the Earth, like for instance, by hiding part of the solar radiation. Among the solutions one can notice: the injection of sulfur dioxide in the stratosphere, the artificial generation of clouds using sea fog generators, or the putting into orbit of disc-shape screens creating a 100000 km x 12000 km elliptical 'umbrella' between the sun and the Earth. (J.S.)

  6. Rare earth industries: Downstream business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The value chain of the rare earths business involves mining, extraction, processing, refining and the manufacture of an extensive range of downstream products which find wide applications in such industries including aerospace, consumer electronics, medical, military, automotive, renewable wind and solar energy and telecommunications. In fact the entire gamut of the high-tech industries depends on a sustainable supply of rare earths elements. The explosive demand in mobile phones is an excellent illustration of the massive potential that the rare earths business offers. In a matter of less than 20 years, the number of cell phones worldwide has reached a staggering 5 billion. Soon, going by the report of their growth in sales, the world demand for cell phones may even exceed the global population. Admittedly, the rare earths business does pose certain risks. Top among the risks are the health and safety risks. The mining, extraction and refining of rare earths produce residues and wastes which carry health and safety risks. The residues from the extraction and refining are radioactive, while their effluent waste streams do pose pollution risks to the receiving rivers and waterways. But, as clearly elaborated in a recent report by IAEA experts, there are technologies and systems available to efficiently mitigate such risks. The risks are Rare Earth manageable. However, it is crucial that the risk and waste management procedures are strictly followed and adhered to. This is where effective monitoring and surveillance throughout the life of all such rare earths facilities is crucial. Fortunately, Malaysia's regulatory standards on rare earths follow international standards. In some areas, Malaysia's regulatory regime is even more stringent than the international guidelines. (author)

  7. Rare earth metal alloy magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, I.R.; Evans, J.M.; Nyholm, P.S.


    This invention relates to rare earth metal alloy magnets and to methods for their production. The technique is based on the fact that rare earth metal alloys (for e.g. cerium or yttrium) which have been crumbled to form a powder by hydride formation and decomposition can be used for the fabrication of magnets without the disadvantages inherent in alloy particle size reduction by mechanical milling. (UK)

  8. Rare-earth elements (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Seal, Robert R.; Long, Keith R.; Gambogi, Joseph; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.


    The rare-earth elements (REEs) are 15 elements that range in atomic number from 57 (lanthanum) to 71 (lutetium); they are commonly referred to as the “lanthanides.” Yttrium (atomic number 39) is also commonly regarded as an REE because it shares chemical and physical similarities and has affinities with the lanthanides. Although REEs are not rare in terms of average crustal abundance, the concentrated deposits of REEs are limited in number.Because of their unusual physical and chemical properties, the REEs have diverse defense, energy, industrial, and military technology applications. The glass industry is the leading consumer of REE raw materials, which are used for glass polishing and as additives that provide color and special optical properties to the glass. Lanthanum-based catalysts are used in petroleum refining, and cerium-based catalysts are used in automotive catalytic converters. The use of REEs in magnets is a rapidly increasing application. Neodymium-iron-boron magnets, which are the strongest known type of magnets, are used when space and weight are restrictions. Nickel-metal hydride batteries use anodes made of a lanthanum-based alloys.China, which has led the world production of REEs for decades, accounted for more than 90 percent of global production and supply, on average, during the past decade. Citing a need to retain its limited REE resources to meet domestic requirements as well as concerns about the environmental effects of mining, China began placing restrictions on the supply of REEs in 2010 through the imposition of quotas, licenses, and taxes. As a result, the global rare-earth industry has increased its stockpiling of REEs; explored for deposits outside of China; and promoted new efforts to conserve, recycle, and substitute for REEs. New mine production began at Mount Weld in Western Australia, and numerous other exploration and development projects noted in this chapter are ongoing throughout the world.The REE-bearing minerals are

  9. Thermo-hydraulic design of earth-air heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paepe, M. de [Ghent University (Belgium). Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics; Janssens, A. [Ghent University (Belgium). Department of Architecture and Urbanism


    Earth-air heat exchangers, also called ground tube heat exchangers, are an interesting technique to reduce energy consumption in a building. They can cool or heat the ventilation air, using cold or heat accumulated in the soil. Several papers have been published in which a design method is described. Most of them are based on a discretisation of the one-dimensional heat transfer problem in the tube. Three-dimensional complex models, solving conduction and moisture transport in the soil are also found. These methods are of high complexity and often not ready for use by designers. In this paper, a one-dimensional analytical method is used to analyse the influence of the design parameters of the heat exchanger on the thermo-hydraulic performance. A relation is derived for the specific pressure drop, linking thermal effectiveness with pressure drop of the air inside the tube. The relation is used to formulate a design method which can be used to determine the characteristic dimensions of the earth-air heat exchanger in such a way that optimal thermal effectiveness is reached with acceptable pressure loss. The choice of the characteristic dimensions, becomes thus independent of the soil and climatological conditions. This allows designers to choose the earth-air heat exchanger configuration with the best performance. (author)

  10. Thermo-hydraulic design of earth-air heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Paepe, M. [Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Janssens, A. [Department of Architecture and Urbanism, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)


    Earth-air heat exchangers, also called ground tube heat exchangers, are an interesting technique to reduce energy consumption in a building. They can cool or heat the ventilation air, using cold or heat accumulated in the soil. Several papers have been published in which a design method is described. Most of them are based on a discretisation of the one-dimensional heat transfer problem in the tube. Three-dimensional complex models, solving conduction and moisture transport in the soil are also found. These methods are of high complexity and often not ready for use by designers. In this paper, a one-dimensional analytical method is used to analyse the influence of the design parameters of the heat exchanger on the thermo-hydraulic performance. A relation is derived for the specific pressure drop, linking thermal effectiveness with pressure drop of the air inside the tube. The relation is used to formulate a design method which can be used to determine the characteristic dimensions of the earth-air heat exchanger in such a way that optimal thermal effectiveness is reached with acceptable pressure loss. The choice of the characteristic dimensions, becomes thus independent of the soil and climatological conditions. This allows designers to choose the earth-air heat exchanger configuration with the best performance. (author)

  11. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.


    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a ''demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a ''satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change

  12. Next-generation Digital Earth. (United States)

    Goodchild, Michael F; Guo, Huadong; Annoni, Alessandro; Bian, Ling; de Bie, Kees; Campbell, Frederick; Craglia, Max; Ehlers, Manfred; van Genderen, John; Jackson, Davina; Lewis, Anthony J; Pesaresi, Martino; Remetey-Fülöpp, Gábor; Simpson, Richard; Skidmore, Andrew; Wang, Changlin; Woodgate, Peter


    A speech of then-Vice President Al Gore in 1998 created a vision for a Digital Earth, and played a role in stimulating the development of a first generation of virtual globes, typified by Google Earth, that achieved many but not all the elements of this vision. The technical achievements of Google Earth, and the functionality of this first generation of virtual globes, are reviewed against the Gore vision. Meanwhile, developments in technology continue, the era of "big data" has arrived, the general public is more and more engaged with technology through citizen science and crowd-sourcing, and advances have been made in our scientific understanding of the Earth system. However, although Google Earth stimulated progress in communicating the results of science, there continue to be substantial barriers in the public's access to science. All these factors prompt a reexamination of the initial vision of Digital Earth, and a discussion of the major elements that should be part of a next generation.

  13. Detecting solar chameleons through radiation pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Baum, Sebastian


    Light scalar fields can drive accelerated expansion of the universe. Hence, scalars are obvious dark energy candidates. To make these models compatible with test of General Relativity in the solar system and fifth force searches on earth, one needs to screen them. One possibility is the chameleon mechanism, which renders an effective mass depending on the local energy density. If chameleons exist, they can be produced in the sun and detected on earth through their radiation pressure. We calculate the solar chameleon spectrum and the sensitivity of an experiment to be carried out at CAST, CERN, utilizing a radiation pressure sensor currently under development at INFN, Trieste. We show that such an experiment will be sensitive to a wide range of model parameters and signifies a pioneering effort searching for chameleons in unprobed paramterspace.

  14. Detecting solar chameleons through radiation pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Baum, S.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Karuza, M.; Semertzidis, Y.K.; Upadhye, A.; Zioutas, K.


    Light scalar fields can drive the accelerated expansion of the universe. Hence, they are obvious dark energy candidates. To make such models compatible with tests of General Relativity in the solar system and "fifth force" searches on Earth, one needs to screen them. One possibility is the so-called "chameleon" mechanism, which renders an effective mass depending on the local matter density. If chameleon particles exist, they can be produced in the sun and detected on earth exploiting the equivalent of a radiation pressure. Since their effective mass scales with the local matter density, chameleons can be reflected by a dense medium if their effective mass becomes greater than their total energy. Thus, under appropriate conditions, a flux of solar chameleons may be sensed by detecting the total instantaneous momentum transferred to a suitable opto-mechanical force/pressure sensor. We calculate the solar chameleon spectrum and the reach in the chameleon parameter space of an experiment using the preliminary re...

  15. Organic chemistry in a CO2 rich early Earth atmosphere (United States)

    Fleury, Benjamin; Carrasco, Nathalie; Millan, Maëva; Vettier, Ludovic; Szopa, Cyril


    The emergence of life on the Earth has required a prior organic chemistry leading to the formation of prebiotic molecules. The origin and the evolution of the organic matter on the early Earth is not yet firmly understood. Several hypothesis, possibly complementary, are considered. They can be divided in two categories: endogenous and exogenous sources. In this work we investigate the contribution of a specific endogenous source: the organic chemistry occurring in the ionosphere of the early Earth where the significant VUV contribution of the young Sun involved an efficient formation of reactive species. We address the issue whether this chemistry can lead to the formation of complex organic compounds with CO2 as only source of carbon in an early atmosphere made of N2, CO2 and H2, by mimicking experimentally this type of chemistry using a low pressure plasma reactor. By analyzing the gaseous phase composition, we strictly identified the formation of H2O, NH3, N2O and C2N2. The formation of a solid organic phase is also observed, confirming the possibility to trigger organic chemistry in the upper atmosphere of the early Earth. The identification of Nitrogen-bearing chemical functions in the solid highlights the possibility for an efficient ionospheric chemistry to provide prebiotic material on the early Earth.

  16. Rare earths as a future resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornell, D.H.


    The fourteen rare earth or lanthanide elements have recently emerged as an important natural resource because of the rapidly growing demand in the electronic, chemical and metallurgical industries. The Symposium on rare earth elements as a future resource presented a multidisciplinary review of rare earth chemistry, geology, beneficiation, industrial applications and marketing. Papers by experts in many fields were presented on the following topics: chemical properties of the rare earth elements; the analysis of rare earth elements and minerals; beneficiation and extraction of rare earth elements; economic geochemistry and mineralogy of rare earths; present industrial uses of rare earth elements; the role of rare earth elements in high-temperature superconductors; the technical application of high-temperature superconductors; supply and demand for rare earth products - now and in the future, and the geology of rare earth deposits

  17. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region (United States)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus


    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  18. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... play_arrow What is "sepsis," and why is it dangerous? play_arrow How common are pressure sores ... likely to develop pressure sores? play_arrow Is it true that a pressure sore can develop in ...

  19. High Blood Pressure (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  20. High Blood Pressure Facts (United States)

    ... Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Top of Page CDC Fact Sheets Related to High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Pulmonary Hypertension Heart Disease Signs ...

  1. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  2. Broadening the Participation of Native Americans in Earth Science (United States)

    Bueno Watts, Nievita

    Climate change is not a thing of the future. Indigenous people are being affected by climate changes now. Native American Earth scientists could help Native communities deal with both climate change and environmental pollution issues, but are noticeably lacking in Earth Science degree programs. The Earth Sciences produce the lowest percentage of minority scientists when compared with other science and engineering fields. Twenty semi-structured interviews were gathered from American Indian/ Alaska Native Earth Scientists and program directors who work directly with Native students to broaden participation in the field. Data was analyzed using qualitative methods and constant comparison analysis. Barriers Native students faced in this field are discussed, as well as supports which go the furthest in assisting achievement of higher education goals. Program directors give insight into building pathways and programs to encourage Native student participation and success in Earth Science degree programs. Factors which impede obtaining a college degree include financial barriers, pressures from familial obligations, and health issues. Factors which impede the decision to study Earth Science include unfamiliarity with geoscience as a field of study and career choice, the uninviting nature of Earth Science as a profession, and curriculum that is irrelevant to the practical needs of Native communities or courses which are inaccessible geographically. Factors which impede progress that are embedded in Earth Science programs include educational preparation, academic information and counseling and the prevalence of a Western scientific perspective to the exclusion of all other perspectives. Intradepartmental relationships also pose barriers to the success of some students, particularly those who are non-traditional students (53%) or women (80%). Factors which support degree completion include financial assistance, mentors and mentoring, and research experiences. Earth scientists

  3. Towards Big Earth Data Analytics: The EarthServer Approach (United States)

    Baumann, Peter


    Big Data in the Earth sciences, the Tera- to Exabyte archives, mostly are made up from coverage data whereby the term "coverage", according to ISO and OGC, is defined as the digital representation of some space-time varying phenomenon. Common examples include 1-D sensor timeseries, 2-D remote sensing imagery, 3D x/y/t image timeseries and x/y/z geology data, and 4-D x/y/z/t atmosphere and ocean data. Analytics on such data requires on-demand processing of sometimes significant complexity, such as getting the Fourier transform of satellite images. As network bandwidth limits prohibit transfer of such Big Data it is indispensable to devise protocols allowing clients to task flexible and fast processing on the server. The EarthServer initiative, funded by EU FP7 eInfrastructures, unites 11 partners from computer and earth sciences to establish Big Earth Data Analytics. One key ingredient is flexibility for users to ask what they want, not impeded and complicated by system internals. The EarthServer answer to this is to use high-level query languages; these have proven tremendously successful on tabular and XML data, and we extend them with a central geo data structure, multi-dimensional arrays. A second key ingredient is scalability. Without any doubt, scalability ultimately can only be achieved through parallelization. In the past, parallelizing code has been done at compile time and usually with manual intervention. The EarthServer approach is to perform a samentic-based dynamic distribution of queries fragments based on networks optimization and further criteria. The EarthServer platform is comprised by rasdaman, an Array DBMS enabling efficient storage and retrieval of any-size, any-type multi-dimensional raster data. In the project, rasdaman is being extended with several functionality and scalability features, including: support for irregular grids and general meshes; in-situ retrieval (evaluation of database queries on existing archive structures, avoiding data

  4. The stabilization of the highest oxidation states of transition metals under oxygen pressures: TlNiO sub 3 , a new Ni(III) perovskite - comparison of the electronic properties with those of TNiO sub 3 (T = rare earth and Y)

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, S J; Presniakov, I


    The crystal structure and the magnetic properties of TlNiO sub 3 have been characterized and compared with those of TNiO sub 3 (T = rare earth and Y). The electronic structure of Ni(III) has been investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Through these analyses, the effects of the A-site ion on structural distortion, magnetic behaviour and electronic structure of Ni(III) in a perovskite have been discussed.

  5. Rare earth industry in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.S.


    Rare Earths (RE) comprises of 17 elements i.e. elements from atomic No. 57-71 (lanthanide series) along with yttrium (atomic No. 39) and scandium (atomic No. 21). They exhibit special electronic, magnetic, optical and catalytic properties. The first 7 elements in the lanthanide series from atomic Nos. 57 to 63 (La to Eu) are called Light Rare Earths (LRE), while the remaining elements from atomic Nos. 64 to 71 (Gd to Lu) are grouped as Heavy Rare Earths (HRE). Scandium and Yttrium have properties similar to HRE. The concentration of the REs in the earth's crust is as high as some other elements including that of copper. The only difference is that REs do not occur as separate minerals amenable for easy exploration and mining and are widely distributed across the earth's surface, hence they are called as REs. Resources In India, monazite has been the principal source of RE. It occurs in association with other heavy minerals, such as ilmenite, rutile, zircon etc. in the beach sands and inland placer deposits. The monazite content in this assemblage varies from negligible quantity to as high as 5%. As per AMD resource estimation, the reported resource of monazite in India is about 11.93 million tons which corresponds with about 6.9 million tons of RE oxides. Although India possesses large deposits of monazite, the heavier RE are not present in sufficient quantities in this mineral. (author)

  6. Smarter Earth Science Data System (United States)

    Huang, Thomas


    The explosive growth in Earth observational data in the recent decade demands a better method of interoperability across heterogeneous systems. The Earth science data system community has mastered the art in storing large volume of observational data, but it is still unclear how this traditional method scale over time as we are entering the age of Big Data. Indexed search solutions such as Apache Solr (Smiley and Pugh, 2011) provides fast, scalable search via keyword or phases without any reasoning or inference. The modern search solutions such as Googles Knowledge Graph (Singhal, 2012) and Microsoft Bing, all utilize semantic reasoning to improve its accuracy in searches. The Earth science user community is demanding for an intelligent solution to help them finding the right data for their researches. The Ontological System for Context Artifacts and Resources (OSCAR) (Huang et al., 2012), was created in response to the DARPA Adaptive Vehicle Make (AVM) programs need for an intelligent context models management system to empower its terrain simulation subsystem. The core component of OSCAR is the Environmental Context Ontology (ECO) is built using the Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) (Raskin and Pan, 2005). This paper presents the current data archival methodology within a NASA Earth science data centers and discuss using semantic web to improve the way we capture and serve data to our users.

  7. High pressure structural studies on nanophase praseodymium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saranya, L.; Chandra Shekar, N.V.; Amirthapandian, S.; Hussain, Shamima; Arulraj, A.; Sahu, P. Ch.


    The phase stability of nanocrystalline Pr 2 O 3 has been investigated under pressure by in-situ high pressure X-ray diffraction using Mao-Bell type diamond anvil cell. The ambient structure and phase of the praseodymium oxide have been resolved unambiguously using x-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM techniques. Under the action of pressure the cubic phase of the system is retained up to 15 GPa. This is unusual as other isostructural rare earth oxides show structural transformations even at lower pressures. From the best fit to the P–V data with the Murnaghan equation of state yields a bulk modulus of 171 GPa

  8. A Cloud Top Pressure Algorithm for DSCOVR-EPIC (United States)

    Min, Q.; Morgan, E. C.; Yang, Y.; Marshak, A.; Davis, A. B.


    The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) sensor on the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) satellite presents unique opportunities to derive cloud properties of the entire daytime Earth. In particular, the Oxygen A- and B-band and corresponding reference channels provide cloud top pressure information. In order to address the in-cloud penetration depth issue—and ensuing retrieval bias—a comprehensive sensitivity study has been conducted to simulate satellite-observed radiances for a wide variety of cloud structures and optical properties. Based on this sensitivity study, a cloud top pressure algorithm for DSCOVR-EPIC has been developed. Further, the algorithm has been applied to EPIC measurements.

  9. Multiple shell pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedellsborg, B.W.


    A method is described of fabricating a pressure vessel comprising the steps of: attaching a first inner pressure vessel having means defining inlet and outlet openings to a top flange, placing a second inner pressure vessel, having means defining inlet and outlet opening, concentric with and spaced about the first inner pressure vessel and attaching the second inner pressure vessel to the top flange, placing an outer pressure vessel, having inlet and outlet openings, concentric with and spaced apart about the second inner pressure vessel and attaching the outer pressure vessel to the top flange, attaching a generally cylindrical inner inlet conduit and a generally cylindrical inner outlet conduit respectively to the inlet and outlet openings in the first inner pressure vessel, attaching a generally cylindrical outer inlet conduit and a generally cylindrical outer outlet conduit respectively to the inlet and outlet opening in the second inner pressure vessel, heating the assembled pressure vessel to a temperature above the melting point of a material selected from the group, lead, tin, antimony, bismuth, potassium, sodium, boron and mixtures thereof, filling the space between the first inner pressure vessel and the second inner pressure vessel with material selected from the group, filling the space between the second inner pressure vessel and the outer pressure vessel with material selected from the group, and pressurizing the material filling the spaces between the pressure vessels to a predetermined pressure, the step comprising: pressurizing the spaces to a pressure whereby the wall of the first inner pressure vessel is maintained in compression during steady state operation of the pressure vessel

  10. Revolutions that made the earth

    CERN Document Server

    Lenton, Tim


    The Earth that sustains us today was born out of a few remarkable, near-catastrophic revolutions, started by biological innovations and marked by global environmental consequences. The revolutions have certain features in common, such as an increase in the complexity, energy utilization, and information processing capabilities of life. This book describes these revolutions, showing the fundamental interdependence of the evolution of life and its non-living environment. We would not exist unless these upheavals had led eventually to 'successful' outcomes - meaning that after each one, at length, a new stable world emerged. The current planet-reshaping activities of our species may be the start of another great Earth system revolution, but there is no guarantee that this one will be successful. This book explains what a successful transition through it might look like, if we are wise enough to steer such a course. This book places humanity in context as part of the Earth system, using a new scientific synthe...

  11. Universities Earth System Scientists Program (United States)

    Estes, John E.


    This document constitutes the final technical report for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Grant NAGW-3172. This grant was instituted to provide for the conduct of research under the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA's) Universities Earth System Scientist Program (UESSP) for the Office of Mission to Planet Earth (OMTPE) at NASA Headquarters. USRA was tasked with the following requirements in support of the Universities Earth System Scientists Programs: (1) Bring to OMTPE fundamental scientific and technical expertise not currently resident at NASA Headquarters covering the broad spectrum of Earth science disciplines; (2) Conduct basic research in order to help establish the state of the science and technological readiness, related to NASA issues and requirements, for the following, near-term, scientific uncertainties, and data/information needs in the areas of global climate change, clouds and radiative balance, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and the processes that control them, solid earth, oceans, polar ice sheets, land-surface hydrology, ecological dynamics, biological diversity, and sustainable development; (3) Evaluate the scientific state-of-the-field in key selected areas and to assist in the definition of new research thrusts for missions, including those that would incorporate the long-term strategy of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). This will, in part, be accomplished by study and evaluation of the basic science needs of the community as they are used to drive the development and maintenance of a global-scale observing system, the focused research studies, and the implementation of an integrated program of modeling, prediction, and assessment; and (4) Produce specific recommendations and alternative strategies for OMTPE that can serve as a basis for interagency and national and international policy on issues related to Earth sciences.

  12. Physical Processes Controlling Earth's Climate (United States)

    Genio, Anthony Del


    As background for consideration of the climates of the other terrestrial planets in our solar system and the potential habitability of rocky exoplanets, we discuss the basic physics that controls the Earths present climate, with particular emphasis on the energy and water cycles. We define several dimensionless parameters relevant to characterizing a planets general circulation, climate and hydrological cycle. We also consider issues associated with the use of past climate variations as indicators of future anthropogenically forced climate change, and recent advances in understanding projections of future climate that might have implications for Earth-like exoplanets.

  13. Setting to earth for computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego V, Luis Eduardo; Montana Ch, Johny Hernan; Tovar P, Andres Fernando; Amortegui, Francisco


    The program GMT allows the analysis of setting to earth for tensions DC and AC (of low frequency) of diverse configurations composed by cylindrical electrodes interconnected, in a homogeneous land or stratified (two layers). This analysis understands among other aspects: calculation of the setting resistance to earth, elevation of potential of the system (GPR), calculation of current densities in the conductors, potentials calculation in which point on the land surface (profile and surfaces), tensions calculation in passing and of contact, also, it carries out the interpretation of resistivity measures for Wenner and Schlumberger methods, finding a model of two layers

  14. Rare earths and rare earth alloys electrolytic preparation process and device for this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seon, F.; Barthole, G.


    Electrolysis of a molten salt of rare earth or rare earth alloy for preparation of the metal or alloy is described. The molten salt bath comprises at least a rare earth chloride, at least an alkaline or alkaline earth chloride and at least an alkaline or alkaline earth fluoride [fr

  15. Applications of liquid state physics to the earth's core (United States)

    Stevenson, D. J.


    New results derived for application to the earth's outer core using the modern theory of liquids and the hard-sphere model of liquid structure are presented. An expression derived in terms of the incompressibility and pressure is valid for a high-pressure liquid near its melting point, provided that the pressure is derived from a strongly repulsive pair potential; a relation derived between the melting point and density leads to a melting curve law of essentially the same form as Lindemann's law. Finally, it is shown that the 'core paradox' of Higgins and Kennedy (1971) can occur only if the Gruneisen parameter is smaller than 2/3, and this constant is larger than this value in any liquid for which the pair potential is strongly repulsive.

  16. Early Earth(s) Across Time and Space (United States)

    Mojzsis, S.


    The geochemical and cosmochemical record of our solar system is the baseline for exploring the question: "when could life appear on a world similar to our own?" Data arising from direct analysis of the oldest terrestrial rocks and minerals from the first 500 Myr of Earth history - termed the Hadean Eon - inform us about the timing for the establishment of a habitable silicate world. Liquid water is the key medium for life. The origin of water, and its interaction with the crust as revealed in the geologic record, guides our exploration for a cosmochemically Earth-like planets. From the time of primary planetary accretion to the start of the continuous rock record on Earth at ca. 3850 million years ago, our planet experienced a waning bolide flux that partially or entirely wiped out surface rocks, vaporized oceans, and created transient serpentinizing atmospheres. Arguably, "Early Earths" across the galaxy may start off as ice planets due to feeble insolation from their young stars, occasionally punctuated by steam atmospheres generated by cataclysmic impacts. Alternatively, early global environments conducive to life spanned from a benign surface zone to deep into crustal rocks and sediments. In some scenarios, nascent biospheres benefit from the exogenous delivery of essential bio-elements via leftovers of accretion, and the subsequent establishment of planetary-scale hydrothermal systems. If what is now known about the early dynamical regime of the Earth serves as any measure of the potential habitability of worlds across space and time, several key boundary conditions emerge. These are: (i) availability and long-term stability of liquid water; (ii) presence of energy resources; (iii) accessibility of organic raw materials; (iv) adequate inventory of radioisotopes to drive internal heating; (v) gross compositional parameters such as mantle/core mass ratio, and (vi) P-T conditions at or near the surface suitable for sustaining biological activity. Life could

  17. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth / For Teens / Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) What's ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  18. The theory of Earth constructed by the method of full energy minimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, B.V.


    The problem of whether the appearance of electrical polarization of the core of a planet can be energetically advantageous is discussed. It is shown that for the Earth, this is energetically advantageous if it is connected with metallizing of the core and is accompanied by a pressure and density jump on the core-mantle interface. This makes is possible to construct an intrinsic self-consistent theory of the Earth. The calculate density distributions, the moment of inertia, and the magnetic moment of the Earth evaluated in the framework of the discussed theory are in a agreement with measurement results

  19. Confining pressure effects on stress intensity factors: A 3D finite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . MRM Aliha, MR Ayatollahi, MMS Mousavi. Abstract. At great depths of earth, fracture in rock masses occurs under the influence of confining pressure. However, most of the previous rock fracture studies deal only with ambient conditions and ...

  20. Near-Earth asteroids: Metals occurrence, extraction, and fabrication (United States)

    Westfall, Richard

    Near-earth asteroids occur in three principle types of orbits: Amor, Apollo, and Aten. Amor asteroids make relatively close (within 0.3 AU) approaches to the earth's orbit, but do not actually overlap it. Apollo asteroids spend most of their time outside the earth's orbital path, but at some point of close approach to the sun, they cross the orbit of the earth. Aten asteroids are those whose orbits remain inside the earth's path for the majority of their time, with semi-major axes less than 0.1 AU. Near-earth orbit asteroids include: stones, stony-irons, irons, carbonaceous, and super-carbonaceous. Metals within these asteroids include: iron, nickel, cobalt, the platinum group, aluminum, titanium, and others. Focus is on the extraction of ferrous and platinum group metals from the stony-iron asteroids, and the iron asteroids. Extraction of the metal fraction can be accomplished through the use of tunnel-boring-machines (TBM) in the case of the stony-irons. The metals within the story-iron asteroids occur as dispersed granules, which can be separated from the stony fraction through magnetic and gaseous digestion separation techniques. The metal asteroids are processes by drilling and gaseous digestion or by gaseous digestion alone. Manufacturing of structures, housings, framing networks, pressure vessels, mirrors, and other products is accomplished through the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of metal coating on advanced composites and on the inside of contour-defining inflatables (CDI). Metal coatings on advanced composites provide: resistance to degradation in the hostile environments of space; superior optical properties; superior heat dissipation; service as wear coatings; and service as evidential coatings. Metal coatings on the inside of CDI produce metal load-bearing products. Fibers such as graphite, kevlar, glass, ceramic, metal, etc., can be incorporated in the metal coatings on the inside of CDI producing metal matrix products which exhibit high strength

  1. Magnetic Partitioning Nanofluid for Rare Earth Extraction from Geothermal Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrail, Bernard P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thallapally, Praveen K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nune, Satish K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Rare earth metals are critical materials in a wide variety of applications in generating and storing renewable energy and in designing more energy efficient devices. Extracting rare earth metals from geothermal brines is a very challenging problem due to the low concentrations of these elements and engineering challenges with traditional chemical separations methods involving packed sorbent beds or membranes that would impede large volumetric flow rates of geothermal fluids transitioning through the plant. We are demonstrating a simple and highly cost-effective nanofluid-based method for extracting rare earth metals from geothermal brines. Core-shell composite nanoparticles are produced that contain a magnetic iron oxide core surrounded by a shell made of silica or metal-organic framework (MOF) sorbent functionalized with chelating ligands selective for the rare earth elements. By introducing the nanoparticles at low concentration (≈0.05 wt%) into the geothermal brine after it passes through the plant heat exchanger, the brine is exposed to a very high concentration of chelating sites on the nanoparticles without need to pass through a large and costly traditional packed bed or membrane system where pressure drop and parasitic pumping power losses are significant issues. Instead, after a short residence time flowing with the brine, the particles are effectively separated out with an electromagnet and standard extraction methods are then applied to strip the rare earth metals from the nanoparticles, which are then recycled back to the geothermal plant. Recovery efficiency for the rare earths at ppm level has now been measured for both silica and MOF sorbents functionalized with a variety of chelating ligands. A detailed preliminary techno-economic performance analysis of extraction systems using both sorbents showed potential to generate a promising internal rate of return (IRR) up to 20%.

  2. Separation method for rare-earths using high-voltage electrophoresis on paper strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarence, J.


    The equipment includes an electrophoresis set running at 3 000 V and 20 mA. Two cooling plates are used as heat exchanger, and a pneumatic pressure device to insure an uniform pressure on the paper strip laid flat. The mobilities and the separations of the rare earths in lactic, and, α hydroxy-isobutyric acid solutions are investigated on cellulose acetate strip. Better results are obtained with α hydroxy-isobutyric acid. The method is rapid and allows a fine fractionation of rare earth elements within less than an hour. A complete separation of a Ce - Pr - Nd - Pm - Eu mixture, and a Y - Tb mixture is obtained. (author) [fr

  3. High Pressure X-ray Absorption Studies on Correlated-Electron Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelius, Andrew L.


    This project used high pressure to alter the electron-electron and electron-lattice interactions in rare earth and actinide compounds. Knowledge of these properties is the starting points for a first-principles understanding of electronic and electronically related macroscopic properties. The research focused on a systematic study of x-ray absorption measurements on rare earth and actinide compounds.

  4. The Greatest Show on Earth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace: life on earth had evolved ... over long epochs, the pace of change was infinitesimal. ... Thanks to the work of the Japanese theoreti- cian Motoo ... pleasure-minus-expenditure balance is posi- tive. This way of ...

  5. Earth Day 2012: Greening Government

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast describes sustainability efforts at CDC in relation to Earth Day celebrations and details agency greenhouse gas reduction strategies and successes.  Created: 4/19/2012 by Office of the Chief Operating Officer (OCOO)/ Chief Sustainability Office (CSO).   Date Released: 4/23/2012.

  6. NASA Earth Science Education Collaborative (United States)

    Schwerin, T. G.; Callery, S.; Chambers, L. H.; Riebeek Kohl, H.; Taylor, J.; Martin, A. M.; Ferrell, T.


    The NASA Earth Science Education Collaborative (NESEC) is led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies with partners at three NASA Earth science Centers: Goddard Space Flight Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Langley Research Center. This cross-organization team enables the project to draw from the diverse skills, strengths, and expertise of each partner to develop fresh and innovative approaches for building pathways between NASA's Earth-related STEM assets to large, diverse audiences in order to enhance STEM teaching, learning and opportunities for learners throughout their lifetimes. These STEM assets include subject matter experts (scientists, engineers, and education specialists), science and engineering content, and authentic participatory and experiential opportunities. Specific project activities include authentic STEM experiences through NASA Earth science themed field campaigns and citizen science as part of international GLOBE program (for elementary and secondary school audiences) and GLOBE Observer (non-school audiences of all ages); direct connections to learners through innovative collaborations with partners like Odyssey of the Mind, an international creative problem-solving and design competition; and organizing thematic core content and strategically working with external partners and collaborators to adapt and disseminate core content to support the needs of education audiences (e.g., libraries and maker spaces, student research projects, etc.). A scaffolded evaluation is being conducted that 1) assesses processes and implementation, 2) answers formative evaluation questions in order to continuously improve the project; 3) monitors progress and 4) measures outcomes.

  7. Studying the Earth from space (United States)



    Space age technology contains a key to increased knowledge about the Earth's resources; this key is remote sensing detecting the nature or condition of something without actually touching it. An early and still most useful form of remote sensing is photography which records the

  8. A journey through Earth climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramstein, Gilles; Brunet, Michel


    The author proposes a history of climates all along Earth's history, describes how cold and warm periods have been alternating during these billions of years. He also tries to highlight lessons learned from this long evolution of climate in order to better understand the current global warming. He discusses whether this disruption is unique in Earth's history, and how it threatens our environment and therefore our survival. The chapters describe how Earth could escape a global glaciation, the thermal regulation by greenhouse effect gases in a world without oxygen, the empowerment of oxygen and the first thermal accident, a new oxygenated and warm world, the second accident or how Earth entered and escaped from periods of total glaciation, the possible stabilisation, the succession of deregulations, crisis and extinctions, the slow way down to the cold, the various paleo-indicators during the Quaternary, the high frequency oscillations of climate during the last million of years, and the uncertain projections

  9. Solar Flare Aimed at Earth (United States)


    At the height of the solar cycle, the Sun is finally displaying some fireworks. This image from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) shows a large solar flare from June 6, 2000 at 1424 Universal Time (10:24 AM Eastern Daylight Savings Time). Associated with the flare was a coronal mass ejection that sent a wave of fast moving charged particles straight towards Earth. (The image was acquired by the Extreme ultaviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT), one of 12 instruments aboard SOHO) Solar activity affects the Earth in several ways. The particles generated by flares can disrupt satellite communications and interfere with power transmission on the Earth's surface. Earth's climate is tied to the total energy emitted by the sun, cooling when the sun radiates less energy and warming when solar output increases. Solar radiation also produces ozone in the stratosphere, so total ozone levels tend to increase during the solar maximum. For more information about these solar flares and the SOHO mission, see NASA Science News or the SOHO home page. For more about the links between the sun and climate change, see Sunspots and the Solar Max. Image courtesy SOHO Extreme ultaviolet Imaging Telescope, ESA/NASA

  10. The Earth as a Polder

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that the resources of the earth as a whole will .... tion of land and underground water sources as a ... oil; the different visions and desires of old and .... the world, one showing its political hot spots, ... Guns, Germs, and Steel, and The Rise and.

  11. The Dynamic Earth: Recycling Naturally! (United States)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Allison, Elizabeth; Fowler, Lisa; Glaze, Amanda


    This article begins with a thought-provoking question: What do you think of when you hear the term "recycle?" Many think about paper, glass, aluminum cans, landfills, and reducing waste by reusing some of these materials. How many of us ever consider the way the systems of Earth dynamically recycle its materials? In the following…

  12. Lessons from Earth's Deep Time (United States)

    Soreghan, G. S.


    Earth is a repository of data on climatic changes from its deep-time history. Article discusses the collection and study of these data to predict future climatic changes, the need to create national study centers for the purpose, and the necessary cooperation between different branches of science in climatic research.

  13. Refresher Course on Earth Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Information and Announcements ... Introduction: Geoscience education in India is in the throes of a serious crisis and any paradigm ... considerations: geology needs to be taught as an earth system science, linked with cognate ... viable and employment-generating management of natural resources: the global trend of.

  14. Paleoseismology: evidence of earth activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Lucie


    Roč. 105, č. 5 (2016), 1467-1469 ISSN 1437-3254 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Paleoseismology * Colluvial wedge * White Creek Fault _ * Greendale Fault * San Andreas Fault * Paganica Fault Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.283, year: 2016

  15. The two earths of Eratosthenes. (United States)

    Carman, Christián Carlos; Evans, James


    In the third century B.C.E., Eratosthenes of Cyrene made a famous measurement of the circumference of the Earth. This was not the first such measurement, but it is the earliest for which significant details are preserved. Cleomedes gives a short account of Eratosthenes' method, his numerical assumptions, and the final result of 250,000 stades. However, many ancient sources attribute to Eratosthenes a result of 252,000 stades. Historians have attempted to explain the second result by supposing that Eratosthenes later made better measurements and revised his estimate or that the original result was simply rounded to 252,000 to have a number conveniently divisible by 60 or by 360. These explanations are speculative and untestable. However, Eratosthenes' estimates of the distances of the Sun and Moon from the Earth are preserved in the doxographical literature. This essay shows that Eratosthenes' result of 252,000 stades for the Earth's circumference follows from a solar distance that is attributed to him. Thus it appears that Eratosthenes computed not only a lower limit for the size of the Earth, based on the assumption that the Sun is at infinity, but also an upper limit, based on the assumption that the Sun is at a finite distance. The essay discusses the consequences for our understanding of his program.

  16. Earth as an extrasolar planet: Earth model validation using EPOXI earth observations. (United States)

    Robinson, Tyler D; Meadows, Victoria S; Crisp, David; Deming, Drake; A'hearn, Michael F; Charbonneau, David; Livengood, Timothy A; Seager, Sara; Barry, Richard K; Hearty, Thomas; Hewagama, Tilak; Lisse, Carey M; McFadden, Lucy A; Wellnitz, Dennis D


    The EPOXI Discovery Mission of Opportunity reused the Deep Impact flyby spacecraft to obtain spatially and temporally resolved visible photometric and moderate resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic observations of Earth. These remote observations provide a rigorous validation of whole-disk Earth model simulations used to better understand remotely detectable extrasolar planet characteristics. We have used these data to upgrade, correct, and validate the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional line-by-line, multiple-scattering spectral Earth model. This comprehensive model now includes specular reflectance from the ocean and explicitly includes atmospheric effects such as Rayleigh scattering, gas absorption, and temperature structure. We have used this model to generate spatially and temporally resolved synthetic spectra and images of Earth for the dates of EPOXI observation. Model parameters were varied to yield an optimum fit to the data. We found that a minimum spatial resolution of ∼100 pixels on the visible disk, and four categories of water clouds, which were defined by using observed cloud positions and optical thicknesses, were needed to yield acceptable fits. The validated model provides a simultaneous fit to Earth's lightcurve, absolute brightness, and spectral data, with a root-mean-square (RMS) error of typically less than 3% for the multiwavelength lightcurves and residuals of ∼10% for the absolute brightness throughout the visible and NIR spectral range. We have extended our validation into the mid-infrared by comparing the model to high spectral resolution observations of Earth from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, obtaining a fit with residuals of ∼7% and brightness temperature errors of less than 1 K in the atmospheric window. For the purpose of understanding the observable characteristics of the distant Earth at arbitrary viewing geometry and observing cadence, our validated forward model can be

  17. Rare earths: occurrence, production and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, T.K.S.; Mukherjee, T.K.


    The mining and processing of rare earth minerals, particularly of monazite, began in a modest way in 1880s for commercialized production of mantle for gas lighting. For all major applications up to mid-twentieth century- production of lighter flints, misch metal as a metallurgical alloying agent, colouring, decolourizing and polishing agents for glass, petroleum cracking catalysts and arc-carbons, unseparated or partially separated rare earths were adequate. These applications continue till today. With the development and industrial application of powerful techniques like ion exchange and solvent extraction for the separation of rare earths, the decades after 1960 saw increasing utilization of the specific properties of the individual rare earths. Some of these advanced technological applications include: special glass for optical systems including camera lenses, phosphors for colour television, cathode ray tubes and fluorescent lighting, X-ray intensification screens, high intensity permanent magnets, electro optical devices, lasers, hydrogen storage materials, hydride rechargeable batteries, photomagnetic data storage systems, autoexhaust catalysts, special ceramics of unusual toughness, artificial diamonds and nonpoisonous plastic colorants. The topics covered in the book include rare earths: their story identity, rare earth resources, processing of ores and recovery of mixed rare earths products, separation and purification of rare earths, nonmetallic applications of rare earths, rare earth metals: production and applications, rare earth alloys and their applications, analysis of rare earth, processing of rare earth resources in India by Indian Rare Earth Ltd. and availability and market conditions


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Yu. Tveretinova


    Full Text Available In the Earth's lithosphere, wavy alternation of positive and negative heterochronous structures is revealed; such structures are variable in ranks and separated by vergence zones of fractures and folds. In the vertical profile of the lithosphere, alternating are layers characterized by relatively plastic or fragile rheological properties and distinguished by different states of stress. During the Earth’s evolution, epochs of compression and extension are cyclically repeated, including planetary-scale phenomena which are manifested by fluctuating changes of the planet’s volume. Migration of geological and geophysical (geodynamic processes takes place at the Earth's surface and in its interior. The concept of the wave structure and evolution of the Earth's lithosphere provides explanations to the abovementioned regularities. Wavy nature of tectonic structures of the lithosphere, the cyclic recurrence of migration and geological processes in space and time can be described in terms of the multiple-order wave geodynamics of the Earth's lithosphere that refers to periodical variations of the state of stress. Effects of structure-forming tectonic forces are determined by «interference» of tangential and radial stresses of the Earth. The tangential stresses, which occur primarily due to the rotational regime of the planet, cause transformations of the Earth’s shape, redistributions of its substance in depths, the westward drift of the rock mass in its upper levels, and changes of structural deformation plans. The radial stresses, which are largely impacted by gravity, determine the gravitational differentiation of the substance, vertical flattening and sub-horizontal flow of the rock masses, and associated fold-rupture deformation. Under the uniform momentum geodynamic concept proposed by [Vikulin, Tveritinova, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008], it is possible to provide consistent descriptions of seismic and volcanic, tectonic and geological processes

  19. Biological modulation of planetary atmospheres: The early Earth scenario (United States)

    Schidlowski, M.


    The establishment and subsequent evolution of life on Earth had a profound impact on the chemical regime at the planet's surface and its atmosphere. A thermodynamic gradient was imposed on near-surface environments that served as the driving force for a number on important geochemical transformations. An example is the redox imbalance between the modern atmosphere and the material of the Earth's crust. Current photochemical models predict extremely low partial pressures of oxygen in the Earth's prebiological atmosphere. There is widespread consensus that any large-scale oxygenation of the primitive atmosphere was contingent on the advent of biological (autotrophic) carbon fixation. It is suggested that photoautotrophy existed both as a biochemical process and as a geochemical agent since at least 3.8 Ga ago. Combining the stoichiometry of the photosynthesis reaction with a carbon isotope mass balance and current concepts for the evolution of the stationary sedimentary mass as a funion of time, it is possible to quantify, the accumulation of oxygen and its photosynthetic oxidation equivalents through Earth history.

  20. Pressure Dome for High-Pressure Electrolyzer (United States)

    Norman, Timothy; Schmitt, Edwin


    A high-strength, low-weight pressure vessel dome was designed specifically to house a high-pressure [2,000 psi (approx. = 13.8 MPa)] electrolyzer. In operation, the dome is filled with an inert gas pressurized to roughly 100 psi (approx. = 690 kPa) above the high, balanced pressure product oxygen and hydrogen gas streams. The inert gas acts to reduce the clamping load on electrolyzer stack tie bolts since the dome pressure acting axially inward helps offset the outward axial forces from the stack gas pressure. Likewise, radial and circumferential stresses on electrolyzer frames are minimized. Because the dome is operated at a higher pressure than the electrolyzer product gas, any external electrolyzer leak prevents oxygen or hydrogen from leaking into the dome. Instead the affected stack gas stream pressure rises detectably, thereby enabling a system shutdown. All electrical and fluid connections to the stack are made inside the pressure dome and require special plumbing and electrical dome interfaces for this to be accomplished. Further benefits of the dome are that it can act as a containment shield in the unlikely event of a catastrophic failure. Studies indicate that, for a given active area (and hence, cell ID), frame outside diameter must become ever larger to support stresses at higher operating pressures. This can lead to a large footprint and increased costs associated with thicker and/or larger diameter end-plates, tie-rods, and the frames themselves. One solution is to employ rings that fit snugly around the frame. This complicates stack assembly and is sometimes difficult to achieve in practice, as its success is strongly dependent on frame and ring tolerances, gas pressure, and operating temperature. A pressure dome permits an otherwise low-pressure stack to operate at higher pressures without growing the electrolyzer hardware. The pressure dome consists of two machined segments. An O-ring is placed in an O-ring groove in the flange of the bottom

  1. Diurnal blood pressure changes. (United States)

    Asayama, Kei; Satoh, Michihiro; Kikuya, Masahiro


    The definition of diurnal blood pressure changes varies widely, which can be confusing. Short-term blood pressure variability during a 24-h period and the dipping status of diurnal blood pressure can be captured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and these metrics are reported to have prognostic significance for cardiovascular complications. Morning blood pressure surge also indicates this risk, but its effect may be limited to populations with specific conditions. Meanwhile, the combined use of conventional office blood pressure and out-of-office blood pressure allows us to identify people with white-coat and masked hypertension. Current home devices can measure nocturnal blood pressure during sleep more conveniently than ambulatory monitoring; however, we should pay attention to blood pressure measurement conditions regardless of whether they are in a home, ambulatory, or office setting. The relatively poor reproducibility of diurnal blood pressure changes, including the nocturnal fall of blood pressure, is another underestimated issue to be addressed. Although information on diurnal blood pressure changes is expected to be used more effectively in the future, we should also keep in mind that blood pressure levels have remained central to the primary and secondary prevention of blood pressure-related cardiovascular diseases in clinical practice.

  2. Detailed Analysis of ECMWF Surface Pressure Data (United States)

    Fagiolini, E.; Schmidt, T.; Schwarz, G.; Zenner, L.


    Investigations of temporal variations within the gravity field of the Earth led us to the analysis of common surface pressure data products delivered by ECMWF. We looked into the characteristics of global as well as spatially and temporally confined phenomena being visible in the data. In particular, we were interested in the overall data quality, the local and temporal signal-to-noise ratio of surface pressure data sets, and the identification of irregular data. To this end, we analyzed a time series of a full year of surface pressure operational analysis data and their nominal standard deviations. The use of pressure data on a Gaussian grid data allowed us to remain close to the internal computations at ECMWF during data assimilation. Thus, we circumvented potential interpolation effects that would otherwise occur in cylindrical projections of conventional map products. The results obtained by us demonstrate the identification of a few distinct outliers, data quality effects over land or water and along coastlines as well as neighborhood effects of samples within and outside of the tropics. Small scale neighborhood effects depend on their geographical direction, sampling distance, land or water, and local time. In addition, one notices large scale seasonal effects that are latitude and longitude dependent. As a consequence, we obtain a cause-and-effect survey of pressure data peculiarities. One can then use background corrected pressure data to analyze seasonal effects within given latitude belts. Here time series of pressure data allow the tracking of high and low pressure areas together with the identification of their actual extent, velocity and life time. This information is vital to overall mass transport calculations and the determination of temporally varying gravity fields. However, one has to note that the satellite and ground-based instruments and the assimilation software being used for the pressure calculations will not remain the same over the years

  3. Rare Earth Garnet Selective Emitter (United States)

    Lowe, Roland A.; Chubb, Donald L.; Farmer, Serene C.; Good, Brian S.


    Thin film Ho-YAG and Er-YAG emitters with a platinum substrate exhibit high spectral emittance in the emission band (epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.75, sup 4)|(sub 15/2) - (sup 4)|(sub 13/2),for Er-YAG and epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.65, (sup 5)|(sub 7) - (sup 5)|(sub 8) for Ho-YAG) at 1500 K. In addition, low out-of-band spectral emittance, epsilon(sub lambda) less than 0.2, suggest these materials would be excellent candidates for high efficiency selective emitters in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems operating at moderate temperatures (1200-1500 K). Spectral emittance measurements of the thin films were made (1.2 less than lambda less than 3.0 microns) and compared to the theoretical emittances calculated using measured values of the spectral extinction coefficient. In this paper we present the results for a new class of rare earth ion selective emitters. These emitters are thin sections (less than 1 mm) of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) single crystal with a rare earth substitutional impurity. Selective emitters in the near IR are of special interest for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion. The most promising solid selective emitters for use in a TPV system are rare earth oxides. Early spectral emittance work on rare earth oxides showed strong emission bands in the infrared (0.9 - 3 microns). However, the emittance outside the emission band was also significant and the efficiency of these emitters was low. Recent improvements in efficiency have been made with emitters fabricated from fine (5 - 10 microns) rare earth oxide fibers similar to the Welsbach mantle used in gas lanterns. However, the rare earth garnet emitters are more rugged than the mantle type emitters. A thin film selective emitter on a low emissivity substrate such as gold, platinum etc., is rugged and easily adapted to a wide variety of thermal sources. The garnet structure and its many subgroups have been successfully used as hosts for rare earth ions, introduced as substitutional

  4. EarthN: A new Earth System Nitrogen Model


    Goldblatt, Colin; Johnson, Benjamin


    The amount of nitrogen in the atmosphere, oceans, crust, and mantle have important ramifications for Earth’s biologic and geologic history. Despite this importance, the history and cycling of nitrogen in the Earth system is poorly constrained over time. For example, various models and proxies contrastingly support atmospheric mass stasis, net outgassing, or net ingassing over time. In addition, the amount available to and processing of nitrogen by organisms is intricately linked with and prov...

  5. Immersive Earth: Teaching Earth and Space with inexpensive immersive technology (United States)

    Reiff, P. H.; Sumners, C.; Law, C. C.; Handron, K.


    In 1995 we pioneered "Space Update", the Digital Library for the rest of us", software that was so simple that a child could use it without a keyboard and yet would allow one-click updating of the daily earth and space science images without the dangers of having an open web browser on display. Thanks to NASA support, it allowed museums and schools to have a powerful exhibit for a tiny price. Over 40,000 disks in our series have been distributed so far to educators and the public. In 2003, with our partners we are again revolutionizing educational technology with a low-cost hardware and software solution to creating and displaying immersive content. Recently selected for funding as part of the REASoN competition, Immersive Earth is a partnership of scientists, museums, educators, and content providers. The hardware consists of a modest projector with a special fisheye lens to be used in an inflatable dome which many schools already have. This, coupled with a modest personal computer, can now easily project images and movies of earth and space, allows training students in 3-D content at a tiny fraction of the cost of a cave or fullscale dome theater. Another low-cost solution is the "Imove" system, where spherical movies can play on a personal computer, with the user changing the viewing direction with a joystick. We were the first to create immersive earth science shows, remain the leader in creating educational content that people want to see. We encourage people with "allsky" images or movies to bring it and see what it looks like inside a dome! Your content could be in our next show!

  6. Sensing Planet Earth - Chalmers' MOOCs on Earth observation (United States)

    Hobiger, Thomas; Stöhr, Christian; Murtagh, Donal; Forkman, Peter; Galle, Bo; Mellquist, Johan; Soja, Maciej; Berg, Anders; Carvajal, Gisela; Eriksson, Leif; Haas, Rüdiger


    An increasing number of universities around the globe produce and conduct Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). In the beginning of 2016, Chalmers University of Technology ran two MOOCs on the topic of Earth observations on the edX platform. Both four week long courses were at introductory level and covered topics related to solid Earth, atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and cryosphere. It was discussed how one can measure and trace global change and use remote sensing tools for disaster monitoring. Research has attempted to assess the learners' motivations to participate in MOOCs, but there is a need for further case studies about motivations, opportunities and challenges for teachers engaging in MOOC development. In our presentation, we are going to report about the experiences gained from both the MOOC production and the actual course run from the instructors' perspective. After brief introduction to MOOCs in general and at Chalmers in particular, we share experiences and challenges of developing lecture and assessment material, the video production and coordination efforts between and within different actors involved in the production process. Further, we reflect upon the actual run of the course including course statistics and feedback from the learners. We discuss issues such as learner activation and engagement with the material, teacher-learner and student-student interaction as well as the scalability of different learning activities. Finally, we will present our lessons-learned and conclusions on the applicability of MOOCs in the field of Earth science teaching.

  7. Correlations between the geomagnetic field variations, the fluctuations of the earth`s rotation and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner-Mai, H; Jochmann, H


    The amplitude spectra of global geophysical phenomena were investigated to motivate research of physical connections between them. The suggested causality was derived from comparison of the spectra, and from cross correlation functions. The following global parameters were discussed: For the earth rotation by the variations of the length of day, for the geomagnetic variation by the global field intensity, changes of the dipole axis and the westward drift, and for climate change by the atmospheric excitation function derived from air pressure variations, and temperature variations. The model of atmospheric excitation, which can be proved most exactly for the annual variations of length of day, is responsible for the 11 and 22 years periods, too. It failed for longer periods, e.g. partially for the 30 years periods and completely for the 60 to 80 years periods, which were also discovered in the mean temperature and geomagnetic field variations. Therefore, it was suggested that longer periods in climate change and in the variations of the earth`s rotation are caused independently by the same process in the earth core, provided that a physical influence of the geomagnetic field on climate will be accepted in future. The investigation was completed by comparison with the spectra of some local temperature variations in Europe. (orig.)

  8. The effect of the earth's rotation on ground water motion. (United States)

    Loáiciga, Hugo A


    The average pore velocity of ground water according to Darcy's law is a function of the fluid pressure gradient and the gravitational force (per unit volume of ground water) and of aquifer properties. There is also an acceleration exerted on ground water that arises from the Earth's rotation. The magnitude and direction of this rotation-induced force are determined in exact mathematical form in this article. It is calculated that the gravitational force is at least 300 times larger than the largest rotation-induced force anywhere on Earth, the latter force being maximal along the equator and approximately equal to 34 N/m(3) there. This compares with a gravitational force of approximately 10(4) N/m(3).

  9. Rare-earth magnet ingestion: a childhood danger reaches adolescence. (United States)

    Agha, Beesan Shalabi; Sturm, Jesse J; Costello, Brian E


    Ingestion of multiple magnets may cause serious gastrointestinal morbidity, such as pressure necrosis, perforation, fistula formation, or intestinal obstruction due to forceful attraction across bowel wall. Although the consequences of multiple magnet ingestion are well documented in young children, the current popularity of small, powerful rare-earth magnets marketed as "desk toys" has heightened this safety concern in all pediatric age groups. A recent US Consumer Product Safety Commission product-wide warning additionally reports the adolescent practice of using toy high-powered, ball-bearing magnets to simulate tongue and lip piercings, a behavior that may increase risk of inadvertent ingestion. We describe 2 cases of older children (male; aged 10 and 13 years, respectively) with unintentional ingestion of multiple rare-earth magnets. Health care providers should be alerted to the potential for misuse of these high-powered, ball-bearing magnets among older children and adolescents.

  10. Arctic tipping points in an Earth system perspective. (United States)

    Wassmann, Paul; Lenton, Timothy M


    We provide an introduction to the volume The Arctic in the Earth System perspective: the role of tipping points. The terms tipping point and tipping element are described and their role in current science, general debates, and the Arctic are elucidated. From a wider perspective, the volume focuses upon the role of humans in the Arctic component of the Earth system and in particular the envelope for human existence, the Arctic ecosystems. The Arctic climate tipping elements, the tipping elements in Arctic ecosystems and societies, and the challenges of governance and anticipation are illuminated through short summaries of eight publications that derive from the Arctic Frontiers conference in 2011 and the EU FP7 project Arctic Tipping Points. Then some ideas based upon resilience thinking are developed to show how wise system management could ease pressures on Arctic systems in order to keep them away from tipping points.

  11. Pressure drops in low pressure local boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtaud, Michel; Schleisiek, Karl


    For prediction of flow reduction in nuclear research reactors, it was necessary to establish a correlation giving the pressure drop in subcooled boiling for rectangular channels. Measurements of pressure drop on rectangular channel 60 and 90 cm long and with a coolant gap of 1,8 and 3,6 mm were performed in the following range of parameters. -) 3 < pressure at the outlet < 11 bars abs; -) 25 < inlet temperature < 70 deg. C; -) 200 < heat flux < 700 W/cm 2 . It appeared that the usual parameter, relative length in subcooled boiling, was not sufficient to correlate experimental pressure losses on the subcooled boiling length and that there was a supplementary influence of pressure, heat flux and subcooling. With an a dimensional parameter including these terms a correlation was established with an error band of ±10%. With a computer code it was possible to derive the relation giving the overall pressure drop along the channel and to determine the local gradients of pressure drop. These local gradients were then correlated with the above parameter calculated in local conditions. 95 % of the experimental points were computed with an accuracy of ±10% with this correlation of gradients which can be used for non-uniform heated channels. (authors) [fr

  12. Neutron powder diffraction under high pressure at J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsumi, Wataru; Kagi, Hiroyuki; Komatsu, Kazuki; Arima, Hiroshi; Nagai, Takaya; Okuchi, Takuo; Kamiyama, Takashi; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Yagi, Takehiko


    It is expected that high-pressure material science and the investigation of the Earth's interior will progress greatly using the high-flux pulse neutrons of J-PARC. In this article, we introduce our plans for in situ neutron powder diffraction experiments under high pressure at J-PARC. The use of three different types of high-pressure devices is planned; a Paris-Edinburgh cell, a new opposed-anvil cell with a nano-polycrystalline diamond, and a cubic anvil high-pressure apparatus. These devices will be brought to the neutron powder diffraction beamlines to conduct a 'day-one' high-pressure experiment. For the next stage of research, we propose construction of a dedicated beamline for high-pressure material science. Its conceptual designs are also introduced here.

  13. High pressure research at CHESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brister, K.


    Since February 1990 there has been a dedicated high pressure line at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). This facility provides X-ray instrumentation for energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and Laue diffraction using diamond anvil cells. Both hard-bend magnet and wiggler radiation are available as well as focused monochromatic radiation. In addition, support instrumentation is also available; a ruby system, laser heating, sample loading, and data analysis software. Experienced users need only to bring their diamond anvil cells and samples and can leave with the initial data analysis finished. Research using diamond anvil cells will be introduced and the facility will be described. Some of the diamond anvil cell research done at CHESS will be reviewed, including crystalline to amorphous transitions (R.R. Winters et al., Chem. Phys, in press), properties of C 6 0 under stress (S.J. Duclos et al., Nature 351 (1991) 380), deep earthquakes (T.C. Wu et al., submitted to J. Geophys. Res.)l, and reaching pressures of the center of Earth (A.L. Ruoff et al., Rev. Sci. Instr. 61 (1990) 3830). (orig.)

  14. Flute instability in the plasma shell of the earth's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.N.; Pokhotelov, O.A.


    In the plasma shell of the earth's magnetosphere, the surfaces of constant pressure may not coincide with surfaces of constant specific volume. This circumstance forces a reexamination of the theory for the flute instability, in which the pressure has been assumed to remain constant on surfaces of constant specific volume. The MHD equations for flute waves in a curvilinear magnetic field are used to show that an instability of a new type, with a pressure which does not remain constant on surfaces of constant specific volume, can occur in the plasma shell of the magnetosphere. An expression is derived for the growth rate of this instability. Analysis of the equation also shows that perturbations with wavelengths shorter than the ion Larmor radius are stable by virtue of magnetodrift effects. The growth rates of the flute instabilities are calculated for both a dipole magnetic field and an arbitrary magnetic-field configuration. Growth rates calculated for typical values of the characteristics of the earth's plasma shell are reported

  15. High Pressure/Temperature Metal Silicate Partitioning of Tungsten (United States)

    Shofner, G. A.; Danielson, L.; Righter, K.; Campbell, A. J.


    The behavior of chemical elements during metal/silicate segregation and their resulting distribution in Earth's mantle and core provide insight into core formation processes. Experimental determination of partition coefficients allows calculations of element distributions that can be compared to accepted values of element abundances in the silicate (mantle) and metallic (core) portions of the Earth. Tungsten (W) is a moderately siderophile element and thus preferentially partitions into metal versus silicate under many planetary conditions. The partitioning behavior has been shown to vary with temperature, silicate composition, oxygen fugacity, and pressure. Most of the previous work on W partitioning has been conducted at 1-bar conditions or at relatively low pressures, i.e. pressure. Predictions based on extrapolation of existing data and parameterizations suggest an increased pressured dependence on metal/ silicate partitioning of W at higher pressures 5. However, the dependence on pressure is not as well constrained as T, fO2, and silicate composition. This poses a problem because proposed equilibration pressures for core formation range from 27 to 50 GPa, falling well outside the experimental range, therefore requiring exptrapolation of a parametereized model. Higher pressure data are needed to improve our understanding of W partitioning at these more extreme conditions.

  16. Improved Solar-Radiation-Pressure Models for GPS Satellites (United States)

    Bar-Sever, Yoaz; Kuang, Da


    A report describes a series of computational models conceived as an improvement over prior models for determining effects of solar-radiation pressure on orbits of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. These models are based on fitting coefficients of Fourier functions of Sun-spacecraft- Earth angles to observed spacecraft orbital motions.

  17. Effects of electron pressure anisotropy on current sheet configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.; Vasko, I. Y.


    Recent spacecraft observations in the Earth's magnetosphere have demonstrated that the magnetotail current sheet can be supported by currents of anisotropic electron population. Strong electron currents are responsible for the formation of very thin (intense) current sheets playing the crucial role in stability of the Earth's magnetotail. We explore the properties of such thin current sheets with hot isotropic ions and cold anisotropic electrons. Decoupling of the motions of ions and electrons results in the generation of a polarization electric field. The distribution of the corresponding scalar potential is derived from the electron pressure balance and the quasi-neutrality condition. We find that electron pressure anisotropy is partially balanced by a field-aligned component of this polarization electric field. We propose a 2D model that describes a thin current sheet supported by currents of anisotropic electrons embedded in an ion-dominated current sheet. Current density profiles in our model agree well with THEMIS observations in the Earth's magnetotail.

  18. Life on Earth: From Chemicals in Space? (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973


    Discusses experimental evidence for the existence of organic material in the solar system prior to the earth's formation. Indicates that the earth could have received much of its organic compounds from meteors falling on its primitive surface. (CC)

  19. Optical properties of alkaline earth borate glasses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The alkaline earth borate glasses containing heavy metal oxides show good solubility of rare-earth ions. Glasses containing PbO exhibit low glass transition temperature (Tg) and high ..... These oxygen ions carry a partial negative charge and.

  20. Optical properties of alkaline earth borate glasses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ... devices; radiation shields, surgical lasers and their glass ceramic counter ... Alkaline earth oxides improve glass forming capability while heavy metal ... reports on optical properties of MO-B2O3 glasses containing alkaline earth oxides.

  1. Earth Observing System Covariance Realism Updates (United States)

    Ojeda Romero, Juan A.; Miguel, Fred


    This presentation will be given at the International Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group meetings June 13-15, 2017 to discuss the Earth Observing System Covariance Realism updates.

  2. ``An Earth-Shaking Experience'' (United States)

    Achenbach, Joel


    Last month's annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco drew an estimated 11,000 scientists, teachers, journalists and geophysics groupies. The schedule of talks could be found in a bound volume as thick as a phone book. You never see a geophysicist in ordinary life, but apparently the world is crawling with them. They came to talk about everything from the ozone layer to the big wad of iron at the center of the Earth. Also about other planets. And magnetic fields. Solar wind. Water on Mars. To be at this convention was to be immersed to the eyebrows in scientific knowledge. It is intellectually fashionable to fetishize the unknown, but at AGU, a person will get the opposite feeling-that science is a voracious, relentless and tireless enterprise, and that soon there may not remain on this Earth an unturned stone.

  3. Tidal variations of earth rotation (United States)

    Yoder, C. F.; Williams, J. G.; Parke, M. E.


    The periodic variations of the earths' rotation resulting from the tidal deformation of the earth by the sun and moon were rederived including terms with amplitudes of 0.002 millisec and greater. The series applies to the mantle, crust, and oceans which rotate together for characteristic tidal periods; the scaling parameter is the ratio of the fraction of the Love number producing tidal variations in the moment of inertia of the coupled mantle and oceans (k) to the dimensionless polar moment of inertia of the coupled moments (C). The lunar laser ranging data shows that k/C at monthly and fortnightly frequencies equals 0.99 + or - 0.15 and 0.99 + or - 0.20 as compared to the theoretical value of 0.94 + or - 0.04.

  4. Solar influence on Earth's climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, N.; Svensmark, Henrik


    An increasing number of studies indicate that variations in solar activity have had a significant influence on Earth's climate. However, the mechanisms responsible for a solar influence are still not known. One possibility is that atmospheric transparency is influenced by changing cloud properties...... and thereby influence the radiative properties of clouds. If the GCR-Cloud link is confirmed variations in galactic cosmic ray flux, caused by changes in solar activity and the space environment, could influence Earth's radiation budget....... via cosmic ray ionisation (the latter being modulated by solar activity). Support for this idea is found from satellite observations of cloud cover. Such data have revealed a striking correlation between the intensity of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and low liquid clouds (

  5. Stamping the Earth from space

    CERN Document Server

    Dicati, Renato


    This unique book presents a historical and philatelic survey of Earth exploration from space. It covers all areas of research in which artificial satellites have contributed in designing a new image of our planet and its environment: the atmosphere and ionosphere, the magnetic field, radiation belts and the magnetosphere, weather, remote sensing, mapping of the surface, observation of the oceans and marine environments, geodesy, and the study of life and ecological systems. Stamping the Earth from Space presents the results obtained with the thousands of satellites launched by the two former superpowers, the Soviet Union and the United States, and also those of the many missions carried out by the ESA, individual European countries, Japan, China, India, and the many emerging space nations. Beautifully illustrated, it contains almost 1100 color reproductions of philatelic items. In addition to topical stamps and thematic postal documents, the book provides an extensive review of astrophilatelic items. The most...

  6. Mapping Near-Earth Hazards (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    How can we hunt down all the near-Earth asteroids that are capable of posing a threat to us? A new study looks at whether the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is up to the job.Charting Nearby ThreatsLSST is an 8.4-m wide-survey telescope currently being built in Chile. When it goes online in 2022, it will spend the next ten years surveying our sky, mapping tens of billions of stars and galaxies, searching for signatures of dark energy and dark matter, and hunting for transient optical events like novae and supernovae. But in its scanning, LSST will also be looking for asteroids that approach near Earth.Cumulative number of near-Earth asteroids discovered over time, as of June 16, 2016. [NASA/JPL/Chamberlin]Near-Earth objects (NEOs) have the potential to be hazardous if they cross Earths path and are large enough to do significant damage when they impact Earth. Earths history is riddled with dangerous asteroid encounters, including the recent Chelyabinsk airburst in 2013, the encounter that caused the kilometer-sized Meteor Crater in Arizona, and the impact thought to contribute to the extinction of the dinosaurs.Recognizing the potential danger that NEOs can pose to Earth, Congress has tasked NASA with tracking down 90% of NEOs larger than 140 meters in diameter. With our current survey capabilities, we believe weve discovered roughly 25% of these NEOs thus far. Now a new study led by Tommy Grav (Planetary Science Institute) examines whether LSST will be able to complete this task.Absolute magnitude, H, of asynthetic NEO population. Though these NEOs are all larger than 140 m, they have a large spread in albedos. [Grav et al. 2016]Can LSST Help?Based on previous observations of NEOs and resulting predictions for NEO properties and orbits, Grav and collaborators simulate a synthetic population of NEOs all above 140 m in size. With these improved population models, they demonstrate that the common tactic of using an asteroids absolute magnitude as a

  7. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What role does diet and hydration play in preventing pressure ...

  8. Atmospheric Pressure Indicator. (United States)

    Salzsieder, John C.


    Discusses observable phenomena related to air pressure. Describes a simple, unobtrusive, semiquantitative device to monitor the changes in air pressure that are associated with altitude, using a soft-drink bottle and a balloon. (JRH)

  9. Blood Pressure Medicines (United States)

    High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, heart ... kidney failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight and ...

  10. High blood pressure - adults (United States)

    ... pressure is found. This is called essential hypertension. High blood pressure that is caused by another medical condition or medicine you are taking is called secondary hypertension. Secondary hypertension may be due to: Chronic ...

  11. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to Home ...

  12. Preventing Pressure Sores (United States)

    ... and how can it be increased? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_ ...

  13. Pressure vessel design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Dennis R


    Pressure vessels are closed containers designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. They have a variety of applications in industry, including in oil refineries, nuclear reactors, vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and more. The pressure differential with such vessels is dangerous, and due to the risk of accident and fatality around their use, the design, manufacture, operation and inspection of pressure vessels is regulated by engineering authorities and guided by legal codes and standards. Pressure Vessel Design Manual is a solutions-focused guide to the many problems and technical challenges involved in the design of pressure vessels to match stringent standards and codes. It brings together otherwise scattered information and explanations into one easy-to-use resource to minimize research and take readers from problem to solution in the most direct manner possible. * Covers almost all problems that a working pressure vessel designer can expect to face, with ...

  14. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow ...

  15. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_ ...

  16. High blood pressure - children (United States)

    ... this page: // High blood pressure - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  17. Preventing High Blood Pressure (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  18. High blood pressure - infants (United States)

    ... this page: // High blood pressure - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  19. High blood pressure medications (United States)

    ... this page: // High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  20. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... especially prone to pressure sores? play_arrow What parts of the body are most likely to develop ... play_arrow How long is the typical healing time for a pressure sore? play_arrow Why do ...

  1. Interface Evolution During Transient Pressure Solution Creep (United States)

    Dysthe, D. K.; Podladchikov, Y. Y.; Renard, F.; Jamtveit, B.; Feder, J.

    When aggregates of small grains are pressed together in the presence of small amounts of solvent the aggregate compacts and the grains tend to stick together. This hap- pens to salt and sugar in humid air, and to sediments when buried in the Earths crust. Stress concentration at the grain contacts cause local dissolution, diffusion of the dissolved material out of the interface and deposition on the less stressed faces of the grains{1}. This process, in geology known as pressure solution, plays a cen- tral role during compaction of sedimentary basins{1,2}, during tectonic deformation of the Earth's crust{3}, and in strengthening of active fault gouges following earth- quakes{4,5}. Experimental data on pressure solution has so far not been sufficiently accurate to understand the transient processes at the grain scale. Here we present ex- perimental evidence that pressure solution creep does not establish a steady state inter- face microstructure as previously thought. Conversely, cumulative creep strain and the characteristic size of interface microstructures grow as the cubic root of time. A sim- ilar transient phenomenon is known in metallurgy (Andrade creep) and is explained here using an analogy with spinodal dewetting. 1 Weyl, P. K., Pressure solution and the force of crystallization - a phenomenological theory. J. Geophys. Res., 64, 2001-2025 (1959). 2 Heald, M. T., Cementation of Simpson and St. Peter Sandstones in parts of Okla- homa, Arkansas and Missouri, J. Geol. Chicago, 14, 16-30 (1956). 3 Schwartz, S., Stöckert, B., Pressure solution in siliciclastic HP-LT metamorphic rocks constraints on the state of stress in deep levels of accretionary complexes. Tectonophysics, 255, 203-209 (1996). 4 Renard, F., Gratier, J.P., Jamtveit, B., Kinetics of crack-sealing, intergranular pres- sure solution, and compaction around active faults. J. Struct. Geol., 22, 1395-1407, (2000). 5 Miller, S. A., BenZion, Y., Burg, J. P.,A three-dimensional fluid-controlled earth

  2. Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project (United States)

    Cobleigh, Brent


    A viewgraph presentation reviewing the Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project is shown. The contents include: 1) ESCD Project; 2) Available Flight Assets; 3) Ikhana Procurement; 4) GCS Layout; 5) Baseline Predator B Architecture; 6) Ikhana Architecture; 7) UAV Capability Assessment; 8) The Big Picture; 9) NASA/NOAA UAV Demo (5/05 to 9/05); 10) NASA/USFS Western States Fire Mission (8/06); and 11) Suborbital Telepresence.

  3. Rare Earth Oxide Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Fanciulli, Marco


    Thin rare earth (RE) oxide films are emerging materials for microelectronic, nanoelectronic, and spintronic applications. The state-of-the-art of thin film deposition techniques as well as the structural, physical, chemical, and electrical properties of thin RE oxide films and of their interface with semiconducting substrates are discussed. The aim is to identify proper methodologies for the development of RE oxides thin films and to evaluate their effectiveness as innovative materials in different applications.

  4. Physics of the earth crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauterbach, R.


    This book deals in 12 chapters, amongst other things, with the subjects: Structure of the crust and the upper earth mantle, geology and geophysics of sea beds, satellite and aero-methods of geophysics, state of the art of geothermal research, geophysical potential fields and their anomalies, applied seismology, electrical methods of geophysics, geophysics in engineering and rock engineering, borehole geophysics, petrophysics, and geochemistry. (RW) [de

  5. Metallothermic reduction of rare earth oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.A.


    Rare earth oxides can be reduced to rare earth metals by a novel, high yield, metallothermic process. The oxides are dispersed in a suitable, molten, calcium chloride bath along with sodium metal. The sodium reacts with the calcium chloride to produce calcium metal which reduces the rare earth oxides to rare earth metals. The metals are collected in a discrete layer in the reaction vessel

  6. Rare earth-iron-boron premanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghendehari, M.H.


    This patent describes a method for producing rare earth-iron-boron permanent magnets containing added rare earth oxide, comprising the steps of: (a) mixing a particulate alloy containing at least one rare earth metal, iron, and boron with at least one particulate rare earth oxide; (b) aligning magnetic domains of the mixture in a magnetic field; (c) compacting the aligned mixture to form a shape; and (d) sintering the compacted shape

  7. External Fuel Tank, Clouds and Earth Limb (United States)


    It's fuel consumed, the expendable external fuel tank was jettisoned moments earlier from the Space Shuttle Atlantis and now begins its plunge back to Earth (20.5N, 36.0W). Backdropped against the void of space and the thin blue line of the Earth's airglow above the Earth Limb, the harshness of the blackness of space is softened by the fleeciness of Earth's cloud cover below.

  8. High-pressure microbiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michiels, Chris; Bartlett, Douglas Hoyt; Aertsen, Abram


    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. High Hydrostatic Pressure Effects in the Biosphere: from Molecules to Microbiology * Filip Meersman and Karel Heremans . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Effects...

  9. Rare earth niobate coordination polymers (United States)

    Muniz, Collin N.; Patel, Hiral; Fast, Dylan B.; Rohwer, Lauren E. S.; Reinheimer, Eric W.; Dolgos, Michelle; Graham, Matt W.; Nyman, May


    Rare-earth (RE) coordination polymers are infinitely tailorable to yield luminescent materials for various applications. Here we described the synthesis of a heterometallic rare-earth coordination compound ((CH3)2SO)3(RE)NbO(C2O4)3((CH3)2SO) = dimethylsulfoxide, DMSO, (C2O2= oxalate), (RE=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb). The structure was obtained from single crystal X-ray diffraction of the La analogue. The Nb˭O and DMSO terminal-bonding character guides assembly of an open framework structure with noncentrosymmetric RE-coordination geometry, and large spacing between the RE centers. A second structure was observed by PXRD for the smaller rare earths (Dy, Ho, Er, Yb); this structure has not yet been determined. The materials were further characterized using FTIR, and photoluminescence measurements. Characteristic excitation and emission transitions were observed for RE = Nd, Sm, Eu, and Tb. Quantum yield (QY) measurements were performed by exciting Eu and Tb analoges at 394 nm (QY 66%) and 464 nm (QY 71%) for Eu; and 370 nm (QY=40%) for Tb. We attribute the high QY and bright luminescence to two main structure-function properties of the system; namely the absence of water in the structure, and absence of concentration quenching.

  10. Mineral evolution and Earth history (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.


    The field of mineral evolution—a merger of mineralogy and Earth history—coalesced in 2008 with the first of several global syntheses by Robert Hazen and coworkers in the American Mineralogist. They showed that the cumulative abundance of mineral species has a stepwise trend with first appearances tied to various transitions in Earth history such as the end of planetary accretion at ca. 4.55 Ga and the onset of bio-mediated mineralogy at ca. >2.5 Ga. A global age distribution is best established for zircon. Observed abundance of zircon fluctuates through more than an order of magnitude during successive supercontinent cycles. The pulse of the Earth is also recorded, albeit imperfectly, by the 87Sr/86Sr composition of marine biogenic calcite; the Sr-isotopic ratio of this mineral reflects the balance of inputs of primitive strontium at mid-ocean ridges and evolved strontium that drains off the continents. A global mineral evolution database, currently in the works, will greatly facilitate the compilation and analysis of extant data and the expansion of research in mineralogy outside its traditional bounds and into more interdisciplinary realms.

  11. Apollo 11 Earth Training Exercises (United States)


    In preparation of the nation's first lunar landing mission, Apollo 11 crew members underwent training to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph, taken at the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, an engineer, Bob Mason, donned in a space suit, goes through some of those training exercises on the mock lunar surface. He performed activites similar to those planned for astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin during their moon walk. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  12. The Earth Observation Technology Cluster (United States)

    Aplin, P.; Boyd, D. S.; Danson, F. M.; Donoghue, D. N. M.; Ferrier, G.; Galiatsatos, N.; Marsh, A.; Pope, A.; Ramirez, F. A.; Tate, N. J.


    The Earth Observation Technology Cluster is a knowledge exchange initiative, promoting development, understanding and communication about innovative technology used in remote sensing of the terrestrial or land surface. This initiative provides an opportunity for presentation of novel developments from, and cross-fertilisation of ideas between, the many and diverse members of the terrestrial remote sensing community. The Earth Observation Technology Cluster involves a range of knowledge exchange activities, including organisation of technical events, delivery of educational materials, publication of scientific findings and development of a coherent terrestrial EO community. The initiative as a whole covers the full range of remote sensing operation, from new platform and sensor development, through image retrieval and analysis, to data applications and environmental modelling. However, certain topical and strategic themes have been selected for detailed investigation: (1) Unpiloted Aerial Vehicles, (2) Terrestrial Laser Scanning, (3) Field-Based Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy, (4) Hypertemporal Image Analysis, and (5) Circumpolar and Cryospheric Application. This paper presents general activities and achievements of the Earth Observation Technology Cluster, and reviews state-of-the-art developments in the five specific thematic areas.

  13. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cord injuries? play_arrow Why are pressure sores so serious? play_arrow What is "sepsis," and why ... pressure sores? play_arrow Why is pressure relief so important when sitting in a wheelchair? play_arrow ...

  14. Pressure dependence of conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracewell, B.L.; Hochheimer, H.D.


    The overall objectives of this work were to attempt the following: (1) Measure the pressure dependence of the electrical conductivity of several quasi-one-dimensional, charge-density-wave solids, including measurements along various crystal directions. (2) Measure photocurrents in selected MX solids at ambient and elevated pressures. (3) Measure the resonance Raman spectra for selected MX solids as a function of pressure

  15. Exchange market pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, H.; Klaassen, F.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.


    Currencies can be under severe pressure in the foreign exchange market, but in a fixed (or managed) exchange rate regime that is not fully visible via the change in the exchange rate. Exchange market pressure (EMP) is a concept developed to nevertheless measure the pressure in such cases. This

  16. High-pressure apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepdael, van L.J.M.; Bartels, P.V.; Berg, van den R.W.


    The invention relates to a high-pressure device (1) having a cylindrical high-pressure vessel (3) and prestressing means in order to exert an axial pressure on the vessel. The vessel (3) can have been formed from a number of layers of composite material, such as glass, carbon or aramide fibers which

  17. Process for lead removal from rare earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollat, A.; Sabot, J.L.


    An aqueous solution of rare earth chlorides and lead chlorides, with a chloride concentration of at least 2 moles/liter and a pH between 2 and 4, is extracted by an alkylphosphonic acid ester and rare earth(s) is (are) recovered from the organic phase [fr

  18. Dimension of the Earth's general ellipsoid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Raděj, K.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.


    Roč. 91, č. 1 (2002), s. 31-41 ISSN 0167-9295 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : Earth's dimensions * Earth's ellipsoid * fundamental constants Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.364, year: 2002

  19. In the Red Shadow of the Earth (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen W.; Hosokawa, Kazuyuki; Carroll, Joshua; Sawell, David; Wilson, Colin


    A technique is described for calculating the brightness of the atmosphere of the Earth that shines into the Earth's umbra during a total lunar eclipse making the Moon red. This "Rim of Fire" is due to refracted unscattered light from all the sunrises and sunsets rimming the Earth. In this article, a photograph of the totally eclipsed…

  20. Earth Science: It's All about the Processes (United States)

    King, Chris


    Readers of the draft new English primary science curriculum (DfE, 2012) might be concerned to see that there is much more detail on the Earth science content than previously in the United Kingdom. In this article, Chris King, a professor of Earth Science Education at Keele University and Director of the Earth Science Education Unit (ESEU),…

  1. Common Earth Science Misconceptions in Science Teaching (United States)

    King, Chris


    A survey of the Earth science content of science textbooks found a wide range of misconceptions. These are discussed in this article with reference to the published literature on Earth science misconceptions. Most misconceptions occurred in the "sedimentary rocks and processes" and "Earth's structure and plate tectonics"…

  2. Earth Systems Science: An Analytic Framework (United States)

    Finley, Fred N.; Nam, Younkeyong; Oughton, John


    Earth Systems Science (ESS) is emerging rapidly as a discipline and is being used to replace the older earth science education that has been taught as unrelated disciplines--geology, meteorology, astronomy, and oceanography. ESS is complex and is based on the idea that the earth can be understood as a set of interacting natural and social systems.…

  3. Interaction analysis of back-to-back mechanically stabilized earth walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadok Benmebarek


    Full Text Available Back-to-back mechanically stabilized earth walls (BBMSEWs are encountered in bridge approaches, ramp ways, rockfall protection systems, earth dams, levees and noise barriers. However, available design guidelines for BBMSEWs are limited and not applicable to numerical modeling when back-to-back walls interact with each other. The objective of this paper is to investigate, using PLAXIS code, the effects of the reduction in the distance between BBMSEW, the reinforcement length, the quality of backfill material and the connection of reinforcements in the middle, when the back-to-back walls are close. The results indicate that each of the BBMSEWs behaves independently if the width of the embankment between mechanically stabilized earth walls is greater than that of the active zone. This is in good agreement with the result of FHWA design guideline. However, the results show that the FHWA design guideline underestimates the lateral earth pressure when back-to-back walls interact with each other. Moreover, for closer BBMSEWs, FHWA design guideline strongly overestimates the maximum tensile force in the reinforcement. The investigation of the quality of backfill material shows that the minor increase in embankment cohesion can lead to significant reductions in both the lateral earth pressure and the maximum tensile force in geosynthetic. When the distance between the two earth walls is close to zero, the connection of reinforcement between back-to-back walls significantly improves the factor of safety.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltenegger, Lisa; Segura, AntIgona; Mohanty, Subhanjoy


    Gl581d has a minimum mass of 7 M Earth and is the first detected potentially habitable rocky Super-Earth. Our models confirm that a habitable atmosphere can exist on Gl581d. We derive spectroscopic features for atmospheres assuming an Earth-like composition for this planet, from high-oxygen atmosphere analogous to Earth's to high-CO 2 atmospheres with and without biotic oxygen concentrations. We find that a minimum CO 2 partial pressure of about 7 bar, in an atmosphere with a total surface pressure of 7.6 bar, is needed to maintain a mean surface temperature above freezing on Gl581d. We model transmission and emergent synthetic spectra from 0.4 μm to 40 μm and show where indicators of biological activities in such a planet's atmosphere could be observed by future ground- and space-based telescopes. The model we present here only represents one possible nature-an Earth-like composition-of a planet like Gl581d in a wide parameter space. Future observations of atmospheric features can be used to examine if our concept of habitability and its dependence on the carbonate-silicate cycle is correct, and assess whether Gl581d is indeed a habitable Super-Earth.

  5. Detecting solar chameleons through radiation pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, S.; Cantatore, G.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Karuza, M.; Semertzidis, Y.K.; Upadhye, A.; Zioutas, K.


    Light scalar fields can drive the accelerated expansion of the universe. Hence, they are obvious dark energy candidates. To make such models compatible with tests of General Relativity in the solar system and “fifth force” searches on Earth, one needs to screen them. One possibility is the so-called “chameleon” mechanism, which renders an effective mass depending on the local matter density. If chameleon particles exist, they can be produced in the sun and detected on Earth exploiting the equivalent of a radiation pressure. Since their effective mass scales with the local matter density, chameleons can be reflected by a dense medium if their effective mass becomes greater than their total energy. Thus, under appropriate conditions, a flux of solar chameleons may be sensed by detecting the total instantaneous momentum transferred to a suitable opto-mechanical force/pressure sensor. We calculate the solar chameleon spectrum and the reach in the chameleon parameter space of an experiment using the preliminary results from a force/pressure sensor, currently under development at INFN Trieste, to be mounted in the focal plane of one of the X-Ray telescopes of the CAST experiment at CERN. We show, that such an experiment signifies a pioneering effort probing uncharted chameleon parameter space

  6. Detecting solar chameleons through radiation pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, S., E-mail: [Uppsala Universitet, Box 516, SE 75120, Uppsala (Sweden); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Gèneve (Switzerland); Cantatore, G. [Università di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); INFN Trieste, Padriciano 99, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Hoffmann, D.H.H. [Institut für Kernphysik, TU-Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstr. 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Karuza, M. [INFN Trieste, Padriciano 99, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Phys. Dept. and CMNST, University of Rijeka, R. Matejcic 2, Rijeka (Croatia); Semertzidis, Y.K. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (IBS), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Upadhye, A. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Zioutas, K., E-mail: [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Gèneve (Switzerland); University of Patras, GR 26504 Patras (Greece)


    Light scalar fields can drive the accelerated expansion of the universe. Hence, they are obvious dark energy candidates. To make such models compatible with tests of General Relativity in the solar system and “fifth force” searches on Earth, one needs to screen them. One possibility is the so-called “chameleon” mechanism, which renders an effective mass depending on the local matter density. If chameleon particles exist, they can be produced in the sun and detected on Earth exploiting the equivalent of a radiation pressure. Since their effective mass scales with the local matter density, chameleons can be reflected by a dense medium if their effective mass becomes greater than their total energy. Thus, under appropriate conditions, a flux of solar chameleons may be sensed by detecting the total instantaneous momentum transferred to a suitable opto-mechanical force/pressure sensor. We calculate the solar chameleon spectrum and the reach in the chameleon parameter space of an experiment using the preliminary results from a force/pressure sensor, currently under development at INFN Trieste, to be mounted in the focal plane of one of the X-Ray telescopes of the CAST experiment at CERN. We show, that such an experiment signifies a pioneering effort probing uncharted chameleon parameter space.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbarek, Rostom; Kempton, Eliza M.-R., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112 (United States)


    Recent studies have unequivocally proven the existence of clouds in super-Earth atmospheres. Here we provide a theoretical context for the formation of super-Earth clouds by determining which condensates are likely to form under the assumption of chemical equilibrium. We study super-Earth atmospheres of diverse bulk composition, which are assumed to form by outgassing from a solid core of chondritic material, following Schaefer and Fegley. The super-Earth atmospheres that we study arise from planetary cores made up of individual types of chondritic meteorites. They range from highly reducing to oxidizing and have carbon to oxygen (C:O) ratios that are both sub-solar and super-solar, thereby spanning a range of atmospheric composition that is appropriate for low-mass exoplanets. Given the atomic makeup of these atmospheres, we minimize the global Gibbs free energy of formation for over 550 gases and condensates to obtain the molecular composition of the atmospheres over a temperature range of 350–3000 K. Clouds should form along the temperature–pressure boundaries where the condensed species appear in our calculation. We find that the composition of condensate clouds depends strongly on both the H:O and C:O ratios. For the super-Earth archetype GJ 1214b, KCl and ZnS are the primary cloud-forming condensates at solar composition, in agreement with previous work. However, for oxidizing atmospheres, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and ZnO condensates are favored instead, and for carbon-rich atmospheres with super-solar C:O ratios, graphite clouds appear. For even hotter planets, clouds form from a wide variety of rock-forming and metallic species.

  8. Morphology and pore structure of rare earth oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, L.A.; Hoang, M.; Hardin, S.; Turney, T.W.


    The morphology observed by transmission electron microscopy of rare earth oxides, prepared by two different routes, has been related to adsorption, characteristics for nitrogen at 77 K. The most common morphology was that of thin sheets, then small equiaxed particles, and, more rarely, rod-like particles. The presence of small equiaxed particles was found to be a prerequisite for adsorption hysteresis. Evaluation of linear 't' plots indicated freedom from micropores in all samples, but positive deviations in the presence of sheet morphology at high relative pressures left open the possibility of wedge-like pores in these samples. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  9. ISS EarthKam: Taking Photos of the Earth from Space (United States)

    Haste, Turtle


    NASA is involved in a project involving the International Space Station (ISS) and an Earth-focused camera called EarthKam, where schools, and ultimately students, are allowed to remotely program the EarthKAM to take images. Here the author describes how EarthKam was used to help middle school students learn about biomes and develop their…

  10. The Chinese Society of Rare Earth is Studying The Feasibility of Marketing Rare Earth Futures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Lin Donglu,secretary-general of the Chinese Society of Rare Earth recently said,the Chinese Society of Rare Earth undertook the research on subject of the National Social Science Fund Foundation on the reform of Chinese rare earth trading pricing mechanism on promoting RMB globalization,and is focusing on studying the feasibility of marketing rare earth futures variety.

  11. Ion Composition and Energization in the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere and the Effects on Ring Current Buildup (United States)

    Keika, K.; Kistler, L. M.; Brandt, P. C.


    In-situ observations and modeling work have confirmed that singly-charged oxygen ions, O+, which are of Earth's ionospheric origin, are heated/accelerated up to >100 keV in the magnetosphere. The energetic O+ population makes a significant contribution to the plasma pressure in the Earth's inner magnetosphere during magnetic storms, although under quiet conditions H+ dominates the plasma pressure. The pressure enhancements, which we term energization, are caused by adiabatic heating through earthward transport of source population in the plasma sheet, local acceleration in the inner magnetosphere and near-Earth plasma sheet, and enhanced ion supply from the topside ionosphere. The key issues regarding stronger O+ energization than H+ are non-adiabatic local acceleration, responsible for increase in O+ temperature, and more significant O+ supply than H+, responsible for increase in O+ density. Although several acceleration mechanisms and O+ supply processes have been proposed, it remains an open question what mechanism(s)/process(es) play the dominant role in stronger O+ energization. In this paper we summarize important spacecraft observations including those from Van Allen Probes, introduces the proposed mechanisms/processes that generate O+-rich energetic plasma population, and outlines possible scenarios of O+ pressure abundance in the Earth's inner magnetosphere.

  12. Equation of State of Fe3C and Implications for the Carbon Content of Earth's Core (United States)

    Davis, A.; Brauser, N.; Thompson, E. C.; Chidester, B.; Greenberg, E.; Prakapenka, V. B.; Campbell, A.


    Carbon is a common component in protoplanetary cores, as represented by iron meteorites. Therefore, along with silicon, oxygen, and other light elements, it is likely to be an alloying component with iron in Earth's core. Previous studies of the densities of iron carbides have not reached the combined pressure and temperature conditions relevant to Earth's core. To better understand the geophysical implications of carbon addition to Earth's core, we report P-V-T measurements of Fe3C to pressures and temperatures exceeding 110 GPa and 2500 K, using synchrotron X-ray diffraction in a laser heated diamond anvil cell. Fitting these measurements to an equation of state and assuming 1.5% density change upon melting and a 4000 K core-mantle boundary temperature, we report a value of 6 wt% carbon necessary to match the PREM density in the outer core. This value should be considered an upper bound due to the likely presence of other light elements.

  13. The melting curve of iron to 250 gigapascals - A constraint on the temperature at earth's center (United States)

    Williams, Quentin; Jeanloz, Raymond; Bass, Jay; Svendsen, Bob; Ahrens, Thomas J.


    The melting curve of iron, the primary constituent of earth's core, has been measured to pressures of 250 gigapascals with a combination of static and dynamic techniques. The melting temperature of iron at the pressure of the core-mantle boundary (136 GPa) is 4800 + or - 200 K, whereas at the inner core-outer core boundary (330 GPa), it is 7600 + or - 500 K. A melting temperature for iron-rich alloy of 6600 K at the inner core-outer core boundary and a maximum temperature of 6900 K at earth's center are inferred. This latter value is the first experimental upper bound on the temperature at earth's center, and these results imply that the temperature of the lower mantle is significantly less than that of the outer core.

  14. An electrokinetic pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Kwon; Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Duckjong


    A new concept for a micro pressure sensor is demonstrated. The pressure difference between the inlet and the outlet of glass nanochannels is obtained by measuring the electrokinetically generated electric potential. To demonstrate the proposed concept, experimental investigations are performed for 100 nm wide nanochannels with sodium chloride solutions having various concentrations. The proposed pressure sensor is able to measure the pressure difference within a 10% deviation from linearity. The sensitivity of the electrokinetic pressure sensor with 10 −5 M sodium chloride solution is 18.5 µV Pa −1 , which is one order of magnitude higher than that of typical diaphragm-based pressure sensors. A numerical model is presented for investigating the effects of the concentration and the channel width on the sensitivity of the electrokinetic pressure sensor. Numerical results show that the sensitivity increases as the concentration decreases and the channel width increases

  15. Pressure tube type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komada, Masaoki.


    Purpose: To increase the safety of pressure tube type reactors by providing an additional ECCS system to an ordinary ECCS system and injecting heavy water in the reactor core tank into pressure tubes upon fractures of the tubes. Constitution: Upon fractures of pressure tubes, reduction of the pressure in the fractured tubes to the atmospheric pressure in confirmed and the electromagnetic valve is operated to completely isolate the pressure tubes from the fractured portion. Then, the heavy water in the reactor core tank flows into and spontaneously recycles through the pressure tubes to cool the fuels in the tube to prevent their meltdown. By additionally providing the separate ECCS system to the ordinary ECCS system, fuels can be cooled upon loss of coolant accidents to improve the safety of the reactors. (Moriyama, K.)

  16. Origin of the earth and moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwood, A.E.


    The composition of the Earth's interior and its bearing on the Earth's origin are discussed. It seems likely that the terrestrial planets formed by the accretion of solid planetisimals from the nebula of dust and gas left behind during the formation of the Sun. The scenario proposed is simpler than others. New evidence based upon a comparison of siderophile element abundances in the Earth's mantle and in the Moon imply that the Moon was derived from the Earth's mantle after the Earth's core had segregated

  17. Pressure (Or No Royal Road) (United States)

    Bradley, J.


    Discusses how difficult the various problems of pressure, partial pressure, gas laws, and vapor pressure are for students. Outlines the evolution of the concept of pressure, the gas equation for a perfect gas, partial pressures, saturated vapor pressure, Avogadro's hypothesis, Raoult's law, and the vapor pressure of ideal solutions. (JR)

  18. Pressure locking test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; McKellar, M.G.; Bramwell, D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others


    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, {open_quotes}Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.{close_quotes} Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; the authors will publish the results of their thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions.

  19. Pressure locking test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; McKellar, M.G.; Bramwell, D.


    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, open-quotes Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.close quotes Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; we will publish the results of our thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions

  20. EDITORIAL: A physicist's journey to the centre of the Earth (United States)

    Hipkin, Roger


    It is a paradox that, despite it being the planet on which all our experience is founded, the bulk Earth is as inaccessible as a remote galaxy. In South African diamond mines, man has penetrated about 3 km into the solid Earth; intact core from boreholes has been recovered from about 7 km and, in the Kola Peninsula of northern Russia, drill chippings have been sluiced up from about 13 km. Nevertheless, even if we had the resources to pepper the outer layer with exploratory boreholes, direct observation of the remaining 99% of the Earth's volume will always remain an impossibility. And yet we know some quite detailed properties of the interior of the Earth. Contrary to primitive cosmologies inspired by watching volcanoes erupt, and although below 2890 km there is a core of molten steel, we know that only in rare, shallow and isolated pockets are the rocks of the Earth's interior molten. The interior of the Earth is like an onion-skin: properties (density, electrical conductivity, sound speed etc) change mainly with depth. Taking the Earth's response to stress as one example, the material behaves like a brittle elastic solid only to depths of about 10-20 km. Below that, Earth materials exhibit the properties of both a solid and a liquid: to short-period effects like sound waves, they respond as a conventional solid but, when subjected to long-period stress, they can also flow like a liquid with a very high viscosity. Viscosity is initially controlled by the increasing mobility of atoms as temperature increases (viscosity decreases from about 1025 Pa s in the upper 20 km to about 1020 Pa s at a depth of 250 km); but atomic mobility is then offset by the counteracting effects of increasing pressure (viscosity increases to perhaps 1023 Pa s at 2500 km). We also have a quantitative physical picture of Earth behaviour stretching back over 4.5 billion years, despite having only 4500 years of recorded scientific observations about the Earth. Using the same physics that

  1. Rare earth elements: end use and recyclability (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.


    Rare earth elements are used in mature markets (such as catalysts, glassmaking, lighting, and metallurgy), which account for 59 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements, and in newer, high-growth markets (such as battery alloys, ceramics, and permanent magnets), which account for 41 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements. In mature market segments, lanthanum and cerium constitute about 80 percent of rare earth elements used, and in new market segments, dysprosium, neodymium, and praseodymium account for about 85 percent of rare earth elements used. Regardless of the end use, rare earth elements are not recycled in large quantities, but could be if recycling became mandated or very high prices of rare earth elements made recycling feasible.

  2. Earth current monitoring circuit for inductive loads

    CERN Document Server

    Montabonnet, V; Thurel, Y; Cussac, P


    The search for higher magnetic fields in particle accelerators increasingly demands the use of superconducting magnets. This magnet technology has a large amount of magnetic energy storage during operation at relatively high currents. As such, many monitoring and protection systems are required to safely operate the magnet, including the monitoring of any leakage of current to earth in the superconducting magnet that indicates a failure of the insulation to earth. At low amplitude, the earth leakage current affects the magnetic field precision. At a higher level, the earth leakage current can additionally generate local losses which may definitively damage the magnet or its instrumentation. This paper presents an active earth fault current monitoring circuit, widely deployed in the converters for the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) superconducting magnets. The circuit allows the detection of earth faults before energising the circuit as well as limiting any eventual earth fault current. The electrical stress...

  3. Synthesis and investigation of saturated vapor pressure of lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium tris-isopropylcyclopentadienyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devyatykh, G.G.; Chernyaev, N.P.; Zverev, Yu.B.; Gavrishchuk, E.M.; Runovskaya, I.V.; Krupnova, Eh.F.; Chesnokova, S.G.


    Lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium tris-isopropylcyclopentadienyls are synthesized with corresponding unhydrous chlorides in tetrahydrofuran solution. Saturated vapour pressure of substances obtained is studied in the 150-262 deg C range by the statistic method using a compensation zero-manometer. Vapour pressure of the compounds in question is shown to increase with the growth of the rare earth element number [ru

  4. Magma Ocean Depth and Oxygen Fugacity in the Early Earth--Implications for Biochemistry. (United States)

    Righter, Kevin


    A large class of elements, referred to as the siderophile (iron-loving) elements, in the Earth's mantle can be explained by an early deep magma ocean on the early Earth in which the mantle equilibrated with metallic liquid (core liquid). This stage would have affected the distribution of some of the classic volatile elements that are also essential ingredients for life and biochemistry - H, C, S, and N. Estimates are made of the H, C, S, and N contents of Earth's early mantle after core formation, considering the effects of variable temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity, and composition on their partitioning. Assessment is made of whether additional, exogenous, sources are required to explain the observed mantle concentrations, and areas are identified where additional data and experimentation would lead to an improved understanding of this phase of Earth's history.

  5. The Contribution of GGOS to Understanding Dynamic Earth Processes (United States)

    Gross, Richard


    of continental and basin-scale water masses; loading and unloading of the land surface due to seasonal changes of groundwater; measurement of water level of major lakes and rivers by satellite altimetry; and improved digital terrain models as basis for flux modeling of surface water and flood modeling. Geodesy is crucial for cryospheric studies because of its ability to measure the motions of ice masses and changes in their volumes. Ice sheets, glaciers, and sea ice are intricately linked to the Earth's climate system. They store a record of past climate; they strongly affect surface energy budget, global water cycle, and sea-level change; and they are sensitive indicators of climate change. Geodesy is at the heart of all present-day ocean studies. Geodetic observations uniquely produce accurate, quantitative, and integrated observations of gravity, ocean circulation, sea surface height, ocean bottom pressure, and mass exchanges among the ocean, cryosphere, and land. Geodetic observations have made fundamental contributions to monitoring and understanding physical ocean processes. In particular, geodesy is the basic technique used to determine an accurate geoid model, allowing for the determination of absolute surface geostrophic currents, which are necessary to quantify heat transport of the ocean. Geodesy also provides the absolute reference for tide gauge measurements, allowing those measurements to be merged with satellite altimetric measurements to provide a coherent worldwide monitoring system for sea level change. In this presentation, selected examples of the contribution of geodetic observations to understanding the dynamic Earth system will be presented.

  6. The Earth: A Changing Planet (United States)

    Ribas, Núria; Màrquez, Conxita


    text: We describe a didactic unit that rises from our own living impression about our experience on the planet. Most of us feel the Earth to be a very static place. Rocks don't easily move and most landscapes always look the same over time. Anyone would say (the same way most scientists believed until the beginning of the last century) that our planet has always remained unchanged, never transformed. But then, all of a sudden, as a misfortune for so many humans, natural hazards appear on the scene: an earthquake causing so many disasters, a tsunami carrying away everything in its path, an eruption that can destroy huge surrounding areas but also bring new geographical relief. Science cannot remain oblivious to these events, we must wonder beyond. What does an earthquake mean? Why does it happen? What about an eruption? If it comes from the inside, what can we guess from it? Researching about all of these events, scientists have been able to arrive to some important knowledge of the planet itself: It has been possible to theorize about Earth's interior. It has also been confirmed that the planet has not always been the quiet and stable place we once thought. Continents, as Wegener supposed, do move about and the Tectonic Plates Theory, thanks to the information obtained through earthquakes and eruption, can provide some interesting explanations. But how do we know about our planet's past? How can we prove that the Earth has always been moving and that its surface changes? The Earth's rocks yield the answer. Rocks have been the only witnesses throughout millions of years, since the planet first came to existence. Let's learn how to read them… Shouldn't we realize that rocks are to Geology what books are to History? This discursive process has been distributed in four learning sequences: 1. Land is not as solid nor firm as it would seem, 2. The Earth planet: a puzzle, 3. The rocks also recycle , 4. Field trip to "Sant Miquel del Fai". The subjects take about 30

  7. Earthing the human body influences physiologic processes. (United States)

    Sokal, Karol; Sokal, Pawel


    This study was designed to answer the question: Does the contact of the human organism with the Earth via a copper conductor affect physiologic processes? Subjects and experiments: Five (5) experiments are presented: experiment 1-effect of earthing on calcium-phosphate homeostasis and serum concentrations of iron (N = 84 participants); experiment 2-effect of earthing on serum concentrations of electrolytes (N = 28); experiment 3-effect of earthing on thyroid function (N = 12); experiment 4-effect of earthing on glucose concentration (N = 12); experiment 5-effect of earthing on immune response to vaccine (N = 32). Subjects were divided into two groups. One (1) group of people was earthed, while the second group remained without contact with the Earth. Blood and urine samples were examined. Earthing of an electrically insulated human organism during night rest causes lowering of serum concentrations of iron, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and reduction of renal excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Earthing during night rest decreases free tri-iodothyronine and increases free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. The continuous earthing of the human body decreases blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Earthing decreases sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, total protein, and albumin concentrations while the levels of transferrin, ferritin, and globulins α1, α2, β, and γ increase. These results are statistically significant. Earthing the human body influences human physiologic processes. This influence is observed during night relaxation and during physical activity. Effect of the earthing on calcium-phosphate homeostasis is the opposite of that which occurs in states of weightlessness. It also increases the activity of catabolic processes. It may be the primary factor regulating endocrine and nervous systems.

  8. Earthing the Human Body Influences Physiologic Processes (United States)

    Sokal, Karol


    Abstract Objectives This study was designed to answer the question: Does the contact of the human organism with the Earth via a copper conductor affect physiologic processes? Subjects and experiments Five (5) experiments are presented: experiment 1—effect of earthing on calcium–phosphate homeostasis and serum concentrations of iron (N = 84 participants); experiment 2—effect of earthing on serum concentrations of electrolytes (N = 28); experiment 3—effect of earthing on thyroid function (N = 12); experiment 4—effect of earthing on glucose concentration (N = 12); experiment 5—effect of earthing on immune response to vaccine (N = 32). Subjects were divided into two groups. One (1) group of people was earthed, while the second group remained without contact with the Earth. Blood and urine samples were examined. Results Earthing of an electrically insulated human organism during night rest causes lowering of serum concentrations of iron, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and reduction of renal excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Earthing during night rest decreases free tri-iodothyronine and increases free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. The continuous earthing of the human body decreases blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Earthing decreases sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, total protein, and albumin concentrations while the levels of transferrin, ferritin, and globulins α1, α2, β, and γ increase. These results are statistically significant. Conclusions Earthing the human body influences human physiologic processes. This influence is observed during night relaxation and during physical activity. Effect of the earthing on calcium–phosphate homeostasis is the opposite of that which occurs in states of weightlessness. It also increases the activity of catabolic processes. It may be the primary factor regulating endocrine and nervous systems. PMID:21469913

  9. Planet earth a beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John


    In this incredible expedition into the origins, workings, and evolution of our home planet, John Gribbin, bestselling author of In Search of Schrödinger's Cat, The Scientists, and In Search of the Multiverse, does what he does best: taking four and a half billion years of mind-boggling science and digging out the best bits. From the physics of Newton and the geology of Wegener, to the environmentalism of Lovelock, this is a must read for Earth's scientists and residents alike. Trained as an astrophysicist at Cambridge University, John Gribbin is currently Visiting Fellow in Astronomy at the University of Sussex, England.

  10. Magnetic Rare-Earth Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majkrzak, C.F.; Gibbs, D.; Böni, P.


    The magnetic structures of several single‐crystal, magnetic rare‐earth superlattice systems grown by molecular‐beam epitaxy are reviewed. In particular, the results of recent neutron diffraction investigations of long‐range magnetic order in Gd‐Y, Dy‐Y, Gd‐Dy, and Ho‐Y periodic superlattices...... are presented. In the Gd‐Y system, an antiphase domain structure develops for certain Y layer spacings, whereas modified helical moment configurations are found to occur in the other systems, some of which are commensurate with the chemical superlattice wavelength. References are made to theoretical interaction...

  11. Earth Summit Science, policy discussed (United States)

    Leath, Audrey T.

    The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the “Earth Summit,” convenes in Rio de Janeiro on June 3. President Bush has pledged to attend part of the 2-week conference. The highlight of the summit will be the signing of an international framework convention to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The final elements of the agreement were negotiated in New York last week by representative of 143 countries. In anticipation of the Rio conference, the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources held two standing-roomonly hearings, reviewing the scientific basis for global warming due to greenhouse gases and discussing the details of the proposed convention.

  12. Fire in the Earth system. (United States)

    Bowman, David M J S; Balch, Jennifer K; Artaxo, Paulo; Bond, William J; Carlson, Jean M; Cochrane, Mark A; D'Antonio, Carla M; Defries, Ruth S; Doyle, John C; Harrison, Sandy P; Johnston, Fay H; Keeley, Jon E; Krawchuk, Meg A; Kull, Christian A; Marston, J Brad; Moritz, Max A; Prentice, I Colin; Roos, Christopher I; Scott, Andrew C; Swetnam, Thomas W; van der Werf, Guido R; Pyne, Stephen J


    Fire is a worldwide phenomenon that appears in the geological record soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants. Fire influences global ecosystem patterns and processes, including vegetation distribution and structure, the carbon cycle, and climate. Although humans and fire have always coexisted, our capacity to manage fire remains imperfect and may become more difficult in the future as climate change alters fire regimes. This risk is difficult to assess, however, because fires are still poorly represented in global models. Here, we discuss some of the most important issues involved in developing a better understanding of the role of fire in the Earth system.

  13. Earth Sciences annual report, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younker, L.W.; Donohue, M.L.; Peterson, S.J.


    The Earth Sciences Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory conducts work in support of the Laboratory's energy, defense, and research programs. The Department is organized into ten groups. Five of these -- Nuclear Waste Management, Fossil Energy, Containment, Verification, and Research -- represent major programmatic activities within the Department. Five others -- Experimental Geophysics, Geomechanics, Geology/Geological Engineering, Geochemistry, and Seismology/Applied Geophysics -- are major disciplinary areas that support these and other laboratory programs. This report summarizes work carried out in 1987 by each group and contains a bibliography of their 1987 publications

  14. Analyze satellite-tracking laser data in order to study satellite ephemerides, solid-Earth and ocean tides and laser system performance (United States)

    Gaposchkin, E. M.


    The decrease in the semimajor axis of Lageos is considerably larger than expected. Gravitational effects, reference system effects, solar radiation pressure, Earth albedo pressure, neutral atmospheric drag, the Poynting Robertson Effect, and electrodynamic effects were used in explaining the observations. Quick look data provided are used to determine the Earth's polar motion and length of day. This process is routine, and provides these geophysical data every five days.

  15. Radiological Impacts and Regulation of Rare Earth Elements in Non-Nuclear Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Ault


    Full Text Available Energy industries account for a significant portion of total rare earth usage, both in the US and worldwide. Rare earth minerals are frequently collocated with naturally occurring radioactive material, imparting an occupational radiological dose during recovery. This paper explores the extent to which rare earths are used by various non-nuclear energy industries and estimates the radiological dose which can be attributed to these industries on absolute and normalized scales. It was determined that typical rare earth mining results in an occupational collective dose of approximately 0.0061 person-mSv/t rare earth elements, amounting to a total of 330 person-mSv/year across all non-nuclear energy industries (about 60% of the annual collective dose from one pressurized water reactor operated in the US, although for rare earth mining the impact is spread out over many more workers. About half of the collective dose from non-nuclear energy production results from use of fuel cracking catalysts for oil refining, although given the extent of the oil industry, it is a small dose when normalized to the energy equivalent of the oil that is used annually. Another factor in energy industries’ reliance on rare earths is the complicated state of the regulation of naturally occurring radiological materials; correspondingly, this paper also explores regulatory and management implications.

  16. Pressure vessel failure at high internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laemmer, H.; Ritter, B.


    A RPV failure due to plastic instability was investigated using the ABAQUS finite element code together with a material model of thermal plasticity for large deformations. Not only rotational symmetric temperature distributions were studied, but also 'hot spots'. Calculations show that merely by the depletion of strength of the material - even at internal wall temperatures well below the melting point of the fuel elements of about 2000/2400 C - the critical internal pressure can decrease to values smaller than the operational pressure of 16 Mpa. (orig.)

  17. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System (United States)

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.


    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  18. Isotopes in the earth sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, Robert


    This book examines significant aspects of isotope applications in geology and geochemistry commencing with basic matters, such as atomic structure, stable nuclides and their fractionation, as well as the various decay modes of unstable nuclides. Modern mass spectrometry techniques including electrostatic tandem accelerators are followed by a review of radioisotope dating technology. The relatively new method using the rare earth elements samarium and neodymium are covered. Other geochronometers, applicable to both rocks and minerals not dateable otherwise, are included. A review is given of isotopes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere of the Earth. Those of oxygen and hydrogen together with the cosmogenic radionuclides tritium and radiocarbon are discussed in relation to the biosphere. The role of isotopes of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur is described and extended to fossil fuels and rocks as well as meteorites. Related themes such as Phanerozoic oceans, oceanic palaeothermometry, snow and ice stratigraphy and geothermal waters are covered. The field of isotopic palaeoecology is discussed. Radioactive wastes, their accumulation, dangers and disposal are investigated with especial reference to their environmental impacts.

  19. Contextualizing Earth Science Professional Development Courses for Geoscience Teachers in Boston: Earth Science II (Solid Earth) (United States)

    Pringle, M. S.; Kamerer, B.; Vugrin, M.; Miller, M.


    Earth Science II: The Solid Earth -- Earth History and Planetary Science -- is the second of two Earth Science courses, and one of eleven graduate level science Contextualized Content Courses (CCC), that have been developed by the Boston Science Partnership as part of an NSF-funded Math Science Partnership program. A core goal of these courses is to provide high level science content to middle and high school teachers while modeling good instructional practices directly tied to the Boston Public Schools and Massachusetts science curriculum frameworks. All of these courses emphasize hands-on, lab-based, inquiry-driven, student-centered lessons. The Earth Science II team aimed to strictly adhere to ABC (Activity Before Concept) and 5E/7E models of instruction, and limited lecture or teacher-centered instruction to the later “Explanation” stages of all lessons. We also introduced McNeill and Krajick’s Claim-Evidence-Reasoning (CER) model of scientific explanation for middle school classroom discourse, both as a powerful scaffold leading to higher levels of accountable talk in the classroom, and to model science as a social construct. Daily evaluations, dutifully filled out by the course participants and diligently read by the course instructors, were quite useful in adapting instruction to the needs of the class on a real-time basis. We find the structure of the CCC teaching teams - university-based faculty providing expert content knowledge, K-12-based faculty providing age appropriate pedagogies and specific links to the K-12 curriculum - quite a fruitful, two-way collaboration. From the students’ perspective, one of the most useful takeaways from the university-based faculty was “listening to experts model out loud how they reason,” whereas some of the more practical takeaways (i.e., lesson components directly portable to the classroom?) came from the K-12-based faculty. The main takeaways from the course as a whole were the promise to bring more hands

  20. Measuring fluid pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.S.


    A method and apparatus are described for measuring the pressure of a fluid having characteristics that make it unsuitable for connection directly to a pressure gauge. The method is particularly suitable for the periodic measurement of the pressure of a supply of liquid Na to Na-lubricated bearings of pumps for pumping Na from a reservoir to the bearing via a filter, the reservoir being contained in a closed vessel containing an inert blanket gas, such as Ar, above the Na. (UK)

  1. Superconductivity at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, N B; Ginzburg, N I


    Work published during the last 3 or 4 yrs concerning the effect of pressure on superconductivity is reviewed. Superconducting modifications of Si, Ge, Sb, Te, Se, P and Ce. Change of Fermi surface under pressure for nontransition metals. First experiments on the influence of pressure on the tunneling effect in superconductors provide new information on the nature of the change in phonon and electron energy spectra of metals under hydrostatic compression. 78 references.

  2. Fuel vapor pressure (FVAPRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.E.


    A subcode (FVAPRS) is described which calculates fuel vapor pressure. This subcode was developed as part of the fuel rod behavior modeling task performed at EG and G Idaho, Inc. The fuel vapor pressure subcode (FVAPRS), is presented and a discussion of literature data, steady state and transient fuel vapor pressure equations and estimates of the standard error of estimate to be expected with the FVAPRS subcode are included

  3. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals (United States)

    Kim, Chae Un [Ithaca, NY; Gruner, Sol M [Ithaca, NY


    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  4. Intelligent Design and Earth History (United States)

    Elders, W. A.


    Intelligent Design (ID), the idea that the Earth's biota was intelligently designed and created, is not a new species recently evolved by allopatric speciation at the fringes of the creationist gene pool. In spite of its new veneer of sophistication, ID is a variant of an already extant species of religious polemics. In the western world, arguments about causative relationships between the complexity of nature and the supernatural can be traced from the fifth century St. Augustine, to the eighteenth century David Hume and the nineteenth century William Paley. Along this descent tree some argued from the existence of supernatural agencies to the creation of nature with its complexities, while others argued from the complexities of nature to the existence of supernatural agencies. Today, Phillip Johnson promotes ID by attacking evolution rather than by presenting evidence for ID. He argues that the evidence for macroevolution is either absent, misinterpreted or fraudulent. His "Wedge Strategy" attempts to separate his "objective science" from the "philosophical mechanistic naturalism" which he posits is responsible for the survival of Darwinism. To make his appeal as wide as possible he tries not to offend anyone (except evolutionists) by deliberately avoiding discussion of biblical literalism or the age of the Earth. Although in 1859 Darwin admitted that the geological evidence was "the most obvious and gravest objection which can be urged against my theory", subsequently geological evidence has become one of the chief supports of his theory. However, the fossil record is now seen to be not simply one of slow gradual descent with modification. Rates of divergence and disappearance of organisms have varied enormously through time. Repeated mass extinctions indicate a strong element of contingency in evolution. Accepting the postulate of an intelligent designer also requires the postulate of an intelligent destroyer. Darwin hinted at this when he referred to, "The

  5. a Walk Through Earth's Time (United States)

    Turrin, B. D.; Turrin, M.


    After "What is this rock?" the most common questions that is asked of Geologists is "How old is this rock/fossil?" For geologists considering ages back to millions of years is routine. Sorting and cataloguing events into temporal sequences is a natural tendency for all humans. In fact, it is an everyday activity for humans, i.e., keeping track of birthdays, anniversaries, appointments, meetings, AGU abstract deadlines etc… However, the time frames that are most familiar to the non scientist (seconds, minutes, hours, days, years) generally extend to only a few decades or at most centuries. Yet the vast length of time covered by Earth's history, 4.56 billion years, greatly exceeds these timeframes and thus is commonly referred to as "Deep Time". This is a challenging concept for most students to comprehend as it involves temporal and abstract thinking, yet it is key to their successful understanding of numerous geologic principles. We have developed an outdoor learning activity for general Introductory Earth Science courses that incorporates several scientific and geologic concepts such as: linear distance or stratigraphic thickness representing time, learning about major events in Earth's history and locating them in a scaled temporal framework, field mapping, abstract thinking, scaling and dimensional analysis, and the principles of radio isotopic dating. The only supplies needed are readily available in local hardware stores i.e. a 300 ft. surveyor's tape marked in feet, and tenths and hundredths of a foot, and the student's own introductory geology textbook. The exercise employs a variety of pedagogical learning modalities, including traditional lecture-based, the use of Art/Drawing, use of Visualization, Collaborative learning, and Kinesthetic and Experiential learning. Initially the students are exposed to the concept of "Deep Time" in a short conventional introductory lecture; this is followed by a 'field day'. Prior to the field exercise, students work with

  6. Solar wind and its interaction with the Earth magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grib, S.A.


    A critical review is given regarding the research of the stationary and non-stationary interaction of the solar wind with the Earth magnetosphere. Highlighted is the significance of the interplanetary magnetic field in the non-stationary movement of the solar wind flux. The problem of the solar wind shock waves interaction with the ''bow wave-Earth's magnetosphere'' system is being solved. Considered are the secondary phenomena, as a result of which the depression-type wave occurs, that lowers the pressure on the Earth's maanetosphere. The law, governing the movement of the magnetosphere subsolar point during the abrupt start of a geomagnetic storm has been discovered. Stationary circumvention of the magnetosphere by the solar wind flux is well described by the gas dynamic theory of the hypersonic flux. Non-stationary interaction of the solar wind shock waves with the magnetosphere is magnetohydrodynamic. It is pointed out, that the problems under consideration are important for the forecasting of strong geomagnetic perturbations on the basis of cosmic observations

  7. Google Earth: A Virtual Globe for Elementary Geography (United States)

    Britt, Judy; LaFontaine, Gus


    Originally called Earth Viewer in 2004, Google Earth was the first virtual globe easily available to the ordinary user of the Internet. Google Earth, at, is a free, 3-dimensional computer model of Earth, but that means more than just a large collection of pretty pictures. It allows the viewer to "fly" anywhere on Earth "to view…

  8. Low-energy near Earth asteroid capture using Earth flybys and aerobraking (United States)

    Tan, Minghu; McInnes, Colin; Ceriotti, Matteo


    Since the Sun-Earth libration points L1 and L2 are regarded as ideal locations for space science missions and candidate gateways for future crewed interplanetary missions, capturing near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) around the Sun-Earth L1/L2 points has generated significant interest. Therefore, this paper proposes the concept of coupling together a flyby of the Earth and then capturing small NEAs onto Sun-Earth L1/L2 periodic orbits. In this capture strategy, the Sun-Earth circular restricted three-body problem (CRTBP) is used to calculate target Lypaunov orbits and their invariant manifolds. A periapsis map is then employed to determine the required perigee of the Earth flyby. Moreover, depending on the perigee distance of the flyby, Earth flybys with and without aerobraking are investigated to design a transfer trajectory capturing a small NEA from its initial orbit to the stable manifolds associated with Sun-Earth L1/L2 periodic orbits. Finally, a global optimization is carried out, based on a detailed design procedure for NEA capture using an Earth flyby. Results show that the NEA capture strategies using an Earth flyby with and without aerobraking both have the potential to be of lower cost in terms of energy requirements than a direct NEA capture strategy without the Earth flyby. Moreover, NEA capture with an Earth flyby also has the potential for a shorter flight time compared to the NEA capture strategy without the Earth flyby.

  9. Magnetism in rare-earth metals and rare-earth intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, B.; Nordstroem, L.; Eriksson, O.; Brooks, M.S.S.


    Some of out recent local spin density electronic structure calculations for a number of ferromagnetic rare-earth systems are reviewed. A simplified model of the level densities for rare-earth (R) transition metal (M) intermetallic compounds, R m M n , is used to describe in a simple way the main features of their basic electronic structure. Explicit calculations for LuFe 2 and RFe 2 (R=Gd-Yb) systems are presented, where a method to treat simultaneously the localized 4f and the conduction electron spin magnetism is introduced. Thereby it becomes possible to calculate the K RM exchange coupling constant. This method is also used to study theoretically the permanent magnet material Nd 2 Fe 14 B. The electronic structure of the anomalous ferromagnets CeFe 2 and CeCo 5 is discussed and an induced 4f itinerant magnetism is predicted. The γ-α transition in cerium metal is considered, and results from calculations including orbital polarization are presented, where a volume collapse of 10% is obtained. On one side of the transition the 4f electrons are calculated to be essentially non-bonding (localized) and on the other side they are found to contribute to the metallic bonding and this difference in behaviour gives rise to the volume collapse. Recent calculations by Wills, Eriksson and Boring for the crystal structure changes in cerium metal under high pressure are discussed. Their successful results imply an itinerant picture for the 4f electrons in α-cerium. Consequently this strongly supports the view that the γ-α phase transformation is caused by a Mott transition of the 4f electrons. (orig.)

  10. Lattice thermal conductivity of silicate glasses at high pressures (United States)

    Chang, Y. Y.; Hsieh, W. P.


    Knowledge of the thermodynamic and transport properties of magma holds the key to understanding the thermal evolution and chemical differentiation of Earth. The discovery of the remnant of a deep magma ocean above the core mantle boundary (CMB) from seismic observations suggest that the CMB heat flux would strongly depend on the thermal conductivity, including lattice (klat) and radiative (krad) components, of dense silicate melts and major constituent minerals around the region. Recent measurements on the krad of dense silicate glasses and lower-mantle minerals show that krad of dense silicate glasses could be significantly smaller than krad of the surrounding solid mantle phases, and therefore the dense silicate melts would act as a thermal insulator in deep lower mantle. This conclusion, however, remains uncertain due to the lack of direct measurements on the lattice thermal conductivity of silicate melts under relevant pressure-temperature conditions. Besides the CMB, magmas exist in different circumstances beneath the surface of the Earth. Chemical compositions of silicate melts vary with geological and geodynamic settings of the melts and have strong influences on their thermal properties. In order to have a better view of heat transport within the Earth, it is important to study compositional and pressure dependences of thermal properties of silicate melts. Here we report experimental results on lattice thermal conductivities of silicate glasses with basaltic and rhyolitic compositions up to Earth's lower mantle pressures using time-domain thermoreflectance coupled with diamond-anvil cell techniques. This study not only provides new data for the thermal conductivity of silicate melts in the Earth's deep interior, but is crucial for further understanding of the evolution of Earth's complex internal structure.

  11. Experimental evidence of body centered cubic iron in Earth's core (United States)

    Hrubiak, R.; Meng, Y.; Shen, G.


    The Earth's core is mainly composed of iron. While seismic evidence has shown a liquid outer core and a solid inner core, the crystalline nature of the solid iron at the core condition remains debated, largely due to the difficulties in experimental determination of exact polymorphs at corresponding pressure-temperature conditions. We have examined crystal structures of iron up to 220 GPa and 6000 K with x-ray diffraction using a double-sided laser heating system at HPCAT, Advanced Photon Source. The iron sample is confined in a small chamber surrounded by single crystal MgO. The laser power can be modulated together with temperature measurements. The modulated heating of iron in an MgO single crystal matrix allows for microstructure analysis during heating and after the sample is quenched. We present experimental evidence of a body-centered-cubic (BCC) iron from about 100 GPa and 3000 K to at least 220 GPa and 4000 K. The observed BCC phase may be consistent with a theoretically predicted BCC phase that is dynamically stable in similar pressure-temperature conditions [1]. We will discuss the stability region of the BCC phase and the melting curve of iron and their implications in the nature of the Earth's inner core. References: A. B. Belonoshko et al., Nat. Geosci., 1-6 (2017).

  12. Pressurized water reactor with reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werres, L.


    The pressure vessel has a cylindrical jacket with a domed floor. A guide is arranged on the domed floor to even out the flow in the core. It consists of a cylindrical jacket, whose lower end has slots and fins. These fins are welded to the domed floor. (orig./PW)

  13. Pressurized water reactor with reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werres, L.


    The pressure vessel has a cylindrical jacket with a domed floor. A guide is arranged on the domed floor to even out the flow in the core. It consists of a cylindrical jacket, whose lower end has slots and fins. These fins are welded to the domed floor. (DG) [de

  14. Magnetic Storms at Mars and Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup

    In analogy with magnetic storms at the Earth, periods of significantly enhanced global magnetic activity also exist at Mars. The extensive database of magnetic measurements from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), covering almost an entire solar cycle, is used in combination with geomagnetic activity...... indices at Earth to compare the occurrence of magnetic storms at Mars and Earth. Based on superposed epochs analysis the time-development of typical magnetic storms at Mars and Earth is described. In contradiction to storms at Earth, most magnetic storms at Mars are found to be associated...... with heliospheric current sheet crossings, where the IMF changes polarity. While most storms at the Earth occur due to significant southward excursions of the IMF associated with CMEs, at Mars most storms seem to be associated with the density enhancement of the heliospheric current sheet. Density enhancements...

  15. Earth's earliest biosphere: Its origin and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopf, J.W.


    Some of the subjects discussed are related to the early biogeologic history, the nature of the earth prior to the oldest known rock record, the early earth and the Archean rock record, the prebiotic organic syntheses and the origin of life, Precambrian organic geochemistry, the biochemical evolution of anaerobic energy conversion, the isotopic inferences of ancient biochemistries, Archean stromatolites providing evidence of the earth's earliest benthos, Archean microfossils, the geologic evolution of the Archean-Early Proterozoic earth, and the environmental evolution of the Archean-Early Proterozoic earth. Other topics examined are concerned with geochemical evidence bearing on the origin of aerobiosis, biological and biochemical effects of the development of an aerobic environment, Early Proterozoic microfossils, the evolution of earth's earliest ecosystems, and geographic and geologic data for processed rock samples. Attention is given to a processing procedure for abiotic samples and calculation of model atmospheric compositions, and procedures of organic geochemical analysis

  16. Earth Surface Processes, Landforms and Sediment Deposits (United States)

    Bridge, John; Demicco, Robert

    Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits are intimately related - involving erosion of rocks, generation of sediment, and transport and deposition of sediment through various Earth surface environments. These processes, and the landforms and deposits that they generate, have a fundamental bearing on engineering, environmental and public safety issues; on recovery of economic resources; and on our understanding of Earth history. This unique textbook brings together the traditional disciplines of sedimentology and geomorphology to explain Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits in a comprehensive and integrated way. It is the ideal resource for a two-semester course in sedimentology, stratigraphy, geomorphology, and Earth surface processes from the intermediate undergraduate to beginning graduate level. The book is also accompanied by a website hosting illustrations and material on field and laboratory methods for measuring, describing and analyzing Earth surface processes, landforms and sediments.

  17. Geohistory. Global evolution of the earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozima, Minoru


    A full understanding of the earth's evolution can be achieved only by considering it as a continuous process starting with the birth of the solar system. This book traces the evolution of the earth, mainly on the basis of radiogenic isotopes from long half-life parent elements, and discusses it in terms of the latest developments in astrophysical theory, which impose unique constraints on the earth's origin and early evolution. By its 'historical' nature, geohistorical study also offers a unique approach to forecasting the future of the earth, yielding useful clues for the understanding of environmental problems, such as radioactive waste disposal. This book aims to provide an outline of global evolution of the planet earth for students of general science and for earth scientists.

  18. Raman scattering of rare earth hexaborides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogita, Norio; Hasegawa, Takumi; Udagawa, Masayuki; Iga, Fumitoshi; Kunii, Satoru


    Raman scattering spectra were measured for the rare-earth hexaborides RB 6 (R = Ce, Gd, or Dy). All Raman-active phonons due to B 6 vibrations were observed in the range 600 - 1400 cm -1 . Anomalous peaks were detected below 200 cm -1 , which correspond to vibrations of rare-earth ion excited by second-order Raman scattering process. The intensity and energy of the rare-earth mode decrease with decreasing temperature. This suggests that the rare-earth ion vibrates in a shallow and anharmonic potential due to the boron cage. Using the reported values of mean square displacement of rare-earth ion, we estimated the anharmonic contribution for the rare-earth vibrations.

  19. Investigation of the spatial variability and possible origins of wind-induced air pressure fluctuations responsible for pressure pumping (United States)

    Mohr, Manuel; Laemmel, Thomas; Maier, Martin; Zeeman, Matthias; Longdoz, Bernard; Schindler, Dirk


    The exchange of greenhouse gases between the soil and the atmosphere is highly relevant for the climate of the Earth. Recent research suggests that wind-induced air pressure fluctuations can alter the soil gas transport and therefore soil gas efflux significantly. Using a newly developed method, we measured soil gas transport in situ in a well aerated forest soil. Results from these measurements showed that the commonly used soil gas diffusion coefficient is enhanced up to 30% during periods of strong wind-induced air pressure fluctuations. The air pressure fluctuations above the forest floor are only induced at high above-canopy wind speeds (> 5 m s-1) and lie in the frequency range 0.01-0.1 Hz. Moreover, the amplitudes of air pressure fluctuations in this frequency range show a clear quadratic dependence on mean above-canopy wind speed. However, the origin of these wind-induced pressure fluctuations is still unclear. Airflow measurements and high-precision air pressure measurements were conducted at three different vegetation-covered sites (conifer forest, deciduous forest, grassland) to investigate the spatial variability of dominant air pressure fluctuations, their origin and vegetation-dependent characteristics. At the conifer forest site, a vertical profile of air pressure fluctuations was measured and an array consisting of five pressure sensors were installed at the forest floor. At the grassland site, the air pressure measurements were compared with wind observations made by ground-based LIDAR and spatial temperature observations from a fibre-optic sensing network (ScaleX Campaign 2016). Preliminary results show that at all sites the amplitudes of relevant air pressure fluctuations increase with increasing wind speed. Data from the array measurements reveal that there are no time lags between the air pressure signals of different heights, but a time lag existed between the air pressure signals of the sensors distributed laterally on the forest floor

  20. "Thinking about a Sustainable Earth" (United States)

    Ikeshita, Makoto


    1.Introduction The Course of study for Junior high school teaching was changed in 2008 in Japan. We should especially mention about this change that ESD, "Education for Sustainable Development," was written as a point of view. ESD is a kind of educations that is studied with a target for a region and that aims at reorganize of consciousness through thinking of how to be a better region. ESD's view was written for Social studies, Science, Foreign Languages, Health and Physical Education, Home Economics and Technical Arts, and the Period for Integrated Studies. Of these subjects, Social studies are the one of core subjects. Social studies for Junior high school consist of Geography, History and Civics. "Problem of us and international society" is the last part of Civics. Teacher helps students to understand international society deeply and think about the role of our country for it. Students research many problems (global environment, resources and energy, poverty etc.) and organize their thoughts on how make a better society as a part of the human family. I taught them to think about how to solve many themes like religious problems, terrorism problems, the North-South problems, and resource and energy problems. It is my practice to let them think about what they should do to solve the global warming problem. 2.The truth of my class I pointed out to the students that the length of summer time in Japan is increasing, and we can anticipate it will continue to increase in the future. After that, I explained to them that occurrence of sudden, heavy downpour of rain is increasing and helped them understand the process of this kind of downpour through some diagrams and pictures. I helped them understand the context of this increase of the length of summer time and heavy downpour within the whole earth's ecosystem. Such increases as these things are causing global warming. I asked them to think about what are the possible problems if global warming progresses. The ideas the

  1. Grid for Earth Science Applications (United States)

    Petitdidier, Monique; Schwichtenberg, Horst


    The civil society at large has addressed to the Earth Science community many strong requirements related in particular to natural and industrial risks, climate changes, new energies. The main critical point is that on one hand the civil society and all public ask for certainties i.e. precise values with small error range as it concerns prediction at short, medium and long term in all domains; on the other hand Science can mainly answer only in terms of probability of occurrence. To improve the answer or/and decrease the uncertainties, (1) new observational networks have been deployed in order to have a better geographical coverage and more accurate measurements have been carried out in key locations and aboard satellites. Following the OECD recommendations on the openness of research and public sector data, more and more data are available for Academic organisation and SMEs; (2) New algorithms and methodologies have been developed to face the huge data processing and assimilation into simulations using new technologies and compute resources. Finally, our total knowledge about the complex Earth system is contained in models and measurements, how we put them together has to be managed cleverly. The technical challenge is to put together databases and computing resources to answer the ES challenges. However all the applications are very intensive computing. Different compute solutions are available and depend on the characteristics of the applications. One of them is Grid especially efficient for independent or embarrassingly parallel jobs related to statistical and parametric studies. Numerous applications in atmospheric chemistry, meteorology, seismology, hydrology, pollution, climate and biodiversity have been deployed successfully on Grid. In order to fulfill requirements of risk management, several prototype applications have been deployed using OGC (Open geospatial Consortium) components with Grid middleware. The Grid has permitted via a huge number of runs to

  2. Korea Earth Observation Satellite Program (United States)

    Baek, Myung-Jin; Kim, Zeen-Chul

    via Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as the prime contractor in the area of Korea earth observation satellite program to enhance Korea's space program development capability. In this paper, Korea's on-going and future earth observation satellite programs are introduced: KOMPSAT- 1 (Korea Multi Purpose Satellite-1), KOMPSAT-2 and Communication, Broadcasting and Meteorological Satellite (CBMS) program. KOMPSAT-1 satellite successfully launched in December 1999 with Taurus launch vehicle. Since launch, KOMPSAT-1 is downlinking images of Korea Peninsular every day. Until now, KOMPSAT-1 has been operated more than 2 and half years without any major hardware malfunction for the mission operation. KOMPSAT-1 payload has 6.6m panchromatic spatial resolution at 685 km on-orbit and the spacecraft bus had NASA TOMS-EP (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe) spacecraft bus heritage designed and built by TRW, U.S.A.KOMPSAT-1 program was international co-development program between KARI and TRW funded by Korean Government. be launched in 2004. Main mission objective is to provide geo-information products based on the multi-spectral high resolution sensor called Multi-Spectral Camera (MSC) which will provide 1m panchromatic and 4m multi-spectral high resolution images. ELOP of Israel is the prime contractor of the MSC payload system and KARI is the total system prime contractor including spacecraft bus development and ground segment. KARI also has the contract with Astrium of Europe for the purpose of technical consultation and hardware procurement. Based on the experience throughout KOMPSAT-1 and KOMPSAT-2 space system development, Korea is expecting to establish the infrastructure of developing satellite system. Currently, KOMPSAT-2 program is in the critical design stage. are scheduled to launch in 2008 and in 2014, respectively. The mission of CBMS consists of two areas. One is of space technology test for the communications mission, and the other is of a real

  3. Ab-initio study of pressure evolution of structural, mechanical and magnetic properties of cementite (Fe3C) phase (United States)

    Gorai, S.; Ghosh, P. S.; Bhattacharya, C.; Arya, A.


    The pressure evolution of phase stability, structural and mechanical properties of Fe3C in ferro-magnetic (FM) and high pressure non magnetic (NM) phase is investigated from first principle calculations. The 2nd order FM to NM phase transition of Fe3C is identified around 60 GPa. Pressure (or density) variation of sound velocities from our ab-initio calculated single crystal elastic constants are determined to predict these parameters at Earth's outer core pressure.

  4. Rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinjoh, Hirohumi


    The usage of rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts is demonstrated in this paper. Rare earth metals have been widely used in automotive catalysts. In particular, three-way catalysts require the use of ceria compounds as oxygen storage materials, and lanthana as both a stabilizer of alumina and a promoter. The application for diesel catalysts is also illustrated. Effects of inclusion of rare earth metals in automotive catalysts are discussed

  5. Rare earth industries: Strategies for Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Evidently, many reports cite Malaysia as having reasonably substantial amounts of rare earths elements. In fact, based on the rare earths found in the residual tin deposits alone, Malaysia has about 30,000 tonnes. This does not take into account unmapped deposits which experts believe may offer more tonnages of rare earths. Brazil which is reported to have about 48,000 tonnes has announced plans to invest aggressively in the rare earths business. China has on record the largest reserves with about 36 million tonnes. This explains why China has invested heavily in the entire value chain of the rare earths business. Chinas committed investment in rare earths started many years ago when the country's foremost leaders proclaimed the strategic position of rare earths in the world economy. That forecast is now a reality where the rise in the green high-tech economy is seen driving global demand for rare earths in a big way. Malaysia needs to discover and venture into new economic growth areas. This will help fuel the country's drive to achieve a high income status by 2020 as articulated in the New Economic Model (NEM) and the many supporting Economic Transformation Plans that the Government has recently launched. Rare earths may be the new growth area for Malaysia. However, the business opportunities should not just be confined to the mining, extraction and production of rare earths elements alone if Malaysia is to maximise benefits from this industry. The industry's gold mine is in the downstream products. This is also the sector that China wants to expand. Japan which now controls about 50 % of the global market for downstream rare earths-based high-tech components is desperately looking for partners to grow their stake in the business. Malaysia needs to embark on the right strategies in order to build the rare earths industry in the country. What are the strategies? (author)

  6. Cosmology and the expanding Earth hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tryon, E.P.


    The standard model of cosmology is briefly presented, together with a recent conjecture that the initial matter in the universe might have been spontaneously created from nothing as a result of relativistic quantum physics. The possibility of Earth expansion from a continuing creation of matter is then considered. A critique is presented of efforts to relate Earth expansion to the Hubble expansion of the universe. Possible changes in Earth radius as a result of diminishing gravity are also discussed

  7. Rare earth - no case for government intervention


    Georg Zachmann


    China has officially restricted exports of rare earth for several years and announced this year it will further tighten exports. Rare earth is a group of 17 different metals, usually found clustered together. These metals have hundreds of different industry applications. For example, they are used in certain high capacity magnets, batteries and lasers. As the rare earth elements are used in sectors that are assumed to have an over-proportionate growth potential (eg. green-technology), policy ...

  8. Elasticity of methane hydrate phases at high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beam, Jennifer; Yang, Jing; Liu, Jin [Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Liu, Chujie [Laboratory of Seismology and Physics of Earth’s Interior, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Lin, Jung-Fu, E-mail: [Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Center for High Pressure Science and Advanced Technology Research (HPSTAR), Shanghai 201203 (China)


    Determination of the full elastic constants (c{sub ij}) of methane hydrates (MHs) at extreme pressure-temperature environments is essential to our understanding of the elastic, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties of methane in MH reservoirs on Earth and icy satellites in the solar system. Here, we have investigated the elastic properties of singe-crystal cubic MH-sI, hexagonal MH-II, and orthorhombic MH-III phases at high pressures in a diamond anvil cell. Brillouin light scattering measurements, together with complimentary equation of state (pressure-density) results from X-ray diffraction and methane site occupancies in MH from Raman spectroscopy, were used to derive elastic constants of MH-sI, MH-II, and MH-III phases at high pressures. Analysis of the elastic constants for MH-sI and MH-II showed intriguing similarities and differences between the phases′ compressional wave velocity anisotropy and shear wave velocity anisotropy. Our results show that these high-pressure MH phases can exhibit distinct elastic, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties at relevant environments of their respective natural reservoirs. These results provide new insight into the determination of how much methane exists in MH reservoirs on Earth and on icy satellites elsewhere in the solar system and put constraints on the pressure and temperature conditions of their environment.

  9. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and how can it be increased? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_ ...

  10. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (United States)

    ... other risk factors, like diabetes, you may need treatment. How does high blood pressure affect pregnant women? A few women will get ... HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy Menopause More Women's Health ... High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Women and Diabetes Heart ...

  11. High-pressure crystallography (United States)

    Katrusiak, A.


    The history and development of high-pressure crystallography are briefly described and examples of structural transformations in compressed compounds are given. The review is focused on the diamond-anvil cell, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, the principles of its operation and the impact it has had on high-pressure X-ray diffraction.

  12. Neonatal Pressure Ulcer Prevention. (United States)

    Scheans, Patricia


    The incidence of pressure ulcers in acutely ill infants and children ranges up to 27 percent in intensive care units, with a range of 16-19 percent in NICUs. Anatomic, physiologic, and developmental factors place ill and preterm newborns at risk for skin breakdown. Two case studies illustrate these factors, and best practices for pressure ulcer prevention are described.

  13. Absorption band Q model for the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.L.; Given, J.W.


    Body wave, surface wave, and normal mode data are used to place constraints on the frequency dependence of Q in the mantle. With a simple absorption band model it is possible to satisfy the shear sensitive data over a broad frequency range. The quality factor Q/sub s/(ω) is proportional to ω/sup α/ in the band and to ω and ω -1 at higher and lower frequencies, respectively, as appropriate for a relaxation mechanism with a spectrum of relaxation time. The parameters of the band are Q(min) = 80, α = 0.15, and width, 5 decades. The center of the band varies from 10 1 seconds in the upper mantle, to 1.6 x 10 3 seconds in the lower mantle. The shift of the band with depth is consistent with the expected effects of temperature, pressure and stress. High Q, regions of the mantle are attributed to a shift of the absorption band to longer periods. To satisfy the gravest fundamental spheroidal modes and the ScS data, the absorption band must shift back into the short-period seismic band at the base of the mantle. This may be due to a high temperature gradient or high shear stresses. A preliminary attempt is also made to specify bulk dissipation in the mantle and core. Specific features of the absorption band model are low Q in the body wave band at both the top and the base of the mantle, low Q for long-period body waves in the outer core, an inner core Q 2 that increases with period, and low Q/sub p//Q/sub s/ at short periods in the middle mantel. The short-period Q/sub s/ increases rapidly at 400 km and is relatively constant from this depth to 2400 km. The deformational Q of the earth at a period of 14 months is predicted to be 463

  14. International Year of Planet Earth - Activities and Plans in Mexico (United States)

    Alaniz-Alvarez, S.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.


    IYPE started as a joint initiative by UNESCO and IUGS with participation of several geosciences organizations, and has developed into a major program in geosciences with inclusion of national committees. In this presentation we focus on current activities and plans in our country, and in the international activities. IYPE activities have concentrated in publications and organization of conferences and meetings. A book series on Earth Science Experiments for Children has been defined, with the first books published on "Atmospheric Pressure and Free Fall of Objects" and "Light and Colors". Following books are on "Standing on Archimedes" and "Foucault and the Climate". Books are distributed free to school children, with more than 10,000 copies given of first volume. Other publications include the special issues of El Faro science magazine edited by the National University, with last issue published and distributed electronically and in hard copies this August. Special events include Conference of IYPE Executive Director presented during the International Day of Science Museums in late May in Science Museum Universum. This was followed by a Planet Earth Week in the University. Current plans include an electronic open-access publication, additional publications of the Planet Earth series, articles and special issues in journals and magazines, and events on selected themes from the IYPE science program, particularly on Megacities, Hazards, Resources and Life. The metropolitan area of Mexico City, with around 20 million inhabitants presents special challenges, being at high altitude within an active tectonic and volcanic area requiring major efforts in water supply, water control, rains and waste disposal and management. Involvement in international activities includes translation into Spanish of IYPE publications and the participation in programs and activities. In addition to activities in the different countries, we consider that IYPE should result in initiatives for

  15. Phase Curve Analysis of Super-Earth 55 Cancri e (United States)

    Angelo, Isabel; Hu, Renyu


    One of the primary questions when characterizing Earth-sized and super-Earth-sized exoplanets is whether they have a substantial atmosphere like Earth and Venus, or a bare-rock surface that may come with a tenuous atmosphere like Mercury. Phase curves of the planets in thermal emission provide clues to this question, because a substantial atmosphere would transport heat more efficiently than a bare-rock surface. Analyzing phase curve photometric data around secondary eclipse has previously been used to study energy transport in the atmospheres of hot Jupiters. Here we use phase curve, Spitzer time-series photometry to study the thermal emission properties of the super-Earth exoplanet 55 Cancri e. We utilize a previously developed semi-analytical framework to fit a physical model to infrared photometric data of host star 55 Cancri from the Spitzer telescope IRAC 2 band at 4.5 μm. The model uses various parameters of planetary properties including Bond albedo, heat redistribution efficiency (i.e., the ratio between the radiative timescale and advective timescale of the photosphere), and atmospheric greenhouse factor. The phase curve of 55 Cancri e is dominated by thermal emission with an eastward-shifted hot spot located on the planet surface. We determine the heat redistribution efficiency to be ≈1.47, which implies that the advective timescale is on the same order as the radiative timescale. This requirement from the phase curve cannot be met by the bare-rock planet scenario, because heat transport by currents of molten lava would be too slow. The phase curve thus favors the scenario with a substantial atmosphere. Our constraints on the heat redistribution efficiency translate to a photosphere pressure of ~1.4 bar. The Spitzer IRAC 2 band is thus a window into the deep atmosphere of the planet 55 Cancri e.

  16. Network Analysis of Earth's Co-Evolving Geosphere and Biosphere (United States)

    Hazen, R. M.; Eleish, A.; Liu, C.; Morrison, S. M.; Meyer, M.; Consortium, K. D.


    A fundamental goal of Earth science is the deep understanding of Earth's dynamic, co-evolving geosphere and biosphere through deep time. Network analysis of geo- and bio- `big data' provides an interactive, quantitative, and predictive visualization framework to explore complex and otherwise hidden high-dimension features of diversity, distribution, and change in the evolution of Earth's geochemistry, mineralogy, paleobiology, and biochemistry [1]. Networks also facilitate quantitative comparison of different geological time periods, tectonic settings, and geographical regions, as well as different planets and moons, through network metrics, including density, centralization, diameter, and transitivity.We render networks by employing data related to geographical, paragenetic, environmental, or structural relationships among minerals, fossils, proteins, and microbial taxa. An important recent finding is that the topography of many networks reflects parameters not explicitly incorporated in constructing the network. For example, networks for minerals, fossils, and protein structures reveal embedded qualitative time axes, with additional network geometries possibly related to extinction and/or other punctuation events (see Figure). Other axes related to chemical activities and volatile fugacities, as well as pressure and/or depth of formation, may also emerge from network analysis. These patterns provide new insights into the way planets evolve, especially Earth's co-evolving geosphere and biosphere. 1. Morrison, S.M. et al. (2017) Network analysis of mineralogical systems. American Mineralogist 102, in press. Figure Caption: A network of Phanerozoic Era fossil animals from the past 540 million years includes blue, red, and black circles (nodes) representing family-level taxa and grey lines (links) between coexisting families. Age information was not used in the construction of this network; nevertheless an intrinsic timeline is embedded in the network topology. In

  17. Energy from heaven and earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Today, almost everybody is affected by problems relating to energy, above all the high cost of energy. Professor Dr. Edward Teller, one of the outstanding nuclear physicists of our time, has devoted many years of research work to investigate the various aspects of the energy shortage, and to find out appropriate ways and means of solving this problem. Following a series of lectures held in the USA and in Israel, he has now published a book entitled Energy from heaven and earth, which is also available in German under the title Energie fuer ein neues Jahrtausend. In the interview given here, Professor Teller explains some of the statements made in his book. (orig.) [de

  18. Substorms in the earth's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.N.


    Magnetospheres are plasma regions of large scale in space dominated by magnetic field effects. The earth, and many planets in our solar system, are known to have magnetospheric regions around them. Magnetospheric substorms represent the intense, rapid dissipation of energy that has been extracted from the solar wind and stored temporarily in the terrestrial magnetotail. In this paper a widely, but not universally, accepted model of substorms is described. The energy budgets, time scales, and conversion efficiencies for substorms are presented. The primary forms of substorm energy dissipation are given along with the average levels of the dissipation. Aspects of particle acceleration and precipitation, Joule heating mechanisms, ring current formation, and plasmoid escape are illustrated based on in situ observations taken from the large available data base. A brief description is given of possible analogues of substorm-like behavior in other astrophysical systems. 27 references, 12 figures

  19. Earth System Science Education Modules (United States)

    Hall, C.; Kaufman, C.; Humphreys, R. R.; Colgan, M. W.


    The College of Charleston is developing several new geoscience-based education modules for integration into the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA). These three new modules provide opportunities for science and pre-service education students to participate in inquiry-based, data-driven experiences. The three new modules will be discussed in this session. Coastal Crisis is a module that analyzes rapidly changing coastlines and uses technology - remotely sensed data and geographic information systems (GIS) to delineate, understand and monitor changes in coastal environments. The beaches near Charleston, SC are undergoing erosion and therefore are used as examples of rapidly changing coastlines. Students will use real data from NASA, NOAA and other federal agencies in the classroom to study coastal change. Through this case study, learners will acquire remotely sensed images and GIS data sets from online sources, utilize those data sets within Google Earth or other visualization programs, and understand what the data is telling them. Analyzing the data will allow learners to contemplate and make predictions on the impact associated with changing environmental conditions, within the context of a coastal setting. To Drill or Not To Drill is a multidisciplinary problem based module to increase students’ knowledge of problems associated with nonrenewable resource extraction. The controversial topic of drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) examines whether the economic benefit of the oil extracted from ANWR is worth the social cost of the environmental damage that such extraction may inflict. By attempting to answer this question, learners must balance the interests of preservation with the economic need for oil. The learners are exposed to the difficulties associated with a real world problem that requires trade-off between environmental trust and economic well-being. The Citizen Science module challenges students to translate scientific

  20. Biological Extinction in Earth History (United States)

    Raup, David M.


    Virtually all plant and animal species that have ever lived on the earth are extinct. For this reason alone, extinction must play an important role in the evolution of life. The five largest mass extinctions of the past 600 million years are of greatest interest, but there is also a spectrum of smaller events, many of which indicate biological systems in profound stress. Extinction may be episodic at all scales, with relatively long periods of stability alternating with short-lived extinction events. Most extinction episodes are biologically selective, and further analysis of the victims and survivors offers the greatest chance of deducing the proximal causes of extinction. A drop in sea level and climatic change are most frequently invoked to explain mass extinctions, but new theories of collisions with extraterrestrial bodies are gaining favor. Extinction may be constructive in a Darwinian sense or it may only perturb the system by eliminating those organisms that happen to be susceptible to geologically rare stresses.

  1. Biological extinction in earth history (United States)

    Raup, D. M.


    Virtually all plant and animal species that have ever lived on the earth are extinct. For this reason alone, extinction must play an important role in the evolution of life. The five largest mass extinctions of the past 600 million years are of greatest interest, but there is also a spectrum of smaller events, many of which indicate biological systems in profound stress. Extinction may be episodic at all scales, with relatively long periods of stability alternating with short-lived extinction events. Most extinction episodes are biologically selective, and further analysis of the victims and survivors offers the greatest chance of deducing the proximal causes of extinction. A drop in sea level and climatic change are most frequently invoked to explain mass extinctions, but new theories of collisions with extraterrestrial bodies are gaining favor. Extinction may be constructive in a Darwinian sense or it may only perturb the system by eliminating those organisms that happen to be susceptible to geologically rare stresses.

  2. The Earth's mantle and geoneutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorentini, Giovanni; Fogli, Gian Luigi; Lisi, Eligio; Mantovani, Fabio; Rotunno, Anna Maria; Xhixha, Gerti


    The KamLAND and Borexino experiments have observed, each at ∼4σ level, signals of electron antineutrinos produced in the decay chains of thorium and uranium in the Earth's crust and mantle (Th and U geoneutrinos). Various pieces of geochemical and geophysical information allow an estimation of the crustal geoneutrino flux components with relatively small uncertainties. The mantle component may then be inferred by subtracting the estimated crustal flux from the measured total flux. We find that crust-subtracted signals show hints of a residual mantle component, emerging at ∼2.4σ level by combining the KamLAND and Borexino data. The inferred mantle flux, slightly favoring scenarios with relatively high Th and U abundances, within ∼1σ uncertainties is comparable to the predictions from recent mantle models

  3. Looking at the earth from space (United States)

    Geller, Marvin A.


    Some of the scientific accomplishments attained in observing the earth from space are discussed. A brief overview of findings concerning the atmosphere, the oceans and sea ice, the solid earth, and the terrestrial hydrosphere and biosphere is presented, and six examples are examined in which space data have provided unique information enabling new knowledge concerning the workings of the earth to be derived. These examples concern stratospheric water vapor, hemispheric differences in surface and atmosphere parameters, Seasat altimeter mesoscale variability, variability of Antarctic sea ice, variations in the length of day, and spaceborne radar imaging of ancient rivers. Future space observations of the earth are briefly addressed.

  4. HABEBEE: habitability of eyeball-exo-Earths. (United States)

    Angerhausen, Daniel; Sapers, Haley; Citron, Robert; Bergantini, Alexandre; Lutz, Stefanie; Queiroz, Luciano Lopes; da Rosa Alexandre, Marcelo; Araujo, Ana Carolina Vieira


    Extrasolar Earth and super-Earth planets orbiting within the habitable zone of M dwarf host stars may play a significant role in the discovery of habitable environments beyond Earth. Spectroscopic characterization of these exoplanets with respect to habitability requires the determination of habitability parameters with respect to remote sensing. The habitable zone of dwarf stars is located in close proximity to the host star, such that exoplanets orbiting within this zone will likely be tidally locked. On terrestrial planets with an icy shell, this may produce a liquid water ocean at the substellar point, one particular "Eyeball Earth" state. In this research proposal, HABEBEE: exploring the HABitability of Eyeball-Exo-Earths, we define the parameters necessary to achieve a stable icy Eyeball Earth capable of supporting life. Astronomical and geochemical research will define parameters needed to simulate potentially habitable environments on an icy Eyeball Earth planet. Biological requirements will be based on detailed studies of microbial communities within Earth analog environments. Using the interdisciplinary results of both the physical and biological teams, we will set up a simulation chamber to expose a cold- and UV-tolerant microbial community to the theoretically derived Eyeball Earth climate states, simulating the composition, atmosphere, physical parameters, and stellar irradiation. Combining the results of both studies will enable us to derive observable parameters as well as target decision guidance and feasibility analysis for upcoming astronomical platforms.

  5. New dynamic system suggested for earth expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, J [Asuncion Nacional Univ. (Paraguay). Inst. de Ciencias


    It is here suggested that there may have been much more radioactive materials in the deep interior of the earth than bitherto supposed. Trapped heat being generated in the interior would provide a mechanism for earth expansion. An assumption of heat generation in the deep interior of the earth of the order of 0,5 X 10-13 calories per second, per cubic centimeter, would provide sufficient thermal expansion to account for approximately 0.1 mm. change in the radius of the earth per year.

  6. Age of the earth and solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manhes, G.


    The history of chemical element formation and radiochronology is given. The study of Pb isotope composition evolution enables to estimate the age of the earth. A series of galena of known ages was measured. By means of a model, it is possible to determine the initial isotope composition of Pb on the earth and the age of the earth. On the other hand, the analysis of stony meteorites provides a Pb isotope composition higher than the earth value. A comparison of the data shows a fundamental transition at 4.55 10 9 years [fr

  7. Alaska's rare earth deposits and resource potential (United States)

    Barker, James C.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.


    Alaska’s known mineral endowment includes some of the largest and highest grade deposits of various metals, including gold, copper and zinc. Recently, Alaska has also been active in the worldwide search for sources of rare earth elements (REE) to replace exports now being limitedby China. Driven by limited supply of the rare earths, combined with their increasing use in new ‘green’ energy, lighting, transportation, and many other technological applications, the rare earth metals neodymium, europium and, in particular, the heavy rare earth elements terbium, dysprosium and yttrium are forecast to soon be in critical short supply (U.S. Department of Energy, 2010).

  8. Probing Earth's State of Stress (United States)

    Delorey, A. A.; Maceira, M.; Johnson, P. A.; Coblentz, D. D.


    The state of stress in the Earth's crust is a fundamental physical property that controls both engineered and natural systems. Engineered environments including those for hydrocarbon, geothermal energy, and mineral extraction, as well those for storage of wastewater, carbon dioxide, and nuclear fuel are as important as ever to our economy and environment. Yet, it is at spatial scales relevant to these activities where stress is least understood. Additionally, in engineered environments the rate of change in the stress field can be much higher than that of natural systems. In order to use subsurface resources more safely and effectively, we need to understand stress at the relevant temporal and spatial scales. We will present our latest results characterizing the state of stress in the Earth at scales relevant to engineered environments. Two important components of the state of stress are the orientation and magnitude of the stress tensor, and a measure of how close faults are to failure. The stress tensor at any point in a reservoir or repository has contributions from both far-field tectonic stress and local density heterogeneity. We jointly invert seismic (body and surface waves) and gravity data for a self-consistent model of elastic moduli and density and use the model to calculate the contribution of local heterogeneity to the total stress field. We then combine local and plate-scale contributions, using local indicators for calibration and ground-truth. In addition, we will present results from an analysis of the quantity and pattern of microseismicity as an indicator of critically stressed faults. Faults are triggered by transient stresses only when critically stressed (near failure). We show that tidal stresses can trigger earthquakes in both tectonic and reservoir environments and can reveal both stress and poroelastic conditions.

  9. Optical MEMS for Earth observation (United States)

    Liotard, Arnaud; Viard, Thierry; Noell, Wilfried; Zamkotsian, Frédéric; Freire, Marco; Guldimann, Benedikt; Kraft, Stefan


    Due to the relatively large number of optical Earth Observation missions at ESA, this area is interesting for new space technology developments. In addition to their compactness, scalability and specific task customization, optical MEMS could generate new functions not available with current technologies and are thus candidates for the design of future space instruments. Most mature components for space applications are the digital mirror arrays, the micro-deformable mirrors, the programmable micro diffraction gratings and tiltable micromirrors. A first selection of market-pull and techno-push concepts is done. In addition, some concepts are coming from outside Earth Observation. Finally two concepts are more deeply analyzed. The first concept is a programmable slit for straylight control for space spectro-imagers. This instrument is a push-broom spectroimager for which some images cannot be exploited because of bright sources in the field-of-view. The proposed concept consists in replacing the current entrance spectrometer slit by an active row of micro-mirrors. The MEMS will permit to dynamically remove the bright sources and then to obtain a field-of-view with an optically enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. The second concept is a push-broom imager for which the acquired spectrum can be tuned by optical MEMS. This system is composed of two diffractive elements and a digital mirror array. The first diffractive element spreads the spectrum. A micromirror array is set at the location of the spectral focal plane. By putting the micro-mirrors ON or OFF, we can select parts of field-of-view or spectrum. The second diffractive element then recombines the light on a push-broom detector. Dichroics filters, strip filter, band-pass filter could be replaced by a unique instrument.

  10. Google Earth Grand Tour Themes (United States)

    De Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Bentley, C.; Dordevic, M. M.


    As part of an NSF TUES Type 3 project entitled "Google Earth for Onsite and Distance Education (GEODE)," we are assembling a "Grand Tour" of locations on Earth and other terrestrial bodies that every geoscience student should know about and visit at least in virtual reality. Based on feedback from colleagues at previous meetings, we have identified nine Grand Tour themes: "Plates and Plumes," "Rocks and Regions," "Geology Through Time," "The Mapping Challenge*," "U.S. National Parks*," "The Magical Mystery Tour*," "Resources and Hazards," "Planets and Moons," and "Top of the Pops." Themes marked with an asterisk are most developed at this stage and will be demonstrated in real time. The Mapping Challenge invites students to trace geological contacts, measure bedding strike and dip and the plunge, trend, and facing of a fold. There is an advanced tool for modeling periclinal folds. The challenge is presented in a game-like format with an emphasis on puzzle-solving that will appeal to students regardless of gender. For the tour of U.S. national parks, we divided the most geologically important parks into four groups—Western Pacific, West Coast, Rockies, and East Coast. We are combining our own team's GigaPan imagery with imagery already available on the Internet. There is a great deal of imagery just waiting to be annotated for geological education purposes. The Magical Mystery Tour takes students to Google Streetview locations selected by instructors. Students are presented with questions or tasks and are given automatic feedback. Other themes are under development. Within each theme, we are crowd-sourcing contributions from colleagues and inviting colleagues to vote for or against proposed locations and student interactions. The GEODE team includes the authors and: Heather Almquist, Stephen Burgin, Cinzia Cervato, Gene Cooper, Paul Karabinos, Terry Pavlis, Jen Piatek, Bill Richards, Jeff Ryan, Ron Schott, Kristen St. John, and Barb Tewksbury.

  11. Pressurized-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, S.H.


    An overview of the pressurized-water reactor (PWR) pressure boundary problems is presented. Specifically exempted will be discussions of problems with pumps, valves and steam generators on the basis that they will be covered in other papers. Pressure boundary reliability is examined in the context of real or perceived problems occurring over the past 5 to 6 years since the last IAEA Reliability Symposium. Issues explicitly covered will include the status of the pressurized thermal-shock problem, reliability of inservice inspections with emphasis on examination of the region immediately under the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) cladding, history of piping failures with emphasis on failure modes and mechanisms. Since nondestructive examination is the topic of one session, discussion will be limited to results rather than techniques

  12. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Fukuda, Akira; Kitaguchi, Hidemi; Shimizu, Toshiaki.


    Object: To relieve and absorb impact wave vibrations caused by steam and non-condensed gases releasing into the pressure suppression chamber at the time of an accident. Structure: The reactor container is filled with inert gases. A safety valve attached main steam pipe is provided to permit the excessive steam to escape, the valve being communicated with the pressure suppression chamber through an exhaust pipe. In the pressure suppression chamber, a doughnut-like cylindrical outer wall is filled at its bottom with pool water to condense the high temperature vapor released through the exhaust pipe. A head portion of a vent tube which leads the exhaust pipe is positioned at the top, and a down comer and an exhaust vent tube are locked by means of steady rests. At the bottom is mounted a pressure adsorber device which adsorbs a pressure from the pool water. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. Pulse pressure and diurnal blood pressure variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren Tang; Poulsen, Per Løgstrup; Hansen, Klavs Würgler


    retinopathy, nephropathy, macrovascular disease, PP, and diurnal BP variation in a group of type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: In 80 type 2 diabetic patients we performed 24-h ambulatory BP (AMBP) and fundus photographs. Urinary albumin excretion was evaluated by urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. Presence...... or absence of macrovascular disease was assessed by an independent physician. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients had no detectable retinal changes (grade 1), 13 had grade 2 retinopathy, and 18 had more advanced retinopathy (grades 3-6). Compared to patients without retinopathy (grade 1), patients with grades 2......BACKGROUND: In nondiabetic subjects pulse pressure (PP) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease and microalbuminuria. Reduced circadian blood pressure (BP) variation is a potential risk factor for the development of diabetic complications. We investigated the association between...

  14. Pressure Measurement Systems (United States)


    System 8400 is an advanced system for measurement of gas and liquid pressure, along with a variety of other parameters, including voltage, frequency and digital inputs. System 8400 offers exceptionally high speed data acquisition through parallel processing, and its modular design allows expansion from a relatively inexpensive entry level system by the addition of modular Input Units that can be installed or removed in minutes. Douglas Juanarena was on the team of engineers that developed a new technology known as ESP (electronically scanned pressure). The Langley ESP measurement system was based on miniature integrated circuit pressure-sensing transducers that communicated pressure information to a minicomputer. In 1977, Juanarena formed PSI to exploit the NASA technology. In 1978 he left Langley, obtained a NASA license for the technology, introduced the first commercial product, the 780B pressure measurement system. PSI developed a pressure scanner for automation of industrial processes. Now in its second design generation, the DPT-6400 is capable of making 2,000 measurements a second and has 64 channels by addition of slave units. New system 8400 represents PSI's bid to further exploit the 600 million U.S. industrial pressure measurement market. It is geared to provide a turnkey solution to physical measurement.

  15. Pressure Ulcers Surveillance Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Esin Gencer


    Full Text Available Objective: Pressure ulcer is a chronic wound. It reduces the quality of life of the elderly and individuals with restricted range of motion. It prolongs hospital stay and increases the risk of complications. The cost is quite high. Preventive actions for the prevention of pressure ulcers should be developed. Planning protocols and standards of care are among the main targets. Material and Method: Research was conducted in one-year period between 2012 May and 2013 May on patients who were followed up in Akdeniz University Hospital clinics and intensive care unit with pressure ulcers. The research population consisted of 569 patients. Patient data were recorded in SPSS 16 for Windows program. Statistical analyzes were performed with retrospective methods. The demographic characteristics of patients with pressure ulcers were analyzed as frequency and descriptive statistics. Prevalence and incidence of one year were calculated. Results: Of the patients, 58% were males, 42% were females. Of the patients, 36% were in the age range of 61-80 years, and their average length of stay was 42,9 days. Of the patients, 70% were at stage 2 and 3. In 15% of patients pressure ulcers occurred on the first day of hospitalization. Pressure ulcers were developed between days 2 and 10 in 59% of the patients. Prevalence rate was 2.5%, the incidence was 1.9%, the prevalence rate was 5.9% in the intensive care unit. Conclusion: It is easier to prevent pressure ulcers than treating.

  16. Pressure suppressing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Makoto.


    Purpose: To prevent the pressure in the reactor container from excessively increasing even when vapor leaks from the dry well to a space of the suppression chamber, without passing though the suppression pool at the time of loss of coolant accident. Constitution: When vapor of a high temperature and a high pressure at the time of loss of coolant accident flows from the dry well to the suppression chamber without passing through suppression pool water, vapor dose not condense with pool water, and therefore the pressure within the chamber abnormally increases. For this reason, this abnormal pressure is detected by a pressure detector thereby to start the operations of a blower and a pump. By starting the blower, the pressure in the dry well becomes lower than the pressure in the chamber, and vapor entirely passes through the pool water and entirely condenses with the pool water. By starting the pump, the pool water is sprayed over the space of the chamber, and vapor in the space is condensed. (Yoshino, Y.)

  17. Eutectic melting temperature of the lowermost Earth's mantle (United States)

    Andrault, D.; Lo Nigro, G.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Bouhifd, M.; Garbarino, G.; Mezouar, M.


    Partial melting of the Earth's deep mantle probably occurred at different stages of its formation as a consequence of meteoritic impacts and seismology suggests that it even continues today at the core-mantle boundary. Melts are important because they dominate the chemical evolution of the different Earth's reservoirs and more generally the dynamics of the whole planet. Unfortunately, the most critical parameter, that is the temperature profile inside the deep Earth, remains poorly constrained accross the planet history. Experimental investigations of the melting properties of materials representative of the deep Earth at relevant P-T conditions can provide anchor points to refine past and present temperature profiles and consequently determine the degree of melting at the different geological periods. Previous works report melting relations in the uppermost lower mantle region, using the multi-anvil press [1,2]. On the other hand, the pyrolite solidus was determined up to 65 GPa using optical observations in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC) [3]. Finally, the melting temperature of (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 olivine is documented at core-mantle boundary (CMB) conditions by shock wave experiments [4]. Solely based on these reports, experimental data remain too sparse to draw a definite melting curve for the lower mantle in the relevant 25-135 GPa pressure range. We reinvestigated melting properties of lower mantle materials by means of in-situ angle dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements in the LH-DAC at the ESRF [5]. Experiments were performed in an extended P-T range for two starting materials: forsterite and a glass with chondrite composition. In both cases, the aim was to determine the onset of melting, and thus the eutectic melting temperatures as a function of pressure. Melting was evidenced from drastic changes of diffraction peak shape on the image plate, major changes in diffraction intensities in the integrated pattern, disappearance of diffraction rings

  18. The "Earth Physics" Workshops Offered by the Earth Science Education Unit (United States)

    Davies, Stephen


    Earth science has a part to play in broadening students' learning experience in physics. The Earth Science Education Unit presents a range of (free) workshops to teachers and trainee teachers, suggesting how Earth-based science activities, which show how we understand and use the planet we live on, can easily be slotted into normal science…

  19. EOS Reference Handbook 1999: A Guide to NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the Earth Observing System (United States)

    King, M. D. (Editor); Greenstone, R. (Editor)


    The content of this handbook includes Earth Science Enterprise; The Earth Observing System; EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS); Data and Information Policy; Pathfinder Data Sets; Earth Science Information Partners and the Working Prototype-Federation; EOS Data Quality: Calibration and Validation; Education Programs; International Cooperation; Interagency Coordination; Mission Elements; EOS Instruments; EOS Interdisciplinary Science Investigations; and Points-of-Contact.

  20. Atmospheric Pressure During Landing (United States)


    This figure shows the variation with time of pressure (dots) measured by the Pathfinder MET instrument during the landing period shown in image PIA00797. The two diamonds indicate the times of bridal cutting and 1st impact. The overall trend in the data is of pressure increasing with time. This is almost certainly due to the lander rolling downhill by roughly 10 m. The spacing of the horizontal dotted lines indicates the pressure change expected from 10 m changes in altitude. Bounces may also be visible in the data.