Sample records for earth isotopes thesis

  1. Carbon Isotopes in an Earth System Model (United States)

    Cuntz, M.; Reick, C. H.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Heimann, M.; Scholze, M.; Naegler, T.


    We present first calculations of the carbon isotopic composition of carbon dioxide in the Earth System Model (ESM) COSMOS. Earth System models consist of coupled models of the ocean, the atmosphere, the land surface, the biosphere (marine and terrestrial, plants and soils), and the cryosphere (snow and ice). In COSMOS from the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany, these components are the model of the atmospheric circulation ECHAM, the physical ocean model MPI-OM, the land surface parameterisation JSBACH and the oceanic carbon cycle model HAMOCC. The ESM COSMOS therefore calculates its own climate and CO2 concentrations during the diel course with a few degrees resolution, driven only by solar activity and human perturbations. The new model version now computes the multiple fractionation processes occurring during uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere by the terrestrial and marine biosphere. The model then redistributes the isotopic compositions in the land and ocean biospheres, including respiration, phenology, fire, land-use change and carbon export. This means that it includes a full isotopic carbon cycle, in the atmosphere, the ocean and on land. The model calculates not only the stable carbon isotope signatures but also radiocarbon activities in the Earth System. It will include in future the radiocarbon perturbation due to nuclear bomb tests. We compare first results of the ESM with other global estimates of terrestrial discrimination. We also compare predicted zonal and seasonal variations of isotope ratios in atmospheric CO2 with measurements from the GLOBALVIEW flask network. The stable and radioactive carbon isotopes are excellent tests for the overall model performance but also for individual model components. For example radiocarbon will be used to test stratosphere-troposphere exchange, ocean circulation and air-sea gas exchange. The isotope-enabled model can be used in future for example to predict carbon isotope ratios of terrestrial

  2. New tools for linking human and earth system models: The Toolbox for Human-Earth System Interaction & Scaling (THESIS) (United States)

    O'Neill, B. C.; Kauffman, B.; Lawrence, P.


    Integrated analysis of questions regarding land, water, and energy resources often requires integration of models of different types. One type of integration is between human and earth system models, since both societal and physical processes influence these resources. For example, human processes such as changes in population, economic conditions, and policies govern the demand for land, water and energy, while the interactions of these resources with physical systems determine their availability and environmental consequences. We have begun to develop and use a toolkit for linking human and earth system models called the Toolbox for Human-Earth System Integration and Scaling (THESIS). THESIS consists of models and software tools to translate, scale, and synthesize information from and between human system models and earth system models (ESMs), with initial application to linking the NCAR integrated assessment model, iPETS, with the NCAR earth system model, CESM. Initial development is focused on urban areas and agriculture, sectors that are both explicitly represented in both CESM and iPETS. Tools are being made available to the community as they are completed (see We discuss four general types of functions that THESIS tools serve (Spatial Distribution, Spatial Properties, Consistency, and Outcome Evaluation). Tools are designed to be modular and can be combined in order to carry out more complex analyses. We illustrate their application to both the exposure of population to climate extremes and to the evaluation of climate impacts on the agriculture sector. For example, projecting exposure to climate extremes involves use of THESIS tools for spatial population, spatial urban land cover, the characteristics of both, and a tool to bring urban climate information together with spatial population information. Development of THESIS tools is continuing and open to the research community.

  3. Isotope composition and volume of Earth's early oceans. (United States)

    Pope, Emily C; Bird, Dennis K; Rosing, Minik T


    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of Earth's seawater are controlled by volatile fluxes among mantle, lithospheric (oceanic and continental crust), and atmospheric reservoirs. Throughout geologic time the oxygen mass budget was likely conserved within these Earth system reservoirs, but hydrogen's was not, as it can escape to space. Isotopic properties of serpentine from the approximately 3.8 Ga Isua Supracrustal Belt in West Greenland are used to characterize hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions of ancient seawater. Archaean oceans were depleted in deuterium [expressed as δD relative to Vienna standard mean ocean water (VSMOW)] by at most 25 ± 5‰, but oxygen isotope ratios were comparable to modern oceans. Mass balance of the global hydrogen budget constrains the contribution of continental growth and planetary hydrogen loss to the secular evolution of hydrogen isotope ratios in Earth's oceans. Our calculations predict that the oceans of early Earth were up to 26% more voluminous, and atmospheric CH(4) and CO(2) concentrations determined from limits on hydrogen escape to space are consistent with clement conditions on Archaean Earth.

  4. The distribution of seismic velocities and attenuation in the earth. Ph.D. Thesis (United States)

    Hart, R. S.


    Estimates of the radial distribution of seismic velocities and density and of seismic attenuation within the earth are obtained through inversion of body wave, surface wave, and normal mode data. The effect of attenuation related dispersion on gross earth structure, and on the reliability of eigenperiod identifications is discussed. The travel time baseline discrepancies between body waves and free oscillation models are examined and largely resolved.

  5. The lead isotopic age of the Earth can be explained by core formation alone. (United States)

    Wood, Bernard J; Halliday, Alex N


    The meaning of the age of the Earth defined by lead isotopes has long been unclear. Recently it has been proposed that the age of the Earth deduced from lead isotopes reflects volatile loss to space at the time of the Moon-forming giant impact rather than partitioning into metallic liquids during protracted core formation. Here we show that lead partitioning into liquid iron depends strongly on carbon content and that, given a content of approximately 0.2% carbon, experimental and isotopic data both provide evidence of strong partitioning of lead into the core throughout the Earth's accretion. Earlier conclusions that lead is weakly partitioned into iron arose from the use of carbon-saturated (about 5% C) iron alloys. The lead isotopic age of the Earth is therefore consistent with partitioning into the core and with no significant late losses of moderately volatile elements to space during the giant impact.

  6. Equilibrium and kinetic Si isotope fractionation factors and their implications on Si isotope distributions in the Earth's surface environments (United States)

    Tang, M.; Zhang, S.; Liu, Y.


    Several important equilibrium Si isotope fractionation factors among minerals, organic molecules and the H4SiO4 solution are complemented to facilitate explanation of distributions of Si isotope in the Earth's surface environments. The results reveal that heavy Si isotopes will be significantly enriched in the secondary silicate minerals in comparison to aqueous H4SiO4. On the contrary, quadra-coordinated organosilicon complexes are enriched in light silicon isotope relative to the solution. The extent of 28Si-enrichment in hyper-coordinated organosilicon complexes is found the largest. In addition, the large kinetic isotope effect associated with the polymerization of monosilicic acid and dimer is calculated and the result supports previous statement that highly 28Si-enrichment in the formation of amorphous quartz precursor contributes to the discrepancy between theoretical calculations and field observations. With equilibrium Si isotope fractionation factors provided here, Si isotope distributions in many surface systems of the Earth can be explained. For example, the change of bulk soil δ30Si can be predicted as a concave pattern with respect to weathering degree, with the minimum value where allophane completely dissolves and the total amount of sesqui-oxides and poorly crystalline minerals reaches its maximum. When well-crystallized clays start to precipitate from pore solutions under equilibrium conditions, the bulk soil δ30Si will increase again and reach a constant value. Similarly, the precipitation of crystalline smectite and the dissolution of poorly crystalline kaolinite may explain δ30Si variations in the ground water profile. Equilibrium Si isotope fractionations among quadra-coordinated organosilicon complexes and the H4SiO4 solution may also shed the light on the Si isotope distributions in Si-accumulating plants.

  7. The oxygen isotope composition of earth's oldest rocks and evidence of a terrestrial magma ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumble, D.; Bowring, S.; Iizuka, T.


    such long-lived consistency was most easily established by mixing in a terrestrial magma ocean. The measured identical oxygen isotope mass fractionation lines for Earth and Moon suggest that oxygen isotope reservoirs of both bodies were homogenized at the same time during a giant moon-forming impact....... But other sources of heat for global melting cannot be excluded such as bolide impacts during early accretion of proto-Earth, the decay of short-lived radioactive isotopes, or the energy released during segregation of core from mantle....

  8. New neutron-deficient isotopes of barium and rare-earth elements

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanov, D D; Karnaukhov, V A; Petrov, L A; Plochocki, A; Subbotin, V G; Voboril, J


    The authors present an investigation of the short-lived neutron- deficient isotopes of barium and rare-earth elements. By using the BEMS-2 isotope separator on a heavy ion beam, 19 new isotopes were produced with mass numbers ranging from 117 to 138. Five of these (/sup 117/Ba, /sup 129,131/Nd and /sup 133,135/Sm) turned out to be delayed proton emitters. The beta -decay probabilities for the new isotopes have been analyzed in terms of the beta -strength function. An analysis of the proton spectrum shape has been performed using the statistical model for delayed proton emission.

  9. First Principles Calculation on Equilibrium Si Isotope Fractionation Factors and its Implementation on Si Isotope Distributions in Earth Surface Environments (United States)

    Liu, Y.; He, H. T.; Zhu, C.


    Several important equilibrium Si isotope fractionation factors are calculated here. We use a so-called volume-variable-cluster-model (VVCM) method for solids and the "water-droplet" method for aqueous species for isotope fractionation calculation at the same quantum chemistry level. The calculation results show that several silicate minerals, such as quartz, feldspar, kaolinite, etc., all enrich heavy Si isotopes relative to aqueous H4SiO4 and can be up to 3.3‰ at 25°C, different from most field observations. Meanwhile stable organosilicon complexes can enrich even lighter Si isotopes than aqueous H4SiO4. For explaining the difference between the calculation results and field observations, we calculate the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) associated with the formation of amorphous silica, and find that amorphous silica will enrich extremely light Si isotopes. From amorphous silica to crystalline quartz, the structural adjustment & transition needs getting rid of small amount of Si to re-organize the structure. Light Si isotopes will be preferentially lost and let the final crystalline quartz with a little bit more heavy Si isotopes. However, such late-stage Si heavy isotope enrichment cannot erase the total isotopic signal, crystalline quartz still inherit much light Si isotopic composition from amorphous quartz. That is the reason for the discrepancy between the calculation results and the field observations, because the formation of amorphous quartz is under a non-equilibrium process but theoretical calculations are for equilibrium isotope fractionations. With accurate equilibrium fractionation factors provided here, Si isotope distributions in earth surface environments including soil, groundwater and plants can be further interpreted. We find that δ30Si variations in soil are mainly driven by secondary minerals precipitation and adsorption. Also, bulk soil δ30Si maybe have a parabolic distribution with soil age, with a minimum value at where allophane is

  10. Lead isotope evidence for a young formation age of the Earth-Moon system (United States)

    Connelly, J. N.; Bizzarro, M.


    A model of a giant impact between two planetary bodies is widely accepted to account for the Earth-Moon system. Despite the importance of this event for understanding early Earth evolution and the inventory of Earth's volatiles critical to life, the timing of the impact is poorly constrained. We explore a data-based, two-stage Pb isotope evolution model in which the timing of the loss of volatile Pb relative to refractory U in the aftermath of the giant impact is faithfully recorded in the Pb isotopes of bulk silicate Earth. Constraining the first stage Pb isotopic evolution permits calculating an age range of 4.426-4.417 Ga for the inflection in the U/Pb ratio related to the giant impact. This model is supported by Pb isotope data for angrite meteorites that we use to demonstrate volatility-driven, planetary-scale Pb loss was an efficient process during the early Solar System. The revised age is ∼100 Myr younger than most current estimates for the age of the Moon but fully consistent with recent ages for lunar ferroan anorthosite and the timing of Earth's first crust inferred from the terrestrial zircon record. The estimated loss of ∼98% of terrestrial Pb relative to the Solar System bulk composition by the end of the Moon-forming process implies that the current inventory of Earth's most volatile elements, including water, arrived during post-impact veneering by volatile-rich bodies.

  11. Isotopes, ice ages, and terminal Proterozoic earth history. (United States)

    Kaufman, A J; Knoll, A H; Narbonne, G M


    Detailed correlations of ancient glacial deposits, based on temporal records of carbon and strontium isotopes in seawater, indicate four (and perhaps five) discrete ice ages in the terminal Proterozoic Eon. The close and repeated stratigraphic relationship between C-isotopic excursions and glaciogenic rocks suggests that unusually high rates of organic carbon burial facilitated glaciation by reducing atmospheric greenhouse capacity. The emerging framework of time and environmental change contributes to the improved resolution of stratigraphic and evolutionary pattern in the early fossil record of animals.

  12. Rare earth elements and neodymium isotopes in world river sediments revisited


    Bayon, Germain; Toucanne, Samuel; Skonieczny, Charlotte; Andre, L.; Bermell, Sylvain; Cheron, Sandrine; Dennielou, Bernard; Etoubleau, Joel; Freslon, Nicolas; Gauchery, T.; Germain, Yoan; Jorry, Stephan; Menot, G; Monin, L.; Ponzevera, Emmanuel


    Over the past decades, rare earth elements (REE) and their radioactive isotopes have received tremendous attention in sedimentary geochemistry, as tracers for the geological history of the continental crust and provenance studies. In this study, we report on elemental concentrations and neodymium (Nd) isotopic compositions for a large number of sediments collected near the mouth of rivers worldwide, including some of the world’s major rivers. Sediments were leached for removal of non-detrital...

  13. Zinc isotope fractionation during magmatic differentiation and the isotopic composition of the bulk Earth (United States)

    Chen, Heng; Savage, Paul S.; Teng, Fang-Zehn; Helz, Rosalind T.; Moynier, Frédéric


    he zinc stable isotope system has been successfully applied to many and varied fields in geochemistry, but to date it is still not completely clear how this isotope system is affected by igneous processes. In order to evaluate the potential application of Zn isotopes as a proxy for planetary differentiation and volatile history, it is important to constrain the magnitude of Zn isotopic fractionation induced by magmatic differentiation. In this study we present high-precision Zn isotope analyses of two sets of chemically diverse, cogenetic samples from Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii, and Hekla volcano, Iceland, which both show clear evidence of having undergone variable and significant degrees of magmatic differentiation. The Kilauea Iki samples display small but resolvable variations in Zn isotope composition (0.26‰66Zn66Zn defined as the per mille deviation of a sample's 66Zn/64Zn compositional ratio from the JMC-Lyon standard), with the most differentiated lithologies exhibiting more positive δ66Zn values. This fractionation is likely a result of the crystallization of olivine and/or Fe–Ti oxides, which can both host Zn in their crystal structures. Samples from Hekla have a similar range of isotopic variation (0.22‰66Zn66Zn=0.28±0.05‰ (2s.d.).

  14. Chromium isotopic homogeneity between the Moon, the Earth, and enstatite chondrites (United States)

    Mougel, Bérengère; Moynier, Frédéric; Göpel, Christa


    Among the elements exhibiting non-mass dependent isotopic variations in meteorites, chromium (Cr) has been central in arguing for an isotopic homogeneity between the Earth and the Moon, thus questioning physical models of Moon formation. However, the Cr isotopic composition of the Moon relies on two samples only, which define an average value that is slightly different from the terrestrial standard. Here, by determining the Cr isotopic composition of 17 lunar, 9 terrestrial and 5 enstatite chondrite samples, we re-assess the isotopic similarity between these different planetary bodies, and provide the first robust estimate for the Moon. In average, terrestrial and enstatite samples show similar ε54Cr. On the other hand, lunar samples show variables excesses of 53Cr and 54Cr compared to terrestrial and enstatite chondrites samples with correlated ε53Cr and ε54Cr (per 10,000 deviation of the 53Cr/52Cr and 54Cr/52Cr ratios normalized to the 50Cr/52Cr ratio from the NIST SRM 3112a Cr standard). Unlike previous suggestions, we show for the first time that cosmic irradiation can affect significantly the Cr isotopic composition of lunar materials. Moreover, we also suggest that rather than spallation reactions, neutron capture effects are the dominant process controlling the Cr isotope composition of lunar igneous rocks. This is supported by the correlation between ε53Cr and ε54Cr, and 150Sm/152Sm ratios. After correction of these effects, the average ε54Cr of the Moon is indistinguishable from the terrestrial and enstatite chondrite materials reinforcing the idea of an Earth-Moon-enstatite chondrite system homogeneity. This is compatible with the most recent scenarios of Moon formation suggesting an efficient physical homogenization after a high-energy impact on a fast spinning Earth, and/or with an impactor originating from the same reservoir in the inner proto-planetary disk as the Earth and enstatite chondrites and having similar composition.

  15. The Impact of Benthic Processes on Rare Earth Element and Neodymium Isotope Distributions in the Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Haley


    Full Text Available Neodymium (Nd isotopes are considered a valuable tracer of modern and past ocean circulation. However, the promise of Nd isotope as a water mass tracer is hindered because there is not an entirely self-consistent model of the marine geochemical cycle of rare earth elements (REEs, of which Nd is one. That is, the prevailing mechanisms to describe the distributions of elemental and isotopic Nd are not completely reconciled. Here, we use published [Nd] and Nd isotope data to examine the prevailing model assumptions, and further compare these data to emergent alternative models that emphasize benthic processes in controlling the cycle of marine REEs and Nd isotopes. Our conclusion is that changing from a “top-down” driven model for REE cycling to one of a “bottom-up” benthic source model can provide consistent interpretations of these data for both elemental and isotopic Nd distributions. We discuss the implications such a benthic flux model carries for interpretation of Nd isotope data as a tracer for understanding modern and past changes in ocean circulation.

  16. Carbon isotopes in the ocean model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM1) (United States)

    Jahn, A.; Lindsay, K.; Giraud, X.; Gruber, N.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Liu, Z.; Brady, E. C.


    Carbon isotopes in the ocean are frequently used as paleoclimate proxies and as present-day geochemical ocean tracers. In order to allow a more direct comparison of climate model results with this large and currently underutilized data set, we added a carbon isotope module to the ocean model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), containing the cycling of the stable isotope 13C and the radioactive isotope 14C. We implemented the 14C tracer in two ways: in the "abiotic" case, the 14C tracer is only subject to air-sea gas exchange, physical transport, and radioactive decay, while in the "biotic" version, the 14C additionally follows the 13C tracer through all biogeochemical and ecological processes. Thus, the abiotic 14C tracer can be run without the ecosystem module, requiring significantly fewer computational resources. The carbon isotope module calculates the carbon isotopic fractionation during gas exchange, photosynthesis, and calcium carbonate formation, while any subsequent biological process such as remineralization as well as any external inputs are assumed to occur without fractionation. Given the uncertainty associated with the biological fractionation during photosynthesis, we implemented and tested three parameterizations of different complexity. Compared to present-day observations, the model is able to simulate the oceanic 14C bomb uptake and the 13C Suess effect reasonably well compared to observations and other model studies. At the same time, the carbon isotopes reveal biases in the physical model, for example, too sluggish ventilation of the deep Pacific Ocean.

  17. Carbon isotopes in the ocean model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jahn


    Full Text Available Carbon isotopes in the ocean are frequently used as paleoclimate proxies and as present-day geochemical ocean tracers. In order to allow a more direct comparison of climate model results with this large and currently underutilized data set, we added a carbon isotope module to the ocean model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM, containing the cycling of the stable isotope 13C and the radioactive isotope 14C. We implemented the 14C tracer in two ways: in the "abiotic" case, the 14C tracer is only subject to air–sea gas exchange, physical transport, and radioactive decay, while in the "biotic" version, the 14C additionally follows the 13C tracer through all biogeochemical and ecological processes. Thus, the abiotic 14C tracer can be run without the ecosystem module, requiring significantly fewer computational resources. The carbon isotope module calculates the carbon isotopic fractionation during gas exchange, photosynthesis, and calcium carbonate formation, while any subsequent biological process such as remineralization as well as any external inputs are assumed to occur without fractionation. Given the uncertainty associated with the biological fractionation during photosynthesis, we implemented and tested three parameterizations of different complexity. Compared to present-day observations, the model is able to simulate the oceanic 14C bomb uptake and the 13C Suess effect reasonably well compared to observations and other model studies. At the same time, the carbon isotopes reveal biases in the physical model, for example, too sluggish ventilation of the deep Pacific Ocean.

  18. Carbon isotope heterogeneities in deep Earth: Recycling of surface carbon or from core? (United States)

    Satish-Kumar, Madhusoodhan


    Subduction of crustal materials, mantle melting and upwelling of deep mantle, in addition to a potential source from the core, largely controls the Earth's deep carbon cycle. Large variations in carbon isotopic composition between different reservoirs have been used widely to differentiate the source of carbon and to understand the carbon inventories and its recycling processes. However, how far high-temperature and hign-pressure conditions can affect the carbon isotope distribution, is a question still unanswered to clearly address the deep carbon cycle. I present here a review on carbon isotope fractionation processes in deep Earth and critically evaluate whether we can easily differentiate between surface carbon and deep carbon based on isotope characteristics. Recent experimental carbon isotope fractionation studies in the Fe-C system suggests that light carbon is selectively partition into metallic core during early magma ocean environment (Satish-Kumar et al., 2011). Furthermore, carbonate melts can be a medium for efficient crystallisation of diamonds in Earth's mantle (Palyanov et al., 2013). Rayleigh fractionation modelling based on fractionation suggests that core can be a reservoir of 12C enriched carbon and can itself form a reservoir which can cause heterogeneity in mantle carbon (Wood et al., 2013). In addition, high pressure experiments in the carbon-saturated model harzburgite system (Enstatite-Magnesite-Olivine-Graphite), carbonated silicate melting resulted in 13C enrichment in the carbon dissolved in the silicate melt relative to elemental graphite (Mizutani et al., 2014). 13C enrichment in carbonate melt were further confirmed in experiments where redox melting between olivine and graphite produced a carbonate melt as well as carbonate reduction experiments to form graphite. A third factor, still unconquered is the effect of pressure on isotope fractionation process. Theoretical studies as well as preliminary experimental studies have suggested

  19. Zinc isotope fractionation during mantle melting and constraints on the Zn isotope composition of Earth's upper mantle (United States)

    Wang, Ze-Zhou; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Liu, Jingao; Huang, Jian; Xiao, Yan; Chu, Zhu-Yin; Zhao, Xin-Miao; Tang, Limei


    The zinc (Zn) stable isotope system has great potential for tracing planetary formation and differentiation processes due to its chalcophile, lithophile and moderately volatile character. As an initial approach, the terrestrial mantle, and by inference, the bulk silicate Earth (BSE), have previously been suggested to have an average δ66Zn value of ∼+0.28‰ (relative to JMC 3-0749L) primarily based on oceanic basalts. Nevertheless, data for mantle peridotites are relatively scarce and it remains unclear whether Zn isotopes are fractionated during mantle melting. To address this issue, we report high-precision (±0.04‰; 2SD) Zn isotope data for well-characterized peridotites (n = 47) from cratonic and orogenic settings, as well as their mineral separates. Basalts including mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and ocean island basalts (OIB) were also measured to avoid inter-laboratory bias. The MORB analyzed have homogeneous δ66Zn values of +0.28 ± 0.03‰ (here and throughout the text, errors are given as 2SD), similar to those of OIB obtained in this study and in the literature (+0.31 ± 0.09‰). Excluding the metasomatized peridotites that exhibit a wide δ66Zn range of -0.44‰ to +0.42‰, the non-metasomatized peridotites have relatively uniform δ66Zn value of +0.18 ± 0.06‰, which is lighter than both MORB and OIB. This difference suggests a small but detectable Zn isotope fractionation (∼0.1‰) during mantle partial melting. The magnitude of inter-mineral fractionation between olivine and pyroxene is, on average, close to zero, but spinels are always isotopically heavier than coexisting olivines (Δ66ZnSpl-Ol = +0.12 ± 0.07‰) due to the stiffer Zn-O bonds in spinel than silicate minerals (Ol, Opx and Cpx). Zinc concentrations in spinels are 11-88 times higher than those in silicate minerals, and our modelling suggests that spinel consumption during mantle melting plays a key role in generating high Zn concentrations and heavy Zn isotopic

  20. Preservation of Earth-forming events in the tungsten isotopic composition of modern flood basalts (United States)

    Rizo, Hanika; Walker, Richard J.; Carlson, Richard W.; Horan, Mary F.; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; Manthos, Vicky; Francis, Don; Jackson, Matthew G.


    How much of Earth's compositional variation dates to processes that occurred during planet formation remains an unanswered question. High-precision tungsten isotopic data from rocks from two large igneous provinces, the North Atlantic Igneous Province and the Ontong Java Plateau, reveal preservation to the Phanerozoic of tungsten isotopic heterogeneities in the mantle. These heterogeneities, caused by the decay of hafnium-182 in mantle domains with high hafnium/tungsten ratios, were created during the first ~50 million years of solar system history, indicating that portions of the mantle that formed during Earth’s primary accretionary period have survived to the present.

  1. The neodymium stable isotope composition of the silicate Earth and chondrites (United States)

    McCoy-West, Alex J.; Millet, Marc-Alban; Burton, Kevin W.


    The non-chondritic neodymium (Nd) 142Nd/144Nd ratio of the silicate Earth potentially provides a key constraint on the accretion and early evolution of the Earth. Yet, it is debated whether this offset is due to the Earth being formed from material enriched in s-process Nd isotopes or results from an early differentiation process such as the segregation of a late sulfide matte during core formation, collisional erosion or a some combination of these processes. Neodymium stable isotopes are potentially sensitive to early sulfide segregation into Earth's core, a process that cannot be resolved using their radiogenic counterparts. This study presents the first comprehensive Nd stable isotope data for chondritic meteorites and terrestrial rocks. Stable Nd measurements were made using a double spike technique coupled with thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. All three of the major classes of chondritic meteorites, carbonaceous, enstatite and ordinary chondrites have broadly similar isotopic compositions allowing calculation of a chondritic mean of δ146/144Nd = -0.025 ± 0.025‰ (±2 s.d.; n = 39). Enstatite chondrites yield the most uniform stable isotope composition (Δ146/144Nd = 26 ppm), with considerably more variability observed within ordinary (Δ146/144Nd = 72 ppm) and carbonaceous meteorites (Δ146/144Nd = 143 ppm). Terrestrial weathering, nucleosynthetic variations and parent body thermal metamorphism appear to have little measurable effect on δ146/144Nd in chondrites. The small variations observed between ordinary chondrite groups most likely reflect inherited compositional differences between parent bodies, with the larger variations observed in carbonaceous chondrites being linked to varying modal proportions of calcium-aluminium rich inclusions. The terrestrial samples analysed here include rocks ranging from basaltic to rhyolitic in composition, MORB glasses and residual mantle lithologies. All of these terrestrial rocks possess a broadly similar Nd

  2. Isotopic constraints on the age and early differentiation of the Earth. (United States)

    McCulloch, M T


    The Earth's age and early differentiation history are re-evaluated using updated isotopic constraints. From the most primitive terrestrial Pb isotopic compositions found at Isua Greenland, and the Pilbara of Western Australia, combined with precise geochronology of these localities, an age 4.49 +/- 0.02 Ga is obtained. This is interpreted as the mean age of core formation as U/Pb is fractionated due to sequestering of Pb into the Earth's core. The long-lived Rb-Sr isotopic system provides constraints on the time interval for the accretion of the Earth as Rb underwent significant depletion by volatile loss during accretion of the Earth or its precursor planetesimals. A primitive measured 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio of 0.700502 +/- 10 has been obtained for an early Archean (3.46 Ga) barite from the Pilbara Block of Western Australia. Using conservative models for the evolution of Rb/Sr in the early Archean mantle allows an estimate to be placed on the Earth's initial Sr ratio at approximately 4.50 Ga, of 0.69940 +/- 10. This is significantly higher than that measured for the Moon (0.69900 +/- 2) or in the achondrite, Angra dos Reis (0.69894 +/- 2) and for a Rb/Sr ratio of approximately 1/2 of chondrites corresponds to a mean age for accretion of the Earth of 4.48 + /- 0.04 Ga. The now extinct 146Sm-142Nd (T1/2(146)=103 l0(6)yrs) combined with the long-lived 147Sm-143Nd isotopic systematics can also be used to provide limits on the time of early differentiation of the Earth. High precision analyses of the oldest (3.8-3.9 Ga) Archean gneisses from Greenland (Amitsoq and Akilia gneisses), and Canada (Acasta gneiss) do not show measurable (> +/- l0ppm) variations of 142Nd, in contrast to the 33 ppm 142Nd excess reported for an Archean sample. The general lack of 142Nd variations, combined with the presence of highly positive epsilon 143 values (+4.0) at 3.9 Ga, indicates that the record of large-scale Sm/Nd fractionation events was not preserved in the early-Earth from 4

  3. Isotopic Evidence for Internal Oxidation of the Earth's Mantle During Accretion (United States)

    Williams, H. M.; Wood, B. J.; Wade, J.; Frost, D. J.; Tuff, J.


    The Earth’s mantle is currently oxidised and out of chemical equilibrium with the core. Why this should be the case, and why the Earth’s mantle should be more oxidised relative to other terrestrial planets is poorly understood. It has been proposed that the oxidised nature and high ferric iron (Fe3+) content of the Earth’s mantle was produced internally by disproportionation of ferrous iron (Fe2+) into Fe3+ and metallic iron by perovskite crystallisation during accretion [1]. Here we show that there is a substantial Fe isotope fractionation between experimentally equilibrated metal and perovskite, where perovskite is isotopically heavy relative to metal. This fractionation can explain the heavy Fe isotope compositions of terrestrial basalts relative to equivalent samples derived from Mars and Vesta [2, 3], as the latter planets are too small to stabilise significant perovskite. Mass balance calculations indicate that all of the mantle’s Fe3+ could have been generated from a single disproportionation event, which is consistent with complete dissolution of perovskite in the lower mantle during the Moon-forming giant impact. The similar Fe isotope compositions of terrestrial and lunar basalts are consistent with equilibration between the mantles of the Earth and Moon in the aftermath of the giant impact [4] and implies that the heavy Fe isotope composition of the Earth’s mantle was established prior to, or during this event. The oxidation state and ferric iron content of the Earth’s mantle was therefore plausibly set by the end of accretion, and is decoupled from late volatile additions and the rise of oxygen in the Earth’s atmosphere at 2.45 Ga [5]. [1] Frost, D. al., Nature 428, p. 409 (2004). [2] Poitrasson, al., Earth and Planetary Science Letters 223 (3-4), p. 253 (2004). [3] Weyer, S. et al., Iron isotope fractionation during planetary differentiation, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 240 (2), p. 251 (2005). [4] Pahlevan, K. and

  4. Sulfide in the core and the Nd isotopic composition of the silicate Earth (United States)

    McCoy-West, A.; Millet, M. A.; Nowell, G. M.; Wohlers, A.; Wood, B. J.; Burton, K. W.


    The chemical composition of the Earth is traditionally explained in terms of evolution from a solar-like composition, similar to that found in primitive chondritic meteorites. It now appears, however, that the silicate Earth is not chondritic, but depleted in incompatible elements and a resovable 20 ppm excess is observed in 142Nd relative to chondirtes [1, 2]. This anomaly requires a process that occurred within 30 Myr of solar system formation and has been variably ascribed to: a complementary enriched reservoir in the deep Earth [1]; loss to space through collisional erosion [3]; or the inhertence of nucleosynthetic anomalies [4]. Sulfide in the core may provide a reservoir capable of balancing the composition of the silicate Earth. Recent experimental work suggests that the core contains a significant proportion of sulfide, added during the final stages of accretion and new data suggests that at high pressures sulfide can incorporate a substantial amount of refractory lithophile and heat-producing elements [5]. The drawback of the short-lived 146Sm-142Nd radiogenic isotope system is that it is not possible to distinguish between fractionations of Sm/Nd that occurs during silicate melting or segregation of a sulfide-melt. Neodymium stable isotopes have the potential to provide just such a tracer of sulfide segregation, because there is a significant contrast in bonding environment between sulfide and silicate, where heavy isotopes should be preferentially incorporated into high force-constant bonds involving REE3+ (i.e. the silicate mantle). Preliminary data indicate that mantle rocks do indeed possess heavier 146Nd/144Nd values than chondritic meteorites by 0.3 ‰, consistent with the removal of light Nd into sulfide in the core, driving the residual mantle to heavier values. Overall, our isotope and elemental data indicate that the rare earths and other incompatible elements are substantially incorporated into sulfide. While Nd stable isotope data for

  5. Early history of Earth's crust-mantle system inferred from hafnium isotopes in chondrites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Haack, Henning; Rosing, M.


    The Lu to Hf decay series has been widely used to understand the nature of Earth's early crust-mantle system. The interpretation, however, of Lu-Hf isotope data requires accurate knowledge of the radioactive decay constant of Lu (¿176), as well as bulk-Earth reference parameters. A recent...... calibration of the ¿176 value calls for the presence of highly unradiogenic hafnium in terrestrial zircons with ages greater than 3.9 Gyr, implying widespread continental crust extraction from an isotopically enriched mantle source more than 4.3 Gyr ago, but does not provide evidence for a complementary...... depleted mantle reservoir. Here we report Lu-Hf isotope measurements of different Solar System objects including chondrites and basaltic eucrites. The chondrites define a Lu-Hf isochron with an initial Hf/Hf ratio of 0.279628 ± 0.000047, corresponding to ¿176 = 1.983 ± 0.033 x 10yr using an age of 4.56 Gyr...

  6. Production of Rare Earth Isotope Beams for Radiotracer-DLTS on SiC

    CERN Multimedia


    Electrical properties of semiconductors are extremely sensitive to minor traces of impurities and defects. This fact allows to intentionally modify material properties and is thus the very basis of semiconductor electronics and optoelectronics. In the present project, electronic properties and doping effects of rare-earth elements in the technologically important semiconductor SiC are to be investigated using optical and electrical characterization techniques like Photoluminescence, Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy and Thermal Admittance Spectroscopy. By using the elemental transmutation of radioactive isotopes as a tracer, it will be guaranteed that the impurity-related band gap states can definitively be distinguished from intrinsic or process-induced defects. For SiC up to now only detailed investigation of Er- related deep levels have been reported, preliminary data exist for Sm- and Gd- impurities. In this project we propose the implantation of Pr and Eu isotopes for detailed level studies.

  7. Calcium isotopic fractionation in mantle peridotites by melting and metasomatism and Ca isotope composition of the Bulk Silicate Earth (United States)

    Kang, Jin-Ting; Ionov, Dmitri A.; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Chen-Lei; Golovin, Alexander V.; Qin, Li-Ping; Zhang, Zhao-Feng; Huang, Fang


    To better constrain the Ca isotopic composition of the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) and explore the Ca isotope fractionation in the mantle, we determined the Ca isotopic composition of 28 peridotite xenoliths from Mongolia, southern Siberia and the Siberian craton. The samples are divided in three chemical groups: (1) fertile, unmetasomatized lherzolites (3.7-4.7 wt.% Al2O3); (2) moderately melt-depleted peridotites (1.3-3.0 wt.% Al2O3) with no or very limited metasomatism (LREE-depleted cpx); (3) strongly metasomatized peridotites (LREE-enriched cpx and bulk rock) further divided in subgroups 3a (harzburgites, 0.1-1.0% Al2O3) and 3b (fertile lherzolites, 3.9-4.3% Al2O3). In Group 1, δ44/40Ca of fertile spinel and garnet peridotites, which experienced little or no melting and metasomatism, show a limited variation from 0.90 to 0.99‰ (relative to SRM 915a) and an average of 0.94 ± 0.05‰ (2SD, n = 14), which defines the Ca isotopic composition of the BSE. In Group 2, the δ44/40Ca is the highest for three rocks with the lowest Al2O3, i.e. the greatest melt extraction degrees (average 1.06 ± 0.04 ‰, i.e. ∼0.1‰ heavier than the BSE estimate). Simple modeling of modal melting shows that partial melting of the BSE with 103 ln ⁡αperidotite-melt ranging from 0.10 to 0.25 can explain the Group 2 data. By contrast, δ44/40Ca in eight out of nine metasomatized Group 3 peridotites are lower than the BSE estimate. The Group 3a harzburgites show the greatest δ44/40Ca variation range (0.25-0.96‰), with δ44/40Ca positively correlated with CaO and negatively correlated with Ce/Eu. Chemical evidence suggests that the residual, melt-depleted, low-Ca protoliths of the Group 3a harzburgites were metasomatized, likely by carbonate-rich melts/fluids. We argue that such fluids may have low (≤0.25‰) δ44/40Ca either because they contain recycled crustal components or because Ca isotopes, similar to trace elements and their ratios, may be fractionated by kinetic and

  8. From Gene Expression to the Earth System: Isotopic Constraints on Nitrogen Cycling Across Scales (United States)

    Houlton, B. Z.


    A central motivation of the Biogeosciences is to understand the cycling of biologically essential elements over multiple scales of space and time. This charge is vital to basic knowledge of Earth system functioning. It is also relevant to many of the global challenges we face, such as climate change, biodiversity conservation, and the multifaceted role of global fertilizer use in maximizing human health and well-being. Nitrogen is connected to all of these; yet it has been one of the more vexing elements to quantitatively appraise across systems and scales. Here I discuss how research in my group has been exploring the use of natural nitrogen isotope abundance (15N/14N) as a biogeochemical tracer - from the level of gene expression to nitrogen's role in global climate change. First, I present evidence for a positive correlation between the bacterial genes that encode for gaseous nitrogen production (i.e., nirS) and the 15N/14N of soil extractable nitrate pools across an array of terrestrial ecosystems. Second, I demonstrate how these local-scale results fit with our work on ecosystem-scale nitrogen isotope budgets, where we quantify a uniformly small isotope effect (i.e., losses from tropical rainforest to highly disturbed arid sites. Third, I present results from our global isotope model, which is based on results from our field investigations, providing a new nitrogen "benchmarking" scheme for global computational models and climate change forecasts. Finally, I move to a new research frontier where we have been developing a technique to measure the nitrogen isotope composition of ancient terrestrial plant compounds (i.e., chlorins) buried in the soil. This research aims to address the response of the nitrogen cycle to glacial-interglacial transitions over millennia, which is beyond the window of experimental testing. Together, this research highlights the utility of nitrogen isotope composition in addressing the myriad scales of this element's interaction with

  9. Rubidium Isotope Composition of the Earth and the Moon: Evidence for the Origin of Volatile Loss During Planetary Accretion (United States)

    Pringle, E. A.; Moynier, F.


    The Earth-Moon system has a variety of chemical and isotopic characteristics that provide clues to understanding the mechanism of lunar formation. One important observation is the depletion in moderately volatile elements in the Moon compared to the Earth. This volatile element depletion may be a signature of volatile loss during the Moon-forming Giant Impact. Stable isotopes are powerful tracers of such a process, since volatile loss via evaporation enriches the residue in heavy isotopes. However, early studies searching for the fingerprint of volatile loss failed to find any resolvable variations [1]. Recent work has now revealed heavy isotope enrichments in the Moon relative to the Earth for the moderately volatile elements Zn [2,3] and K [4]. The purely lithophile nature of Rb (in contrast to the chalcophile/lithophile nature of Zn) and the higher volatility of Rb compared to K make Rb an ideal element with which to study the origin of lunar volatile element depletion. We have developed a new method for the high-precision measurement of Rb isotope ratios by MC-ICP-MS. The Rb isotope compositions of terrestrial rocks define a narrow range, indicating that Rb isotope fractionation during igneous differentiation is limited (Comm. 2015. [4] Wang and Jacobsen Nature in press.

  10. Memories of Earth Formation in the Modern Mantle: W Isotopic Composition of Flood Basalt Lavas (United States)

    Rizo Garza, H. L.; Walker, R. J.; Carlson, R.; Horan, M. F.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Francis, D.; Jackson, M. G.


    Four and a half billion years of geologic activity has overprinted much of the direct evidence for processes involved in Earth's formation and its initial chemical differentiation. Xenon isotopic ratios [1] and 3He/22Ne ratios [2] suggest that heterogeneities formed during Earth's accretion have been preserved to the present time. New opportunities to learn about early Earth history have opened up with the development of analytical techniques that allow high precision analysis of short-lived isotopic systems. The Hf-W system (t½ = 8.9 Ma) is particularly valuable for studying events that occurred during the first ~50 Ma of Solar System history. Here we report new data for ~ 60 Ma Baffin Bay and ~ 120 Ma Ontong Java Plateau lava samples. Both are large igneous provinces that may have sampled a primitive, less degassed deep mantle reservoir that has remained isolated since shortly after Earth formation [3,4]. Three samples analyzed have 182W/184W ratios that are 10 to 48 ppm higher than our terrestrial standard. These excesses in 182W are the highest ever measured in terrestrial rocks, and may reflect 182W ingrowth in an early-formed high Hf/W mantle domain that was produced by magma ocean differentiation [5]. Long and short-lived Sm-Nd systematics in these samples, however, are inconsistent with this hypothesis. The 182W excessses could rather reflect the derivation of these lavas from a mantle reservoir that was isolated from late accretionary additions [6]. The chondritic initial Os isotopic compositions and highly siderophile element abundances of these samples, however, are inconsistent with this interpretation. Tungsten concentrations for the Baffin Bay and Ontong Java Plateau samples range from 23 ppb to 62 ppb, and are negatively correlated with their 182W/184W ratios. We propose that the source reservoirs for these flood basalts likely formed through Hf/W fractionation caused by core-forming events occuring over a protacted time interval during Earth

  11. The Use of Lead Isotope and Rare Earth Element Geochemistry for Forensic Geographic Provenancing (United States)

    Carey, A.; Darrah, T.; Harrold, Z.; Prutsman-Pfeiffer, J.; Poreda, R.


    Lead isotope and rare earth element composition of modern human bones are analyzed to explore their utility for geographical provenancing. DNA analysis is the standard for identification of individuals. DNA analysis requires a DNA match for comparison. Thus, DNA analysis is of limited use in cases involving unknown remains. Trace elements are incorporated into bones and teeth during biomineralization, recording the characteristics of an individual's geochemical environment. Teeth form during adolescence, recording the geochemical environment of an individual's youth. Bones remodel throughout an individual's lifetime. Bones consist of two types of bone tissue (cortical and trabecular) that remodel at different rates, recording the geochemical environment at the time of biomineralization. Cortical bone tissue, forming the outer surface of bones, is dense, hard tissue that remodels in 25-30 yrs. Conversely, trabecular bone tissue, the inner cavity of bones, is low density, porous and remodels in 2-5 years. Thus, analyzing teeth and both bone tissues allows for the development of a geographical time line capable of tracking immigration patterns through time instead of only an individual's youth. Geochemical isotopic techniques (Sr, O, C, N) have been used for geographical provenancing in physical anthropology. The isotopic values of Sr, C, O, N are predominantly a function of soil compositions in areas where food is grown or water is consumed. Application of these provenancing techniques has become difficult as an individual's diet may reflect the isotopic composition of foods obtained at the local grocer as opposed to local soil compositions. Thus, we explore the use of REEs and Pb isotopes for geographical provenancing. Pb and REEs are likely more reliable indicators of modern geographical location as their composition are high in bio-available sources such as local soils, atmospheric aerosols, and dust as opposed to Sr, C, O, N that are controlled by food and

  12. The electrical conductivity of the Earth's upper mantle as estimated from satellite measured magnetic field variations. Ph.D. Thesis (United States)

    Didwall, E. M.


    Low latitude magnetic field variations (magnetic storms) caused by large fluctuations in the equatorial ring current were derived from magnetic field magnitude data obtained by OGO 2, 4, and 6 satellites over an almost 5 year period. Analysis procedures consisted of (1) separating the disturbance field into internal and external parts relative to the surface of the Earth; (2) estimating the response function which related to the internally generated magnetic field variations to the external variations due to the ring current; and (3) interpreting the estimated response function using theoretical response functions for known conductivity profiles. Special consideration is given to possible ocean effects. A temperature profile is proposed using conductivity temperature data for single crystal olivine. The resulting temperature profile is reasonable for depths below 150-200 km, but is too high for shallower depths. Apparently, conductivity is not controlled solely by olivine at shallow depths.

  13. Sulfur Isotopic Fractionation During Vacuum Ultraviolet Photolysis of SO2: Implication for Meteorites and Early Earth (United States)

    Chakraborty, S.; Jackson, T. L.; Rude, B.; Ahmed, M.; Thiemens, M. H.


    Several sulfur bearing gas phase species existed in the solar nebula, including H2S, SO2, SiS, OCS, CS2, CS, NS and SO as a consequence of multiple available chemical valence states (S2- to S6+). Sulfur directly condensed into refractory phases in the solar nebula under reducing conditions. Mass independent (MI) sulfur isotopic compositions have been measured in chondrules and organics from chondritic meteorites. Large 33S excesses in sulfides from achondrite meteoritic groups have also been found suggesting that refractory sulfide minerals condensed from a nebular gas with an enhanced carbon to oxygen ratio. Photochemical reactions in the early solar nebula have been inferred to be a leading process in generating MI sulfur compositions. Previously, we have reported wavelength dependent mass-independent sulfur isotopic compositions (with a varying degree in D33S and D36S) in the product elemental sulfur during vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photodissociation of H2S. Recently we performed photodissociation of SO2 experiments in the wavelength region 98 to 200 nm at low pressures (0.5 torr) using the VUV photons from the Advanced Light Source Synchrotron in a differentially pumped reaction chamber. To our knowledge, this is the first ever experiment to determine the isotopic fractionation in VUV photodissociation of SO2. At VUV energy region, SO2 is mostly predissociative. The measured sulfur isotopic compositions in the product elemental sulfur are MI and dependent on the wavelength. These new results support the previous finding from photodissociation of other di- and tri-atomic molecules (CO, N2, H2S) that predissociative photodissociation produces MI isotopic products and is a quantum mechanically driven selective phenomenon. These new results are useful because (i) they are important in interpreting meteoritic data and decipher sulfur chemistry in the early nebula which is indicative of the redox condition of the nebula (ii) SO2 photolysis in the atmosphere of early

  14. Early Earth evolution: new insight from Sm and Nd isotopes in meteoritic inclusions (United States)

    Bouvier, A.; Boyet, M.


    The interpretation of Sm-Nd systematics for the early Earth relies on knowing the composition of the silicate Earth and the 146Sm decay constant. We have measured both 146Sm-142Nd and 147Sm-143Nd internal systematics of four individual Calcium, Aluminum-rich Inclusions (CAIs), the first solids formed in the Solar System [1], from 3 different carbonaceous chondrites from the CV3 group: Allende, Northwest Africa (NWA) 2364 and NWA 6991. Results obtained on NWA 6991 plot on a well-defined mineral and bulk isochron with a Solar System initial 146Sm/144Sm ratio of 0.0070 ±0.0024. This ratio is more consistent with the ratio defined from internal isochrons of differentiated meteorites using the half-life of 103 Ma for 146Sm [2], instead of the value obtained considering the half-life of 68 Ma [3]. On the basis of nucleosynthethic anomalies in Sm and Nd isotopes [4], the ordinary (O) and enstatite (E) chondrites remain potential candidates for the Earth's building blocks. OC have an average deficit of -18±3 ppm relative to modern terrestrial 142Nd/144Nd, whereas EC range from the OC to the terrestrial values [4-6]. Sm stable isotope compositions of the analyzed CAIs indicate that galactic cosmic rays did not affect the 142Nd/144Nd compositions, but deficits are found in the pure p-process 144Sm nuclide (-240 to -290 ppm/ standard). These deficits may translate to 142Nd deficits of a few ppm. NWA 6991 CAI 146Sm-142Nd internal isochron passes through a 142Nd/144Nd ratio of -6 ±6 ppm relative to the terrestrial standard at a chondritic 147Sm/144Nd of 0.1960. We note that this value is identical to the enstatite chondrite average and the 142Nd/144Nd ratio of the lunar mantle, as defined recently by [7] using a chondritic Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf for the bulk Moon. While the determination of the Sm-Nd reference parameters for the bulk Earth is still contentious, the difference in 142Nd/144Nd between modern terrestrial rocks and meteorites analyzed so far is Nat. Geosc. 3, 637. [2

  15. Determination of rare-earth elements in rocks by isotope-excited X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunzendorf, Helmar; Wollenberg, H.A.


    Isotope-excited X-ray fluorescence spectrometry furnishes a rapid determination of rare-earth elements in unprepared rock samples. The samples are excited by 241Am γ-rays, generating X-ray spectra on a multichannel pulse-height analyser. Gaussian peaks of the Kα and Kβ X-ray energies are treated......-ray spectrometric scan of a longitudinally sliced drill core showed a close correlation between rare-earth abundances and appropriate minerals....

  16. Thesis Proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Erik


    Strukturen i Thesis proposal er følgende: Først præsenteres mine konkrete empiriske forskningsprojekter som skal munde ud i afhandlingens artikler. Jeg præsenterer herefter de teoretiske overvejelser omkring oplevelsesbegrebet og forbrugerkulturteori som danner baggrund for at jeg er nået frem til...

  17. Friedman's thesis (United States)

    Samaroo, Ryan


    This essay examines Friedman's recent approach to the analysis of physical theories. Friedman argues against Quine that the identification of certain principles as 'constitutive' is essential to a satisfactory methodological analysis of physics. I explicate Friedman's characterization of a constitutive principle, and I evaluate his account of the constitutive principles that Newtonian and Einsteinian gravitation presuppose for their formulation. I argue that something close to Friedman's thesis is defensible.

  18. Chemical and isotopic kinship of iron in the Earth and Moon deduced from the lunar Mg-Suite (United States)

    Sossi, Paolo A.; Moynier, Frédéric


    The Moon and the Earth's mantle share many chemical and isotopic traits, leading to the prevailing theory that they were formed from similar material. Iron is one element that shows apparent differences between the two bodies, with models for the composition of the Moon having ≈1.5 times more FeO (12-14 wt.%), relative to the Earth's mantle (8 wt.%). This difference is mirrored in their isotope compositions, where lunar mare basalts have δ57Fe (per mille deviation of the 57Fe/54Fe ratio from the IRMM-014 standard) 0.1-0.2‰ higher than peridotitic rocks representative of Earth's mantle, a feature initially attributed to loss of isotopically light Fe following a giant impact. However, whether basaltic rocks are suitable analogues for the Moon's composition is debatable in the light of their distinct source regions that reflect the extensive lithological stratification of the lunar mantle. Here, we evaluate the iron isotope composition of the bulk Moon through the study of igneous cumulate rocks of the lunar highlands Magnesium Suite (Mg Suite). The δ57Fe of Mg Suite rocks spans a limited range, from 0.05‰ to 0.10‰, with an average (+ 0.07 ± 0.02 ‰) that overlaps with Earth's mantle (+ 0.05 ± 0.01 ‰), similarities that extend to their Mg#s, where both reach 0.9. Numerical modelling of iron isotope fractionation during lunar magma ocean crystallisation shows that the Mg Suite should accurately reflect the composition of the bulk Moon, which is therefore + 0.07 ± 0.02 ‰, indistinguishable from Earth's mantle but heavier than chondrites (- 0.01 ± 0.01 ‰). Iron thus behaves coherently with other elements that condense at temperatures higher than Li in showing no isotopic difference between the Earth and Moon, suggesting element depletion on the Moon affected only the more volatile elements. Therefore, there is no cosmochemical basis for iron enrichment or depletion in the bulk Moon relative to the Earth's mantle, whose composition is an analogue for

  19. IsoNose - Isotopic Tools as Novel Sensors of Earth Surfaces Resources - A new Marie Curie Initial Training Network (United States)

    von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Bouchez, Julien; Bouman, Caludia; Kamber, Balz; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Gorbushina, Anna; James, Rachael; Oelkers, Eric; Tesmer, Maja; Ashton, John


    The Marie Curie Initial Training Network »Isotopic Tools as Novel Sensors of Earth Surfaces Resources - IsoNose« is an alliance of eight international partners and five associated partners from science and industry. The project is coordinated at the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and will run until February 2018. In the last 15 years advances in novel mass-spectrometric methods have opened opportunities to identify "isotopic fingerprints" of virtually all metals and to make use of the complete information contained in these fingerprints. The understanding developed with these new tools will ultimately guide the exploitation of Earth surface environments. However, progress in bringing these methods to end-users depends on a multi transfer of knowledge between (1) isotope Geochemistry and Microbiology, Environmental Sciences (2), Economic Geology and (3) instrument developers and users in the development of user-friendly and new mass spectrometric methods. IsoNose will focus on three major Earth surface resources: soil, water and metals. These resources are currently being exploited to an unprecedented extent and their efficient management is essential for future sustainable development. Novel stable isotope techniques will disclose the processes generating (e.g. weathering, mineral ore formation) and destroying (e.g. erosion, pollution) these resources. Within this field the following questions will be addressed and answered: - How do novel stable isotope signatures characterize weathering processes? - How do novel stable isotope signatures trace water transport? - How to use novel stable isotope as environmental tracers? - How to use novel stable isotope for detecting and exploring metal ores? - How to improve analytical capabilities and develop robust routine applications for novel stable isotopes? Starting from the central questions mentioned above the IsoNose activities are organized in five scientific work packages: 1

  20. Astrophysical Shrapnel: Discriminating Among Near-Earth Stellar Explosion Sources of Live Radioactive Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, Brian J; Ellis, John R


    We consider the production and deposition on Earth of isotopes with half-lives in the range 10$^{5}$ to 10$^{8}$ years that might provide signatures of nearby stellar explosions, extending previous analyses of Core-Collapse Supernovae (CCSNe) to include Electron-Capture Supernovae (ECSNe), Super-Asymptotic Giant Branch (SAGBs) stars, Thermonuclear/Type Ia Supernovae (TNSNe), and Kilonovae/Neutron Star Mergers (KNe). We revisit previous estimates of the $^{60}$Fe and $^{26}$Al signatures, and extend these estimates to include $^{244}$Pu and $^{53}$Mn. We discuss interpretations of the $^{60}$Fe signals in terrestrial and lunar reservoirs in terms of a nearby stellar ejection ~2.2 Myr ago, showing that (i) the $^{60}$Fe yield rules out the TNSN and KN interpretations, (ii) the $^{60}$Fe signals highly constrain a SAGB interpretation but do not completely them rule out, (iii) are consistent with a CCSN origin, and (iv) are highly compatible with an ECSN interpretation. Future measurements could resolve the radio...

  1. Meteorite zircon constraints on the bulk Lu−Hf isotope composition and early differentiation of the Earth (United States)

    Iizuka, Tsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Takao; Hibiya, Yuki; Amelin, Yuri


    Knowledge of planetary differentiation is crucial for understanding the chemical and thermal evolution of terrestrial planets. The 176Lu−176Hf radioactive decay system has been widely used to constrain the timescales and mechanisms of silicate differentiation on Earth, but the data interpretation requires accurate estimation of Hf isotope evolution of the bulk Earth. Because both Lu and Hf are refractory lithophile elements, the isotope evolution can be potentially extrapolated from the present-day 176Hf/177Hf and 176Lu/177Hf in undifferentiated chondrite meteorites. However, these ratios in chondrites are highly variable due to the metamorphic redistribution of Lu and Hf, making it difficult to ascertain the correct reference values for the bulk Earth. In addition, it has been proposed that chondrites contain excess 176Hf due to the accelerated decay of 176Lu resulting from photoexcitation to a short-lived isomer. If so, the paradigm of a chondritic Earth would be invalid for the Lu−Hf system. Herein we report the first, to our knowledge, high-precision Lu−Hf isotope analysis of meteorite crystalline zircon, a mineral that is resistant to metamorphism and has low Lu/Hf. We use the meteorite zircon data to define the Solar System initial 176Hf/177Hf (0.279781 ± 0.000018) and further to identify pristine chondrites that contain no excess 176Hf and accurately represent the Lu−Hf system of the bulk Earth (176Hf/177Hf = 0.282793 ± 0.000011; 176Lu/177Hf = 0.0338 ± 0.0001). Our results provide firm evidence that the most primitive Hf in terrestrial zircon reflects the development of a chemically enriched silicate reservoir on Earth as far back as 4.5 billion years ago. PMID:25870298

  2. Meteorite zircon constraints on the bulk Lu-Hf isotope composition and early differentiation of the Earth. (United States)

    Iizuka, Tsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Takao; Hibiya, Yuki; Amelin, Yuri


    Knowledge of planetary differentiation is crucial for understanding the chemical and thermal evolution of terrestrial planets. The (176)Lu-(176)Hf radioactive decay system has been widely used to constrain the timescales and mechanisms of silicate differentiation on Earth, but the data interpretation requires accurate estimation of Hf isotope evolution of the bulk Earth. Because both Lu and Hf are refractory lithophile elements, the isotope evolution can be potentially extrapolated from the present-day (176)Hf/(177)Hf and (176)Lu/(177)Hf in undifferentiated chondrite meteorites. However, these ratios in chondrites are highly variable due to the metamorphic redistribution of Lu and Hf, making it difficult to ascertain the correct reference values for the bulk Earth. In addition, it has been proposed that chondrites contain excess (176)Hf due to the accelerated decay of (176)Lu resulting from photoexcitation to a short-lived isomer. If so, the paradigm of a chondritic Earth would be invalid for the Lu-Hf system. Herein we report the first, to our knowledge, high-precision Lu-Hf isotope analysis of meteorite crystalline zircon, a mineral that is resistant to metamorphism and has low Lu/Hf. We use the meteorite zircon data to define the Solar System initial (176)Hf/(177)Hf (0.279781 ± 0.000018) and further to identify pristine chondrites that contain no excess (176)Hf and accurately represent the Lu-Hf system of the bulk Earth ((176)Hf/(177)Hf = 0.282793 ± 0.000011; (176)Lu/(177)Hf = 0.0338 ± 0.0001). Our results provide firm evidence that the most primitive Hf in terrestrial zircon reflects the development of a chemically enriched silicate reservoir on Earth as far back as 4.5 billion years ago.

  3. Thermal effects on rare earth element and strontium isotope chemistry in single conodont elements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armstrong, H.A.; Pearson, D.G.; Griselin, M.


    A low-blank, high sensitivity isotope dilution, ICP-MS analytical technique has been used to obtain REE abundance data from single conodont elements weighing as little as 5 μg. Sr isotopes can also be measured from the column eluants enabling Sr isotope ratios and REE abundance to be determined from

  4. [Effect of processes in the earth's crust on evolution of photosynthesis (as indicated by data on carbon isotopic composition)]. (United States)

    Ivlev, A A


    A probable mechanism of effect of processes occurring in the Earth's crust on evolution of photosynthesis is considered. According to the hypothesis, this effect is realized through entrance to the Earth's atmosphere of carbon dioxide that stimulates photosynthesis. Supply of CO2 is irregular and is due to irregular movements of the Earth's crust plates. This is accompanied by destruction of carbonates and conversion of carbon of the organic matter to CO2 due to processes of reduction of sulfates. The CO2 content in atmosphere rises for relatively short orogenic periods, due to intensive crust plate movement, while for the subsequent long periods, called the geosynclinal ones, of the relatively slow plate movement, the CO2 content falls due to the higher rate of its consumption for photosynthesis. Owing to the carbon isotopic fractionation accompanying photosynthesis, regular isotopic differences appear between the atmospheric CO2 and the "living" matter (Relay's effect); these differences are then transformed to isotope differences of the carbonate and organic carbon. At the appearance in atmosphere of free oxygen--product of photosynthesis--in organisms there appears photorespiration that also is accompanied by fractionation of carbon isotopes, but with effect of opposite sign. This leads to enrichment of the photosynthesizing biomass with 13C isotope at the orogenic periods. As a result, the initially pronounced isotope differences of the carbonate and organic carbon decrease by the end of the geosyclinal periods. According to the proposed model, concentrations of CO2 and O2 are exchanged in the antiphase. They lead to alternation of periods of warning up and cooling off on the Earth. The former coincide with the orogenic periods, the latter appear at the end of geosyclinal periods when oxygen is accumulated in atmosphere, while organic substance in sediments. Accumulation of organic substance leads to formation of petroleum-maternal masses. To substantiate the

  5. Geology and stable isotope geochemistry of Paleoarchean sulfur. Formation, preservation and geobiology of ancient pyrite and barite


    Roerdink, D.L.


    Sulfur isotopes in ancient sulfate and sulfide minerals provide a comprehensive record of microbial processes involved in the early sulfur cycle on Earth. However, the interpretation of these isotopic signatures requires information on the geological context of such samples, because abiotic reactions can produce similar degrees of isotope fractionation to biological pathways. This thesis presents an integrated study of the geology and sulfur isotope geochemistry of Paleoarchean pyrite and bar...

  6. Ocean circulation and shelf processes in the Arctic, Mediterranean traced by radiogenic neodymium isotopes, rare earth elements and stable oxygen isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laukert, Georgi


    Disentangling the sources, distribution and mixing of water masses involved in the transport and transfer of heat and freshwater in the Arctic Mediterranean (i.e. the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, AM) is critical for the understanding of present and future hydrological changes in the high-latitude regions. This study refines the knowledge of water mass circulation in the AM and provides new insights into the processes occurring on the Arctic shelves and in high-latitude estuaries. A multi-proxy approach is used combining dissolved radiogenic Nd isotopes (ε{sub Nd}), rare earth elements (REEs) and stable oxygen isotopes (δ{sup 18}O) together with standard hydrographic tracers. The sources, distribution and mixing of water masses that circulate in the AM and pass the Fram Strait are assessed through evaluation of dissolved ε{sub Nd} and REE, and δ{sup 18}O data obtained from samples recovered in 2012, 2014 and 2015, and through a compilation and reassessment of literature Nd isotope and concentration data previously reported for other sites within the AM. The Nd isotope and REE distribution in the central Fram Strait and the open AM is shown to primarily reflect the lateral advection of water masses and their mixing, whereas seawater-particle interactions exert important control only above the shelf regions. New insights into the processes occurring in high latitude estuaries are provided by dissolved Nd isotope and REE compositions together with δ{sup 18}O data for the Laptev Sea based on filtered samples recovered in 2012, 2013 and 2014. A combination of REE removal through coagulation of nanoparticles and colloids and REE redistribution within the water column through formation and melting of sea ice and river ice is suggested to account for the distribution of all REEs, while no REE release from particles is observed. The ice-related processes contribute to the redistribution of other elements and ultimately may also affect primary productivity in high

  7. Isotope composition and volume of Earth´s early oceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pope, Emily Catherine; Bird, Dennis K.; Rosing, Minik Thorleif


    ´D relative to Vienna standard mean ocean water (VSMOW)] by at most 25± 5‰, but oxygen isotope ratios were comparable to modern oceans. Mass balance of the global hydrogen budget constrains the contribution of continental growth and planetary hydrogen loss to the secular evolution of hydrogen isotope ratios...

  8. Rare earth element transport in the western North Atlantic inferred from Nd isotopic observations (United States)

    Piepgras, D. J.; Wasserburg, G. J.


    The relationship between the Nd isotopic composition in the Atlantic waters and the origin and circulation of the water masses was investigated. Samples were collected in the western North Atlantic between 7 and 54 deg N. The isotopic composition (Nd-143/Nd-144 ratios) showed extensive vertical structure at all locations. In regions where a thermocline was well-developed, large isotopic shifts were observed across the base of the thermocline, while regions without a thermocline were characterized by much more gradual shifts in isotopic composition with depth. The data reveal an excellent correlation between the Nd isotopic distribution in the western North Atlantic water column and the distribution of water masses identified from temperature and salinity measurements.

  9. Platinum Concentrations and Tungsten Isotope Ratios of Earth's Mantle as Tracers for Late Veneer Mixing into the Early Mantle (United States)

    Zeng, L.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Sasselov, D. D.


    Platinum (Pt) and tungsten (W) are both depleted in Earth's mantle. Due to their siderophile nature, they were both strongly partitioned into the Earth's core during its formation. However, in particular the Pt concentration in the Earth's mantle is much higher than expected from experimental data on metal-silicate partitioning appropriate for the conditions of core formation. A plausible explanation for this high Pt concentration is the late veneer hypothesis, where volatile-rich chondritic type material was delivered to Earth's surface after core formation. This can in principle explain both the volatiles in the Earth's ocean-atmosphere as well as the high Pt concentrations in the Earth's mantle. There are tungsten isotopic heterogeneities (182W/183W variations) in the early Earth that have been explained as being due to late veneer addition, as this material would have lower 182W/183W than the post-core formation mantle. There is also the gradual increase of Pt abundance through history in mantle as measured in mantle-derived rocks of various old ages. Both observations are thought to be caused by gradual mixing of late veneer material into Earth's mantle through plate subduction and mantle convection through geologic time. This would increase the Pt concentration and decrease the 182W/183W ratio in the mantle with time, as observed. Here we model the late veneer material as a thin sheet which is subducted into the mantle, and get stretched and mixed with the mantle material gradually. The stretching is assumed to follow a simple exponential law of decrease of the characteristic size of heterogeneity regions. The melting events that produce the rock samples of various ages measured on the surface are modeled as random geometric sampling of a sampling box with a certain length-scale. We are testing various scenarios of this mathematical model to see if both the variations in W isotopic ratio and the Pt concentration in Earth's history can be made consistent with

  10. In-situ buildup of cosmogenic isotopes at the earth`s surface: measurement of erosion rates and exposure times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Stone, J.O.H.; Evans, J.M.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)


    Cosmic rays produce a number of nuclides in rocks that can be used to determine the geomorphic history of surfaces. The most useful are the radioactive isotopes {sup 10}Be (t{sub 1/2} = 1.5Ma), {sup 26}Al (0.7Ma) and {sup 36}Cl (0.3Ma). Within the top 2m of the surface, these are produced principally by fast neutrons. At greater depths, production is dominated by the capture of negative muons. Measurements of a single nuclide produced in situ can be used to determine total exposure times or erosion rates. The use of multiple nuclides with different half-lives makes it possible to determine more complex histories, such as exposures interrupted by periods of burial. At the ANU, all three of the isotopes above are being used to study a variety of problems in geomorphology and paleoclimatology, although to date, most of the work has concentrated on {sup 36}Cl. The accumulation of cosmogenic {sup 36}Cl in calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) provides a means of measuring erosion rates on limestone surfaces. Sensitivity is achieved over a wide range of erosion rates due to the high production rate of {sup 36}Cl in calcite (typically greater than 30 atoms/g/yr) and a detection limit of ca. 5000 atoms/g attainable with the ANU AMS system. The method is simplified by the predominance of Ca reactions (principally spallation) over other sources of {sup 36}Cl in calcite, and the ease of sample preparation. This presentation discuss the results of measurements of {sup 36}Cl in calcite from limestone samples from Australia and Papua New Guinea. Erosion rates derived from these measurements range from 3 microns per year (Australia) to over 200 microns per year in the New Guinea highlands. 3 refs.

  11. Comment on “Iron isotope fractionation during planetary differentiation” by S. Weyer et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. V240, pages 251 264 (United States)

    Beard, Brian L.; Johnson, Clark M.


    A review of published Fe isotope compositions measured for mantle xenoliths and massif-type peridotites demonstrates that the Fe isotope composition of the "mantle" is highly heterogeneous as compared to the narrow Fe isotope range measured for basaltic rocks. The greatest isotopic heterogeneity exists for samples derived from the lithospheric mantle, whereas basalts largely record the isotopic compositions of the asthenospheric mantle. These published Fe isotope data show that the variability measured in mantle samples is too large to be used to accurately determine a planetary Fe isotope composition, and, contrary to the assertions of Weyer et al. [S. Weyer, A. Anbar, G. Brey, C. Münker, K. Mezger, A. Woodland, Iron isotope fractionation during planetary differentiation. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 240 (2005) 251-264], there is no evidence that the bulk terrestrial mantle has a different Fe isotope composition relative to terrestrial basaltic magmas. We contend that similar rock types must be compared (i.e., basalt-basalt) when considering possible inter-planetary Fe isotope differences.

  12. Strontium isotopes and rare-earth element geochemistry of hydrothermal carbonate deposits from Lake Tanganyika, East Africa (United States)

    Barrat, J. A.; Boulègue, J.; Tiercelin, J. J.; Lesourd, M.


    At Cape Banza (North Tanganyika Lake), fluids and aragonite chimneys have been collected many times since the discovery of this sublacustrine field in 1987. This sampling has been investigated here for the Sr isotopic compositions and the rare-earth element features of the carbonates and a few fluid samples. The 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of the chimneys indicate that they have precipitated from a mixture of lake water (more than 95%) and hydrothermal fluids. No zoning in the chimneys was detected with our Sr data. For the rare-earth elements, the situation is more complex. The external walls of the chimneys are rare-earth-element-poor (La ≈ 500 ppb, Yb ≈ 200 ppb, La/Yb = 2 to 3.4). Their shale normalised rare-earth element patterns suggest that they are in equilibrium with the inferred carbonate-depositing fluids. The rare-earth element concentrations of the internal walls of the chimneys are significantly light rare earth elements (LREE)-enriched with La contents sometimes up to 5 ppm. We suggest that they contain more vent-fluid rare-earth elements than the external wall samples, possibly adsorbed on the surface of growing crystals or simply hosted by impurities. It was not possible to constrain the nature of these phases, but the variations of the compositions of the internal wall materials of the active chimneys with time, as well as data obtained on an inactive chimney indicate that this rare-earth element excess is mobile. Partition coefficients were calculated between the external wall aragonite and carbonate-depositing fluid. The results are strikingly similar to the values obtained by Sholkovitz and Shen (1995) on coral aragonite, and suggest that there is no significant biologic effect on the incorporation of rare-earth elements into coral aragonite and that the various carbonate complexes involved Me(CO 3+) complexes are the main LREE carriers in seawater (Cantrell and Byrne, 1987) instead of Me(CO 3) 2- in Banza fluids) have the same behaviour during

  13. New insights from old spherules: Os-W isotope and HSE evidence for Paleoarchean meteorite bombardment of the Earth (United States)

    Schulz, T.; Luguet, A. A.; Koeberl, C.


    Introduction: Although still debated, spherule beds in the Barberton Mountain Land (~3.4 Ga) are suspected to represent remnants of impact-generated and ballistically emplaced silicate melt droplets [e.g. 1]. Such deposits provide the only window into the late stages of the heavy meteorite bombardment on Earth as their source craters have long since been obliterated. In order to identify a possible meteoritic component and, if successful, to discuss potential projectile materials, we are performing a detailed Os-W isotope as well as HSE abundance study on spherule layers from the recently drilled ICDP BARB5 core (grid location 25°30`50.76``S, 31°33`10.08``E). Samples and Methods: Samples were taken from a spherule-containing meta-sedimentary core section discovered between 510 and 512 m depth. About 100 mg of homogenized sample powders were spiked with a mixed 190Os, 185Re, 191Ir and 194Pt tracer and treated in a high pressure asher using inverse aqua regia, followed by conventional extraction schemes for Os and the other HSEs [4]. Chemical and Os isotope measurements (via N-TIMS) were performed in Vienna, whereas HSE measurements were undertaken via ICP MS in Bonn. Results and Discussion: Our preliminary Os isotope data reveal a trend between samples exhibiting high spherule to matrix ratios (187Os/188Os ~0.106 and Os ~0.4 ppm) and samples with lower ones (187Os/188Os up to ~0.304 and Os ~0.008 ppm). Notably, the most unradiogenic samples exhibit carbonaceous-chondrite-like initial 187Os/188Os and HSE ratios, whereas all other samples are clear non-chondritic. These findings support an extraterrestrial contribution in the spherules and can be interpreted compared to conclusions drawn from a Cr isotope study performed on similar samples [3], possibly representing a different impact event and favouring a chondritic projectile. However, further considerations based on precise Os/W ratio determinations and high-precision 182W isotope data, will be presented at the

  14. Teaching the Thesis (United States)

    Carroll, Joyce Armstrong


    Writing a good thesis provides a successful foundation for composing an essay. Teaching how to do that, however, is quite another matter. Teachers often say to students, "Find a thesis," or "Get a thesis," or "Bring in a thesis statement tomorrow," as if students could order one like a pizza, command it like a pet pooch, or grasp one out of thin…

  15. Constructing Your Thesis


    Ryan, Anne; Walsh, Tony


    This chapter explores a number of questions most commonly asked by students as they embark on writing a thesis: •What is a thesis? •How is a thesis structured? •How do I select a thesis topic? •How do I formulate a research question or hypothesis? •How can I be sure I take an objective angle in writing my thesis? •How do I start my thesis? •What is theory? •What can I expect from my supervisor? •What will I learn from writing a thesis?

  16. Shape transition and coexistence in neutron-deficient rare earth isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study spectroscopic quadrupole moments of excited states and electromagnetic transition rates between them in the neutron-deficient rare earth nuclei $^{140}$Sm and $^{142}$Gd using projectile Coulomb excitation at energies of 4.7 MeV per nucleon. The rare earth nuclei below the N=82 shell closure form one of the few regions of the nuclear chart where oblate shapes are expected to occur near the ground state. Nuclear shapes are expected to change rapidly in this region, with coexistence of oblate and prolate shapes in some nuclei. The measurement of electromagnetic matrix elements represents therefore a particularly sensitive test of theoretical nuclear structure models.

  17. An optimum organizational structure for a large earth-orbiting multidisciplinary space base. Ph.D. Thesis - Fla. State Univ., 1973 (United States)

    Ragusa, J. M.


    An optimum hypothetical organizational structure was studied for a large earth-orbiting, multidisciplinary research and applications space base manned by a crew of technologists. Because such a facility does not presently exist, in situ empirical testing was not possible. Study activity was, therefore, concerned with the identification of a desired organizational structural model rather than with the empirical testing of the model. The essential finding of this research was that a four-level project type total matrix model will optimize the efficiency and effectiveness of space base technologists.

  18. Identifying calcium sources at an acid deposition-impacted spruce forest: a strontium isotope, alkaline earth element multi-tracer approach (United States)

    Thomas D. Bullen; Scott W. Bailey


    Depletion of calcium from forest soils has important implications for forest productivity and health. Ca is available to fine feeder roots from a number of soil organic and mineral sources. but identifying the primary source or changes of sources in response to environmental change is problematic. We used strontium isotope and alkaline earth element concentration...

  19. Hydrocarbon degassing of the earth and origin of oil-gas fields (isotope-geochemical and geodynamic aspects) (United States)

    Valyaev, Boris; Dremin, Ivan


    More than half a century ago, Academician PN Kropotkin substantiated the relationship of the formation and distribution of oil and gas fields with the processes of emanation hydrocarbon degassing of the Earth. Over the years, the concept of PN Kropotkin received further development and recognition of studies based on new factual material. Of particular importance are the following factors: a) the results of studies on global and regional uneven processes of traditional oil and gas and the role of deep faults in controlling the spread of oil and gas fields; b) the results of the research on gigantic volumes and localization of the discharges of hydrocarbon fluids (mud volcanoes, seeps) on land and into the atmosphere and through the bottom of the World ocean; c) the results of the studies on grand volumes of the spread of unconventional hydrocarbon resources in their non-traditional fields, especially on near-surface interval of unconventional oil and gas accumulation with gas hydrates, heavy oil and bitumen, as well as extraordinary resources of oil and gas in the shale and tight rocks. Deep mantle-crust nature of oil and gas in traditional and nontraditional deposits thus received further substantiation of geological and geophysical data and research results. However, isotopic and geochemical data are still interpreted in favor of the concept of the genesis of oil and gas in the processes of thermal catalytic conversion of organic matter of sedimentary rocks, at temperatures up to 200°C. In this report an alternative interpretation of the isotope carbon-hydrogen system (δ13C-δD) for gas and of oil deposits, isotope carbon system for methane and carbon dioxide (δ13C1-δ13C0) will be presented. An alternative interpretation will also be presented for the data on carbon-helium isotope geochemical system for oil and gas fields, volcanoes and mud volcanoes. These constructions agree with the geological data on the nature of deep hydrocarbon fluids involved in the

  20. Study of oblate nuclear shapes and shape coexistence in neutron-deficient rare earth isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Guttormsen, M S; Reiter, P; Larsen, A; Korten, W; Clement, E; Siem, S; Renstrom, T; Buerger, A; Jenkins, D G

    We propose to investigate nuclear shapes and shape coexistence in neutron-deficient rare earth nuclei below the N=82 shell closure at the ISOLDE facility by employing Coulomb excitation of Nd, Sm, Gd, and Dy beams from the REX accelerator and the Miniball experiment. Nuclear shapes are expected to change rapidly in this region of the nuclear chart. The measurement of electric quadrupole moments of excited states and the transition rates between them serves as a stringent test of theoretical models and effective nucleon-nucleon interactions.

  1. Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Jason


    This curriculum-based, easy-to-follow book teaches young readers about Earth as one of the eight planets in our solar system in astronomical terms. With accessible text, it provides the fundamental information any student needs to begin their studies in astronomy, such as how Earth spins and revolves around the Sun, why it's uniquely suitable for life, its physical features, atmosphere, biosphere, moon, its past, future, and more. To enhance the learning experience, many of the images come directly from NASA. This straightforward title offers the fundamental information any student needs to sp

  2. Heavy Isotope Composition of Oxygen in Zircon from Soil Sample 14163: Lunar Perspective of an Early Ocean on the Earth (United States)

    Nemchin, A. A.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Pidgeon, R. T.; Meyer, C.


    Thirty oxygen analyses of a large (sub-millimetre) zircon grain from the lunar soil sample 14163 have been determined using CAMECA 1270 ion microprobe. The sample 14163 was returned form the Fra Mauro region by Apollo 14 mission. Zircon grain of 0.6-0.8 mm in size extracted from the sample was imaged using CL detector fitted to the Philips Electron Microscope in order to reveal internal structure. Oxygen isotopes have been analysed during two sessions. The first set of data was collected using the original mount where the grain was set in the resin attached to the glass slide. This resulted in the two complications: (i) standard zircon has to be analysed from the separate mount and (ii) the lunar zircon grain was rased in the holder compared to the standard. In order to investigate, if the elevated oxygen compositions observed during this session could have resulted from this difference in geometric configuration during the standard and sample analyses, the lunar zircon was extracted from the original mount, remounted with the standard chip in the new resin disk and reanalysed during the second session. All analyses made during the first session show delta O-18 values heavier than 6.0%. The second set of data has a wider spread of delta O-18 values with some values as low as 5.6%. Nevertheless, a half of observed delta O-18 values in this set is also higher than 6.0%. Slightly lighter oxygen compositions observed during the second session indicate possible dependence of measured delta O-18 values on the geometry of analysed samples. Presence of zircons with similar heavy oxygen isotope compositions on the Moon, which neither had liquid water or felic crust similar to that on the Earth nor ever developed regime similar to plate tectonics, suggests that other mechanisms can be responsible for elevated delta O-18 values in zircons. This implies that there is no support for the presence of an ocean on the surface of the early Earth and as the ocean appears to be an

  3. Earth mechanisms (fluid and solid), life mechanisms and stable isotope tracers. Isotopes and biology, a great project; Les mecanismes de la terre (fluide et solide), du vivant et les traceurs d`isotopes stables. Isotopes et biologie, un grand dessein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromageot, P. [CEA, 75 - Paris (France)


    Historical and recent review of the development and use of radioactive isotopes for biological studies in France: study of the intermediate metabolism with {sup 14}C tracers in organic molecules; study and biosynthesis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA and polynucleotides) through the use of marked nucleotides; tracer proteins for use in NMR and protein engineering, use of tritium for the study of hormonal regulation

  4. The weathering of organic carbon and pyrite sulfur in Earth's crust and its importance for regulating atmospheric composition, seawater chemistry, and stable isotope records (United States)

    Reinhard, C. T.; Planavsky, N.; Bolton, E. W.


    Earth's crust stores extremely large reservoirs of organic carbon and pyrite sulfur, and transient or secular changes in the sizes of these reservoirs have the capacity to dramatically alter atmospheric composition, climate, seawater acid-base chemistry, and the propagation of isotopic signals into the geologic record. This talk will present and discuss new quantitative approaches toward better understanding the factors that control organic carbon and pyrite sulfur weathering under a wide range of Earth surface conditions, as well as their downstream effects on seawater chemistry, stability of atmospheric pO2, and conventional interpretations of stable carbon isotope mass balance during pivotal events in Earth's biogeochemical evolution. In particular, we will focus on (1) development of a weathering-driven scaling between atmospheric pO2 and geologic carbon isotope signals that explains the relative stability of marine δ13C through time and provides a mechanism for protracted negative δ13C excursions during transient increases in atmospheric pO2; (2) experimental and theoretical approaches aimed at better understanding the role of pyrite sulfur weathering in stabilizing atmospheric pO2; and (3) the importance of redox balance in the sedimentary rock cycle for controlling the marine carbonate system and atmospheric pCO2.

  5. Preliminary Earth System Modeling (cGENIE) of Paired Organic and Inorganic Carbon Isotope Records to Investigate Carbon Cycle Behavior During the Triassic-Jurassic Transition (United States)

    Yager, J. A.; Stellmann, J. L.; West, A. J.; Corsetti, F. A.; Berelson, W.; Bottjer, D. J.; Rosas, S.


    The stable C isotope composition of marine carbonate and organic C yields information regarding major changes in global carbon cycling over geologic time. Excursions from baseline C isotope compositions during the Late Triassic and early Jurassic coincide with the end-Triassic mass extinction. Much remains to be understood about the global extent of these excursions, and about their causes. Here, we use observations from a record from Northern Peru (Levanto) to generate hypotheses concerning C cycle changes, focusing on comparison to other sections spanning the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Our observations include a decoupling between organic and inorganic C isotopes in some records, broad similarities in the pattern of excursions between sections, and a potential offset between the major ocean basins (Tethys and Panthalassa) in both inorganic and organic C isotope records. We are currently adapting a spatially resolved Earth System Model (cGENIE) for this time period with the goal of using this model to explore possible mechanistic causes of these observations, aiming to tie the C isotope records to changes in global carbon cycle dynamics at the time.

  6. Isotopic Evidence for Multi-stage Cosmic-ray Exposure Histories of Lunar Meteorites: Long Residence on the Moon and Short Transition to the Earth (United States)

    Hidaka, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Keisuke; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Yoneda, Shigekazu


    It is known that most lunar meteorites have complicated cosmic-ray exposure experiences on the Moon and in space. In this study, cosmic-ray irradiation histories of six lunar meteorites, Dhofar 489, Northwest Africa 032 (NWA 032), NWA 479, NWA 482, NWA 2995, and NWA 5000, were characterized from neutron-captured isotopic shifts of Sm and Gd, and from the abundances of long-lived cosmogenic radionuclides like 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, and 41Ca. Sm and Gd isotopic data of all of six meteorites show significant isotopic shifts of 149Sm-150Sm and 157Gd-158Gd caused by accumulation of neutron capture reactions due to cosmic-ray irradiation, corresponding to the neutron fluences of (1.3-9.6) × 1016 n cm-2. In particular, very large Sm and Gd isotopic shifts of NWA 482 are over those of a lunar regolith 70002, having the largest isotopic shifts among the Apollo regolith samples, corresponding to cosmic-ray exposure duration over 800 million years in the lunar surface (2π irradiation). Meanwhile, the concentrations of cosmogenic radionuclides for individual six meteorites show the short irradiation time less than one million years as their bodies in space (4π irradiation). Our data also support the results of previous studies, revealing that most of lunar meteorites have long exposure ages at shallow depths on the Moon and short transit times from the Moon to the Earth.

  7. Titanium isotopes and rare earth patterns in CAIs: Evidence for thermal processing and gas-dust decoupling in the protoplanetary disk (United States)

    Davis, Andrew M.; Zhang, Junjun; Greber, Nicolas D.; Hu, Jingya; Tissot, François L. H.; Dauphas, Nicolas


    Titanium isotopic compositions (mass-dependent fractionation and isotopic anomalies) were measured in 46 calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from the Allende CV chondrite. After internal normalization to 49Ti/47Ti, we found that ε50Ti values are somewhat variable among CAIs, and that ε46Ti is highly correlated with ε50Ti, with a best-fit slope of 0.162 ± 0.030 (95% confidence interval). The linear correlation between ε46Ti and ε50Ti extends the same correlation seen among bulk solar objects (slope 0.184 ± 0.007). This observation provides constraints on dynamic mixing of the solar disk and has implications for the nucleosynthetic origin of titanium isotopes, specifically on the possible contributions from various types of supernovae to the solar system. Titanium isotopic mass fractionation, expressed as δ‧49Ti, was measured by both sample-standard bracketing and double-spiking. Most CAIs are isotopically unfractionated, within a 95% confidence interval of normal, but a few are significantly fractionated and the range δ‧49Ti is from ∼-4 to ∼+4. Rare earth element patterns were measured in 37 of the CAIs. All CAIs with significant titanium mass fractionation effects have group II and related REE patterns, implying kinetically controlled volatility fractionation during the formation of these CAIs.

  8. Fe-isotope fractionation during partial melting on Earth and the current view on the Fe-isotope budgets of the planets (reply to the comment of F. Poitrasson and to the comment of B.L. Beard and C.M. Johnson on “Iron isotope fractionation during planetary differentiation” by S. Weyer, A.D. Anbar, G.P. Brey, C. Münker, K. Mezger and A.B. Woodland) (United States)

    Weyer, S.; Anbar, A. D.; Brey, G. P.; Münker, C.; Mezger, K.; Woodland, A. B.


    In their comments on our recent paper [S. Weyer, A.D. Anbar, G.P. Brey, C. Müncker, K. Mezger, A.B. Woodland, Iron isotope fractionation during planetary differentiation. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 240 (2005) 251-264], Poitrasson [F. Poitrasson, Does planetary differentiation really fractionate iron isotopes? A comment on "Iron isotope fractionation during planetary differentiation" by S. Weyer, A.D. Anbar, G.P. Brey, C. Münker, K. Mezger, A.B. Woodland, EPSL, vol. 240: 251-264., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. this issue (2007)] and Beard and Johnson [B.L. Beard, C.M. Johnson, Comment on "Iron isotope fractionation during planetary differentiation" by S. Weyer et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Letts. V240, pages 251-264., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. this issue (2007)] argued that there is currently no evidence that the Fe-isotope composition fractionates during silicate differentiation on planets. Based on the investigation of crustal materials they claim that differences in the Fe-isotope compositions of planets can be best explained by their different accretion histories. However, based on a compilation of Fe-isotope analyses from recent studies, we show that there is increasing evidence for a systematically lighter Fe-isotope composition of the terrestrial upper mantle compared to basalts, and that Fe-isotope fractionation during partial melting is the most likely process responsible for this isotopic difference. Additionally, we show that the average value and also the observed range of Fe-isotope compositions of basalts and other differentiated rocks from the Earth and the Moon are very similar. Thus, there is currently little evidence that the Moon is isotopically heavier than the Earth, as earlier proposed by Poitrasson et al. [F. Poitrasson, A. Halliday, D. Lee, S. Levasseur, N. Teutsch, Iron isotope differences between Earth, Moon, Mars and Vesta as possible records of contrasted accretion mechanisms. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 223 (2004) 253-266]. However, most likely the

  9. The Tractable Cognition thesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, I.J.E.I. van


    The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance the Tractable Cognition thesis: Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by

  10. The Tractable Cognition Thesis (United States)

    van Rooij, Iris


    The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance the "Tractable Cognition thesis": Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by constraining the space of computational-level theories…

  11. The Unobservability Thesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Søren


    The unobservability thesis (UT) states that the mental states of other people are unobservable. Both defenders and critics of UT seem to assume that UT has important implications for the mindreading debate. Roughly, the former argue that because UT is true, mindreaders need to infer the mental...... implications for the mindreading debate. On the other line of interpretation, UT may matter to the mindreading debate, in particular if we think of it as a thesis about the possible contents of perceptual experience. The upshot is that those who believe UT has implications for the mindreading debate need...... to be more specific about how they understand the thesis....

  12. Tracing metal–silicate segregation and late veneer in the Earth and the ureilite parent body with palladium stable isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creech, J. B.; Moynier, F.; Bizzarro, Martin


    Stable isotope studies of highly siderophile elements (HSE) have the potential to yield valuable insights into a range of geological processes. In particular, the strong partitioning of these elements into metal over silicates may lead to stable isotope fractionation during metal–silicate segrega...... with a late-veneer of chondritic material after core formation....

  13. Rare earth element and neodymium isotope tracing of element input and past ocean circulation. Study from north and south pacific seawater and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froellje, Henning


    Ocean circulation and cycling of trace elements within the oceanic water column is of great significance for modern and past climates. The global overturning circulation is responsible for the distribution of water masses, heat and particulate and dissolved compounds, while biological and chemical processes, such as primary productivity or particle scavenging, control the cycling of nutrients and trace elements in the ocean, and ultimately influence the ocean-atmosphere exchange of carbon. Rare earth elements (REE) and neodymium (Nd) isotopes are widely used as tracers for lithogenic element fluxes and modern and past ocean circulation and water mass mixing. The use of Nd isotopes in paleoceanographic investigations is based on the precise knowledge of processes involved in REE cycling and of the modern oceanic Nd isotope distribution. The Pacific is the largest of the world oceans, but it is highly underrepresented in present-day and past seawater Nd isotope and REE investigations compared to the Atlantic Ocean. In this study, Nd isotopes and REEs are analysed in North Pacific seawater (chapter 2) and sediment samples from the South Pacific (chapters 3-5) to contribute to a better understanding of sources and cycling of REEs and Nd isotopes in present-day seawater and to investigate past water mass mixing and circulation changes during the last glacial termination and throughout the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Neodymium isotopes in seawater and sedimentary archives (fossil fish teeth and debris, foraminifera, ferromanganese oxides, lithogenic particles) were analysed using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS), and REE concentrations were analysed using isotope dilution ICP-MS. Results from combined analysis of REEs, and Nd and radium isotopes from North Pacific seawater (coastal seawaters of the Hawaiian Island of Oahu and seawater from the offshore Hawaii Ocean Time-series Station ALOHA) show a clear influence of the

  14. Identification of New Neutron-Rich Isotopes in the Rare-Earth Region Produced by 345 MeV/nucleon 238U (United States)

    Fukuda, Naoki; Kubo, Toshiyuki; Kameda, Daisuke; Inabe, Naohito; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yohei; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Kusaka, Kensuke; Yanagisawa, Yoshiyuki; Ohtake, Masao; Tanaka, Kanenobu; Yoshida, Koichi; Sato, Hiromi; Baba, Hidetada; Kurokawa, Meiko; Ohnishi, Tetsuya; Iwasa, Naohito; Chiba, Ayuko; Yamada, Taku; Ideguchi, Eiji; Go, Shintaro; Yokoyama, Rin; Fujii, Toshihiko; Nishibata, Hiroki; Ieki, Kazuo; Murai, Daichi; Momota, Sadao; Nishimura, Daiki; Sato, Yoshiteru; Hwang, Jongwon; Kim, Sunji; Tarasov, Oleg B.; Morrissey, David J.; Simpson, Gary


    A search for new isotopes in the neutron-rich rare-earth region has been carried out using a 345 MeV/nucleon 238U beam at the RIKEN Nishina Center RI Beam Factory. Fragments produced were analyzed and identified using the BigRIPS in-flight separator. We observed a total of 29 new neutron-rich isotopes: 153Ba, 154,155,156La, 156,157,158Ce, 156,157,158,159,160,161Pr, 162,163Nd, 164,165Pm, 166,167Sm, 169Eu, 171Gd, 173,174Tb, 175,176Dy, 177,178Ho, and 179,180Er.

  15. Trace Metals, Rare Earths, Carbon and Pb Isotopes as Proxies of Environmental Catastrophe at the Permian - Triassic Boundary in Spiti Himalayas, India (United States)

    Ghosh, N.; Basu, A. R.; Garzione, C. N.; Ghatak, A.; Bhargava, O. N.; Shukla, U. K.; Ahluwalia, A. D.


    Himalayan sediments from Spiti Valley, India preserve geochemical signatures of the Permian - Triassic (P-Tr) mass extinction in the Neo-Tethys Ocean. We integrate new sedimentological and fossil record with high-resolution geochemical-isotopic data from Spiti that reveals an ecological catastrophe of global proportions. Trace elements of U, Th, Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, the rare earths (REE) and carbon, oxygen and lead isotopes measured across the P-Tr boundary in Spiti are used as proxies for evaluating abrupt changes in this continental shelf environment. δ13Corg excursions of 2.4‰ and 3.1‰ in Atargu and Guling P-Tr sections in Spiti Valley are associated with an abrupt fall of biological productivity while δ13Ccarb and δ18Ocarb record of these sediments shows effects of diagenesis. Here, the P-Tr boundary is compositionally distinct from the underlying Late Permian gray shales, as a partly gypsiferous ferruginous layer that allows additional geochemical-isotopic investigation of sedimentary sources. Conspicuous Ce - Eu anomalies in the light REE-enriched Late Permian shales reflect the source composition of the adjacent Panjal Trap basalts of Kashmir. An abrupt change of this source to continental crust is revealed by Nb - Ta and Zr - Hf anomalies at the P-Tr ferruginous layer and continuing through the overlying Early Triassic carbonate rocks. Pb concentration and isotope ratios of 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb identify changes in the sedimentary element flux, distinguishing the Late Permian shales from the distinct siliciclastic continental crustal signature in the Early Triassic carbonates. These geochemical-isotopic constraints on the sedimentary geochemistry of one of the most critical transitions in geological record establish the utility of multi-proxy datasets for paleoenvironmental reconstructions.

  16. Tracing metal-silicate segregation and late veneer in the Earth and the ureilite parent body with palladium stable isotopes (United States)

    Creech, J. B.; Moynier, F.; Bizzarro, M.


    Stable isotope studies of highly siderophile elements (HSE) have the potential to yield valuable insights into a range of geological processes. In particular, the strong partitioning of these elements into metal over silicates may lead to stable isotope fractionation during metal-silicate segregation, making them sensitive tracers of planetary differentiation processes. We present the first techniques for the precise determination of palladium stable isotopes by MC-ICPMS using a 106Pd-110Pd double-spike to correct for instrumental mass fractionation. Results are expressed as the per mil (‰) difference in the 106Pd/105Pd ratio (δ106Pd) relative to an in-house solution standard (Pd_IPGP) in the absence of a certified Pd isotopic standard. Repeated analyses of the Pd isotopic composition of the chondrite Allende demonstrate the external reproducibility of the technique of ±0.032‰ on δ106Pd. Using these techniques, we have analysed Pd stable isotopes from a range of terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples. We find that chondrites define a mean δ106Pdchondrite = -0.19 ± 0.05‰. Ureilites reveal a weak trend towards heavier δ106Pd with decreasing Pd content, similar to recent findings based on Pt stable isotopes (Creech et al., 2017), although fractionation of Pd isotopes is significantly less than for Pt, possibly related to its weaker metal-silicate partitioning behaviour and the limited field shift effect. Terrestrial mantle samples have a mean δ106Pdmantle = -0.182 ± 0.130‰, which is consistent with a late-veneer of chondritic material after core formation.

  17. CMS Thesis Award

    CERN Multimedia


    The 2003 CMS thesis award was presented to Riccardo Ranieri on 15 March for his Ph.D. thesis "Trigger Selection of WH → μ ν b bbar with CMS" where 'WH → μ ν b bbar' represents the associated production of the W boson and the Higgs boson and their subsequent decays. Riccardo received his Ph.D. from the University of Florence and was supervised by Carlo Civinini. In total nine thesis were nominated for the award, which was judged on originality, impact within the field of high energy physics, impact within CMS and clarity of writing. Gregory Snow, secretary of the awarding committee, explains why Riccardo's thesis was chosen, ‘‘The search for the Higgs boson is one of the main physics goals of CMS. Riccardo's thesis helps the experiment to formulate the strategy which will be used in that search.'' Lorenzo Foà, Chairperson of the CMS Collaboration Board, presented Riccardo with an commemorative engraved plaque. He will also receive the opportunity to...

  18. Rubidium isotopic composition of the Earth, meteorites, and the Moon: Evidence for the origin of volatile loss during planetary accretion (United States)

    Pringle, Emily A.; Moynier, Frédéric


    Understanding the origin of volatile element variations in the inner Solar System has long been a goal of cosmochemistry, but many early studies searching for the fingerprint of volatile loss using stable isotope systems failed to find any resolvable variations. An improved method for the chemical purification of Rb for high-precision isotope ratio measurements by multi-collector inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry. This method has been used to measure the Rb isotopic composition for a suite of planetary materials, including carbonaceous, ordinary, and enstatite chondrites, as well as achondrites (eucrite, angrite), terrestrial igneous rocks (basalt, andesite, granite), and Apollo lunar samples (mare basalts, alkali suite). Volatile depleted bodies (e.g. HED parent body, thermally metamorphosed meteorites) are enriched in the heavy isotope of Rb by up to several per mil compared to chondrites, suggesting volatile loss by evaporation at the surface of planetesimals. In addition, the Moon is isotopically distinct from the Moon in Rb. The variations in Rb isotope compositions in the volatile-poor samples are attributed to volatile loss from planetesimals during accretion. This suggests that either the Rb (and other volatile elements) were lost during or following the giant impact or by evaporation earlier during the accretion history of Theia.

  19. Osler's lost thesis. (United States)

    Golden, Richard L


    William Osler's thesis was undertaken in 1871 to fulfil the graduation requirements of the McGill Faculty of Medicine. The thesis was based upon 20 autopsies and the preparation of gross and microscopic specimens. To the despair of historians, only a portion, the Introduction, was thought to have survived and part of which appeared in Cushing's biography. In the Osler Library is the final version of the Introduction together with parts of newly found earlier drafts and several incomplete autopsy reports and commentaries from the body of the thesis. Osler's early literary and classical erudition is clearly seen, and his philosophy of pathology as the foundation of clinical medicine strongly expressed. In addition, from a fragment of commentary on one of the postmortems, a venture into parasitology is seen representing what appears to be the first identification of the beef tapeworm in Canada.

  20. ATLAS Thesis Award 2017

    CERN Multimedia

    Anthony, Katarina


    Winners of the ATLAS Thesis Award were presented with certificates and glass cubes during a ceremony on 22 February, 2018. They are pictured here with Karl Jakobs (ATLAS Spokesperson), Max Klein (ATLAS Collaboration Board Chair) and Katsuo Tokushuku (ATLAS Collaboration Board Deputy Chair).

  1. ATLAS Thesis Awards 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Biondi, Silvia


    Winners of the ATLAS Thesis Award were presented with certificates and glass cubes during a ceremony on Thursday 25 February. The winners also presented their work in front of members of the ATLAS Collaboration. Winners: Javier Montejo Berlingen, Barcelona (Spain), Ruth Pöttgen, Mainz (Germany), Nils Ruthmann, Freiburg (Germany), and Steven Schramm, Toronto (Canada).

  2. Writing a Thesis Differently (United States)

    Honan, Eileen; Bright, David


    In this paper we explore the contributions that Deleuze and Guattari have made to thinking/writing language and how these ideas can be put to work in producing a doctoral thesis. We contribute to the field of work within what Patti Lather and Elizabeth St Pierre have called the "post-qualitative" movement, where researchers attempt to…

  3. thesis that carnivorous fish

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The work of Iverson (1990) supported the hypo- thesis that carnivorous fish (and squid) production is controlled by the quantity of new nitrogen (NO3-N) incorporated annually into phytoplankton biomass. (annual new production) and transferred through marine foodwebs. This hypothesis is tested here in the context of the ...

  4. Going beyond the Thesis (United States)

    Smith, Andrew C.


    Most every writing teacher can relate to the curse of reading yet another incoherent essay, the contents of which resemble an unorganized junk drawer of thoughts. Such essays cry out for a main idea. The remedy is a thesis, and teachers rightly take pains to help students discover this. Yet in spite of this, writing teachers ought to bear in mind…

  5. The Las Vegas Thesis (United States)

    Sughrua, William


    Following "reflexive ethnography" and utilizing an approach of "performative narrative" and "layered text", this article explores how Bachelor of Arts students in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language program at a public university in Mexico successfully manage the writing of an inductive-oriented thesis in…

  6. Re-evaluation of interferences of doubly charged ions of heavy rare earth elements on Sr isotopic analysis using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (United States)

    Yang, Yue-Heng; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Xie, Lie-Wen; Chu, Zhu-Yin; Yang, Jin-Hui


    We re-evaluate the interference of doubly charged heavy rare earth elements during Sr isotopic analysis using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). A series of mixed solutions of standard reference material SRM 987, rare earth elements, and Sr separated from rock reference materials are measured to assess the influence of isobaric interferences on the MC-ICP-MS analysis of Sr isotopes. After sample dissolution, conventional cation-exchange chromatography is employed for Sr purification of rock reference materials prior to MC-ICP-MS measurement. It has been demonstrated that if the natural abundances of Er and Yb are used to correct for doubly charged ion interferences on Sr, an overcorrection results. In contrast, the use of measured doubly charged ion ratios results in an accurate and precise correction of isobaric interference. This finding is confirmed by analytical results for several certified reference materials from mafic (basaltic) to felsic (granitic) silicate rocks. It is noteworthy that, because Er is more prone to doubly charged ion formation, it dominates over Yb doubly charged ions as an interference source.

  7. Short-term variability of dissolved rare earth elements and neodymium isotopes in the entire water column of the Panama Basin (United States)

    Grasse, P.; Bosse, L.; Hathorne, E. C.; Böning, P.; Pahnke, K.; Frank, M.


    The distribution of dissolved rare earth elements (REEs) and neodymium isotopes (εNd) in the open ocean traces water mass mixing and provides information on lithogenic inputs to the source regions of the water masses. However, the processes influencing the REE budget at the ocean margins, in particular source and sink mechanisms, are not yet well quantified. In this study the first dissolved REE concentrations and Nd isotope compositions of seawater from the Panama Basin (RV Meteor cruise M90) in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) are presented. The EEP is characterized by one of the world's largest oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). It is dominated by high particle fluxes that are expected to enhance the removal of REEs from the water column by scavenging. The measured REE concentrations peak at the surface indicating high lithogenic input, which is supported by shale-normalized REE patterns in surface waters and highly radiogenic εNd signatures ranging between +1.4 and +4.3, the latter value constituting the most radiogenic value measured for seawater to date. In contrast, intermediate and deep water REE concentrations are low compared to other Pacific Basins and suggest enhanced removal via scavenging associated with high particle fluxes. The εNd signatures of intermediate and deep waters are less radiogenic than surface waters ranging between -1.4 and +1.3 but significantly more radiogenic than source water masses in the EEP. The εNd signatures consequently do not reflect mixing of intermediate and deep water masses entering the Panama Basin but can only be explained by lithogenic inputs originating from source rocks with highly radiogenic Nd isotope signatures such as the Central American Volcanic Arc (ε Nd = + 3 to +10). Our data demonstrate significant surface input via continental particles, which are partially dissolved in the water column and thereby release REEs and particularly radiogenic Nd isotope signatures to the subsurface ocean. Data obtained

  8. Deducing the source and composition of rare earth mineralising fluids in carbonatites: insights from isotopic (C, O, 87Sr/86Sr) data from Kangankunde, Malawi (United States)

    Broom-Fendley, Sam; Wall, Frances; Spiro, Baruch; Ullmann, Clemens V.


    Carbonatites host some of the largest and highest grade rare earth element (REE) deposits but the composition and source of their REE-mineralising fluids remains enigmatic. Using C, O and 87Sr/86Sr isotope data together with major and trace element compositions for the REE-rich Kangankunde carbonatite (Malawi), we show that the commonly observed, dark brown, Fe-rich carbonatite that hosts REE minerals in many carbonatites is decoupled from the REE mineral assemblage. REE-rich ferroan dolomite carbonatites, containing 8-15 wt% REE2O3, comprise assemblages of monazite-(Ce), strontianite and baryte forming hexagonal pseudomorphs after probable burbankite. The 87Sr/86Sr values (0.70302-0.70307) affirm a carbonatitic origin for these pseudomorph-forming fluids. Carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of strontianite, representing the REE mineral assemblage, indicate equilibrium between these assemblages and a carbonatite-derived, deuteric fluid between 250 and 400 °C (δ18O + 3 to + 5‰VSMOW and δ13C - 3.5 to - 3.2‰VPDB). In contrast, dolomite in the same samples has similar δ13C values but much higher δ18O, corresponding to increasing degrees of exchange with low-temperature fluids (dolomite carbonatite (beforsite: δ18O + 7.7 to + 10.3‰ and δ13C -5.2 to -6.0‰; 87Sr/86Sr 0.70296-0.70298) is not directly linked with the REE mineralisation.

  9. Iron and oxygen isotope fractionation during iron UV photo-oxidation: Implications for early Earth and Mars (United States)

    Nie, Nicole X.; Dauphas, Nicolas; Greenwood, Richard C.


    Banded iron formations (BIFs) contain appreciable amounts of ferric iron (Fe3+). The mechanism by which ferrous iron (Fe2+) was oxidized into Fe3+ in an atmosphere that was globally anoxic is highly debated. Of the three scenarios that have been proposed to explain BIF formation, photo-oxidation by UV photons is the only one that does not involve life (the other two are oxidation by O2 produced by photosynthesis, and anoxygenic photosynthesis whereby Fe2+ is directly used as electron donor in place of water). We experimentally investigated iron and oxygen isotope fractionation imparted by iron photo-oxidation at a pH of 7.3. The iron isotope fractionation between precipitated Fe3+-bearing lepidocrocite and dissolved Fe2+ follows a Rayleigh distillation with an instantaneous 56Fe/54Fe fractionation factor of + 1.2 ‰. Such enrichment in the heavy isotopes of iron is consistent with the values measured in BIFs. We also investigated the nature of the mass-fractionation law that governs iron isotope fractionation in the photo-oxidation experiments (i.e., the slope of the δ56Fe-δ57Fe relationship). The experimental run products follow a mass-dependent law corresponding to the high-T equilibrium limit. The fact that a ∼3.8 Gyr old BIF sample (IF-G) from Isua (Greenland) falls on the same fractionation line confirms that iron photo-oxidation in the surface layers of the oceans was a viable pathway to BIF formation in the Archean, when the atmosphere was largely transparent to UV photons. Our experiments allow us to estimate the quantum yield of the photo-oxidation process (∼0.07 iron atom oxidized per photon absorbed). This yield is used to model iron oxidation on early Mars. As the photo-oxidation proceeds, the aqueous medium becomes more acidic, which slows down the reaction by changing the speciation of iron to species that are less efficient at absorbing UV-photons. Iron photo-oxidation in centimeter to meter-deep water ponds would take months to years to

  10. Chromium isotope variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Arcy, Joan Mary

    Chromium (Cr) stable isotopes are a useful tracer of changes in redox conditions because changes in its oxidation state are accompanied by an isotopic fractionation. For this reason the Cr isotope system is being developed as a potential tool for paleo-redox reconstruction. Dissolved Cr in seawater...... is incorporated into carbonates. Hence, ancient carbonates can potentially record the Cr isotopic composition (δ53Cr ‰) of seawater in the geological past. Reliable application and interpretation of this proxy requires a detailed knowledge about processes that fractionate Cr on the Earth’s surface......, and the quantification the Cr isotope composition of major Cr fluxes into and out of ocean. This thesis adds to the current knowledge of the Cr isotope system and is divided into two studies. The focus of the first study was to determine what processes control the Cr isotopic compositionof river water and to quantify...

  11. PGE, Re-Os, and Mo isotope systematics in Archean and early Proterozoic sedimentary systems as proxies for redox conditions of the early Earth (United States)

    Siebert, C.; Kramers, J. D.; Meisel, Th.; Morel, Ph.; Nägler, Th. F.


    Re-Os data and PGE concentrations as well as Mo concentrations and isotope data are reported for suites of fine clastic sediments and black shales from the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa (Fig Tree and Moodies Groups, 3.25-3.15 Ga), the Belingwe Greenstone Belt, Zimbabwe (Manjeri Formation, ca. 2.7 Ga) and shales from the Witwatersrand, Ventersdorp and Transvaal Supergroups, South Africa ranging from 2.95 to 2.2 Ga. Moderately oxidizing conditions are required to mobilize Re and Mo in the environment, Mo fractionation only occurs in solution, and these parameters thus have potential use as paleoredox proxies for the early Earth. PGE + Re abundance patterns of Barberton Greenstone Belt sediments are uniform and very similar in shape to those of komatiites. This indicates (1) that the PGE came from a source of predominantly ultramafic composition and, (2) that PGE were transported and deposited essentially in particulate form. Sediments from the younger Belingwe Greenstone Belt show more fractionated PGE + Re patterns and have Re/Os ratios 10 to 100× higher than those of Barberton sediments. Their PGE abundance patterns and Re/Os ratios are intermediate between those of the mid-Archean shales and Neoproterozoic to Recent black shales. They reflect scavenging of Re from solution in the sedimentary environment. δ 98/95Mo values of black shales of all ages correlate with their concentrations. The Barberton Greenstone Belt samples have ˜1-3 ppm Mo, similar to a granitoid-basaltic source. This Mo has δ 98/95Mo between -1.9 and -2.4‰ relative to present day mean ocean water molybdenum, MOMO and is thus not isotopically fractionated relative to such a source. Similar to the PGE this indicates transport in solid form. Sediments from the Belingwe Greenstone Belt show in part enhanced Mo concentrations (up to 6 ppm) and Mo isotope fractionation (δ 98/95Mo up to -1.4‰ relative to MOMO). The combined PGE + Re and Mo data show mainly reducing conditions in the

  12. Electromigration in molten salts and application to isotopic separation of alkaline and alkaline-earth elements; Electromigration en sels fondus et application a la separation des isotopes des elements alcalins et alcalino-terreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menes, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The separation of the isotopes of the alkaline-earth elements has been studied using counter-current electromigration in molten bromides. The conditions under which the cathode operates as a bromine electrode for the highest possible currents have been examined. For the separation of calcium, it has been necessary to use a stable CaBr{sub 2} - (CaBr{sub 2} + KBr) 'chain'. In the case of barium and strontium, it was possible to employ the pure bromides. Enrichment factors of the order of 10 for {sup 48}Ca and of the order of 1.5 for the rare isotopes of barium and strontium have been obtained. In the case of magnesium the method is slightly more difficult to apply because of material loss due to the relatively high vapour pressure of the salt requiring the use of electrolyte chains, MgBr{sub 2} - CeBr{sub 3}. A study has been made that has led to a larger-scale application of the method. These are essentially the inhibition of reversible operation of the cathode by traces of water, limiting the intensity which can be tolerated; evacuation of the heat produced by the Joule effect, in the absence of which the separation efficiency is reduced by thermal gradients; corrosion of the materials by molten salts at high temperature. Several cells capable of treating a few kilograms of substance have been put into operation; none of these has lasted long enough to produce a satisfactory enrichment. The method is thus limited actually to yields of the order of a few grams. (author) [French] On a etudie la separation des isotopes des elements alcalino-terreux par electromigration a contre-courant en bromures fondus. On a etudie les conditions dans lesquelles la cathode fonctionne en electrode a brome pour des intensites les plus elevees possibles. Pour la separation du calcium, il a ete necessaire d'utiliser une chaine stable CaBr{sub 2} - (CaBr{sub 2} + KBr). Pour le baryum et le strontium, on a pu operer sur les bromures purs. On a obtenu des facteurs d

  13. The 238U/235U isotope ratio of the Earth and the solar system: Constrains from a gravimetrically calibrated U double spike and implications for absolute Pb-Pb ages (United States)

    Weyer, Stefan; Noordmann, Janine; Brennecka, Greg; Richter, Stephan


    The ratio of 238U and 235U, the two primordial U isotopes, has been assumed to be constant on Earth and in the solar system. The commonly accepted value for the 238U/235U ratio, which has been used in Pb-Pb dating for the last ~ 30 years, was 137.88. Within the last few years, it has been shown that 1) there are considerable U isotope variations (~1.3‰) within terrestrial material produced by isotope fractionation during chemical reactions [1-3] and 2) there are even larger isotope variations (at least 3.5‰) in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in meoteorites that define the currently accepted age of the solar system [4]. These findings are dramatic for geochronology, as a known 238U/235U is a requirement for Pb-Pb dating, the most precise dating technique for absolute ages. As 238U/235U variations can greatly affect the reported absolute Pb-Pb age, understanding and accurately measuring variation of the 238U/235U ratio in various materials is critical, With these new findings, the questions also arises of "How well do we know the average U isotope composition of the Earth and the solar system?" and "How accurate can absolute Pb-Pb ages be?" Our results using a gravimetrically calibrated 233U/236U double spike IRMM 3636 [5] indicate that the U standard NBL 950a, which was commonly used to define the excepted "natural" 238U/235U isotope ratio, has a slightly lower 238U/235U of 137.836 ± 0.024. This value is indistinguishable from the U isotope compositions for NBL 960 and NBL112A, which have been determined by several laboratories, also using the newly calibrated U double spike IRMM 3636 [6]. These findings provide new implications about the average U isotope composition of the Earth and the solar system. Basalts display a very tight range of U isotope variations (~0.25-0.32‰ relative to SRM 950a). Their U isotope composition is also very similar to that of chondrites [4], which however appear to show a slightly larger spread. Accepting terrestrial

  14. Transport and transformation of riverine neodymium isotope and rare earth element signatures in high latitude estuaries: A case study from the Laptev Sea (United States)

    Laukert, Georgi; Frank, Martin; Bauch, Dorothea; Hathorne, Ed C.; Gutjahr, Marcus; Janout, Markus; Hölemann, Jens


    Marine neodymium (Nd) isotope and rare earth element (REE) compositions are valuable tracers for present and past ocean circulation and continental inputs. Yet their supply via high latitude estuaries is largely unknown. Here we present a comprehensive dissolved Nd isotope (expressed as εNd values) and REE data set together with seawater stable oxygen isotope (δ18O) compositions of samples from the Laptev Sea recovered in two Arctic summers and one winter. The Laptev Sea is a shallow Siberian Shelf sea characterized by extensive river-runoff, sea-ice production and ice transport into the Arctic Ocean. The large variability in εNd (-6 to -17), REE concentrations (16 to 600 pmol/kg for Nd) and REE patterns is controlled by freshwater supply from distinct riverine sources and open ocean Arctic Atlantic Water. Strikingly and contrary to expectations, except for cerium no evidence for significant release of REEs from particulate phases is found, which is attributed to low amounts of suspended particulate matter and high dissolved organic carbon concentrations present in the contributing rivers. Essentially all shelf waters are depleted in light (L)REEs, while the distribution of the heavy REEs shows a deficiency at the surface and a pronounced excess in the bottom layer. This distribution is consistent with REE removal through coagulation of riverine nanoparticles and colloids starting at salinities near 10 and resulting in a drop of all REE concentrations by ∼30%. With increasing salinity preferential LREE removal is observable reaching ∼75% for Nd at a salinity of 34. Although the delayed onset of dissolved REE removal contrasts with most previous observations from other estuarine environments, it agrees remarkably well with results from recent experiments simulating estuarine mixing of seawater with organic-rich river waters. In addition, melting and formation of sea ice leads to further REE depletion at the surface and strong REE enrichment near the shelf

  15. Geochemistry, Nd-Pb Isotopes, and Pb-Pb Ages of the Mesoproterozoic Pea Ridge Iron Oxide-Apatite–Rare Earth Element Deposit, Southeast Missouri (United States)

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Slack, John F.; Day, Warren C.; McCafferty, Anne E.


    Iron oxide-apatite and iron oxide-copper-gold deposits occur within ~1.48 to 1.47 Ga volcanic rocks of the St. Francois Mountains terrane near a regional boundary separating crustal blocks having contrasting depleted-mantle Sm-Nd model ages (TDM). Major and trace element analyses and Nd and Pb isotope data were obtained to characterize the Pea Ridge deposit, improve identification of exploration targets, and better understand the regional distribution of mineralization with respect to crustal blocks. The Pea Ridge deposit is spatially associated with felsic volcanic rocks and plutons. Mafic to intermediate-composition rocks are volumetrically minor. Data for major element variations are commonly scattered and strongly suggest element mobility. Ratios of relatively immobile elements indicate that the felsic rocks are evolved subalkaline dacite and rhyolite; the mafic rocks are basalt to basaltic andesite. Granites and rhyolites display geochemical features typical of rocks produced by subduction. Rare earth element (REE) variations for the rhyolites are diagnostic of rocks affected by hydrothermal alteration and associated REE mineralization. The magnetite-rich rocks and REE-rich breccias show similar REE and mantle-normalized trace element patterns.Nd isotope compositions (age corrected) show that: (1) host rhyolites have ɛNd from 3.44 to 4.25 and TDM from 1.51 to 1.59 Ga; (2) magnetite ore and specular hematite rocks display ɛNd from 3.04 to 4.21 and TDM from 1.6 to 1.51 Ga, and ɛNd from 2.23 to 2.81, respectively; (3) REE-rich breccias have ɛNd from 3.04 to 4.11 and TDM from 1.6 to 1.51 Ga; and (4) mafic to intermediate-composition rocks range in ɛNd from 2.35 to 3.66 and in TDM from 1.66 to 1.56. The ɛNd values of the magnetite and specular hematite samples show that the REE mineralization is magmatic; no evidence exists for major overprinting by younger, crustal meteoric fluids, or by externally derived Nd. Host rocks, breccias, and

  16. Arbejdspapir til Thesis-seminar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjaer, Maja Sonne


    Arbejdspapir til Thesis-seminar afholdt ved Forskningsseminar i Forskningsprogrammet: Medier, Kommunikation og Samfund, Institut for Æstetik og Kommunikation, Aarhus Universitet. Afhandlingens teoretiske afsnit.......Arbejdspapir til Thesis-seminar afholdt ved Forskningsseminar i Forskningsprogrammet: Medier, Kommunikation og Samfund, Institut for Æstetik og Kommunikation, Aarhus Universitet. Afhandlingens teoretiske afsnit....

  17. Controls on the solubility of rhenium in silicate melt: Implications for the osmium isotopic composition of Earth's mantle (United States)

    Bennett, Neil R.; Brenan, James M.


    The solubility of Re and Au in haplobasaltic melt has been investigated at 1673-2573 K, 0.1 MPa-2 GPa and IW-1 to +2.5, in both carbon-saturated and carbon-free systems. Results extend the existing, low pressure and temperature, dataset to more accurately predict the results of metal-silicate equilibrium at the base of a terrestrial magma ocean. Solubilities in run-product glasses were measured by laser ablation ICP-MS, which allows for the explicit assessment of contamination by metal inclusions. The Re and Au content of demonstrably contaminant-free glasses increases with temperature, and shows variation with oxygen fugacity (fO2) similar to previous results, although lower valence states for Re (1+, 2+) are suggested by the data. At 2 GPa, and ΔIW of +1.75 to +2, the metal-silicate partition coefficient for Re (DMet/Sil) is defined by the relation LogDMet/SilRe=0.50(±0.022)×10/T(K)+3.73(±0.095) For metal-silicate equilibrium to endow Earth's mantle with the observed time-integrated chondritic Re/Os, (and hence 187Os/188Os), DMet/Sil for both elements must converge to a common value. Combined with previously measured DMet/Sil for Os, the estimated temperature at which this convergence occurs is 4500 (±900) K. At this temperature, however, the Re and Os content of the equilibrated silicate is ˜100-fold too low to explain mantle abundances. In the same experiments, much lower Dmet/sil values have been determined for Au, and require the metal-silicate equilibration temperature to be <3200 K, as hotter conditions result in an excess of Au in the mantle. Thus, the large disparity in partitioning between Re or Os, and Au at core-forming temperatures argues against their mantle concentrations set solely by metal-silicate equilibrium at the base of a terrestrial magma ocean.

  18. Fractionation of Stable Isotopes in Atmospheric Aerosol Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meusinger, Carl

    Aerosols - particles suspended in air - are the single largest uncertainty in our current understanding of Earth's climate. They also affect human health, infrastructure and ecosystems. Aerosols are emitted either directly into the atmosphere or are formed there for instance in response to chemical...... reactions and undergo complex chemical and physical changes during their lifetimes. In order to assess processes that form and alter aerosols, information provided by stable isotopes can be used to help constrain estimates on the strength of aerosol sources and sinks. This thesis studies (mass......-independent) fractionation processes of stable isotopes of C, N, O and S in order to investigate three different systems related to aerosols: 1. Post-depositional processes of nitrate in snow that obscure nitrate ice core records 2. Formation and aging of secondary organic aerosol generated by ozonolysis of X...

  19. Challenges for Better thesis supervision. (United States)

    Ghadirian, Laleh; Sayarifard, Azadeh; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rajabi, Fatemeh; Yunesian, Masoud


    Conduction of thesis by the students is one of their major academic activities. Thesis quality and acquired experiences are highly dependent on the supervision. Our study is aimed at identifing the challenges in thesis supervision from both students and faculty members point of view. This study was conducted using individual in-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGD). The participants were 43 students and faculty members selected by purposive sampling. It was carried out in Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2012. Data analysis was done concurrently with data gathering using content analysis method. Our data analysis resulted in 162 codes, 17 subcategories and 4 major categories, "supervisory knowledge and skills", "atmosphere", "bylaws and regulations relating to supervision" and "monitoring and evaluation". This study showed that more attention and planning in needed for modifying related rules and regulations, qualitative and quantitative improvement in mentorship training, research atmosphere improvement and effective monitoring and evaluation in supervisory area.

  20. Fluid inclusion, rare earth element geochemistry, and isotopic characteristics of the eastern ore zone of the Baiyangping polymetallic Ore district, northwestern Yunnan Province, China (United States)

    Feng, Caixia; Bi, Xianwu; Liu, Shen; Hu, Ruizhong


    The Baiyangping Cu-Ag polymetallic ore district is located in the northern part of the Lanping-Simao foreland fold belt, which lies between the Jinshajiang-Ailaoshan and Lancangjiang faults in western Yunnan Province, China. The source of ore-forming fluids and materials within the eastern ore zone were investigated using fluid inclusion, rare earth element (REE), and isotopic (C, O, and S) analyses undertaken on sulfides, gangue minerals, wall rocks, and ores formed during the hydrothermal stage of mineralization. These analyses indicate: (1) The presence of five types of fluid inclusion, which contain various combinations of liquid (l) and vapor (v) phases at room temperature: (a) H2O (l), (b) H2O (l) + H2O (v), (c) H2O (v), (d) CmHn (v), and (e) H2O (l) + CO2 (l), sometimes with CO2 (v). These inclusions have salinities of 1.4-19.9 wt.% NaCl equivalents, with two modes at approximately 5-10 and 16-21 wt.% NaCl equivalent, and homogenization temperatures between 101 °C and 295 °C. Five components were identified in fluid inclusions using Raman microspectrometry: H2O, dolomite, calcite, CH4, and N2. (2) Calcite, dolomitized limestone, and dolomite contain total REE concentrations of 3.10-38.93 ppm, whereas wall rocks and ores contain REE concentrations of 1.21-196 ppm. Dolomitized limestone, dolomite, wall rock, and ore samples have similar chondrite-normalized REE patterns, with ores in the Huachangshan, Xiaquwu, and Dongzhiyan ore blocks having large negative δCe and δEu anomalies, which may be indicative of a change in redox conditions during fluid ascent, migration, and/or cooling. (3) δ34S values for sphalerite, galena, pyrite, and tetrahedrite sulfide samples range from -7.3‰ to 2.1‰, a wide range that indicates multiple sulfur sources. The basin contains numerous sources of S, and deriving S from a mixture of these sources could have yielded these near-zero values, either by mixing of S from different sources, or by changes in the geological

  1. Fatalism as a Metaphysical Thesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Meyer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Even though fatalism has been an intermittent topic of philosophy since Greek antiquity, this paper argues that fate ought to be of little concern to metaphysicians. Fatalism is neither an interesting metaphysical thesis in its own right, nor can it be identified with theses that are, such as realism about the future or determinism.

  2. How to write a thesis. (United States)

    Cunningham, S J


    The prospect of writing a thesis can be intimidating. However, there are certain formats that the writer should follow in order to make life much easier. This article covers a logical approach to presenting research findings. Also included are suggestions for a last minute checklist.

  3. iThesis: Polly's project (United States)

    Conti, Alvaro


    This paper outlines an attempt to loosen the existing role and structure of the traditional "thesis" as the key undergraduate learning instrument within universities in Thailand. It does so by describing an exemplary project -- Polly's project - that uses technology to facilitate an exit from the "regulatory space" in which…

  4. Vibronic origin of sulfur mass-independent isotope effect in photoexcitation of SO2 and the implications to the early earth's atmosphere. (United States)

    Whitehill, Andrew R; Xie, Changjian; Hu, Xixi; Xie, Daiqian; Guo, Hua; Ono, Shuhei


    Signatures of mass-independent isotope fractionation (MIF) are found in the oxygen ((16)O,(17)O,(18)O) and sulfur ((32)S, (33)S, (34)S, (36)S) isotope systems and serve as important tracers of past and present atmospheric processes. These unique isotope signatures signify the breakdown of the traditional theory of isotope fractionation, but the physical chemistry of these isotope effects remains poorly understood. We report the production of large sulfur isotope MIF, with Δ(33)S up to 78‰ and Δ(36)S up to 110‰, from the broadband excitation of SO2 in the 250-350-nm absorption region. Acetylene is used to selectively trap the triplet-state SO2 ( (3)B1), which results from intersystem crossing from the excited singlet ( (1)A2/ (1)B1) states. The observed MIF signature differs considerably from that predicted by isotopologue-specific absorption cross-sections of SO2 and is insensitive to the wavelength region of excitation (above or below 300 nm), suggesting that the MIF originates not from the initial excitation of SO2 to the singlet states but from an isotope selective spin-orbit interaction between the singlet ( (1)A2/ (1)B1) and triplet ( (3)B1) manifolds. Calculations based on high-level potential energy surfaces of the multiple excited states show a considerable lifetime anomaly for (33)SO2 and (36)SO2 for the low vibrational levels of the (1)A2 state. These results demonstrate that the isotope selectivity of accidental near-resonance interactions between states is of critical importance in understanding the origin of MIF in photochemical systems.

  5. High-precision Mg isotope measurements of terrestrial and extraterrestrial material by HR-MC-ICPMS—implications for the relative and absolute Mg isotope composition of the bulk silicate Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Paton, Chad; Larsen, Kirsten Kolbjørn


    We report novel methods for the chemical purification of Mg from silicate rocks by ion-exchange chromatography, and high-precision analysis of Mg-isotopes by high-resolution multiple collector inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry (HR-MC-ICPMS). Using these methods, we have measured...... the data obtained by the relative and absolute methods, we propose that these new values represent the absolute Mg-isotope composition of the bulk inner solar system. Using the absolute Mg-isotope composition of the J12 olivine, we calculate the isotopic abundances of Mg as 24Mg 1/4 0.789548 ¿ 0.000026, 25......Mg 1/4 0.100190 ¿ 0.000018, and 26Mg 1/4 0.110261 ¿ 0.000023. Based on this result, we have calculated an atomic weight for Mg of 24.305565 ¿ 0.000045, which is marginally heavier than previous estimates but a factor of 10 more precise....

  6. Chemical and isotopic fractionation during the evaporation of the FeO-MgO-SiO 2-CaO-Al 2O 3-TiO 2 rare earth element melt system (United States)

    Wang, Jianhua; Davis, Andrew M.; Clayton, Robert N.; Mayeda, Toshiko K.; Hashimoto, Akihiko


    A synthetic material with solar elemental proportions of iron, magnesium, silicon, titanium, calcium, and aluminum oxides and doped with rare earth elements was evaporated in a vacuum furnace at 1800 and 2000°C for different durations to study its chemical and isotopic evolution during the evaporation process. It is demonstrated that kinetic evaporation of solar composition material can produce residues of calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusion bulk chemistry. The evaporation sequence of the main constituents in this solar composition material is iron > silicon ≈ magnesium > titanium. Calcium and aluminum remain unevaporated after evaporation of 95% of the solar composition material. The chemical fractionation between the gas and condensed phase is a function not only of temperature and pressure, but also of the bulk chemical composition of the condensed phase. During the evaporation process, cerium is almost as volatile as iron. The 2,000-fold cerium depletion found in some refractory inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites was reproduced in the evaporation experiment and can be readily explained as a result of evaporation of preexisting meteoritic material. Kinetic isotopic fractionation of magnesium, oxygen, and silicon follows the Rayleigh distillation law during the laboratory evaporation of synthetic solar composition material. This implies that the residue is well mixed during the evaporation process and that the evaporation kinetic processes (both chemical and isotopic) are surface reaction-controlled. The isotopic mass fractionation factors are lower than those predicted from theoretical calculations by using the square root of mass ratios of likely evaporating species. Thus, the surface reaction is more complicated than decomposition into single gas species of each element.

  7. Neodymium isotope heterogeneity of ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites and the origin of non-chondritic 142Nd compositions in the Earth (United States)

    Fukai, Ryota; Yokoyama, Tetsuya


    We present high-precision Nd isotope compositions for ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites determined using thermal ionization mass spectrometry with dynamic and multistatic methods. The ordinary chondrites had uniform and non-terrestrial μ142 Nd , μ148 Nd , and μ150 Nd values, with data that plot along the mixing line between s-process and terrestrial components in μ150 Nd versus μ148 Nd and μ142 Nd versus μ148,150Nd diagrams. In contrast, the carbonaceous chondrites were characterized by larger anomalies in their μ142 Nd , μ148 Nd , and μ150 Nd values compared to ordinary chondrites. Importantly, the data for carbonaceous chondrites plot along the s-process and terrestrial mixing line in a μ150 Nd versus μ148 Nd diagram, whereas they have systematically lower μ142 Nd values than the s-process and terrestrial mixing line in μ142 Nd versus μ148,150Nd diagrams. This shift likely results from the incorporation of calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), indicating that the Nd isotopic variability in the ordinary chondrites and CAI-free carbonaceous chondrites was caused solely by the heterogeneous distribution of s-process nuclides. The isotopic variation most likely results from nebular thermal processing that caused selective destruction of s-process-depleted (or r-process-enriched) dust grains in the inner Solar System where the parent bodies of ordinary chondrites formed, whereas such grains were preserved in the region of carbonaceous chondrite parent body formation. The Nd isotope dichotomy between ordinary and bulk aliquots of carbonaceous chondrites can be related to the presence of Jupiter, which may have separated two isotopically distinct reservoirs that were present in the solar nebula. After correcting for s-process anomalies and CAI contributions to the Nd isotopes observed in the chondrites, we obtained a μ142 Nd value (- 2.4 ± 4.8 ppm) that was indistinguishable from the terrestrial value. Our results corroborate the

  8. High-precision analysis on annual variations of heavy metals, lead isotopes and rare earth elements in mangrove tree rings by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Kefu [South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 164 West Xin-Gang Road, Guangzhou 510301 (China) and Radiogenic Isotope Laboratory, Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis (CMM), University of Queensland, Qld 4072 (Australia)]. E-mail:; Kamber, Balz S. [Radiogenic Isotope Laboratory, Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis (CMM), University of Queensland, Qld 4072 (Australia); Department of Earth Sciences, Laurentian University, Sudbury, ONP3E2C6 (Canada); Lawrence, Michael G. [Radiogenic Isotope Laboratory, Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis (CMM), University of Queensland, Qld 4072 (Australia); Greig, Alan [Radiogenic Isotope Laboratory, Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis (CMM), University of Queensland, Qld 4072 (Australia); School of Earth Sciences, University of Melbourne, Vic. 3010 (Australia); Zhao Jianxin [Radiogenic Isotope Laboratory, Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis (CMM), University of Queensland, Qld 4072 (Australia)


    Annual variations from 1982 to 1999 of a wide range of trace elements and reconnaissance Pb isotopes ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb) were analyzed by solution ICP-MS on digested ash from mangrove Rhizophora apiculata, obtained from Leizhou Peninsula, along northern coast of South China Sea. The concentrations of the majority of elements show a weak declining trend with growth from 1982 to 1999, punctuated by several high concentration spikes. The declining trends are positively correlated with ring width and negatively correlated with inferred water-use efficiency, suggesting a physiological control over metal-uptake in this species. The episodic metal concentration-peaks cannot be interpreted with lateral movement or growth activities and appear to be related to environmental pollution events. Pb isotope ratios for most samples plot along the 'Chinese Pb line' and clearly document the importance of gasoline Pb as a source of contaminant. Shale-normalised REE + Y patterns are relatively flat and consistent across the growth period, with all patterns showing a positive Ce anomaly and elevated Y/Ho ratio. The positive Ce anomaly is observed regardless of the choice of normaliser, in contrast to previously reported REE patterns for terrestrial and marine plants. This pilot study of trace element, REE + Y and Pb isotope distribution in mangrove tree rings indicates the potential use of mangroves as monitors of historical environmental change.

  9. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark


    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  10. Choosing to write the paper format thesis. (United States)

    Morris, H M; Tipples, G


    Graduate students today may be faced with the option of writing either a traditional format thesis or a paper format thesis. In contrast to the traditional format in which the text body consists of four or five chapters, the body of the paper format thesis can be comprised of an introductory chapter, two or more papers written as publishable manuscripts, and a conclusion. In this article, an overview of the paper format thesis is presented and contrasted with the traditional format thesis. The description of the paper format thesis is followed by its advantages and disadvantages for writers and readers. It is by weighing all possible pros and cons, as well as considering one's individual situation, that the graduate student will be able to decide which format of thesis to write.

  11. Use of Radioactive Ion Beams for Biomedical Research 2. in-vivo dosimetry using positron emitting rare earth isotopes with the rotating prototype PET scanner at the Geneva Cantonal Hospital

    CERN Multimedia


    % IS331 \\\\ \\\\ The use of radioactive metal ions (such as $^{90}$Y, $^{153}$Sm or $^{186}$Re) in cancer therapy has made some progress, but has been hampered by factors that could be addressed at CERN with a greater likelihood of success than at any other installation in the world. The present proposal seeks to use the unique advantage of CERN ISOLDE to get round these problems together with the PET scanners at the Cantonal Hospital Geneva (PET~=~positron emission tomography). Radioisotope production by spallation at ISOLDE makes available a complete range of isotopes having as complete a diversity of types and energy of radiation, of half-life, and of ionic properties as one would wish. Among these isotopes several positron-emitters having clinical relevance are available.\\\\ \\\\Some free rare earth chelatas are used presently in palliation of painful bone metastases. Curative effects are not able for the moment with this kind of radiopharmaceuticals. More and better data on the biokinetics and bio-distribution...

  12. Chlorine isotopes potential as geo-chemical tracers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Pradhan, U.K.; Banerjee, R.

    The potential of chlorine isotopes as tracers of geo-chemical processes of earth and the oceans is highlighted based on systematic studies carried out in understanding the chlorine isotope fractionation mechanism, its constancy in seawater and its...

  13. Microbes: Agents of Isotopic Change (United States)

    Fogel, M. L.


    Microbes drive many of the important oxidation and reduction reactions on Earth; digest almost all forms of organic matter; and can serve as both primary and secondary producers. Because of their versatile biochemistry and physiology, they impart unique isotopic signatures to organic and inorganic materials, which have proven to be key measurements for understanding elemental cycling now and throughout Earth's history. Understanding microbial isotope fractionations in laboratory experiments has been important for interpreting isotopic patterns measured in natural settings. In fact, the pairing of simple experiment with natural observation has been the pathway for interpreting the fingerprint of microbial processes in ancient sediments and rocks. Examples of how key experiments have explained stable isotope fractionations by microbes and advanced the field of microbial ecology will be presented. Learning the isotopic signatures of Earth's microbes is a valuable exercise for predicting what isotopic signatures could be displayed by possible extant or extinct extraterrestrial life. Given the potential for discovery on Mars, Enceladus, and other solar system bodies, new methods and techniques for pinpointing what is unique about microbial isotope signatures is particularly relevant.

  14. Reexamining the "Serbian exceptionalism" thesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujačić Veljko


    Full Text Available Although former Yugoslavia constituted what was widely held to be the most "promising" communist country in terms of potentials for economic reform and political democratization, Serbia remained the only East European country in which the former communist elite managed to defeat its opponents in a series of elections and preserve important elements of institutional and ideological continuity with the old system. Moreover, its regime played a conspicuous role in Yugoslavia's violent collapse. In the specialist literature, the "Serbian exceptionalism" thesis has been elaborated in a number of forms. These are critically reviewed in the first part of the paper, classifying the paradigms according to whether they emphasize: 1 Serbian traditionalist, authoritarian, and collectivist political culture, 2 the affinity between traditional Serbian national populism, Russophile anti-Westernism, and communism, 3 the exclusivist and assimilating character of Serbian nationalism, or 4 the appeals of the contemporary Serbian political elite led by S. Milošević. In the second part of the paper an alternative explanation is presented that seeks to be both interpretively adequate and causally plausible. It rests on five basic factors: 1 historical legacy (the distinctive character of the Serbian collective historical experience and the relationship between Serbian and Yugoslav identities; 2 institutional analysis (the unintended consequences of communist federalism; 3 ideology (the revival of narratives of "Serbian victimization" by Serbian intellectuals; 4 leadership and social base (the peculiar nature of Milošević's appeals in the period of the terminal crisis of communism; and 5 the role of the Diaspora (the perceived ethnic threat among Serbs in Croatia and Bosnia. .

  15. The Master's Thesis in Applied Psychology Training. (United States)

    Shultz, Kenneth S.; Kottke, Janet L.


    Recommends the inclusion of a master's thesis in industrial and organizational psychology programs. Argues that the thesis serves several critical educational purposes and is relevant to applied psychology. Offers suggestions for increasing the relationship between the educational requirement and the professional tasks. (MJP)

  16. Titanium Isotopes Provide Clues to Lunar Origin (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.


    The idea that the Moon formed as the result of the giant impact of a Mars-sized impactor with the still-growing Earth explains two central facts about the Earth-Moon system: its total angular momentum (Earth's spin and the Moon's orbital motion), and the sizes of the metallic cores of the Earth (large) and Moon (tiny). This gives cosmochemists some confidence in the hypothesis, but they would greatly appreciate additional compositional tests. One undisputed point is the identical abundance of the three oxygen isotopes in Earth and Moon. Junjun Zhang and colleagues at the University of Chicago (USA) and the University of Bern (Switzerland) have added another isotopic system to the cosmochemical testing tool kit, titanium isotopes. They find that the ratio of titanium-50 to titanium-47 is identical in Earth and Moon to within four parts per million. In contrast, other solar system materials, such as carbonaceous chondrites, vary by considerably more than this-- up to 150 times as much. The identical oxygen and titanium isotopic compositions in Earth and Moon are surprising in light of what we think we know about planet formation and formation of the Moon after a giant impact. The variations in oxygen and titanium isotopes among meteorite types suggest that it is unlikely that the Moon-forming giant impactor would have had the same isotopic composition as the Earth. Simulations show that the Moon ends up constructed mostly (40-75%) from the impactor materials. Thus, the Moon ought to have different isotopic composition than does Earth. The isotopes might have exchanged in the complicated, messy proto-lunar disk (as has been suggested for oxygen isotopes), making them the same. However, Zhang and colleagues suggest that this exchange is unlikely for a refractory element like titanium. Could the impact simulations be greatly overestimating the contributions from the impactor? Was the mixing of building-block materials throughout the inner solar system much less than

  17. δ³⁷Cl : the geochemistry of chlorine isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggenkamp, H.G.M.


    In this thesis the geochemistry of the stable isotopes of chlorine will be examined. Chlorine is one of the halogens, the seventh group in the periodic system of elements. This group consists of five elements, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine. This thesis presents the first chlorine

  18. Integrated management of thesis using clustering method (United States)

    Astuti, Indah Fitri; Cahyadi, Dedy


    Thesis is one of major requirements for student in pursuing their bachelor degree. In fact, finishing the thesis involves a long process including consultation, writing manuscript, conducting the chosen method, seminar scheduling, searching for references, and appraisal process by the board of mentors and examiners. Unfortunately, most of students find it hard to match all the lecturers' free time to sit together in a seminar room in order to examine the thesis. Therefore, seminar scheduling process should be on the top of priority to be solved. Manual mechanism for this task no longer fulfills the need. People in campus including students, staffs, and lecturers demand a system in which all the stakeholders can interact each other and manage the thesis process without conflicting their timetable. A branch of computer science named Management Information System (MIS) could be a breakthrough in dealing with thesis management. This research conduct a method called clustering to distinguish certain categories using mathematics formulas. A system then be developed along with the method to create a well-managed tool in providing some main facilities such as seminar scheduling, consultation and review process, thesis approval, assessment process, and also a reliable database of thesis. The database plays an important role in present and future purposes.

  19. Methane clumped isotopes: Progress and potential for a new isotopic tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, Peter M. J.; Stolper, Daniel A.; Eiler, John M.; Sessions, Alex L.; Lawson, Michael; Shuai, Yanhua; Bishop, Andrew; Podlaha, Olaf G.; Ferreira, Alexandre A.; Santos Neto, Eugenio V.; Niemann, Martin; Steen, Arne S.; Huang, Ling; Chimiak, Laura; Valentine, David L.; Fiebig, Jens; Luhmann, Andrew J.; Seyfried, William E.; Etiope, Giuseppe; Schoell, Martin; Inskeep, William P.; Moran, James J.; Kitchen, Nami


    The isotopic composition of methane is of longstanding geochemical interest, with important implications for understanding hydrocarbon systems, atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, the global carbon cycle, and life in extreme environments. Recent analytical developments focusing on multiply substituted isotopologues (‘clumped isotopes’) are opening a potentially valuable new window into methane geochemistry. When methane forms in internal isotopic equilibrium, clumped isotopes can provide a direct record of formation temperature, making this property particularly valuable for identifying different methane origins. However, it has also become clear that in certain settings methane clumped isotope measurements record kinetic rather than equilibrium isotope effects. Here we present a substantially expanded dataset of methane clumped isotope analyses, and provide a synthesis of the current interpretive framework for this parameter. We review different processes affecting methane clumped isotope compositions, describe the relationships between conventional isotope and clumped isotope data, and summarize the types of information that this measurement can provide in different Earth and planetary environments.

  20. Special issue: Culham Thesis Prize winners (United States)

    Ham, C. J.


    The Culham Thesis Prize is awarded annually to the nominee who has displayed an excellence in the execution of the scientific method as witnessed by the award of Doctor of Philosophy in Plasma Science from a UK or Irish university. The thesis content should exhibit significant new work and originality, clearly driven by the nominee, be well explained and demonstrate a good understanding of the subject. The prize is awarded at the Institute of Physics Plasma Physics Group Spring Conference and the prize winner gives an invited talk about their thesis work. The prize is sponsored by Culham Centre for Fusion Energy.

  1. Carbon-oxygen isotopes and rare earth elements as an exploration vector for Carlin-type gold deposits: A case study of the Shuiyindong gold deposit, Guizhou Province, SW China (United States)

    Tan, Qin-Ping; Xia, Yong; Wang, Xueqiu; Xie, Zhuo-Jun; Wei, Dong-Tian


    The Shuiyindong gold deposit is a deeply concealed strata-bound Carlin-type deposit in southwestern Guizhou Province, China. The deposit lies on the eastern limb of the Huijiabao anticline with ores mainly along the anticline axis and hosted in bioclastic limestone, containing calcite veins, of the Permian Longtan Formation units. In this study, we measured carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios and rare earth element (REE) concentrations of the host rocks and calcite veins along a profile across the Shuiyindong deposit. Orebodies in the upper unit of the Longtan Formation have higher δ18O values (20.6-22.4‰) and lower δ13C values (-3.7 to -0.5‰) than the country rocks (δ18O: 18.8-21.4‰; δ13C: -0.7 to 0.8‰). However, there are no obvious trends of δ18O and δ13C values from the country rocks to the orebodies in the middle unit of the Longtan Formation. The spatial distribution of the calcite veins displays distinct halos of δ13C and δ18O values and REE concentrations. Calcite veins along the anticlinal axis and major reverse fault are enriched in Middle REE (Sm, Eu, Gd, and Tb) and 18O and depleted in 13C. Surficial veining calcite-filled fractures/faults that connect to deep concealed strata-bound gold mineralization systems can be vectors toward deep ores in southwestern Guizhou Province, China.

  2. Reconciling Voices in Writing an Autoethnographic Thesis


    Dawn Johnston MSc; Tom Strong PhD


    The authors consider writing and supervising an autoethnographic thesis as a process of reconciling voices while finding one's own academic and personal voice. They draw from notions of polyphony to speak about how we negotiated with different voices (the voices of experts, research participants, personal affiliations, those used in our supervisory discussions) our way forward in the supervisory relationship, as well as in the thesis itself. They invite readers to draw their own meanings from...

  3. Inspirational Catalogue of Master Thesis Proposals 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren


    This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project.......This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project....

  4. Isotope separation (United States)

    Bartlett, Rodney J.; Morrey, John R.


    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated.

  5. Advice for Writing a Thesis (Based on What Examiners Do) (United States)

    Golding, Clinton


    In the article, "What examiners do: What thesis students should know", we identified 11 things that thesis examiners do as they read and judge a thesis. But, we left a gap in the research: knowing this, What should thesis students do to write for their examiners? In this article, I fill the gap. The advice for thesis students is: first,…

  6. Zinc isotopic compositions of breast cancer tissue. (United States)

    Larner, Fiona; Woodley, Laura N; Shousha, Sami; Moyes, Ashley; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Halliday, Alex N; Rehkämper, Mark; Coombes, R Charles


    An early diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer is essential to improve outcome. High precision isotopic analysis, originating in Earth sciences, can detect very small shifts in metal pathways. For the first time, the natural intrinsic Zn isotopic compositions of various tissues in breast cancer patients and controls were determined. Breast cancer tumours were found to have a significantly lighter Zn isotopic composition than the blood, serum and healthy breast tissue in both groups. The Zn isotopic lightness in tumours suggests that sulphur rich metallothionein dominates the isotopic selectivity of a breast tissue cell, rather than Zn-specific proteins. This reveals a possible mechanism of Zn delivery to Zn-sequestering vesicles by metallothionein, and is supported by a similar signature observed in the copper isotopic compositions of one breast cancer patient. This change in intrinsic isotopic compositions due to cancer has the potential to provide a novel early biomarker for breast cancer.

  7. Action learning in undergraduate engineering thesis supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Stappenbelt


    Full Text Available In the present action learning implementation, twelve action learning sets were conducted over eight years. The action learning sets consisted of students involved in undergraduate engineering research thesis work. The concurrent study accompanying this initiative, investigated the influence of the action learning environment on student approaches to learning and any accompanying academic, learning and personal benefits realised. The influence of preferred learning styles on set function and student adoption of the action learning process were also examined. The action learning environment implemented had a measurable significant positive effect on student academic performance, their ability to cope with the stresses associated with conducting a research thesis, the depth of learning, the development of autonomous learners and student perception of the research thesis experience. The present study acts as an addendum to a smaller scale implementation of this action learning approach, applied to supervision of third and fourth year research projects and theses, published in 2010.

  8. ALICE gives its first thesis awards

    CERN Multimedia


    For the first time the ALICE collaboration has given two of its doctoral students awards for their outstanding theses. Winners Christian Holm Christensen and Zaida Conesa del Valle holding their awards.On 29 October the ALICE collaboration honoured two students for their outstanding theses at a ceremony held at CERN. The two awards, one of which was given for a physics thesis and the other for a technical thesis, went to Zaida Conesa Del Valle (Laboratoire de physique subatomique et des technologies associées) and Christian Holm Christensen (Niels Bohr Institute) respectively. "It is very gratifying to see that the collaboration appreciates our work," said Zaida Conesa del Valle, winner of the physics award for her thesis: Performance of the ALICE Muon Spectrometer. Weak Boson Production and Measurement in Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC. "I also feel specially thankful to all the people who worked with me," she added. "It was pl...

  9. Award for the best CMS thesis

    CERN Multimedia


    The 2002 CMS PhD Thesis Award for has been presented to Giacomo Luca Bruno for his thesis defended at the University of Pavia in Italy and entitled "The RPC detectors and the muon system for the CMS experiment at the LHC". His work was supervised by Sergio P. Ratti from the University of Pavia. Since April 2002, Giacomo has been employed as a research fellow by CERN's EP Division. He continues to work on CMS in the areas of data acquisition and physics reconstruction and selection. Last Monday he received a commemorative engraved plaque from Lorenzo Foà, chairman of the CMS Collaboration Board. He will also receive expenses paid to an international physics conference to present his thesis results. Giacomo Luca Bruno with Lorenzo Foà

  10. The Thesis Journey: Travelling with Charley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardra L. Cole


    Full Text Available I chose the title of my talk for two reasons. The first part connects with the book, The Doctoral Thesis Journey, which I co-edited with David Hunt in 1994. The journey metaphor still works for me as a way to talk about the thesis process. The sub-title, Travelling with Charley, is borrowed from an account of a particular kind of journey John Steinbecks’s road trip across the United States with his standard poodle, Charley, chronicled in his classic novel, Travels with Charley. The sub-title connects with a new book that I am working on now, with the working title, Of Dogs and Dissertations: Notes on Thesis Writing and Life.

  11. New constraints on the Paleoarchean meteorite bombardment of the Earth - Geochemistry and Re-Os isotope signatures of spherule layers in the BARB5 ICDP drill core from the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa (United States)

    Schulz, Toni; Koeberl, Christian; Luguet, Ambre; van Acken, David; Mohr-Westheide, Tanja; Ozdemir, Seda; Reimold, Wolf Uwe


    Archean spherule layers, resulting from impacts by large extraterrestrial objects, to date represent the only remnants of the early meteorite, asteroid, and comet bombardment of the Earth. Only few Archean impact debris layers have been documented, all of them embedded in the 3.23-3.47 billion year old successions of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB) in South Africa and the Pilbara Craton in Western Australia. Some of them might be correlated with each other. Given the scarcity of Archean spherule deposits, four spherule layer intersections from the recently recovered BARB5 drill core from the central Barberton Greenstone Belt, analyzed in this study, provide an opportunity to gain new insight into the early terrestrial impact bombardment. Despite being hydrothermally overprinted, siderophile element abundance signatures of spherule-rich samples from the BARB5 drill core, at least in part, retained a meteoritic fingerprint. The impact hypothesis for the generation of the BARB5 spherule layers is supported by correlations between the abundances of moderately (Cr, Co, Ni) and highly siderophile (Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Ru and Pd) elements, whose peak concentrations and interelement ratios are within the range of those for chondrites. Rhenium-Osmium isotope evidence further support the impact hypothesis. Collectively, this study provides evidence for extraterrestrial admixtures ranging between ∼40 and up to 100% to three of the four analyzed BARB5 spherule layers, and a scenario for their genesis involving (i) impact of a chondritic bolide into a sedimentary target, (ii) varying admixtures of meteoritic components to target materials, (iii) spherule formation via condensation in an impact vapor plume, (iv) transportation of the spherules and sedimentation under submarine conditions, followed by (v) moderate post-impact remobilization of transition metals and highly siderophile elements.

  12. Reconciling Voices in Writing an Autoethnographic Thesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Johnston MSc


    Full Text Available The authors consider writing and supervising an autoethnographic thesis as a process of reconciling voices while finding one's own academic and personal voice. They draw from notions of polyphony to speak about how we negotiated with different voices (the voices of experts, research participants, personal affiliations, those used in our supervisory discussions our way forward in the supervisory relationship, as well as in the thesis itself. They invite readers to draw their own meanings from these negotiations as they can relate to supervisory relationships and the writing of academic theses.

  13. Rare earth elements in nuclear medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodina G.E.


    Full Text Available The review focuses on the key applications of stable and radioactive isotopes of rare earth elements in the technology of nuclear medicine, radionuclide diagnostics and therapy, as well as magnetic resonance imaging and binary radiotherapy technologies.

  14. How I Chose My Thesis Advisor (United States)

    Karimabadi, Homa


    Professor K. Papadopoulos, or Dennis, who we have all come to him as, has had a profound influence over my career as a scientist as well as my private life. Here I provide a brief account of the events that led me to Dennis as my PhD thesis advisor at University of Maryland and what that has meant to me.

  15. Inspirational catalogue of Master Thesis proposals 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project. If you have an idea for a project which...

  16. The Thesis, the Pendulum and the Battlefield (United States)

    Ameri, Amir


    The debate over the design thesis is often entangled in the dialectics of the practical and the theoretical. Whether the argument is waged and weighted in favour of a practical emphasis or a theoretical emphasis, or more insidious, a judicious balance between the two, what is inevitably assumed in the debate is the possibility of drawing and/or…

  17. The Extended Mind Thesis and Mechanistic Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazekas, Peter


    The Extended Mind Thesis (EMT) is traditionally formulated against the bedrock of functionalism, and ongoing debates are typically bogged down with questions concerning the exact relationship between EMT and different versions of functionalism. In this paper, I offer a novel ally for EMT: the new...

  18. Action Learning in Undergraduate Engineering Thesis Supervision (United States)

    Stappenbelt, Brad


    In the present action learning implementation, twelve action learning sets were conducted over eight years. The action learning sets consisted of students involved in undergraduate engineering research thesis work. The concurrent study accompanying this initiative investigated the influence of the action learning environment on student approaches…

  19. Finding the Genesis for a Thesis (United States)

    Caroll, Joyce Armstrong


    This article describes a prewriting heuristics strategy that can help students find the genesis of their thesis. The 3 functions of the heuristic procedure are that it aids in retrieving relevant information stored in the mind; draws attention to important information that can be further researched or accessed; and prepares the mind for the…

  20. The Bachelor's Thesis in Teacher Education (United States)

    Meeus, Wil; Van Looy, Linda; Libotton, Arno


    The theory-oriented approach to the final thesis in higher education is still dominant at the Master as well as Bachelor level. We believe, however, that at the Bachelor level a practice-oriented approach would be more appropriate. Our research as presented below explores the possibilities of a practice-oriented approach to the Bachelor's thesis…

  1. Dancing the Thesis, Writing on the Body (United States)

    Mills, Dana


    This article explores the connection between dance and politics through reflection on the process of writing a thesis about those two fields. Similarities and differences in the educational and disciplinary processes of academic practice and dance training are brought out, while focusing on the technique developed by Martha Graham: in particular…

  2. Presentation master thesis at EAPRIL 2015 Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iris Sutherland; Richard Kragten; Zac Woolfitt


    Three graduates of the Inholland Master Leren en Innoveren (Zac Woolfitt, Iris Sutherland and Richard Kragten) each presented their master thesis in an interactive 'flipped' session which involved providing content in advance via a video for those attending the session. The session was well attended

  3. Leatherback Isotopes (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently working on a project identifying global marine isotopes using leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) as the indicator species. We currently...

  4. Isotope Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The objective of this training modules is to examine the process of using gamma spectroscopy for radionuclide identification; apply pattern recognition to gamma spectra; identify methods of verifying energy calibration; and discuss potential causes of isotope misidentification.

  5. Radiolabeling of liposomes and polymeric micelles with PET-isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Tue Ingemann

    This thesis is divided into three separate chapters that can be read independently. Chapter 1 is a general introduction, touching upon liposomes and polymeric micelles and radiolabeling with 18F and 64Cu. Chapter 2 and 3 address two separate research projects, each described below. A complete...... be done by labeling with radio isotopes. Isotopes that emit positrons (PET‐isotopes) can be detected by PET (positron emission tomography) technology, an accurate technique that has gained popularity in recent years. PET‐isotopes of interest include 18F and 64Cu. In addition to being a research tool...

  6. Jarrow, Electronic Thesis, and Dissertation Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James MacDonald


    Full Text Available Collecting and disseminating theses and dissertations electronically is not a new concept. Tools and platforms have emerged to handle various components of the submission and distribution process. However, there is not a tool that handles the entirety of the process from the moment the student begins work on their thesis to the dissemination of the final thesis. The authors have created such a tool which they have called Jarrow. After reviewing available open-source software for theses submission and open-source institutional repository software this paper discusses why and how Jarrow was created and how it works. Jarrow can be downloaded and the project followed at

  7. Iron isotopic fractionation during continental weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantle, Matthew S.; DePaolo, Donald J.


    The biological activity on continents and the oxygen content of the atmosphere determine the chemical pathways through which Fe is processed at the Earth's surface. Experiments have shown that the relevant chemical pathways fractionate Fe isotopes. Measurements of soils, streams, and deep-sea clay indicate that the {sup 56}Fe/{sup 54}Fe ratio ({delta}{sup 56}Fe relative to igneous rocks) varies from +1{per_thousand} for weathering residues like soils and clays, to -3{per_thousand} for dissolved Fe in streams. These measurements confirm that weathering processes produce substantial fractionation of Fe isotopes in the modern oxidizing Earth surface environment. The results imply that biologically-mediated processes, which preferentially mobilize light Fe isotopes, are critical to Fe chemistry in weathering environments, and that the {delta}{sup 56}Fe of marine dissolved Fe should be variable and negative. Diagenetic reduction of Fe in marine sediments may also be a significant component of the global Fe isotope cycle. Iron isotopes provide a tracer for the influence of biological activity and oxygen in weathering processes through Earth history. Iron isotopic fractionation during weathering may have been smaller or absent in an oxygen-poor environment such as that of the early Precambrian Earth.

  8. The thesis of stages fourteen years later (United States)

    Beeby, C. E.


    The author indicates the changes and additions he would make to his book ` The Quality of Education in Developing Countries' (1966) if he were re-writing it in 1980. He would make clearer that his primary interest is in a continuum of change, the process of growth of a school system, and that the `stages' are only a convenient non-mathematical artifact to make the thesis more useful to administrators and planners. In the light of more recent developments and experiences, he now gives new stress to the pluralism of objectives at the stage of Meaning, and discusses the political, social, cultural and financial reasons why a country may choose not to take the difficult step from stage III to stage IV. Recent forms of alternative education, particularly those embodying plans for lifelong education, offer some hope of bypassing his thesis of stages. More consideration is given to constraints other than that of teacher qualification, though the difficulty of changing the skills, habits, attitudes and purposes in the teaching profession remain the chief obstacle to qualitative growth. Particular attention is paid to `crash' programmes where processes that are, by their very nature, successive are compressed into simultaneous or almost simultaneous ones. Some implications of the thesis of stages for teacher training are briefly dealt with. Regarding the application of the thesis to secondary education, he maintains that a better model of growth would be one based on the capacity of secondary education to respond to the changing economic and social demands of the community. Finally, he suggests three methods of testing his hypotheses and pleads that more consideration be given to building up a body of educational, theory based on the experience of developing countries over the past three decades.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adip Arifin


    Full Text Available Thesis examination is one of the crucial phases for students in undergraduate level. During the examination, they are required to perform best to get the maximum score which commonly is equal to six credits. Looking at the big portion of credit, the examination highly determines the student‘s GPA at last. In order to get the accurate and fair score, the appropriate assessment must be implemented by the board of examiners. The form of assessment may vary from one institution to another. This paper is aimed at discussing as well as evaluating the assessment of undergraduate thesis examination at STKIP PGRI Ponorogo, East Java, Indonesia. The evaluation was based on the principles of good assessment adapted from Brown (2003 comprised of practicality, reliability, validity, and authenticity. Based on the result of evaluation, the form of assessment on undergraduate thesis examination administered at STKIP PGRI Ponorogo hasn‘t fully fulfilled the principles of good assessment. The findings also revealed that some assessment indicators need to be improved, such as the formulation of statement, the number of assessment item, and the technical procedure on how to administer the assessment.

  10. Isotope fractionation of cadmium in lunar material (United States)

    Schediwy, S.; Rosman, K. J. R.; de Laeter, J. R.


    The double spike technique has been used to measure the isotope fractionation and elemental abundance of Cd in nine lunar samples, the Brownfield meteorite and the Columbia River Basalt BCR-1, by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. Lunar soil samples give a tightly grouped set of positive isotope fractionation values of between + 0.42% and + 0.50% per mass unit. Positive isotope fractionation implies that the heavy isotopes are enhanced with respect to those of the Laboratory Standard. A vesicular mare basalt gave zero isotope fractionation, indicating that the Cd isotopic composition of the Moon is identical to that of the Earth. A sample of orange glass from the Taurus-Littrow region gave a negative isotope fractionation of - 0.23 ± 0.06% per mass unit, presumably as a result of redeposition of Cd from the Cd-rich vapour cloud associated with volcanism. Cadmium is by far the heaviest element to show isotope fractionation effects in lunar samples. The volatile nature of Cd is of importance in explaining these isotope fractionation results. Although a number of mechanisms have been postulated to be the cause of isotope fractionation of certain elements in lunar soils, we believe that the most likely mechanisms are ion and particle bombardment of the lunar surface.

  11. Variation of stable silicon isotopes. Analytical developments and applications in Precambrian geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Kathrin


    The work presented in this thesis predominantly deals with bulk-rock measurements of silicon stable isotopes on a Multi Collector-ICP-MS. Analyses were performed in cooperation with the Royal Museum for Central Africa, Belgium. The first section describes how the first analysis of δ{sup 30}Si on a conventional Nu PlasmaTM Multi-Collector ICP-MS instrument can be enabled by the elimination of 14N16O interference overlying the 30Si peak. The determination of δ{sup 30}Si was rendered possible owing to new instrumental upgrades that facilitate the application of a higher mass resolution. The careful characterisation of appropriate reference materials is indispensable for the assessment of the accuracy of a measurement. The determination of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reference materials represents the second objective of this section. The analysis of two Hawaiian standards (BHVO-1 and BHVO-2) demonstrates precise and accurate δ{sup 30}Si determinations and provides cross-calibration data as a quality control for other laboratories. The second section focuses on coupled silicon-oxygen isotopic evidences for the origin of silicification in mafic volcanic rocks of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. In contrast to the modern Earth, silicification of near-surface layers, including chert formation, were widespread processes on the Precambrian ocean floor, and demonstrate the ubiquity of extreme silica mobilization in the early Earth. This section outlines the investigation of silicon and oxygen isotopes on three different stratigraphic sections of variably silicified basalts and overlying bedded cherts from the 3.54 Ga, 3.45 Ga and 3.33 Ga Theespruit, Kromberg and Hooggenoeg Formations, respectively. Silicon isotopes, oxygen isotopes and the variable SiO{sub 2}-contents demonstrate a positive correlation with silicification intensity in all three sections, with varying gradients of δ{sup 30}Si vs. δ{sup 18}O arrays for different sections. Seawater has been

  12. ISOTOPE SEPARATORS (United States)

    Bacon, C.G.


    An improvement is presented in the structure of an isotope separation apparatus and, in particular, is concerned with a magnetically operated shutter associated with a window which is provided for the purpose of enabling the operator to view the processes going on within the interior of the apparatus. The shutier is mounted to close under the force of gravity in the absence of any other force. By closing an electrical circuit to a coil mouated on the shutter the magnetic field of the isotope separating apparatus coacts with the magnetic field of the coil to force the shutter to the open position.

  13. Stable isotope

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of the study suggest that there are two main carbon pathways for plankton and nekton in the Kariega estuary, carbon derived from the eelgrass and its associated epiphytes and carbon which has its origins in the salt marsh riparian vegetation and zooplankton. Keywords: stable isotope analysis; temperate estuary; ...

  14. Diagnosing the thesis scandal in academic community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy M. Feldman


    Full Text Available Events that occurred in 2013 as a result of illegal assignment of academic degrees, acquired the nature of scandal. According to the author, thesis scandal has provided a deeper understanding of the essence of processes both in the scientific and educational community and in the whole socio-humanitarian sphere of Russian society. The scandal, which affected many deputies of the State Duma, governors of some Russian regions and senior government officials, has attracted attention of Russian political leaders and the general public. It uncovered many shortcomings of existing approaches to the determination of qualification level of the research and education community's members, the viability of the universities; revealed the real challenges to the successful development of science and higher education. Thesis scandal showed values which define the state of social and humanitarian spheres of Russian society, the relations within the scientific and educational community and the results of reforms in it. Analyzing the situation in domestic science, the problems specific to the Russian scientific and educational community, the author is not limited to the conclusion that this scandal has deep socio-cultural reasons. The author has to declare, that forced borrowings of alien norms and principles for domestic science, promising to come to the fore in the future, today turn into the traditional desire to take the lead on the "top-down" indicators.

  15. What Examiners Do: What Thesis Students Should Know (United States)

    Golding, Clinton; Sharmini, Sharon; Lazarovitch, Ayelet


    Although many articles have been written about thesis assessment, none provide a comprehensive, general picture of what examiners do as they assess a thesis. To synthesise this diverse literature, we reviewed 30 articles, triangulated their conclusions and identified 11 examiner practices. Thesis examiners tend to be broadly consistent in their…

  16. Seafloor alteration, oxygen isotopes and climate (United States)

    Kanzaki, Y.; Kump, L. R.; Kasting, J. F.


    Seafloor alteration can be related to climate in two ways: through storage of carbon dioxide as carbonates and indirectly through its influence on the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater. Low temperature alteration of the seafloor, or seafloor weathering, can store carbon dioxide as carbonates formed as the result of dissolution of cations from silicate rocks, and since this process is temperature dependent, can serve as a climate regulator. On the other hand, the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater is determined by the balance between low temperature crustal alteration (including continental weathering) and high temperature seafloor alteration, because the heavy isotope is depleted from and added to seawater in low and high temperature alteration, respectively. The oxygen isotopic composition of seawater is a parameter necessary to estimate surface temperature of the Earth from the oxygen isotopic composition of authigenic sedimentary rocks. Thus seafloor alteration is related to reconstruction of Earth's climate. We have developed a comprehensive model of seafloor alteration that captures both seafloor weathering and oxygen isotope exchange, and use it to reconcile observations of long-term stability in both climate and altered ocean crust δ18O with secular changes in the oxygen isotopic composition of marine sediments.

  17. Isotopes a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ellam, Rob


    An isotope is a variant form of a chemical element, containing a different number of neutrons in its nucleus. Most elements exist as several isotopes. Many are stable while others are radioactive, and some may only exist fleetingly before decaying into other elements. In this Very Short Introduction, Rob Ellam explains how isotopes have proved enormously important across all the sciences and in archaeology. Radioactive isotopes may be familiar from their use in nuclear weapons, nuclear power, and in medicine, as well as in carbon dating. They have been central to establishing the age of the Earth and the origins of the solar system. Combining previous and new research, Ellam provides an overview of the nature of stable and radioactive isotopes, and considers their wide range of modern applications. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subjec...

  18. Thermal Signature Identification System (TheSIS) (United States)

    Merritt, Scott; Bean, Brian


    We characterize both nonlinear and high order linear responses of fiber-optic and optoelectronic components using spread spectrum temperature cycling methods. This Thermal Signature Identification System (TheSIS) provides much more detail than conventional narrowband or quasi-static temperature profiling methods. This detail allows us to match components more thoroughly, detect subtle reversible shifts in performance, and investigate the cause of instabilities or irreversible changes. In particular, we create parameterized models of athermal fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), delay line interferometers (DLIs), and distributed feedback (DFB) lasers, then subject the alternative models to selection via the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Detailed pairing of components, e.g. FBGs, is accomplished by means of weighted distance metrics or norms, rather than on the basis of a single parameter, such as center wavelength.

  19. The metallic thread in a patchwork thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, Emily A. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This thesis contains research that is being prepared for publication. Chapter 2 presents research on water and THF solvated macrocyclic Rh and Co compounds and the effects of different axial ligands (NO2, NO, Cl, CH3) on their optical activity. Chapter 3 involves the study of gas-phase Nb mono and dications with CO and CO2. Chapter 4 is a study of reactions of CO and CO2 with Ta mono and dications. Chapter 5 is a study on virtual orbitals, their usefulness, the use of basis sets in modeling them, and the inclusion of transition metals into the QUasi Atomic Minimal Basis (QUAMBO) method.68-72 Chapter 6 presents the conclusions drawn from the work presented in this dissertation.

  20. The Lenoir thesis revisited: Blumenbach and Kant. (United States)

    Zammito, John H


    Timothy Lenoir launched the historical study of German life science at the end of the 18th century with the claim that J. F. Blumenbach's approach was shaped by his reception of the philosophy of Immanuel Kant: a 'teleomechanism' that adopted a strictly 'regulative' approach to the character of organisms. It now appears that Lenoir was wrong about Blumenbach's understanding of Kant, for Blumenbach's Bildungstrieb entailed an actual empirical claim. Moreover, he had worked out the decisive contours of his theory and he had exerted his maximal influence on the so-called 'Göttingen School' before 1795, when Lenoir posits the main influence of Kant's thought took hold. This has crucial significance for the historical reconstruction of the German life sciences in the period. The Lenoir thesis can no longer serve as the point of departure for that reconstruction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Single link flexible beam testbed project. Thesis (United States)

    Hughes, Declan


    This thesis describes the single link flexible beam testbed at the CLaMS laboratory in terms of its hardware, software, and linear model, and presents two controllers, each including a hub angle proportional-derivative (PD) feedback compensator and one augmented by a second static gain full state feedback loop, based upon a synthesized strictly positive real (SPR) output, that increases specific flexible mode pole damping ratios w.r.t the PD only case and hence reduces unwanted residual oscillation effects. Restricting full state feedback gains so as to produce a SPR open loop transfer function ensures that the associated compensator has an infinite gain margin and a phase margin of at least (-90, 90) degrees. Both experimental and simulation data are evaluated in order to compare some different observer performance when applied to the real testbed and to the linear model when uncompensated flexible modes are included.

  2. Chemical and sulphur isotope compositions of pyrite in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 120; Issue 3 ... Pyrite; minor element; sulphur isotope; evolution; Jaduguda; Singhbhum; India. ... By integrating minor element and sulphur isotope compositions of pyrite in conjunction with other published data on the Jaduguda deposit, it is proposed that reduced ...

  3. δ37Cl : the geochemistry of chlorine isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggenkamp, H.G.M.


    In this thesis the geochemistry of the stable isotopes of chlorine will be examined. Chlorine is one of the halogens, the seventh group in the periodic system of elements. This group consists of five elements, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine.

  4. A Teaching Exercise to Introduce Stable Isotope Fractionation of Metals into Geochemistry Courses (United States)

    Weiss, Dominik J.; Harris, Caroline; Maher, Kate; Bullen, Thomas


    Variations in the isotopic composition of elements have been widely used to study earth's climate, biosphere, and interior, and more recently to track the fate of contaminants. Within the broad range of elements that exhibit measureable isotopic variations, metal stable isotopes are increasingly applied across the biological, geological,…

  5. Coulomb excitation of neutron-deficient polonium isotopes studied at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Neven, Michiel

    The polonium isotopes represent an interesting region of the nuclear chart having only two protons outside the Z = 82 closed shell. These isotopes have already been extensively studied theoretically and experimentally. The heavier isotopes (A > 200) seem to follow a "regular seniority-type regime" while for the lighter isotopes (A < 200) a more collective behavior is observed. Many questions remain regarding the transition between these two regimes and the configuration mixing between quantum states. Experiments in the lighter polonium isotopes point to the presence of shape coexistence, however the phenomenon is not fully understood. A Coulomb excitation study of the polonium isotopes whereby the dynamic properties are investigated can provide helpful insights in understanding the shape coexistence phenomena. In this thesis $^{202}$Po was studied via Coulomb excitation. The $^{202}$Po isotope was part of an experimental campaign in which the $^{196,198,200,206}$Po isotopes were studied as well via Coulomb...

  6. Catherine Ventura - Winner of CHDS Outstanding Thesis award Spring 2016 (The CHDS Thesis Series) [video


    Ventura, Catherine


    Flight Plight: An Examination of Contemporary Humanitarian Immigration from Honduras, Cuba and Syria to the United States with Considerations for National Security. CHDS graduate Catherine Ventura, Immigration Officer for U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, received the March 2016 award for Outstanding Thesis. In this Viewpoints video, she discusses her work, which examines contemporary U.S. immigration for humanitarian populations from Honduras, Cuba, and Syria. Humanitarian immigrati...

  7. Earth\\'s Mass Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Mawad, Ramy


    The perturbation of the Earth caused by variability of mass of Earth as additional reason with gravity of celestial bodies and shape of the Earth. The Earth eating and collecting matters from space and loss or eject matters to space through its flying in the space around the Sun. The source of the rising in the global sea level is not closed in global warming and icebergs, but the outer space is the additional important source for this rising. The Earth eats waters from space in unknown mechanism. The mass of the Earth become greater in November i.e. before transit apoapsis two months, and become latter in February i.e. after transit apoapsis to two months.

  8. Platinum isotopes in iron meteorites: Galactic cosmic ray effects and nucleosynthetic homogeneity in the p-process isotope 190Pt and the other platinum isotopes (United States)

    Hunt, Alison C.; Ek, Mattias; Schönbächler, Maria


    Platinum isotopes are sensitive to the effects of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which can alter isotope ratios and mask nucleosynthetic isotope variations. Platinum also features one p-process isotope, 190Pt, which is very low abundance and therefore challenging to analyse. Platinum-190 is relevant for early solar-system chronology because of its decay to 186Os. Here, we present new Pt isotope data for five iron meteorite groups (IAB, IIAB, IID, IIIAB and IVA), including high-precision measurements of 190Pt for the IAB, IIAB and IIIAB irons, determined by multi-collector ICPMS. New data are in good agreement with previous studies and display correlations between different Pt isotopes. The slopes of these correlations are well-reproduced by the available GCR models. We report Pt isotope ratios for the IID meteorite Carbo that are consistently higher than the predicted effects from the GCR model. This suggests that the model predictions do not fully account for all the GCR effects on Pt isotopes, but also that the pre-atmospheric radii and exposure times calculated for Carbo may be incorrect. Despite this, the good agreement of relative effects in Pt isotopes with the predicted GCR trends confirms that Pt isotopes are a useful in-situ neutron dosimeter. Once GCR effects are accounted for, our new dataset reveals s- and r-process homogeneity between the iron meteorite groups studied here and the Earth. New 190Pt data for the IAB, IIAB and IIIAB iron meteorites indicate the absence of GCR effects and homogeneity in the p-process isotope between these groups and the Earth. This corresponds well with results from other heavy p-process isotopes and suggests their homogenous distribution in the inner solar system, although it does not exclude that potential p-process isotope variations are too diluted to be currently detectable.

  9. Application of heavy stable isotopes in forensic isotope geochemistry: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, Jugdeep [W.M. Keck Isotope Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)], E-mail:; Habicht-Mauche, Judith; Juarez, Chelsey [Department of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)


    Light stable isotopes have been used for many years to characterize the source and transport of materials. More recently heavy isotope systems such as Sr, Nd and Pb have been added to this list in order to aid source identification. With the advent of multiple collector ICP-MS, the range of isotopic tools now available has increased considerably, however, until the isotope systematics of these new non-traditional isotope systems have become better understood, they will not be as useful in characterizing material source and transportation. Applications using heavy metal stable isotopes (mostly traditional heavy isotopes) have reached most avenues in science, including earth sciences, archaeology, anthropology, animal physiology, ecology and toxicology. This field will continue to grow as new applications are developed and techniques become simpler and quicker. This paper provides a review of how this field has grown and presents two new applications using Pb and Sr isotopes in glazes to determine the source of ore used in glazes, and using Sr isotopes to determine the origin of undocumented deceased Mexican border crossers.

  10. New aragonite 87Sr/86Sr records of Mesozoic ammonoids and approach to the problem of N, O, C and Sr isotope cycles in the evolution of the Earth (United States)

    Zakharov, Yuri D.; Dril, Sergei I.; Shigeta, Yasunari; Popov, Alexander M.; Baraboshkin, Eugenij Y.; Michailova, Irina A.; Safronov, Peter P.


    New Sr isotope data from well-preserved aragonite ammonoid shell material from the Mesozoic are compared with that from a living Nautilus shell. The prominent negative Sr isotope excursions known from the Middle Permian, Jurassic and Cretaceous probably have their origins in intensive plate tectonic activity, followed by enhanced hydrothermal activity at the mid-ocean ridges (mantle volcanism) which supplied low radiogenic Sr to seawater. The maximum positive (radiogenic) shift in the lower Mesozoic Sr isotope curve (Lower Triassic peak) was likely caused by a significant expansion of dry land surfaces (Dabie-Sulu Triassic orogeny) and their intensive silicate weathering in conditions of extreme warming and aridity in the very end of the Smithian, followed by warm and humid conditions in the late Spathian, which apparently resulted in a significant oceanic input of radiogenic Sr through riverine flux. The comparatively high 87Sr/86Sr ratio obtained from the living Nautilus shell is probably a function of both the Alpine orogeny, which was accompanied by significant continental weathering and input of radiogenic Sr to the oceans, and the weakening of mantle volcanism.

  11. Hf isotope evidence for a hidden mantle reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Simonetti, A.; Stevenson, R.K.


    High-precision Hf isotopic analyses and U-Pb ages of carbonatites and kimberlites from Greenland and eastern North America, including Earth's oldest known carbonatite (3 Ga), indicate derivation from an enriched mantle source. This previously unidentified mantle reservoir-marked by an unradiogenic...... Hf isotopic composition and preserved in the deep mantle for at least 3 b.y.-may account for the mass imbalance in Earth's Hf-Nd budget. The Hf isotopic data presented here support a common mantle source region and genetic link between carbonatite and some oceanic-island basalt volcanoes....

  12. The Forman Thesis: 40 Years After (United States)

    Carson, Cathryn; Kojevnikov, Alexei; Trischler, Helmuth

    Forty years ago, in 1971, Paul Forman published Weimar Culture, Causality, and Quantum Theory, 1918-1927: Adaptation by German Physicists and Mathematicians to a Hostile Intellectual Environment. His landmark study (too long, too thorough and too fundamental to be called simply an article) became immediately famous, and famously controversial. It has remained at the heart of debates about the historical relationship between science and culture ever since. The controversy surrounding the Forman Thesis was practically unavoidable, for Forman's work put forward and placed at the centre of a broader discussion the argument that the cultural values prevalent in a given place and time could influence the results of discipline-bound research, i.e. the very content of scientific knowledge. This idea, if still controversial, has since become commonly used in cultural studies of science, but at the time of its introduction it created uproar as it explicitly contradicted generally accepted and cherished beliefs about science. Yet tectonic shifts were already underway, if not always visible, that would eventually put those very beliefs into question. The Forman study both reflected and forwarded these shifts in our general perspectives on the nature and practice of science. Despite some heated objections to its findings, Forman's work has fundamentally changed directions of research in the history, sociology and philosophy of science and established itself as a classic in this group of fields, sometimes collectively called science studies. In subsequent decades it has been read and discussed in practically every graduate program that trains students in those fields, circulating in numerous copies and translated into many languages, while the original publication in the journal Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences has long become a bibliographic rarity…

  13. Nickel isotopic composition of the mantle (United States)

    Gall, Louise; Williams, Helen M.; Halliday, Alex N.; Kerr, Andrew C.


    This paper presents a detailed high-precision study of Ni isotope variations in mantle peridotites and their minerals, komatiites as well as chondritic and iron meteorites. Ultramafic rocks display a relatively large range in δ60 Ni (permil deviation in 60 Ni /58 Ni relative to the NIST SRM 986 Ni isotope standard) for this environment, from 0.15 ± 0.07‰ to 0.36 ± 0.08‰, with olivine-rich rocks such as dunite and olivine cumulates showing lighter isotope compositions than komatiite, lherzolite and pyroxenite samples. The data for the mineral separates shed light on the origin of these variations. Olivine and orthopyroxene display light δ60 Ni whereas clinopyroxene and garnet are isotopically heavy. This indicates that peridotite whole-rock δ60 Ni may be controlled by variations in modal mineralogy, with the prediction that mantle melts will display variable δ60 Ni values due to variations in residual mantle and cumulate mineralogy. Based on fertile peridotite xenoliths and Phanerozoic komatiite samples it is concluded that the upper mantle has a relatively homogeneous Ni isotope composition, with the best estimate of δ60Nimantle being 0.23 ± 0.06‰ (2 s.d.). Given that >99% of the Ni in the silicate Earth is located in the mantle, this also defines the Ni isotope composition of the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE). This value is nearly identical to the results obtained for a suite of chondrites and iron meteorites (mean δ60 Ni 0.26 ± 0.12‰ and 0.29 ± 0.10‰, respectively) showing that the BSE is chondritic with respect to its Ni isotope composition, with little to no Ni mass-dependent isotope fractionation resulting from core formation.

  14. Instructable autonomous agents. Ph.D. Thesis (United States)

    Huffman, Scott Bradley


    In contrast to current intelligent systems, which must be laboriously programmed for each task they are meant to perform, instructable agents can be taught new tasks and associated knowledge. This thesis presents a general theory of learning from tutorial instruction and its use to produce an instructable agent. Tutorial instruction is a particularly powerful form of instruction, because it allows the instructor to communicate whatever kind of knowledge a student needs at whatever point it is needed. To exploit this broad flexibility, however, a tutorable agent must support a full range of interaction with its instructor to learn a full range of knowledge. Thus, unlike most machine learning tasks, which target deep learning of a single kind of knowledge from a single kind of input, tutorability requires a breadth of learning from a broad range of instructional interactions. The theory of learning from tutorial instruction presented here has two parts. First, a computational model of an intelligent agent, the problem space computational model, indicates the types of knowledge that determine an agent's performance, and thus, that should be acquirable via instruction. Second, a learning technique, called situated explanation specifies how the agent learns general knowledge from instruction. The theory is embodied by an implemented agent, Instructo-Soar, built within the Soar architecture. Instructo-Soar is able to learn hierarchies of completely new tasks, to extend task knowledge to apply in new situations, and in fact to acquire every type of knowledge it uses during task performance - control knowledge, knowledge of operators' effects, state inferences, etc. - from interactive natural language instructions. This variety of learning occurs by applying the situated explanation technique to a variety of instructional interactions involving a variety of types of instructions (commands, statements, conditionals, etc.). By taking seriously the requirements of flexible

  15. Earth materials and earth dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, K; Shankland, T. [and others


    In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  16. Similarities and Differences between Thesis Supervision and Counselling. (United States)

    Osborne, John W.


    Since thesis supervision can bring to light unresolved and new psychological issues for both supervisors and students, the differences between the contexts of counseling and thesis supervision are detailed here. Highlights the problem and its typical dimensions with a view to designing approaches to ameliorate difficulties within departments. (EMK)

  17. Master’s Thesis Supervision: Feedback, interpersonal relationships, and adaptivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kleijn, R.A.M.


    In most academic master’s programmes the final component is conducting a piece of research, a master’s thesis. In this dissertation master’s thesis supervision is investigated from a feedback and interpersonal perspective, in order to provide more insight into its quality. The quality of master’s

  18. Text Analysis of Chemistry Thesis and Dissertation Titles (United States)

    Scalfani, Vincent F.


    Programmatic text analysis can be used to understand patterns and reveal trends in data that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to uncover with manual coding methods. This work uses programmatic text analysis, specifically term frequency counts, to study nearly 10,000 chemistry thesis and dissertation titles from 1911-2015. The thesis and…

  19. Bridging Knowledge: A Collective Undergraduate Thesis Development Approach (United States)

    Holdsworth, Jason K.; Arun, Özgür


    While there are various approaches to gerontological and geriatrics (and social sciences) education globally, a component commonly included in undergraduate education is a final thesis project. In Turkey, the Department of Gerontology at Akdeniz University has undertaken a unique approach to thesis development that values and draws on accessing…

  20. Linguistic Error Analysis on Students' Thesis Proposals (United States)

    Pescante-Malimas, Mary Ann; Samson, Sonrisa C.


    This study identified and analyzed the common linguistic errors encountered by Linguistics, Literature, and Advertising Arts majors in their Thesis Proposal classes in the First Semester 2016-2017. The data were the drafts of the thesis proposals of the students from the three different programs. A total of 32 manuscripts were analyzed which was…

  1. PhD thesis defense | Kemoli | East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A thesis oral defence is the culmination of research enquiryon a specific subject or project. The defence provides an opportunity for presentation and sustained argument in support of the findings. This is preceded by examination of the thesis by indipendent nominated examiners who do not communicate on the work as ...

  2. What Works for Doctoral Students in Completing Their Thesis? (United States)

    Lindsay, Siân


    Writing a thesis is one of the most challenging activities that a doctoral student must undertake and can represent a barrier to timely completion. This is relevant in light of current and widespread concerns regarding doctoral completion rates. This study explored thesis writing approaches of students post or near Ph.D. completion through…

  3. Honors Thesis Preparation: Evidence of the Benefits of Structured Curricula (United States)

    Engel, Steven


    A recent study of honors curricula across the nation indicates that 75.6% of honors programs and colleges at four-year institutions have thesis or capstone requirements (Savage and Cognard-Black). In addition to institutions with thesis requirements, many more also have the option for students to complete theses. For example, an earlier study…

  4. Collaborating for Success: Team Teaching the Engineering Technical Thesis (United States)

    Keating, Terrence; Long, Mike


    This paper will examine the collaborative teaching process undertaken at College of the North Atlantic-Qatar (CNA-Q) by Engineering and the Communication faculties to improve the overall quality of engineering students' capstone projects known as the Technical Thesis. The Technical Thesis is divided into two separate components: a proposal stage…

  5. Reflections on how to write and organise a research thesis. (United States)

    Hardy, Sally; Ramjeet, Janet


    Writing up research projects and presenting a thesis are among the most challenging and time-consuming elements of the research process. The authors provide a structured guideline to help students, particularly those undertaking Master's degrees while still practising in clinical areas, to overcome the challenges of writing their thesis and produce a cogent, logical and reflective piece of work.

  6. Clumped-isotope geochemistry of carbonates: A new tool for the reconstruction of temperature and oxygen isotope composition of seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernasconi, Stefano M., E-mail: [Geological Institute, ETH Zuerich, Sonneggstrasse 5, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Schmid, Thomas W.; Grauel, Anna-Lena [Geological Institute, ETH Zuerich, Sonneggstrasse 5, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Mutterlose, Joerg [Institut fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Geophysik, Ruhr Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany)


    Highlights: > Clumped-isotope thermometry of carbonates is discussed. > Clumped isotopes of Belemnites show higher sea surface temperatures than commonly assumed for the lower Cretaceous. > The potential of clumped-isotope measurement on foraminifera is discussed. - Abstract: Clumped-isotope geochemistry deals with State of ordering of rare isotopes in molecules, in particular with their tendency to form bonds with other rare isotopes rather than with the most abundant ones. Among its possible applications, carbonate clumped-isotope thermometry is the one that has gained most attention because of the wide potential of applications in many disciplines of the earth sciences. In particular, it allows reconstructing the temperature of formation of carbonate minerals without knowledge of the isotopic composition of the water from which they were formed. In addition, the O isotope composition of the waters from which they were formed can be calculated using the {delta}{sup 18}O of the same carbonate sample. This feature offers new approaches in paleoclimatology for reconstructing past global geochemical cycles. In this contribution two applications of this method are presented. First the potential of a new analytical method of measurement of clumped isotopes on small samples of foraminifera, for high-resolution SST and seawater {delta}{sup 18}O reconstructions from marine sediments is shown. Furthermore the potential of clumped isotope analysis of belemnites, for reconstructing seawater {delta}{sup 18}O and temperatures in the Cretaceous is shown.

  7. Spacecraft Attitude Determination with Earth Albedo Corrected Sun Sensor Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan

    This thesis focuses on advanced modeling of the Earth albedo experienced by satellites in Earth orbit. The model of the Earth albedo maintains directional information of the Earth albedo irradiance from each partition on the Earth surface. This allows enhanced modeling of Sun sensor current outputs...... with improved accuracy. The Earth albedo model may be applied in simulations of the space environment useful in the satellite design phase. The Earth albedo model is verified using the telemetry data of the Danish Ørsted satellite. Novel methods for incorporating the Earth albedo model into the Q......-Method, Extended Kalman Filter, and Unscented Kalman Filter algorithms are presented and the results are compared. Combining the Unscented Kalman Filter with Earth albedo and enhanced Sun sensor modeling allows for three-axis attitude determination from Sun sensor only, which previously has been perceived...

  8. How to create a journal article from a thesis. (United States)

    Ahern, Kathy


    To identify strategies to assist in the publication of research arising from a postgraduate thesis or dissertation. There are many benefits to publishing a journal article from a completed thesis, including contributing knowledge to the writer's chosen field, career enhancement and personal satisfaction. However, there are also numerous obstacles for the newly graduated student in crafting an article fit for a specialist publication from a thesis. The author conducted a search of the title, abstract and keywords of the Cinahl, Scopus and Proquest databases, from 1990 to 2010: The author searched for the words: 'journal article' or 'manuscript; 'thesis' or 'dissertation'. The author excluded papers if: they pertained to allocation of authorship to someone other than the academic adviser; related to undergraduate issues rather than graduate dissertations; were discussions of the merits of a PhD by 'publication' instead of 'by thesis'; were not published in a peer-reviewed journal; or were not in English. The relationship between adviser and student changes as the student becomes a graduate, and new roles for the student and adviser need to be negotiated. Students need to realise that writing a paper from a thesis is usually going to be more difficult than they anticipate, but the application of strategies discussed in this paper should make the task manageable. Furthermore, universities might wish to consider alternatives in which published papers emerge before the examination of a thesis, such as requiring students to write a paper as part of their coursework.

  9. Modeling equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation (United States)

    Anbar, A.; Jarzecki, A.; Spiro, T.


    Research into the stable isotope biogeochemistry of Fe and other transition metals has been driven primarily by analytical innovations which have revealed significant isotope effects in nature and the laboratory. Further development of these new isotope systems requires complementary theoretical research to guide analytical efforts. The results of the first such studies show some discrepancies with experiments. For example, Johnson et al. (2002) report an experimentally-determined 56Fe/54Fe equilibrium fractionation factor between Fe(II) and Fe(III) aquo complexes of ˜1.0025. This effect is ˜50% smaller than predicted theoretically by Schauble et al. (2001). It is important to resolve such discrepancies. Equilibrium isotope fractionation factors can be predicted from vibrational spectroscopic data of isotopically-substituted complexes, or from theoretical predictions of some or all of these frequencies obtained using force field models. The pioneering work of Schauble et al. (2001) utilized a modified Urey-Bradley force field (MUBFF) model. This approach is limiting in at least three ways: First, it is not ab initio, requiring as input some measured vibrational frequencies. Such data are not always available, or may have significant uncertainties. Second, the MUBFF does not include potentially important effects of solvent interaction. Third, because it makes certain assumptions about molecular symmetry, the MUBFF-based approach is not able to model the spectra of mixed-ligand complexes. To address these limitations, we are evaluating the use of density functional theory (DFT) as an ab initio method to predict vibrational frequencies of isotopically-substituted complexes and, hence, equilibrium fractionation factors. In a preliminary examination of the frequency shift upon isotope substitution of the bending and asymmetric stretching modes of the tetrahedral FeCl_42- complex, we find substantial differences between MUBFF and DFT predictions. Results for other Fe

  10. Iron isotope fractionation in planetary crusts


    Wang, Kun; Moynier, Frédéric; Dauphas, Nicolas; Barrat, Jean-Alix,; Craddock, Paul; Sio, Corliss,


    International audience; We present new high precision iron isotope data (δ56Fe vs. IRMM-014 in per mil) for four groups of achondrites: one lunar meteorite, 11 martian meteorites, 32 howardite-eucrite-diogenite meteorites (HEDs), and eight angrites. Angrite meteorites are the only planetary materials, other than Earth/Moon system, significantly enriched in the heavy isotopes of Fe compared to chondrites (by an average of +0.12‰ in δ56Fe). While the reason for such fractionation is not complet...

  11. A linguist's view of the Bellman-Goldberg thesis. (United States)

    Smith, M R


    From a linguistic perspective, the Bellman-Goldberg thesis of a necessary relationship between the abilities of organisms to move and communicate is very interesting. Since several concepts and terms are represented in both the thesis and contemporary linguistic literature, these items are discussed in further detail. Questions of the implicit assumptions of the homology of the motor and linguistic systems are also raised here. Finally, there are requests for further clarification on issues of evolution in this test of the strength of the thesis.

  12. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. S Sarkar. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 114 Issue 1 February 2005 pp 87-96. Facies, dissolution seams and stable isotope compositions of the Rohtas Limestone (Vindhyan Supergroup) in the Son valley area, central India · S Banerjee S K ...

  13. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. D M Mohabey. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 110 Issue 2 June 2001 pp 133-142. No K/T boundary at Anjar, Gujarat, India: Evidence from magnetic susceptibility and carbon isotopes · H J Hansen D M Mohabey P Toft · More Details Abstract ...

  14. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. S S Rathore. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 113 Issue 1 March 2004 pp 27-36. Isotopic evidence of Middle Proterozoic magmatism from Bombay High Field: Implications to crustal evolution of western offshore of India · S S Rathore A R Vijan M P ...

  15. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. MD Arzoo Ansari. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 126 Issue 5 July 2017 pp 67. Environmental isotope investigation for the identification of source of springs observed in the hillock on the left flank of Gollaleru Earthen Dam, Andhra Pradesh, India.

  16. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Chanwen Jiang. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 126 Issue 6 August 2017 pp 86. Run-off analyses using isotopes and hydrochemistry in Yushugou River basin, eastern Tianshan Mountains · Xiaoyan Wang Zhongqin Li Chanwen Jiang.

  17. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. S Chakraborty. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 109 Issue 1 March 2000 pp 145-151. Effect of intraband variability on stable isotope and density time series obtained from banded corals · S Chakraborty R Ramesh J M Lough · More Details ...

  18. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth (United States)



    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  19. The discovery of isotopes a complete compilation

    CERN Document Server

    Thoennessen, Michael


    This book describes the exciting discovery of every isotope observed on earth to date, which currently numbers some 3000. For each isotope a short essay highlights the authors of the first publication for the isotope, the laboratory and year where and when the isotope was discovered, as well as details about the production and detection methods used. In controversial cases previously claims are also discussed. At the end a comprehensive table lists all isotopes sorted by elements and a complete list of references. Preliminary versions of these paragraphs have been published over the last few years as separate articles in the journal "Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables". The work re-evaluates all assignments judging them with a uniform set of criteria. In addition, the author includes over 100 new isotopes which have been discovered since the articles published. This book is a source of information for researchers as well as enthusiastic laymen alike. From the prepublication review: “The explanations focus ...

  20. Danailova_Denitsa_MSc thesis_Digital Maturity.pdf


    Danailova, Denitsa


    This thesis adopts recognized antecedents of organizational change in rapid environments such as dynamic capabilities and executive sponsorship to test their validity in the new context of digital transformation.

  1. Analysis of Journal Citations in Thesis/Dissertations of Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of Journal Citations in Thesis/Dissertations of Post Graduates of the Department of Political Science, University of Calabar, Nigeria and Their Availability in the University Library: A Re-Visitation.


    Spevack, J.S.


    An isotope concentration process is described which consists of exchanging, at two or more different temperature stages, two isotopes of an element between substances that are physically separate from each other and each of which is capable of containing either of the isotopes, and withdrawing from a point between at least two of the temperatare stages one of the substances containing an increased concentration of the desired isotope.

  3. [The importance of thesis in specialization courses in Medicine]. (United States)

    Ramiro-H, Manuel; Cruz-A, Enrique


    The development of a thesis goes far beyond a mere compliance with the methodological requirements and evidence that students have sufficient knowledge that the profession demands. A thesis is usually the first academic and research work that students publish, it is also the result of commitment and dedication to the field of medicine in which they will be developing, which reflects motivations and interests, as well as their reflection to a specific problem.

  4. Statistical clumped isotope signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röckmann, T.; Popa, M.E.; Krol, M.C.; Hofmann, M.E.G.


    High precision measurements of molecules containing more than one heavy isotope may provide novel constraints on element cycles in nature. These so-called clumped isotope signatures are reported relative to the random (stochastic) distribution of heavy isotopes over all available isotopocules of

  5. Statistical clumped isotope signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röckmann, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838233; Popa, M. E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375806407; Krol, M. C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/078760410; Hofmann, M. E. G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374642907


    High precision measurements of molecules containing more than one heavy isotope may provide novel constraints on element cycles in nature. These so-called clumped isotope signatures are reported relative to the random (stochastic) distribution of heavy isotopes over all available isotopocules of a

  6. Statistical clumped isotope signatures (United States)

    Röckmann, T.; Popa, M. E.; Krol, M. C.; Hofmann, M. E. G.


    High precision measurements of molecules containing more than one heavy isotope may provide novel constraints on element cycles in nature. These so-called clumped isotope signatures are reported relative to the random (stochastic) distribution of heavy isotopes over all available isotopocules of a molecule, which is the conventional reference. When multiple indistinguishable atoms of the same element are present in a molecule, this reference is calculated from the bulk (≈average) isotopic composition of the involved atoms. We show here that this referencing convention leads to apparent negative clumped isotope anomalies (anti-clumping) when the indistinguishable atoms originate from isotopically different populations. Such statistical clumped isotope anomalies must occur in any system where two or more indistinguishable atoms of the same element, but with different isotopic composition, combine in a molecule. The size of the anti-clumping signal is closely related to the difference of the initial isotope ratios of the indistinguishable atoms that have combined. Therefore, a measured statistical clumped isotope anomaly, relative to an expected (e.g. thermodynamical) clumped isotope composition, may allow assessment of the heterogeneity of the isotopic pools of atoms that are the substrate for formation of molecules. PMID:27535168

  7. Condensing the Moon from a MAD Earth (United States)

    Lock, S. J.; Stewart, S. T.; Petaev, M. I.; Leinhardt, Z. M.; Mace, M.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Cuk, M.


    The favored theory for lunar origin is the giant impact hypothesis, where a protoplanet collides with the growing Earth and creates an orbiting disk of material that forms the Moon. However, the astonishing isotopic similarity between the Earth and Moon cannot be explained by current giant impact models without appealing to highly specific circumstances. Here, we demonstrate that a condensation model for lunar origin, achieved via a previously unrecognized class of post-impact states, produces the Moon's major characteristics. The required class of post-impact states is defined by (i) a high degree of vaporization and (ii) rapid rotation. When these two criteria are met, the mantle, atmosphere and disk (MAD) form a dynamically and thermodynamically continuous structure that quickly mixes, thereby diluting initial compositional heterogeneities. Then, partial condensation from the pressure-supported mass beyond the Roche limit produces a Moon that is isotopically similar to the bulk silicate Earth and depleted in volatile and moderately volatile elements. Initially, the condensed liquid is composed of silicates. As the structure cools, metal exsolves in the accreting Moon and moonlets. We calculate ~2wt% metal is exsolved from a bulk silicate Earth composition, which is consistent with estimates of the mass of the lunar core. Thus, similar tungsten isotopes are established in the Earth and Moon as metal is exsolved in both bodies after mixing. In our model, the criterion for lunar origin shifts, away from specific impact parameters that inject terrestrial material into orbit, to any collision that transforms the Earth into a rapidly rotating and substantially vaporized MAD planet. Impacts that can transform the Earth are common during the end stages of planet formation. Therefore, the characteristics of our Moon are a natural consequence of forming the Earth.

  8. Modeling of present and Eemian stable water isotopes in precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjolte, Jesper

    The subject of this thesis is the modeling of the isotopic temperature proxies d18O, dD and deuterium excess in precipitation. Two modeling studies were carried out, one using the regional climate model, and one using a global climate model. In the regional study the model was run for the period...... the modeled isotopes do not agree with ice core data. The discrepancy between the model output and the ice core data is attributed to the boundary conditions, where changes in ice sheets and vegetation have not been accounted for....

  9. Isotopes in heterogeneous catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hargreaves, Justin SJ


    The purpose of this book is to review the current, state-of-the-art application of isotopic methods to the field of heterogeneous catalysis. Isotopic studies are arguably the ultimate technique in in situ methods for heterogeneous catalysis. In this review volume, chapters have been contributed by experts in the field and the coverage includes both the application of specific isotopes - Deuterium, Tritium, Carbon-14, Sulfur-35 and Oxygen-18 - as well as isotopic techniques - determination of surface mobility, steady state transient isotope kinetic analysis, and positron emission profiling.

  10. The ruthenium isotopic composition of the oceanic mantle (United States)

    Bermingham, K. R.; Walker, R. J.


    The approximately chondritic relative, and comparatively high absolute mantle abundances of the highly siderophile elements (HSE), suggest that their concentrations in the bulk silicate Earth were primarily established during a final ∼0.5 to 1% of ;late accretion; to the mantle, following the cessation of core segregation. Consequently, the isotopic composition of the HSE Ru in the mantle reflects an amalgamation of the isotopic compositions of late accretionary contributions to the silicate portion of the Earth. Among cosmochemical materials, Ru is characterized by considerable mass-independent isotopic variability, making it a powerful genetic tracer of Earth's late accretionary building blocks. To define the Ru isotopic composition of the oceanic mantle, the largest portion of the accessible mantle, we report Ru isotopic data for materials from one Archean and seven Phanerozoic oceanic mantle domains. A sample from a continental lithospheric mantle domain is also examined. All samples have identical Ru isotopic compositions, within analytical uncertainties, indicating that Ru isotopes are well mixed in the oceanic mantle, defining a μ100Ru value of 1.2 ± 7.2 (2SD). The only known meteorites with the same Ru isotopic composition are enstatite chondrites and, when corrected for the effects of cosmic ray exposure, members of the Main Group and sLL subgroup of the IAB iron meteorite complex which have a collective CRE corrected μ100Ru value of 0.9 ± 3.0. This suggests that materials from the region(s) of the solar nebula sampled by these meteorites likely contributed the dominant portion of late accreted materials to Earth's mantle.

  11. Importance and benefits of the doctoral thesis for medical graduates. (United States)

    Giesler, Marianne; Boeker, Martin; Fabry, Götz; Biller, Silke


    The majority of medical graduates in Germany complete a doctorate, even though a doctoral degree is not necessary for the practice of medicine. So far, little is known about doctoral candidates' view on the individual benefit a doctoral thesis has for them. Consequently, this is the subject of the present investigation. Data from surveys with graduates of the five medical faculties of Baden-Württemberg from the graduation years 2007/2008 (N=514) and 2010/2011 (N=598) were analysed. One and a half years after graduating 53% of those interviewed had completed their doctorate. When asked about their motivation for writing a doctoral thesis, participants answered most frequently "a doctorate is usual" (85%) and "improvement of job opportunities" (75%), 36% said that an academic career has been their primary motive. Less than 10% responded that they used their doctoral thesis as a means to apply for a job. The proportion of graduates working in health care is equally large among those who have completed a thesis and those who have not. Graduates who pursued a thesis due to scientific interest are also currently more interested in an academic career and recognise more opportunities for research. An implicit benefit of a medical thesis emerged with regard to the self-assessment of scientific competences as those who completed a doctorate rated their scientific competencies higher than those who have not. Although for the majority of physicians research interest is not the primary motivation for completing a doctorate, they might nevertheless achieve some academic competencies. For graduates pursuing an academic career the benefit of completing a medical thesis is more obvious.

  12. Importance and benefits of the doctoral thesis for medical graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giesler, Marianne


    Full Text Available Introduction: The majority of medical graduates in Germany complete a doctorate, even though a doctoral degree is not necessary for the practice of medicine. So far, little is known about doctoral candidates’ view on the individual benefit a doctoral thesis has for them. Consequently, this is the subject of the present investigation.Method: Data from surveys with graduates of the five medical faculties of Baden-Württemberg from the graduation years 2007/2008 (N=514 and 2010/2011 (N=598 were analysed.Results: One and a half years after graduating 53% of those interviewed had completed their doctorate. When asked about their motivation for writing a doctoral thesis, participants answered most frequently “a doctorate is usual” (85% and “improvement of job opportunities” (75%, 36% said that an academic career has been their primary motive. Less than 10% responded that they used their doctoral thesis as a means to apply for a job. The proportion of graduates working in health care is equally large among those who have completed a thesis and those who have not. Graduates who pursued a thesis due to scientific interest are also currently more interested in an academic career and recognise more opportunities for research. An implicit benefit of a medical thesis emerged with regard to the self-assessment of scientific competences as those who completed a doctorate rated their scientific competencies higher than those who have not.Discussion: Although for the majority of physicians research interest is not the primary motivation for completing a doctorate, they might nevertheless achieve some academic competencies. For graduates pursuing an academic career the benefit of completing a medical thesis is more obvious.

  13. On the interpretation of stable isotopes in Antarctic precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsen, M.M.


    Polar ice caps contain valuable information about the earth's climate. This thesis investigates the extent to which meteorological data are stored in the composition of snow in order to improve the interpretation of deep ice cores from the Antarctic ice cap. It is demonstrated that annual

  14. The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelaer, Jens


    The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium: Nuclear masses are an important quantity to study nuclear structure since they reflect the sum of all nucleonic interactions. Many experimental possibilities exist to precisely measure masses, out of which the Penning trap is the tool to reach the highest precision. Moreover, absolute mass measurements can be performed using carbon, the atomic-mass standard, as a reference. The new double-Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has been installed and commissioned within this thesis work, which is the very first experimental setup of this kind located at a nuclear reactor. New technical developments have been carried out such as a reliable non-resonant laser ablation ion source for the production of carbon cluster ions and are still continued, like a non-destructive ion detection technique for single-ion measurements. Neutron-rich fission products will be available by the reactor that are important for nuclear astrophysics, especially the r-process. Prior to the on-line coupling to the reactor, TRIGA-TRAP already performed off-line mass measurements on stable and long-lived isotopes and will continue this program. The main focus within this thesis was on certain rare-earth nuclides in the well-established region of deformation around N {proportional_to} 90. Another field of interest are mass measurements on actinoids to test mass models and to provide direct links to the mass standard. Within this thesis, the mass of {sup 241}Am could be measured directly for the first time. (orig.)

  15. Iron and lithium isotope systematics of the Hekla volcano, Iceland - Evidence for Fe isotope fractionation during magma differentiation


    J. A. Schuessler; R. Schönberg; O. Sigmarsson; [Amhurst, Nicholas] 


    In this study potential iron isotope fractionation by magmatic processes in the Earth's crust was systematically investigated. High precision iron isotope analyses by MC-ICP-MS were performed on a suite of rock samples representative for the volcanic evolution of the Hekla volcano, Iceland. The whole series of Hekla's rocks results from several processes. (i) Basaltic magmas rise and induce partial melting of metabasalts in the lower part of the Icelandic crust. The resulting dacitic magma ev...

  16. The isotopic composition of Nd in different ocean masses (United States)

    Piepgras, D. J.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Dasch, E. J.


    The paper examines the isotopic composition of Nd in marine environments. The Sm-Nd data for authigenic ferromanganese sediments indicate that the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans have a distinct range in Nd isotopic composition characteristics of each ocean basin and reflect the dissolved load of Nd in the water mass. Measurements of the Nd isotopic seawater composition of seawater indicate that the rare earth elements (REE) in ferromanganese sediments are derived by direct precipitation of these elements out of seawater. It is believed that the Nd isotopic variations in these sediments represent true variations in the dissolved Nd isotopic composition which reflect the age and (Sm-147)/(Nd-144) ratios of the continental masses sampled believed to be the major source of REE in seawater.

  17. Fractionation of metal stable isotopes by higher plants (United States)

    Von Blanckenburg, F.; Von Wiren, N.; Guelke, M.; Weiss, D.J.; Bullen, T.D.


    Higher plants induce chemical reactions in the rhizosphere, facilitating metal uptake by roots. Fractionation of the isotopes in nutrients such as calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc produces a stable isotope composition in the plants that generally differs from that of the growth medium. Isotope fractionation also occurs during transport of the metals within most plants, but its extent depends on plant species and on the metal, in particular, on the metal's redox state and what ligand it is bound to. The metal stable isotope variations observed in plants create an isotope signature of life at the Earth's surface, contributing substantially to our understanding of metal cycling processes in the environment and in individual organisms.

  18. Rethinking neuroethics in the light of the extended mind thesis. (United States)

    Levy, Neil


    The extended mind thesis is the claim that mental states extend beyond the skulls of the agents whose states they are. This seemingly obscure and bizarre claim has far-reaching implications for neuroethics, I argue. In the first half of this article, I sketch the extended mind thesis and defend it against criticisms. In the second half, I turn to its neuroethical implications. I argue that the extended mind thesis entails the falsity of the claim that interventions into the brain are especially problematic just because they are internal interventions, but that many objections to such interventions rely, at least in part, on this claim. Further, I argue that the thesis alters the focus of neuroethics, away from the question of whether we ought to allow interventions into the mind, and toward the question of which interventions we ought to allow and under what conditions. The extended mind thesis dramatically expands the scope of neuroethics: because interventions into the environment of agents can count as interventions into their minds, decisions concerning such interventions become questions for neuroethics.

  19. Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report, FY 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, J.H.; Lindberg, H.A. (eds.)


    This report describes progress in the major research and development programs carried out in FY 1983 by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division. It covers radiochemical diagnostics of weapons tests; weapons radiochemical diagnostics research and development; other unclassified weapons research; stable and radioactive isotope production, separation, and applications (including biomedical applications); element and isotope transport and fixation; actinide and transition metal chemistry; structural chemistry, spectroscopy, and applications; nuclear structure and reactions; irradiation facilities; advanced analytical techniques; development and applications; atmospheric chemistry and transport; and earth and planetary processes.

  20. Magnesium isotope fractionation during carbonatite magmatism at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania (United States)

    Li, Wang-Ye; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Halama, Ralf; Keller, Jörg; Klaudius, Jurgis


    To investigate the behaviour of Mg isotopes during carbonatite magmatism, we analyzed Mg isotopic compositions of natrocarbonatites and peralkaline silicate rocks from Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. The olivine melilitites from the vicinity of Oldoinyo Lengai have homogeneous and mantle-like Mg isotopic compositions (δ26Mg of -0.30 to -0.26‰), indicating limited Mg isotope fractionation during mantle melting. The highly evolved peralkaline silicate rocks not related to silicate-carbonatite liquid immiscibility, including phonolites from the unit Lengai I, combeite-wollastonite nephelinites (CWNs) from the unit Lengai II A and carbonated combeite-wollastonite-melilite nephelinites (carbCWMNs), have δ26Mg values (from -0.25 to -0.10‰) clustered around the mantle value. By contrast, the CWNs from the unit Lengai II B, which evolved from the silicate melts that were presumably generated by silicate-carbonatite liquid immiscibility, have heavier Mg isotopes (δ26Mg of -0.06 to +0.09‰). Such a difference suggests Mg isotope fractionation during liquid immiscibility and implies, based on mass-balance calculations, that the original carbonatite melts at Lengai were isotopically light. The variable and positive δ26Mg values of natrocarbonatites (from +0.13 to +0.37‰) hence require a change of their Mg isotopic compositions subsequent to liquid immiscibility. The negative correlations between δ26Mg values and contents of alkali and alkaline earth metals of natrocarbonatites suggest Mg isotope fractionation during fractional crystallization of carbonatite melts, with heavy Mg isotopes enriched in the residual melts relative to fractionated carbonate minerals. Collectively, significant Mg isotope fractionation may occur during both silicate-carbonatite liquid immiscibility and fractional crystallization of carbonatite melts, making Mg isotopes a potentially useful tracer of these processes relevant to carbonatite petrogenesis.

  1. Opinions of Students Completing Master Thesis in Turkish Education Field about Academic Writing and Thesis Formation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Onur KAN


    Full Text Available The overall aim of this research is to evaluate opinions of students completing master thesis in the field of Turkish education about academic writing and process of forming thesis. The study has been devised using phenomenological design within the qualitative research methods. The study group of research is consisted of 9 participants completed master thesis in the field of Turkish education at Mustafa Kemal University Instıtute of Social Sciences in 2015. In this study, semi-structured interview form developed by the researcher was used to collect data. In order to ensure the reliability of the scope and structure, table of specification was constituted and expert views were consulted. For analyzing data descriptive analysis method was used. According to results of the research, it was obtained that participants experience various diffuculties in writing the basic sections of the thesis. In addition, it was seen that participants can not benefit enough from the studies written in foreign language. Participants reported that they find themselves more enough about academic writing and process of forming thesis after postgraduate education, but also they stated that academic writing courses should take part in program.

  2. A functional programming interpreter. M.S. Thesis (United States)

    Robison, Arch Douglas


    Functional Programming (FP) sup BAC87 is an alternative to conventional imperative programming languages. This thesis describes an FP interpreter implementation. Superficially, FP appears to be a simple, but very inefficient language. Its simplicity, however, allows it to be interpreted quickly. Much of the inefficiency can be removed by simple interpreter techniques. This thesis describes the Illinois Functional Programming (IFP) interpreter, an interactive functional programming implementation which runs under both MS-DOS and UNIX. The IFP interpreter allows functions to be created, executed, and debugged in an environment very similar to UNIX. IFP's speed is competitive with other interpreted languages such as BASIC.

  3. Entropy and Computation: The Landauer-Bennett Thesis Reexamined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly Shenker


    Full Text Available The so-called Landauer-Bennett thesis says that logically irreversible operations (physically implemented such as erasure necessarily involve dissipation by at least kln2 per bit of lost information. We identify the physical conditions that are necessary and sufficient for erasure and show that the thesis does not follow from the principles of classical mechanics. In particular, we show that even if one assumes that information processing is constrained by the laws of classical mechanics, it need not be constrained by the Second Law of thermodynamics.

  4. Chromium isotope heterogeneity in the mantle (United States)

    Xia, Jiuxing; Qin, Liping; Shen, Ji; Carlson, Richard W.; Ionov, Dmitri A.; Mock, Timothy D.


    To better constrain the Cr isotopic composition of the silicate Earth and to investigate potential Cr isotopic fractionation during high temperature geological processes, we analyzed the Cr isotopic composition of different types of mantle xenoliths from diverse geologic settings: fertile to refractory off-craton spinel and garnet peridotites, pyroxenite veins, metasomatised spinel lherzolites and associated basalts from central Mongolia, spinel lherzolites and harzburgites from North China, as well as cratonic spinel and garnet peridotites from Siberia and southern Africa. The δ53CrNIST 979 values of the peridotites range from - 0.51 ± 0.04 ‰ (2SD) to + 0.75 ± 0.05 ‰ (2SD). The results show a slight negative correlation between δ53Cr and Al2O3 and CaO contents for most mantle peridotites, which may imply Cr isotopic fractionation during partial melting of mantle peridotites. However, highly variable Cr isotopic compositions measured in Mongolian peridotites cannot be caused by partial melting alone. Instead, the wide range in Cr isotopic composition of these samples most likely reflects kinetic fractionation during melt percolation. Chemical diffusion during melt percolation resulted in light Cr isotopes preferably entering into the melt. Two spinel websterite veins from Mongolia have extremely light δ53Cr values of - 1.36 ± 0.04 ‰ and - 0.77 ± 0.06 ‰, respectively, which are the most negative Cr isotopic compositions yet reported for mantle-derived rocks. These two websterite veins may represent crystallization products from the isotopically light melt that may also metasomatize some peridotites in the area. The δ53Cr values of highly altered garnet peridotites from southern Africa vary from - 0.35 ± 0.04 ‰ (2SD) to + 0.12 ± 0.04 ‰ (2SD) and increase with increasing LOI (Loss on Ignition), reflecting a shift of δ53Cr to more positive values by secondary alteration. The Cr isotopic composition of the pristine, fertile upper mantle is

  5. Iron isotope biogeochemistry of Neoproterozoic marine shales (United States)

    Kunzmann, Marcus; Gibson, Timothy M.; Halverson, Galen P.; Hodgskiss, Malcolm S. W.; Bui, Thi Hao; Carozza, David A.; Sperling, Erik A.; Poirier, André; Cox, Grant M.; Wing, Boswell A.


    Iron isotopes have been widely applied to investigate the redox evolution of Earth's surface environments. However, it is still unclear whether iron cycling in the water column or during diagenesis represents the major control on the iron isotope composition of sediments and sedimentary rocks. Interpretation of isotopic data in terms of oceanic redox conditions is only possible if water column processes dominate the isotopic composition, whereas redox interpretations are less straightforward if diagenetic iron cycling controls the isotopic composition. In the latter scenario, iron isotope data is more directly related to microbial processes such as dissimilatory iron reduction. Here we present bulk rock iron isotope data from late Proterozoic marine shales from Svalbard, northwestern Canada, and Siberia, to better understand the controls on iron isotope fractionation in late Proterozoic marine environments. Bulk shales span a δ 56Fe range from -0.45 ‰ to +1.04 ‰ . Although δ 56Fe values show significant variation within individual stratigraphic units, their mean value is closer to that of bulk crust and hydrothermal iron in samples post-dating the ca. 717-660 Ma Sturtian glaciation compared to older samples. After correcting for the highly reactive iron content in our samples based on iron speciation data, more than 90% of the calculated δ 56Fe compositions of highly reactive iron falls in the range from ca. -0.8 ‰ to +3 ‰ . An isotope mass-balance model indicates that diagenetic iron cycling can only change the isotopic composition of highly reactive iron by water column processes, namely the degree of oxidation of the ferrous seawater iron reservoir, control the isotopic composition of highly reactive iron. Considering a long-term decrease in the isotopic composition of the iron source to the dissolved seawater Fe(II) reservoir to be unlikely, we offer two possible explanations for the Neoproterozoic δ 56Fe trend. First, a decreasing supply of Fe

  6. Isotope effects in visible light photolysis and chemical destruction of ozone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Früchtl, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372648096


    Ozone (O3) plays a key role for the radiative balance of the earth and for chemical processes in the atmosphere. In addition, it has a very peculiar isotopic composition: The heavy stable isotopes of oxygen, 17O and 18O are strongly enriched in O3 and the enrichments are of almost equal magnitude,

  7. Geochemistry and Isotope Stratigraphy (C, O, Sr, Nd, Cr) of the Ediacaran Sete Lagoas Cap Carbonate, Bambui Group, Brazil: Insights into Earth's Oceanic and Atmosphere Geochemical Cycles After a Snowball Glaciation. (United States)

    Caxito, F.; Frei, R.; Uhlein, G. J.; Uhlein, A.


    We studied a basal Ediacaran cap carbonate profile pertaining to the base of the Bambuí Group (Sete Lagoas Formation) in the central portion of the São Francisco basin, east central Brazil. The section begins with a two-meter thick pink dolostone which grades upward into a reddish limestone. The basal dolostone preserves a drop of δ13C values from -3.8 to -4.2‰, and δ18O values from -4.5 to -5.1‰. The red laminated limestone yielded δ13C values averaging -5‰ for about 60 m up section. Above 60 m, the δ13C values shift abruptly to around -0.5‰. The section is capped by black calcarenites with positive δ13C (+0.9‰); these high [Sr] carbonates (>1000 ppm) yield 87Sr/86Sr around 0.7076. Overall, there is an upwards-decreasing trend of ɛNd(630 Ma) values, from -6.0 in the base to -7.2 towards the top, and also upwards-decreasing trends of trace metal concentrations, especially for Cr (10-4 ppm), Sc (4.3-1.7 ppm), Co (3.7-0.8 ppm), Cu (4-0.3 ppm), Zn (29-0.6 ppm), and Ti (80-10 ppm). δ53Cr values of the basal pink cap dolostone are about -0.3‰, with an upwards-increasing trend to about +0.2‰ at the topmost carbonates. Thus, the cap carbonate is characterized by upwards-decreasing trends of ɛNd(630 Ma) and trace metal concentrations and upwards-increasing trends of δ13C, δ18O and δ53Cr. These fluctuations can be interpreted to reflect increased continentally-derived input into the shallow seawater. The higher ɛNd(630 Ma) and trace metal contents, as well as negative δ13C and δ53Cr of the basal cap dolostone all point to a higher contribution of less-fractionated sources to seawater geochemical composition, probably due to the fact that oceanic geochemical cycles were not yet fully restored after isolation by ice caps from atmospheric and continental weathering inputs. Upwards, in the limestone section, decreasing ɛNd(630 Ma), increasing δ13C and increasingly positively fractionated δ53Cr values suggest a recovery of Earth

  8. Supervisors' perspective on medical thesis projects and dropout rates: survey among thesis supervisors at a large German university hospital. (United States)

    Can, Elif; Richter, Felicitas; Valchanova, Ralitsa; Dewey, Marc


    To identify underlying causes for failure of medical thesis projects and the constantly high drop-out rate in Germany from the supervisors' perspective and to compare the results with the students' perspective. Cross-sectional survey. Online questionnaire for survey of medical thesis supervisors among the staff of Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany. Published, earlier longitudinal survey among students for comparison. 1069 thesis supervisors participated. Data are presented using descriptive statistics, and the χ 2 test served to compare the results among supervisors with the earlier data from the longitudinal survey of doctoral students. Not applicable. This survey is an observational study. Of 3653 potential participants, 1069 (29.3%) supervising 3744 doctoral candidates participated in the study. Supervisors considered themselves to be highly motivated and to offer adequate supervision. On the other hand, 87% stated that they did not feel well prepared for thesis supervision. Supervisors gave lack of timeliness of doctoral students and personal differences (p=0.024 and p=0.001) as the main reasons for terminating thesis projects. Doctoral students predominantly mentioned methodological problems and difficult subjects as critical issues (p=0.001 and pthesis supervisors and medical students feel ill prepared for their roles in the process of a medical dissertation. Contradictory reasons for terminating medical thesis projects based on supervisors' and students' self-assessment suggest a lack of communication and true scientific collaboration between supervisors and doctoral students as the major underlying issue that requires resolution. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  9. The Topological Primacy Thesis: Genetic and Didactic Aspects. (United States)

    Schipper, Wilhelm


    Several critical questions concerning the topological primacy thesis were raised in an extensive literature survey (SE 531 428). Three points related to this criticism are discussed and reinforced, including a reexamination of Laurendeau and Pinard's data (showing that they do not support the hypothesis of topological primacy in children's…

  10. From proposal to thesis: writing an undergraduate dissertation


    Feather, Denis


    This book is full of useful advice and tips on how to write your thesis, taking you through the whole process: from getting started and collecting data to handing it in. The information Denis Feather provides here is based on ten years of teaching research methodologies and supervising students at all levels.

  11. Thesis Supervision in the Social Sciences: Managed or Negotiated? (United States)

    Acker, Sandra; And Others


    A qualitative study of thesis advising of 36 graduate students in education and psychology at 3 British universities investigated supervisory style, nature of supervisor-student meetings, extent of direction offered by the supervisor, nature of interpersonal relationships, and student strategies. The "negotiated order" supervisory model…

  12. Adaptive Research Supervision: Exploring Expert Thesis Supervisors' Practical Knowledge (United States)

    de Kleijn, Renske A. M.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Pilot, Albert


    Several researchers have suggested the importance of being responsive to students' needs in research supervision. Adapting support strategies to students' needs in light of the goals of a task is referred to as "adaptivity." In the present study, the practice of adaptivity is explored by interviewing expert thesis supervisors about…

  13. The Doctoral Thesis and Supervision: The Student Perspective (United States)

    Kiguwa, Peace; Langa, Malose


    The doctoral thesis constitutes both a negotiation of the supervision relationship as well as mastery and skill in participating in a specific community of practice. Two models of supervision are discussed: the technical rationality model with its emphasis on technical aspects of supervision, and the negotiated order model with an emphasis on…

  14. Asking Better Questions: Approaching the Process of Thesis Supervision. (United States)

    Manderson, Desmond


    The questions typically asked by a law student in different stages of the process of thesis supervision are re-formulated to encourage more student reflection on the experience. The stages include approaching the supervision concept, selecting an appropriate supervisor, considering rights and responsibilities of both parties in developing a…

  15. synthesis and charact catalyst for the production o thesis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    THESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID HETEROGENEOUS. R THE PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FROM HIGH FFA WASTE. COOKING OIL. Nasar Mansir1,2&3 and Taufiq-Yap Yun Hin1,2. Technology Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia. 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia try, Faculty ...

  16. A Supervisor's Roles for Successful Thesis and Dissertation (United States)

    Mhunpiew, Nathara


    The success of a thesis or a dissertation for a graduate student relies upon the roles of their supervisor. The student not only needs to be equipped with the knowledge, but also be able to manage others and external factors at the same time. The journey during the period of conducting research is mixed with various tasks. Five supportive roles of…

  17. Motivation in medical students: a PhD thesis report. (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi


    The aims of this thesis were to gather insights and investigate the factors influencing, outcomes and applications of medical students' motivation. This thesis consists of three literature reviews, four research papers and two application papers. Two research studies investigated the relationships of student motivation with study strategy, effort and academic performance through structural equation modelling and cluster analysis. The relationships of age, maturity, gender and educational background with motivation were investigated through multiple regression analysis. The results of this thesis were 1. Developments in medical education appear to have undervalued student motivation. 2. Motivation is an independent variable in medical education; intrinsic motivation is significantly associated with deep study strategy, high study effort and good academic performance. 3. Motivation is a dependent variable in medical education and is significantly affected by age, maturity, gender, educational background; intrinsic motivation is enhanced by providing students with autonomy, feedback and emotional support. 4. Strength of motivation for medical school can be reliably measured by Strength of Motivation for Medical School questionnaire. The conclusion of this thesis was that it is important to give consideration to motivation in medical education because intrinsic motivation leads to better learning and performance and it can be enhanced through giving students autonomy in learning, feedback about competence and emotional support.

  18. Turning Points: Improving Honors Student Preparation for Thesis Completion (United States)

    Patino, Cynthia


    This dissertation is an action research study that had as its primary goal to increase retention of honors college students at Arizona State University by implementing an additional advising session during the fifth semester of their academic career. Introducing additional, strategically-timed support for the honors thesis and demystifying the…

  19. Seminar for Master's Thesis Projects: Promoting Students' Self-Regulation (United States)

    Miedijensky, Shirley; Lichtinger, Einat


    This study presents a thesis seminar model aimed at promoting students' self-regulation. Students' perceptions regarding the contribution of the seminar to their learning process were characterized and the seminar's effect upon their self-regulation expressions was examined. Data was collected using questionnaires and analyzed thematically. The…

  20. Project families: A new concept for student thesis activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup


    The students’ activities during their final thesis work have been organised in project families, i.e. a group of individual student project organized in a shared learning environment. The aim is more efficient supervision and support, simultaneously to improved learning. DTU Byg have now tested...

  1. Characteristics of undergraduate medical thesis of a Peruvian public university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Castro Maldonado


    Full Text Available Introduction: The undergraduate thesis rather than a requirement to graduate, are a way of doing research. Previous studies show a thesis published between 2.7% to 17.6% in indexed journals. Objective: Describe the characteristics of the undergraduate thesis of the Faculty of a medical school. Bibliometric study. 221 theses were reviewed, collecting: Year, number of authors, advisers, and references, study population, and national priorities for health research. A search was performed on Google Scholar to assess publication. Descriptive statistics were used. Results: Being lower production in the years 2008-2010 was observed. 91.6% had one advisor, 76% descriptive, 82.8% in hospital population, and 62.4% of adults. Theses displayed between 2010-2014 72.9% did not correspond to any national health research priority. Only 6.8% was based on literature of the last five years. Only 9 (4.1% were published in a scientific journal indexed. Conclusions: The undergraduate thesis were characterized as descriptive, hospital, adults, literature based on outdated and not in line with the national priorities for health research. The publication is low.

  2. PhD thesis: Multipartite entanglement and quantum algorithms


    Alsina, Daniel


    PhD thesis dealing with various aspects of multipartite entanglement, such as entanglement measures, absolutely maximally entangled states, bell inequalities, entanglement spectrum and quantum frustration. Also some quantum algorithms run with the IBM quantum computer are covered, together with others applied to adiabatic quantum computation and quantum thermodynamics.

  3. Support for Different Roles in Software Engineering Master's Thesis Projects (United States)

    Host, M.; Feldt, R.; Luders, F.


    Like many engineering programs in Europe, the final part of most Swedish software engineering programs is a longer project in which the students write a Master's thesis. These projects are often conducted in cooperation between a university and industry, and the students often have two supervisors, one at the university and one in industry. In…

  4. Thesis Writing Challenges for Non-Native MA Students (United States)

    Sadeghi, Karim; Shirzad Khajepasha, Arash


    Writing in a second (L2)/foreign language is generally a challenging activity, and writing an MA thesis, as an example of academic enterprise, can be daunting when done in a language in which the writer is not fully competent. The challenge such a genre of writing poses for L2 writers has not been properly addressed. To fill in the gap in this…

  5. A Path Model for Students' Attitudes to Writing a Thesis. (United States)

    Sachs, John


    Using responses of 90 undergraduate and graduate students, developed a model in which action-control belief variables have only an indirect effect on students' attitudes to writing a thesis mediated through two academic orientation variables. The model accounted for a large proportion of the repeatable variance in the two academic orientation…

  6. Democracies under rising inequality : New tests of the redistributive thesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linde, D.E.


    Recent increases in income inequality have led a number of authors to question the redistributive thesis, which predicts higher levels of income inequality will be met with increased redistribution of income, curbing inequality. This dissertation offers a new test of this theory, and sets out to

  7. Master's Thesis Projects: Student Perceptions of Supervisor Feedback (United States)

    de Kleijn, Renske A. M.; Mainhard, M. Tim; Meijer, Paulien C.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Pilot, Albert


    A growing body of research has investigated student perceptions of written feedback in higher education coursework, but few studies have considered feedback perceptions in one-on-one and face-to-face contexts such as master's thesis projects. In this article, student perceptions of feedback are explored in the context of the supervision of…

  8. Intergroup contact and ingroup reappraisal : examining the deprovincialization thesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, M.J.A.M.; Thijs, J.T.; Bekhuis, H.


    According to the deprovincialization thesis, interethnic contact involves a reappraisal and distancing from the ingroup. Contact can broaden one’s horizon by acknowledging and recognizing the value of other cultures and thereby putting the taken-for-granted own cultural standards into perspective.

  9. Non-chondritic iron isotope ratios in planetary mantles as a result of core formation (United States)

    Elardo, Stephen M.; Shahar, Anat


    Information about the materials and conditions involved in planetary formation and differentiation in the early Solar System is recorded in iron isotope ratios. Samples from Earth, the Moon, Mars and the asteroid Vesta reveal significant variations in iron isotope ratios, but the sources of these variations remain uncertain. Here we present experiments that demonstrate that under the conditions of planetary core formation expected for the Moon, Mars and Vesta, iron isotopes fractionate between metal and silicate due to the presence of nickel, and enrich the bodies' mantles in isotopically light iron. However, the effect of nickel diminishes at higher temperatures: under conditions expected for Earth's core formation, we infer little fractionation of iron isotopes. From our experimental results and existing conceptual models of magma ocean crystallization and mantle partial melting, we find that nickel-induced fractionation can explain iron isotope variability found in planetary samples without invoking nebular or accretionary processes. We suggest that near-chondritic iron isotope ratios of basalts from Mars and Vesta, as well as the most primitive lunar basalts, were achieved by melting of isotopically light mantles, whereas the heavy iron isotope ratios of terrestrial ocean floor basalts are the result of melting of near-chondritic Earth mantle.

  10. Global Carbon Cycle of the Precambrian Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiewióra, Justyna

    The carbon isotopic composition of distinct Archaean geological records provides information about the global carbon cycle and emergence of life on early Earth. We utilized carbon isotopic records of Greenlandic carbonatites, diamonds, graphites, marbles, metacarbonates and ultramafic rocks...... decreasing δ13C with decreasing N content trend would suggest they formed during closed system fractional crystallization from an oxidized growth medium enriched in 13C relative to the bulk mantle. However, different populations, defined by nitrogen thermometry, do not follow a single trend, but rather...... in the surface environment and recycled back into the mantle In the third manuscript we investigate the carbon cycle components, which have maintained the carbon isotope composition of the mantle constant through time. Assuming constant organic ratio of the total carbon burial (f), we show that increased...

  11. Discovery of the Indium Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, S


    Thirty-eight indium isotopes (A = 98-135) have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  12. Water enriched in the rare stable isotopes : Preparation, measurement and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faghihi, Vahideh


    The subject of this thesis is water with increased abundances of the rare stable isotopes 2H and 18O (and to some extent also 17O). Such artificially enriched (or "labelled") waters are often used in biomedicine, for establishing the total amount of body water (and thus body composition) of humans

  13. The process of glauconitization: chemical and isotopic evidence (United States)

    Stille, Peter; Clauer, Norbert


    Sequential leaching experiments were made on Recent glauconies and clay fractions of the associated mud from off-shore Africa near the estuary of the Congo River. Analyses of major/rare earth elements (REE) and Nd isotopic compositions on the resulting leachate and residue pairs allow identification of at least three important and isotopically distinct components which contributed to the glauconitization process: (1) a detrital component with relatively high 87Sr/86Sr and relatively low 143Nd/144Nd isotopic ratios; (2) a phosphate phase rich in REE and Sr with sea water Sr and Nd isotopic characteristics; (3) a component rich in organic matter and Ca with a sea water Sr isotopic signature, a relatively low Nd isotopic composition and elevated Sm/Nd ratios. This latter component probably represents the suspended organic and carbonate-rich river load. The detrital and the river components were mixed up in the muddy off-shore sediment, ingested by worms, and integrated into faecal pellets. The resulting material has Sr and Nd isotopic signatures intermediate between those of the detrital and river components, and represents the precursor of the glaucony minerals. During the subsequent dissolution-crystallization process, the glauconitic pellets remain isotopically closed to any external supply, but expulsion of Sr and Nd with increasing degree of maturation is observed without any effect on the Sr and Nd isotopic compositions. At a higher maturation stage (K2O>4.5%), the Sr and Nd isotopic compositions tend to decrease and increase, respectively, approximating the isotopic composition values of the phosphate-rich phase. Because the Sr and Nd concentrations decrease, the evolution of the glauconies toward lower Sr and higher Nd isotopic compositions can only be explained by expulsion of Sr and Nd of the detrital component with high Sr and low Nd isotopic signatures. Dissolution of the chemically unstable, wormdigested clay material from mud may be responsible for the

  14. Tracing recycled volatiles in a heterogeneous mantle with boron isotopes (United States)

    Walowski, Kristina; Kirstein, Linda; de Hoog, Cees-Jan; Elliot, Tim; Savov, Ivan; Devey, Colin


    Recycling of oceanic lithosphere drives the chemical evolution of the Earth's mantle supplying both solids and volatiles to the Earth's interior. Yet, how subducted material influences mantle composition remains unclear. A perfect tracer for slab recycling should be only fractionated at the Earth's surface, have a strong influence on mantle compositions but be resistant to perturbations en route back to the surface. Current understanding suggests that boron concentrations linked to B isotope determinations fulfil all these requirements and should be an excellent tracer of heterogeneity in the deep mantle. Here, we present the trace element, volatile and the B isotope composition of basaltic glasses and melt inclusions in olivine from distinct end-member ocean island basalts (OIB) to track the fate of recycled lithosphere and ultimately document how recycling contributes to mantle heterogeneity. The chosen samples represent the different end member OIB compositions and include: EMI (Pitcairn), EMII (MacDonald), HIMU (St. Helena), and FOZO (Cape Verde & Reunion). The data is derived from both submarine and subaerial deposits, with B isotope determination of both basaltic glass and melt inclusions from each locality. Preliminary results suggest OIB have B isotopic compositions that overlap the MORB array (-7.5‰±0.7; Marschall et al., 2015) but extend to both lighter and heavier values. These results suggest that B isotopes will be useful for resolving mantle source heterogeneity at different ocean islands and contribute to our understanding of the volatile budget of the deep mantle.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Valley. Although fossil specimens of this subspecies have been used in palaeoclimatic reconstruction, there have been no previous reports of living examples. Here We describe the local habitat, climate and some aspects of ecology and isotopic variation within the snail shell. If isotope data can be obtained for fossil shells, ...

  16. ICT: isotope correction toolbox. (United States)

    Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Neubauer, Stefan; Mairinger, Teresa; Zanghellini, Jürgen; Hann, Stephan


    Isotope tracer experiments are an invaluable technique to analyze and study the metabolism of biological systems. However, isotope labeling experiments are often affected by naturally abundant isotopes especially in cases where mass spectrometric methods make use of derivatization. The correction of these additive interferences--in particular for complex isotopic systems--is numerically challenging and still an emerging field of research. When positional information is generated via collision-induced dissociation, even more complex calculations for isotopic interference correction are necessary. So far, no freely available tools can handle tandem mass spectrometry data. We present isotope correction toolbox, a program that corrects tandem mass isotopomer data from tandem mass spectrometry experiments. Isotope correction toolbox is written in the multi-platform programming language Perl and, therefore, can be used on all commonly available computer platforms. Source code and documentation can be freely obtained under the Artistic License or the GNU General Public License from: {,} Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  17. Study of rare earth local moment magnetism and strongly correlated phenomena in various crystal structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Tai [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Benefiting from unique properties of 4f electrons, rare earth based compounds are known for offering a versatile playground for condensed matter physics research as well as industrial applications. This thesis focuses on three specific examples that further explore the rare earth local moment magnetism and strongly correlated phenomena in various crystal structures.

  18. Testing the chondrule-rich accretion model for planetary embryos using calcium isotopes (United States)

    Amsellem, Elsa; Moynier, Frédéric; Pringle, Emily A.; Bouvier, Audrey; Chen, Heng; Day, James M. D.


    Understanding the composition of raw materials that formed the Earth is a crucial step towards understanding the formation of terrestrial planets and their bulk composition. Calcium is the fifth most abundant element in terrestrial planets and, therefore, is a key element with which to trace planetary composition. However, in order to use Ca isotopes as a tracer of Earth's accretion history, it is first necessary to understand the isotopic behavior of Ca during the earliest stages of planetary formation. Chondrites are some of the oldest materials of the Solar System, and the study of their isotopic composition enables understanding of how and in what conditions the Solar System formed. Here we present Ca isotope data for a suite of bulk chondrites as well as Allende (CV) chondrules. We show that most groups of carbonaceous chondrites (CV, CI, CR and CM) are significantly enriched in the lighter Ca isotopes (δ 44 / 40 Ca = + 0.1 to + 0.93 ‰) compared with bulk silicate Earth (δ 44 / 40 Ca = + 1.05 ± 0.04 ‰, Huang et al., 2010) or Mars, while enstatite chondrites are indistinguishable from Earth in Ca isotope composition (δ 44 / 40 Ca = + 0.91 to + 1.06 ‰). Chondrules from Allende are enriched in the heavier isotopes of Ca compared to the bulk and the matrix of the meteorite (δ 44 / 40 Ca = + 1.00 to + 1.21 ‰). This implies that Earth and Mars have Ca isotope compositions that are distinct from most carbonaceous chondrites but that may be like chondrules. This Ca isotopic similarity between Earth, Mars, and chondrules is permissive of recent dynamical models of planetary formation that propose a chondrule-rich accretion model for planetary embryos.

  19. Equilibrium nickel isotope fractionation in nickel sulfide minerals (United States)

    Liu, Shanqi; Li, Yongbing; Ju, Yiwen; Liu, Jie; Liu, Jianming; Shi, Yaolin


    Nickel is an important element on Earth, and a major element in the Earth's core, and plays important roles in many geological and biological systems. As an important sink of Ni, Ni sulfides are closely concerned with Ni migration in magma systems and the genesis and evolution of magmatic sulfide deposits. Ni isotopes of Ni sulfides may be a powerful geochemical tracer in magmatic processes and evolution of magmatic sulfide deposits. However Ni isotope fractionation factors of sulfides remain poorly known, which makes the applications of Ni isotopes to geological problems associated with sulfides difficult. In this study, the first-principles methods are used to compute Ni isotope fractionation parameters of polydymite (Ni3S4), heazlewoodite (Ni3S2), millerite (NiS), godlevskite (Ni9S8) and vaesite (NiS2). The reduced partition function ratios of 60Ni/58Ni (103 lnβ60-58) for these minerals decrease in the order of polydymite > heazlewoodite > millerite > godlevskite > vaesite. Ni isotope fractionations in these Ni sulfides show an approximately linear dependence on the average Nisbnd S bond lengths, and have a significant negative correlation with the average Nisbnd Ni bond lengths. Furthermore, a change in Fe/Ni ratio can also lead to Ni isotope fractionation, and with substitution Fe for Ni, the reduced partition function ratios of 60Ni/58Ni decrease.

  20. Ruthenium isotopic evidence for an inner Solar System origin of the late veneer. (United States)

    Fischer-Gödde, Mario; Kleine, Thorsten


    The excess of highly siderophile elements in the Earth's mantle is thought to reflect the addition of primitive meteoritic material after core formation ceased. This 'late veneer' either comprises material remaining in the terrestrial planet region after the main stages of the Earth's accretion, or derives from more distant asteroidal or cometary sources. Distinguishing between these disparate origins is important because a late veneer consisting of carbonaceous chondrite-like asteroids or comets could be the principal source of the Earth's volatiles and water. Until now, however, a 'genetic' link between the late veneer and such volatile-rich materials has not been established or ruled out. Such genetic links can be determined using ruthenium (Ru) isotopes, because the Ru in the Earth's mantle predominantly derives from the late veneer, and because meteorites exhibit Ru isotope variations arising from the heterogeneous distribution of stellar-derived dust. Although Ru isotopic data and the correlation of Ru and molybdenum (Mo) isotope anomalies in meteorites were previously used to argue that the late veneer derives from the same type of inner Solar System material as do Earth's main building blocks, the Ru isotopic composition of carbonaceous chondrites has not been determined sufficiently well to rule them out as a source of the late veneer. Here we show that all chondrites, including carbonaceous chondrites, have Ru isotopic compositions distinct from that of the Earth's mantle. The Ru isotope anomalies increase from enstatite to ordinary to carbonaceous chondrites, demonstrating that material formed at greater heliocentric distance contains larger Ru isotope anomalies. Therefore, these data refute an outer Solar System origin for the late veneer and imply that the late veneer was not the primary source of volatiles and water on the Earth.

  1. Trace element and isotopic studies of Permo-Carboniferous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 111; Issue 2. Trace element and isotopic studies of Permo-Carboniferous carbonate nodules from Talchir sediments of peninsular India: Environmental and provenance implications. Prosenjit Ghosh S K Bhattacharya A M Dayal J R Trivedi M Ebihara M M Sarin A ...

  2. Run-off analyses using isotopes and hydrochemistry in Yushugou ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 6. Run-off analyses using isotopes and hydrochemistry in Yushugou River basin, eastern Tianshan Mountains. Xiaoyan Wang Zhongqin Li ... Yushugou River basin of East Tianshan Mountains receives water from melting glaciers. In recent years, the ...

  3. Extreme heterogeneity in Sr isotope systematic in the Himalayan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 110; Issue 2. Extreme heterogeneity in Sr isotope systematic in the Himalayan leucogranites: A possible mechanism of partial melting based on thermal modeling. Dilip K Mukhopadhyay. Volume 110 Issue 2 June 2001 pp 161-169 ...

  4. Measurements and interpretation of oxygen isotopes in stratospheric carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mrozek, D.J.


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important natural and anthropogenic greenhouse gas in Earth's atmosphere. Its atmospheric mole fraction has increased from about 280 ppm (parts per million) in the pre-industrial atmosphere to more than 400 ppm at present. Investigation of the stable isotopic composition

  5. Modes of planetary-scale Fe isotope fractionation (United States)

    Schoenberg, Ronny; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm


    A comprehensive set of high-precision Fe isotope data for the principle meteorite types and silicate reservoirs of the Earth is used to investigate iron isotope fractionation at inter- and intra-planetary scales. 14 chondrite analyses yield a homogeneous Fe isotope composition with an average δ56Fe/ 54Fe value of - 0.015 ± 0.020‰ (2 SE) relative to the international iron standard IRMM-014. Eight non-cumulate and polymict eucrite meteorites that sample the silicate portion of the HED (howardite-eucrite-diogenite) parent body yield an average δ56Fe/ 54Fe value of - 0.001 ± 0.017‰, indistinguishable to the chondritic Fe isotope composition. Fe isotope ratios that are indistinguishable to the chondritic value have also been published for SNC meteorites. This inner-solar system homogeneity in Fe isotopes suggests that planetary accretion itself did not significantly fractionate iron. Nine mantle xenoliths yield a 2 σ envelope of - 0.13‰ to + 0.09‰ in δ56Fe/ 54Fe. Using this range as proxy for the bulk silicate Earth in a mass balance model places the Fe isotope composition of the outer liquid core that contains ca. 83% of Earth's total iron to within ± 0.020‰ of the chondritic δ56Fe/ 54Fe value. These calculations allow to interprete magmatic iron meteorites ( δ56Fe/ 54Fe = + 0.047 ± 0.016‰; N = 8) to be representative for the Earth's inner metallic core. Eight terrestrial basalt samples yield a homogeneous Fe isotope composition with an average δ56Fe/ 54Fe value of + 0.072 ± 0.016‰. The observation that terrestrial basalts appear to be slightly heavier than mantle xenoliths and that thus partial mantle melting preferentially transfers heavy iron into the melt [S. Weyer, A.D. Anbar, G.P. Brey, C. Munker, K. Mezger and A.B. Woodland, Iron isotope fractionation during planetary differentiation, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 240(2), 251-264, 2005.] is intriguing, but also raises some important questions: first it is questionable whether the

  6. PhD Thesis: Functional Textiles in Hospital Interiors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jeppe Emil

    logistic processes are developed. In the aesthetic part of the project, the aesthetic qualities of using textiles in hospital interiors are explored and accentuated through a theoretical framework, related to the concept of atmospheres. Familiarity and tactility are here deduced as two main design......The PhD thesis explores the possibilities and design qualities of using functional textiles in the interior of hospital environments, and is the result of a three-year collaboration between Aalborg University, Department of Civil Engineering, and VIA University College, VIA Design. The thesis...... environments. However, in architectural and design related theory, materials are linked closely to the perceived atmosphere of spaces, and a better awareness on the aesthetic material qualities are considered needed to accommodate the visions of healing architecture. Traditional textiles that earlier have been...

  7. Bibliomtric overview of thesis and dissertations on indigenous education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Masson Maroldi


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The indigenous education in Brazil has its founding milestone in the first catechetical actions of the Jesuits in the second half of the sixteenth century. In this long trajectory up to the present day the education of the indigenous peoples that inhabit the Brazilian territory has been the subject of controversies and discussions at the governmental and academic levels, which has generated numerous studies. This research had as objective to elaborate a bibliometric panorama of the scientific production on indigenous education present in theses and dissertations of the Brazilian Digital Library of Thesis and Dissertations (BDTD / IBICT through bibliometric methodology. The corpus analyzed was composed of 173 postgraduate studies defended in the country between 1996 and 2016. The results indicate that the Southeast and South regions, respectively, concentrate the largest number of papers and that the Education area is the majority in the Scientific production of the thesis and dissertations recovered.

  8. The Paradox of Question and Answer Episode of Thesis Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprihadi Suprihadi


    Full Text Available The main concern of this research is the exploration of tendencies made by the participants of a thesis examination in enacting their roles through their speech function choices. Interpretation of the data is based on the principle of critical discourse analysis within the systemic functional linguistic. The results show us the paradox of a Question – and – Answer episode of a thesis examination. It lies in the fact that it must operate in an academic atmosphere, be brief and frightening, and the examiners initiate the interaction by demanding information from the student, and yet it is a joint production of conversation in which, while enacting their supportive roles, the examiners contribute to sustaining the interaction, making it half-way between casual and pragmatic conversation. Based on the findings: some suggestions addressed to examiners are made.

  9. Bibliomtric overview of thesis and dissertations on indigenous education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Masson Maroldi


    Full Text Available The indigenous education in Brazil has its founding milestone in the first catechetical actions of the Jesuits in the second half of the sixteenth century. In this long trajectory up to the present day the education of the indigenous peoples that inhabit the Brazilian territory has been the subject of controversies and discussions at the governmental and academic levels, which has generated numerous studies. This research had as objective to elaborate a bibliometric panorama of the scientific production on indigenous education present in theses and dissertations of the Brazilian Digital Library of Thesis and Dissertations (BDTD / IBICT through bibliometric methodology. The corpus analyzed was composed of 173 postgraduate studies defended in the country between 1996 and 2016. The results indicate that the Southeast and South regions, respectively, concentrate the largest number of papers and that the Education area is the majority in the Scientific production of the thesis and dissertations recovered.

  10. [PhD Thesis] Self-organization versus hierarchical organization


    Evo Busseniers


    Self-organization versus hierarchical organization a mathematical investigation of the anarchist philosophy of social organization In combining anarchist theory with mathematics, this thesis wishes to better understand what power and hierarchy are in order to explore how we can live without coercion. My motivation to study these concepts stems from observing a lack of freedom in contemporary society despite a lack of obvious coercion or clear hierarchical structure. I di...

  11. Practical issues in 'writing up' a research thesis. (United States)

    Roberts, P


    Beginning to 'write up' your research thesis can seem a daunting prospect. While the experience can be stressful, with careful planning, the process can be managed effectively, and prove both rewarding and pleasurable. Paula Roberts offers a practical guide to managing the process of writing-up. Three distinct phases are discussed: the input phase of planning the write-up; the process phase of writing-up; and the output phase ofpreparing the finished document for submission.

  12. The bibliographic study in the doctoral thesis: Methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia DULSCHI


    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to support and develop the scientific creativity of researchers, to increase the quality and efficiency of the research. The message underlines the importance of knowing and analyzing the research degree of the problem in the doctoral thesis, in order for the PhD candidate to demonstrate its own contribution to the development of the research.

  13. Mineral evolution and Earth history (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.


    The field of mineral evolution—a merger of mineralogy and Earth history—coalesced in 2008 with the first of several global syntheses by Robert Hazen and coworkers in the American Mineralogist. They showed that the cumulative abundance of mineral species has a stepwise trend with first appearances tied to various transitions in Earth history such as the end of planetary accretion at ca. 4.55 Ga and the onset of bio-mediated mineralogy at ca. >2.5 Ga. A global age distribution is best established for zircon. Observed abundance of zircon fluctuates through more than an order of magnitude during successive supercontinent cycles. The pulse of the Earth is also recorded, albeit imperfectly, by the 87Sr/86Sr composition of marine biogenic calcite; the Sr-isotopic ratio of this mineral reflects the balance of inputs of primitive strontium at mid-ocean ridges and evolved strontium that drains off the continents. A global mineral evolution database, currently in the works, will greatly facilitate the compilation and analysis of extant data and the expansion of research in mineralogy outside its traditional bounds and into more interdisciplinary realms.

  14. An Examination of the Neural Unreliability Thesis of Autism. (United States)

    Butler, John S; Molholm, Sophie; Andrade, Gizely N; Foxe, John J


    An emerging neuropathological theory of Autism, referred to here as "the neural unreliability thesis," proposes greater variability in moment-to-moment cortical representation of environmental events, such that the system shows general instability in its impulse response function. Leading evidence for this thesis derives from functional neuroimaging, a methodology ill-suited for detailed assessment of sensory transmission dynamics occurring at the millisecond scale. Electrophysiological assessments of this thesis, however, are sparse and unconvincing. We conducted detailed examination of visual and somatosensory evoked activity using high-density electrical mapping in individuals with autism (N = 20) and precisely matched neurotypical controls (N = 20), recording large numbers of trials that allowed for exhaustive time-frequency analyses at the single-trial level. Measures of intertrial coherence and event-related spectral perturbation revealed no convincing evidence for an unreliability account of sensory responsivity in autism. Indeed, results point to robust, highly reproducible response functions marked for their exceedingly close correspondence to those in neurotypical controls. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Chromium isotope fractionation during coprecipitation with calcium carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodler, Alexandra; Sánchez-Pastor, Nuria; Fernández-Díaz, Lurdes

    the Archaean and Protoerozoic, needs careful assessment of the signal robustness and necessitates a thorough understanding of the Cr cycle in Earth system processes. We conducted experiments testing the incorporation and isotopic fractionation of chromate into the calcite lattice. Our experiments indicate...... to no Cr isotope fractionation in the oceans. These experiments represent a first step toward understanding the Cr isotope signal of carbonates where fractionations will likely be ≤ 0.3 ‰ and as such, pave the way for future work to enable a reliable application of the Cr isotope proxy. References: [1] Hua...... et al., 2007, Water Air Soil Poll. 179, 381-390. [2] Sánchez-Pastor et al., 2011, Cryst. Growth Des. 11, 3081-3089....

  16. Introduction to chemistry and applications in nature of mass independent isotope effects special feature. (United States)

    Thiemens, Mark H


    Stable isotope ratio variations are regulated by physical and chemical laws. These rules depend on a relation with mass differences between isotopes. New classes of isotope variation effects that deviate from mass dependent laws, termed mass independent isotope effects, were discovered in 1983 and have a wide range of applications in basic chemistry and nature. In this special edition, new applications of these effects to physical chemistry, solar system origin models, terrestrial atmospheric and biogenic evolution, polar paleo climatology, snowball earth geology, and present day atmospheric sciences are presented.

  17. Introduction to Chemistry and Applications in Nature of Mass Independent Isotope Effects Special Feature (United States)

    Thiemens, Mark H.


    Stable isotope ratio variations are regulated by physical and chemical laws. These rules depend on a relation with mass differences between isotopes. New classes of isotope variation effects that deviate from mass dependent laws, termed mass independent isotope effects, were discovered in 1983 and have a wide range of applications in basic chemistry and nature. In this special edition, new applications of these effects to physical chemistry, solar system origin models, terrestrial atmospheric and biogenic evolution, polar paleo climatology, snowball earth geology, and present day atmospheric sciences are presented. PMID:24167299

  18. Nature of volatile depletion and genetic relationships in enstatite chondrites and aubrites inferred from Zn isotopes (United States)

    Moynier, Frédéric; Paniello, Randal C.; Gounelle, Matthieu; Albarède, Francis; Beck, Pierre; Podosek, Frank; Zanda, Brigitte


    Enstatite meteorites include the undifferentiated enstatite chondrites and the differentiated enstatite achondrites (aubrites). They are the most reduced group of all meteorites. The oxygen isotope compositions of both enstatite chondrites and aubrites plot along the terrestrial mass fractionation line, which suggests some genetic links between these meteorites and the Earth as well. For this study, we measured the Zn isotopic composition of 25 samples from the following groups: aubrites (main group and Shallowater), EL chondrites, EH chondrites and Happy Canyon (impact-melt breccia). We also analyzed the Zn isotopic composition and elemental abundance in separated phases (metal, silicates, and sulfides) of the EH4, EL3, and EL6 chondrites. The different groups of meteorites are isotopically distinct and give the following values (‰): aubrite main group (-7.08 Luck et al., 2005; Herzog et al., 2009). EH and EL3 chondrites have the same Zn isotopic composition as the Earth, which is another example of the isotopic similarity between Earth and enstatite chondrites. The Zn isotopic composition and abundance strongly support that the origin of the volatile element depletion between EL3 and EL6 chondrites is due to volatilization, probably during thermal metamorphism. Aubrites show strong elemental depletion in Zn compared to both EH and EL chondrites and they are enriched in light isotopes (δ 66Zn down to -7.04‰). This is the opposite of what would be expected if Zn elemental depletion was due to evaporation, assuming the aubrites started with an enstatite chondrite-like Zn isotopic composition. Evaporation is therefore not responsible for volatile loss from aubrites. On Earth, Zn isotopes fractionate very little during igneous processes, while differentiated meteorites show only minimal Zn isotopic variability. It is therefore very unlikely that igneous processes can account for the large isotopic fractionation of Zn in aubrites. Condensation of an isotopically

  19. Hafnium isotope variations in oceanic basalts (United States)

    Patchett, P. J.; Tatsumoto, M.


    Hafnium isotope ratios generated by the beta(-) decay of Lu-176 are investigated in volcanic rocks derived from the suboceanic mantle. Hf-176/Hf-177 and Lu/Hf ratios were determined to precisions of 0.01-0.04% and 0.5%, respectively, by routine, low-blank chemistry. The Hf-176/Hf-177 ratio is found to be positively correlated with the Nd-143/Nd-144 ratio and negatively correlated with the Sr-87/Sr-86 and Pb-206/Pb-204 ratios, and to increase southwards along the Iceland-Reykjanes ridge traverse. An approximate bulk earth Hf-176/Hf-177 ratio of 0.28295 is inferred from the bulk earth Nd-143/Nd-144 ratio, which requires a bulk earth Lu/Hf ratio of 0.25, similar to the Juvinas eucrite. Midocean ridge basalts are shown to account for 60% of the range of Hf isotope ratios, and it is suggested that Lu-Hf fractionation is decoupled from Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr fractionation in very trace-element-depleted source regions as a result of partial melting.

  20. Sr Isotopic Evidence on the Spilitic Degradation of the Deccan Basalt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In contrast, a dramatic increase in the rare earth elements (REE) from basalt to spilite is rather puzzling as rare earths are considered to be relatively immobile. The geochemistry thus suggests that the process of spilitization is due to the reaction with a complex fluid having identical Sr-isotopic composition as that of the ...

  1. Oxygen Isotope Systematics of Almahata Sitta (United States)

    Kita, N. T.; Goodrich, C. A.; Herrin, J. S.; Shaddad, M. H.; Jenniskens, P.


    The Almahata Sitta (hereafter "AHS") meteorite was derived from an impact of asteroid 2008TC3 on Earth and is classified as an anomalous polymict ureilite. More than 600 meteorite fragments have been recovered from the strewnfield. Previous reports indicate that these fragments consist mainly of ureilitic materials with textures and compositions, while some fragments are found to be chondrites of a wide range of chemical classes. Bulk oxygen three isotope analyses of ureilitic fragments from AHS fall close to the CCAM (Carbonaceous Chondrite Anhydrous Mineral) line similar to ureilites. In order to further compare AHS with known ureilites, we performed high precision SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer) oxygen isotope analyses of some AHS samples

  2. Tracing source pollution in soils using cadmium and lead isotopes. (United States)

    Cloquet, C; Carignan, J; Libourel, G; Sterckeman, T; Perdrix, E


    Tracing the source of heavy metals in the environment is of key importance for our understanding of their pollution and natural cycles in the surface Earth reservoirs. Up to now, most exclusively Pb isotopes were used to effectively trace metal pollution sources in the environment. Here we report systematic variations of Cd isotope ratios measured in polluted topsoils surrounding a Pb-Zn refinery plant in northern France. Fractionated Cd was measured in soil samples surrounding the refinery, and this fractionation can be attributed to the refining processes. Despite the Cd isotopic ratios being precisely measured, the obtained uncertainties are still large compared to the total isotopic variation. Nevertheless, for the first time, Cd isotopically fractionated by industrial processes may be traced in the environment. On the same samples, Pb isotope systematics suggested that materials actually used by the refinery were not the major source of Pb in soils, probably because refined ore origins changed over the 100 years of operation. On the other hand, Cd isotopes and concentrations measured in topsoils allowed identification of three main origins (industrial dust and slag and agriculture), assuming that all Cd ores are not fractionated, as suggested by terrestrial rocks so far analyzed, and calculation of their relative contributions for each sampling point. Understanding that this refinery context was an ideal situation for such a study, our results lead to the possibility of tracing sources of anthropogenic Cd and better constrain mixing processes, fluxes, transport, and phasing out of industrial input in nature.

  3. Iron isotopes in an Archean ocean analogue (United States)

    Busigny, Vincent; Planavsky, Noah J.; Jézéquel, Didier; Crowe, Sean; Louvat, Pascale; Moureau, Julien; Viollier, Eric; Lyons, Timothy W.


    be tied to water column cycling—foremost to the oxidation of dissolved ferrous iron. This supports previous suggestions that enhanced iron isotope variability in the Archean may record a unique stage in Earth's history where partial ferrous iron oxidation in upwelling water masses was a common process, probably linked to oxygenic or anoxygenic photosynthesis.

  4. Isotopes through the looking glass (United States)

    Mårtensson Pendrill, Ann Marie


    Nuclear distributions affect many aspects of atomic spectra. As an example, recent experimental results for the hyperfine anomaly in Fr isotopes are considered. These depend on nuclear charge and magnetization distributions. The variations in charge radii for these isotopes were studied earlier by measuring optical isotope shifts. The hyperfine anomalies for the odd-odd isotopes involve the neutron distributions, of interest for studies of parity nonconserving effects along a chain of isotopes.

  5. Isotope Production Facility (IPF) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced radioactive isotopes for medicine and research since the mid 1970s, when targets were first irradiated using the 800...

  6. Isotopes in Greenland Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Anne-Katrine

    ) Constructing a new Greenland database of observations and present-day ice core measurements, and (3) Performance test of isotope-enabled CAM5 for Greenland. The recent decades of rapid Arctic sea ice decline are used as a basis for an observational-based model experiment using the isotope-enabled CAM model 3....... The simulation of Greenland isotopes is tested for the isotope-enabled model CAM5. Here the importance of model resolution is investigated. A positive bias of 6-10 ‰ is found for the annual mean δ18O on the central part of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The amplitude of the seasonal cycle of Greenland δ18O is highly...

  7. Isotope toolbox turns 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenander, Fredrik; Riisager, Karsten


    REX-ISOLDE, one of CERN’s most compact accelerators, has just celebrated its 10th anniversary. The machine’s versatility provides radioactive ion beams across the range of nuclear isotopes.......REX-ISOLDE, one of CERN’s most compact accelerators, has just celebrated its 10th anniversary. The machine’s versatility provides radioactive ion beams across the range of nuclear isotopes....

  8. Isotope research materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M. K.; Young, Jr, F. W.


    Preparation of research isotope materials is described. Topics covered include: separation of tritium from aqueous effluents by bipolar electrolysis; stable isotope targets and research materials; radioisotope targets and research materials; preparation of an 241Am metallurgical specimen; reactor dosimeters; ceramic and cermet development; fission-fragment-generating targets of 235UO2; and wire dosimeters for Westinghouse--Bettis. (GHT)

  9. Study of Neutron-Deficient $^{202-205}$Fr Isotopes with Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    De Schepper, Stijn; Cocolios, Thomas; Budincevic, Ivan

    The scope of this master’s thesis is the study of neutron-deficient $^{202−205}$Fr isotopes. These isotopes are inside the neutron-deficient lead region, a region that has shown evidence of shape coexistence. For this thesis, this discussion is limited to the phenomenon where a low lying excited state has a different shape than the ground state. Shape coexistence is caused by intruder states. These are single-particle Shell Model states that are perturbed in energy due to the interaction with a deformed core. In the neutron-deficient lead region the main proton intruder orbit is the 3s$_{1/2}$orbit. When going towards more neutron-deficient isotopes, deformation increases. The $\\pi3s_{1/2}$orbit will rise in energy and will eventually become the ground state in odd- A bismuth (Z=83) isotopes. It is also observed in odd-A astatine (Z=85) isotopes, already in less neutron-deficient nuclei. The same phenomenon is expected to be present francium (Z=87) isotopes already at $^{199}$Fr. Although it is currently ...

  10. Iron isotope systematics in planetary reservoirs (United States)

    Sossi, Paolo A.; Nebel, Oliver; Foden, John


    Iron is the only polyvalent major element, and controls reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions in a host of geologic processes and reservoirs, from the mineral- to planetary-scale, on Earth and in space. Mass transfer of Fe is often accompanied by changes in bonding environment, meaning the resultant variation in bond-strength in crystals, liquids and gases induces stable isotope fractionation, even at high temperatures. In the absence of iron exchange, electron transfer can also affect iron's valence state and calculated oxygen fugacity (fO2), however its isotope composition remains unchanged. Thus, iron isotopes are a powerful tool to investigate processes that involve mass transfer, redox reactions and changes in bonding environment in planetary systems. Primitive chondritic meteorites show remarkable isotopic homogeneity, δ57 Fe = - 0.01 ± 0.01 ‰ (2SE), over a wide range of Fe/Mg vs Ni/Mg, a proxy for fO2 in the solar nebula. In chondrites, there are iron isotope differences between metal and silicates that become more pronounced at higher metamorphic grades. However, on a planetary scale, Mars and Vesta overlap with chondrites, preserving no trace of core formation or volatile depletion on these bodies. Upon assessment of pristine lherzolites, the Bulk Silicate Earth is heavier than chondrites (δ57 Fe = + 0.05 ± 0.01 ‰; 2SE), and similar to or slightly lighter than the Moon. That the mantles of some differentiated inner solar system bodies extend to heavier compositions (+ 0.2 ‰) than chondrites may principally result from volatile depletion either at a nebular or late accretion stage. Within terrestrial silicate reservoirs, iron isotopes provide insight into petrogenetic and geodynamic processes. Partial melting of the upper mantle produces basalts that are heavier than their sources, scaling with degree of melting and driving the increasingly refractory peridotite to lighter compositions. Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts (MORBs) are homogeneous to δ57 Fe

  11. Chromium isotope fractionation in ferruginous sediments (United States)

    Bauer, Kohen W.; Gueguen, Bleuenn; Cole, Devon B.; Francois, Roger; Kallmeyer, Jens; Planavsky, Noah; Crowe, Sean A.


    phase) Fe(II). Our results are in line with the range of intrinsic fractionation factors observed for such phases in previous laboratory studies. We suggest that intrinsic isotope fractionations of around 1.8‰, may be broadly characteristic of ferruginous environments, but we note that the partitioning of ferrous Fe between dissolved and solid phases may modulate this value. These results indicate that seawater δ53Cr is only captured with high-fidelity by ferruginous sediments when oxygen penetration, and therefore the upper boundary of the zone of Cr(VI) reduction, extends to more than 10 cm below the sediment-water-interface, as can be the case in sediments deposited below oligotrophic waters. In more productive regions, with thinner oxic zones, ferruginous sediments would record δ53Cr as much as 1.8‰ lower than seawater δ53Cr. This implies that a range of sediment δ53Cr compositions, that include that of the igneous silicate earth (ISE), are possible even when seawater is isotopically heavier than the ISE.

  12. Lead isotope evidence for a young formation age of the Earth–Moon system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connelly, James; Bizzarro, Martin


    is ∼100 Myr younger than most current estimates for the age of the Moon but fully consistent with recent ages for lunar ferroan anorthosite and the timing of Earth's first crust inferred from the terrestrial zircon record. The estimated loss of ∼98% of terrestrial Pb relative to the Solar System bulk......A model of a giant impact between two planetary bodies is widely accepted to account for the Earth–Moon system. Despite the importance of this event for understanding early Earth evolution and the inventory of Earth's volatiles critical to life, the timing of the impact is poorly constrained. We...... explore a data-based, two-stage Pb isotope evolution model in which the timing of the loss of volatile Pb relative to refractory U in the aftermath of the giant impact is faithfully recorded in the Pb isotopes of bulk silicate Earth. Constraining the first stage Pb isotopic evolution permits calculating...

  13. Earth mortars and earth-lime renders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernandes


    Full Text Available Earth surface coatings play a decorative architectural role, apart from their function as wall protection. In Portuguese vernacular architecture, earth mortars were usually applied on stone masonry, while earth renders and plasters were used on indoors surface coatings. Limestone exists only in certain areas of the country and consequently lime was not easily available everywhere, especially on granite and schist regions where stone masonry was a current building technique. In the central west coast of Portugal, the lime slaking procedure entailed slaking the quicklime mixed with earth (sandy soil, in a pit; the resulting mixture would then be combined in a mortar or plaster. This was also the procedure for manufactured adobes stabilized with lime. Adobe buildings with earth-lime renderings and plasters were also traditional in the same region, using lime putty and lime wash for final coat and decoration. Classic decoration on earth architecture from the 18th-19th century was in many countries a consequence of the François Cointeraux (1740-1830 manuals - Les Cahiers d'Architecture Rurale" (1793 - a French guide for earth architecture and building construction. This manual arrived to Portugal in the beginning of XIX century, but was never translated to Portuguese. References about decoration for earth houses were explained on this manual, as well as procedures about earth-lime renders and ornamentation of earth walls; in fact, these procedures are exactly the same as the ones used in adobe buildings in this Portuguese region. The specific purpose of the present paper is to show some cases of earth mortars, renders and plasters on stone buildings in Portugal and to explain the methods of producing earth-lime renders, and also to show some examples of rendering and coating with earth-lime in Portuguese adobe vernacular architecture.

  14. Near Earth Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Stefan


    , Near Earth Objects: Asteroids and comets following paths that bring them near the Earth. NEOs have collided with the Earth since its formation, some causing local devastation, some causing global climate changes, yet the threat from a collision with a near Earth object has only recently been recognised...

  15. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 109 Issue 1 March 2000 pp 109-115. Stable isotope systematics of ... in this region. Volume 110 Issue 1 March 2001 pp 33-38. Finite element concept to derive isostatic residual maps - Application to Gorda Plate and Sierra Nevada regions · K Mallick K K Sharma.

  16. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 6. Volume 126, Issue 6. August 2017. Article ID 77 Editorial. Editorial .... Run-off analyses using isotopes and hydrochemistry in Yushugou River basin, eastern Tianshan Mountains · Xiaoyan Wang Zhongqin Li Chanwen Jiang · More Details Abstract ...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Christian J.; Canfield, D. E.

    and organic carbon at lower values of d13CIC, with a cross-plot slope of about 1. This unit slope seems to be unique to the Neoproterozoic in Earth history and not easily explained. In our model, the carbon isotope excursions were driven by methane from sediment-hosted clathrate hydrate deposits. Being...

  18. Determination of rare earth and refractory trace element ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experimental and analytical procedures devised for measurement of rare earth element (REE) abundances using a secondary ion mass spectrometer (ion microprobe) are described. This approach is more versatile than the conventional techniques such as neutron activation analysis and isotope dilution mass spectrometry ...

  19. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 109; Issue 3. Volume 109, Issue 3. September 2000, pages 315-391. pp 315-328. Ocean circulation in the tropical Indo-Pacific during early Pliocene (5.6 - 4.2 Ma): Paleobiogeographic and isotopic evidence · M S Srinivasan D K Sinha · More Details Abstract ...

  20. Zinc isotopic evidence for the origin of the Moon. (United States)

    Paniello, Randal C; Day, James M D; Moynier, Frédéric


    Volatile elements have a fundamental role in the evolution of planets. But how budgets of volatiles were set in planets, and the nature and extent of volatile-depletion of planetary bodies during the earliest stages of Solar System formation remain poorly understood. The Moon is considered to be volatile-depleted and so it has been predicted that volatile loss should have fractionated stable isotopes of moderately volatile elements. One such element, zinc, exhibits strong isotopic fractionation during volatilization in planetary rocks, but is hardly fractionated during terrestrial igneous processes, making it a powerful tracer of the volatile histories of planets. Here we present high-precision zinc isotopic and abundance data which show that lunar magmatic rocks are enriched in the heavy isotopes of zinc and have lower zinc concentrations than terrestrial or Martian igneous rocks. Conversely, Earth and Mars have broadly chondritic zinc isotopic compositions. We show that these variations represent large-scale evaporation of zinc, most probably in the aftermath of the Moon-forming event, rather than small-scale evaporation processes during volcanism. Our results therefore represent evidence for volatile depletion of the Moon through evaporation, and are consistent with a giant impact origin for the Earth and Moon.

  1. Nitrogen isotopes in a global ocean biogeochemical model : constraints on the coupling between denitrification and nitrogen fixation


    Christopher J. Somes


    We present a new nitrogen isotope model incorporated into the three-dimensional ocean component of a global Earth System Climate Model designed for millennial timescale simulations. The model includes prognostic tracers for the stable nitrogen isotopes, ¹⁴N and ¹⁵N, in the nitrate (NO₃ˉ), phytoplankton, zooplankton, and detritus variables of the marine ecosystem model. The isotope effects of algal NO₃ˉ assimilation, water column denitrification, and zooplankton excretion are considered as wel...

  2. Redox State of the Neoarchean Earth Environment (United States)

    Zerkle, Aubrey L.; Claire, Mark W.; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Farquhar, James; Poulton, Simon W.


    A Titan-like organic haze has been hypothesized for Earth's atmosphere prior to widespread surface oxygenation approx.2.45 billion years ago (Ga). We present a high-resolution record of quadruple sulfur isotopes, carbon isotopes, and Fe speciation from the approx.2.65-2.5 Ga Ghaap Group, South Africa, which suggest a linkage between organic haze and the biogeochemical cycling of carbon, sulfur, oxygen, and iron on the Archean Earth. These sediments provide evidence for oxygen production in microbial mats and localized oxygenation of surface waters. However, this oxygen production occurred under a reduced atmosphere which existed in multiple distinct redox states that correlate to changes in carbon and sulfur isotopes. The data are corroborated by photochemical model results that suggest bi-stable transitions between organic haze and haze-free atmospheric conditions in the Archean. These geochemical correlations also extend to other datasets, indicating that variations in the character of anomalous sulfur fractionation could provide insight into the role of carbon-bearing species in the reducing Archean atmosphere.

  3. Geology and stable isotope geochemistry of Paleoarchean sulfur. Formation, preservation and geobiology of ancient pyrite and barite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, D.L.


    Sulfur isotopes in ancient sulfate and sulfide minerals provide a comprehensive record of microbial processes involved in the early sulfur cycle on Earth. However, the interpretation of these isotopic signatures requires information on the geological context of such samples, because abiotic

  4. Tungsten isotopes and the origin of the Moon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruijer, Thomas S.; Kleine, Thorsten


    The giant impact model of lunar origin predicts that the Moon mainly consists of impactor material. As a result, the Moon is expected to be isotopically distinct from the Earth, but it is not. To account for this unexpected isotopic similarity of the Earth and Moon, several solutions have been proposed, including (i) post-giant impact Earth–Moon equilibration, (ii) alternative models that make the Moon predominantly out of proto-Earth mantle, and (iii) formation of the Earth and Moon from an isotopically homogeneous disk reservoir. Here we use W isotope systematics of lunar samples to distinguish between these scenarios. We report high-precision 182W data for several low-Ti and high-Ti mare basalts, as well as for Mg-suite sample 77215, and lunar meteorite Kalahari 009, which complement data previously obtained for KREEP-rich samples. In addition, we utilize high-precision Hf isotope and Ta/W ratio measurements to empirically quantify the superimposed effects of secondary neutron capture on measured 182W compositions. Our results demonstrate that there are no resolvable radiogenic 182W variations within the Moon, implying that the Moon differentiated later than 70 Ma after Solar System formation. In addition, we find that samples derived from different lunar sources have indistinguishable 182W excesses, confirming that the Moon is characterized by a small, uniform ~+26 parts-per-million excess in 182W over the present-day bulk silicate Earth. This 182W excess is most likely caused by disproportional late accretion to the Earth and Moon, and after considering this effect, the pre-late veneer bulk silicate Earth and the Moon have indistinguishable 182W compositions. Mixing calculations demonstrate that this Earth–Moon 182W similarity is an unlikely outcome of the giant impact, which regardless of the amount of impactor material incorporated into the Moon should have generated a significant 182W excess in the Moon. Consequently, our results imply that post

  5. [Postdoctoral lecturer thesis in medicine: academic competence or career booster?]. (United States)

    Sorg, H; Betzler, C; Grieswald, C; Schwab, C G G; Tilkorn, D J; Hauser, J


    The postdoctoral lecturer thesis in medicine represents an essential success factor for the career of a physician; however, there is controversial discussion on whether this reflects academic competence or is more a career booster. In this context we conducted a survey among postdoctoral medical lecturers with the aim to evaluate the significance of this qualification. The online survey was performed using a questionnaire requesting biographical parameters and subjective ratings of topics concerning the postdoctoral lecturer thesis. Overall 628 questionnaires were included in the study. The significance of the postdoctoral qualification was rated high in 68.6 % and was seen to be necessary for professional advancement in 71.0 %. The chances of obtaining a full professorship after achieving a postdoctoral qualification were rated moderate to low (68.1 %); nevertheless, 92.3 % would do it again and 86.5 % would recommend it to colleagues. Accordingly, 78.8 % were against its abolishment. Wishes for reforms included standardized federal regulations, reduced dependency on professors and more transparency. The postdoctoral lecturer qualification in medicine is highly valued and the majority of responders did not want it to be abolished. Although the chances for a full professorship were only rated low, successful graduation seems to be beneficial for the career; however, there is a need for substantial structural and international changes.

  6. TCP Packet Trace Analysis. M.S. Thesis (United States)

    Shepard, Timothy J.


    Examination of a trace of packets collected from the network is often the only method available for diagnosing protocol performance problems in computer networks. This thesis explores the use of packet traces to diagnose performance problems of the transport protocol TCP. Unfortunately, manual examination of these traces can be so tedious that effective analysis is not possible. The primary contribution of this thesis is a graphical method of displaying the packet trace which greatly reduce, the tediousness of examining a packet trace. The graphical method is demonstrated by the examination of some packet traces of typical TCP connections. The performance of two different implementations of TCP sending data across a particular network path is compared. Traces many thousands of packets long are used to demonstrate how effectively the graphical method simplifies examination of long complicated traces. In the comparison of the two TCP implementations, the burstiness of the TCP transmitter appeared to be related to the achieved throughput. A method of quantifying this burstiness is presented and its possible relevance to understanding the performance of TCP is discussed.

  7. Oxygen isotope variation in stony-iron meteorites. (United States)

    Greenwood, R C; Franchi, I A; Jambon, A; Barrat, J A; Burbine, T H


    Asteroidal material, delivered to Earth as meteorites, preserves a record of the earliest stages of planetary formation. High-precision oxygen isotope analyses for the two major groups of stony-iron meteorites (main-group pallasites and mesosiderites) demonstrate that each group is from a distinct asteroidal source. Mesosiderites are isotopically identical to the howardite-eucrite-diogenite clan and, like them, are probably derived from the asteroid 4 Vesta. Main-group pallasites represent intermixed core-mantle material from a single disrupted asteroid and have no known equivalents among the basaltic meteorites. The stony-iron meteorites demonstrate that intense asteroidal deformation accompanied planetary accretion in the early Solar System.

  8. Testing Urey's carbonate-silicate cycle using the calcium isotopic composition of sedimentary carbonates (United States)

    Blättler, Clara L.; Higgins, John A.


    Carbonate minerals constitute a major component of the sedimentary geological record and an archive of a fraction of the carbon and calcium cycled through the Earth's surface reservoirs for over three billion years. For calcium, carbonate minerals constitute the ultimate sink for almost all calcium liberated during continental and submarine weathering of silicate minerals. This study presents >500 stable isotope ratios of calcium in Precambrian carbonate sediments, both limestones and dolomites, in an attempt to characterize the isotope mass balance of the sedimentary carbonate reservoir through time. The mean of the dataset is indistinguishable from estimates of the calcium isotope ratio of bulk silicate Earth, consistent with the Urey cycle being the dominant mechanism exchanging calcium among surface reservoirs. The variability in bulk sediment calcium isotope ratios within each geological unit does not reflect changes in the global calcium cycle, but rather highlights the importance of local mineralogical and/or diagenetic effects in the carbonate record. This dataset demonstrates the potential for calcium isotope ratios to help assess these local effects, such as the former presence of aragonite, even in rocks with a history of neomorphism and recrystallization. Additionally, 29 calcium isotope measurements are presented from ODP (Ocean Drilling Program) Site 801 that contribute to the characterization of altered oceanic crust as an additional sink for calcium, and whose distinct isotopic signature places a limit on the importance of this subduction flux over Earth history.

  9. Transportation of medical isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, D.L.


    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This assessment examines the potential health and safety impacts of transportation operations associated with the production of medical isotopes. Incident-free and accidental impacts are assessed using bounding source terms for the shipment of nonradiological target materials to the Hanford Site, the shipment of irradiated targets from the FFTF to the 325 Building, and the shipment of medical isotope products from the 325 Building to medical distributors. The health and safety consequences to workers and the public from the incident-free transportation of targets and isotope products would be within acceptable levels. For transportation accidents, risks to works and the public also would be within acceptable levels. This assessment is based on best information available at this time. As the medical isotope program matures, this analysis will be revised, if necessary, to support development of a final revision to the Technical Information Document.

  10. Do foraminifera accurately record seawater neodymium isotope composition? (United States)

    Scrivner, Adam; Skinner, Luke; Vance, Derek


    , Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 265, 571-587. Lacan, F., and Jeandel, C., 2005a. Neodymium isotopes as a new tool for quantifying exchange fluxes at the continent-ocean interface, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 232, 245-257. Piepgras, D.J., and Wasserburg, G.J., 1987. Rare earth element transport in the western North Atlantic inferred from Nd isotopic observations. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 51, 1257-1271. Rutberg, R.L., Hemming, S.R., and Goldstein, S.L., 2000. Reduced North Atlantic deep water flux to the glacial southern ocean inferred from neodymium isotope ratios. Nature 405, 935-938. Tachikawa, K., Roy-Barman, M., Michard, A., Thouron, D., Yeghicheyan, D., and Jeandel, C., 2004. Neodymium isotopes in the Mediterranean Sea: comparison between seawater and sediment signals. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 68, 3095-3106.

  11. Isotope geochemistry. Biological signatures in clumped isotopes of O₂. (United States)

    Yeung, Laurence Y; Ash, Jeanine L; Young, Edward D


    The abundances of molecules containing more than one rare isotope have been applied broadly to determine formation temperatures of natural materials. These applications of "clumped" isotopes rely on the assumption that isotope-exchange equilibrium is reached, or at least approached, during the formation of those materials. In a closed-system terrarium experiment, we demonstrate that biological oxygen (O2) cycling drives the clumped-isotope composition of O2 away from isotopic equilibrium. Our model of the system suggests that unique biological signatures are present in clumped isotopes of O2—and not formation temperatures. Photosynthetic O2 is depleted in (18)O(18)O and (17)O(18)O relative to a stochastic distribution of isotopes, unlike at equilibrium, where heavy-isotope pairs are enriched. Similar signatures may be widespread in nature, offering new tracers of biological and geochemical cycling. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Electronic Thesis Initiative: Pilot Project of McGill University, Montreal (United States)

    Park, Eun G.; Zou, Qing; McKnight, David


    Purpose: To set up a protocol for electronic thesis and dissertation (ETD) submission for the electronic thesis initiative pilot project at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. Design/methodology/approach: An electronic thesis and dissertation submission protocol was implemented and tested. To test authoring tools, we had 50 students submit…

  13. Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering of Rare-Earth and CopperSystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvashnina, Kristina [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)


    Rare earths and copper systems were studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS). The use of monochromased synchotron radiation and improved energy resolution for RIXS made possible to obtain valuable information on the electronic structure in 4f, 5f and 3d systems. Experimental results for rare-earths (Ho, Gd, Cm, U, Np, Pu) were analyzed by atomic multiplet theory based on the Hartree-Fock calculations. The inelastic scattering structures in RIXS spectra at 5d edge of actinides found to be sensitive to actinide oxidation states in different systems. Comparison of experimental and calculated Cm 5d RIXS spectra gave direct information about valency of the 248-curium isotope in oxide. Scientific understanding of processes that control chemical changes of radioactive species from spent fuel is improved by studying interactions of actinide ions (U, Np, Pu) with corroded iron surfaces. RIXS measurements at the actinide 5d edge found to be sensitive to actinide oxidation states in different systems. Comparison of experimental and calculated Cm 5d RIXS spectra gave direct information about valency of the 248 curium isotope in oxide. Scientific understanding of processes that control chemical changes of radioactive species from spent fuel is improved by studying interactions of actinide ions (U, Np, Pu) with corroded iron surfaces. RIXS measurements at the actinide 5d edge indicate the reduction of U(VI), NP(V) and Pu(VI) to U(IV), Np(IV) and Pu(IV) by presence of iron ions. This thesis is also addressed to the study of changes in the electronic structure of copper films during interaction with synthetic groundwater solutions. The surface modifications induced by chemical reactions of oxidized 100 Angstrom Cu films with CL-, SO42- and HCO3- ions in aqueous solutions with various concentrations were studied in-situ using XAS. It was shown that the pH value, the

  14. The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth (United States)

    Juuti, Kalle


    The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the…

  15. Isotopes in Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    G Plekhanov, Vladimir


    This book provides a concise introduction to the newly created sub-discipline of solid state physics isotopetronics. The role of isotopes in materials and their properties are describe  in this book. The problem of the enigma of the atomic mass in microphysics is briefly discussed.  The range of the applications of isotopes is wide: from biochemical process in living organisms to modern technical applications in quantum information. Isotopetronics promises to improve nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices. With numerous illustrations this book is useful to researchers, engineers and graduate students.

  16. The challenge of giving written thesis feedback to nursing students. (United States)

    Tuvesson, Hanna; Borglin, Gunilla


    Providing effective written feedback on nursing student's assignments can be a challenging task for any assessor. Additionally, as the student groups tend to become larger, written feedback is likely to gain an overall more prominent position than verbal feedback. Lack of formal training or regular discussion in the teaching faculty about the skill set needed to provide written feedback could negatively affect the students' learning abilities. In this brief paper, we discuss written feedback practices, whilst using the Bachelor of Science in Nursing thesis as an example. Our aim is to highlight the importance of an informed understanding of the impact written feedback can have on students. Creating awareness about this can facilitate the development of more strategic and successful written feedback strategies. We end by offering examples of some relatively simple strategies for improving this practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of French nuclear forces. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisda, M.J.


    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how and why the French undertook the development of their own nuclear force and through this examination, argue that the French nuclear force is not just a classic example of stereotypical French chauvinism. It is more in line with a nation realizing its potential in reacting to perceived threats to its national reputation, sovereignty, and security and the changes in the world arena brought about by the nuclear age. In examining how the French nuclear force developed, the various stages of research, development, and deployment are chronologically detailed. This chronology covers policy as well as technological and economic considerations. Based on fairly realistic interpretations of the French experience over the last century, French leaders felt justified in developing their own nuclear capability. It was not a sudden process, but a gradual accumulation of insecurities about French prestige, national survival, and domestic stability that required a firm and reliable solution.

  18. Computer Utilization for Nurse Researchers: A Course for Thesis Survival (United States)

    Schwirian, Patricia M.; Yates, Karan Johnson


    The purpose of this paper is to describe a course that is taught for Master's Degree candidates in a college of nursing. The goal of the course is to introduce the students (who generally have had little/no computer experience) with the mainframe/microcomputer systems, software and people they will need when they are ready to analyze the data from their thesis research. The course begins with an introduction of basic computer terminology and concepts, and computer applications in nursing are surveyed. The remainder of the course provides instruction and experience in four research activities that can be supported by computers: (a) the literature review; (b) data input, storage and retrieval; (c) statistical analysis of data; (d) word processing.

  19. [Publications of medical thesis defended in Lille school of medicine]. (United States)

    Benotmane, Ilies; Glatz, Nicolas; Bihan, Solenn; Legrand, Fanny; Gosset, Didier; Boulanger, Eric


    The purpose of this study was to determine the future, in terms of scientific publication, of medical thesis (MT) defended in the Medical School of Lille 2 University (MSL2U) between January 1st, 2001 and December 31st, 2007. The collection of MT published as a corresponding scientific article was realized from PubMed(®). For every corresponding article, we determined the journal Impact Factor (IF), the language of publication and the rank of the student and his MT director in the author list. Analyses were also realized according to the group of speciality of the TM. In all, 11.3% of the 2150 MT defended in the MSL2U were followed up by a scientific publication. The average IF was 2.32 with a median at 1.75 and extreme values from 0 to 14.78. Seventy percent of the articles were published in English. The rank of the student was placed before his MT director (2.06 vs. 3.15). The MT defended by students in the field of medical specialities presented the highest rate of publication (25.1%). The general medicine was the second speciality the most productive in term of number of published articles (n=49) after medical specialities (n=103). The MT director and the PhD students must be more motivated to publish their results. The value of 11.3% could be considered as weak but, because of a huge lack of references, it is impossible to compare our results to those of other French medical schools. It remains important to reform the objectives and the modalities of the writing of a MT: should we not have to turn to thesis called "on article"? Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Writing your thesis Paul Oliver Writing your thesis Publisher: Sage No. of pages: 208 £16.99 0761942998 0761942998 [Formula: see text]. (United States)


    So you need to write a thesis and want some succinct, practical guidance. You don't want to plough through hundreds of pages or follow up a list of references to other material. Both of these activities use up your precious study time and divert your attention from the subject material of the thesis.

  1. Earth Sciences Division annual report 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Annual Report presents summaries of selected representative research activities grouped according to the principal disciplines of the Earth Sciences Division: Reservoir Engineering and Hydrogeology, Geology and Geochemistry, and Geophysics and Geomechanics. Much of the Division`s research deals with the physical and chemical properties and processes in the earth`s crust, from the partially saturated, low-temperature near-surface environment to the high-temperature environments characteristic of regions where magmatic-hydrothermal processes are active. Strengths in laboratory and field instrumentation, numerical modeling, and in situ measurement allow study of the transport of mass and heat through geologic media -- studies that now include the appropriate chemical reactions and the hydraulic-mechanical complexities of fractured rock systems. Of particular note are three major Division efforts addressing problems in the discovery and recovery of petroleum, the application of isotope geochemistry to the study of geodynamic processes and earth history, and the development of borehole methods for high-resolution imaging of the subsurface using seismic and electromagnetic waves. In 1989 a major DOE-wide effort was launched in the areas of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Many of the methods previously developed for and applied to deeper regions of the earth will in the coming years be turned toward process definition and characterization of the very shallow subsurface, where man-induced contaminants now intrude and where remedial action is required.

  2. Discoveries of isotopes by fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    About 3000 different isotopes have been discovered until now. A recent compilation sum- marized details of the discovery of all isotopes [1–4] including the year, laboratory and country of discovery as well as the production mechanism used to produce the isotopes. Fission, one of the largest contributing production ...

  3. [Medical degree earned with a thesis in medical schools of Lima, 2011: characteristics, motivations and perceptions]. (United States)

    Mejia, Christian R; Inga-Berrospi, Fiorella; Mayta-Tristán, Percy


    We surveyed physicians who obtained their medical degree with a thesis in 2011 from the seven medical schools in Lima to know the characteristics of the degree by thesis process, as well as participants’ motivations and perceptions of that process. We included 98 students who did a thesis (87% of total); 99% conducted observational thesis, 30% did so in groups of three. The main motivation was that it was good for their curriculum vitae (94%). At the university where the thesis is compulsory, the process began with the choice of topic and adviser. Perceived “greatest” and “least” difficulty in the process was the completion of administrative procedures (53%) and selection of their advisor (11%), respectively. Administrative timeliness and processes should be reviewed so as not to impede the completion of thesis, since the new University Act requires the completion of a thesis to graduate.

  4. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  5. EarthKAM (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sponsored by NASA, EarthKAM (Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students) is an educational outreach program allowing middle school students to take pictures...

  6. Isotopic composition of Pb and Th in interplinian volcanics from Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy (United States)

    Cortini, M.; Ayuso, R.A.; de Vivo, B.; Holden, P.; Somma, R.


    We present a detailed isotopic study of volcanic rocks emitted from Somma-Vesuvius volcano during three periods of interplinian activity: "Protohistoric" (3550 y B.P. to 79 A.D.), "Ancient Historic" (79 to 472 A.D.) and "Medieval" (472 to 1631 A.D.). Pb isotopic compositions of two acid leached fractions and whole rock residues of 37 whole rock samples (determined by Somma et al., 2001) show that each of the three interplinian periods is distinguished by small, systematic, and unique uranogenic and thorogenic Pb isotopic trends. This key and novel feature is compatible with the notion that the Pb isotopic data reflect small-scale source heterogeneity operating over relatively short periods of time. From this representative group of samples, a selected set of nine whole rocks were analysed for Th isotopes. 232Th/238U ratios in the source can be obtained independently from Pb and from Th isotopes. Those obtained from Pb isotopes represent source ratios, time-integrated over the whole age of the Earth; they range from 3.9 to 4.1. 232Th/238U obtained from Th isotopes are those of the present source. They are lower, and cluster around 3.5; this difference probably indicates recent U enrichment of the present source. The behaviour of Pb, as inferred by its isotopic ratios, is quite distinct from that of Sr and Nd isotopes: Pb isotope variations are not correlated to Sr or Nd isotope variations. The isotopic contrast is compatible with the idea that the isotopes were decoupled during magmatic production, evolution, and ascent through the crust. Thus, the Pb isotopes do not reflect the effects of the same processes as in the case of the Sr and Nd isotopes, or, as we also favor, they do not necessarily reflect the same source contributions into the magmas. Moreover, the Pb isotopic evolution of the interplinian rocks chiefly reflects mixing, driven by processes that are superimposed on, and independent of, other source contributions that determine the isotopic compositions

  7. Land cadastre and building cadastre in Google Earth


    Vidmar, Blaž


    This graduation thesis presents a method and describes software for transforming land cadastre and building cadastre data into KML file. Acquired and used input data file types are shapefiles and MS Excel spreadsheets. Created KML file with land cadastre and building cadastre data can be displayed in a free version of Google Earth. Display of land cadastre and building cadastre is moved in 3D environment, allowing significantly better graphical presentation and user experience.

  8. Stable isotope composition and volume of Early Archaean oceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pope, Emily Catherine; Rosing, Minik Thorleif; Bird, Dennis K.

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of seawater are controlled by volatile fluxes between mantle, lithospheric (oceanic and continental crust) and atmospheric reservoirs. Throughout geologic time oxygen was likely conserved within these Earth system reservoirs, but hydrogen was not, as it can...... escape to space [1]. Hydrogen isotope ratios of serpentinites from the ~3.8Ga Isua Supracrustal Belt in West Greenland are between -53 and -99‰; the highest values are in antigorite ± lizardite serpentinites from a low-strain lithologic domain where hydrothermal reaction of Archaean seawater with oceanic...... of continents present at that time), and the mass of Early Archaean oceans to ~109 to 126% of present day oceans. Oxygen isotope analyses from these Isua serpentinites (δ18O = +0.1 to 5.6‰ relative to VSMOW) indicate that early Archaean δ18OSEAWATER similar to modern oceans. Our observations suggest...

  9. The origin of carbon isotope vital effects in coccolith calcite (United States)

    McClelland, H. L. O.; Bruggeman, J.; Hermoso, M.; Rickaby, R. E. M.


    Calcite microfossils are widely used to study climate and oceanography in Earth's geological past. Coccoliths, readily preserved calcite plates produced by a group of single-celled surface-ocean dwelling algae called coccolithophores, have formed a significant fraction of marine sediments since the Late Triassic. However, unlike the shells of foraminifera, their zooplankton counterparts, coccoliths remain underused in palaeo-reconstructions. Precipitated in an intracellular chemical and isotopic microenvironment, coccolith calcite exhibits large and enigmatic departures from the isotopic composition of abiogenic calcite, known as vital effects. Here we show that the calcification to carbon fixation ratio determines whether coccolith calcite is isotopically heavier or lighter than abiogenic calcite, and that the size of the deviation is determined by the degree of carbon utilization. We discuss the theoretical potential for, and current limitations of, coccolith-based CO2 paleobarometry, that may eventually facilitate use of the ubiquitous and geologically extensive sedimentary archive.

  10. Accretion and early evolution of Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saji, Nikitha Susan

    The formation of terrestrial planets like Earth represent the end-stages of evolution of a circumstellar disk that start out as a dense core of gas and dust in an interstellar molecular cloud and gravitationally collapse to form a central star and a surrounding protoplanetary disk. Gas and micron......-sized dust, of which the early protoplanetary disk is initially composed of, coalesce over the course of several millions of years to form the precursors to planets that make up the solar system today. The final assembly of Earth-like planets is complete only after a protracted latestage evolution......-stage impacts had to play in determining the bulk composition as well as pace of the chemical dierentiation and internal dynamics of terrestrial planets - is preserved in the form of isotopic signatures in some of the oldest terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples available to us. A potential means to unravel...

  11. Zinc isotope fractionation during adsorption on calcite (United States)

    Dong, S.; Wasylenki, L. E.


    difference in coordination number between dissolved Zn and adsorbed Zn is drives the observed fractionation. Elzinga and Reeder[5] determined using EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) that Zn adsorbed to calcite surfaces is tetrahedrally coordinated, sharing three oxygens with the calcite surface. Meanwhile density functional theory calculations[6] predicted that tetrahedral Zn-O species should be heavier than octahedral Zn-O species. Thus we infer that equilibrium between octahedrally coordinated, dissolved Zn and tetrahedrally coordinated, adsorbed Zn is the mechanism of fractionation in our experiments. Our further studies will determine whether the isotopically heavy pool of adsorbed Zn becomes the Zn incorporated within carbonates; if so, then we are closer to understanding the mechanism by which carbonate rocks in nature are enriched in heavier isotopes of zinc. [1] Bermin et al., 2006, Chem. Geol. 226, 280. [2] Maréchal et al., 2000, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 1, 1999GC-000029. [3] Dong et al., 2013, Talanta 114, 103-109. [4] Pichat et al., 2003, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 210, 167-178. [5] Elzinga and Reeder, 2002, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66, 3943-3954. [6] Schauble, 2003, EOS, Trans. AGU, Fall Meet. Suppl. 84(46), B12B-0781.

  12. Uranium Isotope Fractionation during Adsorption, (Co)precipitation, and Biotic Reduction. (United States)

    Dang, Duc Huy; Novotnik, Breda; Wang, Wei; Georg, R Bastian; Evans, R Douglas


    Uranium contamination of surface environments is a problem associated with both U-ore extraction/processing and situations in which groundwater comes into contact with geological formations high in uranium. Apart from the environmental concerns about U contamination, its accumulation and isotope composition have been used in marine sediments as a paleoproxy of the Earth's oxygenation history. Understanding U isotope geochemistry is then essential either to develop sustainable remediation procedures as well as for use in paleotracer applications. We report on parameters controlling U immobilization and U isotope fractionation by adsorption onto Mn/Fe oxides, precipitation with phosphate, and biotic reduction. The light U isotope (235U) is preferentially adsorbed on Mn/Fe oxides in an oxic system. When adsorbed onto Mn/Fe oxides, dissolved organic carbon and carbonate are the most efficient ligands limiting U binding resulting in slight differences in U isotope composition (δ238U = 0.22 ± 0.06‰) compared to the DOC/DIC-free configuration (δ238U = 0.39 ± 0.04‰). Uranium precipitation with phosphate does not induce isotope fractionation. In contrast, during U biotic reduction, the heavy U isotope (238U) is accumulated in reduced species (δ238U up to -1‰). The different trends of U isotope fractionation in oxic and anoxic environments makes its isotope composition a useful tracer for both environmental and paleogeochemical applications.

  13. Titanium stable isotopic variations in chondrites, achondrites and lunar rocks (United States)

    Greber, Nicolas D.; Dauphas, Nicolas; Puchtel, Igor S.; Hofmann, Beda A.; Arndt, Nicholas T.


    Titanium isotopes are potential tracers of processes of evaporation/condensation in the solar nebula and magmatic differentiation in planetary bodies. To gain new insights into the processes that control Ti isotopic variations in planetary materials, 25 komatiites, 15 chondrites, 11 HED-clan meteorites, 5 angrites, 6 aubrites, a martian shergottite, and a KREEP-rich impact melt breccia have been analyzed for their mass-dependent Ti isotopic compositions, presented using the δ49Ti notation (deviation in permil of the 49Ti/47Ti ratio relative to the OL-Ti standard). No significant variation in δ49Ti is found among ordinary, enstatite, and carbonaceous chondrites, and the average chondritic δ49Ti value of +0.004 ± 0.010‰ is in excellent agreement with the published estimate for the bulk silicate Earth, the Moon, Mars, and the HED and angrite parent-bodies. The average δ49Ti value of komatiites of -0.001 ± 0.019‰ is also identical to that of the bulk silicate Earth and chondrites. OL-Ti has a Ti isotopic composition that is indistinguishable from chondrites and is therefore a suitable material for reporting δ49Ti values. Previously published isotope data on another highly refractory element, Ca, show measurable variations among chondrites. The decoupling between Ca and Ti isotope systematics most likely occurred during condensation in the solar nebula. Aubrites exhibit significant variations in δ49Ti, from -0.07 to +0.24‰. This is likely due to the uniquely reducing conditions under which the aubrite parent-body differentiated, allowing chalcophile Ti3+ and lithophile Ti4+ to co-exist. Consequently, the observed negative correlation between δ49Ti values and MgO concentrations among aubrites is interpreted to be the result of isotope fractionation driven by the different oxidation states of Ti in this environment, such that isotopically heavy Ti4+ was concentrated in the residual liquid during magmatic differentiation. Finally, KREEPy impact melt breccia

  14. Rutile and its applications in earth sciences (United States)

    Meinhold, Guido


    Rutile is the most common naturally occurring titanium dioxide polymorph and is widely distributed as an accessory mineral in metamorphic rocks ranging from greenschist to eclogite and granulite facies but is also present in igneous rocks, mantle xenoliths, lunar rocks and meteorites. It is one of the most stable heavy minerals in the sedimentary cycle, widespread both in ancient and modern clastic sediments. Rutile has a wide range of applications in earth sciences. It is a major host mineral for Nb, Ta and other high field strength elements, which are widely used as a monitor of geochemical processes in the Earth's crust and mantle. Great interest has focused recently on rutile geochemistry because rutile varies not only by bulk composition reflected, for instance, in its Cr and Nb contents but also by the temperature of crystallisation, expressed in the Zr content incorporated into the rutile lattice during crystallisation. Rutile geochemistry and Zr-in-rutile thermometry yield diagnostic data on the lithology and metamorphic facies of sediment source areas even in highly modified sandstones that may have lost significant amounts of provenance information. Rutile may therefore serve as a key mineral in sediment provenance analysis in the future, similar to zircon, which has been widely applied in recent decades. Importantly, rutile from high-grade metamorphic rocks can contain sufficient uranium to allow U-Pb geochronology and (U-Th)/He thermochronology. Furthermore, in situ Lu-Hf isotope analysis of rutile permits insights into the evolution of the Earth's crust and mantle. Besides that, rutile is also of great economic importance because it is one of the favoured natural minerals used in the manufacture of white titanium dioxide pigment, which is a major constituent in various products of our daily life. Heavy mineral sands containing a significant percentage of rutile are therefore the focus of exploration worldwide. This paper aims to provide an overview of

  15. Studies of plant terpenoid biosynthesis using 13C stable isotope labeling techniques (KIT Scientific Reports ; 7583)


    Ghirardo, Andrea


    This thesis aims to deepen our understanding of plant terpenoid biosynthesis and the regulation of the 2-C-methylerythritol-4-phosphate pathway (MEP) with respect to isoprene and monoterpene biosynthesis in plant. For this purposes, stable isotope techniques were employed, providing information on the carbon sources for terpenoids biosynthesis and C fluxes within the MEP pathway at various spatial and temporal scales, as well as giving insight into the regulation of enzymes from the MEP pathway.

  16. Software used for diploma thesis at Geoinformatics VSB-TUO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Růžička


    Full Text Available The paper describes software usage for diploma thesis presented by VSB-TUO students during students conference GISáček. A prepared statistics was build from papers available at web pages of the conference. The prepared statistics is not complete clear view on this area, but I do not have any other simple way how to prepare such statistics.The statistics was build just from the text of the papers. If a student mentioned any software than it is included in the statistics. Summarized results are presented at the following figures with some general comments, that can be useful.The statistics is prepared only for years 2000 – 2006. A last year of the conference was not included, because of problems with availability of the proceedings.Software is categorized to three categories. A category fee contains only software that must be payed. This category includes software that can be obtained by students free of charge, but for firm usage must be payed. A category without fee includes software that can be used free of charge even for firm purposes, but is not available as an open source software. The last category open source includes open source software and in a case of this statistics, all open source software mentioned by students is free of charge as well.

  17. Nozzle Flow with Vibrational Nonequilibrium. Ph.D. Thesis (United States)

    Landry, John Gary


    Flow of nitrogen gas through a converging-diverging nozzle is simulated. The flow is modeled using the Navier-Stokes equations that have been modified for vibrational nonequilibrium. The energy equation is replaced by two equations. One equation accounts for energy effects due to the translational and rotational degrees of freedom, and the other accounts for the affects due to the vibrational degree of freedom. The energy equations are coupled by a relaxation time which measures the time required for the vibrational energy component to equilibrate with the translational and rotational energy components. An improved relaxation time is used in this thesis. The equations are solved numerically using the Steger-Warming flux vector splitting method and the Implicit MacCormack method. The results show that uniform flow is produced outside of the boundary layer. Nonequilibrium exists in both the converging and diverging nozzle sections. The boundary layer region is characterized by a marked increase in translational-rotational temperature. The vibrational temperature remains frozen downstream of the nozzle, except in the boundary layer.

  18. The History and Significance of the Incommensurability Thesis (United States)

    Pearce, James Jacob

    The incommensurability thesis (IT) maintains that there are no non-prejudicial means of choosing between competing theories in the empirical sciences. If true, IT would entail that natural science is a fundamentally subjective or irrational activity. Should this latter claim prove justifiable, then empirical science cannot be regarded as an organ of objective knowledge, and "scientific realism" is eo ipso false. I follow the origin of IT from its pre-history in Logical Positivism, through certain preliminary philosophical developments in the work of Karl Popper, W. V. O. Quine, Stephen Toulmin and N. R. Hanson, to the eventual formulation and introduction of IT by Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend. I then examine the rigorous criticism of IT by various philosophers since about 1964, and discuss different methods of objective theory comparison which have been advanced by such philosophers as Hilary Putnam, W. H. Newton-Smith, Michael Devitt, Hartry Field, Philip Kitcher and Howard Sankey. I conclude by arguing for two counterintuitive claims: (1) Even if true, IT fails to provide evidence against scientific realism. (2) In fact, the truth of IT actually furnishes evidence for a necessary condition for scientific realism, and hence evidence which can be construed as indirectly favorable to scientific realism.

  19. An Investigation of Cohesion and Rhetorical Moves in Thesis Abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luthfiyah Luthfiyah


    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating cohesion and rhetorical moves in thesis abstracts of English Education students. This study employed a qualitative research design in which 10 abstracts were chosen as samples. The cohesion is analyzed based on Halliday's and Hasan's  concept while rhetorical moves are analyzed based on Swales' and Feak's framework. The results show that all cohesive devices are used except substitution. Among those devices, reference is the most frequently used. The results also show that some cohesive devices are used incorrectly. As a result, seven abstracts (70% are still in medium category of cohesion level while three abstracts (30% are in high category of cohesion level. Furthermore, 7 abstracts are organized in different move patterns which do not follow the Swales' and Feak's framework. From the results of the study, it can be concluded that most of the abstract samples achieve medium category level of cohesion, and the rhetorical moves in most of the abstracts samples are not organized well. Permalink/DOI:

  20. High resolution collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy of neutron-rich $^{76,77,78}$Cu isotopes

    CERN Document Server


    In this work, nuclear magnetic dipole moments, electric quadrupole moments, nuclear spins and changes in the mean-squared charge radii of radioactive copper isotopes are presented. Reaching up to $^{78}$Cu ($Z=29$, $N=49$), produced at rates of only 10 particles per second, these measurements represent the most exotic laser spectroscopic investigations near the doubly-magic and very exotic $^{78}$Ni ($Z=28$,$N=50$) to date. This thesis outlines the technical developments and investigations of laser-atom interactions that were performed during this thesis. These developments were crucial for establishing a high-resolution, high sensitivity collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy experiment at ISOLDE, CERN. This thesis furthermore provides a detailed description of the analysis tools that were implemented and applied to extract the nuclear observables from the experimental data. The results were compared to several large-scale shell model calculations, and provide deep insight into the structure of $^{78}$N...

  1. New Isotope 263Hs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragojevic, I.; Gregorich, K.E.; Dullmann, Ch.E.; Dvorak, J.; Ellison, P.A.; Gates, J.M.; Nelson, S.L.; Stavsetra, L.; Nitsche, H.


    A new isotope of Hs was produced in the reaction 208Pb(56Fe, n)263Hs at the 88-Inch Cyclotron of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Six genetically correlated nuclear decay chains have been observed and assigned to the new isotope 263Hs. The measured cross section was 21+13-8.4 pb at 276.4 MeV lab-frame center-of-target beam energy. 263Hs decays with a half-life of 0.74 ms by alpha-decay and the measured alpha-particle energies are 10.57 +- 0.06, 10.72 +- 0.06, and 10.89 +- 0.06 MeV. The experimental cross section is compared to a theoretical prediction based on the Fusion by Diffusion model [W. J. Swiatecki et al., Phys. Rev. C 71, 014602 (2005)].

  2. Redox-independent chromium isotope fractionation induced by ligand-promoted dissolution. (United States)

    Saad, Emily M; Wang, Xiangli; Planavsky, Noah J; Reinhard, Christopher T; Tang, Yuanzhi


    The chromium (Cr) isotope system has emerged as a potential proxy for tracing the Earth's atmospheric evolution based on a redox-dependent framework for Cr mobilization and isotope fractionation. Although studies have demonstrated that redox-independent pathways can also mobilize Cr, no quantitative constraints exist on the associated isotope fractionations. Here we survey the effects of common environmental ligands on the dissolution of Cr(III)-(oxy)hydroxide solids and associated Cr isotope fractionation. For a variety of organic acids and siderophores, δ(53)Cr values of dissolved Cr(III) are -0.27 to 1.23‰, within the range of previously observed Cr isotope signatures in rock records linked to Cr redox cycling. Thus, ligand-promoted dissolution of Cr-containing solids, a redox-independent process, must be taken into account when using sedimentary Cr isotope signatures to diagnose atmospheric oxygen levels. This work provides a step towards establishing a more robust framework for using Cr isotopes to track the evolution of the Earth's atmosphere.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The use of isotope labels has had a fundamentally important role in the determination of mechanisms of homogeneously catalyzed reactions. Mechanistic data is valuable since it can assist in the design and rational improvement of homogeneous catalysts. There are several ways to use isotopes in mechanistic chemistry. Isotopes can be introduced into controlled experiments and followed where they go or don't go; in this way, Libby, Calvin, Taube and others used isotopes to elucidate mechanistic pathways for very different, yet important chemistries. Another important isotope method is the study of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and equilibrium isotope effect (EIEs). Here the mere observation of where a label winds up is no longer enough - what matters is how much slower (or faster) a labeled molecule reacts than the unlabeled material. The most careti studies essentially involve the measurement of isotope fractionation between a reference ground state and the transition state. Thus kinetic isotope effects provide unique data unavailable from other methods, since information about the transition state of a reaction is obtained. Because getting an experimental glimpse of transition states is really tantamount to understanding catalysis, kinetic isotope effects are very powerful.

  4. Natural mercury isotope variation in coal deposits and organic soils. (United States)

    Biswas, Abir; Blum, Joel D; Bergquist, Bridget A; Keeler, Gerald J; Xie, Zhouqing


    There is a need to distinguish among sources of Hg to the atmosphere in order to more fully understand global Hg pollution. In this study we investigate whether coal deposits within the United States, China, and Russia-Kazakhstan, which are three of the five greatest coal-producing regions, have diagnostic Hg isotopic fingerprints that can be used to discriminate among Hg sources. We also investigate the Hg isotopic composition of modern organic soil horizons developed in areas distant from point sources of Hg in North America. Mercury stored in coal deposits displays a wide range of both mass dependent fractionation (MDF, delta202Hg) and mass independent fractionation (MIF, delta201Hg). delta202Hg varies in coals by 3 per thousand and delta201Hg varies by 0.9 per thousand. Combining these two Hg isotope signals results in what may be a unique isotopic "fingerprint" for many coal deposits. Mass independent fractionation of mercury has been demonstrated to occur during photochemical reactions of mercury. This suggests that Hg found in most coal deposits was subjected to photochemical reduction near the Earth's surface prior to deposition. The similarity in MDF and MIF of modern organic soils and coals from North America suggests that Hg deposition from coal may have imprinted an isotopic signature on soils. This research offers a new tool for characterizing mercury inputs from natural and anthropogenic sources to the atmosphere and provides new insights into the geochemistry of mercury in coal and soils.

  5. Water isotope tracers of tropical hydroclimate in a warming world (United States)

    Konecky, B. L.; Noone, D.; Nusbaumer, J. M.; Cobb, K. M.; Di Nezio, P. N.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.


    The tropical water cycle is projected to undergo substantial changes under a warming climate, but direct meteorological observations to contextualize these changes are rare prior to the 20th century. Stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios (δ18O, δD) of environmental waters preserved in geologic archives are increasingly being used to reconstruct terrestrial rainfall over many decades to millions of years. However, a rising number of new, modern-day observations and model simulations have challenged previous interpretations of these isotopic signatures. This presentation systematically evaluates the three main influences on the δ18O and δD of modern precipitation - rainfall amount, cloud type, and moisture transport - from terrestrial stations throughout the tropics, and uses this interpretive framework to understand past changes in terrestrial tropical rainfall. Results indicate that cloud type and moisture transport have a larger influence on modern δ18O and δD of tropical precipitation than previously believed, indicating that isotope records track changes in cloud characteristics and circulation that accompany warmer and cooler climate states. We use our framework to investigate isotopic records of the land-based tropical rain belt during the Last Glacial Maximum, the period of warming following the Little Ice Age, and the 21st century. Proxy and observational data are compared with water isotope-enabled simulations with the Community Earth System Model in order to discuss how global warming and cooling may influence tropical terrestrial hydroclimate.

  6. A molybdenum-isotope perspective on Phanerozoic deoxygenation events (United States)

    Dickson, Alexander J.


    The expansion and contraction of sulfidic depositional conditions in the oceans can be tracked with the isotopic composition of molybdenum in marine sediments. However, molybdenum-isotope data are often subject to multiple conflicting interpretations. Here I present a compilation of molybdenum-isotope data from three time intervals: the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event about 183 million years ago, Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 about 94 million years ago, and two early Eocene hyperthermal events from 56 to 54 million years ago. A comparison of data from sites located in different hydrographic settings tightly constrains the molybdenum cycle for these intervals, allowing a direct comparison of the expanse of sulfidic conditions in each interval compared to today. Nonetheless, tracing rates of redox change over such rapid climatic events using molybdenum isotopes remains challenging. Future efforts to achieve this goal might be accomplished by analysing specific mineral phases, using complementary redox-sensitive geochemical techniques and by linking isotopic observations with Earth system modelling. Such improvements will make it possible to more fully assess the links between ocean deoxygenation, climatic and oceanographic changes, and biotic turnover.

  7. High frecuency of plagiarism in medical thesis from a peruvian public university


    Saldaña-Gastulo, J Jhan C.; Sociedad Científica de Estudiantes de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional de Piura, facultad de Medicina Humana, Universidad Nacional de Piura. Piura, Perú. Sociedad Científica Médico Estudiantil Peruana, Perú. Interno de Medicina.; Quezada-Osoria, C. Claudia; Sociedad Científica de Estudiantes de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional de Piura, facultad de Medicina Humana, Universidad Nacional de Piura. Piura, Perú. Alumna de Medicina.; Peña-Oscuvilca, Américo; Sociedad Científica Médico Estudiantil Peruana, Perú. Sociedad Científica Huachana de Estudiantes de Medicina, Universidad Nacional José faustino Sánchez Carrión, Huacho, Perú. Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza, Lima, Perú. Interno de medicina.; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Sociedad Científica Médico Estudiantil Peruana, Perú. Oficina General de Información y Sistemas, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Escuela de Medicina, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas. Lima, Perú. Médico.


    An observational study was conducted to describe the presence of plagiarism in medical thesis in 2008 performed at a public university in Peru. Search for plagiarism in 33 thesis introductions using a Google search algorithm, characterizes of the study type and we search in electronic form if the thesis mentor have published articles in scientific journals. We found evidence of plagiarism in 27/33 introductions, 37.3% (171/479) of all the paragraphs analyzed had some degree of plagiarism,...

  8. Too much food and too little sidewalk? Problematizing the obesogenic environment thesis


    Julie Guthman


    The obesogenic environment thesis is that increased prevalence of obesity is because people are surrounded by cheap, fast, nutritionally inferior food and a built environment that discourages physical activity. This thesis has animated various planning, advocacy, and educational interventions to address these obesogenic qualities. However, studies designed to test the thesis have generated inconclusive or marginal results, and the more robust findings may be based on spurious correlations. Pa...

  9. Analysis of nursing dissertations and thesis on ostomy wounds, Brazil, 1979-2005


    Adriana Karla Silva Correia; Thereza Maria Magalhães Moreira; Maria Euridéa de Castro; Consuelo Helena Aires de Freitas Lopes; Maria Salete Bessa Jorge


    The study of the development of knowledge on ostomy represents a great contribution to Health. This study aimed at investigating the material about the subject produced in the Brazilian nursing academy from 1979 to 2005. A documental research was performed to collect abstracts from dissertations and thesis at the Center for Study and Research in Nursing (CEPEN) from 1979 to 2005. Results showed a total of 22 papers, among which 19 dissertations, two doctorate thesis and one thesis for the pur...

  10. Hafnium at subduction zones: isotopic budget of input and output fluxes; L'hafnium dans les zones de subduction: bilan isotopique des flux entrant et sortant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, J.Ch


    Subduction zones are the primary regions of mass exchanges between continental crust and mantle of Earth through sediment subduction toward the earth's mantle and by supply of mantellic magmas to volcanic arcs. We analyze these mass exchanges using Hafnium and Neodymium isotopes. At the Izu-Mariana subduction zone, subducting sediments have Hf and Nd isotopes equivalent to Pacific seawater. Altered oceanic crust has Hf and Nd isotopic compositions equivalent to the isotopic budget of unaltered Pacific oceanic crust. At Luzon and Java subduction zones, arc lavas present Hf isotopic ratios highly radiogenic in comparison to their Nd isotopic ratios. Such compositions of the Luzon and Java arc lavas are controlled by a contamination of their sources by the subducted oceanic sediments. (author)

  11. Enjoy writing your science thesis or dissertation! a step-by-step guide to planning and writing a thesis or dissertation for undergraduate and graduate science students

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Elizabeth


    This book is a step by step illustrated guide to planning and writing dissertations and theses for undergraduate and graduate science students. Topics covered include advice on writing each section of a thesis as well as general discussions on collecting and organizing references, keeping records, presenting data, interacting with a supervisor and avoiding academic misconduct. Recommendations about how to use word processors and other software packages effectively are included, as well as advice on the use of other resources. A concise summary of important points of English grammar is given, along with appendices listing frequently confused words and wordy phrases to avoid. Further appendices are provided, including one on Si units. The aim is to provide an easy-to-read guide that gives students practical advice about all aspects of writing a science thesis or dissertation, starting from writing a thesis plan and finishing with the viva and corrections to the thesis.

  12. Geochemical arguments for an Earth-like Moon-forming impactor. (United States)

    Dauphas, Nicolas; Burkhardt, Christoph; Warren, Paul H; Fang-Zhen, Teng


    Geochemical evidence suggests that the material accreted by the Earth did not change in nature during Earth's accretion, presumably because the inner protoplanetary disc had uniform isotopic composition similar to enstatite chondrites, aubrites and ungrouped achondrite NWA 5363/5400. Enstatite meteorites and the Earth were derived from the same nebular reservoir but diverged in their chemical evolutions, so no chondrite sample in meteorite collections is representative of the Earth's building blocks. The similarity in isotopic composition (Δ(17)O, ε(50)Ti and ε(54)Cr) between lunar and terrestrial rocks is explained by the fact that the Moon-forming impactor came from the same region of the disc as other Earth-forming embryos, and therefore was similar in isotopic composition to the Earth. The heavy δ(30)Si values of the silicate Earth and the Moon relative to known chondrites may be due to fractionation in the solar nebula/protoplanetary disc rather than partitioning of silicon in Earth's core. An inversion method is presented to calculate the Hf/W ratios and ε(182)W values of the proto-Earth and impactor mantles for a given Moon-forming impact scenario. The similarity in tungsten isotopic composition between lunar and terrestrial rocks is a coincidence that can be explained in a canonical giant impact scenario if an early formed embryo (two-stage model age of 10-20 Myr) collided with the proto-Earth formed over a more protracted accretion history (two-stage model age of 30-40 Myr). © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. A statistical analysis of Chinese traditional sports science master′s degree thesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEN Wenjuan


    Full Text Available Through a statistical analysis of 367 sports science master′s degree thesis on Chinese traditional sport in the past five years,some conclusions can be drawn that the traditional national sports master's degree thesis should expand the theoretical depth; expand the scope of the study,in particular,focusing on some disappearing traditional national sports; regulate the types of research methods; strengthen the depth of data mining,correct thesis references. Thus can further clarify the laws of traditional sports graduate Thesis and provide references for postgraduate training.

  14. A familiar Friend: The Impacts of the Master’s Thesis over Four Formative Career Phases (United States)


    Over the course of my career, I have experienced the thesis in different ways. This reflection paper will relay my encounters with, what I am calling, thesis-objects (to borrow a concept from object relations). I encountered the thesis-objects at different phases of my professional development: when I was a student, a supervisor for Smith MSW students, a PhD applicant, and chair of the Alumni Thesis Award Committee. My relationship with each thesis-object has refined me and granted me new perspective and personal growth. When I was a student, the thesis was a coach helping me develop tools to answer important questions. When I was a supervisor, the thesis was a bridge-builder strengthening my relationships with supervisees. Then, when I was a PhD applicant, the thesis was a door-opener providing me means to access PhD opportunities. Now that I am a chair, the thesis is a teacher opening my eyes to new intellectual terrain and pressing social problems. PMID:29479118

  15. Evaluating nitrogen oxide sources and oxidation pathways impacting aerosol production on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation and Navajo Nation using geochemical isotopic analysis (United States)

    King, Michael Z.

    Increased emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO 2) as a result of the development of oil, gas and coal resources in the Four Corners region of the United States have caused concern for area American Indian tribes that levels of ozone, acid rain, and aerosols or particulate matter (PM) may increase on reservation lands. NOx in the atmosphere plays an important role in the formation of these pollutants and high levels are indicators of poor air quality and exposure to them has been linked to a host of human health effects and environmental problems facing today's society. Nitrogen oxides are eventually oxidized in the atmosphere to form nitrate and nitric acid which falls to earth's surface by way of dry or wet deposition. In the end, it is the removal of NOx from the atmosphere by chemical conversion to nitrate that halts this production of oxidants, acids, and aerosols. Despite the importance of understanding atmospheric nitrate (NO3- = HNO3-(g), NO3-(aq), NO3-(s)) production there remains major deficiencies in estimating the significant key reactions that transform NOx into atmospheric nitrate. Stable isotope techniques have shown that variations in oxygen (16O, 17O, 18O) and nitrogen (14N, 15N) isotope abundances in atmospheric nitrate provide significant insight to the sources and oxidation pathways that transform NOx. Therefore, this project applied this resolution using high pressure liquid chromatography and isotope ratio mass spectrometry to determine the chemical and isotopic composition of particulate nitrate (PM2.5 and PM10), collected on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation and Navajo Nation. It was determined that the observed particulate nitrate concentrations on tribal lands were likely linked to seasonal changes in boundary layer height (BLH), local sources, meteorology, photochemistry and increases in windblown crustal material. The Southern Ute Indian Reservation indicated higher delta15N values in comparison to the Navajo Nation study site

  16. Development and application of liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lijun


    Stable isotope analysis has found widespread applications in various disciplines such as archaeology, geochemistry, biology, food authenticity, and forensic science. Coupling chromatography to isotope ratio mass spectrometry for compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) is a trend, as it provides several advantages over bulk isotope analysis, e.g., relatively simple sample preparation, the ability to measure individual compounds in a complex mixture in one run, and the reduced sample size required for precise isotope analysis. Gas chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) has been well-established for compound-specific isotope analysis of volatile organic compounds within the last two decades. However, an interface combining liquid chromatography with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) was not commercially available until 2004. The current design of the interface requires using a carbon-free eluent in chromatographic separation. This requirement limits the application of the most frequently used reversed-phase liquid chromatography in CSIA, because the elution strength of water at room temperature is too low to serve as mobile phase in reversed-phase separations. In order to increase the elution strength of water, we propose using high temperature water for chromatographic elution. The polarity of water decreases with an increase of temperature, yielding increased elution strength in reversed-phase columns. Therefore, high temperature water can be used as eluent instead of organic solvent for combining reversed-phase liquid chromatography with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (RPLC/IRMS). Additionally, temperature gradients can replace organic solvent gradients to increase chromatographic resolution. This is very important for LC/IRMS analysis, as precise isotope analysis requires baseline separation of analytes. In this thesis, high-temperature reversed-phase liquid chromatography was coupled to, and for the first time carefully

  17. Therapeutic use of radioactive isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Duc


    In December, researchers from ISOLDE-CERN, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) published the results of an in vivo study which successfully proved the effectiveness of four terbium isotopes for diagnosing and treating cancerous tumours.   Four terbium isotopes suitable for clinical purposes. “ISOLDE is the only installation capable of supplying terbium isotopes of such purity and intensity in the case of three out of the four types used in this study,” explains Karl Johnson, a physicist at ISOLDE.  “Producing over a thousand different isotopes, our equipment offers the widest choice of isotopes in the world!” Initially intended for fundamental physics research, ISOLDE has diversified its activities over time to invest in various projects in the materials science, biochemistry and nuclear medicine fields. The proof-of-concept study has confirmed that the four terbium isotopes 149Tb, 152Tb, 155Tb produ...

  18. Potential uses of stable isotope ratios of Sr, Nd, and Pb in geological materials for environmental studies. (United States)

    Nakano, Takanori


    The ratios of stable isotopes of certain elements in rocks and minerals have strong regional characteristics that are reflected in atmospheric components, in water, and in the living organisms that form Earth's surface environment as well as in agricultural and fishery products. Geologically derived stable isotope ratios can be used as a tracer for the source of many kinds of substances, with current geochemical techniques allowing the precise determination of numerous stable isotope ratios in both natural and manmade objects. This review presents examples of the use of stable isotopes as tracers within diverse dynamic ecosystems, focusing on Sr isotopes but also including examples of Nd and Pb isotopic analysis, and reviewing the potential of this technique for a wide range of environmental research, including determining the geographic origin of food and archeological materials.

  19. The Oxygen Isotopic Composition of the Sun (United States)

    McKeegan, K. D.; Kallio, A.; Heber, V. S.; Jarzebinski, G.; Mao, P.; Coath, C.; Kunihiro, T.; Wiens, R. C.; Judith, A.; Burnett, D. S.


    An accurate and precise determination of the oxygen isotopic composition of the Sun is the highest priority scientific goal of the Genesis Mission [1] as such data would provide a baseline from which one could interpret the oxygen isotopic anomalies found at all spatial scales in inner solar system materials. We have measured oxygen isotope compositions of implanted solar wind in 40 spots along a radial traverse of the Genesis SiC target sample 60001 by depth profiling with the UCLA MegaSIMS [2]. Mass-dependent fractionation induced by the solar wind concentrator [3] ion optics was corrected by comparison of the concentrator 22Ne/20Ne with that measured in a bulk solar wind target (diamond-like carbon on Si, [4]). The solar wind captured at L1 has an isotopic composition of (δ18O, δ17O) ≈ (-99, -79)‰, a value which is far removed from the terrestrial mass fractionation line. Profiles from the central portion of the target, where solar concentrations are highest and background corrections minimal, yield a mean Δ17O = -28.3 ± 1.8 ‰ indicating that the Earth and other planetary materials from the inner solar system are highly depleted in 16O relative to the solar wind. A mass-dependent fractionation of ~ -20%/amu in the acceleration of solar wind is required if we hypothesize that the photospheric oxygen isotope value, which represents the bulk starting composition of the solar system, is on the 16O-mixing line characteristic of refractory phase in primitive meteorites [5]. With this assumption, our preferred value for the bulk solar oxygen isotope composition is δ18O ≈ δ17O ≈ -57‰. A mechanism is required to fractionate oxygen isotopes in a non-mass-dependent manner to deplete 16O by ~6 to 7% in the rocky materials of the solar nebula. As oxygen is the third most abundant element in the solar system, and the most abundant in the terrestrial planets, this mechanism must operate on a large scale. Isotope-selective photochemistry, for example as in

  20. Mercury isotope compositions in North American forest soils and litters (United States)

    Zheng, W.; Obrist, D.; Bergquist, B. A.


    Soils represent one of the largest reservoirs of mercury on Earth, playing a critical role in the natural cycle of mercury by acting as both a sink and source. However, it is not well understood how soils sequestrate and remobilize Hg. Natural variations in stable Hg isotopes are being explored as a promising tool in studying the transformation and transport of Hg. However, Hg isotopic data in soils is scarce. In addition, the limited isotopic data that exists is significantly different from those of atmospheric Hg, which is one of the major sources of Hg to soils. For example, Hg mass independent fractionation (MIF, typically reported as Δ199Hg) is positive in atmospheric wet deposition, but most soils display negative Δ199Hg. MIF on 200Hg (Δ200Hg) is also observed in atmospheric wet deposition, but not in soils. The discrepancy between soils and atmospheric samples is still unexplained. In this study, we surveyed the Hg isotope compositions in soil profiles, litters and fresh vegetation from four different forest sites across United States (Thompson forest, WA, Truckee, CA, Niwot Ridge, CO and Howland, MA). The current results from the WA site show that soils primarily display negative mass dependent fractionation for the even isotopes (MDF, reported as δ202Hg) with values for δ202Hg of up to -2.0‰. Significant MIF for both odd isotopes is also observed in all WA soil samples and Δ199Hg is mostly negative (up to -0.4‰). No MIF on 200Hg is observed in these soils. The negative Δ199Hg in soils is inconsistent with the positive Δ199Hg reported in atmospheric wet deposition, suggesting that either Hg transformations within or on the surface of soils and/or plants alter its isotope composition after deposition or other types of Hg deposition (e.g., Hg(0) or Hg(II) dry deposition) is more predominant. The Δ199Hg/Δ201Hg ratio is close to 1 in the soils, which is consistent with the results of laboratory photochemical reduction of inorganic Hg

  1. Early Life on Earth and the Search for Extraterrestrial Biosignatures (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; House, Christopher


    In the last 2 years, scientists within the ARES Directorate at JSC have applied the technology of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) to individual organic structures preserved in Archean (approximately 3 billion years old) sediments on Earth. These organic structures are among the oldest on Earth that may be microfossils - structurally preserved remnants of ancient microbes. The SIMS work was done to determine the microfossils' stable carbon isotopic composition (delta C-13 values). This is the first time that such ancient, potential microfossils have been successfully analyzed for their individual delta C-13 values. The results support the interpretation that these structures are remnants of early life on Earth and that they may represent planktonic organisms that were widely distributed in the Earth's earliest oceans. This study has been accepted for publication in the journal Geology.

  2. A Content Analysis of the Postgraduate Thesis Written on Special Education in Turkey Based on Various Variables (2009-2014) (United States)

    Demirok, Mukaddes Sakalli; Besgul, Meyrem; Baglama, Basak


    The aim of this study was to examine postgraduate thesis studies conducted between the years of 2009 and 2014 in special education field in Turkey based on various variables and figure out how many of these thesis is related with hearing disability. A total number of 146 postgraduate thesis have been found in the thesis scanning center of Higher…

  3. TEFL Graduate Supervisees' Views of Their Supervisors' Supervisory Styles and Satisfaction with Thesis Supervision (United States)

    Gedamu, Abate Demissie


    Thesis supervisor supervisory styles play central roles in enhancing timely and quality completion of thesis works. To this effect, this study aimed at exploring TEFL graduate supervisees' perception of their thesis supervisors' supervisory style(s), the supervisees' level of satisfaction with thesis supervision, and the association between…

  4. A Quantitative Geochemical Target for Modeling the Formation of the Earth and Moon (United States)

    Boyce, Jeremy W.; Barnes, Jessica J.; McCubbin, Francis M.


    The past decade has been one of geochemical, isotopic, and computational advances that are bringing the laboratory measurements and computational modeling neighborhoods of the Earth-Moon community to ever closer proximity. We are now however in the position to become even better neighbors: modelers can generate testable hypthotheses for geochemists; and geochemists can provide quantitive targets for modelers. Here we present a robust example of the latter based on Cl isotope measurements of mare basalts.

  5. Western Indian Ocean circulation and climate variability on different time scales. A study based on stable oxygen and carbon isotopes, benthic foraminiferal assemblages and Mg/Ca paleothermometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romahn, Sarah


    In order to understand the Earth's climate evolution it is crucial to evaluate the role of low-latitude oceans in the global climate system, as they are connected to both hemispheres via atmospheric and oceanic circulation and thus hold the potential to disentangle the asynchronicity of short-term Pleistocene climate variability. However, the potential of low latitude oceans to respond to and force large-scale changes of the climate system is still debated. The aim of this thesis is to examine and to understand the causal relationship of both atmospheric and oceanic changes in the tropical western Indian Ocean on centennial-, millennial and glacial-interglacial timescales. For this purpose I investigated stable oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of both planktic and benthic foraminiferal tests, Mg/Ca ratios of planktic foraminiferal tests as well as benthic foraminiferal assemblages and sedimentary geochemical parameters on two sediment cores (GeoB12615-4, 446 m and GeoB12616-4, 1449 m) from the continental slope off Tanzania, East Africa.

  6. A model perspective on orbital forcing of monsoons and Mediterranean climate using EC-Earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, J.H.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/344765490


    This thesis focuses on orbitally forced changes of monsoons and Mediterranean climate. Changes in the shape of the Earths orbit around the Sun and its rotational axis govern the seasonal and latitudinal distribution of incoming solar radiation on time scales of thousands to millions of years. The

  7. Bragg-grating-based rare-earth-ion-doped channel waveguide lasers and their applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhardi, Edward


    The research presented in this thesis concerns the investigation and development of Bragggrating-based integrated cavities for the rare-earth-ion-doped Al2O3 (aluminium oxide) waveguide platform, both from a theoretical and an experimental point of view, with the primary purpose of realizing

  8. Evaporative fractionation of volatile stable isotopes and their bearing on the origin of the Moon


    Day, James M. D.; Moynier, Frederic


    The Moon is depleted in volatile elements relative to the Earth and Mars. Low abundances of volatile elements, fractionated stable isotope ratios of S, Cl, K and Zn, high μ (238U/204Pb) and long-term Rb/Sr depletion are distinguishing features of the Moon, relative to the Earth. These geochemical characteristics indicate both inheritance of volatile-depleted materials that formed the Moon and planets and subsequent evaporative loss of volatile elements that occurred during lunar formation and...

  9. Chromium isotopic fractionation in aquatic systems and foraminiferal calcite (United States)

    Wang, X.; Wu, W.; Reinhard, C. T.; Planavsky, N.


    The stable chromium (Cr) isotope system is an emerging proxy for studying the reduction/oxidation (redox) state of the early earth. However, the distribution and isotopic composition of Cr in many modern environments is still poorly known. For this reason, Cr isotope fractionation during biological processes, in rivers, estuaries, seawaters, and modern sediments need to be constrained to calibrate this potentially very useful paleoredox proxy. Here we report concentrations and isotope systematics of dissolved and suspended Cr in the Connecticut River system, and from core-top planktonic foraminiferal calcite from the global ocean. In the Connecticut River system, soil profile samples are unfractionated from bulk silicate Earth (BSE) values. River waters range from -0.2‰ to 0.9‰ (δ53Cr expressed as 53Cr/52Cr relative to NIST SRM 979 standard), with some, but not all tributaries showing seasonal differences. Suspended particulate samples range from -0.1 to 0‰ in autumn and from 0 to 0.1‰ in spring. Modern planktonic foraminifera show a wide range of δ53Cr values, from 0.2‰ to 2.2‰. Such variability seems to be controlled by both seawater heterogeneity and biological fractionation. In summary, weathering environments studied so far suggest wide variability of δ53Cr in rivers and weathered rocks, but with indiscernible correlation with climate types (temperate vs. tropical). In addition, large spatial variability has been detected in the modern seawater and large biological fractionation has been observed during marine biological calcification. These observations provide important guidelines for interpreting the ancient Cr isotope record.

  10. Heterogeneous distribution of Zn stable isotopes in mice and applications to medical sciences (United States)

    Moynier, F.; Fujii, T.; Shaw, A.; Le Borgne, M.


    Zinc is required for the function of more than 300 enzymes involved in many metabolic pathways, and is a vital micronutrient for living organisms. To investigate if Zn isotopes could be used to better understand metal homeostasis, as well as a biomarker for diseases, we assessed the distribution of natural Zn isotopes in various mouse tissues. We found that, with respect to Zn isotopes, most mouse organs are isotopically distinct and that the total range of variation within one mouse encompasses the variations observed in the Earth's crust. Therefore, biological activity must have a major impact on the distribution of Zn isotopes in inorganic materials. The most striking aspect of the data is that red blood cells and bones are enriched by ~0.5 per mil in 66Zn relative to 64Zn when compared to serum, and up to ~1 per mil when compared to the brain and liver. This fractionation is well explained by the equilibrium distribution of isotopes between different bonding environments of Zn in different organs. Differences in gender and genetic background did not appear to affect the isotopic distribution of Zn. Together, these results suggest that potential use of Zn isotopes as a tracer for dietary Zn, and for detecting disturbances in Zn metabolism due to pathological conditions.

  11. Iron isotope characteristics of Hot Springs at Chocolate Pots, Yellowstone National Park. (United States)

    Wu, Lingling; Brucker, Rebecca Poulson; Beard, Brian L; Roden, Eric E; Johnson, Clark M


    Chocolate Pots Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park is a hydrothermal system that contains high aqueous ferrous iron [∼0.1 mM Fe(II)] at circumneutral pH conditions. This site provides an ideal field environment in which to test our understanding of Fe isotope fractionations derived from laboratory experiments. The Fe(III) oxides, mainly produced through Fe(II) oxidation by oxygen in the atmosphere, have high ⁵⁶Fe/⁵⁴Fe ratios compared with the aqueous Fe(II). However, the degree of fractionation is less than that expected in a closed system at isotopic equilibrium. We suggest two explanations for the observed Fe isotope compositions. One is that light Fe isotopes partition into a sorbed component and precipitate out on the Fe(III) oxide surfaces in the presence of silica. The other explanation is internal regeneration of isotopically heavy Fe(II) via dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction farther down the flow path as well as deeper within the mat materials. These findings provide evidence that silica plays an important role in governing Fe isotope fractionation factors between reduced and oxidized Fe. Under conditions of low ambient oxygen, such as may be found on early Earth or Mars, significantly larger Fe isotope variations are predicted, reflecting the more likely attainment of Fe isotope equilibrium associated with slower oxidation rates under low-O₂ conditions.

  12. Earth and ocean modeling (United States)

    Knezovich, F. M.


    A modular structured system of computer programs is presented utilizing earth and ocean dynamical data keyed to finitely defined parameters. The model is an assemblage of mathematical algorithms with an inherent capability of maturation with progressive improvements in observational data frequencies, accuracies and scopes. The Eom in its present state is a first-order approach to a geophysical model of the earth's dynamics.

  13. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity (United States)

    Oostra, Benjamin


    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  14. Thinking the earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Vincent


    Quentin Meillassoux's call for realism is a call for a new interest in the Earth as un-correlated being in philosophy. Unlike Meillassoux, Martin Heidegger has not been criticized for being a correlationist. To the contrary, his concept of the Earth has to be understood as un-correlated being, as it

  15. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation (United States)

    Aldridge, Frederick T.


    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu.sub.5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo.sub.4 and CaNi.sub.5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation colum. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale mutli-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors.

  16. Cold regions isotope applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrigo, L.D.; Divine, T.E.


    Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) started the Cold Regions Isotope Applications Program in FY-1975 to identify special conditions in the Arctic and similar geographic areas (Cold Regions) where radioisotope power, heater, or sterilization systems would be desirable and economically viable. Significant progress was made in the first year of this program and all objectives for this initial 12-month period were achieved. The major conclusions and recommendations resulting for this effort are described below. The areas of interest covered include: radiosterilization of sewage; heating of septic tanks; and radioisotope thermoelectric generators as power sources for meteorological instruments and navigational aids. (TFD)


    Clewett, G.H.; Lee, DeW.A.


    A new method is described for isotopic enrichment of uranium. It has been found that when an aqueous acidic solution of ionic tetravalent uraniunn is contacted with chelate complexed tetravalent uranium, the U/sup 238/ preferentially concentrates in the complexed phase while U/sup 235/ concentrates in the ionic phase. The effect is enhanced when the chelate compound is water insoluble and is dissolved in a water-immiscible organic solvent. Cupferron is one of a number of sultable complexing agents, and chloroform is a suitable organic solvent.

  18. Mostly True Confessions: Joint Meaning-Making about the Thesis Journey. (United States)

    McAlpine, Lynn; Weiss, Joel


    Examines the thesis process from both student and faculty supervisory perspectives, using the experience of the joint authors as an example. Identifies and questions four assumptions underlying thesis supervision, such as "the supervisor and committee are experts whereas the student is a novice being initiated into the culture." Concludes that the…

  19. Understanding the up, back, and forward-component in master's thesis supervision with adaptivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kleijn, Renske A M; Bronkhorst, Larike H.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Pilot, Albert; Brekelmans, Mieke


    Despite the importance of goals in educational theories, goals in master's thesis projects are rarely investigated. Therefore, this study explores how goals play a role in master's thesis supervision in terms of: defining the goals (up-component); locating where the student stands in relation to the

  20. Understanding the Up, Back, and Forward-Component in Master's Thesis Supervision with Adaptivity (United States)

    de Kleijn, Renske A. M.; Bronkhorst, Larike H.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Pilot, Albert; Brekelmans, Mieke


    Despite the importance of goals in educational theories, goals in master's thesis projects are rarely investigated. Therefore, this study explores how goals play a role in master's thesis supervision in terms of: defining the goals (up-component); locating where the student stands in relation to the goals (back-component); and how the student can…

  1. Supporting the Thesis Writing Process of International Research Students through an Ongoing Writing Group (United States)

    Li, Linda Y.; Vandermensbrugghe, Joelle


    Evidence from research suggests writing support is particularly needed for international research students who have to tackle the challenges of thesis writing in English as their second language in Western academic settings. This article reports the development of an ongoing writing group to support the thesis writing process of international…

  2. Thesis by Publication in Education: An Autoethnographic Perspective for Educational Researchers (United States)

    Merga, Margaret K.


    Despite its growing popularity, the thesis by publication is a less conventional format for doctoral dissertations in the field of education. The author successfully undertook a thesis by publication in education from 2012, to submission in 2014. This paper draws on both the literature in the field and the experiences of the author through an…

  3. Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs about the Roles of Thesis Supervisors: A Case Study (United States)

    Tapia Carlín, Rebeca Elena


    Trainee beliefs about the roles of thesis supervisors can exert an important influence on timely and successful completion of theses. This research article explores pre-service teacher beliefs about the roles of thesis supervisors through the analysis of their learning diaries. The aim of this study is to identify ways to improve supervisory…

  4. An Analysis of Current Graduation Thesis Writing by English Majors in Independent Institute (United States)

    Han, Ying


    The paper takes 414 graduates from ZJU in 2011 and 2012, NIT as a case, analyzing the status of their writing of graduation thesis. It is found that a considerable number of students have problems in selection and report of topics, writing of each part and debating in the whole process of graduation thesis. In view of the situation, based on the…

  5. "Breaking the Mold" in the Dissertation: Implementing a Problem-Based, Decision-Oriented Thesis Project (United States)

    Archbald, Doug


    This article offers lessons from an initiative refashioning the doctoral thesis in an education leadership program. The program serves a practitioner clientele; most are teachers and administrators. The new model for the thesis emphasizes leadership, problem solving, decision making, and organizational improvement. The former model was a…

  6. [Vagotonía. The medical thesis of Salvador Zubirán]. (United States)

    Delgado, Guillermo; Estañol-Vidal, Bruno


    Salvador Zubirán submitted his thesis for his MD degree in 1923. This thesis falls within the context of the new Mexican physiological medicine and denotes the visionary character of its author. Zubirán appears here as the introducer in Mexico of the physiopharmacological approach in autonomic nervous system disorders.

  7. Student Engagement, Ideological Contest and Elective Affinity: The Zepke Thesis Reviewed (United States)

    Trowler, Paul


    This paper takes up issues raised in two articles by Nick Zepke and portrayed here as "the Zepke thesis". This thesis argues that the literature on, interest in and practices around student engagement in higher education have an elective affinity with neo-liberal ideology. At one level this paper counters many of the assertions that…

  8. A Tradition Unlike Any Other: Research on the Value of an Honors Senior Thesis (United States)

    Banks, H. Kay


    An honors senior thesis introduces students into a world of scholarship and professional activity in a way that no single course, either semester- or year-long, can do (Anderson, Lyons, and Weiner). Many honors educators consider honors thesis work to be the defining honors experience. For graduate schools, employers, and the students themselves,…

  9. The Focus of Supervisor Written Feedback to Thesis/Dissertation Students (United States)

    Bitchener, John; Basturkmen, Helen; East, Martin


    Written feedback on drafts of a thesis or dissertation is arguably the most important source of input on what is required or expected of thesis-writing students by the academic community. Despite its importance, relatively little is known about what type of information supervisors focus on when giving feedback. This article presents the findings…

  10. Factors Mediating the Interactions between Adviser and Advisee during the Master's Thesis Project: A Quantitative Approach (United States)

    Rodrigues Jr., Jose Florencio; Lehmann, Angela Valeria Levay; Fleith, Denise De Souza


    Building on previous studies centred on the interaction between adviser and advisee in masters thesis projects, in which a qualitative approach was used, the present study uses factor analysis to identify the factors that determine either a successful or unsuccessful outcome for the masters thesis project. There were five factors relating to the…

  11. Solid Earth: Introduction (United States)

    Rummel, R.


    The principles of the solid Earth program are introduced. When considering the study of solid Earth from space, satellites are used as beacons, inertial references, free fall probes and carrying platforms. The phenomenon measured by these satellites and the processes which can be studied as a result of these measurements are tabulated. The NASA solid Earth program focusses on research into surface kinematics, Earth rotation, land, ice, and ocean monitoring. The ESA solid Earth program identifies as its priority the Aristoteles mission for determining the gravity and magnetic field globally, with high spatial resolution and high accuracy. The Aristoteles mission characteristics and goals are listed. The benefits of the improved gravity information that will be provided by this mission are highlighted. This information will help in the following research: geodesy, orbit mechanics, geodynamics, oceanography, climate sea level, and the atmosphere.

  12. Effect of electron donors on the fractionation of sulfur isotopes by a marine Desulfovibrio sp. (United States)

    Sim, Min Sub; Ono, Shuhei; Donovan, Katie; Templer, Stefanie P.; Bosak, Tanja


    Sulfur isotope effects produced by microbial dissimilatory sulfate reduction are used to reconstruct the coupled cycling of carbon and sulfur through geologic time, to constrain the evolution of sulfur-based metabolisms, and to track the oxygenation of Earth's surface. In this study, we investigate how the coupling of carbon and sulfur metabolisms in batch and continuous cultures of a recently isolated marine sulfate reducing bacterium DMSS-1, a Desulfovibrio sp ., influences the fractionation of sulfur isotopes. DMSS-1 grown in batch culture on seven different electron donors (ethanol, glycerol, fructose, glucose, lactate, malate and pyruvate) fractionates 34S/ 32S ratio from 6‰ to 44‰, demonstrating that the fractionations by an actively growing culture of a single incomplete oxidizing sulfate reducing microbe can span almost the entire range of previously reported values in defined cultures. The magnitude of isotope effect correlates well with cell specific sulfate reduction rates (from 0.7 to 26.1 fmol/cell/day). DMSS-1 grown on lactate in continuous culture produces a larger isotope effect (21-37‰) than the lactate-grown batch culture (6‰), indicating that the isotope effect also depends on the supply rate of the electron donor and microbial growth rate. The largest isotope effect in continuous culture is accompanied by measurable changes in cell length and cellular yield that suggest starvation. The use of multiple sulfur isotopes in the model of metabolic fluxes of sulfur shows that the loss of sulfate from the cell and the intracellular reoxidation of reduced sulfur species contribute to the increase in isotope effects in a correlated manner. Isotope fractionations produced during sulfate reduction in the pure culture of DMSS-1 expand the previously reported range of triple sulfur isotope effects ( 32S, 33S, and 34S) by marine sulfate reducing bacteria, implying that microbial sulfur disproportionation may have a smaller 33S isotopic fingerprint

  13. Rare earth element mineralogy and geochemistry in a laterite profile from Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Alfons; Janots, Emilie; Gnos, Edwin


    In this study, rare earth element (REE) distribution has been investigated in a weathering profile from central Madagascar. Combination of bulk rock geochemical data (elements and isotopes) with mineral characterization reveals a remarkable evolution of the REE abundances and REE-minerals in the ......In this study, rare earth element (REE) distribution has been investigated in a weathering profile from central Madagascar. Combination of bulk rock geochemical data (elements and isotopes) with mineral characterization reveals a remarkable evolution of the REE abundances and REE...

  14. Spins, moments and radii of Cd isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Hammen, Michael

    The complex nature of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and the wide range of systems covered by the roughly 3000 known nuclides leads to a multitude of effects observed in nuclear structure. Among the most prominent ones is the occurence of shell closures at so-called ”magic numbers”, which are explained by the nuclear shell model. Although the shell model already is on duty for several decades, it is still constantly extended and improved. For this process of extension, fine adjustment and verification, it is important to have experimental data of nuclear properties, especially at crucial points like in the vicinity of shell closures. This is the motivation for the work performed in this thesis: the measurement and analysis of nuclear ground state properties of the isotopic chain of $^{100−130}$Cd by collinear laser spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted at ISOLDE/CERN using the collinear laser spectroscopy apparatus COLLAPS. This experiment is the continuation of a run on neutral atomic cadmium f...

  15. First-principles calculation for silicon isotope fractionation among mantle minerals (United States)

    Huang, F.; Wu, Z.; Huang, S.


    Comparisons of stable isotope composition (such as Si) of the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) with chondrites have provided essential constrains on composition, generation, and evolution of the Earth. Because terrestrial samples from the depths > 100 km are rare, most studies used basalts and peridotite xenoliths representing the BSE by assuming that the mantle is homogenous in Si isotopes (Armytage et al., 2011; Fitoussi and Bourdon, 2012; Savage et al., 2010). However, such assumption has never been rigorously scrutinized although significant isotope variations of Mg have been observed in mantle minerals. In this study, we will use first-principles calculations to estimate equilibrium fractionation factors of Si isotopes between minerals with silicon coordination number (CN#) of four (e.g., olivine, wadsleyite, and ringwoodite) and those with CN# of six (e.g., perovskite). Our results can be used to test whether the perovskite-rich lower mantle has different Si isotopic composition relative to the olivine-rich upper mantle. References: Armytage et al. 2011. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 75: 3662-3676; Fitoussi and Bourdon, B. 2012. Science, 335: 1477-1480; Savage et al. 2010. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 295: 139-146.

  16. Method of separating boron isotopes (United States)

    Jensen, Reed J.; Thorne, James M.; Cluff, Coran L.; Hayes, John K.


    A method of boron isotope enrichment involving the isotope preferential photolysis of (2-chloroethenyl)dichloroborane as the feed material. The photolysis can readily be achieved with CO.sub.2 laser radiation and using fluences significantly below those required to dissociate BCl.sub.3.

  17. a Walk Through Earth's Time (United States)

    Turrin, B. D.; Turrin, M.


    After "What is this rock?" the most common questions that is asked of Geologists is "How old is this rock/fossil?" For geologists considering ages back to millions of years is routine. Sorting and cataloguing events into temporal sequences is a natural tendency for all humans. In fact, it is an everyday activity for humans, i.e., keeping track of birthdays, anniversaries, appointments, meetings, AGU abstract deadlines etc… However, the time frames that are most familiar to the non scientist (seconds, minutes, hours, days, years) generally extend to only a few decades or at most centuries. Yet the vast length of time covered by Earth's history, 4.56 billion years, greatly exceeds these timeframes and thus is commonly referred to as "Deep Time". This is a challenging concept for most students to comprehend as it involves temporal and abstract thinking, yet it is key to their successful understanding of numerous geologic principles. We have developed an outdoor learning activity for general Introductory Earth Science courses that incorporates several scientific and geologic concepts such as: linear distance or stratigraphic thickness representing time, learning about major events in Earth's history and locating them in a scaled temporal framework, field mapping, abstract thinking, scaling and dimensional analysis, and the principles of radio isotopic dating. The only supplies needed are readily available in local hardware stores i.e. a 300 ft. surveyor's tape marked in feet, and tenths and hundredths of a foot, and the student's own introductory geology textbook. The exercise employs a variety of pedagogical learning modalities, including traditional lecture-based, the use of Art/Drawing, use of Visualization, Collaborative learning, and Kinesthetic and Experiential learning. Initially the students are exposed to the concept of "Deep Time" in a short conventional introductory lecture; this is followed by a 'field day'. Prior to the field exercise, students work with

  18. Earth, Wind and Fire. Natural air conditioning. Part 2. Research results; Earth, Wind and Fire. Natuurlijke airconditioning. Deel 2. Onderzoeksresultaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronsema, B. [Afdeling Architectural Engineering en Technology, Faculteit Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Delft TUD, Delft (Netherlands)


    The Earth, Wind and Fire concept transforms a building into a 'climate machine' which is powered by the natural forces and energy of the sun, wind, the mass of the earth and gravity. This second part provides a brief overview of the research. The full results are included in the thesis of the author [Dutch] Het Earth, Wind en Fire-concept voor natuurlijke airconditioning biedt meer zekerheid voor het realiseren van energieneutrale kantoorgebouwen dan mogelijk zou zijn door verbetering van bestaande technieken. Het concept maakt gebruik van de omgevingsenergie van aardmassa, wind en zon. In deel 1 worden de onderzoeksdoelen en -methoden van dit concept besproken. Dit deel 2 geeft een kort overzicht van de onderzoeksresultaten. De volledige resultaten van de basale en gedetailleerde modellen, de simulaties, de metingen in de fysieke modellen en het validatieproces zijn opgenomen in het proefschrift van de auteur.

  19. Chromium isotope uptake in carbonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodler, Alexandra

    retain an isotopically light Cr signature. Cr(VI) enriched in heavy Cr isotopes is then transported via river waters to the oceans and sequestered into marine sediments. Marine chemical sediments such asbanded iron formations and modern marine carbonates have proven useful in recording the Cr isotope...... with calcium carbonate in order to test the reliability of the Cr carbonate compositions. Several experimental approaches have been employed to elucidate the fractionation behavior of Cr isotopes when Cr(VI) is incorporated into calcium carbonate phases. These results indicate that at lower Cr concentrations......Chromium (Cr) is a redox sensitive element potentially capable of tracing fine-scale fluctuations of the oxygenation of Earth’s early surface environments and seawater. The Cr isotope composition of carbonates could perhaps be used as paleo-redox proxy to elucidate changes in the geological past...

  20. Earth as art three (United States)



    For most of us, deserts, mountains, river valleys, coastlines even dry lakebeds are relatively familiar features of the Earth's terrestrial environment. For earth scientists, they are the focus of considerable scientific research. Viewed from a unique and unconventional perspective, Earth's geographic attributes can also be a surprising source of awe-inspiring art. That unique perspective is space. The artists for the Earth as Art Three exhibit are the Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 satellites, which orbit approximately 705 kilometers (438 miles) above the Earth's surface. While studying the images these satellites beam down daily, researchers are often struck by the sheer beauty of the scenes. Such images inspire the imagination and go beyond scientific value to remind us how stunning, intricate, and simply amazing our planet's features can be. Instead of paint, the medium for these works of art is light. But Landsat satellite sensors don't see light as human eyes do; instead, they see radiant energy reflected from Earth's surface in certain wavelengths, or bands, of red, green, blue, and infrared light. When these different bands are combined into a single image, remarkable patterns, colors, and shapes emerge. The Earth as Art Three exhibit provides fresh and inspiring glimpses of different parts of our planet's complex surface. The images in this collection were chosen solely based on their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation only for your viewing pleasure. Enjoy!

  1. Sulfur isotopes in coal constrain the evolution of the Phanerozoic sulfur cycle. (United States)

    Canfield, Donald E


    Sulfate is the second most abundant anion (behind chloride) in modern seawater, and its cycling is intimately coupled to the cycling of organic matter and oxygen at the Earth's surface. For example, the reduction of sulfide by microbes oxidizes vast amounts of organic carbon and the subsequent reaction of sulfide with iron produces pyrite whose burial in sediments is an important oxygen source to the atmosphere. The concentrations of seawater sulfate and the operation of sulfur cycle have experienced dynamic changes through Earth's history, and our understanding of this history is based mainly on interpretations of the isotope record of seawater sulfates and sedimentary pyrites. The isotope record, however, does not give a complete picture of the ancient sulfur cycle. This is because, in standard isotope mass balance models, there are more variables than constraints. Typically, in interpretations of the isotope record and in the absence of better information, one assumes that the isotopic composition of the input sulfate to the oceans has remained constant through time. It is argued here that this assumption has a constraint over the last 390 Ma from the isotopic composition of sulfur in coal. Indeed, these compositions do not deviate substantially from the modern surface-water input to the oceans. When applied to mass balance models, these results support previous interpretations of sulfur cycle operation and counter recent suggestions that sulfate has been a minor player in sulfur cycling through the Phanerozoic Eon.

  2. Hydrogen Isotopes in Amino Acids and Soils Offer New Potential to Study Complex Processes (United States)

    Fogel, M. L.; Newsome, S. D.; Williams, E. K.; Bradley, C. J.; Griffin, P.; Nakamoto, B. J.


    Hydrogen isotopes have been analyzed extensively in the earth and biogeosciences to trace water through various environmental systems. The majority of the measurements have been made on water in rocks and minerals (inorganic) or non-exchangeable H in lipids (organic), important biomarkers that represent a small fraction of the organic molecules synthesized by living organisms. Our lab has been investigating hydrogen isotopes in amino acids and complex soil organic matter, which have traditionally been thought to be too complex to interpret owing to complications from potentially exchangeable hydrogen. For the amino acids, we show how hydrogen in amino acids originates from two sources, food and water, and demonstrate that hydrogen isotopes can be routed directly between organisms. Amino acid hydrogen isotopes may unravel cycling in extremophiles in order to discover novel biochemical pathways central to the organism. For soil organic matter, recent approaches to understanding the origin of soil organic matter are pointing towards root exudates along with microbial biomass as the source, rather than aboveground leaf litter. Having an isotope tracer in very complex, potentially exchangeable organic matter can be handled with careful experimentation. Although no new instrumentation is being used per se, extension of classes of organic matter to isotope measurements has potential to open up new doors for understanding organic matter cycling on earth and in planetary materials.

  3. Controls on Calcium Isotope Fractionation in Cultured Foraminifera (United States)

    Kisakurek, B.; Boehm, F.; Eisenhauer, A.; Hathorne, E.; Garbe-Schoenberg, D.; Erez, J.


    Calcium isotopes have recently emerged as an important tool to study the biomineralization pathways and processes in foraminifera. We analyzed calcium isotopes in planktonic and benthic foraminifera grown under controlled laboratory conditions at different salinity, temperature and pH values. Our results indicate that calcium isotope fractionation in foraminifera is controlled by more than one environmental parameter, requiring a common mechanism to explain the observed trends. There is a significant negative correlation between calcium isotope fractionation and the distribution coefficient of strontium in planktonic foraminifera, which has the same slope (within error) as that in inorganic calcite (Tang et al, 2008). In analogy to these inorganic experiments, calcium isotopic fractionation and Sr/Ca ratios in planktonic foraminifera appear to be mainly controlled by the precipitation rate. However, the two regressions (inorganic vs. foraminiferal) have a small but constant offset from each other by about 0.2 permil in delta(44Ca/40Ca) for a given D(Sr). This offset is presumably due to a vital effect that can be modeled via Rayleigh distillation from an internal biomineralization reservoir (Elderfield et al., 1996). Our preliminary results suggest that such a reservoir behaves as a semi-open system, wherein only less than 25 percent of the calcium taken up from seawater is being utilized for calcification. Elderfield, H., Bertram, C.J., Erez, J. 1996. A biomineralization model for the incorporation of trace elements into foraminiferal calcium carbonate. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 142:409-423. Tang J., Dietzel M., Boehm F., Koehler S.J., Eisenhauer A. 2008. Sr2+/Ca2+ and 44Ca/40Ca fractionation during inorganic calcite formation: II. Ca isotopes. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 72:3733-3745.

  4. Pyrite sulfur isotopes reveal glacial-interglacial environmental changes (United States)

    Pasquier, Virgil; Sansjofre, Pierre; Rabineau, Marina; Revillon, Sidonie; Houghton, Jennifer; Fike, David A.


    The sulfur biogeochemical cycle plays a key role in regulating Earth’s surface redox through diverse abiotic and biological reactions that have distinctive stable isotopic fractionations. As such, variations in the sulfur isotopic composition (δ34S) of sedimentary sulfate and sulfide phases over Earth history can be used to infer substantive changes to the Earth’s surface environment, including the rise of atmospheric oxygen. Such inferences assume that individual δ34S records reflect temporal changes in the global sulfur cycle; this assumption may be well grounded for sulfate-bearing minerals but is less well established for pyrite-based records. Here, we investigate alternative controls on the sedimentary sulfur isotopic composition of marine pyrite by examining a 300-m drill core of Mediterranean sediments deposited over the past 500,000 y and spanning the last five glacial-interglacial periods. Because this interval is far shorter than the residence time of marine sulfate, any change in the sulfur isotopic record preserved in pyrite (δ34Spyr) necessarily corresponds to local environmental changes. The stratigraphic variations (>76‰) in the isotopic data reported here are among the largest ever observed in pyrite, and are in phase with glacial-interglacial sea level and temperature changes. In this case, the dominant control appears to be glacial-interglacial variations in sedimentation rates. These results suggest that there exist important but previously overlooked depositional controls on sedimentary sulfur isotope records, especially associated with intervals of substantial sea level change. This work provides an important perspective on the origin of variability in such records and suggests meaningful paleoenvironmental information can be derived from pyrite δ34S records.

  5. Earth Science Informatics - Overview (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.


    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes over 180 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies.The talk will present an overview of current efforts in ESI, the role members of IEEE GRSS play, and discuss

  6. An experimental set-up for carbon isotopic analysis of atmospheric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 122; Issue 3. An experimental set-up for carbon isotopic analysis of atmospheric CO2 and an example of ecosystem response during solar eclipse 2010. Tania Guha Prosenjit Ghosh. Volume 122 Issue 3 June 2013 pp 623-638 ...

  7. Paleoarchean sulfur cycling : Multiple sulfur isotope constraints from the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montinaro, Alice; Strauss, Harald; Mason, Paul R D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829331; Roerdink, Desiree|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/318834340; Münker, Carsten; Schwarz-Schampera, Ulrich; Arndt, Nicholas T.; Farquhar, James; Beukes, Nicolas J.; Gutzmer, Jens; Peters, Marc


    Mass-dependent and mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation archived in volcanic and sedimentary rocks from the Barberton Greenstone Belt (3550-3215. Ma), South Africa, provide constraints for sulfur cycling on the early Earth. Four different sample suites were studied: komatiites and

  8. Food choice of Antarctic soil arthopods clarified by stable isotope signatures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, S.F.; Ronfort, C.; Huiskes, A.; Convey, P.; Aerts, R.


    Antarctic soil ecosystems are amongst the most simplified on Earth and include only few soil arthropod species, generally believed to be opportunistic omnivorous feeders. Using stable isotopic analyses, we investigated the food choice of two common and widely distributed Antarctic soil arthropod

  9. Food choice of Antarctic soil arthropods clarified by stable isotope signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, S.F.; Ronfort, C.; Huiskes, A.H.L.; Convey, P.; Aerts, R.A.M.


    Antarctic soil ecosystems are amongst the most simplified on Earth and include only few soil arthropod species, generally believed to be opportunistic omnivorous feeders. Using stable isotopic analyses, we investigated the food choice of two common and widely distributed Antarctic soil arthropod

  10. Earth before life. (United States)

    Marzban, Caren; Viswanathan, Raju; Yurtsever, Ulvi


    A recent study argued, based on data on functional genome size of major phyla, that there is evidence life may have originated significantly prior to the formation of the Earth. Here a more refined regression analysis is performed in which 1) measurement error is systematically taken into account, and 2) interval estimates (e.g., confidence or prediction intervals) are produced. It is shown that such models for which the interval estimate for the time origin of the genome includes the age of the Earth are consistent with observed data. The appearance of life after the formation of the Earth is consistent with the data set under examination.

  11. Project Earth Science

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, Geoff


    Project Earth Science: Astronomy, Revised 2nd Edition, involves students in activities that focus on Earth's position in our solar system. How do we measure astronomical distances? How can we look back in time as we gaze across vast distances in space? How would our planet be different without its particular atmosphere and distance to our star? What are the geometries among Earth, the Moon, and the Sun that yield lunar phases and seasons? Students explore these concepts and others in 11 teacher-tested activities.

  12. The Earth's Magnetic Interior

    CERN Document Server

    Petrovsky, Eduard; Harinarayana, T; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio


    This volume combines review and solicited contributions, related to scientific studies of Division I of IAGA presented recently at its Scientific Assembly in Sopron in 2009. The book is aimed at intermediate to advanced readers dealing with the Earth's magnetic field generation, its historical records in rocks and geological formations - including links to geodynamics and magnetic dating, with magnetic carriers in earth materials, electromagnetic induction and conductivity studies of the Earth interior with environmental applications of rock magnetism and electromagnetism. The aim of the book

  13. A proposal concerning the origin of life on the planet earth (United States)

    Woese, C. R.


    It is proposed that, contrary to the widely accepted Oparin thesis, life on earth arose not in the oceans but in the earth's atmosphere. Difficulties of the Oparin thesis relating to the nonbiological nature of prebiotic evolution are discussed, and autotrophic, photosynthetic cells are proposed as the first living organisms to emerge, thus avoiding these difficulties. Recent developments in the geology of the earth at the time of the emergence of life are interpreted as requiring the absence of liquid surface water, with water partitioned between a molten crust and a dense, CO2-rich atmosphere, similar to the present state of Venus. Biochemistry in such an atmosphere would be primarily membrane chemistry on the interfaces of atmospheric salt water droplets, proceeding at normal temperatures without the absorption of electrical discharges or UV light. Areas not sufficiently accounted for by this scenario include the development of genetic organization and the breaking of the runaway greenhouse condition assumed.

  14. Dendritic network models: Improving isoscapes and quantifying influence of landscape and in-stream processes on strontium isotopes in rivers (United States)

    Brennan, Sean R.; Torgersen, Christian; Hollenbeck, Jeff P.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Jensen, Carrie K; Schindler, Daniel E.


    A critical challenge for the Earth sciences is to trace the transport and flux of matter within and among aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric systems. Robust descriptions of isotopic patterns across space and time, called “isoscapes,” form the basis of a rapidly growing and wide-ranging body of research aimed at quantifying connectivity within and among Earth's systems. However, isoscapes of rivers have been limited by conventional Euclidean approaches in geostatistics and the lack of a quantitative framework to apportion the influence of processes driven by landscape features versus in-stream phenomena. Here we demonstrate how dendritic network models substantially improve the accuracy of isoscapes of strontium isotopes and partition the influence of hydrologic transport versus local geologic features on strontium isotope ratios in a large Alaska river. This work illustrates the analytical power of dendritic network models for the field of isotope biogeochemistry, particularly for provenance studies of modern and ancient animals.

  15. Earth Observation of Vegetation Dynamics in Global Drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Feng

    and exploring the widely used long-term datasets and 2) mapping trends in woody vegetation. A highlight of the thesis is the mapping of trends in the non-green woody vegetation component in global tropical drylands, which is obtained for the first time from combing satellite optical and passive microwave......Land degradation in global drylands has been a concern related to both the local livelihoods and the changes in terrestrial biosphere, especially in the context of substantial global environmental changes. Earth Observation (EO) provides a unique way to assess the vegetation dynamics over the past...... decades, which are keys to understanding the changes in global drylands. However, there are still large uncertainties and unknowns in the quality and capabilities of remote sensing data. This thesis contributes to an improved EO based assessment of dryland vegetation dynamics by 1) evaluating...

  16. Earliest life on earth

    CERN Document Server

    Golding, Suzanne D


    This volume integrates the latest findings on earliest life forms, identified and characterized in some of the oldest rocks on Earth. It places emphasis on the integration of analytical methods with observational techniques and experimental simulations.

  17. Earth retaining structures manual (United States)


    The objectives of this policy are to obtain statewide uniformity, establish standard : procedures and delineate responsibility for the preparation and review of plans, : design and construction control of earth retaining structures. In addition, it i...

  18. Gambling with the earth

    CERN Multimedia

    Muir, H


    The probability that dangerous Earth-devouring particles will be born at a new accelerator in the US may be tiny, but scientists have played down the devastating potential costs in their risk assessments according to a physicist (1 page).

  19. Earth's variable rotation (United States)

    Hide, Raymond; Dickey, Jean O.


    Recent improvements in geodetic data and practical meteorology have advanced research on fluctuations in the earth's rotation. The interpretation of these fluctuations is inextricably linked with studies of the dynamics of the earth-moon system and dynamical processes in the liquid metallic core of the earth (where the geomagnetic field originates), other parts of the earth's interior, and the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Fluctuations in the length of the day occurring on decadal time scales have implications for the topographay of the core-mantle boundary and the electrical, magnetic, ande other properties of the core and lower mantle. Investigations of more rapid fluctuations bear on meteorological studies of interannual, seasonal, and intraseasonal variations in the general circulation of the atmosphere and the response of the oceans to such variations.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


      The section features Earth Island's Dolphin Safe tuna . label (asking readers to look for tuna cans without the Dolphin Safe label and alert us so we can have the cans removed from store shelves...

  1. The Earth's rotation problem (United States)

    Brumberg, V. A.; Ivanova, T. V.


    The aim of the present paper is to find the trigonometric solution of the equations of the Earth's rotation around its centre of mass in the form of polynomial trigonometric series (Poisson series) without secular and mixed therms. For that the techniques of the General Planetary Theory (GPT) ( Brumberg, 1995) and the Poisson Series Processor (PSP) (Ivanova, 1995) are used. The GPT allows to reduce the equations of the translatory motion of the major planets and the Moon and the equations of the Earth's rotation in Euler parameters to the secular system describing the evolution of the planetary and lunar orbits (independent of the Earth's rotation) and the evolution of the Earth's rotation (depending on the planetary and lunar evolution).

  2. Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics


    Herndon, J. Marvin


    The principles of Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics are disclosed leading to a new way to interpret whole-Earth dynamics. Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics incorporates elements of and unifies the two seemingly divergent dominant theories of continential displacement, plate tectonics theory and Earth expansion theory. Whole-Earth decompression is the consequence of Earth formation from within a Jupiter-like protoplanet with subsequent loss of gases and ices and concomitant rebounding. The i...

  3. Competition from Isotopic Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Fabre


    Full Text Available During later MOIS3, in Europe two populations were present, autochthonous Neanderthals and modern humans. Ecological competition between these two populations has often been evoked but never demonstrated. Our aim is to establish whether resource competition occurred. In this paper, in order to examine the possibility of ecological competition between these two populations, 599 isotopic data were subjected to rigorous statistical treatment and analysis through mixing models. The aim of this paper was to compare dietary strategies of Neanderthals and modern humans over time. Our conclusions suggest that Neanderthals and modern humans shared dietary habits in the particular environmental context of MOIS3 characterised in Europe by climatic deterioration. In this environmental context, the resource competition between Neanderthals and modern humans may have accelerated the disappearance of the Neanderthal population.

  4. Zilsel's Thesis, Maritime Culture, and Iberian Science in Early Modern Europe. (United States)

    Leitão, Henrique; Sánchez, Antonio


    Zilsel's thesis on the artisanal origins of modern science remains one of the most original proposals about the emergence of scientific modernity. We propose to inspect the scientific developments in Iberia in the early modern period using Zilsel's ideas as a guideline. Our purpose is to show that his ideas illuminate the situation in Iberia but also that the Iberian case is a remarkable illustration of Zilsel's thesis. Furthermore, we argue that Zilsel's thesis is essentially a sociological explanation that cannot be applied to isolated cases; its use implies global events that involve extended societies over large periods of time.

  5. Element/Ca, C and O isotope ratios in modern brachiopods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullmann, C. V.; Frei, Robert; Korte, Christoph


    Fossil brachiopods are of major importance for the reconstruction of palaeoenvironmental conditions, particularly of the Paleozoic. In order to better understand signals of ancient shell materials, modern analogue studies have to be conducted. Here we present C and O isotope data in conjunction...... with Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Mn/Ca and Fe/Ca data for nine modern rhynchonellid and terebratulid brachiopod species from tropical to intermediate latitudes and shallow to very deep marine settings. C and O isotope signals of most species suggest formation of secondary shell layers near or in isotopic equilibrium...... linking the incorporation behaviour of alkaline earth metals to phylogeny. Sr/Ca show a strong negative correlation with δ13C values in terebratellidinid species which exhibit major isotopic disequilibrium and also combined data from three localities for which two species were studied indicate...

  6. Early inner solar system origin for anomalous sulfur isotopes in differentiated protoplanets. (United States)

    Antonelli, Michael A; Kim, Sang-Tae; Peters, Marc; Labidi, Jabrane; Cartigny, Pierre; Walker, Richard J; Lyons, James R; Hoek, Joost; Farquhar, James


    Achondrite meteorites have anomalous enrichments in (33)S, relative to chondrites, which have been attributed to photochemistry in the solar nebula. However, the putative photochemical reactions remain elusive, and predicted accompanying (33)S depletions have not previously been found, which could indicate an erroneous assumption regarding the origins of the (33)S anomalies, or of the bulk solar system S-isotope composition. Here, we report well-resolved anomalous (33)S depletions in IIIF iron meteorites (inner solar system (inner solar system S-isotope composition was chondritic (consistent with IAB iron meteorites, Earth, Moon, and Mars). The range of mass-independent sulfur isotope compositions may reflect spatial or temporal changes influenced by photochemical processes. A tentative correlation between S isotopes and Hf-W core segregation ages suggests that the two systems may be influenced by common factors, such as nebular location and volatile content.

  7. Energetics and control of ultracold isotope-exchange reactions between heteronuclear dimers in external fields (United States)

    Tomza, Michal


    We show that isotope-exchange reactions between ground-state alkali-metal, alkaline-earth-metal, and lanthanide heteronuclear dimers consisting of two isotopes of the same atom are exothermic with an energy change in the range of 1-8000 MHz, thus resulting in cold or ultracold products. For these chemical reactions, there are only one rovibrational and at most several hyperfine possible product states. The number and energetics of open and closed reactive channels can be controlled by the laser and magnetic fields. We suggest a laser-induced isotope- and state-selective Stark shift control to tune the exothermic isotope-exchange reactions to become endothermic, thus providing the ground for testing models of the chemical reactivity. The present proposal opens the way for studying the state-to-state dynamics of ultracold chemical reactions beyond the universal limit with a meaningful control over the quantum states of both reactants and products.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriani, O.; Bongi, M. [University of Florence, Department of Physics, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Barbarino, G. C. [University of Naples “Federico II,” Department of Physics, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Bazilevskaya, G. A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, RU-119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bellotti, R.; Bruno, A. [University of Bari, Department of Physics, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Formato, V. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Bogomolov, E. A. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RU-194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bottai, S. [INFN, Sezione di Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Cafagna, F. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Campana, D. [INFN, Sezione di Naples, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Carlson, P. [KTH, Department of Physics, and the Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Casolino, M.; Santis, C. De [University of Rome “Tor Vergata,” Department of Physics, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Castellini, G. [IFAC, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Donato, C. De; Simone, N. De; Felice, V. Di [INFN, Sezione di Rome “Tor Vergata,” I-00133 Rome (Italy); and others


    The cosmic-ray hydrogen and helium ({sup 1}H, {sup 2}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 4}He) isotopic composition has been measured with the satellite-borne experiment PAMELA, which was launched into low-Earth orbit on board the Resurs-DK1 satellite on 2006 June 15. The rare isotopes {sup 2}H and {sup 3}He in cosmic rays are believed to originate mainly from the interaction of high-energy protons and helium with the galactic interstellar medium. The isotopic composition was measured between 100 and 1100 MeV/n for hydrogen and between 100 and 1400 MeV/n for helium isotopes using two different detector systems over the 23rd solar minimum from 2006 July to 2007 December.

  9. Compelling Research Opportunities using Isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Isotopes are vital to the science and technology base of the US economy. Isotopes, both stable and radioactive, are essential tools in the growing science, technology, engineering, and health enterprises of the 21st century. The scientific discoveries and associated advances made as a result of the availability of isotopes today span widely from medicine to biology, physics, chemistry, and a broad range of applications in environmental and material sciences. Isotope issues have become crucial aspects of homeland security. Isotopes are utilized in new resource development, in energy from bio-fuels, petrochemical and nuclear fuels, in drug discovery, health care therapies and diagnostics, in nutrition, in agriculture, and in many other areas. The development and production of isotope products unavailable or difficult to get commercially have been most recently the responsibility of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy program. The President's FY09 Budget request proposed the transfer of the Isotope Production program to the Department of Energy's Office of Science in Nuclear Physics and to rename it the National Isotope Production and Application program (NIPA). The transfer has now taken place with the signing of the 2009 appropriations bill. In preparation for this, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) was requested to establish a standing subcommittee, the NSAC Isotope Subcommittee (NSACI), to advise the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics. The request came in the form of two charges: one, on setting research priorities in the short term for the most compelling opportunities from the vast array of disciplines that develop and use isotopes and two, on making a long term strategic plan for the NIPA program. This is the final report to address charge 1. NSACI membership is comprised of experts from the diverse research communities, industry, production, and homeland security. NSACI discussed research opportunities divided into three areas: (1

  10. Optimal Safety EarthingEarth Electrode Sizing Using A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a deterministic approach in the sizing of earth electrode using the permissible touch voltage criteria is presented. The deterministic approach is effectively applied in the sizing of the length of earth rod required for the safe earthing of residential and facility buildings. This approach ensures that the earthing ...

  11. Stable isotope analysis of the human body. What isotopes in our tissue can reveal and what not; Stabilisotopenanalysen am Menschen. Was die Isotopie unseres Koerpergewebes ueber uns verraet- und was nicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerger, Marlene [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany)


    Most isotopes in the natural environment are stable but there are radioactive isotopes. Premordial radionuclides are nuclides that exist since the development of the earth crust. Cosmogenic radionuclides are generated due to cosmic radiation (protons, electrons, ionized atoms) - for instance C-14. Radiogenic nuclides are daughter products of radioactive nuclei. Anthropogenic radionuclides are generated due to human activities. Deviations from a ''normal'' isotope distribution are used for environmental impact analysis and forensic purposes. The human provenance project was stopped.

  12. The 13 million year Cenozoic pulse of the Earth (United States)

    Chen, Jiasheng; Kravchinsky, Vadim A.; Liu, Xiuming


    The geomagnetic polarity reversal rate changes radically from very low to extremely high. Such process indicates fundamental changes in the Earth's core reorganization and core-mantle boundary heat flow fluctuations. However, we still do not know how critical such changes are to surface geology and climate processes. Our analysis of the geomagnetic reversal frequency, oxygen isotope record, and tectonic plate subduction rate, which are indicators of the changes in the heat flux at the core mantle boundary, climate and plate tectonic activity, shows that all these changes indicate similar rhythms on million years' timescale in the Cenozoic Era occurring with the common fundamental periodicity of ∼13 Myr during most of the time. The periodicity is disrupted only during the last 20 Myr. Such periodic behavior suggests that large scale climate and tectonic changes at the Earth's surface are closely connected with the million year timescale cyclical reorganization of the Earth's interior.

  13. Rigorous science - artistic freedom. The challenge of thesis supervision in an art university

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rinne, K; Sivenius, P


    .... The required dialogical and analytical relation between the written thesis and the productions is sometimes difficult to solve, and the definition of these key words has given rise to much debate...

  14. Thesis/Dissertation Writing for EFL Students: An ESP Course Design. (United States)

    Richards, Rebecca T.


    Describes an intensive English for Specific Purposes (ESP) thesis-writing course. The course focuses on total discourse learning needs and uses an interactive model of needs analysis to target the learning needs of students. (Author/CB)

  15. An Effective Supervisory Model to Help MA English Students in the Process of Writing Their Thesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rahmani Sangani, Hamid; Bassir, Seyed Iman; Jalali, Latifah


    Conducting a research project and writing up a thesis could be as nearly demanding as it is essential for MA students to achieve their academic goals, particularly in developing world contexts such as Iran...

  16. A statistical analysis of Chinese traditional sports science master′s degree thesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SHEN Wenjuan; GAO Mufeng; LUAN Leizu


    ... that the traditional national sports master's degree thesis should expand the theoretical depth; expand the scope of the study,in particular,focusing on some disappearing traditional national sports...

  17. Mountain Longleaf and Cahaba River Vegatation Data for Bat Survey Points (Kristofik Thesis; 2009-2010) (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From Kristofik Thesis:Vegetative surveys were conducted within a 25 m-radius plot centered on each surveypoint. The protocol used was developed as part of a...

  18. Cross-Disciplinary Variations: Japanese Novice Writers’ Socialization into the Undergraduate Thesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yamada, Kiyomi


    This study investigated, by means of an ethnographic approach, what exactly occurs when Japanese novice writers are socialized into the undergraduate thesis genre and how the processes differ among disciplines...

  19. Reconstructed ancestral enzymes suggest long-term cooling of Earth's photic zone since the Archean (United States)

    Garcia, Amanda K.; Schopf, J. William; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Akanuma, Satoshi; Yamagishi, Akihiko


    Paleotemperatures inferred from the isotopic compositions (δ18O and δ30Si) of marine cherts suggest that Earth’s oceans cooled from 70 ± 15 °C in the Archean to the present ˜15 °C. This interpretation, however, has been subject to question due to uncertainties regarding oceanic isotopic compositions, diagenetic or metamorphic resetting of the isotopic record, and depositional environments. Analyses of the thermostability of reconstructed ancestral enzymes provide an independent method by which to assess the temperature history inferred from the isotopic evidence. Although previous studies have demonstrated extreme thermostability in reconstructed archaeal and bacterial proteins compatible with a hot early Earth, taxa investigated may have inhabited local thermal environments that differed significantly from average surface conditions. We here present thermostability measurements of reconstructed ancestral enzymatically active nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDKs) derived from light-requiring prokaryotic and eukaryotic phototrophs having widely separated fossil-based divergence ages. The ancestral environmental temperatures thereby determined for these photic-zone organisms--shown in modern taxa to correlate strongly with NDK thermostability--are inferred to reflect ancient surface-environment paleotemperatures. Our results suggest that Earth's surface temperature decreased over geological time from ˜65-80 °C in the Archean, a finding consistent both with previous isotope-based and protein reconstruction-based interpretations. Interdisciplinary studies such as those reported here integrating genomic, geologic, and paleontologic data hold promise for providing new insight into the coevolution of life and environment over Earth history.

  20. Gravitational Microlensing of Earth-mass Planets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Kennet Bomann West

    It was only 17 years ago that the first planet outside of our own solar system was detected in the form of 51 Pegasi b. This planet is unlike anything in our own solar system. In fact, this planet was the first representative of a class of planets later known as “hot Jupiters”– gas giants......, i.e. it is much easier to detect high mass planets in close orbits. With these two methods it is hard to detect planets in an exo-solar system with a structure similar to our own solar system; specifically, it is hard to detect Earth-like planets in Earth-like orbits. It is presently unknown how...... common such planets are in our galaxy. There are a few other known methods for detecting exoplanets which have very different bias patterns. This thesis has been divided into two parts, treating two of these other methods. Part I is dedicated to the method of gravitational microlensing, a method...

  1. MATLAB simulation software used for the PhD thesis "Acquisition of Multi-Band Signals via Compressed Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    MATLAB simulation software used for the PhD thesis "Acquisition of Multi-Band Signals via Compressed Sensing......MATLAB simulation software used for the PhD thesis "Acquisition of Multi-Band Signals via Compressed Sensing...

  2. The Focus of Supervisor Written Feedback to Thesis/Dissertation Students


    John Bitchener; Helen Basturkmen; Martin East


    Written feedback on drafts of a thesis or dissertation is arguably the most important source of input on what is required or expected of thesis-writing students by the academic community. Despite its importance, relatively little is known about what type of information supervisors focus on when giving feedback. This article presents the findings of an exploratory, descriptive study that investigated what supervisors said they focused on when giving feedback. A total of 35 supervisors across t...

  3. Hope of Success and Fear of Failure Predicting Academic Procrastination Students Who Working on a Thesis


    Sari Zakiah Akmal; Fitri Arlinkasari; Andi Ulfa Febriani


    Students, who are working on the thesis, have some difficulties caused by internal and external factors. Those problems can disrupt the completion of their thesis, such as the tendency to do academic procrastination. Increasing achievement motivation can reduce academic procrastination. This study aims to look at the role of achievement motivation (hope of success and fear of failure) in predicting academic procrastination. The study used a quantitative approach by distributing academic procr...

  4. Academic Procrastination and Self-Control in Thesis Writing Students of Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Surabaya


    Ursia, Nela Regar; Siaputra, Ide Bagus; Sutanto, Nadia


    Procrastination has long been regarded as reflection of low self-control. The emergence of temporal motivation theory (TMT) as a theoretical framework to explain procrastination also supports the role of self-control in bringing forth procrastination. This study aimed to test the suitability of TMT in explaining correlational pattern of self-control and procrastination, both in general and in thesis completion. Subjects were 157 psychology students working on their thesis. The results show th...

  5. Silver isotope variation in ore deposits by MC-ICP-MS (United States)

    Fukuyama, M.; Lee, D.


    The isotopic composition of Ag has received special attention in the past because of its ability to trace processes in the very early solar system. These Ag isotopic measurements were previously performed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). The precision of TIMS analyses was limited to ~1-2 per mil, because Ag has only two isotopes, 107Ag and 109Ag. Such a level of precision is insufficient to examine small differences of silver isotope compositions on terrestrial samples. However, recent studies have taken advantage of the development in the field of multi-collector inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS), and have been able to improve the analytical precision to resolve sub-per mil differences in Ag isotopic compositions. This has led to the establishment of a bulk silicate Earth Ag isotopic composition (Schönbächler et al., 2010) and the discovery of Ag isotopic variation in native Ag metal samples from ore deposits, which have been attributed to mass dependent stable isotope fractionations during natural chemical processing (Hauri et al., 2000). This indicates that Ag isotopes may be a useful geochemical tracer, i.e., ore deposits and hydrothermal geochemistry studies. We have started to investigate the Ag isotopic variations for a series of ore deposits in Japan in order to better constrain the formation and evolution of these ore deposits. These include the Au-Ag epithermal vein type deposits (Asahi, Ohmidani, Koryu, Seikoshi, and Yatani), Pb-Zn vein type deposits (Toyoha), polymatallic vein type deposits (Yabu), and Kuroko type deposits (Ezuri, and Matsumine), while Ag occurs as either native or sulfide minerals in these deposits. Preliminary Ag isotopic data vary from -7.1 ɛ to 1.5 ɛ relative to the NIST SRM 978a, while both the lowest and highest Ag isotopic data were obtained from the Kuroko type deposits. These deposits have similar geological settings, origins, and depositional ages (14-13 Ma), yet they exhibit the

  6. The behavior of molybdenum and its isotopes across the chemocline and in the sediments of sulfidic Lake Cadagno, Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Tais W.; Anbar, Ariel D.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.


    Molybdenum (Mo) isotope studies in black shales can provide information about the redox evolution of the Earth's oceans, provided the isotopic consequences of Mo burial into its major sinks are well understood. Previous applications of the Mo isotope paleo-ocean redox proxy assumed quantitative...... concentrations correlate with total organic carbon and yield Mo levels which are two orders of magnitude higher than typical crustal values found in rocks from the catchment area. Solid-phase Mo in the sediment shows a slightly positive d98Mo trend with depth, from d98Mo = 1.2‰ to 1.4‰ while the pore waters show...

  7. Isotope-based quantum information

    CERN Document Server

    G Plekhanov, Vladimir


    The present book provides to the main ideas and techniques of the rapid progressing field of quantum information and quantum computation using isotope - mixed materials. It starts with an introduction to the isotope physics and then describes of the isotope - based quantum information and quantum computation. The ability to manipulate and control electron and/or nucleus spin in semiconductor devices provides a new route to expand the capabilities of inorganic semiconductor-based electronics and to design innovative devices with potential application in quantum computing. One of the major challenges towards these objectives is to develop semiconductor-based systems and architectures in which the spatial distribution of spins and their properties can be controlled. For instance, to eliminate electron spin decoherence resulting from hyperfine interaction due to nuclear spin background, isotopically controlled devices are needed (i.e., nuclear spin-depleted). In other emerging concepts, the control of the spatial...

  8. Isotope Geochronology: Models Versus Reality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jan Burchart


    Majority of the papers on isotopic dating of minerals and rocks have been devoted to some new geochronological data important for geology or to developments of apparatus and improvements of laboratory...

  9. Modeling the earth system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojima, D. [ed.


    The 1990 Global Change Institute (GCI) on Earth System Modeling is the third of a series organized by the Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies to look in depth at particular issues critical to developing a better understanding of the earth system. The 1990 GCI on Earth System Modeling was organized around three themes: defining critical gaps in the knowledge of the earth system, developing simplified working models, and validating comprehensive system models. This book is divided into three sections that reflect these themes. Each section begins with a set of background papers offering a brief tutorial on the subject, followed by working group reports developed during the institute. These reports summarize the joint ideas and recommendations of the participants and bring to bear the interdisciplinary perspective that imbued the institute. Since the conclusion of the 1990 Global Change Institute, research programs, nationally and internationally, have moved forward to implement a number of the recommendations made at the institute, and many of the participants have maintained collegial interactions to develop research projects addressing the needs identified during the two weeks in Snowmass.

  10. The Sun and Earth (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk


    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  11. Earth - Moon Conjunction (United States)


    On December 16, 1992, 8 days after its encounter with Earth, the Galileo spacecraft looked back from a distance of about 6.2 million kilometers (3.9 million miles) to capture this remarkable view of the Moon in orbit about Earth. The composite photograph was constructed from images taken through visible (violet, red) and near-infrared (1.0-micron) filters. The Moon is in the foreground; its orbital path is from left to right. Brightly colored Earth contrasts strongly with the Moon, which reacts only about one-third as much sunlight as our world. To improve the visibility of both bodies, contrast and color have been computer enhanced. At the bottom of Earth's disk, Antarctica is visible through clouds. The Moon's far side can also be seen. The shadowy indentation in the Moon's dawn terminator--the boundary between its dark and lit sides--is the South Pole-Aitken Basin, one of the largest and oldest lunar impact features. This feature was studied extensively by Galileo during the first Earth flyby in December 1990.

  12. The earth's hydrological cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, R-M; Calisto, M; Destouni, G; Gurney, R; Johannessen, J; Kerr, Y; Lahoz, WA; Rast, M


    This book gives a comprehensive presentation of our present understanding of the Earth's Hydrological cycle and the problems, consequences and impacts that go with this topic. Water is a central component in the Earth's system. It is indispensable for life on Earth in its present form and influences virtually every aspect of our planet's life support system. On relatively short time scales, atmospheric water vapor interacts with the atmospheric circulation and is crucial in forming the Earth's climate zones. Water vapor is the most powerful of the greenhouse gases and serves to enhance the tropospheric temperature. The dominant part of available water on Earth resides in the oceans. Parts are locked up in the land ice on Greenland and Antarctica and a smaller part is estimated to exist as groundwater. If all the ice over the land and all the glaciers were to melt, the sea level would rise by some 80 m. In comparison, the total amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is small; it amounts to ~ 25 kg/m2, or the ...

  13. A Juggling Act: Supervisor/Candidate Partnership in a Doctoral Thesis by Publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rohan nethsinghe


    Full Text Available Increasingly doctoral candidates are attempting to complete a thesis by publication. This format varies between universities but there are common issues particularly in terms of progression, planning and timing. There are both advantages and difficulties involved in undertaking a thesis in this format. Our discussion of the supervisor/candidate partnership is framed within the requirements of a tight journal publishing agenda. Different universities have different requirements about the number of published papers to be included, the extent of candidate’s contribution as sole or joint author, the framing of the research as a unified thesis, presentation, and examination. The decision to attempt a thesis by publication must be taken early and data collection may need to be completed early. Articles then need to be written, polished, submitted, reviewed, revised and, hopefully, accepted. The thesis by publication is a juggling act between maintaining coherence and focusing on publishable segments. It is also a dialogue between supervisor and candidate involving the resolution of sometimes conflicting demands. Employing Cognitive Apprenticeship theory we present a shared autophenomenography that chronicles our doctoral journey that led to a successful thesis by publication. The findings are discussed under thematic headings: Logistics, Cognitive Apprenticeship in Action, and Building Trust.

  14. Assessment of dental student satisfaction with regard to process of thesis educational courses. (United States)

    Eslamipour, Faezeh; Noroozi, Zahra; Hosseinpour, Kobra


    Ensuring achievement of research experience by students is one of the most important goals of the thesis-conduction process and evaluation of student satisfaction with this process is one of the most imperative challenges herein. The aim of this study is to investigate the satisfaction of dental students passing the thesis educational course from the Isfahan Dental School. Sixty-two dental students who had graduated in2011, from the Isfahan Dental School, participated in this descriptive cross-sectional study. The postgraduate Research Experience Questionnaire (PREQ) was used for data collection. The questionnaire evaluated student satisfaction in seven domains: Thesis supervision, skill development, intellectual climate, infrastructure, thesis examination, goals and expectations, and overall satisfaction. The data were analyzed on an SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean score of satisfaction of the participants was 75 ± 12. On the basis of their scores, satisfaction in 3.2% of them was slow, in 33.9%was medium, in 61.3% was good and in 1.6% was high. The highest satisfaction was found to be in thesis supervision and the least was in the intellectual climate domain. There was no significant statistical difference between satisfaction and gender (P = 0.46). Considering the results, to increase student satisfaction for passing the thesis courses, it is necessary to improve the intellectual climate in dental schools and also increase the research budget for more financial support of students to carry out their projects.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Fatahipour


    Full Text Available Amongst extensive research on thesis writing quality, few provide a detailed account of common writing challenges/errors as perceived by examiners vs. students. In this study, eight recent English theses marked-up by examiners and defended in Iranian universities were selected randomly among those thesis made available (n=45. Based on an appraisal of comments written by examiners, a set of common challenges were drawn, which was confirmed by observations made by the researcher in viva voce sessions and then inspired questions about thesis writing quality. When administered to twenty examiners and seventy students, the most recurring themes in their practice were confirmed. The results draw a more precise picture, than previously available, of what examiners actually expect of a thesis and found four major areas of challenges in thesis writing, classified under lack of clarity in explaining, thesis formatting, grammatical errors and organisational inconsistencies. Findings also discussed the most significant practices in writing each chapter and reveal differences in perceptions of students/ examiners.

  16. Pressure-dependent Isotopic Composition of Iron Alloys (United States)

    Reagan, M. M.; Shahar, A.; Schauble, E. A.; Caracas, R.; Gleason, A. E.; Elardo, S. M.; Xiao, Y.; Shu, J.; Mao, W. L.


    Understanding core formation, the main differentiation event in Earth's history, has important implications for our planet's geochemical and geophysical evolution, including the volatile cycle. Our current knowledge of core including formation processes as well as its composition is poorly constrained. For example, the identity of the light element present is still the subject of much debate and thus limits our understanding of the volatile cycle within the deep Earth. As carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are all cosmochemically abundant and have been proposed as possible candidates for the main light element in planetary cores, iron isotope fractionation could be a powerful tracer of the light-element composition in the core. It has the potential to shed light on whether these volatiles are sequestered in the core or remained in the magma ocean. This talk will focus on how pressure affects fractionation factors for these iron compounds relative to the silicate mantle. We collected high pressure synchrotron nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering data at Sector 16-ID-D of the Advanced Photon Source on 57Fe enriched Fe, FeO, FeHx and Fe3C from which we calculated iron isotope fractionation factors for these compounds. Our results suggest that core formation could leave an isotopic imprint on the silicate portion of Earth, which may be seen in natural samples. Moreover, the addition of different light elements or varying core formation conditions would modulate this imprint. Additionally, our results indicate that hydrogen or carbon is not likely the major light element in the core.

  17. Stable Chlorine Isotope Fractionation (United States)

    Sharp, Z.


    Chlorine isotope partitioning between different phases is not well understood. Pore fluids can have δ37Cl values as low as -8‰, with neoform sediments having strongly positive values. Most strikingly, volcanic gases have δ37Cl values that cover a range in excess of 14‰ (Barnes et al., this meeting). The large range is difficult to explain in terms of equilibrium fractionation, which, although calculated to be very large for Cl in different oxidation states, should be less than 2‰ between chloride species (Schauble et al., 2003, GCA). To address the discrepancy between Nature and theory, we have measured Cl isotope fractionation for selected equilibrium and disequilibrium experiments in order to identify mechanisms that might lead to large fractionations. 1) NaCl (s,l) NaCl (v): NaCl was sealed in an evacuated silica tube and heated at one end, causing vaporization and reprecipitation of NaCl (v) at the cool end of the tube. The fractionation is 0.2‰ at 700°C (halite-vapor) and 0.7‰ at 800°C (liquid-vapor), respectively. The larger fractionation at higher temperature may be related to equilibrium fractionation between liquid and gas vs. `stripping' of the solid in the lower T experiments. 2) Sodalite NaCl(l): Nepheline and excess NaCl were sealed in a Pt crucible at 825°C for 48 hrs producing sodalite. The measured newly-formed sodalite-NaCl fractionation is -0.2‰. 3) Volatilization of HCl: Dry inert gas was bubbled through HCl solutions and the vapor was collected in a downstream water trap. There was no fractionation for 12.4M HCl (HCl fuming) vapor at 25°C. For a 1 M boiling HCl solution, the HCl-vapor fractionation was ~9‰. The difference is probably related to the degree of dissociation in the acid, with HCl dissolved in water for the highly acidic solutions, and dissociated H3O+ and Cl- for lower concentrations. The HCl volatilization experiments are in contrast to earlier vapor-liquid experiments in NaCl-H2O system, where fractionation was

  18. Google Earth and Map Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula


    Full Text Available By starting Google Earth, the screen shows Earth from a great distance, e.g. from a satellite rotating around the Earth (Fig. 1. The graticule is drawn by using the Grid function from the View menu. Google Earth is a virtual globe which can be rotated in all directions using a mouse.

  19. Testing the Late-Veneer hypothesis with selenium isotopes (United States)

    Labidi, J.; Koenig, S.; Bennett, N.; Kurzawa, T.; Aierken, E.; Shahar, A.; Schoenberg, R.


    Selenium (Se) is a siderophile element displaying an excess abundance in Earth's mantle compared to experimental predictions [1], which may be attributed to the Late-Veneer. As Se is also volatile, testing the late-veneer addition of Se can constrain the origin of other volatile elements on Earth. Here we combine high-precision Se isotope measurements of metal-silicate partitioning experiments and chondrites to assess whether planetary differentiation could leave a measurable Se isotopic signature on planetary mantles. We performed Se isotopic measurements of 5 metal-silicate partitioning experiments and 20 chondrites of all major classes. Experiments were conducted at 1 GPa and 1650 C for 1 to 4 hours using the piston-cylinder apparatus at Carnegie's Geophysical Laboratory. After wet chemistry, data were obtained on a ThermoFisher Scientific™ NeptunePlus MC-ICP-MS at the University of Tübingen with a 74Se/77Se double spike technique. δ82/76Se values are given relative to NIST SRM-3149 and the external reproducibility calculated from duplicate meteorite analyses is ≤ 0.1‰ (2 s.d.). Chondrites vary over a 0.8‰ range of δ82/76Se values. CIs and CMs show evidence for heavier 82Se/76Se ratios, likely due to mixing processes in the proto-planetary nebula. When these isotopically heavier meteorites are excluded, remaining chondrites have δ82/76Se values varying over a 0.3‰ range, within uncertainty of previous results [2]. We suggest that these chondrites may be used to estimate a δ82/76Se value of bulk planets. At the conditions of our experiments, the partition coefficients for Se log Dmetal-silicate range from 0.7±0.1 to 1.9±0.1, consistent with previous work [1]. A small but resolvable Se isotopic fractionation was observed: 82Se/76Se ratios were enriched by ≤ 0.5‰ in the silicates relative to the metals. Thus, given current uncertainties for Se isotopic measurements, marginal differences between planetary mantles and chondrites may be resolved

  20. 7 CFR 3402.6 - Overview of the special international study and/or thesis/dissertation research travel allowance. (United States)


    ... thesis/dissertation research travel allowance. 3402.6 Section 3402.6 Agriculture Regulations of the... GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.6 Overview of the special international study and/or thesis... special international study or thesis/dissertation research travel allowance, the Project Director must...

  1. The Honors Thesis: A Handbook for Honors Directors, Deans, and Faculty Advisors. National Collegiate Honors Council Monograph Series (United States)

    Anderson, Mark; Lyons, Karen; Weiner, Norman


    This handbook is intended to help all those who design, administer, and implement honors thesis programs--honors directors, deans, staff, faculty, and advisors--evaluate their thesis programs, solve pressing problems, select more effective requirements or procedures, or introduce an entirely new thesis program. The authors' goal is to provide…

  2. On the Strategies of Graduation Thesis Writing Teaching of Translation Major Undergraduates Based on Eco-Translatology (United States)

    Lin, Wang


    Graduation thesis is an indispensible procedure for each undergraduate, which is crucial for successful graduation, employment, further study and even further development. However, due to most undergraduates' ignorance of academic writing and the deficiency of current thesis writing course, thesis writing ability can hardly be enhanced and…

  3. Dagik Earth and IUGONET (United States)

    Ebisawa, K.; Koyama, Y.; Saito, A.; Sakamoto, S.; Ishii, M.; Kumano, Y.; Hazumi, Y.


    In this paper we introduce two independent projects in progress in Japan. Dagik Earth is a visualization project of the Earth and planets on a spherical screen using only a standard PC and a projector. Surface images of the Earth or planets (or whatever having spherical shape) in the equirectangular (plate carre) projection are projected on a spherical screen in the orthographic projection. As a result, the spherical screen becomes a virtual digital globe, which can be rotated using mouse or remote controller. Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork (IUGONET) is a collaboration of five Japanese institutes to build a comprehensive database system for the metadata of the upper-atmospheric data taken by these institutes. We explain the IUGONET metadata database and iUgonet Data Analysis Software (UDAS) for upper atmospheric research.

  4. Better Than Earth (United States)

    Heller, René


    Do we inhabit the best of all possible worlds? German mathematician Gottfried Leibniz thought so, writing in 1710 that our planet, warts and all, must be the most optimal one imaginable. Leibniz's idea was roundly scorned as unscientific wishful thinking, most notably by French author Voltaire in his magnum opus, Candide. Yet Leibniz might find sympathy from at least one group of scientists - the astronomers who have for decades treated Earth as a golden standard as they search for worlds beyond our own solar system. Because earthlings still know of just one living world - our own - it makes some sense to use Earth as a template in the search for life elsewhere, such as in the most Earth-like regions of Mars or Jupiter's watery moon Europa. Now, however, discoveries of potentially habitable planets orbiting stars other than our sun - exoplanets, that is - are challenging that geocentric approach.

  5. How Big is Earth? (United States)

    Thurber, Bonnie B.


    How Big is Earth celebrates the Year of Light. Using only the sunlight striking the Earth and a wooden dowel, students meet each other and then measure the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes did it over 2,000 years ago. In Cosmos, Carl Sagan shared the process by which Eratosthenes measured the angle of the shadow cast at local noon when sunlight strikes a stick positioned perpendicular to the ground. By comparing his measurement to another made a distance away, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth. How Big is Earth provides an online learning environment where students do science the same way Eratosthenes did. A notable project in which this was done was The Eratosthenes Project, conducted in 2005 as part of the World Year of Physics; in fact, we will be drawing on the teacher's guide developed by that project.How Big Is Earth? expands on the Eratosthenes project by providing an online learning environment provided by the iCollaboratory,, where teachers and students from Sweden, China, Nepal, Russia, Morocco, and the United States collaborate, share data, and reflect on their learning of science and astronomy. They are sharing their information and discussing their ideas/brainstorming the solutions in a discussion forum. There is an ongoing database of student measurements and another database to collect data on both teacher and student learning from surveys, discussions, and self-reflection done online.We will share our research about the kinds of learning that takes place only in global collaborations.The entrance address for the iCollaboratory is

  6. Electron linac for medical isotope production with improved energy efficiency and isotope recovery (United States)

    Noonan, John; Walters, Dean; Virgo, Matt; Lewellen, John


    A method and isotope linac system are provided for producing radio-isotopes and for recovering isotopes. The isotope linac is an energy recovery linac (ERL) with an electron beam being transmitted through an isotope-producing target. The electron beam energy is recollected and re-injected into an accelerating structure. The ERL provides improved efficiency with reduced power requirements and provides improved thermal management of an isotope target and an electron-to-x-ray converter.

  7. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Méndez


    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  8. IR and the Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf; Stevenson, Hayley


    , in the end, one finite interconnected space. Together these two starting points make for the basic conundrum of Inter- national Relations and the Earth: how does a divided world live on a single globe? This introduction first provides an overview of the recent rise of ‘the environment’ in international......, ‘what has the environment ever done for IR?’, before the plan for the rest of the book sketches the content and direction of the ensuing chapters that explore the problematique of International Relations and the Earth....

  9. Coulomb dissociation reactions on molybdenum isotopes for astrophysics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershova, Olga


    Within the present work, photodissociation reactions on {sup 100}Mo, {sup 93}Mo and {sup 92}Mo isotopes were studied by means of the Coulomb dissociation method at the LAND setup at GSI. As a result of the analysis of the present experiment, integrated Coulomb excitation cross sections of the {sup 100}Mo({gamma},n), {sup 100}Mo({gamma},2n), {sup 93}Mo({gamma},n) and {sup 92}Mo({gamma},n) reactions were determined. A second important topic of the present thesis is the investigation of the efficiency of the CsI gamma detector. The data taken with the gamma calibration sources shortly after the experiment were used for the investigation. In addition, a test experiment in refined conditions was conducted within the framework of this thesis. Numerous GEANT3 simulations of the detector were performed in order to understand various aspects of its performance. As a result, the efficiency of the detector was determined to be approximately a factor of 2 lower than the efficiency expected from the simulation. (orig.)

  10. Can stable isotopes ride out the storms? The role of convection for water isotopes in models, records, and paleoaltimetry studies in the central Andes (United States)

    Rohrmann, Alexander; Strecker, Manfred R.; Bookhagen, Bodo; Mulch, Andreas; Sachse, Dirk; Pingel, Heiko; Alonso, Ricardo N.; Schilgen, Taylor F.; Montero, Carolina


    Globally, changes in stable isotope ratios of oxygen and hydrogen (δ18O and δD) in the meteoric water cycle result from distillation and evaporation processes. Isotope fractionation occurs when air masses rise in elevation, cool, and reduce their water-vapor holding capacity with decreasing temperature. As such, d18O and dD values from a variety of sedimentary archives are often used to reconstruct changes in continental paleohydrology as well as paleoaltimetry of mountain ranges. Based on 234 stream-water samples, we demonstrate that areas experiencing deep convective storms in the eastern south-central Andes (22 - 28° S) do not show the commonly observed relationship between δ18O and δD with elevation. These convective storms arise from intermontane basins, where diurnal heating forces warm air masses upward, resulting in cloudbursts and raindrop evaporation. Especially at the boundary between the tropical and extra-tropical atmospheric circulation regimes where deep-convective storms are very common (~ 26° to 32° N and S), the impact of such storms may yield non-systematic stable isotope-elevation relationships as convection dominates over adiabatic lifting of air masses. Because convective storms can reduce or mask the depletion of heavy isotopes in precipitation as a function of elevation, linking modern or past topography to patterns of stable isotope proxy records can be compromised in mountainous regions, and atmospheric circulation models attempting to predict stable isotope patterns must have sufficiently high spatial resolution to capture the fractionation dynamics of convective cells. Rohrmann, A. et al. Can stable isotopes ride out the storms? The role of convection for water isotopes in models, records, and paleoaltimetry studies in the central Andes. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 407, 187-195 (2014).

  11. Exploring the Middle Pleistocene Lake Suguta Sr-isotope Stratigraphic record (United States)

    Vonhof, Hubert; Junginger, Annett; Agmon, Nadav; Trauth, Martin


    Several studies into the Quaternary stratigraphic record of the Sr-isotope composition of paleolake Turkana in the East African Rift System (EARS) show how variation of climate left a signal of changing lacustrine Sr isotope values. This Sr isotope signal was captured in the lacustrine fossil record of the Turkana Basin, and can be a useful chemostratigraphic tool (e.g. Joordens et al., 2011; van der Lubbe et al., submitted). Such lacustrine Sr-isotope changes are believed to be paced by orbital-forced insolation cyclicity, and interpreted to be the result of changing contribution of run-off from different sub-catchments of lake Turkana, as climate change shifted regional rainfall patterns. Here, we present a first set of data from a middle Pleistocene stratigraphical sequence in the Suguta Valley, South of the Turkana Basin in the EARS. This sequence spans a couple of sedimentological cycles that potentially represent precession-forced lake level variation. In this setting, the Sr-isotope data do not vary in phase with these sedimentological cycles, but demonstrate a long trend of Sr isotope change. This may suggest that the catchment configuration of the Suguta Valley in the Mid Pleistocene was less suitable to record precession-forced hydroclimate change in Lacustrine Sr isotope ratios. This may have implications for the Turkana Basin Sr isotope record as well, because the two basins are believed to have been hydrologically connected in the Middle Pleistocene. references: 1)Joordens, J.C.A. et al., 2011. An astronomically-tuned climate framework for hominins in the Turkana Basin. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 307, 1-8. 2)van der Lubbe et al., submitted. Gradual or abrupt? Changes in water source of Lake Turkana (Kenya) during the African Humid Period inferred from Sr isotope ratios

  12. Ground Based Observation of Isotopic Oxygen in the Martian Atmosphere Using Infrared Heterodyne Spectroscopy (United States)

    Smith, R. L.; Kostiuk, T.; Livengood, T. A.; Fast, K. E.; Hewagama, T.; Delgado, J. D.; Sonnabend, G.


    Infrared heterodyne spectra of isotopic CO2 in the Martian atmosphere were obtained using the Goddard Heterodyne Instrument for Planetary Wind and Composition, HIPWAC, which was interfaced with the 3-meter telescope at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility- Spectra were colle cted at a resolution of lambda/delta lambda=10(exp 7). Absorption fea tures of the CO2 isotopologues have been identified from which isotop ic ratios of oxygen have been determined. The isotopic ratios O-17/O -16 and O-18/O-16 in the Martian atmosphere can be related to Martian atmospheric evolution and can be compared to isotopic ratios of oxyg en in the Earth's atmosphere. Isotopic carbon and oxygen are importa nt constraints on any theory for the erosion of the Martian primordia l atmosphere and the interaction between the atmosphere and surface o r subsurface chemical reservoirs. This investigation explored the pr esent abundance of the stable isotopes of oxygen in Mars' atmospheric carbon dioxide by measuring rovibrational line absorption in isotop ic species of CO2 using groundbased infrared heterodyne spectroscopy in the vicinity of the 9.6 micron and 10.6 micron CO2 lasing bands. T he target transitions during this observation were O-18 C-12 O-16 as well as O-178 C-12 O-16 and O-16 C-113 O-16 at higher resolving power of lambda/delta lambda=10(exp 7) and with high signal-to-noise ratio (longer integration time) in order to fully characterize the absorpt ion line profiles. The fully-resolved lineshape of both the strong n ormal-isotope and the weak isotopic CO2 lines were measured simultane ously in a single spectrum.

  13. Geochemical and iron isotopic insights into hydrothermal iron oxyhydroxide deposit formation at Loihi Seamount (United States)

    Rouxel, Olivier; Toner, Brandy; Germain, Yoan; Glazer, Brian


    Low-temperature hydrothermal vents, such as those encountered at Loihi Seamount, harbor abundant microbial communities and provide ideal systems to test hypotheses on biotic versus abiotic formation of hydrous ferric oxide (FeOx) deposits at the seafloor. Hydrothermal activity at Loihi Seamount produces abundant microbial mats associated with rust-colored FeOx deposits and variably encrusted with Mn-oxyhydroxides. Here, we applied Fe isotope systematics together with major and trace element geochemistry to study the formation mechanisms and preservation of such mineralized microbial mats. Iron isotope composition of warm (aged or less active deposits. These results are consistent with Fe(II) oxidation mediated by microbial processes considering the expected slow kinetics of abiotic Fe oxidation in low oxygen bottom water at Loihi Seamount. In contrast, FeOx deposits recovered at extinct sites have distinctly negative Fe-isotope values down to -1.77‰ together with significant enrichment in Mn and occurrence of negative Ce anomalies. These results are best explained by the near-complete oxidation of an isotopically light Fe(II) source produced during the waning stage of hydrothermal activity under more oxidizing conditions. Light Fe isotope values of FeOx are therefore generated by subsurface precipitation of isotopically heavy Fe-oxides rather than by the activity of dissimilatory Fe reduction in the subsurface. Overall, Fe-isotope compositions of microbial mats at Loihi Seamount display a remarkable range between -1.2‰ and +1.6‰ which indicate that Fe isotope compositions of hydrothermal Fe-oxide precipitates are particularly sensitive to local environmental conditions where they form, and are less sensitive to abiotic versus biotic origins. It follows that FeOx deposits at Loihi Seamount provides important modern analogues for ancient seafloor Fe-rich deposits allowing for testing hypotheses about the biogeochemical cycling of Fe isotopes on early Earth.

  14. DIORAMA Earth Terrain Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werley, Kenneth Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    When simulating near-surface nuclear detonations, the terrain of the Earth can have an effect on the observed outputs. The critical parameter is called the “height of burst”. In order to model the effect of terrain on the simulations we have incorporated data from multiple sources to give 9 km resolution data with global coverage.

  15. "Galileo Calling Earth..." (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This guide presents an activity for helping students understand how data from the Galileo spacecraft is sent to scientists on earth. Students are asked to learn about the concepts of bit-rate and resolution and apply them to the interpretation of images from the Galileo Orbiter. (WRM)

  16. Bones of the Earth (United States)

    Correa, Jose Miguel


    The film "Bones of the Earth" (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014) is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective…

  17. Earth's City Lights (United States)


    This image of Earth's city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region. Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya. The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based on DMSP data

  18. The Earth's Changing Climate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wavelength range between 0.2 and 4.0 microns (p,m). ... from the earth is in the long wavelength range from 4.0 to 80/-Lm. .... turing industry. But, it is removed from the atmosphere by the photosynthesis of plants. The largest reservoirs of carbon are in the deep oceans. Some of this reaches the atmosphere when waters.

  19. Modeling Earth's Climate (United States)

    Pallant, Amy; Lee, Hee-Sun; Pryputniewicz, Sara


    Systems thinking suggests that one can best understand a complex system by studying the interrelationships of its component parts rather than looking at the individual parts in isolation. With ongoing concern about the effects of climate change, using innovative materials to help students understand how Earth's systems connect with each other is…

  20. Understanding Earth's Albedo Effect (United States)

    Fidler, Chuck


    Earth and space science in the middle school classroom are composed of intricately intertwined sets of conceptual systems (AAAS 1993; NRC 1996). Some systems of study, such as the water and rock cycles, are quite explicit and often found as stand-alone middle school science units. Other phenomena are not so apparent, yet they play an extremely…

  1. How life shaped Earth. (United States)

    Gross, Michael


    Earth is much more complex than all the other solar system objects that we know. Thanks to its rich and diverse geology, our planet can offer habitats to a wide range of living species. Emerging insights suggest that this is not just a happy coincidence, but that life itself has in many ways helped to shape the planet.

  2. Earth's Reflection: Albedo (United States)

    Gillette, Brandon; Hamilton, Cheri


    When viewing objects of different colors, you might notice that some appear brighter than others. This is because light is reflected differently from various surfaces, depending on their physical properties. The word "albedo" is used to describe how reflective a surface is. The Earth-atmosphere has a combined albedo of about 30%, a number that is…

  3. Google Earth Science (United States)

    Baird, William H.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Secrest, Jeffery A.


    Google Earth has made a wealth of aerial imagery available online at no cost to users. We examine some of the potential uses of that data in illustrating basic physics and astronomy, such as finding the local magnetic declination, using landmarks such as the Washington Monument and Luxor Obelisk as gnomons, and showing how airport runways get…

  4. Between Earth and Sky

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Adrian


    to rescue architecture from the sterile impasse of late-modernism. In his works the basic elements of lived space become present: the earth, the sky and the `between` of human existence." Jørn Utzon's architecture ranges from the modest to the monumental; from the Kingo courtyard houses, the finest...

  5. Magnetic rare earth superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majkrzak, C.F.; Kwo, J.; Hong, M.


    Advances in molecular beam epitaxy deposition techniques have recently made it possible to grow, an atomic plane at a time, single crystalline superlattices composed of alternating layers of a magnetic rare earth, such as Gd, Dy, Ho, or Er, and metallic Y, which has an identical chemical structure...

  6. The iodine-plutonium-xenon age of the Moon-Earth system revisited. (United States)

    Avice, G; Marty, B


    Iodine-plutonium-xenon isotope systematics have been used to re-evaluate time constraints on the early evolution of the Earth-atmosphere system and, by inference, on the Moon-forming event. Two extinct radionuclides ((129)I, T1/2=15.6 Ma and (244)Pu, T1/2=80 Ma) have produced radiogenic (129)Xe and fissiogenic (131-136)Xe, respectively, within the Earth, the related isotope fingerprints of which are seen in the compositions of mantle and atmospheric Xe. Recent studies of Archaean rocks suggest that xenon atoms have been lost from the Earth's atmosphere and isotopically fractionated during long periods of geological time, until at least the end of the Archaean eon. Here, we build a model that takes into account these results. Correction for Xe loss permits the computation of new closure ages for the Earth's atmosphere that are in agreement with those computed for mantle Xe. The corrected Xe formation interval for the Earth-atmosphere system is [Formula: see text] Ma after the beginning of Solar System formation. This time interval may represent a lower limit for the age of the Moon-forming impact. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Isotope effects in photo dissociation of ozone with visible light (United States)

    Früchtl, Marion; Janssen, Christof; Röckmann, Thomas


    Ozone (O3) plays a key role for many chemical oxidation processes in the Earth's atmosphere. In these chemical reactions, ozone can transfer oxygen to other trace gases. This is particularly interesting, since O3 has a very peculiar isotope composition. Following the mass dependent fractionation equation δ17O = 0.52 * δ18O, most fractionation processes depend directly on mass. However, O3 shows an offset to the mass dependent fractionation line. Processes, which show such anomalies, are termed mass independent fractionations (MIF). A very well studied example for a chemical reaction that leads to mass independent fractionation is the O3 formation reaction. To what degree O3 destruction reactions need to be considered in order to understand the isotope composition of atmospheric O3 is still not fully understood and an open question within scientific community. We set up new experiments to investigate the isotope effect resulting from photo dissociation of O3 in the Chappuis band (R1). Initial O3 is produced by an electric discharge. After photolysis O3 is collected in a cold trap at the triple point temperature of nitrogen (63K). O3 is then converted to O2 in order to measure the oxygen isotopes of O3 using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. To isolate O3 photo dissociation (R1) from O3 decomposition (R2) and secondary O3 formation (R3), we use varying amounts of carbon monoxide (CO) as O atom quencher (R4). In this way we suppress the O + O3 reaction (R3) and determine the isotope fractionation in R1 and R2 separately. We present first results on the isotope effects in O3 photo dissociation with visible light in the presence of different bath gases. Results are interpreted based on chemical kinetics modeling. (R1) O3 + hυ → O (3P) + O2 (R2) O3 + O (3P) → 2 O2 (R3) O + O2 + M → O3 + M (R4) O (3P) + CO + M → CO2 + M

  8. Isotope shifts in francium isotopes Fr-213206 and 221Fr (United States)

    Collister, R.; Gwinner, G.; Tandecki, M.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Zhang, J.; Orozco, L. A.; Aubin, S.; Gomez, E.; FrPNC Collaboration


    We present the isotope shifts of the 7 s1 /2 to 7 p1 /2 transition for francium isotopes 206 -213Fr with reference to 221Fr collected from two experimental periods. The shifts are measured on a sample of atoms prepared within a magneto-optical trap by a fast sweep of radio-frequency sidebands applied to a carrier laser. King plot analysis, which includes literature values for 7 s1 /2 to 7 p3 /2 isotope shifts, provides a field shift constant ratio of 1.0520(10) and a difference between the specific mass shift constants of 170(100) GHz amu between the D1 and D2 transitions, of sufficient precision to differentiate between ab initio calculations.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Robert C. J.; Coath, Christopher D.; Regelous, Marcel; Elliott, Tim [Bristol Isotope Group, School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queen' s Road, Bristol BS8 1RJ (United Kingdom); Russell, Sara, E-mail: [Meteoritics and Cosmic mineralogy, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)


    We present new, mass-independent, Ni isotope data for a range of bulk chondritic meteorites. The data are reported as {epsilon}{sup 60}Ni{sub 58/61}, {epsilon}{sup 62}Ni{sub 58/61}, and {epsilon}{sup 64}Ni{sub 58/61}, or the parts per ten thousand deviations from a terrestrial reference, the NIST SRM 986 standard, of the {sup 58}Ni/{sup 61}Ni internally normalized {sup 60}Ni/{sup 61}Ni, {sup 62}Ni/{sup 61}Ni, and {sup 64}Ni/{sup 61}Ni ratios. The chondrites show a range of 0.15, 0.29, and 0.84 in {epsilon}{sup 60}Ni{sub 58/61}, {epsilon}{sup 62}Ni{sub 58/61}, and {epsilon}{sup 64}Ni{sub 58/61} relative to a typical sample precision of 0.03, 0.05, and 0.08 (2 s.e.), respectively. The carbonaceous chondrites show the largest positive anomalies, enstatite chondrites have approximately terrestrial ratios, though only EH match Earth's composition within uncertainty, and ordinary chondrites show negative anomalies. The meteorite data show a strong positive correlation between {epsilon}{sup 62}Ni{sub 58/61} and {epsilon}{sup 64}Ni{sub 58/61}, an extrapolation of which is within the error of the average of previous measurements of calcium-, aluminium-rich inclusions. Moreover, the slope of this bulk meteorite array is 3.003 {+-} 0.166 which is within the error of that expected for an anomaly solely on {sup 58}Ni. We also determined to high precision ({approx}10 ppm per AMU) the mass-dependent fractionation of two meteorite samples which span the range of {epsilon}{sup 62}Ni{sub 58/61} and {epsilon}{sup 64}Ni{sub 58/61}. These analyses show that 'absolute' ratios of {sup 58}Ni/{sup 61}Ni vary between these two samples whereas those of {sup 62}Ni/{sup 61}Ni and {sup 64}Ni/{sup 61}Ni do not. Thus, Ni isotopic differences seem most likely explained by variability in the neutron-poor {sup 58}Ni, and not correlated anomalies in the neutron-rich isotopes, {sup 62}Ni and {sup 64}Ni. This contrasts with previous inferences from mass-independent measurements of Ni and

  10. Carbon Isotopic Ratios of Amino Acids in Stardust-Returned Samples (United States)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.


    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned to Earth samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 in January 2006. Preliminary examinations revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds could not be identified. Here. we present the carbon isotopic ratios of glycine and E-aminocaproic acid (EACH), the two most abundant amino acids observed, in Stardust-returned foil samples measured by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio crass spectrometry coupled with quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QMS/IRMS).

  11. Medical Speciality Thesis: Contribution to a Controversial Issue with a Research Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Bilgin SAYDAM


    Full Text Available The aquisition of clinical and practical skills is the main target during the speciality training program. On the other hand, acquisition of skills in reading and interpreting scientific knowledge are also important training targets in order to develop and update clinical practice constantly. The process of thesis preparation during the speciality training provides an important opportunity to capture the skills in interpreting scientific knowledge. In Turkey, thesis writing has been obligatory for completion of speciality training for several years. Recently, there has been a discussion about the obligation for clinicians to write a thesis, especially those who are undertaking specialist training in education and research hospitals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pros and cons of thesis writing during speciality training using a questionnaire that was sent to specialists. This descriptive and analytical study was conducted as an e-questionnaire between December, 2013, and May, 2014. A likert scale consisted of 18 questions has been prepared in accordance with this study. Th e questionnaire was sent to 1536 physicians. 328 of the questionnaires have been included in the study by evaluating the responses obtained from 345 of the participants. Th e response rate was 23%. Th e Cronbach alpha coeff icient was 0.77. Out of the 328 questionnaires, 11.9 %were from Basic Medical Sciences, 57%from Internal Medical Sciences, and 30.2%from Surgical Medical Sciences. Among the respondents, the percentage of specialists, assistant professors, associate professors and professors were 20.7%, 8.2%, 13.7%, and 57.3%, respectively. Independent of specialty field and aff iliation, the respondents concluded that the conduction and thesis writing contributed to their scientific career in spite of the common problems they encountered regarding adequate time for preparation. Furthermore, they concluded that thesis writing had a positive eff ect in the

  12. [Science and art in the supervision of a thesis for a degree]. (United States)

    Sosa-Martínez, J


    The thesis required for the licenciature, master's degree and doctorate in any field of university education involves three components: the adviser, the student, and the research project that constitutes the subject matter of the thesis. In this paper the author examines in detail how each of these should be in the ideal situation and the defects they can have in real situations. Unfortunately, he observes, many institutions are neglecting--for a variety of reasons--the importance and significance of a well worked out thesis, and thus vitiating its original purpose in addition to depriving the student of an excellent opportunity for exercising his intelligence and imagination, and his adviser of one for imparting to him the cognitive, analytic and personal qualities needed to do good work. The article emphasizes that, particularly in medicine and biology, the research required for any thesis, done under a concerned and conscientious adviser, helps to produce a scientist who is truly able, studious, disciplined and, above all, humane. This, says the author, is how, from that combination of knowledge and behavior, of science and art, the student and his adviser unite to produce a thesis, a research project, the results of which can be of direct or indirect benefit to humanity.

  13. Is Hong Kong experiencing normalization of adolescent drug use? Some reflections on the normalization thesis. (United States)

    Cheung, Nicole W T; Cheung, Yuet W


    The upsurge of consumption of party drugs among adolescents in recent years in Hong Kong has been part of the global trend of adolescent recreational use of drugs at rave parties, discos and similar party settings. Scholars in Western societies have recently proposed the thesis of "normalization of adolescent drug use" to describe such a trend. The normalization thesis points at three major aspects of the normalization phenomenon, namely, a rapid increase of the prevalence of drug use in young people, the widespread popularity of recreational drug use that is closely linked with the recent arrival of dance club culture, and a receptive attitude towards drug use as a normal part of leisure. This article aims to examine whether the normalization thesis can be applied to analyze the situation of adolescent drug use in Hong Kong. Data are drawn from official statistics and a recent survey conducted in 2002-2004 of drug use of Hong Kong marginal youths (N = 504). The case of Hong Kong only partially supports the thesis. Our findings show that the normalization of drug use among young people has occurred in Hong Kong, but the extent of normalization is smaller than those in Western societies like the United Kingdom. They also suggest that a recognition of possible cultural differences may be complementary to the normalization thesis. Limitations of the study are also noted.

  14. Time-resolved crystallization of deeply cooled liquid hydrogen isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehnel, Matthias


    This thesis serves two main purposes: 1. The introduction of a novel experimental method to investigate phase change dynamics of supercooled liquids 2. First-time measurements for the crystallization behaviour for hydrogen isotopes under various conditions (1) The new method is established by the synergy of a liquid microjet of ∼ 5 μm diameter and a scattering technique with high spatial resolution, here linear Raman spectroscopy. Due to the high directional stability and the known velocity of the liquid filament, its traveling axis corresponds to a time axis static in space. Utilizing evaporative cooling in a vacuum environment, the propagating liquid cools down rapidly and eventually experiences a phase transition to the crystalline state. This temporal evolution is probed along the filament axis, ultimately resulting in a time resolution of 10 ns. The feasibility of this approach is proven successfully within the following experiments. (2) A main object of study are para-hydrogen liquid filaments. Raman spectra reveal a temperature gradient of the liquid across the filament. This behaviour can quantitatively be reconstructed by numerical simulations using a layered model and is rooted in the effectiveness of evaporative cooling on the surface and a finite thermal conductivity. The deepest supercoolings achieved are ∼ 30% below the melting point, at which the filament starts to solidify from the surface towards the core. With a crystal growth velocity extracted from the data the appropriate growth mechanism is identified. The crystal structure that initially forms is metastable and probably the result of Ostwald's rule of stages. Indications for a transition within the solid towards the stable equilibrium phase support this interpretation. The analog isotope ortho-deuterium is evidenced to behave qualitatively similar with quantitative differences being mass related. In further measurements, isotopic mixtures of para-hydrogen and ortho-deuterium are

  15. Li isotopic constraints from the Erro-Tobbio serpentinites on Alpine subduction processes (United States)

    Chu, M.-F.; Scambelluri, M.; Griffin, W. L.; O'Reilly, S. Y.; Pearson, N. J.


    Subduction zones represent a unique feature of the dynamic Earth and provide important constraints on how plate tectonics works. Subduction of serpentinized oceanic lithosphere, characterized by releasing water into the mantle wedge via dehydration, i.e. breakdown of hydrous minerals, plays a critical role in not only the generation of continental crust but also the Earth's water cycle. To track the recycling of water or fluid released by subduction, the stable isotope system of Li, a lithophile and mobile element, shows its high potential because 7Li, relative to 6Li, preferentially moves into the fluid phase when fractionation occurs. Here we present new Li abundance and isotopic compositions of the Erro-Tobbio serpentinized peridotite complex, a remnant mantle slice of the Alpine subduction. Our data indicate that most of the serpentinized ultramafic rocks have uniform Li concentrations, around 1 ppm. These rocks, however, show variable Li isotopic compositions. Among them, the high-pressure antigorite-bearing metaperidotites, formed under a low-strain condition, have a limited range in Li isotopic values, with δ7Li = +1.5 to +4.0, similar to those of serpentinized peridotites. In contrast, apparently heavier Li isotopes, up to +10.0, are observed in the high-pressure serpentinite mylonites that also contain antigorite but formed in high-strain domains. We note that O-H isotope ratios of the high-pressure ultramafic rocks reported in previous study (Früh-Green et al., 2001, Contrib. Mineral Petrol. 141: 145-159) show insignificant variations between the low- and high-strain domains. This demonstrates the superiority of Li isotope than conventional stable isotope systems in offering critical information about fluid-releasing processes in subduction zones. Moreover, our new data unsupport the general assumption that fluid released from subducted slabs is in favor of extracting 7Li than 6Li, thus capable of forming the much lighter δ7Li values observed in

  16. Growth, structure and lattice dynamics of rare earth silicide nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, Anja


    In the present thesis the epitaxial growth, crystal structure, stoichiometry, thermal stability and lattice dynamics of self-organized EuSi{sub 2} and DySi{sub 2} films, nanoislands and nanowires are investigated. The rare earth silicide (RESi) nanostructures have attracted considerable interest due to their high conductivity, very low Schottky barrier heights, remarkable chemical stability, self-organization in high area density and defects-free nano-objects with tunable size and shape, and the direct integration into the Si technology. The extensive research is driven by the continuous downscaling of the CMOS electronics that require new approaches in the devices architecture and circuits interconnects. Although RESi nanostructures attracted a lot of interest already several years ago and a lot of research has been done in this field, the lattice dynamics of these materials are still unknown. Recent developments at third generation synchrotron radiation sources have brought their performance to a stage where phonon spectroscopy of nanostructures and thin layers became feasible using nuclear inelastic X-ray scattering. This novel experimental technique is based on the process of phonon-assisted nuclear resonant absorption/emission of X-rays from the nuclei of Moessbauer-active isotopes. The method provides direct access to the phonon density of states (DOS) of the investigated element. Together with the ab initio calculations it was possible to get a comprehensive understanding of the lattice dynamics. EuSi{sub 2} films and nanoislands and DySi{sub 2} films, nanoislands and nanowires have been grown on the vicinal Si(001) surface by molecular beam epitaxy. While DySi{sub 2} was grown following known growth procedures, the growth conditions for EuSi{sub 2} had to be established first. EuSi{sub 2} was grown at two different growth conditions to study the influence of crystal structure and morphology upon different growth temperatures. The structure has been

  17. Visualizing Earth Materials (United States)

    Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A.; Stibbon, E.; Harris, R.


    Earth materials are fundamental to art. They are pigments, they are clay, they provide form and color. Earth scientists, however, rarely attempt to make the physical properties of Earth materials visible through art, and similarly many artists use Earth materials without fully understanding their physical and chemical properties. Here we explore the intersection between art and science through study of the physical properties of Earth materials as characterized in the laboratory, and as transferred to paper using different techniques and suspending media. One focus of this collaboration is volcanic ash. Ash is interesting scientifically because its form provides information on the fundamental processes that drive volcanic eruptions, and determines its transport properties, and thus its potential to affect populations far downwind of the volcano. Ash properties also affect its behavior as an art material. From an aesthetic point of view, ash lends a granular surface to the image; it is also uncontrollable, and thus requires engagement between artist and medium. More fundamentally, using ash in art creates an exchange between the medium and the subject matter, and imparts something of the physical, visceral experience of volcanic landscapes to the viewer. Another component of this work uses powdered rock as a printing medium for geologic maps. Because different types of rock create powders with different properties (grain size distributions and shapes), the geology is communicated not only as color, but also by the physical characteristics of the material as it interacts with the paper. More importantly, the use of actual rocks samples as printing material for geologic maps not only makes a direct connection between the map and the material it represents, but also provides an emotional connection between the map, the viewer and the landscape, its colors, textures and geological juxtapositions. Both case studies provide examples not only of ways in which artists can

  18. Earth Science Multimedia Theater (United States)

    Hasler, A. F.


    The presentation will begin with the latest 1998 NASA Earth Science Vision for the next 25 years. A compilation of the 10 days of animations of Hurricane Georges which were supplied daily on NASA to Network television will be shown. NASA's visualizations of Hurricane Bonnie which appeared in the Sept 7 1998 issue of TIME magazine. Highlights will be shown from the NASA hurricane visualization resource video tape that has been used repeatedly this season on network TV. Results will be presented from a new paper on automatic wind measurements in Hurricane Luis from 1 -min GOES images that will appear in the October BAMS. The visualizations are produced by the Goddard Visualization & Analysis Laboratory, and Scientific Visualization Studio, as well as other Goddard and NASA groups using NASA, NOAA, ESA, and NASDA Earth science datasets. Visualizations will be shown from the "Digital-HyperRes-Panorama" Earth Science ETheater'98 recently presented in Tokyo, Paris and Phoenix. The presentation in Paris used a SGI/CRAY Onyx Infinite Reality Super Graphics Workstation at 2560 X 1024 resolution with dual synchronized video Epson 71 00 projectors on a 20ft wide screen. Earth Science Electronic Theater '999 is being prepared for a December 1 st showing at NASA HQ in Washington and January presentation at the AMS meetings in Dallas. The 1999 version of the Etheater will be triple wide with at resolution of 3840 X 1024 on a 60 ft wide screen. Visualizations will also be featured from the new Earth Today Exhibit which was opened by Vice President Gore on July 2, 1998 at the Smithsonian Air & Space Museum in Washington, as well as those presented for possible use at the American Museum of Natural History (NYC), Disney EPCOT, and other venues. New methods are demonstrated for visualizing, interpreting, comparing, organizing and analyzing immense Hyperimage remote sensing datasets and three dimensional numerical model results. We call the data from many new Earth sensing satellites

  19. The Molybdenum Isotope System as a Tracer of Slab Input in Subduction Zones: An Example From Martinique, Lesser Antilles Arc (United States)

    Gaschnig, Richard M.; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Wang, Xiangli; Asael, Dan; Chauvel, Catherine


    Molybdenum isotopes are fractionated by Earth-surface processes and may provide a tracer for the recycling of crustal material into the mantle. Here, we examined the Mo isotope composition of arc lavas from Martinique in the Lesser Antilles arc, along with Cretaceous and Cenozoic Deep Sea Drilling Project sediments representing potential sedimentary inputs into the subduction zone. Mo stable isotope composition (defined as δ98Mo in ‰ deviation from the NIST 3134 standard) in lavas older than ˜7 million years (Ma) exhibits a narrow range similar to and slightly higher than MORB, whereas those younger than ˜7 Ma show a much greater range and extend to unusually low δ98Mo values. Sediments from DSDP Leg 78A, Site 543 have uniformly low δ98Mo values whereas Leg 14, Site 144 contains both sediments with isotopically light Mo and Mo-enriched black shales with isotopically heavy Mo. When coupled with published radiogenic isotope data, Mo isotope systematics of the lavas can be explained through binary mixing between a MORB-like end-member and different sedimentary compositions identified in the DSDP cores. The lavas older than ˜7 Ma were influenced by incorporation of isotopically heavy black shales into the mantle wedge. The younger lavas are the product of mixing isotopically light sedimentary material into the mantle wedge. The change in Mo isotope composition of the lavas at ˜7 Ma is interpreted to reflect the removal of the Cretaceous black shale component due to the arrival of younger ocean crust where the age-equivalent Cretaceous sediments were deposited in shallower oxic waters. Isotopic fractionation of Mo during its removal from the slab is not required to explain the observed systematics in this system.

  20. The microstructure of alkaline earth oxide electron emission material (United States)

    Blonski, Robert Peter

    Alkaline earth oxide coatings are used to lower the work-function of thermionic cathodes. Due to their extensive use in electronic vacuum tubes, significant efforts went into the study of their physics and chemistry. Currently, alkaline earth oxide coated tungsten filaments are used as thermionic cathodes in fluorescent discharge lamps. Elizabeth Grey, in 1951, published an emission current phase diagram of the BaO:SrO:CaO system which demonstrated that the central area of this composition space yielded eight times the emission current than compositions nearer the edges of the phase diagram. There has never been an explanation of why the central compositional area of the BaO:SrO:CaO system has a much lower work-function than other compositions. The objective of this thesis was to determine whether there are any microstructural features present in the central area of the BaO:SrO:CaO compositional space that could account for the improved electron emission of these compositions. Triple alkaline earth oxide compositions were examined via transmission electron microscopy of alkaline earth oxide electron emission material from fluorescent discharge lamp cathodes, and via X-ray diffraction from conventionally fired samples. In both cases, ordered phases with cation occupancy similar to hexagonal perovskite phases were identified. The hexagonal structures observed in this thesis study, and the fcc rock-salt structure that was expected, are all the result of ordered stacking of close-packed ions in the hexagonal c-direction. Whereas the fcc structure has a three layer repeat sequence, the ordered alkaline earth oxide phases observed in this study appear to have an eight layer repeat sequence. The effect of the observed super-lattice ordering on the band-structure of the alkaline earth oxide electron emission material may explain the low work-function of mixed akaline earth oxide coated cathodes. The behavior of both barium oxide and strontium oxide was also investigated