WorldWideScience

Sample records for earth history stasis

  1. Cell evolution and Earth history: stasis and revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2006-06-29

    This synthesis has three main parts. The first discusses the overall tree of life and nature of the last common ancestor (cenancestor). I emphasize key steps in cellular evolution important for ordering and timing the major evolutionary innovations in the history of the biosphere, explaining especially the origins of the eukaryote cell and of bacterial flagella and cell envelope novelties. Second, I map the tree onto the fossil record and discuss dates of key events and their biogeochemical impact. Finally, I present a broad synthesis, discussing evidence for a three-phase history of life. The first phase began perhaps ca 3.5 Gyr ago, when the origin of cells and anoxic photosynthesis generated the arguably most primitive prokaryote phylum, Chlorobacteria (= Chloroflexi), the first negibacteria with cells bounded by two acyl ester phospholipid membranes. After this 'chlorobacterial age' of benthic anaerobic evolution protected from UV radiation by mineral grains, two momentous quantum evolutionary episodes of cellular innovation and microbial radiation dramatically transformed the Earth's surface: the glycobacterial revolution initiated an oxygenic 'age of cyanobacteria' and, as the ozone layer grew, the rise of plankton; immensely later, probably as recently as ca 0.9 Gyr ago, the neomuran revolution ushered in the 'age of eukaryotes', Archaebacteria (arguably the youngest bacterial phylum), and morphological complexity. Diversification of glycobacteria ca 2.8 Gyr ago, predominantly inhabiting stratified benthic mats, I suggest caused serial depletion of 13C by ribulose 1,5-bis-phosphate caboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) to yield ultralight late Archaean organic carbon formerly attributed to methanogenesis plus methanotrophy. The late origin of archaebacterial methanogenesis ca 720 Myr ago perhaps triggered snowball Earth episodes by slight global warming increasing weathering and reducing CO2 levels, to yield runaway cooling; the origin of anaerobic methane

  2. Cell evolution and Earth history: stasis and revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This synthesis has three main parts. The first discusses the overall tree of life and nature of the last common ancestor (cenancestor). I emphasize key steps in cellular evolution important for ordering and timing the major evolutionary innovations in the history of the biosphere, explaining especially the origins of the eukaryote cell and of bacterial flagella and cell envelope novelties. Second, I map the tree onto the fossil record and discuss dates of key events and their biogeochemical i...

  3. Intelligent Design and Earth History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, W. A.

    2001-05-01

    clumsy, wasteful works of nature as seen in the suffering caused by parasites and in the delight in cruelty shown by some predators when catching and playing with their prey". The positions of other contemporary proponents of ID are far from uniform. Some, while rejecting unguided evolution, appear to accept the concepts of common descent and an Earth 4.6 billion years old. However, within the ID movement there has been very little discussion of its implications for Earth history. For example, is it valid to ask, "Were the Himalayas intelligently designed?" Or should the question be, "Is the physics of plate tectonics intelligently designed?" As well as contingency in the history of life, there are strong elements of contingency in the history of the Earth, in the history of the solar system and in the history of the cosmos. Does ID matter? From a purely operational viewpoint, the rock record could equally well be interpreted in pattern-based investigations as being the product of either naturalistic processes, or as a sequence of intelligently designed events. For example, in correlating horizons between adjacent oil wells using micropaleontology, or in doing seismic stratigraphy, it makes little difference whether foraminifera or unconformities formed by natural or supernatural agencies. However, ID is an anathema for process-based research and its cultural implications are enormous. While we must be careful in our work to separate methodological naturalism from culturally bound philosophical naturalism, methodological naturalism has been an enormously successful approach in the advancement of knowledge. We have moved from the "demon-haunted" world to the world of the human genome. We must take ID seriously; it is a retrograde step.

  4. Mass Extinctions in Earth's History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P. D.

    2002-12-01

    Mass extinctions are short intervals of elevated species death. Possible causes of Earth's mass extinctions are both external (astronomical) and internal (tectonic and biotic changes from planetary mechanisms). Paleontologists have identified five "major" mass extinctions (>50 die-off in less than a million years) and more than 20 other minor events over the past 550 million years. Earlier major extinction events undoubtedly also occurred, but we have no fossil record; these were probably associated with, for example, the early heavy bombardment that cleared out the solar system, the advent of oxygen in the atmosphere, and various "snowball Earth" events. Mass extinctions are viewed as both destructive (species death ) and constructive, in that they allow evolutionary innovation in the wake of species disappearances. From an astrobiological perspective, mass extinctions must be considered as able both to reduce biodiversity and even potentially end life on any planet. Of the five major mass extinctions identified on Earth, only one (the Cretaceous/Tertiary event 65 million years ago that famously killed off the dinosaurs ) is unambiguously related to the impact of an asteroid or comet ( 10-km diameter). The Permian/Triassic (250 Myr ago) and Triassic/Jurassic (202 Myr ago) events are now the center of debate between those favoring impact and those suggesting large volume flooding by basaltic lavas. The final two events, Ordovician (440 Myr ago) and Devonian (370 Myr ago) have no accepted causal mechanisms.

  5. Volatile accretion history of the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, B J; Halliday, A N; Rehkämper, M

    2010-10-28

    It has long been thought that the Earth had a protracted and complex history of volatile accretion and loss. Albarède paints a different picture, proposing that the Earth first formed as a dry planet which, like the Moon, was devoid of volatile constituents. He suggests that the Earth's complement of volatile elements was only established later, by the addition of a small veneer of volatile-rich material at ∼100 Myr (here and elsewhere, ages are relative to the origin of the Solar System). Here we argue that the Earth's mass balance of moderately volatile elements is inconsistent with Albarède's hypothesis but is well explained by the standard model of accretion from partially volatile-depleted material, accompanied by core formation.

  6. Communicating the History of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaonac'h, H.

    2009-05-01

    There is much to be learned from the relationship between scientific academic research and the way the public understands and perceives natural geological phenomena including catastrophic situations. While news about science discoveries or accidents is disseminated more and more rapidly than ever, its scientific content is still very low and usually not easy to understand - except for a small community of experts. On the other hand, scientists are increasingly able to predict - at least to some degree - catastrophes such as volcanic eruptions, flooding, landslides, etc. There is thus an urgency to better disseminate to the public the understanding of these natural events but with deeper perspectives that will provoke critical reactions from the public and thus proactive ways to access to knowledge. One particular point is to provide easy, non-dramatic scientific experience to young people. My own efforts in this direction started in 2002 with youth oriented outreach Web site 'Les Chroniques volcaniques avec Vicki Volka'. Over the years it has evolved and spawned a children's book about volcanoes, educational fact sheets, visits to schools, field geological excursions for the public and last year a day camp for 8-12 year olds. Supported through my research centre, GEOTOP, I have been able to put efforts towards a large range of ages. I will explain the most recent experience we conducted via the summer scientific 'academic' camp, starting last year with one theme about volcanoes and continuing this year with a complementary theme about fossils and Earth History. One key point is to introduce young people with many different ways to achieve scientific objectives and to encourage them to reproduce their results in front of a familiar audience (their families): this is a good way to lead the future generations to a high level of understanding of their environment, natural history as well as to taking responsibilities in front of crucial issues.

  7. Relationship between key events in Earth history

    CERN Document Server

    Gillman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A model of cyclical (sinusoidal) motion of the solar system, intercepting event lines distributed at fixed intervals, explains the pattern of timings of mass extinctions, earlier glaciations, largest impact craters and the largest known extrusions of magma in the history of the Earth. The model reveals links between several sets of key events, including the end-Cretaceous and end-Ordovician extinctions with the Marinoan glaciation, and the end-Permian with the end-Serpukhovian extinctions. The model is supported by significant clusters of events and a significant reduction of impact crater size with position (sine value). The pattern of event lines is sustained to the earliest-dated impact craters (2023 and 1849 Ma) and to the origin of the solar system, close to 4567.4 Ma. The implication is that, for the entirety of its existence, the solar system has passed in a consistent manner through a predictably structured galaxy. Dark matter is a possible contender for the structure determining the event lines.

  8. Sun-Earth Day Connects History, Culture and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, T.; Thieman, J.

    2003-12-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education forum annually promotes and event called Sun-Earth Day: a national celebration of the Sun, the space around the Earth (geospace), and how all of it affects life on our planet. For the past 3 years this event has provided a venue by which classrooms, museums, planetaria, and at NASA centers have had a sensational time sharing stories, images, and activities related to the Sun-Earth connections and the views o fthe Sun from Earth. Each year we select a different theme by which NASA Space Science can be further related to cross-curricular activities. Sun-Earth Day 2002, "Celebrate the Equinox", drew parallels between Native American Cultures and NASA's Sun-Earth Connection research via cultural stories, interviews, web links, activities and Native American participation. Sun-Earth Day 2003, "Live From the Aurora", shared the beauty of the Aurora through a variety of activities and stories related to perspectives of Northern Peoples. Sun-Earth Day 2004 will share the excitement of the transit of Venus through comparisons of Venus with Earth and Mars, calculations of the distances to nearby stars, and the use of transits to identify extra-solar planets. Finally, Sun-Earth Day 2005 will bring several of these themes together by turning our focus to the history and culture surrounding ancient observatories such as Chaco Canyon, Machu Picchu, and Chichen Itza.

  9. Stasis Theory and Paleontology Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcut, Kathryn M.

    2007-01-01

    Stasis theory is a powerful tool for rhetorical analysis, recently under fresh consideration by rhetorical theorists (e.g. Gross) and scholars who identify its utility in the writing classroom (e.g. Carroll). In this study, the author applies stasis theory to a paleontological argument involving a controversial fossil, "Protoavis texensis."…

  10. Earth and Mars: Water inventories as clues to accretional histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M.H.; Wanke, H.

    1992-01-01

    The Earth has 2.7 km of water on its surface. Its mantle contains at least 150 ppm water, and probably significantly more depending on the amount of undepleted mantle and subducted crustal water that is present. Geologic evidence suggests that a few hundred meters of water are close to the Martian surface, but evidence from SNC meteorites indicates that the Martian mantle is very dry, containing no more than about 35 ppm water. Part of the difference in water content of the mantles of the two planets is attributed to plate tectonics. However, the Earth's mantle appears to contain at least several times the water content of the Martian mantle, even accounting for plate tectonics. We attribute the difference to two possible causes. The first possibility is that melting of the Earth's surface during accretion, as a result of the development of a steam atmosphere, allowed impact-devolatized water at the surface to dissolve into the Earth's interior. In contrast, because of Mars' smaller size and greater distance from the Sun, the Martian surface may not have melted, so that the devolatilized water could not dissolve into the surface. A second and preferred possibility is that Mars, like the Earth, acquired a late volatile rich veneer, but it did not get folded into the interior as with the Earth, but instead remained as a water-rich veneer. The perception of Mars as having a wet surface, but a dry interior, is consistent with what we know of the geologic history of Mars, which can be viewed as the progressive intrusion and overplating of a water-rich crust by dry, mantle-derived volcanic rocks. ?? 1992.

  11. Subduction History and the Evolution of Earth's Lower Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Abigail; Shephard, Grace; Torsvik, Trond

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the complex structure, dynamics and evolution of the deep mantle is a fundamental goal in solid Earth geophysics. Close to the core-mantle boundary, seismic images reveal a mantle characterised by (1) higher than average shear wave speeds beneath Asia and encircling the Pacific, consistent with sub ducting lithosphere beneath regions of ancient subduction, and (2) large regions of anomalously low seismic wavespeeds beneath Africa and the Central Pacific. The anomalously slow areas are often referred to as Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs) due to the reduced velocity of seismic waves passing through them. The origin, composition and long-term evolution of the LLSVPs remain enigmatic. Geochemical inferences of multiple chemical reservoirs at depth, strong seismic contrasts, increased density, and an anticorrelation of shear wave velocity to bulk sound velocity in the anomalous regions imply that heterogeneities in both temperature and composition may be required to explain the seismic observations. Consequently, heterogeneous mantle models place the anomalies into the context of thermochemical piles, characterised by an anomalous component whose intrinsic density is a few percent higher relative to that of the surrounding mantle. Several hypotheses have arisen to explain the LLSVPs in the context of large-scale mantle convection. One end member scenario suggests that the LLSVPs are relatively mobile features over short timescales and thus are strongly affected by supercontinent cycles and Earth's plate motion history. In this scenario, the African LLSVP formed as a result of return flow in the mantle due to circum-Pangean subduction (~240 Ma), contrasting a much older Pacific LLSVP, which may be linked to the Rodinia supercontinent and is implied to have remained largely unchanged since Rodinian breakup (~750-700 Ma). This propounds that Earth's plate motion history plays a controlling role in LLSVP development, suggesting that the location

  12. Relamination of mafic subducting crust throughout Earth's history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunder, Ben; van Hunen, Jeroen; Magni, Valentina; Bouilhol, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Earth has likely cooled by several hundred degrees over its history, which has probably affected subduction dynamics and associated magmatism. Today, the process of compositional buoyancy driven upwelling, and subsequent underplating, of subducted materials (commonly referred to as ;relamination;) is thought to play a role in the formation of continental crust. Given that Archean continental crust formation is best explained by the involvement of mafic material, we investigate the feasibility of mafic crust relamination under a wide range of conditions applicable to modern and early Earth subduction zones, to assess if such a process might have been viable in an early Earth setting. Our numerical parametric study illustrates that the hotter, thicker-crust conditions of the early Earth favour the upward relamination of mafic subducting crust. The amount of relaminating subducting crust is observed to vary significantly, with subduction convergence rate having the strongest control on the volume of relaminated material. Indeed, removal of the entire mafic crust from the subducting slab is possible for slow subduction (∼2 cm/yr) under Archean conditions. We also observe great variability in the depth at which this separation occurs (80-120 km), with events corresponding to shallower detachment being more voluminous, and that relaminating material has to remain metastably buoyant until this separation depth, which is supported by geological, geophysical and geodynamical observations. Furthermore, this relamination behaviour is commonly episodic with a typical repeat time of approximately 10 Myrs, similar to timescales of episodicity observed in the Archean rock record. We demonstrate that this relamination process can result in the heating of considerable quantities of mafic material (to temperatures in excess of 900 °C), which is then emplaced below the over-riding lithosphere. As such, our results have implications for Archean subduction zone magmatism, for

  13. Earth observations from space: History, promise, and reality. Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In this report the Committee on Earth Studies (CES), a standing committee of the Space Studies Board (SSB) within the National Research Council (NRC), reviews the recent history (nominally from 1981 to 1995) of the U.S. earth observations programs that serve civilian needs. The principal observations programs examined are those of NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The Air Force' s Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) is discussed, but only from the perspective of its relationship to civil needs and the planned merger with the NOAA polar-orbiting system. The report also reviews the interfaces between the earth observations satellite programs and the major national and international environmental monitoring and research programs. The monitoring and research programs discussed are the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), the World Climate Research Program (WCRP), related international scientific campaigns, and operational programs for the sharing and application of environmental data. The purpose of this report is to provide a broad historical review and commentary based on the views of the CES members, with particular emphasis on tracing the lengthy record of advisory committee recommendations. Any individual topic could be the subject of an extended report in its own right. Indeed, extensive further reviews are already under way to that end. If the CES has succeeded in the task it has undertaken. This report will serve as a useful starting point for any such more intensive study. The report is divided into eight chapters: ( I ) an introduction, (2) the evolution of the MTPE, (3) its relationship to the USGCRP, (4) applications of earth observations data, (5) the role that smaller satellites can play in research and operational remote sensing, (6) earth system modeling and information systems, (7) a number of associated activities that contribute to the MTPE

  14. A Mathematic Approach to Nitrogen Fixation Through Earth History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Bonal, Alfonso; Martín-Torres, F. Javier

    Nitrogen is essential for life as we know it. According to phylogenetic studies, all organisms capable of fixing nitrogen are prokaryotes, both bacteria and archaea, suggesting that nitrogen fixation and ammonium assimilation were metabolic features of the Last Universal Common Ancestor of all organisms. At present time the amount of biologically fixed nitrogen is around 2 × 1{0}^{13} g/year (Falkowski 1997), an amount much larger than the corresponding to the nitrogen fixed abiotically (between 2. 6 ×109 and 3 × 1{0}^{11} g/year) (Navarro-González et al. 2001). The current amount of nitrogen fixed is much higher than it was on Earth before the Cambrian explosion, where the symbiotic associations with leguminous plants, the major nitrogen fixer currently, did not exist and nitrogen was fixed only by free-living organisms as cyanobacteria. It has been suggested (Navarro-González et al. 2001) that abiotic sources of nitrogen fixation during Early Earth times could have an important role triggering a selection pressure favoring the evolution of nitrogenase and an increase in the nitrogen fixation rate. In this study we present briefly a method to analyze the amount of fixed nitrogen, both biotic and abiotic, through Earth's history.

  15. Google earth as a source of ancillary material in a history of psychology class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevison, Blake K; Biggs, Patrick T; Abramson, Charles I

    2010-06-01

    This article discusses the use of Google Earth to visit significant geographical locations associated with events in the history of psychology. The process of opening files, viewing content, adding placemarks, and saving customized virtual tours on Google Earth are explained. Suggestions for incorporating Google Earth into a history of psychology course are also described.

  16. Thermal history of the Earth and its petrological expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Claude; Condie, Kent; Korenaga, Jun

    2010-03-01

    Non-arc basalts of Archean and Proterozoic age have model primary magmas that exhibit mantle potential temperatures TP that increase from 1350 °C at the present to a maximum of ˜ 1500-1600 °C at 2.5-3.0 Ga. The overall trend of these temperatures converges smoothly to that of the present-day MORB source, supporting the interpretation that the non-arc basalts formed by the melting of hot ambient mantle, not mantle plumes, and that they can constrain the thermal history of the Earth. These petrological results are very similar to those predicted by thermal models characterized by a low Urey ratio and more sluggish mantle convection in the past. We infer that the mantle was warming in deep Archean-Hadean time because internal heating exceeded surface heat loss, and it has been cooling from 2.5 to 3.0 Ga to the present. Non-arc Precambrian basalts are likely to be similar to those that formed oceanic crust and erupted on continents. It is estimated that ˜ 25-35 km of oceanic crust formed in the ancient Earth by about 30% melting of hot ambient mantle. In contrast, komatiite parental magmas reveal TP that are higher than those of non-arc basalts, consistent with the hot plume model. However, the associated excess magmatism was minor and oceanic plateaus, if they existed, would have had subtle bathymetric variations, unlike those of Phanerozoic oceanic plateaus. Primary magmas of Precambrian ambient mantle had 18-24% MgO, and they left behind residues of harzburgite that are now found as xenoliths of cratonic mantle. We infer that primary basaltic partial melts having 10-13% MgO are a feature of Phanerozoic magmatism, not of the early Earth, which may be why modern-day analogs of oceanic crust have not been reported in Archean greenstone belts.

  17. Revolutions in energy input and material cycling in Earth history and human history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Timothy M.; Pichler, Peter-Paul; Weisz, Helga

    2016-04-01

    Major revolutions in energy capture have occurred in both Earth and human history, with each transition resulting in higher energy input, altered material cycles and major consequences for the internal organization of the respective systems. In Earth history, we identify the origin of anoxygenic photosynthesis, the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis, and land colonization by eukaryotic photosynthesizers as step changes in free energy input to the biosphere. In human history we focus on the Palaeolithic use of fire, the Neolithic revolution to farming, and the Industrial revolution as step changes in free energy input to human societies. In each case we try to quantify the resulting increase in energy input, and discuss the consequences for material cycling and for biological and social organization. For most of human history, energy use by humans was but a tiny fraction of the overall energy input to the biosphere, as would be expected for any heterotrophic species. However, the industrial revolution gave humans the capacity to push energy inputs towards planetary scales and by the end of the 20th century human energy use had reached a magnitude comparable to the biosphere. By distinguishing world regions and income brackets we show the unequal distribution in energy and material use among contemporary humans. Looking ahead, a prospective sustainability revolution will require scaling up new renewable and decarbonized energy technologies and the development of much more efficient material recycling systems - thus creating a more autotrophic social metabolism. Such a transition must also anticipate a level of social organization that can implement the changes in energy input and material cycling without losing the large achievements in standard of living and individual liberation associated with industrial societies.

  18. Earth's Climate History from Glaciers and Ice Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lonnie

    2013-03-01

    Glaciers serve both as recorders and early indicators of climate change. Over the past 35 years our research team has recovered climatic and environmental histories from ice cores drilled in both Polar Regions and from low to mid-latitude, high-elevation ice fields. Those ice core -derived proxy records extending back 25,000 years have made it possible to compare glacial stage conditions in the Tropics with those in the Polar Regions. High-resolution records of δ18O (in part a temperature proxy) demonstrate that the current warming at high elevations in the mid- to lower latitudes is unprecedented for the last two millennia, although at many sites the early Holocene was warmer than today. Remarkable similarities between changes in the highland and coastal cultures of Peru and regional climate variability, especially precipitation, imply a strong connection between prehistoric human activities and regional climate. Ice cores retrieved from shrinking glaciers around the world confirm their continuous existence for periods ranging from hundreds to thousands of years, suggesting that current climatological conditions in those regions today are different from those under which these ice fields originated and have been sustained. The ongoing widespread melting of high-elevation glaciers and ice caps, particularly in low to middle latitudes, provides strong evidence that a large-scale, pervasive and, in some cases, rapid change in Earth's climate system is underway. Observations of glacier shrinkage during the 20th and 21st century girdle the globe from the South American Andes, the Himalayas, Kilimanjaro (Tanzania, Africa) and glaciers near Puncak Jaya, Indonesia (New Guinea). The history and fate of these ice caps, told through the adventure, beauty and the scientific evidence from some of world's most remote mountain tops, provide a global perspective for contemporary climate. NSF Paleoclimate Program

  19. Laws, Place, History and the Interpretation of Earth Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    The state of an Earth surface system (ESS is determined by three sets of factors: Laws, place, and history. Laws (L = L1, L2, . . . , Ln) are the n general principles, relationships, and representations applicable to any such system at any time. Place factors (P = P1, P2, . . . , Pm) are the m relevant properties or characteristics of the local or regional environment - e.g., climate, tectonic setting, geology, traits of the local biota, etc. History factors (H = H1 , H2, . . . , Hq) include the previous evolutionary pathway of the ESS, its stage of development, past disturbance, and in some contexts initial conditions. Geoscience investigation may be focused on laws (e.g., theoretical deductions, process modeling, laboratory experiments), place (e.g., regional geology or geography, soil-landscape studies), or history (e.g., paleoenvironmental studies, environmental history, historical geology or geography). Ultimately, however, all three sets of factors are necessary to fully understand and explain ESS. Beyond providing a useful checklist (analogous to the factorial models often used in pedology and ecology), the LPH framework gives us analytical traction to some difficult research problems. For example, studies of the avulsions of three southeast Texas rivers showed substantial differences in avulsion regimes and resulting alluvial morphology, despite the proximity and superficial similarity of the systems. Avulsion dynamics are governed by the same laws in all three cases [L(A) = L(B) = L(C)], and the three rivers, once part of a single system at lower sea-levels, have undergone the same sea-level, climate, and tectonic histories, as well as the same general types of anthropic impacts [H(A) ≈ H(B) ≈ H(C)]. Though the regional-scale environmental controls are similar, local details such as the location of the modern main channel relative to Pleistocene meander channels differ, and thus these place factors explain the differences between the rivers. The LPH

  20. The Treatment of Geological Time & the History of Life on Earth in High School Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Gerald; Decker, Todd; Barrow, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the importance of geological time in evolutionary biology, misconceptions about historical events in the history of life on Earth are common. Glenn (1990) has documented a decline from 1960 to 1989 in the amount of space devoted to the history of life in high school earth science textbooks, but we are aware of no similar study in…

  1. New Developments Regarding the KT Event and Other Catastrophes in Earth History

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference on New Developments Regarding the KT Event and Other Catastrophes in Earth History are included. Topics covered include: trajectories of ballistic impact ejecta on a rotating earth; axial focusing of impact energy in the earth's interior: proof-of-principle tests of a new hypothesis; in search of Nemesis; impact, extinctions, volcanism, glaciations, and tectonics: matches and mismatches.

  2. Evolution of marine and terrestrial geobiodiversity in the history of the earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    People have long been curious about the history of life on the earth-how many different species have existed, when they first occurred, how they evolved over geologic time, and how they reacted to major environmental crises.

  3. Earth's Volatiles History and Cycles: the Case of Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, H.; Marocchi, M.; Munsch, P.; Auzende, A.; Raepsaet, C.; Mezouar, M.; Testemale, D.; Kubsky, S.; Carriere, M.; Ricolleau, A.; Fiquet, G.

    2011-12-01

    Among the volatile elements present in our solar system, iodine is involved in mechanisms of primary importance during planet's evolution. The different isotopic signatures of 129Xe/132Xe for mantle and atmosphere between the Earth and Mars may reflect an early fractionation of xenon with respect to iodine. The role of fluids and more especially water is seriously envisaged to generate such a fractionation because whereas iodine is hydrophilic, xenon is not. Therefore iodine's early degassing with a water-rich fluid from a magma ocean is a good hypothesis to explain iodine, but also chlorine and bromine losses during early differentiation stages of the Earth. It was also shown that iodine is involved in natural ozone destruction in the Earth's atmosphere. Today we are able to detect iodine in volcanic emissions. The intensive subduction-zones volcanic degassing may explain the presence of iodine in the atmosphere if degassed together with water. The combination of synchrotron X-Ray characterization with diamond anvil cells, applied as magmatic and mantelic reactors to simulate pressure and temperature conditions of the planet interiors allows: (1) the characterization of fluids (aqueous, melt, supercritic) existing in the Earth; (2) element transfers via such fluids from depths to planets surfaces. Here, we have experimentally monitored iodine degassing from high pressure hydrous melts in situ in diamond anvil cells DAC by measuring iodine partitioning between aqueous fluids and hydrous melts during decompression. DAC experiments have been combined with high energy Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence at the beam lines Id27 and FAME from ESRF. Partition coefficients (D(I)fluid/melt = (I)fluid/(I)melt ) have been measured in situ from 500 to 900 °C and from 0.1 to 1.8 GPa. First results show that they are ranging from 1.9 (1.4 GPa) to 60 (0.1 GPa) and seem to tend to unity close to total miscibility between melts and aqueous fluids. At low pressure conditions (lower than

  4. How do we know about Earth's history? Constructing the story of Earth's geologic history by collecting and interpreting evidence based scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthford, Steven; DeBari, Susan; Linneman, Scott; Boriss, Miguel; Chesbrough, John; Holmes, Randall; Thibault, Allison

    2013-04-01

    Beginning in 2003, faculty from Western Washington University, Skagit Valley Community College, local public school teachers, and area tribal college members created an innovative, inquiry based undergraduate geology curriculum. The curriculum, titled "Energy and Matter in Earth's Systems," was supported through various grants and partnerships, including Math and Science Partnership and Noyce Teacher Scholarship grants from the National Science Foundation. During 2011, the authors wrote a geologic time unit for the curriculum. The unit is titled, "How Do We Know About Earth's History?" and has students actively investigate the concepts related to geologic time and methods for determining age. Starting with reflection and assessment of personal misconceptions called "Initial Ideas," students organize a series of events into a timeline. The unit then focuses on the concepts of relative dating, biostratigraphy, and historical attempts at absolute dating, including uniformitarianism, catastrophism, Halley and Joly's Salinity hypothesis, and Kelvin's Heat Loss model. With limited lecture and text, students then dive into current understandings of the age of the Earth, which include radioactive decay rates and radiometric dating. Finally, using their newfound understanding, students investigate a number of real world scenarios and create a timeline of events related to the geologic history of the Earth. The unit concludes with activities that reinforce the Earth's absolute age and direct students to summarize what they have learned by reorganizing the timeline from the "Initial Ideas" and sharing with the class. This presentation will include the lesson materials and findings from one activity titled, "The Earth's Story." The activity is located midway through the unit and begins with reflection on the question, "What are the major events in the Earth's history and when did they happen?" Students are directed to revisit the timeline of events from the "Initial Ideas

  5. Comparative Earth history and Late Permian mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, A. H.; Bambach, R. K.; Canfield, D. E.; Grotzinger, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    The repeated association during the late Neoproterozoic Era of large carbon-isotopic excursions, continental glaciation, and stratigraphically anomalous carbonate precipitation provides a framework for interpreting the reprise of these conditions on the Late Permian Earth. A paleoceanographic model that was developed to explain these stratigraphically linked phenomena suggests that the overturn of anoxic deep oceans during the Late Permian introduced high concentrations of carbon dioxide into surficial environments. The predicted physiological and climatic consequences for marine and terrestrial organisms are in good accord with the observed timing and selectivity of Late Permian mass extinction.

  6. History and Present Situation and Developing Tendency of Rare Earth Applied in Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@History of rare earth applied in agriculture Concept of rare earth Rare earth(RE for short)is a general designation of 17 elements,including 15 elements of lanthanum system,they are lanthanum (La),cerium (Ce),praseodymium (Pr),neodymium (Nd),promethium(Pm),samarium(Sm),europium(Eu),gadolinium(Gd),terbium(Tb),dysprosium(Dy),holmium(Ho),erbium(Er),thulium(Tm),ytterbium(Yb),lutetium(Lu)),and 2 elements of the same clan with lanthanum system: scandium (Se)and yttrium (Y) in the periodic table of elements.Rare earth look like earth or soil,and their quantity which may be separated from ore are very rare or few,so scientists call them rare earth elements.

  7. Plumes and Earth's Dynamic History : from Core to Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtillot, V. E.

    2002-12-01

    The last half century has been dominated by the general acceptance of plate tectonics. Although the plume concept emerged early in this story, its role has remained ambiguous. Because plumes are singularities, both in space and time, they tend to lie dangerously close to catastrophism, as opposed to the calm uniformitarian view of plate tectonics. Yet, it has become apparent that singular events and transient phenomena are of great importance, even if by definition they cover only a small fraction of geological time, in diverse observational and theoretical fields such as 1) magnetic reversals and the geodynamo, 2) tomography and mantle convection, 3) continental rifting and collision, and 4) evolution of the fluid envelopes (atmospheric and oceanic "climate"; evolution of species in the biosphere). I will emphasize recent work on different types of plumes and on the correlation between flood basalts and mass extinctions. The origin of mantle plumes remains a controversial topic. We suggest that three types of plumes exist, which originate at the three main discontinuities in the Earth's mantle (base of lithosphere, transition zone and core-mantle boundary). Most of the hotspots are short lived (~ 10Ma) and seem to come from the transition zone or above. Important concentrations occur above the Pacific and African superswells. Less than 10 hotspots have been long lived (~ 100Ma) and may have a very deep origin. In the last 50 Ma, these deep-seated plumes in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres have moved slowly, but motion was much faster prior to that. This change correlates with major episodes of true polar wander. The deeper ("primary") plumes are thought to trace global shifts in quadrupolar convection in the lower mantle. These are the plumes that were born as major flood basalts or oceanic plateaus (designated as large igneous provinces or LIPs). Most have an original volume on the order or in excess of 2.5 Mkm3. In most provinces, volcanism lasted on

  8. Experimental Researches of Blood Stasis and Aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王传社; 李顺成; 马治中; 李志新; 蒋文跃

    2001-01-01

    @@It was reported by most physicians of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in past dynasties that Deficiency of Zangfu(脏腑), Qi and blood, especially the Kidney deficiency, is closely related with aging, and Chinese drugs for fortifying Kidney also play a main role in anti-aging. Many scholars have recently studied the relationship between aging and the Excess Syndrome, such as blood stasis, stagnation of Phlegm Turbidity and stagnation of Qi, particularly the relationship between blood stasis and aging.

  9. Reconstructing the photometric light curves of Earth as a planet along its history

    OpenAIRE

    Sanromá, Esther; Pallé, Enric

    2011-01-01

    By utilizing satellite-based estimations of the distribution of clouds, we have studied the Earth's large-scale cloudiness behavior according to latitude and surface types (ice, water, vegetation and desert). These empirical relationships are used here to reconstruct the possible cloud distribution of historical epochs of the Earth's history such as the Late Cretaceous (90 Ma ago), the Late Triassic (230 Ma ago), the Mississippian (340 Ma ago), and the Late Cambrian (500 Ma ago), when the lan...

  10. A New Estimate of the Earth's Land Surface Temperature History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, R. A.; Curry, J. A.; Groom, D.; Jacobsen, B.; Perlmutter, S.; Rohde, R. A.; Rosenfeld, A.; Wickham, C.; Wurtele, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature team has re-evaluated the world's atmospheric land surface temperature record using a linear least-squares method that allow the use of all the digitized records back to 1800, including short records that had been excluded by prior groups. We use the Kriging method to estimate an optimal weighting of stations to give a world average based on uniform weighting of the land surface. We have assembled a record of the available data by merging 1.6 billion temperature reports from 16 pre-existing data archives; this data base will be made available for public use. The former Global Historic Climatology Network (GHCN) monthly data base shows a sudden drop in the number of stations reporting monthly records from 1980 to the present; we avoid this drop by calculating monthly averages from the daily records. By using all the data, we reduce the effects of potential data selection bias. We make an independent estimate of the urban heat island effect by calculating the world land temperature trends based on stations chosen to be far from urban sites. We calculate the effect of poor station quality, as documented in the US by the team led by Anthony Watts by estimating the temperature trends based solely on the stations ranked good (1,2 or 1,2,3 in the NOAA ranking scheme). We avoid issues of homogenization bias by using raw data; at times when the records are discontinuous (e.g. due to station moves) we break the record into smaller segments and analyze those, rather than attempt to correct the discontinuity. We estimate the uncertainties in the final results using the jackknife procedure developed by J. Tukey. We calculate spatial uncertainties by measuring the effects of geographical exclusion on recent data that have good world coverage. The results we obtain are compared to those published by the groups at NOAA, NASA-GISS, and Hadley-CRU in the UK.

  11. MagIC: Geomagnetic Applications from Earth History to Archeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, C.; Tauxe, L.; Koppers, A.; Minnett, R.; Jarboe, N.

    2016-12-01

    Major scientific challenges increasingly require an interdisciplinary approach, and highlight the need for open archives, incorporating visualization and analysis tools that are flexible enough to address novel research problems. Increasingly modern standards for publication are (or should be) demanding direct links to data, data citations, and adequate documentation that allow other researchers direct access to the fundamental measurements and analyses producing the results. Carefully documented metadata are essential and data models may need considerable complexity to accommodate re-use of observations originally collected with a different purpose in mind. The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) provides an online home for all kinds of paleo-, archeo-magnetic, rock, and environmental magnetic data, from documentation of fieldwork, through lab protocols, to interpretations in terms of geomagnetic history. Examples of their application to understanding geomagnetic field behavior, archeological dating, and voyages of exploration to discover America will be used to highlight best practices and illustrate unexpected benefits of data archived using best practices with the goal of maintaining high standards for reproducibility.

  12. Seeing the History of the Earth in the Cliffs at Møn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedin, Gry

    2013-01-01

    During the first part of the nineteenth century, geologists developed a history of the earth so different from that accepted in previous centuries that it encouraged a rethinking of the relationship between man and nature. In this article I will argue that painters followed these changes closely ...

  13. Evolution of marine and terrestrial geobiodiversity in the history of the earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN ShuZhong; ZHOU ZhongHe

    2010-01-01

    @@ People have long been curious about the history of life on the earth-how many different species have existed,when they first occurred, how they evolved over geologic time, and how they reacted to major environmental crises.Although tremendous progresses have been made during the past decades, mysteries in evolution of life abound that remain to be deciphered.changes.

  14. Reconstructing the photometric light curves of Earth as a planet along its history

    CERN Document Server

    Sanromá, Esther

    2011-01-01

    By utilizing satellite-based estimations of the distribution of clouds, we have studied the Earth's large-scale cloudiness behavior according to latitude and surface types (ice, water, vegetation and desert). These empirical relationships are used here to reconstruct the possible cloud distribution of historical epochs of the Earth's history such as the Late Cretaceous (90 Ma ago), the Late Triassic (230 Ma ago), the Mississippian (340 Ma ago), and the Late Cambrian (500 Ma ago), when the landmass distributions were different from today's. With this information, we have been able to simulate the globally-integrated photometric variability of the planet at these epochs. We find that our simple model reproduces well the observed cloud distribution and albedo variability of the modern Earth. Moreover, the model suggests that the photometric variability of the Earth was probably much larger in past epochs. This large photometric variability could improve the chances for the difficult determination of the rotation...

  15. Experimental Researches of Blood Stasis and Aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It was reported by most physicians of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in past dynasties that Deficiency of Zangfu(脏腑), Qi and blood, especially the Kidney deficiency, is closely related with aging, and Chinese drugs for fortifying Kidney also play a main role in anti-aging. Many scholars have recently studied the relationship between aging and the Excess Syndrome, such as blood stasis, stagnation of Phlegm Turbidity and stagnation of Qi, particularly the relationship between blood stasis and aging.……

  16. The effects of phase boundary induced layering on the Earth's thermal history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, S. L.

    2009-12-01

    The convective Urey ratio is equal to the instantaneous heating generated in the Earth's mantle by radioactive decay divided by the contribution of convection in Earth's mantle to Earth's surface heat flow. The measured heat flow at the Earth's surface as well as geochemical models for radioactive abundances give relatively low modern-day convective Urey ratios of roughly 0.4 while early parameterized modelling studies that treated the internal heating rate as a free parameter indicated relatively high modern-day Urey ratios of at least 0.6. Seismic tomographic images of subducting slabs and numerical simulations of convection in Earth's mantle indicate that convection is partially layered by the endothermic phase transition at 660-km depth in the mantle. In numerical simulations, the 660-km depth phase transition also leads to increased time-dependence of the mantle flow and mantle `avalanches'. Incomplete layering has been proposed as a mechanism that could store heat in Earth's lower mantle early in Earth's evolution and release it at later times when the degree of layering decreases thus allowing for the modern-day surface heat flow with a relatively low internal heating rate. In this contribution, the Earth's thermal history is simulated using both dynamic models of mantle circulation that include the effects of the mantle phase transitions and parametrized models of mantle heat transfer. In particular, we will show that for dynamic models with Earth-like parameters describing the 660-km-depth phase boundary that, although the mass flux at 660-km depth is partially impeded and avalanching takes place, the long-term evolution of the surface heat flow is very similar to models with no phase boundary induced layering and hence incomplete mantle layering is not a likely solution of the mantle heat flow paradox.

  17. The Sensitivity of Earth's Climate History To Changes In The Rates of Biological And Geological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltham, D.

    2014-12-01

    The faint young Sun paradox (early Earth had surface liquid water despite solar luminosity 70% of the modern value) implies that our planet's albedo has increased through time and/or greenhouse warming has fallen. The obvious explanation is that negative feedback processes stabilized temperatures. However, the limited temperature data available does not exhibit the expected residual temperature rise and, at least for the Phanerozoic, estimates of climate sensitivity exceed the Planck sensitivity (the zero net-feedback value). The alternate explanation is that biological and geological evolution have tended to cool Earth through time hence countering solar-driven warming. The coincidence that Earth-evolution has roughly cancelled Solar-evolution can then be explained as an emergent property of a complex system (the Gaia hypothesis) or the result of the unavoidable observational bias that Earth's climate history must be compatible with our existence (the anthropic principle). Here, I use a simple climate model to investigate the sensitivity of Earth's climate to changes in the rate of Earth-evolution. Earth-evolution is represented by an effective emissivity which has an intrinsic variation through time (due to continental growth, the evolution of cyanobacteria, orbital fluctuations etc) plus a linear feedback term which enhances emissivity variations. An important feature of this model is a predicted maximum in the radiated-flux versus temperature function. If the increasing solar flux through time had exceeded this value then runaway warming would have occurred. For the best-guess temperature history and climate sensitivity, the Earth has always been within a few percent of this maximum. There is no obvious Gaian explanation for this flux-coincidence but the anthropic principle naturally explains it: If the rate of biological/geological evolution is naturally slow then Earth is a fortunate outlier which evolved just fast enough to avoid solar-induced over

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid stasis and its clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whedon, James M; Glassey, Donald

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesize that stasis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) occurs commonly and is detrimental to health. Physiologic factors affecting the normal circulation of CSF include cardiovascular, respiratory, and vasomotor influences. The CSF maintains the electrolytic environment of the central nervous system (CNS), influences systemic acid-base balance, serves as a medium for the supply of nutrients to neuronal and glial cells, functions as a lymphatic system for the CNS by removing the waste products of cellular metabolism, and transports hormones, neurotransmitters, releasing factors, and other neuropeptides throughout the CNS. Physiologic impedance or cessation of CSF flow may occur commonly in the absence of degenerative changes or pathology and may compromise the normal physiologic functions of the CSF. CSF appears to be particularly prone to stasis within the spinal canal. CSF stasis may be associated with adverse mechanical cord tension, vertebral subluxation syndrome, reduced cranial rhythmic impulse, and restricted respiratory function. Increased sympathetic tone, facilitated spinal segments, dural tension, and decreased CSF flow have been described as closely related aspects of an overall pattern of structural and energetic dysfunction in the axial skeleton and CNS. Therapies directed at affecting CSF flow include osteopathic care (especially cranial manipulation), craniosacral therapy, chiropractic adjustment of the spine and cranium, Network Care (formerly Network Chiropractic), massage therapy (including lymphatic drainage techniques), yoga, therapeutic breath-work, and cerebrospinal fluid technique. Further investigation into the nature and causation of CSF stasis, its potential effects upon human health, and effective therapies for its correction is warranted.

  19. On the thermal and magnetic histories of Earth and Venus: Influences of melting, radioactivity, and conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, P.; Bercovici, D.

    2014-11-01

    The study of the thermal evolution of Earth's interior is uncertain and controversial in many respects, from the interpretation of petrologic observations used to infer the temperature and dynamics of the interior, to the physics and material properties governing heat transport. The thermal history of Venus is even more uncertain, but the lack of a dynamo at present in an otherwise similar planet may provide additional constraints on terrestrial planet evolution. In this paper a one dimensional thermal history model is derived that includes heat loss due to mantle melt eruption at the surface to explore its influence on the thermal and magnetic history of Earth and Venus. We show that the thermal catastrophe of Earth's mantle, which occurs for a present day Urey ratio of 1/3 and convective heat loss exponent of β=1/3, can be avoided by assuming a rather high core heat flow of ∼15 TW. This core heat flow also avoids the new core paradox by allowing for the geodynamo to be thermally powered prior to inner core growth for core thermal conductivities as high as 130 Wm K. Dynamo regime diagrams demonstrate that the mantle melt eruption rate has a minor effect on the history of mobile lid planets due to the efficiency of plate tectonic convective heat loss. However, if Earth were in a stagnant lid regime prior to 2.5 Ga, as has been proposed, then at least ∼5% of mantle melt is required to erupt in order to thermally power the paleodynamo at that time. Dynamo regime diagrams for stagnant lid Venus models indicate that more than half of the melt generated in the mantle is required to erupt in order to overcome the insulation imposed by the stagnant lid and drive a dynamo. This implies that with an Earth-like mantle radioactivity the Venusian dynamo shut down ∼0.3 Ga for an eruption efficiency of 50%, and ∼3 Ga for an eruption efficiency of zero. Consequently, a stagnant lid alone does not prevent a core dynamo if melting of the upper mantle provides a substantial

  20. Inquiry learning for gender equity using History of Science in Life and Earth Sciences’ learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present work is the selection and integration of objectives and methods of education for gender equity within the Life and Earth Sciences’ learning environments in the current portuguese frameworks of middle and high school. My proposal combines inquiry learning-teaching methods with the aim of promoting gender equity, mainly focusing in relevant 20th century women-scientists with a huge contribute to the History of Science. The hands-on and minds-on activities proposed for high scholl students of Life and Earth Sciences onstitute a learnig environment enriched in features of science by focusing on the work of two scientists: Lynn Margulis (1938-2011  and her endosymbiosis theory of the origin of life on Earth and Inge Leehman (1888-1993 responsible for a breakthrough regarding the internal structure of Earth, by caracterizing a discontinuity within the nucleus, contributing to the current geophysical model. For middle scholl students the learning environment includes Inge Leehman and Mary Tharp (1920-2006 and her first world map of the ocean floor. My strategy includes features of science, such as: theory-laden nature of scientific knowledge, models, values and socio-scientific issues, technology contributes to science and feminism.  In conclusion, I consider that this study may constitute an example to facilitate the implementation, by other teachers, of active inquiry strategies focused on features of science within a framework of social responsibility of science, as well as the basis for future research.

  1. Astrobiology, history, and society life beyond earth and the impact of discovery

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book addresses important current and historical topics in astrobiology and the search for life beyond Earth, including the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). The first section covers the plurality of worlds debate from antiquity through the nineteenth century, while section two covers the extraterrestrial life debate from the twentieth century to the present. The final section examines the societal impact of discovering life beyond Earth, including both cultural and religious dimensions. Throughout the book, authors draw links between their own chapters and those of other contributors, emphasizing the interconnections between the various strands of the history and societal impact of the search for extraterrestrial life. The chapters are all written by internationally recognized experts and are carefully edited by Douglas Vakoch, professor of clinical psychology at the California Institute of Integral Studies and Director of Interstellar Message Composition at the SETI Institute. This interd...

  2. Abrupt global events in the Earth's history: a physics perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryskin, Gregory, E-mail: ryskin@northwestern.ed [Robert R McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The timeline of the Earth's history reveals quasi-periodicity of the geological record over the last 542 Myr, on timescales close, in the order of magnitude, to 1 Myr. What is the origin of this quasi-periodicity? What is the nature of the global events that define the boundaries of the geological time scale? I propose that a single mechanism is responsible for all three types of such events: mass extinctions, geomagnetic polarity reversals, and sea-level fluctuations. The mechanism is fast, and involves a significant energy release. The mechanism is unlikely to have astronomical causes, both because of the energies involved and because it acts quasi-periodically. It must then be sought within the Earth itself. And it must be capable of reversing the Earth's magnetic field. The last requirement makes it incompatible with the consensus model of the origin of the geomagnetic field-the hydromagnetic dynamo operating in the Earth's fluid core. In the second part of the paper, I show that a vast amount of seemingly unconnected geophysical and geological data can be understood in a unified way if the source of the Earth's main magnetic field is a {approx}200 km thick lithosphere, repeatedly magnetized as a result of methane-driven oceanic eruptions, which produce ocean flow capable of dynamo action. The eruptions are driven by the interplay of buoyancy forces and exsolution of dissolved gas, which accumulates in the oceanic water masses prone to stagnation and anoxia. Polarity reversals, mass extinctions and sequence boundaries are consequences of these eruptions. Unlike the consensus model of geomagnetism, this scenario is consistent with the paleomagnetic data showing that 'directional changes during a reversal can be astonishingly fast, possibly occurring as a nearly instantaneous jump from one inclined dipolar state to another in the opposite hemisphere'.

  3. Thermal History of Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springmann, Alessondra; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2016-10-01

    The connection between orbital and temperature history of small Solar System bodies has only been studied through modeling. The upcoming OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission provides an opportunity to connect thermal modeling predictions with laboratory studies of meteorites to predict past heating and thus dynamical histories of bodies such as OSIRIS-REx mission target asteroid (101955) Bennu. Bennu is a desirable target for asteroid sample return due to its inferred primitive nature, likely 4.5 Gyr old, with chemistry and mineralogy established in the first 10 Myr of solar system history (Lauretta et al. 2015). Delbo & Michel (2011) studied connections between the temperature and orbital history of Bennu. Their results suggest that the surface of Bennu (assuming no regolith turnover) has a 50% probability of being heated to 500 K in the past. Further, the Delbo & Michel simulations show that the temperature within the asteroid below the top layer of regolith could remain at temperatures ~100 K below that of the surface. The Touch-And-Go Sample Acquisition Mechanism on OSIRIS-REx could access both the surface and near surface regolith, collecting primitive asteroid material for study in Earth-based laboratories in 2023. To quantify the effects of thermal metamorphism on the Bennu regolith, laboratory heating experiments on carbonaceous chondrite meteorites with compositions likely similar to that of Bennu were conducted from 300-1200 K. These experiments show mobilization and volatilization of a suite of labile elements (sulfur, mercury, arsenic, tellurium, selenium, antimony, and cadmium) at temperatures that could be reached by asteroids that cross Mercury's orbit. We are able to quantify element loss with temperature for several carbonaceous chondrites and use these results to constrain past orbital histories of Bennu. When OSIRIS-REx samples arrive for analysis we will be able to measure labile element loss in the material, determine maximum past

  4. Hot super-Earths and giant planet cores from different migration histories

    CERN Document Server

    Cossou, Christophe; Hersant, Franck; Pierens, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Planetary embryos embedded in gaseous protoplanetary disks undergo Type I orbital migration. Migration can be inward or outward depending on the local disk properties but, in general, only planets more massive than several $M_\\oplus$ can migrate outward. Here we propose that an embryo's migration history determines whether it becomes a hot super-Earth or the core of a giant planet. Systems of hot super-Earths (or mini-Neptunes) form when embryos migrate inward and pile up at the inner edge of the disk. Giant planet cores form when inward-migrating embryos become massive enough to switch direction and migrate outward. We present simulations of this process using a modified N-body code, starting from a swarm of planetary embryos. Systems of hot super-Earths form in resonant chains with the innermost planet at or interior to the disk inner edge. Resonant chains are disrupted by late dynamical instabilities triggered by the dispersal of the gaseous disk. Giant planet cores migrate outward toward zero-torque zones...

  5. Ozone control of biological activity during Earth's history, including the KT catastrophe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    There have been brief periods since the beginning of the Cambrian some 600 m.y. ago when mass extinctions destroyed a significant fraction of living species. The most widely studied of these events is the catastrophe at the KT boundary that ended the long dominance of the dinosaurs. In addition to mass extinctions, there is another profound discontinuity in the history of Earth's biota, the explosion of life at the end of the Precambrian era which is an episode that is not explained well at all. For some 3 b.y. before the Cambrian, life had been present on Earth, but maintained a low level of activity which is an aspect of the biota that is puzzling, especially during the last two-thirds of that period. During the last 2 b.y. before the Cambrian, conditions at the Earth's surface were suitable for a burgeoning of the biota, according to most criteria: the oceans neither boiled nor were fozen solid during this time, and the atmosphere contained sufficient O for the development of animals. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that mass extinctions and the lackluster behavior of the Precambrian biota share a common cause: an inadequate amount of ozone in the atmosphere.

  6. THE PRECAMBRIAN HISTORY OF THE ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM AND EARTH. PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kuz’min

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a review of early stages of development the Solar System and the geological history of Earth with reference to the latest data on the origin of the Solar System and the formation of the first continental rocks and results of studies of zircon, the oldest mineral so far dated on Earth. The formation of the Solar System from a gas-and-dust nebula is estimated to have begun 4.568 billion years ago. Ice was formed 1.5 million years later; it concentrated at the periphery of the system and served as the material for the largest planets, Jupiter and Saturn. In the central areas of the system, asteroids with diameters of about 10 km were formed. Their small bodies were composed of the basic material of the solar nebula, as evidenced by carbonaceous chondrite, CI, which composition is similar to the composition of the Sun, with the exception of hydrogen, helium, and volatile components that served as the main material for peripheral planets of the Solar System. Due to collision and partial merger of such small bodies, the formation of embryos of the terrestrial planets was initiated. Gravity made such embryos to cluster into larger bodies. After 7 million years, large asteroids and planet Mars were formed. It took 11 million years to form Planet Earth with a mass of 63 %, and 30 million years to form 93 % of its mass. Almost from the beginning of the formation of the Earth, short-lived radionuclides, 26Al and 60Fe, caused warming up of the small planetary bodies which led to the formation of their cores. During the initial stages, small magma reservoirs were formed, and molten iron particles gathered in the centres of the planetary bodies. As suggested by the ratio of 182W/184W, the major part of the core was formed within 20 million years, while its full mass accumulated completely within the next 50 million years. In 30–40 million years after the creation of the Solar System, the Earth collided with a cosmic body which mass was

  7. Metástasis coroideas Choroidal metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Camarillo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las metástasis uveales son el tumor intraocular maligno más frecuente y de ellas, más del 80% se localizan en la coroides. Esto, unido al progresivo aumento de la incidencia, hace necesario su estudio y revisión para un correcto diagnóstico y tratamiento en la práctica clínica actual. La etiología varía según el sexo del paciente, siendo el carcinoma de pulmón el que con más frecuencia metastatiza en el varón y el de mama en la mujer. Tienden a la multifocalidad y generalmente se localizan en el polo posterior. En el 50% de los casos cursan de forma asintomática, pero pueden producir pérdida de visión, escotomas, metamorfopsias, y fotopsias. La exploración oftalmoscópica característica muestra una lesión coroidea placoide, homogénea y de aspecto cremoso. En el diagnóstico diferencial se debe considerar el nevus amelanótico, el melanoma amelanótico de coroides, el hemangioma coroideo, la escleritis posterior, el osteoma de coroides, las coriorretinitis, la enfermedad de Harada, el desprendimiento de retina rhegmatógeno, el síndrome de efusión uveal, y la coriorretinopatía serosa central. Una exhaustiva anamnesis y exploración oftalmológica completa son imprescindibles para el diagnóstico, a lo que se pueden añadir como pruebas complementarias la angiografía con fluoresceína, la ecografía ocular, la punción-aspiración con aguja fina (PAAF, la tomografía computarizada y la resonancia magnética. El tratamiento de estos tumores suele ser el tratamiento sistémico del tumor primario; las posibilidades de tratamiento local son la observación, la radioterapia externa, la braquiterapia, la termoterapia transpupilar y la enucleación.Uveal metastases are the most frequent malign intraocular tumour, of which more than 80% are localized in the choroids. This, together with the progressive increase in its incidence, makes its study and review necessary for a correct diagnosis and treatment in current clinical practice

  8. Effects of Blood-cooling and Stasis-removing Formula on Hemorheology in Rats with Acute Blood Stasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyi Ning

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of blood-cooling and stasis-removing formula on hemorheology in rats with acute blood stasis induced by mutifactor stimuli. Methods: The selected SD rats orally took blood-cooling and stasis-removing granule for six days, then the model of acute blood stasis was prepared on the fifth day by injection of epinephrine combined with ice-water bath. The variations of blood-cooling and stasis-removing granule on hemorheology were detected. Results: The high-dose group of blood-cooling and stasis-removing formula can decrease plasma viscosity in rats with acute blood stasis, and obviously reduce the blood viscosity under the condition of shear rates (200s-1, 30s-1, 5s-1, 1s-1 (P < 0.01, P < 0.05. The middle-dose group can decrease the blood viscosity under the condition of shear rate (30s-1 (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Blood-cooling and stasis-removing formula can improve abnormal hemorheology in rats with acute blood stasis.

  9. Constraints on Earth degassing history from the argon isotope composition of Devonian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, F. M.; Mark, D.

    2012-04-01

    The primordial and radiogenic isotopes of the noble gases combine to make them a powerful tool for determining the time and tempo of the outgassing of the Earth's interior. The outgassing history of the Earth is largely constrained from measurements of the isotopic composition of He, Ne, Ar and Xe in samples of modern mantle, crust and atmosphere. There have been few unequivocal measurement of the isotopic composition of noble gases in ancient atmosphere. We have re-visited whether ancient Ar is trapped in the ~400 Ma Rhynie chert [1]. We have analysed samples of pristine Rhynie chert using the ARGUS multi-collector mass spectrometer calibrated against the new determination of atmospheric Ar isotope ratios [2]. 40Ar/36Ar ratios are low, with many lower than the modern air value (298.8). Importantly these are accompanied by atmospheric 38Ar/36Ar ratios indicating that the low 40Ar/36Ar are not due to mass fractionation. We conclude that the Rhynie chert has captured Devonian atmosphere-derived Ar. The data indicate that the Devonian atmosphere 40Ar/36Ar was at least 3 % lower than the modern air value. Thus the Earth's atmosphere has accumulated at least 5 ± 0.2 x 1016 moles of 40Ar in the last 400 million years, at an average rate of 1.24 ± 0.06 x 108 mol 40Ar/year. This overlaps the rate determined from ice cores for the last 800,000 years [3] and implies that there has been no resolvable temporal change in Earth outgassing rate since mid-Palaeozoic times. The new data require the Earth outgassed early, and suggests that pristine samples of Archaean and Proterozoic chert may prove useful as palaeo-atmosphere tracers. [1] G. Turner, J. Geol. Soc. London 146, 147-154 (1989) [2] D. Mark, F.M. Stuart, M. de Podesta, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 7494-7501 [3] M. Bender et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 105, 8232-8237 (2008)

  10. Early history of Earth's crust-mantle system inferred from hafnium isotopes in chondrites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Haack, Henning; Rosing, M.;

    2003-01-01

    depleted mantle reservoir. Here we report Lu-Hf isotope measurements of different Solar System objects including chondrites and basaltic eucrites. The chondrites define a Lu-Hf isochron with an initial Hf/Hf ratio of 0.279628 ± 0.000047, corresponding to ¿176 = 1.983 ± 0.033 x 10yr using an age of 4.56 Gyr...... for the chondrite-forming event. This ¿176 value indicates that Earth's oldest minerals were derived from melts of a mantle source with a time-integrated history of depletion rather than enrichment. The depletion event must have occurred no later than 320 Myr after planetary accretion, consistent with timing...

  11. Controllori controllati: le finestre della Stasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Goggio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This short essay aims to investigate the role played by the object ‘window’ in different post-1989 German representations of the so-called Stasi, that is to say, the secret policy of the German Democratic Republic. In particular, we will linger our attention on a precise situation, that of the controlled-controller, which often recurs in such representations. By analysing three different artistic products (one film: The life of the others by Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck, and two novels: Ich by Wolfgang Hilbig and Helden wie wir by Thomas Brussig we will attempt to show how windows largely contributed not only to the functioning of the Stasi itself, but also to creating a country full of spies spying on one another without even knowing of being controlled by others.In the end we will demonstrate how the use of windows in this particular kind of representation also alludes to the concept of the Panopticon (Jeremy Bentham and its theoretical application carried out by the French philosopher Michael Foucault.

  12. Proterozoic ocean redox and biogeochemical stasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Christopher T; Planavsky, Noah J; Robbins, Leslie J; Partin, Camille A; Gill, Benjamin C; Lalonde, Stefan V; Bekker, Andrey; Konhauser, Kurt O; Lyons, Timothy W

    2013-04-02

    The partial pressure of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere has increased dramatically through time, and this increase is thought to have occurred in two rapid steps at both ends of the Proterozoic Eon (∼2.5-0.543 Ga). However, the trajectory and mechanisms of Earth's oxygenation are still poorly constrained, and little is known regarding attendant changes in ocean ventilation and seafloor redox. We have a particularly poor understanding of ocean chemistry during the mid-Proterozoic (∼1.8-0.8 Ga). Given the coupling between redox-sensitive trace element cycles and planktonic productivity, various models for mid-Proterozoic ocean chemistry imply different effects on the biogeochemical cycling of major and trace nutrients, with potential ecological constraints on emerging eukaryotic life. Here, we exploit the differing redox behavior of molybdenum and chromium to provide constraints on seafloor redox evolution by coupling a large database of sedimentary metal enrichments to a mass balance model that includes spatially variant metal burial rates. We find that the metal enrichment record implies a Proterozoic deep ocean characterized by pervasive anoxia relative to the Phanerozoic (at least ∼30-40% of modern seafloor area) but a relatively small extent of euxinic (anoxic and sulfidic) seafloor (less than ∼1-10% of modern seafloor area). Our model suggests that the oceanic Mo reservoir is extremely sensitive to perturbations in the extent of sulfidic seafloor and that the record of Mo and chromium enrichments through time is consistent with the possibility of a Mo-N colimited marine biosphere during many periods of Earth's history.

  13. Preface-Understanding the coevolution of life and environment in great turning periods of Earth history

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Wherever the first life originated, the Earth has grown organisms. The Earth provides life with all the basicelements required for the composition and growth of life. And of more importance is that the Earth has the

  14. On effect of precession-induced flows in the liquid core for early Earth's history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Shalimov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary and tertiary flow patterns seen in experiments simulating flow in the Earth's liquid core induced by luni-solar precession of the solid mantle (Vanyo et al., 1995 hint at the development of non-axisymmetric columnar periodic structures. A simple interpretation of the structure formation is presented in a hydrodynamic approach. It is suggested that if similar flow patterns can occur in the Earth's liquid core enclosed into precessing and rotating mantle then kinematic of the flows may be regarded as a possible geodynamo mechanism for early Earth's history (before the solid core formation.

  15. Construction of Late Pleistocene Laurentide Ice History on Earth with Composite Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P. P. C.; van der Wal, W.; Steffen, H.; Wang, H.

    2014-12-01

    A good ice thickness history model is essential in the study of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA), its effects on coastal engineering, water resource management, fault stability and intraplate earthquakes, monitor global climate change, etc... Ice history models can be constructed based on glaciology and climate data only, but Peltier mainly used GIA observations and simple ice physics to construct global models ICE-4G, 5G & 6G where the main uncertainty is the ice thickness in Antarctica and western Laurentide during the last glacial maximum. One should note that most of the ice models constructed this way are based on the assumption that mantle rheology is linear and that rheology varies in the radial direction only. However, surface geology and seismic tomography show that Earth properties also vary strongly in the lateral direction. Moreover, high temperature creep experiments on mantle rocks show that mantle flow is better described by composite rheology since both diffusion (linear) and dislocation (nonlinear) creep operate in the mantle at the same time. The aim of our study is to construct global ice history models that are consistent with composite rheology and lateral heterogeneity. Thus we use the Coupled Poisson-Finite Element method to model GIA in a spherical, self-gravitating viscoelastic Earth with composite rheology and lateral heterogeneity. We shall follow the approach of Peltier and use GIA observations and simple ice physics as constraints to our ice model. The limitation of using sea level data is that they only lie near the coast and thus there is little constraint on ice thickness inland. To overcome this, we will use gravity rate-of-change data from GRACE with the effect of hydrology accurately removed using GPS observations (rather than GIA models which introduce large uncertainties). However, these data only give the current-day rate-of-change, which is more than 8,000 years after the end of deglaciation. To further constrain our ice

  16. Preservation of Earth Science Data History with Digital Content Repository Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Pan, J.; Shrestha, B.; Cook, R. B.

    2011-12-01

    An increasing need for derived and on-demand data product in Earth Science research makes the digital content more difficult for providers to manage and preserve and for users to locate, understand, and consume. Specifically, this increasing need presents additional challenges in managing data processing history information and delivering such information to end users. For example, the North American Carbon Program (NACP) Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) chose a modified SYNMAP land cover data as one of the input driver data for participating terrestrial biospheric models. The global 1km resolution SYNMAP data was created by harmonizing 3 remote sensing-based land cover products: GLCC, GLC2000, and the MODIS land cover product. The original SYNMAP land cover data was aggregated into half and quarter degree resolution. It was then enhanced with more detailed grassland and cropland types. Currently, there lacks an effective mechanism to convey this data processing information to different modeling teams for them to determine if a data product meets their needs. It still highly relies on offline human interaction. The NASA-sponsored ORNL DAAC has leveraged the contemporary digital object repository technology to promote the representation, management, and delivery of data processing history and provenance information. Within digital object repository, different data products are managed as objects, with metadata as attributes and content delivery and management services as dissemination methods. Derivation relationships among data products can be semantically referenced between digital objects. Within the repository, data users can easily track a derived data product back to its origin, explorer metadata and documents about each intermediate data product, and discover processing details involved in each derivation step. Coupled with Drupal Web Content Management System, the digital repository interface was enhanced to

  17. The History and Use of Our Earth's Chemical Elements: A Reference Guide (by Robert E. Krebs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Reviewed By Jeffrey D.

    1999-04-01

    Greenwood Press: Westport, CT, 1998. 282 pp + 25 pp glossary + 37 pp index. 15.9 x 24.1 cm. ISBN 0-313-30123-9. $39.95. This book is an excellent resource for chemical educators at the high school and college levels. The format of the text is consistent and the writing style is clear and concise, making it ideally suited for student use also. The first three chapters serve to introduce the reader to a brief history of chemistry, early models of the atom, and the development of the periodic table. Names of the contributing scientists are mentioned whenever necessary, but the overall purpose of these introductory chapters is simply to lay a foundation for the subsequent seven chapters. A complete glossary of important scientific terms mentioned in the text should allow beginning students to use this book without feeling overwhelmed. Each entry for the 112 elements contains the following information: elemental symbol, atomic number, period, common valence, atomic weight, natural state, common isotopes, properties, characteristics, abundance, natural sources, history, common uses and compounds, and safety hazards. This information is well organized, with clear headings and separate sections making the book extremely user-friendly. Readers can easily obtain the information they desire without having to skim the full entry for a chosen element. One very nice feature of this book is that the elements entries are arranged by their locations in the periodic table. For example, chapter 4 contains the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals. This organizational scheme allows one to quickly see the patterns and trends within groups of elements. This format is significantly better than arranging the elements in alphabetical order, which places the entry for sodium far removed from the entries for lithium and potassium. I would highly recommend this book to high school teachers and college chemistry professors. It is well written and is an excellent source of information for

  18. [Discussion on "removing stasis and regulating qi and blood" in the scraping therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Song; Liang, Zhong

    2016-04-01

    Stasis is the critical causative factor and pathological production considered in clinic treatment. Promoting the circulation in blood vessel and removing stasis are equally important in treatment. Stasis is interactive with qi and blood. Removing stasis aims to regulating the circulation of qi and blood. Scraping therapy is one of the major approaches to stasis removal in TCM. In clinical practice, the stasis can be removed with scraping, bleeding and cupping, etc. Additionally, removing stasis with scraping should be combined with regulating qi and blood to enhance the therapeutic effect.

  19. Estimates of the magnitudes of major marine mass extinctions in earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Steven M.

    2016-10-01

    Procedures introduced here make it possible, first, to show that background (piecemeal) extinction is recorded throughout geologic stages and substages (not all extinction has occurred suddenly at the ends of such intervals); second, to separate out background extinction from mass extinction for a major crisis in earth history; and third, to correct for clustering of extinctions when using the rarefaction method to estimate the percentage of species lost in a mass extinction. Also presented here is a method for estimating the magnitude of the Signor-Lipps effect, which is the incorrect assignment of extinctions that occurred during a crisis to an interval preceding the crisis because of the incompleteness of the fossil record. Estimates for the magnitudes of mass extinctions presented here are in most cases lower than those previously published. They indicate that only ˜81% of marine species died out in the great terminal Permian crisis, whereas levels of 90-96% have frequently been quoted in the literature. Calculations of the latter numbers were incorrectly based on combined data for the Middle and Late Permian mass extinctions. About 90 orders and more than 220 families of marine animals survived the terminal Permian crisis, and they embodied an enormous amount of morphological, physiological, and ecological diversity. Life did not nearly disappear at the end of the Permian, as has often been claimed.

  20. Estimates of the magnitudes of major marine mass extinctions in earth history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Steven M

    2016-10-18

    Procedures introduced here make it possible, first, to show that background (piecemeal) extinction is recorded throughout geologic stages and substages (not all extinction has occurred suddenly at the ends of such intervals); second, to separate out background extinction from mass extinction for a major crisis in earth history; and third, to correct for clustering of extinctions when using the rarefaction method to estimate the percentage of species lost in a mass extinction. Also presented here is a method for estimating the magnitude of the Signor-Lipps effect, which is the incorrect assignment of extinctions that occurred during a crisis to an interval preceding the crisis because of the incompleteness of the fossil record. Estimates for the magnitudes of mass extinctions presented here are in most cases lower than those previously published. They indicate that only ∼81% of marine species died out in the great terminal Permian crisis, whereas levels of 90-96% have frequently been quoted in the literature. Calculations of the latter numbers were incorrectly based on combined data for the Middle and Late Permian mass extinctions. About 90 orders and more than 220 families of marine animals survived the terminal Permian crisis, and they embodied an enormous amount of morphological, physiological, and ecological diversity. Life did not nearly disappear at the end of the Permian, as has often been claimed.

  1. A review of noble gas geochemistry in relation to early Earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    One of the most fundamental noble gas constraints on early Earth history is derived from isotopic differences in (129)Xe/(130)Xe between various terrestrial materials. The short half life (17 m.y.) of extinct (129I, parent of (129)Xe, means that these differences must have been produced within the first 100 m.y. after terrestrial accretion. The identification of large anomalies in (129)Xe/(130)Xe in mid ocean ridge basalts (MORB), with respect to atmospheric xenon, suggests that the atmosphere and upper mantle have remained separate since that time. This alone is a very strong argument for early catastrophic degassing, which would be consistent with an early fractionation resulting in core formation. However, noble gas isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts show that the mantle cannot necessarily be regarded as a homogeneous system, since there are significant variations in (3)He/(4)He, (40)Ar/(36)Ar, and (129)Xe/(130)Xe. Therefore, the early degassing cannot be considered to have acted on the whole mantle. The specific mechanisms of degassing, in particular the thickness and growth of the early crust, is an important variable in understanding present day noble gas inventories. Another constraint can be obtained from rocks that are thought to be derived from near the lithosphere asthenosphere boundary: ultramafic xenoliths.

  2. Learning from History: A Lesson on the Model of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Chiu

    2006-01-01

    It is suggested that historical material concerning the model of the earth be utilised in the science classroom to construct narrative explanations. The article includes the various ancient models of the earth, the discovery of the spherical earth model, and the arguments and experiments coupled with it. Its instructional gain may lie in the…

  3. Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This curriculum-based, easy-to-follow book teaches young readers about Earth as one of the eight planets in our solar system in astronomical terms. With accessible text, it provides the fundamental information any student needs to begin their studies in astronomy, such as how Earth spins and revolves around the Sun, why it's uniquely suitable for life, its physical features, atmosphere, biosphere, moon, its past, future, and more. To enhance the learning experience, many of the images come directly from NASA. This straightforward title offers the fundamental information any student needs to sp

  4. Home area geology and Alabama earth science teachers: A resource to improve the understanding and use of the state's rocks to supplement textbook concepts in earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacefield, James Anderson

    Recent studies have suggested that teachers of earth science in Alabama secondary schools are undertrained in the content areas of the subject. A survey of academic training and certification of active earth science teachers (Hall, 1985) was replicated as part of a study of the current inservice needs of Alabama earth science teachers (Logue & Lacefield, 1995). Only one-third of responding teachers were found to be properly certified to teach the subject; most had been trained for teaching life science. Approximately one-half had never had a course in geology, astronomy, or meteorology--the three primary components of the typical earth science course. Of 32 earth science topics suggested for possible additional inservice workshops, teachers responding to the Logue and Lacefield survey selected Alabama and Southeastern geology as the topic of greatest interest and need. As an alternative to conventional inservice training, an illustrated book on Alabama geologic history was developed for publication. Its purpose was to supply an ongoing, usable geologic reference for Alabama earth science teachers and their students and to promote greater understanding of Alabama geology by the public in general. Entitled Lost Worlds in Alabama Rocks: The Half-Billion Year Record of Change in the State's Life and Landscape, the 82-page book (included as appendix) explains how geologic history is reconstructed using evidence from rocks, surveys the major sets of sedimentary rocks found within the state, details what each means in terms of ancient environment, and describes how Alabama's present landscape can be interpreted to reflect past geologic changes. The resource includes nearly 200 color photographs and graphics and 12 pages of fossil identification guides illustrating the most common fossil organisms found within the state. A selected group of professional geologists and earth science educators evaluated the book for scientific accuracy, format, presentation of content, and

  5. What the flux? Deriving empirical estimates of riverine Mo fluxes over Earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniello, S. J.; Ostrander, C. M.; Johnson, A.; Planavsky, N.; Anbar, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) is a key micronutrient in the marine nitrogen cycle and thus plays an important role in regulating global marine primary productivity and biogeochemistry. At present, Mo is the most abundant transition metal in seawater, despite being one of the least abundant transition metals in crustal rocks. This counterintuitive behavior is the result of the high solubility and mobile nature of the molybdate anion under oxidizing conditions. However, previous studies have pointed out that the oxidative weathering flux of Mo to the ocean was likely much lower under Archean conditions, and that when coupled with reduced solubility of Mo in anoxic seawater, portions of the ocean may have been Mo starved. With few exceptions, riverine fluxes of elements have been only poorly constrained over geologic time. In the absence of strong empirical constraints, fluxes are either imagined to have been similar to today, or radically different, depending primarily on the chemistry of the element and model implored by the authors. Based on large variations of Mo concentrations in shales, several authors have invoked models where riverine Mo fluxes vary in response to atmospheric O2 availability but it has been difficult to provide independent constraints to support or refute these models. Here we demonstrate a novel approach for constraining riverine Mo fluxes from the Archean to present by independently estimating the seawater Mo inventory from Mo/TOC ratios and the Mo residence time from Mo isotope ratios. At steady state, the riverine flux is then the ratio of these parameters. Surprisingly, despite strong secular evolution of seawater Mo concentrations and residence time, this approach suggests the overall rate of Mo supply to the ocean was probably relatively constant within one order of magnitude over most of Earth history. This result provides new insights into both the processes controlling Mo availability to the oceans and, more broadly, the controls on oxidative

  6. Geo-neutrinos as indicators of the origin and thermal history of the Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Dye, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Geological models are at odds over the radioactive power of the earth, predicting anywhere from 16 to 42 TW. The actual value constrains the thermal evolution and indicates the meteoritic origin of the planet. An estimated 20% of this radioactive power escapes to space in the form of geo-neutrinos. The remaining portion heats the planet with significant geo-dynamical consequences. The amount of radiogenic heating, conveniently expressed as a fraction of the 47-TW surface heat flow, discriminates earth models and characterizes the rate of planetary temperature change. A fraction greater than one means the earth is heating up; a fraction less than one means the earth is cooling down. Radiogenic heating in the planet primarily springs from unstable nuclides of uranium, thorium, and potassium. Closely associated with radiogenic heating is the production of geo-neutrinos. Large sub-surface detectors efficiently record the infrequent interactions of the highest energy geo-neutrinos, which originate from uranium and...

  7. Expanding Earth and declining gravity: a chapter in the recent history of geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, H.

    2015-05-01

    Although speculative ideas of an expanding Earth can be found before World War II, it was only in the 1950s and 1960s that the theory attracted serious attention among a minority of earth scientists. While some of the proponents of the expanding Earth adopted an empiricist attitude by disregarding the physical cause of the assumed expansion, others argued that the cause, either fully or in part, was of cosmological origin. They referred to the possibility that the gravitational constant was slowly decreasing in time, as first suggested by P. Dirac in 1937. As a result of a stronger gravitation in the past, the ancient Earth would have been smaller than today. The gravitational argument for an expanding Earth was proposed by P. Jordan and L. Egyed in the 1950s and during the next 2 decades it was discussed by several physicists, astronomers and earth scientists. Among those who for a period felt attracted by "gravitational expansionism" were A. Holmes, J. Tuzo Wilson and F. Hoyle. The paper examines the idea of a varying gravitational constant and its impact on geophysics in the period from about 1955 to the mid-1970s.

  8. From Suns to Life: A Chronological Approach to the History of Life on Earth 4. Building of a Habitable Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Hervé; Albarède, Francis; Claeys, Philippe; Gargaud, Muriel; Marty, Bernard; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Pinti, Daniele L.

    2006-06-01

    Except the old Jack Hills zircon crystals, it does not exit direct record of the first 500 Ma of the Earth history. Consequently, the succession of events that took place during this period is only indirectly known through geochemistry, comparison with other telluric planets, and numerical modelling. Just after planetary accretion several episodes were necessary in order to make life apparition and development possible and to make the Earth surface habitable. Among these stages are: the core differentiation, the formation of a magma ocean, the apparition of the first atmosphere, oceans and continents as well as the development of magnetic field and of plate tectonics. In the same time, Earth has been subject to extraterrestrial events such as the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) between 3.95 and 3.8 Ga. Since 4.4 4.3 Ga, the conditions for pre-biotic chemistry and appearance of life were already met (liquid water, continental crust, no strong meteoritic bombardment, etc...). This does not mean that life existed as early, but this demonstrates that all necessary conditions assumed for life development were already present on Earth.

  9. Time Trek: a 13.7 km long nature trail leading through the history of the Universe and the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Kirsi; Lehto, Harry J.; Brozinski, Ari; Gardner, Esko; Eklund, Olav; Rajala, Kirsi; Räsänen, Matti; Sääksjärvi, Ilari; Vainio, Laura; Vuorisalo, Timo

    2013-01-01

    With the aim to visualize the span of time since the formation of our Universe we have set up a nature and hiking trail called `Time Trek'. The 13.7 km length of the trail corresponds to the age of the Universe, and portrays its history including events important for Earth and life. One kilometre corresponds to a billion years, and one metre to a million years of time. The trek combines astronomical, physical, geological and biological time lines, and presents a holistic view of the history of time. It helps people to comprehend the causal and temporal connections of different phenomena. To the trekker, it offers a concrete experience of the lengths and proportions of different time periods, which otherwise are very difficult to understand.

  10. Reference Data Layers for Earth and Environmental Science: History, Frameworks, Science Needs, Approaches, and New Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, W. C.

    2015-12-01

    Global Mapping Project, Web-enabled Landsat Data (WELD), International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP), hydrology, solid earth dynamics, sedimentary geology, climate modeling, integrated assessments and so on all have needs for or have worked to develop consistently integrated data layers for Earth and environmental science. This paper will present an overview of an abstract notion of data layers of this types, what we are referring to as reference data layers for Earth and environmental science, highlight some historical examples, and delve into new approaches. The concept of reference data layers in this context combines data availability, cyberinfrastructure and data science, as well as domain science drivers. We argue that current advances in cyberinfrastructure such as iPython notebooks and integrated science processing environments such as iPlant's Discovery Environment coupled with vast arrays of new data sources warrant another look at the how to create, maintain, and provide reference data layers. The goal is to provide a context for understanding science needs for reference data layers to conduct their research. In addition, to the topics described above this presentation will also outline some of the challenges to and present some ideas for new approaches to addressing these needs. Promoting the idea of reference data layers is relevant to a number of existing related activities such as EarthCube, RDA, ESIP, the nascent NSF Regional Big Data Innovation Hubs and others.

  11. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems: A "Bit of History" and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2008-01-01

    NASA has significantly improved its Earth Science Data Systems over the last two decades. Open data policy and inexpensive (or free) availability of data has promoted data usage by broad research and applications communities. Flexibility, accommodation of diversity, evolvability, responsiveness to community feedback are key to success.

  12. Assessing the physical nature of near-Earth asteroids through their dynamical histories

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández, Julio A; Gallardo, Tabaré; Gutiérrez, Jorge N

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a sample of 139 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), defined as those that reach perihelion distances $q 4.8$ au), having Tisserand parameters $2 4.8$ au of cometary origin, but it could be even lower if the NEAs in unstable orbits listed before turn out to be {\\it bona fide} asteroids from the main belt.

  13. Isotopes as clues to the origin and earliest differentiation history of the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Stein B; Ranen, Michael C; Petaev, Michael I; Remo, John L; O'Connell, Richard J; Sasselov, Dimitar D

    2008-11-28

    Measurable variations in (182)W/(183)W, (142)Nd/(144)Nd, (129)Xe/(130)Xe and (136)XePu/(130)Xe in the Earth and meteorites provide a record of accretion and formation of the core, early crust and atmosphere. These variations are due to the decay of the now extinct nuclides (182)Hf, (146)Sm, (129)I and (244)Pu. The (l82)Hf-(182)W system is the best accretion and core-formation chronometer, which yields a mean time of Earth's formation of 10Myr, and a total time scale of 30Myr. New laser shock data at conditions comparable with those in the Earth's deep mantle subsequent to the giant Moon-forming impact suggest that metal-silicate equilibration was rapid enough for the Hf-W chronometer to reliably record this time scale. The coupled (146)Sm-(147)Sm chronometer is the best system for determining the initial silicate differentiation (magma ocean crystallization and proto-crust formation), which took place at ca 4.47Ga or perhaps even earlier. The presence of a large (129)Xe excess in the deep Earth is consistent with a very early atmosphere formation (as early as 30Myr); however, the interpretation is complicated by the fact that most of the atmospheric Xe may be from a volatile-rich late veneer.

  14. The Tunguska Event and the History of Near-Earth Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald K.

    2006-12-01

    At 7:17 o’clock in the morning of June 30, 1908 a 60 meter-sized asteroid exploded over the Tunguska region of Russian Siberia, leveling trees for some 22 miles from the blast center. Today, the Tunguska blast is used as the only example of a witnessed and documented Earth impact by a substantial near-Earth asteroid. Although striking Earth with the impact energy of 15 mega tons of TNT, the Tunguska event had very little effect upon contemporary views of Earth impacts by neighboring comets and asteroids. While Edmond Halley had pointed out in 1694 that comets could strike the Earth with catastrophic consequences, the far more numerous potentially hazardous asteroids were unknown until the discovery of asteroid 1862 Apollo in 1932 the first asteroid found to actually cross the Earth’s orbit. It was only in the second half of the last century when astronomers generally believed that the moon’s craters were largely due to asteroid impacts rather than volcanoes and more recent still before the realization that there are likely more than 20,000 asteroids large enough to cause serious consequences to Earth’s surface and close enough to Earth’s orbit to pose a near-term threat. The Tunguska event of 1908 could have been used to lead toward these conclusions much earlier but this was not to be the case because of the lack of information on this remote event, the initial unwillingness of most professional astronomers to attribute the lunar craters to impact events and because it was realized only recently that the Earth’s neighborhood is crowded with potential asteroid impactors.

  15. Neonatslusele pani aluse Ida-Saksa salapolitsei Stasi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Saksamaa suursaadik Moskvas Ernst-Jörg von Studnitz väidab, et Saksamaa tänavail peadtõstva neonatsluse sünnitajaks ei olnud mitte Adolf Hitleri pärand ega natsluse ideoloogia, vaid endine Ida-Saksa salapolitsei Stasi

  16. Earth history. Low mid-Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen levels and the delayed rise of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planavsky, Noah J; Reinhard, Christopher T; Wang, Xiangli; Thomson, Danielle; McGoldrick, Peter; Rainbird, Robert H; Johnson, Thomas; Fischer, Woodward W; Lyons, Timothy W

    2014-10-31

    The oxygenation of Earth's surface fundamentally altered global biogeochemical cycles and ultimately paved the way for the rise of metazoans at the end of the Proterozoic. However, current estimates for atmospheric oxygen (O2) levels during the billion years leading up to this time vary widely. On the basis of chromium (Cr) isotope data from a suite of Proterozoic sediments from China, Australia, and North America, interpreted in the context of data from similar depositional environments from Phanerozoic time, we find evidence for inhibited oxidation of Cr at Earth's surface in the mid-Proterozoic (1.8 to 0.8 billion years ago). These data suggest that atmospheric O2 levels were at most 0.1% of present atmospheric levels. Direct evidence for such low O2 concentrations in the Proterozoic helps explain the late emergence and diversification of metazoans.

  17. Oxygen free period in the history of Earth and life in it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Георгій Ілліч Рудько

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of Earth in the context of its formation as also emergence of the original atmosphere and hydrosphere are presented in the article. Main stages of the atmosphere evolution have occurred in the Archaean. The mechanisms of life origin, their impact on environmental development and changes are described as well. A brief description of the most ancient sediments composed by the archaebacteria and cyanobacteria is considered.

  18. Historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jens Aage

    Historie i serien handler om læreplaner og læremidler og deres brug i skolefaget historie. Bogen indeholder nyttige redskaber til at analysere og vurdere læremidler......Historie i serien handler om læreplaner og læremidler og deres brug i skolefaget historie. Bogen indeholder nyttige redskaber til at analysere og vurdere læremidler...

  19. Exploring the Earth's crust: history and results of controlled-source seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodehl, Claus; Mooney, Walter D.

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains a comprehensive, worldwide history of seismological studies of the Earth’s crust using controlled sources from 1850 to 2005. Essentially all major seismic projects on land and the most important oceanic projects are covered. The time period 1850 to 1939 is presented as a general synthesis, and from 1940 onward the history and results are presented in separate chapters for each decade, with the material organized by geographical region. Each chapter highlights the major advances achieved during that decade in terms of data acquisition, processing technology, and interpretation methods. For all major seismic projects, the authors provide specific details on field observations, interpreted crustal cross sections, and key references. They conclude with global and continental-scale maps of all field measurements and interpreted Moho contours. An accompanying DVD contains important out-of-print publications and an extensive collection of controlled-source data, location maps, and crustal cross sections.

  20. From Suns to Life: A Chronological Approach to the History of Life on Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Gargaud, Muriel; López-García, Purificación; Martin, Hervé; Montmerle, Thierry; Pascal, Robert; Reisse, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    This review emerged from several interdisciplinary meetings and schools gathering a group of astronomers, geologists, biologists, and chemists, attempting to share their specialized knowledge around a common question: how did life emerge on Earth? Their ultimate goal was to provide some kind of answer as a prerequisite to an even more demanding question: is life universal? The resulting state-of-the-art articles were written by twenty-five scientists telling a not-so linear story, but on the contrary, highlighting problems, gaps, and controversies. Needless to say, this approach yielded no definitive answers to both questions. However, by adopting a chronological approach to the question of the emergence of life on Earth, the only place where we know for sure that life exists; it was possible to break down this question into several sub-topics that can be addressed by the different disciplines. The main chapters of this review present the formation and evolution of the solar system (3); the building of a habi...

  1. A new time tree reveals Earth history's imprint on the evolution of modern birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramunt, Santiago; Cracraft, Joel

    2015-12-01

    Determining the timing of diversification of modern birds has been difficult. We combined DNA sequences of clock-like genes for most avian families with 130 fossil birds to generate a new time tree for Neornithes and investigated their biogeographic and diversification dynamics. We found that the most recent common ancestor of modern birds inhabited South America around 95 million years ago, but it was not until the Cretaceous-Paleogene transition (66 million years ago) that Neornithes began to diversify rapidly around the world. Birds used two main dispersion routes: reaching the Old World through North America, and reaching Australia and Zealandia through Antarctica. Net diversification rates increased during periods of global cooling, suggesting that fragmentation of tropical biomes stimulated speciation. Thus, we found pervasive evidence that avian evolution has been influenced by plate tectonics and environmental change, two basic features of Earth's dynamics.

  2. Cytosine deamination and the precipitous decline of spontaneous mutation during Earth's history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charles A; Crayle, Jesse; Zhou, Shuntai; Swanstrom, Ronald; Wolfenden, Richard

    2016-07-19

    The hydrolytic deamination of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine residues in DNA appears to contribute significantly to the appearance of spontaneous mutations in microorganisms and in human disease. In the present work, we examined the mechanism of cytosine deamination and the response of the uncatalyzed reaction to changing temperature. The positively charged 1,3-dimethylcytosinium ion was hydrolyzed at a rate similar to the rate of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of 1-methylcytosine, for which it furnishes a satisfactory kinetic model and a probable mechanism. In agreement with earlier reports, uncatalyzed deamination was found to proceed at very similar rates for cytosine, 1-methylcytosine, cytidine, and cytidine 5'-phosphate, and also for cytosine residues in single-stranded DNA generated from a phagemid, in which we sequenced an insert representing the gene of the HIV-1 protease. Arrhenius plots for the uncatalyzed deamination of cytosine were linear over the temperature range from 90 °C to 200 °C and indicated a heat of activation (ΔH(‡)) of 23.4 ± 0.5 kcal/mol at pH 7. Recent evidence indicates that the surface of the earth has been cool enough to support life for more than 4 billion years and that life has been present for almost as long. If the temperature at Earth's surface is assumed to have followed Newton's law of cooling, declining exponentially from 100 °C to 25 °C during that period, then half of the cytosine-deaminating events per unit biomass would have taken place during the first 0.2 billion years, and <99.4% would have occurred during the first 2 billion years.

  3. Constraining proposed combinations of ice history and Earth rheology using VLBI determined baseline length rates in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovica, J. X.; Davis, J. L.; Shapiro, I. I.

    1993-01-01

    We predict the present-day rates of change of the lengths of 19 North American baselines due to the glacial isostatic adjustment process. Contrary to previously published research, we find that the three dimensional motion of each of the sites defining a baseline, rather than only the radial motions of these sites, needs to be considered to obtain an accurate estimate of the rate of change of the baseline length. Predictions are generated using a suite of Earth models and late Pleistocene ice histories, these include specific combinations of the two which have been proposed in the literature as satisfying a variety of rebound related geophysical observations from the North American region. A number of these published models are shown to predict rates which differ significantly from the VLBI observations.

  4. A history of the gamma-ray burst flux at the Earth from Galactic globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Domainko, W; Feng, F

    2013-01-01

    Nearby gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are likely to have represented a significant threat to life on the Earth. Recent observations suggest that a significant source of such bursts is compact binary mergers in globular clusters. This link between globular clusters and GRBs offers the possibility to find time intervals in the past with higher probabilities of a nearby burst, by tracing globular cluster orbits back in time. Here we show that the expected flux from such bursts is not flat over the past 550 Myr but rather exhibits three broad peaks, at 70, 180 and 340 Myr ago. The main source for nearby GRBs for all three time intervals is the globular cluster 47 Tuc, a consequence of its large mass and high stellar encounter rate, as well as the fact that it is one of the globular clusters which comes quite close to the Sun. Mass extinction events indeed coincide with all three time intervals found in this study, although a chance coincidence is quite likely. Nevertheless, the identified time intervals can be used as a...

  5. Middle school students' understanding of the natural history of the Earth and life on Earth as a function of deep time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulling, Azalie Cecile

    The purpose of this study was to use deep time, that is geologic time as a mechanism to explore middle school students' understanding of the natural history of the earth and the evolution of life on earth. Geologic time is a logical precursor to middle school students' understanding of biological evolution. This exploratory, mixed model study used qualitative and quantitative methods in each stage of the research to explore sixth grade students, understanding of geologic time, their worldviews (e.g., conceptual ecology), and conceptual change. The study included fifty-nine students in the large group study and four case studies. The primary data collection instrument was the Geologic Timeline Survey. Additional data collection instruments and methods (e.g., concept evaluation statement, journal entries, word associations, interviews, and formal tests) were used to triangulate the study findings. These data were used to create narrative modal profiles of the categories of student thinking that emerged from the large group analysis: Middle School (MS) Scientists (correct science), MS Protoscientists (approaching correct science), MS Prescientists (dinosaur understanding), and MS Pseudoscientists (fundamental religious understanding). Case studies were used to provide a thick description of each category. This study discovered a pattern of student thinking about geologic time that moved along a knowledge continuum from pseudoscience (fundamental creationist understanding) to prescience (everyday-science understanding) to science (correct or approaching correct science). The researcher described the deep-seated misconceptions produced by the prescience thinking level, e.g., dinosaur misconceptions, and cautioned the science education community about using dinosaurs as a glamour-science topic. The most limiting conceptual frameworks found in this study were prescience (a dinosaur focus) and pseudoscience (a fundamental religious focus). An understanding of geologic time

  6. Tracers of the Extraterrestrial Component in Sediments and Inferences for Earth's Accretion History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyte, Frank T.

    2003-01-01

    The study of extraterrestrial matter in sediments began with the discovery of cosmic spherules during the HMS Challenger Expedition (1873-1876), but has evolved into a multidisciplinary study of the chemical, physical, and isotopic study of sediments. Extraterrestrial matter in sediments comes mainly from dust and large impactors from the asteroid belt and comets. What we know of the nature of these source materials comes from the study of stratospheric dust particles, cosmic spherules, micrometeorites, meteorites, and astronomical observations. The most common chemical tracers of extraterrestrial matter in sediments are the siderophile elements, most commonly iridium and other platinum group elements. Physical tracers include cosmic and impact spherules, Ni-rich spinels, meteorites, fossil meteorites, and ocean-impact melt debris. Three types of isotopic systems have been used to trace extraterrestrial matter. Osmium isotopes cannot distinguish chondritic from mantle sources, but provide a useful tool in modeling long-term accretion rates. Helium isotopes can be used to trace the long-term flux of the fine fraction of the interplanetary dust complex. Chromium isotopes can provide unequivocal evidence of an extraterrestrial source for sediments with high concentrations of meteoritic Cr. The terrestrial history of impacts, as recorded in sediments, is still poorly understood. Helium isotopes, multiple Ir anomalies, spherule beds, and craters all indicate a comet shower in the late Eocene. The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary impact event appears to have been caused by a single carbonaceous chondrite projectile, most likely of asteroid origin. Little is known of the impact record in sediments from the rest of the Phanerozoic. Several impact deposits are known in the Precambrian, including several possible mega-impacts in the Early Archean.

  7. Proterozoic ocean redox and biogeochemical stasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Christopher T.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Robbins, Leslie J.; Partin, Camille A.; Gill, Benjamin C.; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Bekker, Andrey; Konhauser, Kurt O.; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    The partial pressure of oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere has increased dramatically through time, and this increase is thought to have occurred in two rapid steps at both ends of the Proterozoic Eon (∼2.5–0.543 Ga). However, the trajectory and mechanisms of Earth’s oxygenation are still poorly constrained, and little is known regarding attendant changes in ocean ventilation and seafloor redox. We have a particularly poor understanding of ocean chemistry during the mid-Proterozoic (∼1.8–0.8 Ga). Given the coupling between redox-sensitive trace element cycles and planktonic productivity, various models for mid-Proterozoic ocean chemistry imply different effects on the biogeochemical cycling of major and trace nutrients, with potential ecological constraints on emerging eukaryotic life. Here, we exploit the differing redox behavior of molybdenum and chromium to provide constraints on seafloor redox evolution by coupling a large database of sedimentary metal enrichments to a mass balance model that includes spatially variant metal burial rates. We find that the metal enrichment record implies a Proterozoic deep ocean characterized by pervasive anoxia relative to the Phanerozoic (at least ∼30–40% of modern seafloor area) but a relatively small extent of euxinic (anoxic and sulfidic) seafloor (less than ∼1–10% of modern seafloor area). Our model suggests that the oceanic Mo reservoir is extremely sensitive to perturbations in the extent of sulfidic seafloor and that the record of Mo and chromium enrichments through time is consistent with the possibility of a Mo–N colimited marine biosphere during many periods of Earth’s history. PMID:23515332

  8. Earth History databases and visualization - the TimeScale Creator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogg, James; Lugowski, Adam; Gradstein, Felix

    2010-05-01

    vertical-scale, column widths, fonts, colors, titles, ordering, range chart options and many other features. Mouse-activated pop-ups provide additional information on columns and events; including links to external Internet sites. The graphics can be saved as SVG (scalable vector graphics) or PDF files for direct import into Adobe Illustrator or other common drafting software. Users can load additional regional datapacks, and create and upload their own datasets. The "Pro" version has additional dataset-creation tools, output options and the ability to edit and re-save merged datasets. The databases and visualization package are envisioned as a convenient reference tool, chart-production assistant, and a window into the geologic history of our planet.

  9. Expanding earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    Arguments in favor of an expanding earth are presented. The author believes that the theory of plate tectonics is a classic error in the history of geology. The case for the expanding earth is organized in the following way: introductory review - face of the earth, development of expanding earth concept, necessity for expansion, the subduction myth, and definitions; some principles - scale of tectonic phenomena, non-uniformitarianism, tectonic profile, paleomagnetism, asymmetry of the earth, rotation of the earth, and modes of crustal extension; regional studies - western North America, Central America, South-East Asia, and the rift oceans; tests and cause of expansion. 824 references, 197 figures, 11 tables. (RWR)

  10. Precambrian supercontinents, glaciations, atmospheric oxygenation, metazoan evolution and an impact that may have changed the second half of Earth history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant M. Young

    2013-05-01

    evolution not take off after the Great Oxidation Event of the Paleoproterozoic? The answer may lie in the huge scar left by the ∼2023 Ma Vredefort impact in South Africa, and in the worldwide organic carbon-rich deposits of the Shunga Event, attesting to the near-extirpation of life and possible radical alteration of the course of Earth history.

  11. Between History and Apocalypse: Stumbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalu, Premesh

    2016-01-01

    Apartheid rested on a division of the senses as much as it did on a reductive politics of racial subjection and its accompanying violence. As an instance of the division of the senses, it produced a condition of stasis in which history and a post-apartheid future were increasingly marked by a politico-religious discourse of apocalypse, and a moral…

  12. Between History and Apocalypse: Stumbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalu, Premesh

    2016-01-01

    Apartheid rested on a division of the senses as much as it did on a reductive politics of racial subjection and its accompanying violence. As an instance of the division of the senses, it produced a condition of stasis in which history and a post-apartheid future were increasingly marked by a politico-religious discourse of apocalypse, and a moral…

  13. Eco-Terrorism? Countering Dominant Narratives of Securitisation: a Critical, Quantitative History of the Earth Liberation Front (1996-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Loadenthal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Earth Liberation Front (ELF has carried out acts of political violence and ‘economic sabotage’ characterized by a pattern of behaviour reflecting tactical and targeting selections, communications strategies, and geographic location. The movement’s attacks typically focus on the destruction of property located in ‘soft targets’ associated with commercial and residential construction, the automotive industry, and a variety of local, national and multinational business interests. These sites are routinely targeted through a variety of means ranging from graffiti to sabotage to arson. Geographically, the movement has focused its attacks in the United States and Mexico, and, to a limited extent, countries on the European, South American and Australian continents. The findings presented in this article were developed through a statistical analysis of the movement’s attack history as presented through its above-ground support network. This is discussed in critical contrast to assertions about the movement’s alleged terrorist behaviour found in most academic and government literature. This study seeks to present an incident-based historical analysis of the ELF that is not situated within a logic of securitization. In doing so, it challenges traditional scholarship based on statistical findings.

  14. Amplifying Earth history: Zircon U-Pb geochronology by ID-TIMS at the 0.1 ‰ level using new 1013 ohm resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotzlaw, Jörn-Frederik; von Quadt, Albrecht

    2016-04-01

    Precise and accurate radiometric dating of volcanic ash beds in sedimentary successions is the backbone of the numerical calibration of Earth history. Uranium-lead geochronology by isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) is the most precise and accurate dating technique and is applicable to most of Earth history from the Hadean to the Pleistocene. The accessory mineral zircon is the prime target material due to its commonly high U concentration, virtually no initial Pb and high daughter-product retentivity. However, complex crystallization histories as well as magmatic and sedimentary recycling of zircons require the analysis of single crystals resulting in small amounts of radiogenic Pb (Pb* usually dates with uncertainties <0.2 ‰ for high-Pb* zircons and weighted mean ages for populations of closed system zircons with uncertainties <0.1 ‰ . This level of temporal resolution will allow to better quantify the timing and durations of critical intervals in Earth history, evaluate causalities between different events such as flood basalt eruptions and mass extinctions, quantify rates of changes in biodiversity and assess the origin of cyclic patterns in the sedimentary records. [1] von Quadt, A., Wotzlaw, J.F., Buret, Y., Large, S., Peytcheva, I., Trinquier, A., 2016, High-precision zircon U/Pb geochronology by ID-TIMS using new 1013 ohm resistors. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., DOI: 10.1039/C5JA00457H

  15. The Warm Spitzer NEO Survey : Exploring The History of the Inner Solar System and Near Earth Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hora, Joseph L.; Trilling, D. E.; Thomas, C. A.; Stansberry, J. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Smith, H. A.; Penprase, B. E.; Mueller, M.; Mainzer, A. K.; Harris, A. W.; Fazio, G. G.; Emery, J. P.; Delbo, M.; Chesley, S. R.; Bottke, W. F.; Bhattacharya, B.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) originated in collisions between bodies in the main asteroid belt and have found their way into near Earth space via complex and little understood dynamical interactions. This transport of material from the main belt into the inner Solar System has shaped th

  16. Native American Students' Understanding of Geologic Time Scale: 4th-8th Grade Ojibwe Students' Understanding of Earth's Geologic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Younkyeong; Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Geologic time scale is a very important concept for understanding long-term earth system events such as climate change. This study examines forty-three 4th-8th grade Native American--particularly Ojibwe tribe--students' understanding of relative ordering and absolute time of Earth's significant geological and biological events. This study also…

  17. Successive radiations, not stasis, in the South American primate fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jason A; Sterner, Kirstin N; Matthews, Luke J; Burrell, Andrew S; Jani, Rachana A; Raaum, Ryan L; Stewart, Caro-Beth; Disotell, Todd R

    2009-04-07

    The earliest Neotropical primate fossils complete enough for taxonomic assessment, Dolichocebus, Tremacebus, and Chilecebus, date to approximately 20 Ma. These have been interpreted as either closely related to extant forms or as extinct stem lineages. The former hypothesis of morphological stasis requires most living platyrrhine genera to have diverged before 20 Ma. To test this hypothesis, we collected new complete mitochondrial genomes from Aotus lemurinus, Saimiri sciureus, Saguinus oedipus, Ateles belzebuth, and Callicebus donacophilus. We combined these with published sequences from Cebus albifrons and other primates to infer the mitochondrial phylogeny. We found support for a cebid/atelid clade to the exclusion of the pitheciids. Then, using Bayesian methods and well-supported fossil calibration constraints, we estimated that the platyrrhine most recent common ancestor (MRCA) dates to 19.5 Ma, with all major lineages diverging by 14.3 Ma. Next, we estimated catarrhine divergence dates on the basis of platyrrhine divergence scenarios and found that only a platyrrhine MRCA less than 21 Ma is concordant with the catarrhine fossil record. Finally, we calculated that 33% more change in the rate of evolution is required for platyrrhine divergences consistent with the morphologic stasis hypothesis than for a more recent radiation. We conclude that Dolichocebus, Tremacebus, and Chilecebus are likely too old to be crown platyrrhines, suggesting they were part of an extinct early radiation. We note that the crown platyrrhine radiation was concomitant with the radiation of 2 South American xenarthran lineages and follows a global temperature peak and tectonic activity in the Andes.

  18. Preface——Understanding the coevolution of life and environment in great turning periods of Earth history

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG JinNan; SHI XiaoYing

    2008-01-01

    @@ Wherever the first life originated,the Earth has grown organisms.The Earth provides life with all the basic elements required for the composition and growth of life.And of more importance is that the Earth has the unique environment for the survival,development and reproduction of life.In the vast universe,the Earth is the only planet so far known for the existence of life.This is because of its exclusive position in the solar system,which makes it the best environmental conditions for life,such as the appropriate planetary gravitation,moderate sunshine,limited temperature difference between day and night,and so on.

  19. The degassing history of the Earth: Noble gas studies of Archaean cherts and zero age glassy submarine basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, R.; Hogan, L.

    1985-01-01

    Recent noble gas studies suggests the Earth's atmosphere outgassed from the Earth's upper mantle synchronous with sea floor spreading, ocean ridge hydrothermal activity and the formation of continents by partial melting in subduction zones. The evidence for formation of the atmosphere by outgassing of the mantle is the presence of radionuclides H3.-4, Ar-040 and 136 Xe-136 in the atmosphere that were produced from K-40, U and Th in the mantle. How these radionuclides were formed is reviewed.

  20. Ms HU Ling-xiang's Experience in Treating Blood Stasis by Acupuncture Balancing Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jia; LI Ji; ZHANG Cai-rong

    2005-01-01

    @@ HU Ling-xiang, 60, is a chief doctor and supervisor of postgraduates of master degree. She specializes in the syndrome differentiation and treatment of different kinds of chronic and difficult disorders from the perspective of blood stasis theory.

  1. Effects of Blood-Activating and Stasis-Resolving Drugs on Tumor Formation and Metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Yan-fang; WANG Xiao-jing; DUAN Shu-min

    2009-01-01

    @@ In order to summarize and analyze the internal relations of tumor formation and metastasis to blood-stasis syndrome and the influential factors of blood-activating and stasis-resolving drugs (BASRD) on tumor inhibition and metastasis, and to grasp the opportunity of selecting and using BASRD, the authors have retrieved by the computer the relative literature published from 1985 to 2006 in Full-text Database of Chinese Periodicals with "BASRD" and "cancer" as retrieval words.

  2. Precambrian supercontinents, glaciations, atmospheric oxygenation, metazoan evolution and an impact that may have changed the second half of Earth history

    OpenAIRE

    Grant M. Young

    2013-01-01

    In more than 4 Ga of geological evolution, the Earth has twice gone through extreme climatic perturbations, when extensive glaciations occurred, together with alternating warm periods which were accompanied by atmospheric oxygenation. The younger of these two episodes of climatic oscillation preceded the Cambrian “explosion” of metazoan life forms, but similar extreme climatic conditions existed between about 2.4 and 2.2 Ga. Over long time periods, changing solar luminosity and mantle tempera...

  3. EarthScope in Midcontinent North America: Investigating the Architecture and Tectonic History of Cratonic-Platform Lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, S.; Larson, T.; Hamburger, M. W.; Pavlis, G. L.; Gilbert, H. J.; Parke, M.

    2010-12-01

    The transportable array of EarthScope will sweep across the Midcontinent of North America during 2011 and 2012. The central portion of this swath, between latitudes 36°N and 38°N, covers a "type example" of cratonic-platform lithosphere, where a veneer of Paleozoic sedimentary strata overlies Precambrian crystalline basement. In anticipating this scientific opportunity, we have compiled a unique suite of geologic, geophysical, subsurface, and topographic data sets for this area. The maps emphasize that, in spite of low topographic relief, the region has large subsurface structural relief. Specifically, its western portion includes a large intracratonic uplift (the Ozark Plateau), whereas its central portion includes a major intracratonic basin (the Illinois Basin). The elevation difference between the Cambrian-Precambrian unconformity at the crest of the Ozark Plateau and the same horizon at the base of the Illinois Basin (< 100 km to the east) is over 7.5 km. The region also includes the northern end of the Mississippi embayment (an anomalous depression), three major Proterozoic lithosphere accretionary boundaries (borders of the Yavapai, Mazatzal, and Grenville belts), one of the world's largest anorogenic igneous provinces (the Eastern Granite-Rhyolite Province), pronounced gravity and magnetic anomalies, and numerous fault-and-fold zones. Many of the zones remain active, both within and outside the notorious New Madrid seismic zone, making the central Midcontinent one of the most seismically active examples of cratonic platform lithosphere anywhere. As part of the USArray deployment in this region, a number of research groups (some of whom met at an EarthScope Workshop held in Urbana) have proposed dense, Flex-Array networks that would densify the sparser Transportable Array network. We propose an experiment that would span the Ozark Dome and the Illinois Basin, the Rough Creek Graben and other fault zones including the Wabash Valley seismic zone. This

  4. Inhibitory effect of pentobarbital anesthesia on venous stasis induced arteriolar vasoconstriction in the dog hindleg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Henriksen, O; Amtorp, Ole

    1984-01-01

    venous stasis. In another experimental series the effect of general pentobarbital anesthesia on the vasoconstrictor activity in response to venous stasis locally in subcutaneous and muscle tissue in the hind limb was examined in 6 dogs. It was found that during the first 2-3 h of anesthesia...... the vasoconstrictor response was present in both tissues although the response in muscle tissue exhibited a great variation between the dogs during this period. However, after 4-5 h of anesthesia the response was abolished in both tissues. During neurolept anesthesia with fentanyl/N2O the same vasoconstrictor...... response was demonstrated in the hindleg 1 h and 5 h after induction of the anesthesia. It is concluded that pentobarbital anesthesia abolishes the arteriolar constriction induced by venous stasis. The mechanism may be blockade of the local sympathetic vasoconstrictor fibres or interference with myogenic...

  5. Effects of massage treatment combined with topical cactus and aloe on puerperal milk stasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Shan; Deng, Qingchun; Feng, Chunyu; Pan, Yinglian; Chang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Puerperal milk stasis is one of the most common puerperal complication that directly affects breastfeeding. Massage treatment with topical cactus and aloe for puerperal milk stasis might be a superior treatment, and it does not affect breastfeeding. The intervention group was treated with massages with cactus and aloe cold compresses, and the control group was treated with massage treatment or cactus and aloe cold compresses alone. We evaluated the efficacies of the treatments through comparisons of the feeding patterns, hardness, and pain after treatment between the three groups. We found that breastfeeding rates were significantly increased in the massage combine with combined with cactus and aloe cold compress group (P massage combine with combined with cactus and aloe cold compress group than in the massage or cold compress group (P Massage treatment with topical cactus and aloe topical effectively improved the pain status, hard lump of puerperal milk stasis and increase breastfeeding rate.

  6. Unique post-doctoral positions in Master of Arts in Teaching Earth Science program at the American Museum of Natural History: Involving early-career research scientists in Earth science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, K. E.; Nadeau, P. A.; Zirakparvar, N. A.; Grcevich, J.; Ustunisik, G. K.

    2012-12-01

    Post-doctoral positions in Earth science fields traditionally emphasize research within a university setting or research institute. Such positions may include a teaching component, but one which is often restricted to introductory undergraduate Earth science courses or upper-level courses within their own field of specialization. With such a specific focus, there may not be much inclination on the part of a post-doctoral fellow to involve themselves in broader education programs, such as public outreach or secondary schools. The American Museum of Natural History is now conducting a non-traditional post-doctoral position as part of its new Master of Arts in Teaching Earth Science (MAT). This pilot program involves forging a one-of-a-kind partnership between a world-class research museum and high-needs schools in New York City with the goal of addressing a critical shortage of qualified Earth Science teachers in New York State, particularly in high-needs schools with diverse populations. The program, which is part of the state's Race to the Top initiative, is approved by the NYS Board of Regents and will prepare a total of 50 candidates in two cohorts to earn a Board of Regents-awarded Masters of Arts in Teaching (MAT) degree with a specialization in Earth Science for grades 7-12. The post-doctoral fellows of the MAT program have unique 3-year positions, with more traditional research-based work comprising 65% of the tenure and non-traditional educational roles 35%. The MAT fellows are divided into two types: those with a teaching role, who are involved in the co-design and co-teaching of graduate-level Earth science courses; and those in a research/mentoring role, who design and teach a summer-long science research practicum while also providing informal support to MAT teaching candidates throughout the school year. Over the first year of the MAT program's implementation, fellows have been exposed to a range of activities outside the realm of a traditional post

  7. Hepatic Overexpression of Hemopexin Inhibits Inflammation and Vascular Stasis in Murine Models of Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellotti, Gregory M; Zhang, Ping; Nguyen, Julia; Abdulla, Fuad; Chen, Chunsheng; Nguyen, Phong; Nowotny, Carlos; Steer, Clifford J; Smith, Ann; Belcher, John D

    2016-07-19

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) patients have low serum hemopexin (Hpx) levels due to chronic hemolysis. We hypothesize that in SCD mice, hepatic overexpression of hemopexin will scavenge the proximal mediator of vascular activation, heme, and will inhibit inflammation and microvascular stasis. To examine the protective role of Hpx in SCD, we transplanted bone marrow from NY1DD SCD mice into Hpx(-/-) or Hpx(+/+) C57BL/6 mice. Dorsal skin fold chambers were implanted in week 13 post-transplant and microvascular stasis (% non-flowing venules) evaluated in response to heme infusion. Hpx(-/-) sickle mice had significantly greater microvascular stasis in response to heme infusion than Hpx(+/+) sickle mice (pBeauty (SB) transposon-mediated gene transfer to overexpress wild-type rat Hpx (wt-Hpx) in NY1DD and Townes-SS SCD mice. Control SCD mice were treated with lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) or a luciferase (Luc) plasmid. Plasma and hepatic Hpx were significantly increased compared to LRS and Luc controls. Microvascular stasis in response to heme infusion in NY1DD and Townes-SS mice overexpressing wt-Hpx had significantly less stasis than controls (p<0.05). Wt-Hpx overexpression markedly increased hepatic nuclear Nrf2 expression, HO-1 activity and protein, the heme-Hpx binding protein and scavenger receptor, CD91/LRP1 and decreased NF-κB activation. Two missense (ms)-Hpx SB-constructs that bound neither heme nor the Hpx receptor, CD91/LRP1, did not prevent heme-induced stasis. In conclusion, increasing Hpx levels in transgenic sickle mice via gene transfer activates the Nrf2/HO-1 anti-oxidant axis and ameliorates inflammation and vaso-occlusion.

  8. Estado actual de las metástasis óseas

    OpenAIRE

    Baixauli García, Francisco; Amaya Valero, J.V.; Angulo Sánchez, Manuel Ángel; Baeza Oliete, J.; Fernández Sabaté, E.; Mut Oltra, T.

    2014-01-01

    Los tumores óseos primarios representan solo un pequeño porcentaje comparado con las metás - tasis óseas. Pero, mientras que los tratamientos neo-adyuvantes y las técnicas de reconstrucción han mejorado la supervivencia y la calidad de vida de los pacientes afectos de tumores óseos primarios, el tratamiento primario de las metástasis óseas sigue siendo paliativo. Siendo el objetivo del tratamiento de las metástasis óseas: evitar el dolor y restaurar al máximo la actividad funci...

  9. A Political History of U.S. Commercial Remote Sensing, 1984-2007: Conflict, Collaboration, and the Role of Knowledge in the High-Tech World of Earth Observation Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Kenneth Parker

    2007-01-01

    The political history of U.S. commercial remote sensing began in 1984 when the U.S. government first attempted to commercialize its civil earth observation satellite system â Landsat. Since then, the high technology of earth imaging satellite systems has generated intense debates and policy conflicts, primarily centered on U.S. government concerns over the national security and foreign policy implications of high-resolution commercial satellite systems. Conversely, proponents of commerc...

  10. Development of an optical thermal history coating sensor based on the oxidation of a divalent rare earth ion phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez-González, Álvaro; Ruiz-Trejo, Enrique; van Wachem, Berend; Skinner, Stephen; Beyrau, Frank; Heyes, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    The measurement of temperatures in gas turbines, boilers, heat exchangers and other components exposed to hot gases is essential to design energy efficient systems and improve maintenance procedures. When on-line measurements, such as those performed with thermocouples and pyrometers, are not possible or inconvenient, the maximum temperatures of operation can be recorded and measured off-line after operation. Although thermal paints have been used for many years for this purpose, a novel technique based on irreversible changes in the optical properties of thermographic phosphors, can overcome some of the disadvantages of previous methods. In particular, oxidation of the divalent rare earth ion phosphor BaMgAl10O17:Eu (BAM:Eu) has shown great potential for temperature sensing between 700 °C and 1200 °C. The emission spectra of this phosphor change with temperature, which permits to define an intensity ratio between different lines in the spectra that can be used as a measurand of the temperature. In this paper, the study of the sensing capabilities of a sensor coating based on BAM:Eu phosphor material is addressed for the first time. The sensitivity of the intensity ratio is investigated in the temperature range from 800 °C to 1100 °C, and is proved to be affected by ionic diffusion of transition metals from the substrate. The use of an interlayer made of zirconia proves efficient in reducing ionic diffusion and coatings with this diffusion barrier present sensitivity comparable to that of the powder material.

  11. Simple versus complex models of trait evolution and stasis as a response to environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Gene; Hopkins, Melanie J.; Lidgard, Scott

    2015-04-01

    Previous analyses of evolutionary patterns, or modes, in fossil lineages have focused overwhelmingly on three simple models: stasis, random walks, and directional evolution. Here we use likelihood methods to fit an expanded set of evolutionary models to a large compilation of ancestor-descendant series of populations from the fossil record. In addition to the standard three models, we assess more complex models with punctuations and shifts from one evolutionary mode to another. As in previous studies, we find that stasis is common in the fossil record, as is a strict version of stasis that entails no real evolutionary changes. Incidence of directional evolution is relatively low (13%), but higher than in previous studies because our analytical approach can more sensitively detect noisy trends. Complex evolutionary models are often favored, overwhelmingly so for sequences comprising many samples. This finding is consistent with evolutionary dynamics that are, in reality, more complex than any of the models we consider. Furthermore, the timing of shifts in evolutionary dynamics varies among traits measured from the same series. Finally, we use our empirical collection of evolutionary sequences and a long and highly resolved proxy for global climate to inform simulations in which traits adaptively track temperature changes over time. When realistically calibrated, we find that this simple model can reproduce important aspects of our paleontological results. We conclude that observed paleontological patterns, including the prevalence of stasis, need not be inconsistent with adaptive evolution, even in the face of unstable physical environments.

  12. Seda õpikud ei räägi - STASI ja KGB / Mare Räis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Räis, Mare

    2001-01-01

    4.-30. aprillini on Rahvusraamatukogus avatud näitus "KGB & STASI - totaalse võimu tööriistad". Samuti toimub loengusari. Näituse materjalidest on koostatud õpimapp, milles leiduvat saab kasutada koolitunnis, hulgaliselt on ülesandeid ka näituse ekspositsiooniga töötamiseks

  13. Metástasis coroidea como manifestación inicial de tumor germinal mixto testicular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia E. Pacheco Quito

    2016-05-01

    El objetivo del oftalmólogo es establecer el diagnóstico ocular oportuno y realizar un correcto diagnóstico diferencial. Se debe considerar el diagnóstico de tumor testicular primario en un adulto joven con metástasis intraoculares.

  14. Condrosarcoma de la tibia con metástasis al sistema nervioso central

    OpenAIRE

    Toro G., Gabriel; Suárez C., Héctor A.; Mena R., Hernando

    2011-01-01

    Se analiza el caso de un hombre de 48 años de edad con condrosorcoma de la tibia derecha que dio metástasis al lóbulo occipital izquierdo. Encontramos en nuestra parcial revisión bibliográfica que solamente Talerman en 1970 comunicó un caso semejante.

  15. Building Partnerships to Address Community Geoscience Priorities: A Brief History of the Thriving Earth Exchange (TEX) Model and its Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, C.; Udu-gama, N.; Pandya, R.; Leshin, L. A.; McEntee, C.; Williams, B. M.; Goodwin, M.

    2016-12-01

    Increasingly, communities around the world are being challenged by extremes in climatic change and natural hazards and a lack of key natural resources. In many cases, such communities do not have access to the experts and resources they need to address these changes. While partnerships are being developed to address these challenges, there is a need to bring communities and scientists together equitably. Thriving Earth Exchange (TEX), a program powered by the American Geophysical Union (AGU), seeks to connect communities by offering them scientists that can work with them on developing effective solutions for their real-life climate change, natural hazards and/or natural resources challenges. TEX advocates community science - the notion that scientists and communities equitably work together to identify how science can advance local priorities such that it produces local impact, guides future research and generates solutions that can be shared. The concept for TEX evolved from 2011 AGU Council discussions on potential options for impacting AGU's upcoming Centennial. The concept started as a single "Grand Challenge" concept, but evolved through several trails and iterations to today's vibrant TEX program and model. The TEX process is not for every community or scientist. In order to ensure that a community can proceed through a project with a scientist, TEX has found that they often must have a mandate to work on the issue at hand. For instance, if a planning department is tasked with doing a climate vulnerability assessment, a project looking at how heat extremes affect the elderly could probably proceed without interruption from other internal community processes. In some cases, available funds acts as an impetus for a community to seek action. Yet at other times, an individual's passion to address a community challenge may be the spark required to turn ideas into action. This presentation will provide an overview of the TEX genesis within AGU, and its growth and

  16. A Model for Earth's Mantle Dynamic History for The Last 500 Ma and Its Implications for Continental Vertical Motions and Geomagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, S.; Olson, P.; Zhang, N.

    2012-12-01

    Seismic tomography studies indicate that the Earth's mantle structure is characterized by African and Pacific seismically slow velocity anomalies (i.e., thermochemical piles) and circum Pacific seismically fast anomalies (i.e., degree 2) in the lower mantle. Mantle convection calculations including plate motion history for the last 120 Ma suggest that these degree 2 thermochemical structures result from plate subduction history (e.g., McNamara and Zhong, 2005). Given the important controls of mantle structure and dynamics on surface tectonics and volcanism and geodynamo in the core, an important question is the long-term evolution of mantle structures, for example, was the mantle structure in the past similar to the present-day's degree 2 structure, or significantly different from the present day? To address this question, we constructed a proxy model of plate motions for the African hemisphere for the last 450 Ma using the paleogeographic reconstruction of continents constrained by paleomagnetic and geological observations (e.g., Pangea assembly and breakup). Coupled with assumed oceanic plate motions for the Pacific hemisphere before 120 Ma, this proxy model for the plate motion history is used in three dimensional spherical models of mantle convection to study the evolution of mantle structure since the Early Paleozoic. Our model calculations reproduce well the present day degree 2 mantle structure including the African and Pacific thermochemical piles, and present-day surface heat flux, bathymetry and dynamic topography. Our results suggest that while the mantle in the African hemisphere before the assembly of Pangea is dominated by the cold downwelling structure resulting from plate convergence between Gondwana and Laurussia, it is unlikely that the bulk of the African superplume structure can be formed before ˜230 Ma. Particularly, the last 120 Ma plate motion plays an important role in generating the African thermochemical pile. We reconstruct temporal

  17. Development and sustainability of NSF-funded climate change education efforts: lessons learned and strategies used to develop the Reconstructing Earth's Climate History (REaCH) curriculum (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, K. K.; Jones, M. H.; Leckie, R. M.; Pound, K. S.; Krissek, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    develop detailed instructor guides to accompany each module. After careful consideration of dissemination options, we choose to publish the full suite of exercise modules as a commercially-available book, Reconstructing Earth's Climate History, while also providing open online access to a subset of modules. Its current use in undergraduate paleoclimatology courses, and the availability of select modules for use in other courses demonstrate that creative, hybrid options can be found for lasting dissemination, and thus sustainability. In achieving our goal of making science accessible, we believe we have followed a curriculum development process and sustainability path that can be used by others to meet needs in earth, ocean, and atmospheric science education. Next steps for REaCH include exploration of its use in blended learning classrooms, and at minority serving institutions.

  18. Neumotórax bilateral como complicación de metástasis pulmonar cavitaria de un angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena V. Maldonado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Las metástasis pulmonares de angiosarcoma constituyen una complicación común de una neoplasia maligna poco frecuente. Habitualmente se presentan como nódulos solidos periféricos y derrame pleural. Presentamos el caso de un hombre de 65 años de edad con neumotórax bilateral recurrente, secundario a metástasis cavitadas de un angiosarcoma primitivo de cuero cabelludo. La videotoracoscopia permitió la inspección, la resección de las metástasis y la pleurodesis. No ocurrieron complicaciones ni recurrencia tumoral a los seis meses de seguimiento.

  19. Neumotórax bilateral como complicación de metástasis pulmonar cavitaria de un angiosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena V. Maldonado; Silvia Quadrelli; Gustavo Lyons; Juan C. Spina; Julio Venditti; Felipe J. Chertcoff

    2014-01-01

    Las metástasis pulmonares de angiosarcoma constituyen una complicación común de una neoplasia maligna poco frecuente. Habitualmente se presentan como nódulos solidos periféricos y derrame pleural. Presentamos el caso de un hombre de 65 años de edad con neumotórax bilateral recurrente, secundario a metástasis cavitadas de un angiosarcoma primitivo de cuero cabelludo. La videotoracoscopia permitió la inspección, la resección de las metástasis y la pleurodesis. No ocurrieron complicaciones ni re...

  20. 祛瘀止痛汤治疗心血瘀阻型胸痹%Remove stasis and pain decoction treating blood stasis type thoracic obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯公楷; 张彦峰

    2015-01-01

    objective To observe the analgesic decoction in the treatment of dispelling blood stasis and blocking clini-cal curative effect. Methods Choose 120 patients with obstruction of heartache as the research object,were random-ly divided into control group and test group,each 60 cases. Control group given conventional western medicine treat-ment,treatment group patients give the quasi square and remove stasis pain herb tea soup oral treatment;Two groups of patients with 7 days for a period of treatment,after treatment of 4 patients clinical symptoms and electrocardiogram curative effect. Results The treatment group patients clinical symptoms relieve the total effective rate was 83. 3% ;Control group was 68. 3%( P < 0. 05),the treatment group electrocardiogram period 86. 7% ,control group is 73. 3% ;Compare between the two groups have statistical significance( P < 0. 05). Conclusion Since the quasi square and remove stasis pain decoction in the treatment of blood stasis resistance type obstruction clinical curative effect is distinct.%目的:观察自拟方祛瘀止痛汤治疗心血瘀阻型胸痹的临床疗效。方法选取胸痹心痛患者120例为研究对象,随机分为对照组和试验组各60例,对照组给予西医常规治疗,试验组给予自拟方祛瘀止痛汤口服汤药治疗;2组均以7 d 为1个疗程,治疗4个疗程后观察临床症状及心电图疗效。结果治疗组临床症状缓解总有效率为83.3%,对照组为68.3%(P <0.05);治疗组心电图改善率86.7%,对照组为73.3%,2组比较差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论自拟祛瘀止痛汤治疗心血瘀阻型胸痹,具有活血化瘀、行气止痛之功,能明显改善临床症状及心电图疗效。

  1. Stasis domains and slip surfaces in the locomotion of a bio-inspired two-segment crawler

    CERN Document Server

    Gidoni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    We formulate and solve the locomotion problem for a bio-inspired crawler consisting of two active elastic segments (i.e., capable of changing their rest lengths), resting on three supports providing directional frictional interactions. The problem consists in finding the motion produced by a given, slow actuation history. By focusing on the tensions in the elastic segments, we show that the evolution laws for the system are entirely analogous to the flow rules of elasto-plasticity. In particular, sliding of the supports and hence motion cannot occur when the tensions are in the interior of certain convex regions (stasis domains), while support sliding (and hence motion) can only take place when the tensions are on the boundary of such regions (slip surfaces). We solve the locomotion problem explicitly in a few interesting examples. In particular, we show that, for a suitable range of the friction parameters, specific choices of the actuation strategy can lead to net displacements also in the direction of high...

  2. Exome-wide Mutation Profile in Benzo[a]pyrene-derived Post-stasis and Immortal Human Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, Paul L.; Vrba, Lukas; Stampfer, Martha R.; Futscher, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic mutations are known to drive cancer progression and certain tumors have mutation signatures that reflect exposures to environmental carcinogens. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) has a known mutation signature and has proven capable of inducing changes to DNA sequence that drives normal pre-stasis human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) past a first tumor suppressor barrier (stasis) and towards immortality. We analyzed normal, pre-stasis HMEC, three independent BaP-derived post-stasis HMEC strains (184Aa, 184Be, 184Ce) and two of their immortal derivatives(184A1 and 184BE1) by whole exome sequencing. The independent post-stasis strains exhibited between 93 and 233 BaP-induced mutations in exons. Seventy percent of the mutations were C:G>A:T transversions, consistent with the known mutation spectrum of BaP. Mutations predicted to impact protein function occurred in several known and putative cancer drivers including p16, PLCG1, MED12, TAF1 in 184Aa; PIK3CG, HSP90AB1, WHSC1L1, LCP1 in 184Be and FANCA, LPP in 184Ce. Biological processes that typically harbor cancer driver mutations such as cell cycle, regulation of cell death and proliferation, RNA processing, chromatin modification and DNA repair were found to have mutations predicted to impact function in each of the post-stasis strains. Spontaneously immortalized HMEC lines derived from two of the BaP-derived post-stasis strains shared greater than 95% of their BaP-induced mutations with their precursor cells. These immortal HMEC had 10 or fewer additional point mutations relative to their post-stasis precursors, but acquired chromosomal anomalies during immortalization that arose independent of BaP. The results of this study indicate that acute exposures of HMEC to high dose BaP recapitulate mutation patterns of human tumors and can induce mutations in a number of cancer driver genes. PMID:25435355

  3. METÁSTASIS CEREBRALES: UNA MIRADA BIOLÓGICA Y CLÍNICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Arnaldo Marín

    2017-05-01

    Por lo tanto, la elección del tratamiento es compleja, considerando la primaria, el número de metástasis y los sitios afectados. La radioterapia ha sido durante mucho tiempo la elección de los pacientes que no son candidatos a la cirugía, y se espera que los avances reduzcan especialmente la toxicidad cognitiva. El conocimiento genómico de las metástasis cerebrales y la presencia de terapias dirigidas e inmunoterapias modificadas que penetran la barrera hematoencefálica han sido clave, se espera que en el futuro se realicen más estudios de combinaciones de tratamientos de radioterapia con terapias de inmunoterapia y dirigidas.

  4. Effect of mitral valve prosthesis design and orientation on intraventricular flow and blood stasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Newman, Karen; Campos, J.; Montes, R.; Ramesh, V.; Moon, J.; Reider, C.; Martinez-Legazpi, P.; Bermejo, J.; Rossini, Lorenzo; Del Alamo, Juan C.

    2016-11-01

    Abnormal blood flow patterns are linked with thromboembolism (TE), especially in the presence of medical devices such as mitral valve prostheses (MVP). We performed PIV on a customized silicone left ventricle (LV) in a mock circulatory loop. We measured the velocity field in the long-axis midplane for 3 different MVP: a porcine bioprosthesis (BP), a tilting disk valve in two orientations: towards the LV lateral (TD-L) or the anterior wall (TD-A), and a bileaflet valve with anti-anatomical orientation (BL). Diastolic LV vortices were tracked and related to measures of blood stasis based on LV residence time. The BP and the TD-L produced flow patterns similar to those measured in patients. The TD-A showed a complete reversal of diastolic vortices. The BL design had increased apical blood stasis, which may lead to increased TE risk.

  5. Studies on Pathogenesis and Prophylaxis and Treatment of Postvasectomy Epididymal Stasis Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘士怡; 王志新; 吕延鹤; 程继义; 黄真嘉; 高建文; 田奎武

    1996-01-01

    Eighty-four hamsters were vasectomized on both sides, Another group of 76 hamsters was used as the control group. The animal experiment demonstrated that the epididymal function was damaged on the basis of the micropuncture and microanalysis of the epididymal plasma. Histologic examination revealed the dilatation of the lumen, infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells in the interstitium and sperm granuloma. Thirty-nine patients with postvasectomy epididymal stasis were treated with microwave radiation and 10 cases with epididymectomy. The B and C ultrasonography and MRI were used for diagnosis. Histologic examination suggested that chronic obstruction of vasectomy mode (both side electric coagulation or keeping proximal open ) may lead to formation of the new dynamic equilibrium, therefore benefiting the spermatogenesis of testis. Others with acute obstruction of the vas (bilateral ligation) may cause epididymal stasis.

  6. Astronomical catastrophes in Earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Sidney

    1994-07-01

    The boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary epochs has now been firmly linked to a large impact structure centered on Chicxulub in Yucatan. This crater has an age of 65.0 +/- 0.1 million years. Macrofossils such as ammonites, and footprints of dinosaurs, are found up to centimeters below (but not above] the Creataceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary. t is not yet certain whether the Chicxulub crater was produced by a comet or by an asteroid. However, data on the crater diameter and K/T iridium abundance slightly favor a cometary origin. The cause(s) of the other major extinctions in the geological record, such as those between the Permian and Triassic (P/TR) and between the Triassic and Jurassic (TR/J) remain in doubt. Explosions of nearby supernovae occur too rarely to account for the frequency of major extinctions in the approximately 600 million year geological record of the Phanerozoic.

  7. Secular variations in zonal harmonics of Earth's geopotential and their implications for mantle viscosity and Antarctic melting history due to the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Masao; Okuno, Jun'ichi

    2017-06-01

    Secular variations in zonal harmonics of Earth's geopotential based on the satellite laser ranging observations, {\\dot{J}_n}, contain important information about the Earth's deformation due to the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and recent melting of glaciers and the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Here, we examine the GIA-induced {\\dot{J}_n}, \\dot{J}_n^{{{GIA}}} (2 ≤ n ≤ 6), derived from the available geopotential zonal secular rate and recent melting taken from the IPCC 2013 Report (AR5) to explore the possibility of additional information on the depth-dependent lower-mantle viscosity and GIA ice model inferred from the analyses of the \\dot{J}_2^{{{GIA}}} and relative sea level changes. The sensitivities of the \\dot{J}_n^{{{GIA}}} to lower-mantle viscosity and GIA ice model with a global averaged eustatic sea level (ESL) of ∼130 m indicate that the secular rates for n = 3 and 4 are mainly caused by the viscous response of the lower mantle to the melting of the Antarctic ice sheet regardless of GIA ice models adopted in this study. Also, the analyses of the \\dot{J}_n^{{{GIA}}} based on the available geopotential zonal secular rates indicate that permissible lower-mantle viscosity structure satisfying even zonal secular rates of n = 2, 4 and 6 is obtained for the GIA ice model with an Antarctic ESL component of ∼20 or ∼30 m, but there is no viscosity solution satisfying \\dot{J}_3^{{{GIA}}} and \\dot{J}_5^{{{GIA}}} values. Moreover, the inference model for the lower-mantle viscosity and GIA ice model from each odd zonal secular rate is distinctly different from that satisfying GIA-induced even zonal secular rate. The discrepancy between the inference models for the even and odd zonal secular rates may partly be attributed to uncertainties of the geopotential zonal secular rates for n > 2 and particularly those for odd zonal secular rates due to weakness in the orbital geometry. If this problem is overcome at least for the secular rates of n

  8. Prediction of stasis and crisis in the Bak-Sneppen model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejedor, Alejandro, E-mail: atejedor@unizar.e [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Gomez, Javier B., E-mail: jgomez@unizar.e [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Pacheco, Amalio F., E-mail: amalio@unizar.e [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)] [Institute for Biocomputation and Physics of Complex Systems (BIFI), University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-10-26

    Several recurrences in the dynamics of an individual species in the one-dimensional Bak-Sneppen model are analysed. The distributions of the time intervals for stasis and crisis are separately calculated together with the respective hazard functions for the transition between them. The predictabilities of when a crisis will start and when it will conclude are evaluated by using one- and two-parameter strategies and the information is represented in standard error diagrams.

  9. Thirty-six Cases of Hyperglycemia Treated by Promoting Blood Circulation to Remove Stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Thirty-six cases with hyperglycemia were treated with the method of promoting blood circulation and removing stasis in a course of 4 weeks. The treatment was significantly effective in correcting the abnormal viscosity of the blood by reducing the contents of total plasmic cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and apoprotein B (apoB), while the level of the apoprotein A (apoA) was elevated.

  10. Patient-specific analysis of blood stasis in the left atrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Oscar; Gonzalo, Alejandro; Garcia-Villalba, Manuel; Rossini, Lorenzo; Hsiao, Albert; McVeigh, Elliot; Kahn, Andrew M.; Del Alamo, Juan C.

    2016-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia in which the left atrium (LA) beats rapidly and irregularly. Patients with AF are at increased risk of thromboembolic events (TE), particularly stroke. Anticoagulant therapy can reduce the risk of TE in AF, but it can also increase the risks of adverse events such as internal bleeding. The current lack of tools to predict each patient's risk of LA thrombogenesis makes it difficult to decide whether to anticoagulate patients with AF. The aim of this work is to evaluate blood stasis in patient-specific models of the LA, because stasis is a known thrombogenesis risk factor. To achieve our aim, we performed direct numerical simulations of left atrial flow using an immersed boundary solver developed at the UC3M, coupled to a 0D model for the pulmonary circulation. The LA geometry is obtained from time-resolved CT scans and the parameters of the 0D model are found by fitting pulmonary vein flow data obtained by 4D phase contrast MRI. Blood stasis is evaluated from the flow data by computing blood residence time together with other kinematic indices of the velocity field (e.g. strain and kinetic energy). We focus on the flow in the left atrial appendage, including a sensitivity analysis of the effect of the parameters of the 0D model. Funded by the Spanish MECD, the Clinical and Translational Research Institute at UCSD and the American Heart Association.

  11. Urine Stasis Predisposes to Urinary Tract Infection by an Opportunistic Uropathogen in the Megabladder (Mgb) Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becknell, Brian; Mohamed, Ahmad Z; Li, Birong; Wilhide, Michael E; Ingraham, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Urinary stasis is a risk factor for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Homozygous mutant Megabladder (Mgb-/-) mice exhibit incomplete bladder emptying as a consequence of congenital detrusor aplasia. We hypothesize that this predisposes Mgb-/- mice to spontaneous and experimental UTI. Mgb-/-, Mgb+/-, and wild-type female mice underwent serial ultrasound and urine cultures at 4, 6, and 8 weeks to detect spontaneous UTI. Urine bacterial isolates were analyzed by Gram stain and speciated. Bladder stones were analyzed by x-ray diffractometry. Bladders and kidneys were subject to histologic analysis. The pathogenicity of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS) isolated from Mgb-/- urine was tested by transurethral administration to culture-negative Mgb-/- or wild-type animals. The contribution of urinary stasis to CONS susceptibility was evaluated by cutaneous vesicostomy in Mgb-/- mice. Mgb-/- mice develop spontaneous bacteriuria (42%) and struvite bladder stones (31%) by 8 weeks, findings absent in Mgb+/- and wild-type controls. CONS was cultured as a solitary isolate from Mgb-/- bladder stones. Bladders and kidneys from mice with struvite stones exhibit mucosal injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. These pathologic features of cystitis and pyelonephritis are replicated by transurethral inoculation of CONS in culture-negative Mgb-/- females, whereas wild-type animals are less susceptible to CONS colonization and organ injury. Cutaneous vesicostomy prior to CONS inoculation significantly reduces the quantity of CONS recovered from Mgb-/- urine, bladders, and kidneys. CONS is an opportunistic uropathogen in the setting of urinary stasis, leading to enhanced UTI incidence and severity in Mgb-/- mice.

  12. Asymmetric ecological conditions favor Red-Queen type of continued evolution over stasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbotten, Jan Martin; Stenseth, Nils C

    2016-02-16

    Four decades ago, Leigh Van Valen presented the Red Queen's hypothesis to account for evolution of species within a multispecies ecological community [Van Valen L (1973) Evol Theory 1(1):1-30]. The overall conclusion of Van Valen's analysis was that evolution would continue even in the absence of abiotic perturbations. Stenseth and Maynard Smith presented in 1984 [Stenseth NC, Maynard Smith J (1984) Evolution 38(4):870-880] a model for the Red Queen's hypothesis showing that both Red-Queen type of continuous evolution and stasis could result from a model with biotically driven evolution. However, although that contribution demonstrated that both evolutionary outcomes were possible, it did not identify which ecological conditions would lead to each of these evolutionary outcomes. Here, we provide, using a simple, yet general population-biologically founded eco-evolutionary model, such analytically derived conditions: Stasis will predominantly emerge whenever the ecological system contains only symmetric ecological interactions, whereas both Red-Queen and stasis type of evolution may result if the ecological interactions are asymmetrical, and more likely so with increasing degree of asymmetry in the ecological system (i.e., the more trophic interactions, host-pathogen interactions, and the like there are [i.e., +/- type of ecological interactions as well as asymmetric competitive (-/-) and mutualistic (+/+) ecological interactions]). In the special case of no between-generational genetic variance, our results also predict dynamics within these types of purely ecological systems.

  13. Gene trees, species trees and Earth history combine to shed light on the evolution of migration in a model avian system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Gary; Bowie, Rauri C K; Klicka, John

    2013-06-01

    The evolution of migration in birds has fascinated biologists for centuries. In this study, we performed phylogenetic-based analyses of Catharus thrushes, a model genus in the study of avian migration, and their close relatives. For these analyses, we used both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and the resulting phylogenies were used to trace migratory traits and biogeographic patterns. Our results provide the first robust assessment of relationships within Catharus and relatives and indicate that both mitochondrial and autosomal genes contribute to overall support of the phylogeny. Measures of phylogenetic informativeness indicated that mitochondrial genes provided more signal within Catharus than did nuclear genes, whereas nuclear loci provided more signal for relationships between Catharus and close relatives than did mitochondrial genes. Insertion and deletion events also contributed important support across the phylogeny. Across all taxa included in the study, and for Catharus, possession of long-distance migration is reconstructed as the ancestral condition, and a North American (north of Mexico) ancestral area is inferred. Within Catharus, sedentary behaviour evolved after the first speciation event in the genus and is geographically and temporally correlated with Central American distributions and the final closure of the Central American Seaway. Migratory behaviour subsequently evolved twice in Catharus and is geographically and temporally correlated with a recolonization of North America in the late Pleistocene. By temporally linking speciation events with changes in migratory condition and events in Earth history, we are able to show support for several competing hypotheses relating to the geographic origin of migration. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. H-Ferritin ferroxidase induces cytoprotective pathways and inhibits microvascular stasis in transgenic sickle mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M Vercellotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemolysis, oxidative stress, inflammation, vaso-occlusion and organ infarction are hallmarks of sickle cell disease (SCD. We have previously shown that increases in heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 activity detoxify heme and inhibit vaso-occlusion in transgenic mouse models of SCD. HO-1 releases Fe2+ from heme, and the ferritin heavy chain (FHC ferroxidase oxidizes iron to catalytically-inactive Fe3+ inside ferritin. FHC overexpression has been shown to be cytoprotective. In this study, we hypothesized that overexpression of FHC and its ferroxidase activity will inhibit inflammation and microvascular stasis in transgenic sickle mice in response to stroma-free hemoglobin. We utilized a Sleeping Beauty transposase plasmid to deliver a human wild-type-ferritin heavy chain (wt-hFHC transposable element by hydrodynamic tail vein injections to NY1DD SCD mice. Control mice were infused with the same volume of lactated Ringer's solution (LRS or a triple missense human FHC (ms-hFHC plasmid with no ferroxidase activity. Eight weeks later, LRS-injected mice had ~40% microvascular stasis (% non-flowing venules when infused with stroma-free hemoglobin at 1 h, while mice overexpressing wt-hFHC had only 5% stasis (p< 0.05, and ms-hFHC mice had 33% stasis suggesting vascular protection by ferroxidase active wt-hFHC. The wt-hFHC SCD mice had marked increases in splenic hFHC mRNA and hepatic hFHC protein, light chain ferritin, 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase (5-ALA-synthase, heme content, ferroportin, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, nuclear hFHC, and microsomal HO-1 activity and protein, and a decrease in activated nuclear phosho-nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB p65. HO-1 activity was not essential for the protection by FHC. We conclude that wt-hFHC ferroxidase activity enhances cytoprotective Nrf2-regulated proteins including HO-1, thereby resulting in decreased NF-κB-activation, inflammation and microvascular stasis in transgenic SCD mice.

  15. H-ferritin ferroxidase induces cytoprotective pathways and inhibits microvascular stasis in transgenic sickle mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellotti, Gregory M; Khan, Fatima B; Nguyen, Julia; Chen, Chunsheng; Bruzzone, Carol M; Bechtel, Heather; Brown, Graham; Nath, Karl A; Steer, Clifford J; Hebbel, Robert P; Belcher, John D

    2014-01-01

    Hemolysis, oxidative stress, inflammation, vaso-occlusion, and organ infarction are hallmarks of sickle cell disease (SCD). We have previously shown that increases in heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) activity detoxify heme and inhibit vaso-occlusion in transgenic mouse models of SCD. HO-1 releases Fe(2+) from heme, and the ferritin heavy chain (FHC) ferroxidase oxidizes Fe(2+) to catalytically inactive Fe(3+) inside ferritin. FHC overexpression has been shown to be cytoprotective. In this study, we hypothesized that overexpression of FHC and its ferroxidase activity will inhibit inflammation and microvascular stasis in transgenic SCD mice in response to plasma hemoglobin. We utilized a Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase plasmid to deliver a human wild-type-ferritin heavy chain (wt-hFHC) transposable element by hydrodynamic tail vein injections into NY1DD SCD mice. Control SCD mice were infused with the same volume of lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) or a human triple missense FHC (ms-hFHC) plasmid with no ferroxidase activity. 8 weeks later, LRS-injected mice had ~40% microvascular stasis (% non-flowing venules) 1 h after infusion of stroma-free hemoglobin, while mice overexpressing wt-hFHC had only 5% stasis (p < 0.05), and ms-hFHC mice had 33% stasis suggesting vascular protection by ferroxidase active wt-hFHC. The wt-hFHC SCD mice had marked increases in splenic hFHC mRNA and hepatic hFHC protein, ferritin light chain (FLC), 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS), heme content, ferroportin, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and HO-1 activity and protein. There was also a decrease in hepatic activated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) phospho-p65 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Inhibition of HO-1 activity with tin protoporphyrin demonstrated HO-1 was not essential for the protection by wt-hFHC. We conclude that wt-hFHC ferroxidase activity enhances cytoprotective Nrf2-regulated proteins including HO-1, thereby resulting in decreased NF

  16. Metástasis pulmonares en osteosarcoma neoadyuvancia, tratamiento quirúrgico y supervivencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán L Farfalli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available La supervivencia global a 5 años de los pacientes con osteosarcoma no-metastásico es del 60-70%, mientras que la misma se reduce a 10-30% en los pacientes con enfermedad diseminada. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue determinar supervivencia y factores pronósticos en un grupo de pacientes con metástasis pulmonares por osteosarcoma tratados quirúrgicamente. Se realizó una búsqueda retrospectiva en nuestra base de datos oncológica entre 1992-2006, y 38 pacientes fueron incluidos en el estudio. La edad media al momento del diagnóstico fue de 18 ± 9.4 años (3-45 y el seguimiento promedio de 57 ± 53.8 meses (12-231. Todos fueron tratados con quimioterapia, resección oncológica del tumor primario y de las metástasis pulmonares. Se analizó la supervivencia a 5 y 10 años de la serie y los siguientes factores pronósticos: edad, sexo, localización del tumor primario, metástasis de inicio, recidiva local, número de metástasis extirpadas y la respuesta al tratamiento de quimioterapia (necrosis tumoral. La supervivencia global fue de 29% a los 5 años (IC95%:14.5-43.5 y de 26% a los 10 años (IC95%:12-40. Se encontró una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los buenos y malos respondedores a la quimioterapia: 53% (IC95%: 28-78 vs. 8% (IC95%: 0-20 (p = 0.0008. No se observó relación estadísticamente significativa entre los demás factores pronósticos analizados. La supervivencia a 5 y 10 años de los pacientes con osteosarcoma y metástasis pulmonares tratados con quimioterapia y resección quirúrgica continúa siendo pobre. Los pacientes con buena respuesta a la quimioterapia neoadyuvante presentan un mejor pronóstico oncológico.

  17. Metástasis en hueso maxilar superior de adenocarcinoma de esófago: presentación de un caso clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Jiménez, Juan; Acebal Blanco, Faustino; Arévalo Arévalo, Rafael; Molina Martínez, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Las metástasis en cavidad oral son lesiones raras que representan aproximadamente el 1% de todas las neoplasias malignas de cavidad oral. Las metástasis orales se localizan en un 80-90% en mandíbula, siendo mas raras en maxilar superior. Las metástasis en tejidos blandos de boca son raras, y es encía donde con mayor frecuencia se localizan las metástasis en tejidos blandos en boca. Los tumores primarios que metastatizan a boca son los más frecuentes pulmón, mama y riñón. ...

  18. PET/TC de cuerpo completo para la detección de metástasis de melanoma coroideo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Rodríguez-Marco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma coroideo es el tumor maligno ocular primario más frecuente en los adultos y las metástasis más frecuentes son a nivel hepático con un mal pronóstico a pesar de los tratamientos. Estas metástasis se han descrito hasta en el 50 % de los melanomas coroideos. Estudios recientes muestran que la ecografía hepática y las analíticas hepáticas tienen baja sensibilidad en el diagnóstico de las metástasis hepáticas de los melanomas de úvea. Exponemos el caso de un paciente con historia de melanoma coroideo. La exploración preoperatoria, incluyendo TC de abdomen, analítica sanguínea y enzimas hepáticos resultó normal. En un PET/TC realizado mostró lesiones en el hígado y pulmones. El PET/TC de cuerpo entero mostró metástasis de un melanoma uveal. El PET/TC es una herramienta útil para la detección de las metástasis hepáticas y extrahepáticas.

  19. Personal Inquiry in the Earth Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, W. Paul

    Designed as a basic workbook using the inquiry process or as a supplementary text in the classroom, this 129 page booklet is divided into five units: Moving in on the Earth From Space, The Earth's Great Bodies of Water, Composition of the Solid Earth, The Earth's Crust is Constantly Changing, and Studying the Earth's History. The exercises are…

  20. Urine Stasis Predisposes to Urinary Tract Infection by an Opportunistic Uropathogen in the Megabladder (Mgb) Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becknell, Brian; Mohamed, Ahmad Z.; Li, Birong; Wilhide, Michael E.; Ingraham, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Urinary stasis is a risk factor for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Homozygous mutant Megabladder (Mgb-/-) mice exhibit incomplete bladder emptying as a consequence of congenital detrusor aplasia. We hypothesize that this predisposes Mgb-/- mice to spontaneous and experimental UTI. Methods Mgb-/-, Mgb+/-, and wild-type female mice underwent serial ultrasound and urine cultures at 4, 6, and 8 weeks to detect spontaneous UTI. Urine bacterial isolates were analyzed by Gram stain and speciated. Bladder stones were analyzed by x-ray diffractometry. Bladders and kidneys were subject to histologic analysis. The pathogenicity of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS) isolated from Mgb-/- urine was tested by transurethral administration to culture-negative Mgb-/- or wild-type animals. The contribution of urinary stasis to CONS susceptibility was evaluated by cutaneous vesicostomy in Mgb-/- mice. Results Mgb-/- mice develop spontaneous bacteriuria (42%) and struvite bladder stones (31%) by 8 weeks, findings absent in Mgb+/- and wild-type controls. CONS was cultured as a solitary isolate from Mgb-/- bladder stones. Bladders and kidneys from mice with struvite stones exhibit mucosal injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. These pathologic features of cystitis and pyelonephritis are replicated by transurethral inoculation of CONS in culture-negative Mgb-/- females, whereas wild-type animals are less susceptible to CONS colonization and organ injury. Cutaneous vesicostomy prior to CONS inoculation significantly reduces the quantity of CONS recovered from Mgb-/- urine, bladders, and kidneys. Conclusions CONS is an opportunistic uropathogen in the setting of urinary stasis, leading to enhanced UTI incidence and severity in Mgb-/- mice. PMID:26401845

  1. Metástasis cutáneas de cáncer de recto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. de Miguel Valencia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma colorrectal es un tumor que con muy poca frecuencia origina metástasis cutáneas, y cuando lo hace raramente es por vía hematógena. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 55 años diagnosticado de un adenocarcinoma de recto (tercio inferior estadio T3N2M0. Tratado inicialmente con radioquimioterapia neoadyuvante, fue intervenido ocho semanas después realizándose una amputación abdominoperineal extendida. El resultado anatomopatológico fue de adenocarcinoma mucinoso de recto, estadio ypT3bN1. Tras un postoperatorio sin complicaciones el paciente recibió tratamiento quimioterápico con capecitabina. A los 18 meses el paciente refirió la aparición progresiva de nódulos subcutáneos en distintas localizaciones. En la tomografía computarizada de control se objetivaron múltiples imágenes sugestivas de metástasis a nivel hepático y pulmonar, así como lesiones subcutáneas. La exéresis-biopsia de uno de los nódulos subcutáneos corroboró la sospecha de metástasis de adenocarcinoma de recto. Se valoró tratamiento quimioterápico que no llegó a administrarse por el rápido deterioro del paciente que llevó al exitus.

  2. Laïcité and multiculturalism: the Stasi Report in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akan, Murat

    2009-06-01

    French republican universalism--expressed most strongly in the principle and practice of laïcité--and multiculturalism have constituted opposite poles on questions of citizenship and integration. The report of the Stasi Commission on laïcité on 11 December 2003 and the following legislation on the donning of religious symbols in French public schools have once again, spurred debates over the meanings and practices of laïcité. The report and the law have been interpreted in different ways. Some have presented them as a reaffirmation of a historically constituted laïcité under new circumstances, others as a divergence from the real problems of racism, unemployment and gender inequality. In this article, I offer an alternative reading by supplementing a critical reading of the report with an analysis of its historical and immediate institutional context. I evaluate the Stasi Report in its immediate context of institutional change, and in the historical context of selected developments concerning laïcité since the 1905 law separating churches and State. I argue that the Stasi Report marks a fundamental break with French republican universalism, and I show that this break occurred contemporaneously with key gestures of multiculturalism: the establishment of the French Muslim Council and the creation of Muslim high schools under contract with the French state. This double movement to narrow the boundaries of laïcité, and for the state to expand the boundaries of identity-specific, Muslim public institutions and private schooling constitutes a reorganization of the public sphere in France which qualifies as a move towards multiculturalism.

  3. Urine Stasis Predisposes to Urinary Tract Infection by an Opportunistic Uropathogen in the Megabladder (Mgb Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Becknell

    Full Text Available Urinary stasis is a risk factor for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI. Homozygous mutant Megabladder (Mgb-/- mice exhibit incomplete bladder emptying as a consequence of congenital detrusor aplasia. We hypothesize that this predisposes Mgb-/- mice to spontaneous and experimental UTI.Mgb-/-, Mgb+/-, and wild-type female mice underwent serial ultrasound and urine cultures at 4, 6, and 8 weeks to detect spontaneous UTI. Urine bacterial isolates were analyzed by Gram stain and speciated. Bladder stones were analyzed by x-ray diffractometry. Bladders and kidneys were subject to histologic analysis. The pathogenicity of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS isolated from Mgb-/- urine was tested by transurethral administration to culture-negative Mgb-/- or wild-type animals. The contribution of urinary stasis to CONS susceptibility was evaluated by cutaneous vesicostomy in Mgb-/- mice.Mgb-/- mice develop spontaneous bacteriuria (42% and struvite bladder stones (31% by 8 weeks, findings absent in Mgb+/- and wild-type controls. CONS was cultured as a solitary isolate from Mgb-/- bladder stones. Bladders and kidneys from mice with struvite stones exhibit mucosal injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. These pathologic features of cystitis and pyelonephritis are replicated by transurethral inoculation of CONS in culture-negative Mgb-/- females, whereas wild-type animals are less susceptible to CONS colonization and organ injury. Cutaneous vesicostomy prior to CONS inoculation significantly reduces the quantity of CONS recovered from Mgb-/- urine, bladders, and kidneys.CONS is an opportunistic uropathogen in the setting of urinary stasis, leading to enhanced UTI incidence and severity in Mgb-/- mice.

  4. LACTULOSE IN PREOPERATIVE PREPARATION OF CHILDREN WITH DECOMPENSATED TYPE OF CHRONIC COLON STASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Kirgizov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results of estimation of effectiveness of lactulose (Dupfalac in preoperative preparation of children with decompensated type of chronic colon stasis. Proved, that administration of this medication normalizes such indices of homeostasis as acid-base balance of blood and microbiocenose of colon by 7days. Use of lactulose decreases patient complaints on nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, weakness in 1.6 times rarely then in group of children using other laxative medications in preoperative preparation.Key words: megacolon syndrome, lactulose, dysbacteriosis, blood acid-base balance.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(1:68-71

  5. Fossilized nuclei and chromosomes reveal 180 million years of genomic stasis in royal ferns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; McLoughlin, Stephen; Vajda, Vivi

    2014-03-21

    Rapidly permineralized fossils can provide exceptional insights into the evolution of life over geological time. Here, we present an exquisitely preserved, calcified stem of a royal fern (Osmundaceae) from Early Jurassic lahar deposits of Sweden in which authigenic mineral precipitation from hydrothermal brines occurred so rapidly that it preserved cytoplasm, cytosol granules, nuclei, and even chromosomes in various stages of cell division. Morphometric parameters of interphase nuclei match those of extant Osmundaceae, indicating that the genome size of these reputed "living fossils" has remained unchanged over at least 180 million years-a paramount example of evolutionary stasis.

  6. Arquitectura y Música: El Pabellón Philips y Metástasis

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrández Orbezua, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    La relación entre música y arquitectura ha sido un tema recurrente, ya sea comparando la proporción visual con la armonía sonora o citando, una vez más, aquella frase de Schopenhauer que define a la arquitectura como música congelada. En este trabajo fin de grado se aborda la relación entre la Música y la Arquitectura desde el estudio de dos obras en concreto; la obra musical para orquesta Metástasis del compositor Iannis Xenakis y la obra arquitectónica del Pabellón Philips de Iannis Xenakis...

  7. Metástasis musculares no sospechadas detectadas con 18F-FDG PET/TC

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    San Román, J; Hovsepian, M

    2017-01-01

    ... con tomografía computada con flúor-18 deoxiglucosa (18F-FDG PET/TC) de cuerpo es actualmente el método de referencia para la búsqueda de metástasis 8–10 . El propósito de nuestro trabajo es reportar la prevalencia de MM en pacientes oncológicos mediante su detección con 18F-FDG PET/TC. También analizamos la frecuencia de las neoplasias primarias, la loca...

  8. Metástasis intestinales yeyunales, forma de presentación de un carcinoma pulmonar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ruiz-Clavijo García

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Los tumores primarios de intestino delgado son muy infrecuentes, siendo todavía más raros los metastásicos. Es excepcional que las metástasis de intestino delgado se manifiesten antes que el tumor primario. La presentación clínica puede requerir una resección quirúrgica intestinal motivada por perforación, hemorragia, obstrucción-suboclusión intestinal e incluso invaginación intestinal. La supervivencia, es escasa y generalmente no supera las 20 semanas, independientemente del tratamiento que se realice.

  9. [Effect of formula of removing both phlegm and blood stasis on Chinese medicine symptom complex score for coronary heart disease Chinese miniature swine model with phlegm-stasis cementation syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Ren; Ren, Jian-Xun; Li, Lei; Ren, Jun-Guo; Liu, Guang-Yu; Liu, Jian-Xun

    2013-12-01

    To establish the "clinical-mimetic" Chinese medicine symptom complex score method for the coronary heart disease Chinese miniature swine model with phlegm-stasis cementation syndrome, in order to observe the effect of formula of removing both phlegm and blood stasis (TYTZ) on the Chinese medicine symptom complex score for the coronary heart disease Chinese miniature swine model with phlegm-stasis cementation syndrome. Totally 36 Chinese miniature swine were randomly divided to the normal control group, the model group, the Shujiangzhi group, and TYTZ groups with doses of 2.0, 1.0 and 0.5 g x kg(-1), with six in each group. Except for the normal control group, all of the other groups were fed with high fat diet for two weeks. The coronary heart disease model with phlegm-stasis cementation syndrome was established by injuring left anterior descending artery with interventional balloons and continuously feeding with high fat diet for eight weeks. After the operation, the groups were administered with drugs for eight weeks. Their main symptoms, accompanied symptoms, tongue and pulse signs of the coronary heart disease Chinese miniature swine with phlengm-stasis cementation syndrome were observed according to the symptom-graded scoring method. Compared with the model group, TYTZ in different doses could reduce the scores of main symptoms at the 6th and 10th week. Specifically, TYTZ in low dose could reduce the scores of tongue at the 6th week and the scores of accompanied symptoms, and tongue and pulse signs at the 10th week; And TYTZ in high dose could decrease all symptom scores at the 6th and 10th week (P disease Chinese miniature swine with phlegm-stasis cementation syndrome. It is suggested that the "clinical-mimetic" objective scoring for syndromes of Chinese miniature swine is of great significant to the development of new traditional Chinese medicine drugs.

  10. 咳嗽从瘀血论治经验%The experiences of the treatment on cough from blood stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马献中; 王世彪; 王保平

    2014-01-01

    Cough lung disease is one of the most common syndromes caused by many reasons, cough, a cough and internal cough points, most doctors more responsibility in the lung, spleen, liver, kidney damage, or due to feel the wind, cold, heat, dryness, fire evil and hair, or phlegm due to spleen deficiency, liver fire attacking lung, deficiency of kidney qi and other causes. In recent years, the study found, blood stasis caused one of the main causes of chronic cough, especially in chronic cough patients. Our clinical treatment of chronic bronchitis, cough asthma, pulmonary heart disease, bronchiectasis patients, each with blood stasis of TCM, often obtain good effect. The blood stasis cough experience summarized as follows.

  11. The Earth's early evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, S A; Housh, T

    1995-09-15

    The Archean crust contains direct geochemical information of the Earth's early planetary differentiation. A major outstanding question in the Earth sciences is whether the volume of continental crust today represents nearly all that formed over Earth's history or whether its rates of creation and destruction have been approximately balanced since the Archean. Analysis of neodymium isotopic data from the oldest remnants of Archean crust suggests that crustal recycling is important and that preserved continental crust comprises fragments of crust that escaped recycling. Furthermore, the data suggest that the isotopic evolution of Earth's mantle reflects progressive eradication of primordial heterogeneities related to early differentiation.

  12. Deliberative Rhetoric and Forensic Stasis: Reconsidering the Scope and Function of an Ancient Rhetorical Heuristic in the Aftermath of the Thomas/Hill Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullman, George L.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the second confirmation hearing of Judge Clarence Thomas as it concerned the reception of Professor Anita Hill's comments. Argues that the application of forensic stasis in a situation where the evidence could not fit the forensic pattern virtually guaranteed the confirmation of Judge Clarence Thomas. Suggests that forensic stasis is not…

  13. Metástasis humeral tardía de un cáncer de laringe

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Martín, Angel Antonio; Vera Alvarez, J.; Sanz Lacalle, Javier; Cuadra Ruiz, J.; Gracia Repollés, Fernando

    1999-01-01

    Presentamos un caso de metástasis ósea única en el húmero cuyo tumor primario fue un cáncer de laringe. Investigamos otras localizaciones primarias pero sólo se encontró esta. La metástasis apareció 6 años después de que el tumor primario fuera detectado. El diagnóstico fue confirmado mediante biopsia. El paciente fue tratado mediante radioterapia local, obteniéndose un alivio de su dolor. We report a case of solitary bone metastasis in the humerus whose primaty tumor was a larynx cancer. ...

  14. 原发性青光眼与血瘀关系%Relation Between Primary Glaucoma and Blood Stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翔; 黄江丽; 王超

    2013-01-01

    It discussed relationship between primary glaucoma and blood stasis by the primary glaucoma pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and treatment, providing some reference for treating glaucoma with method of activating blood circulation and resolving stasis.%本文从原发性青光眼发病机制、临床表现和治疗等方面探讨原发性青光眼与“血瘀”的关系,为临床应用活血化瘀治疗青光眼提供参考.

  15. 从瘀论治黄褐斑临证心得%Clinical Experience of Chloasma Treatment From Blood Stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正; 吴元洁; 吴广铮

    2011-01-01

    By combining with the traditional theory, the clinical features and western pathogenesis of melasma, the authors elaborate the pathogenesis of melasma associated with the blood stasis, and describe clinical experience in treating melasma by activating blood and resolving stasis.%作者结合黄褐斑的传统理论、发病特点及西医发病机制,阐述了黄褐斑与血瘀病机的相关性,并介绍了活血化瘀治疗黄褐斑的临床经验.

  16. Treating Vertigo from Phlegm and Blood Stasis%从痰瘀互结论治眩晕

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周长影; 于睿

    2013-01-01

    The etiology and pathogenesis of vertigo,foundation treatment,TCM theory and modern research is described from the phlegm and blood stasis theory,providing a theoretical basis for treating vertigo from phlegm and blood stasis.%从痰瘀互结的理论阐述眩晕的病因病机、中医理论基础、治疗及现代研究,为眩晕从痰瘀同治的治法方面提供理论依据.

  17. [Effects of the effective components group of xiaoshuantongluo formula on rat acute blood stasis model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Yu, Xin; Shi, Li-Li; Chen, Bai-Nian; Wang, Shao-Hua; Du, Guan-Hua

    2012-05-01

    Effects of the effective components group of Xiaoshuantongluo formula (XECG) on rat acute blood stasis model were studied under the guidance of the concept of effective components group. Rat acute blood stasis model was induced by subcutaneous injection of epinephrine combined with ice water bath. Hemorheology indices such as whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation index and platelet aggregation rate; coagulation parameters including PT, APTT, TT and FIB; 6-keto-PGF1alpha, TXB2 and D-dimer levels were determined to evaluate the effects of XECG. The results showed that XECG significantly reduced ADP-induced platelet aggregation, but showed little influence on the whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation rate. XECG extended PT and TT slightly, but had no effects on APTT and FIB content. D-dimer levels significantly decreased after administration of XECG with a little decrease of TXB2, but the content of 6-keto-PGF1alpha did not change significantly. The results suggest that the role of XECG of anti-aggregation is more prominent.

  18. Evolution of the Theory of the Earth: A Contextualized Approach for Teaching the History of the Theory of Plate Tectonics to Ninth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolphin, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    Current high school Earth Science curricula and textbooks organize scientific content into isolated "units" of knowledge. Within this structure, content is taught, but in the absence of the context of fundamental understandings or the process of how the science was actually done to reach the conclusions. These are two key facets of scientific…

  19. Evolution of the Theory of the Earth: A Contextualized Approach for Teaching the History of the Theory of Plate Tectonics to Ninth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolphin, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    Current high school Earth Science curricula and textbooks organize scientific content into isolated "units" of knowledge. Within this structure, content is taught, but in the absence of the context of fundamental understandings or the process of how the science was actually done to reach the conclusions. These are two key facets of scientific…

  20. Preparation and analysis of active rat model of rheumatoid arthritis with features of TCM toxic heat-stasis painful obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Wang

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: The CIA model established in this study presents both active RA pathologic features and characteristics of the symptoms of toxic heat-stasis painful obstruction 12 weeks after successful establishment of an animal model. In addition, this study may be a valuable reference for development of animal studies with combined Eastern and Western medicines in dialectics and identification of diseases.

  1. 从瘀论治顽固性失眠%Differentiation and Treatment of the Blood Stasis for Intractable Insomnia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张副兴; 管斯琪; 胡军旗; 裘生梁

    2015-01-01

    Blood stasis is the result of the long­term insomnia as well as an important cause of insomnia. Blood stasis destroys the context of the heart,brain,liver,blood and the imbalance of Yin and Yang,so insomnia again and again. The classic formula for therapeutic sta­ sis treatment of insomnia is Xuefu Zhuyu Tang. Sedentary and less exercise are the common way of life,often cause the formation of pathological factors such as qi and blood stasis. Insomnia patients with blood stasis become more and more. Accordingly,clinical medi­ cine with Huoxue Huayu Tang to remove blood stasis has good curative effect.%血瘀既是长期失眠的结果,又是造成失眠顽固不愈的重要原因。瘀血阻滞心、脑、肝之脉络,气血运行失畅,卫气出入异常,阴阳失调,故失眠反复不愈。从瘀论治失眠的经典配方为血府逐瘀汤。久坐、少动是目前普遍的生活方式,常造成气滞血瘀等病理因素的形成,失眠的证型中兼有血瘀证的患者越来越多。因此,临床用药上,加用活血化瘀药治疗失眠可取得较好的疗效。

  2. Metástasis hipofisaria de carcinoma de mama debutando como diabetes insípida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Arévalo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los tumores metastáticos que afectan a la glándula hipofisaria son hallazgos pocos comunes, presentándose en cerca del 1% de las cirugías hipofisarias. Los autores presentan el caso de una paciente mujer de 46 años que debuta con síntomas de diabetes insípida. Había sido tratada 3 años antes por un carcinoma ductal infiltrante de la mama derecha. Las imágenes de resonancia magnética cerebral mostraron una masa en la silla turca con extensión supraselar. La paciente fue sometida a resección tumoral vía transesfenoidal que demostró metástasis de carcinoma de mama.

  3. [Analysis on establishment and affecting factors of qi stagnation and blood stasis rat model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Jia, Cheng; Chen, Yu; Li, Xin; Cheng, Jiayi

    2012-06-01

    To study on the method for establishing the Qi stagnation and blood stasis rat model and analyze the affecting factors. The orthogonal design was adopted to study the influences of joint stimulations including noise, light, electricity, ice water bath, tail-clamping on model rats. The 'flying spot' method was used to dynamically simulate blood flow velocity in microcirculation. the pressure sensing technology of MOTO was adopted to detect hemorheology-related indicators. And the coagulation method was used to detect blood coagulation-related indicators. Compared with the negative control group, all model groups showed significant reduction in the blood flow velocity in mesenteric microcirculation and increase in the whole blood viscosity at high, medium and low shear rate, the plasma viscosity and the fibrinogen content in four blood coagulation indicators. Noise, light, electricity, tail-clamping, bondage and icewater-bath make significant impact on model rats.

  4. Aspirin Resistance and Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis: Current Situation and Prospectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin plays a crucial physiological and pathophysiological role in cardiovascular diseases and cerebrovascular diseases by irreversibly inhibiting thromboxane A2. However, some patients may be “resistant” to its effect. The resistance has close association with adverse cardiovascular outcomes and increased mortality, so that resolving the problem of aspirin resistance (AR is widely concerned. By studying the correlation between AR and blood stasis syndrome (BSS, it is demonstrated that BSS may be one of the pathogenesis of AR in traditional Chinese medicine. Chinese herb and formulas definitely possess the advantage of whole body regulation by many ways and many targets. It is a new direction for treatment of AR to combine TCM and modern medicine to study the mechanism and prevention of AR.

  5. Biomechanopharmacology in Evaluation of Herbs of Activating Blood Circulation to Remove Blood Stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Fu-long; CAO Jun

    2005-01-01

    Herbs of activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis(ABCRBS) are a category of over 10% in the modern Chinese Pharmacopoeia. A new borderline discipline, biomechanopharmacology, is shaping by the efforts of applying biomechanics in pharmacological studies of ABCRBS herbs. Biomechanics is involved in modeling of blood stasis syndrome (BSS) with mechanical force induced injury and model evaluation by shear stress monitoring for blood coagulation. Investigations showed that tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) contained in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort and diallyl trisulfide (DT) extracted from garlic demonstrated inhibiting characteristics on vWF mediated platelet activation and thrombus formation occurring under high shear rates. The effect of TMP on shear-induced platelet aggregation might be due to inhibition of calcium channel activity since it showed significant inhibition on intracellular level of calcium demonstrated by laser confocal microscope. The combined effects of TMP and shear stress on rat cerebral microvascular endothelial cell (rCMEC) were investigated by various doses of TMP incorporated with different levels of shear stress generated by a rotational coneplate rheometer. The results indicated that apoptosis of rCMECs could be restrained by a combination of medial level of shear stress with a suitable dose of TMP. To study the influences of shear stress, pressure and TMP on angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cell, cultured rCMEC was pretreated in a flow chamber with independent adjustment for levels of shear stress and pressure, and then 3D cultured on Matrigel. The results indicate that combined effects of shear stress, pressure and TMP may influence angiogenesis significantly. We believe that research on interactions among blood shear stress, secretion of endothelial cell, and pharmacodynamics will be an interesting area of biomechanopharmacology. Herbs of ABCRBS and their extracts for protecting endothelial cells to maintain their normal functions are

  6. CD4(+ cells regulate fibrosis and lymphangiogenesis in response to lymphatic fluid stasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie C Zampell

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Lymphedema is a chronic disorder that occurs commonly after lymph node removal for cancer treatment and is characterized by swelling, fibrosis, inflammation, and adipose deposition. Although previous histological studies have investigated inflammatory changes that occur in lymphedema, the precise cellular make up of the inflammatory infiltrate remains unknown. It is also unclear if this inflammatory response plays a causal role in the pathology of lymphedema. The purpose of this study was therefore to characterize the inflammatory response to lymphatic stasis and determine if these responses are necessary for the pathological changes that occur in lymphedema. METHODS: We used mouse-tail lymphedema and axillary lymph node dissection (ANLD models in order to study tissue inflammatory changes. Single cell suspensions were created and analyzed using multi-color flow cytometry to identify individual cell types. We utilized antibody depletion techniques to analyze the causal role of CD4+, CD8+, and CD25+ cells in the regulation of inflammation, fibrosis, adipose deposition, and lymphangiogenesis. RESULTS: Lymphedema in the mouse-tail resulted in a mixed inflammatory cell response with significant increases in T-helper, T-regulatory, neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cell populations. Interestingly, we found that ALND resulted in significant increases in T-helper cells suggesting that these adaptive immune responses precede changes in macrophage and dendritic cell infiltration. In support of this we found that depletion of CD4+, but not CD8 or CD25+ cells, significantly decreased tail lymphedema, inflammation, fibrosis, and adipose deposition. In addition, depletion of CD4+ cells significantly increased lymphangiogenesis both in our tail model and also in an inflammatory lymphangiogenesis model. CONCLUSIONS: Lymphedema and lymphatic stasis result in CD4+ cell inflammation and infiltration of mature T-helper cells. Loss of CD4+ but

  7. Uderstanding Snowball Earth Deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbot, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Earth, a normally clement planet comfortably in its star's habitable zone, suffered global or nearly global glaciation at least twice during the Neoproterozoic era (at about 635 and 710 million years ago). Viewed in the context of planetary evolution, these pan-global glaciations (Snowball Earth events) were extremely rapid, lasting only a few million years. The dramatic effect of the Snowball Earth events on the development of the planet can be seen through their link to rises in atmospheric oxygen and evolutionary innovations. These potential catastrophes on an otherwise clement planet can be used to gain insight into planetary habitability more generally. Since Earth is not currently a Snowball, a sound deglaciation mechanism is crucial for the viability of the Snowball Earth hypothesis. The traditional deglaciation mechanism is a massive build up of CO2 due to reduced weathering during Snowball Earth events until tropical surface temperatures reach the melting point. Once initiated, such a deglaciation might happen on a timescale of only dozens of thousands of years and would thrust Earth from the coldest climate in its history to the warmest. Therefore embedded in Snowball Earth events is an even more rapid and dramatic environmental change. Early global climate model simulations raised doubt about whether Snowball Earth deglaciation could be achieved at a CO2 concentration low enough to be consistent with geochemical data, which represented a potential challenge to the Snowball Earth hypothesis. Over the past few years dust and clouds have emerged as the essential missing additional processes that would allow Snowball Earth deglaciation at a low enough CO2 concentration. I will discuss the dust and cloud mechanisms and the modeling behind these ideas. This effort is critical for the broader implications of Snowball Earth events because understanding the specific deglaciation mechanism determines whether similar processes could happen on other planets.

  8. Istoriya issledovanij kosmicheskogo prostranstva. Chast' II. Estestvennaya i iskusstvennaya radiatsiya v magnitosfere Zemli %t History of space researches. Part 2. Natural and artificial radiation in the Earth magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temnyj, V. V.

    The discussion about the structure and source of the intense radiation zone detected onboard the first satellites begun in 1958 and was finished in 1961. It was found that this zone is not a unitary reservoir of auroral electrons. Its remote part called the "outer radiation belt" indeed if filled with electrons, but their energies far exceed the auroral energy range. The near-Earth area of the radiation zone consisting of protons with energies Ep ~ 100 MeV was called the "inner radiation belt". Intense energy fluxes of electrons were also detected in this zone. Particles of the radiation belts are trapped in the geomagnetic field. They rotate around and bounce along the field lines and also drift around of the Earth. The drift existence was proved by the formation of narrow artificial radiation belts over the whole globe after high-altitude by the "ARGUS" nuclear explosions on September 1958. They were used as markers for creation of two-dimensional geomagnetic coordinate system (L,B) applied to define the distributions of trapped particles. Until 1960, the electron fluxes of the outer radiation belt were assumed to be a possible source of auroras. However, the subsequent experiments have lowered the level of these fluxes by orders of magnitude, and these data argued against this assumption. The geomagnetic field depressions detected in 1959 were referred to an effect of the ring current, which began to be registered in 1961-1964 as fluxes of trapped protons with energies Ep ~ 100 keV. Their energy density was not less than 10% of the magnetic-energy local density B2/8π, and constant diamagnetic field depression by its was not less than 15%. The "STARFISH" high-altitude thermonuclear explosion on July 9, 1962 unexpectedly has resulted in the formation of an artificial radiation belt filled with electrons. It has polluted the Earth's central magnetosphere for many years. Nevertheless, the experiment made it possible to obtain the distribution of electrons of a

  9. Unlocking the Karyological and Cytogenetic Diversity of Iris from Lebanon: Oncocyclus Section Shows a Distinctive Profile and Relative Stasis during Its Continental Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Samad, Nour; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, Magda; Hidalgo, Oriane; El Zein, Rana; Douaihy, Bouchra; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an important target of conservation concern and horticultural interest, Lebanese irises yet have a confusing taxonomic history and species’ delimitation is often considered problematic, more especially among royal irises (Iris section Oncocyclus). Indeed, these irises of exceptionally large and spectacular flowers have radiated across Caucasus and eastern Mediterranean giving rise to a number of strict endemic taxa, many of them being considered under threat. Whilst efforts have mostly focused on clarifying the evolutionary relationships in the group based on morphological and molecular data, karyological and cytogenetic characters have been comparatively overlooked. In this study, we established for the first time the physical mapping of 35S rDNA loci and heterochromatin, and obtained karyo-morphological data for ten Lebanese Iris species belonging to four sections (Iris, Limniris, Oncocyclus and Scorpiris). Our results evidenced distinctive genomic profiles for each one of the sections, where Oncocyclus irises, while having the lowest chromosome numbers, exhibit both the highest number of 35S loci and CMA3+ sites. The continental radiation of royal irises has been accompanied by a relative karyological and cytogenetic stasis, even though some changes were observed regarding karyotype formula and asymmetry indexes. In addition to that, our results enabled taxonomic differentiation between I. germanica and I. mesopotamica–two taxa currently considered as synonyms–and highlighted the need for further studies on populations of I. persica and I. wallasiae in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. PMID:27525415

  10. Bringing Education Down to Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Robert F.

    1996-01-01

    Argues for a curriculum based on the earth itself that could offer ideas and insights to help students as they mature. Explains that history, geography, literature, science, philosophy, and economics are enriched by the unifying concept of ecology. (DDR)

  11. Preliminary molecular basis of Danggui-buxue-tang on Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ya; LI Xiao-hui

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the molecular biology mechanism of Danggui-buxue-tang on tonifying Qi and controlling blood circulation through modulation the immune functional genes. Methods Rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, and Danggui-buxue-tang group. Effect of Dang-guibuxue-tang on mRNA expressions of IL-1β, TNF-α, HSP-70, NF-kB, p38MAPK and JNK in blood cells of rats with Qi deficiency and blood stasis were measured with real-time fluorescent quantitative-PCR at 5th, 14th and 28th day. And that in artery wall were determined at the 28th day. NF-kB/p65 and p-c-jun protein expressions in rat artery wall were detected by western blotting as well. Results In model group, TNF-α, IL-1β, NF-kB, HSP-70, p38MAPK and JNK mRNA expression in blood cell increased significantly compared with control group. Compared with model group, mRNA expression of IL-1βand JNK decreased significantly; TNF-α decreased at 5th, 14th day;HSP-70, p38MAPK decreased at 14th, 28th day; NF-kB decreased at 28th day. In model group, TNF-α, IL-1β, NF-kB, p38MAPK and JNK mRNA expression in artery increased compared with control group, excluded HSP-70, and that in Danggui-buxue-tang group decreased significantly. In model group, NF-kB/p65 and p-c-jun protein expression in artery increased compared with control group, and that in Danggui-buxue-tang group decreased significantly. Conclusions The effects of Dang-guibuxuetang on Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome was brought from the regulating of cytokine network at multi-link and multi-target, NF-kB, p38MAPK and JNK signal transduction pathways included. Through which the immune system and whole body reached to a functional balance status.

  12. 从血瘀论治老年便秘研究进展%The research progress of treating senile constipation from blood stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占新辉; 王微; 符思

    2015-01-01

    老年人多种疾病均与血瘀有关,易被临床忽视,从而影响治疗。通过对近5年有关从血瘀论治老年便秘的文献进行分析,表明血瘀与老年便秘关系密切的结论。瘀血阻于肠道则形成便秘,便秘日久又可伴随血瘀,两者相互影响、相互为病。%Senior citizens have many diseases related to blood stasis, which was often overlooked by clinicians, and thus affected the treatment of the disease. Through analyzing and summarizing of related literature in recent five years of senile constipation treated from blood stasis, we found that the blood stasis is closely linked to senile constipation. Blood stasis in the gut forms constipation, and constipation with the passing of time forms blood stasis in returen. Blood stasis and constipation often influence each other.

  13. Osmium isotope and highly siderophile element systematics of lunar impact melt breccias: Implications for the late accretion history of the Moon and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchtel, Igor S.; Walker, Richard J.; James, Odette B.; Kring, David A.

    2008-06-01

    To characterize the compositions of materials accreted to the Earth-Moon system between about 4.5 and 3.8 Ga, we have determined Os isotopic compositions and some highly siderophile element (HSE: Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, and Pd) abundances in 48 subsamples of six lunar breccias. These are: Apollo 17 poikilitic melt breccias 72395 and 76215; Apollo 17 aphanitic melt breccias 73215 and 73255; Apollo 14 polymict breccia 14321; and lunar meteorite NWA482, a crystallized impact melt. Plots of Ir versus other HSE define excellent linear correlations, indicating that all data sets likely represent dominantly two-component mixtures of a low-HSE target, presumably endogenous component, and a high-HSE, presumably exogenous component. Linear regressions of these trends yield intercepts that are statistically indistinguishable from zero for all HSE, except for Ru and Pd in two samples. The slopes of the linear regressions are insensitive to target rock contributions of Ru and Pd of the magnitude observed; thus, the trendline slopes approximate the elemental ratios present in the impactor components contributed to these rocks. The 187Os/188Os and regression-derived elemental ratios for the Apollo 17 aphanitic melt breccias and the lunar meteorite indicate that the impactor components in these samples have close affinities to chondritic meteorites. The HSE in the Apollo 17 aphanitic melt breccias, however, might partially or entirely reflect the HSE characteristics of HSE-rich granulitic breccia clasts that were incorporated in the impact melt at the time of its creation. In this case, the HSE characteristics of these rocks may reflect those of an impactor that predated the impact event that led to the creation of the melt breccias. The impactor components in the Apollo 17 poikilitic melt breccias and in the Apollo 14 breccia have higher 187Os/188Os, Pt/Ir, and Ru/Ir and lower Os/Ir than most chondrites. These compositions suggest that the impactors they represent were chemically

  14. Short hairpin RNA screen indicates that Klotho beta/FGF19 protein overcomes stasis in human colonic epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinyong; Eskiocak, Ugur; Stadler, Guido; Lou, Zhenjun; Kuro-o, Makoto; Shay, Jerry W; Wright, Woodring E

    2011-12-16

    Normal human colonic epithelial cells (HCECs) are not immortalized by telomerase alone but also require CDK4. Some human cell types growth-arrest due to stress- or aberrant signaling-induced senescence (stasis). Stasis represents the consequences of growth conditions culture that are inadequate to maintain long-term proliferation. Overexpressed CDK4 titers out p16 and allows cells to ignore the growth arrest signals produced by stasis. To identify factors contributing to the inadequate culture environment, we used a 62,000-member shRNA library to knock down factors cooperating with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in the immortalization of HCECs. Knockdown of Klotho gamma (KLG; also known as KLPH and LCTL) allowed hTERT to immortalize HCECs. KLG is one isoform of the Klotho family of factors that coordinate interaction between different FGF ligands and the FGF receptor. We also found that knockdown of KLG induced another member of the Klotho family, Klotho beta (KLB). Induction of KLB was maintained and could activate ERK1/2 in immortalized cells. Supplementation of the culture medium with the KLB ligand FGF19 had a similar effect on hTERT-expressing HCECs as knockdown of KLG regarding both immortalization and down-regulation of the tumor suppressor Klotho alpha. Together, these data suggest that KLB is an important regulator in the immortalization of HCECs by facilitating FGF19 growth factor signaling.

  15. Chromosomal stasis in distinct families of marine Percomorpharia from South Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabilene Gomes Paim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The weakness of physical barriers in the marine environment and the dispersal potential of fish populations have been invoked as explanations of the apparent karyotype stasis of marine Percomorpha, but several taxa remain poorly studied cytogenetically. To increase the chromosomal data in this fish group, we analyzed cytogenetically three widespread Atlantic species from distinct families: Chaetodipterus faber Broussonet, 1782 (Ephippidae, Lutjanus synagris Linnaeus, 1758 (Lutjanidae and Rypticus randalli Courtenay, 1967 (Serranidae. The three species shared a karyotype composed of 2n=48 acrocentric chromosomes, single nucleolus organizer regions (NORs and reduced amounts of centromeric heterochromatin. A single NOR-bearing pair was identified in all species by physical mapping of 18S rDNA while non-syntenic 5S rRNA genes were located at centromeric region of a single pair. The similar karyotypic macrostructure observed in unrelated groups of Percomorpharia reinforces the conservative karyoevolution of marine teleosteans. Nonetheless, the species could be differentiated based on the pair bearing ribosomal cistrons, revealing the importance of microstructural analyses in species with symmetric and stable karyotypes.

  16. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of benthic community stasis in the very deep sea (>1500 m)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzas, Martin A.; Hayek, Lee-Ann C.; Culver, Stephen J.; Hayward, Bruce W.; Osterman, Lisa E.

    2014-01-01

    An enigma of deep-sea biodiversity research is that the abyss with its low productivity and densities appears to have a biodiversity similar to that of shallower depths. This conceptualization of similarity is based mainly on per-sample estimates (point diversity, within-habitat, or α-diversity). Here, we use a measure of between-sample within-community diversity (β1H) to examine benthic foraminiferal diversity between 333 stations within 49 communties from New Zealand, the South Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, the Norwegian Sea, and the Arctic. The communities are grouped into two depth categories: 200–1500 m and >1500 m. β1H diversity exhibits no evidence of regional differences. Instead, higher values at shallower depths are observed worldwide. At depths of >1500 m the average β1H is zero, indicating stasis or no biodiversity gradient. The difference in β1H-diversity explains why, despite species richness often being greater per sample at deeper depths, the total number of species is greater at shallower depths. The greater number of communities and higher rate of evolution resulting in shorter species durations at shallower depths is also consistent with higher β1H values.

  17. Metabolomic Analysis of Clinical Plasma from Cerebral Infarction Patients Presenting with Blood Stasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ho Cha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood stasis (BS is characterized as a disorder of blood circulation. In traditional Korean medicine (TKM, it is viewed as a cause factor of diseases such as multiple sclerosis and stroke. This study investigated differences in the plasma metabolites profiles of subjects displaying BS or non-BS patterns. Thirty-one patients with cerebral infarction diagnosed with BS and an equal number of sex- and age-matched non-BS patients were enrolled. Metabolic profiling was performed using UPLC-MS. The ratio of subjects with a rough pulse and purple coloration of the tongue was higher in patients presenting with BS pattern. Through metabolomics analysis, 82 metabolites that differed significantly between the BS and non-BS pattern were identified, and the two groups were significantly separated using an orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis model (P<0.001. Of these 82 metabolites, acetyl carnitine, leucine, kynurenine, phosphocholine, hexanoyl carnitine, and decanoyl carnitine were present in significantly higher levels in patients with a BS pattern than those with a non-BS pattern. Our results also demonstrated that seven plasma metabolites, including acyl-carnitines and kynurenine, were associated with a BS pattern, suggesting that variant plasma metabolic profiles may serve as a biomarker for diagnosis of BS in patients with cerebral infarction.

  18. Herb pair Danggui-Honghua: mechanisms underlying blood stasis syndrome by system pharmacology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Shi-Jun; Xin, Lan-Ting; Fan, Ya-Chu; Li, Shu-Jiao; Tang, Yu-Ping; Duan, Jin-Ao; Guan, Hua-Shi; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Herb pair Danggui-Honghua has been frequently used for treatment of blood stasis syndrome (BSS) in China, one of the most common clinical pathological syndromes in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, its therapeutic mechanism has not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, a feasible system pharmacology model based on chemical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacological data was developed via network construction approach to clarify the mechanisms of this herb pair. Thirty-one active ingredients of Danggui-Honghua possessing favorable pharmacokinetic profiles and biological activities were selected, interacting with 42 BSS-related targets to provide potential synergistic therapeutic actions. Systematic analysis of the constructed networks revealed that these targets such as HMOX1, NOS2, NOS3, HIF1A and PTGS2 were mainly involved in TNF signaling pathway, HIF-1 signaling pathway, estrogen signaling pathway and neurotrophin signaling pathway. The contribution index of every active ingredient also indicated six compounds, including hydroxysafflor yellow A, safflor yellow A, safflor yellow B, Z-ligustilide, ferulic acid, and Z-butylidenephthalide, as the principal components of this herb pair. These results successfully explained the polypharmcological mechanisms underlying the efficiency of Danggui-Honghua for BSS treatment, and also probed into the potential novel therapeutic strategies for BSS in TCM.

  19. Anabolism-Associated Mitochondrial Stasis Driving Lymphocyte Differentiation over Self-Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. Adams

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration requires related cells to diverge in fate. We show that activated lymphocytes yield sibling cells with unequal elimination of aged mitochondria. Disparate mitochondrial clearance impacts cell fate and reflects larger constellations of opposing metabolic states. Differentiation driven by an anabolic constellation of PI3K/mTOR activation, aerobic glycolysis, inhibited autophagy, mitochondrial stasis, and ROS production is balanced with self-renewal maintained by a catabolic constellation of AMPK activation, mitochondrial elimination, oxidative metabolism, and maintenance of FoxO1 activity. Perturbations up and down the metabolic pathways shift the balance of nutritive constellations and cell fate owing to self-reinforcement and reciprocal inhibition between anabolism and catabolism. Cell fate and metabolic state are linked by transcriptional regulators, such as IRF4 and FoxO1, with dual roles in lineage and metabolic choice. Instructing some cells to utilize nutrients for anabolism and differentiation while other cells catabolically self-digest and self-renew may enable growth and repair in metazoa.

  20. Rapakivi granites in the geological history of the earth. Part 1, magmatic associations with rapakivi granites: Age, geochemistry, and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, A. M.

    2009-06-01

    peripheral orogens whose evolution lasted from ˜1.9 to 1.0 Ga. Magmatism of this kind was most active 1.8-1.3 Ga ago and represented the distal effect of subduction or collisional events along the convergent boundaries of lithospheric plates. An important factor that favored the emplacement of rapakivi granites and anorthosites in a huge volume was the thermal and rheologic state of the lithosphere inherited from antedating orogenic events, first of all from the event ˜1.9 Ga ago, which was unique in terms of heat capacity transferred into the lithosphere. Anorthosite-mangerite-rapakivi granite-peralkaline granite magmatism is connected with activity of the mantle plums only. Degradation of the rapakivi granite magmatism toward the terminal Proterozoic was controlled by the general cooling of the Earth in the course of the steady dissipation of its endogenic energy, as these processes became accelerated since the Late Riphean

  1. Quantizing Earth surface deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. O. Bowin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The global analysis of Bowin (2010 used the global 14 absolute Euler pole set (62 Myr history from Gripp and Gordon (1990 and demonstrated that plate tectonics conserves angular momentum. We herein extend that analysis using the more detailed Bird (2003 52 present-day Euler pole set (relative to a fixed Pacific plate for the Earth's surface, after conversion to absolute Euler poles. Additionally, new analytical results now provide new details on upper mantle mass anomalies in the outer 200 km of the Earth, as well as an initial quantizing of surface deformations.

  2. Granulomatosis de Wegener Semejando Cáncer Epidermoide de Nasofaringe y Metástasis Pulmonares.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Martín Small

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La granulomatosis de Wegener (GW es una enfermedad idiopática, con posible componente autoinmune, que aparece generalmente en la quinta década de vida, caracterizándose por lesiones granulomatosas necrotizantes y vasculitis en vías aéreas y riñón. Paciente femenino de 54 años, quien desde Noviembre del 2008, presenta rinorrea, prurito y eritema en borde nasal inferior izquierdo, recibe antibióticos sin mejoría de los síntomas. En las radiografías torácicas, se observan dos radiopacidades redondeadas, de 4 cm de diámetro, sugestivas de lesiones tumorales en ambos campos pulmonares. La biopsia reporta cáncer epidermoide de alto grado, sospechándose primario en nasofaringe. Es remitida, por deterioro de condiciones, al Servicio de Neumonología del Hospital Universitario de Caracas el 18/03/2009, presentando disnea, tos productiva, placas purpúricas dolorosas en manos y pies, hipoacusia, hiperpigmentación del paladar duro, leucoplaquias y lesiones costrosas en lengua, insuficiencia renal (creatinina en 6,11 mg/dL y trombocitopenia. En TAC de tórax, se evidencian tumores mayores de 5 cm de diámetro, algunos con bordes bien definidos y otros mal delimitados con broncograma aéreo. Diagnostico definitivo de GW por serología. La GW con su afectación sistémica puede simular otras entidades como neoplasias de cabeza y cuello con metástasis pulmonares. Cuando las manifestaciones sistémicas son floridas debe sospecharse GW como diagnóstico diferencial. Palabras claves: Wegener, Granulomatosis, Vasculitis, Cáncer epidermoide.

  3. Granulomatosis de Wegener Semejando Cáncer Epidermoide de Nasofaringe y Metástasis Pulmonares.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Martín Small

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La granulomatosis de Wegener (GW es una enfermedad idiopática, con posible componente autoinmune, que aparece generalmente en la quinta década de vida, caracterizándose por lesiones granulomatosas necrotizantes y vasculitis en vías aéreas y riñón. Paciente femenino de 54 años, quien desde Noviembre del 2008, presenta rinorrea, prurito y eritema en borde nasal inferior izquierdo, recibe antibióticos sin mejoría de los síntomas. En las radiografías torácicas, se observan dos radiopacidades redondeadas, de 4 cm de diámetro, sugestivas de lesiones tumorales en ambos campos pulmonares. La biopsia reporta cáncer epidermoide de alto grado, sospechándose primario en nasofaringe. Es remitida, por deterioro de condiciones, al Servicio de Neumonología del Hospital Universitario de Caracas el 18/03/2009, presentando disnea, tos productiva, placas purpúricas dolorosas en manos y pies, hipoacusia, hiperpigmentación del paladar duro, leucoplaquias y lesiones costrosas en lengua, insuficiencia renal (creatinina en 6,11 mg/dL y trombocitopenia. En TAC de tórax, se evidencian tumores mayores de 5 cm de diámetro, algunos con bordes bien definidos y otros mal delimitados con broncograma aéreo. Diagnostico definitivo de GW por serología. La GW con su afectación sistémica puede simular otras entidades como neoplasias de cabeza y cuello con metástasis pulmonares. Cuando las manifestaciones sistémicas son floridas debe sospecharse GW como diagnóstico diferencial.

  4. Dynamic MR cholangiography after fatty meal loading. Cystic contractility and dynamic evaluation of biliary stasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omata, Takayuki; Saito, Kazuhiro; Kotake, Fumio; Mizokami, Yuji; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Abe, Kimihiko [Tokyo Medical Coll., Ami, Ibaraki (Japan). Kasumigaura Hospital

    2002-07-01

    Dynamic MR cholangiography was conducted on patients with cholelithiasis or choledocholithiasis who had consumed a fatty test meal (Molyork) and the cystic contractility and dynamics of biliary stasis was evaluated. The subjects were 25 with intracystic cholelithiasis, 10 with choledocholithiasis and 10 normal controls. For an imaging sequence, the rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) method was employed and imaging was conducted for 40 min (every 30 s following Molyork administration) without breath-holding. The gallbladder contraction ratio was computed and the contractile ratio for the common bile duct was calculated. To determine the bile flow to the duodenum, the high-intensity signal, indicating the flow from the lower common bile duct, and perfusion of the duodenum were observed in dynamic mode on the monitor with the naked eye and interpreted as positive bile flow. The frequency of this flow was visually monitored. The gallbladder contractile ratio was significantly reduced in patients with cholelithiasis or choledocholithiasis compared with the controls. In a comparison with the normal controls, no sequential changes were noted in the mean contractile ratio of the common bile duct of the patients with cholelithiasis or choledocholithiasis. The mean frequency of bile flow observed for each 40 min period was 13{+-}2.4, 6{+-}2.2, and 4{+-}1.3 times for the controls, those with intracystic cholelithiasis, and those with choledocholithiasis, respectively. Compared with the controls, the latter two patient groups showed evident reductions in the frequency of bile flow to the duodenum (p<0.001). Dynamic MRC combined with Molyork loading makes it possible to compute cystic contractile ratios and perform a dynamic examination of bile flow under non-invasive, near-physiological conditions. (author)

  5. Intron distribution in Plantae: 500 million years of stasis during land plant evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, René; Grauvogel, Carina; Petersen, Jörn

    2007-06-01

    Little is known about the evolution of the intron-exon organization in the more primitive groups of land plants, and the intron distribution among Plantae (glauco-, rhodo-, chloro- and streptophytes) has not been investigated so far. The present study is focused on some key species such as the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, representing the most ancient lineage of land plants, and the streptophycean green alga Mesostigma viride, branching prior to charophycean green algae and terrestrial plants. The intron distribution of six genes for sugar phosphate metabolism was analyzed including four different glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (GAPDH), the sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SBP) and the glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI). We established 15 new sequences including three cDNA and twelve genomic clones with up to 24 introns per gene, which were identified in the GPI of Marchantia. The intron patterns of all six genes are completely conserved among seed plants, lycopods, mosses and even liverworts. This intron stasis without any gain of novel introns seem to last for nearly 500 million years and may be characteristic for land plants in general. Some unique intron positions in Mesostigma document that a uniform distribution is no common trait of all streptophytes, but it may correlate with the transition to terrestrial habitats. However, the respective genes of chlorophycean green algae display largely different patterns, thus indicating at least one phase of massive intron rearrangement in the green lineage. We moreover included rhodophyte and glaucophyte reference sequences in our analyses and, even if the well documented monophyly of Plantae is not reflected by a uniform intron distribution, at least one GPI intron is strictly conserved for 1.5 billion years.

  6. A novel sponge-based wound stasis dressing to treat lethal noncompressible hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Genevieve R; Pineda, Teresa J; Xie, Hua X; Teach, Jeffrey S; Barofsky, Andrew D; Schmid, James R; Gregory, Kenton W

    2012-08-01

    Noncompressible hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable death caused by hemorrhage on the battlefield. Currently, there are no hemostatic agents with the ability to control noncompressible hemorrhage. A wound stasis dressing based upon rapidly expanding cellulose minisponges (MS) was developed and tested in a lethal noncompressible model in swine, by fully transecting subclavian artery and vein. MS were compared with conventional hemostasis dressings, Combat Gauze (CG), in a randomized comparison. Sixteen 40-kg swine underwent transection of the subclavian artery and vein through a 4.5-cm aperture. After 30-second free bleeding, randomly selected MS or CG (n = 8 per group) were administered by an independent medical officer. The wound cavity was filled with either MS + no external pressure or one CG + one KERLIX gauze with 3 minutes of external pressure. One reapplication was allowed for CG. Mean arterial pressure was maintained at 60 mm Hg with 500-mL Hextend and lactated Ringer's solution intravenously administered up to a maximum of 10-L until study termination at 1 hour. Mean pretreatment blood loss was similar for MS (719 mL) and CG (702 mL). Primary end points, namely, hemostasis at 4 minutes (MS, 75%; CG, 25%; p = 0.13), hemostasis at 60 minutes (MS, 100%; CG, 25%; p = 0.007), and survival at 60 minutes (MS, 100%; CG, 37.5%; p = 0.026), were improved with MS as were secondary end points, namely, total blood loss (MS, 118 mL; CG 1,242 mL; p = 0.021) and length of application time (MS, 25 seconds; CG, 420 seconds; p = 0.004). The use of MS is a novel approach for the rapid, simple treatment of severe noncompressible hemorrhage, which provided statistically significant improvement in hemostasis and survival 60 minutes after injury and a large reduction in blood loss, resuscitation fluid requirement, and medic treatment time compared with conventional hemorrhage control dressings in a swine model.

  7. Evolutionary Stasis in Cycad Plastomes and the First Case of Plastome GC-Biased Gene Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Shien; Chaw, Shu-Miaw

    2015-06-27

    In angiosperms, gene conversion has been known to reduce the mutational load of plastid genomes (the plastomes). Particularly, more frequent gene conversions in inverted repeat (IR) than in single copy (SC) regions result in contrasting substitution rates between these two regions. However, little has been known about the effect of gene conversion in the evolution of gymnosperm plastomes. Cycads (Cycadophyta) are the second largest gymnosperm group. Evolutionary study of their plastomes is limited to the basal cycad genus, Cycas. In this study, we addressed three questions. 1) Do the plastomes of other cycad genera evolve slowly as previously observed in the plastome of Cycas taitungensis? 2) Do substitution rates differ between their SC and IR regions? And 3) Does gene conversion occur in the cycad plastomes? If yes, is it AT-biased or GC-biased? Plastomes of eight species from other eight genera of cycads were sequenced. These plastomes are highly conserved in genome organization. Excluding ginkgo, cycad plastomes have significantly lower synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates than other gymnosperms, reflecting their evolutionary stasis in nucleotide mutations. In the IRs of cycad plastomes, the reduced substitution rates and GC-biased mutations are associated with a GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) mechanism. Further investigations suggest that in cycads, gBGC is able to rectify plastome-wide mutations. Therefore, this study is the first to uncover the plastomic gBGC in seed plants. We also propose a gBGC model to interpret the dissimilar evolutionary patterns as well as the compositionally biased mutations in the SC and IR regions of cycad plastomes.

  8. Xueshuan Xinmaining Tablet Treats Blood Stasis through Regulating the Expression of F13a1, Car1, and Tbxa2r.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaotian; Zhang, Chao; Sai, Jingying; Li, Fan; Liu, Jinping; Li, Yang; Wang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Xueshuan Xinmaining Tablet (XXT), the Chinese formula, has long been administered in clinical practice for the treatment of cerebral thrombosis and coronary heart disease. In this study, we aimed to study the effect and the molecular mechanism of activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis. Rat models of cold coagulation blood stasis were induced with ice-water bath and epinephrine to assess the amelioration of blood stasis by XXT. Microarray technique was used to identify gene expression from the model and XXT-treated rats. In addition, Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR) was performed to verify the microarray results. The results showed that XXT had a good therapeutic effect on blood stasis by reducing the whole blood viscosity (WBV), plasma viscosity (PV), increasing PT, APTT and TT, and by inhibiting platelet aggregation. Genes were differentially expressed in rats among the model group and the XXT-pretreated groups. XXT ameliorated blood stasis by regulating the expressions of F13a1, Car1, and Tbxa2r.

  9. Xueshuan Xinmaining Tablet Treats Blood Stasis through Regulating the Expression of F13a1, Car1, and Tbxa2r

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotian Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Xueshuan Xinmaining Tablet (XXT, the Chinese formula, has long been administered in clinical practice for the treatment of cerebral thrombosis and coronary heart disease. In this study, we aimed to study the effect and the molecular mechanism of activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis. Rat models of cold coagulation blood stasis were induced with ice-water bath and epinephrine to assess the amelioration of blood stasis by XXT. Microarray technique was used to identify gene expression from the model and XXT-treated rats. In addition, Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR was performed to verify the microarray results. The results showed that XXT had a good therapeutic effect on blood stasis by reducing the whole blood viscosity (WBV, plasma viscosity (PV, increasing PT, APTT and TT, and by inhibiting platelet aggregation. Genes were differentially expressed in rats among the model group and the XXT-pretreated groups. XXT ameliorated blood stasis by regulating the expressions of F13a1, Car1, and Tbxa2r.

  10. Earth\\'s Mass Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Mawad, Ramy

    2014-01-01

    The perturbation of the Earth caused by variability of mass of Earth as additional reason with gravity of celestial bodies and shape of the Earth. The Earth eating and collecting matters from space and loss or eject matters to space through its flying in the space around the Sun. The source of the rising in the global sea level is not closed in global warming and icebergs, but the outer space is the additional important source for this rising. The Earth eats waters from space in unknown mechanism. The mass of the Earth become greater in November i.e. before transit apoapsis two months, and become latter in February i.e. after transit apoapsis to two months.

  11. The Relationship between Stasis-Stagnation Constitution and Peripheral Arterial Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo-Chin Huang; Ching-Chu Chen; Yi-Chang Su; Jui-Shan Lin; Chwen-Tzuei Chang; Tzu-Yuan Wang; Rong-Hsing Chen; Fuu-Jen Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. In traditional Chinese medicine, Yu-Zhi (YZ, indicating stasis and stagnation) constitution describes a body that tends to express abnormal circulatory conditions. This study identified the linkage between YZ constitution and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. Patients over 20 years of age who had had type 2 diabetes for 5 years or longer were recruited. PAD was diagnosed if the ankle-brachial index score was ≤0.9 in either leg. Level of Y...

  12. Clinical Research into Ke Min Yin for Treatment of Persistent Allergic Rhinitis in Patients with Qi Deficiency and Blood Stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘巧平; 刘建华; 刘大新

    2003-01-01

    @@ Persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) is one of the common diseases at ear-nose-throat department. From August 1998 to May 2001, we randomly selected 60 cases of PAR with qi deficiency and blood stasis for a clinical observation. 30 patients in the treatment group were treated with Ke Min Yin (克敏饮), a herbal medicine, to supplement qi, expel wind, nourish blood and promote blood circulation; and the other 30 cases in the control group were treated with cetrine. Through systematic observation and statistical processing, the clinical research is summarized and reported in the following.

  13. Osteopatía hipertrófica secundaria a metástasis pulmonar de carcinoma mamario

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Propósitos: este artículo pretende reportar los hallazgos de un caso clínico de osteopatía hipertrófica. Tema: la osteopatía hipertrófica es un raro desorden paraneoplásico, asociado con el sobrecrecimiento doloroso del periostio de los huesos largos, normalmente desencadenado por neoplasias primarias o metastásicas de pulmón. Desarrollo: se presenta el caso de un rottweiler, de 12 años, con osteopatía hipertrófica asociada con metástasis pulmonar de un carcinoma mamario. Conclusiones: se com...

  14. 试论慢性肺心病以瘀为本%A Discussion on the Treatment of Chronic Cor Pulmonale by Dealing with Removing Blood Stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤伟

    2001-01-01

    Cor pulmonale is one of intractable dis eases in clinical practice. The author considered that the pathogennic factor of the disease is a complication of phlegm, blood stasis and debility, with blood stasis as the chief pathogenesis. Its basic treatment should be activat ing blood circulation and removing blood stasis, associat ed with expelling sputum, or invigorating debility or clearing heat.%肺心病是临床常见的难治证之一。认为在肺心病痰瘀虚交互错杂的基础上,以“瘀”为最基本和最主要的病机,治疗上以活血化瘀为基础,或佐豁痰、补虚、清热等法。

  15. Samario-153-Lexidronam (EDTMP) en el tratamiento de las metástasis óseas Samarium-153-Lexidronam (EDTMP) for the management of bone metastases

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Las metástasis óseas son una complicación frecuente en pacientes neoplásicos, en este sentido, el tejido óseo ocupa el tercer lugar de todos los órganos y sistemas con metástasis después del pulmón e hígado. Aproximadamente un 75% de los enfermos con metástasis óseas sufrirán dolor, siendo estas la causa más frecuente de dolor en pacientes con cáncer. El dolor óseo aumenta con los movimientos y a la presión, limitando la autonomía del enfermo y su calidad de vida. El tratamiento incluye vario...

  16. [Comparative assessing the effects of angelica root and chuanxiong on the hemorheology and the blood coagulation function in acute blood stasis rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Xia; Tang, Yu-Ping; Guo, Jian-Ming

    2012-06-01

    To comparatively assess the effects of angelica root and chuanxiong on the hemorheology and the blood coagulation function in acute blood stasis rats. Ice water bath and subcutaneous injection of adrenaline were both used to establish the acute blood stasis rat model. The whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and haematocrit were tested to observe the effects of angelica root and chuanxiong on the hemorheology of blood stasis rats. The prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and plasma fibrinogen (FIB) were tested to observe the effects of angelica root and chuanxiong on the blood coagulation function of blood stasis rats. Finally all those indices were integrated to the total activating blood circulation effect value to assess the total effects of angelica root and chuanxiong on activating blood circulation and dissipating blood stasis. Compared with the normal control group, the hemorheological indices obviously increased, PT and APTT were obviously shortened, and the FIB content obviously increased in the model group. Compared with the model group, the water extracts, alcohol extracts, water-alcohol extracts of angelica root, chuanxiong, angelica root and chuanxiong 1:1, and angelica root and chuanxiong 1.5:1 could decrease the hemorheological indices, prolong the PT and APTT, and significantly reduce the content of FIB. Under the condition of the same preparation method, the alcohol extract of angelica root and chuanxiong 1:1 showed the best total effect. As for the single herbs, chuanxiong had better effect than angelica root on the total effects of activating blood circulation and dissipating blood stasis. Under the condition of the same ratio, the alcohol extracts of angelica root and chuanxiong showed better total effects of activating blood circulation and dissipating blood stasis than water extracts and water-alcohol extracts. The angelica root and chuanxiong could obviously improve the

  17. Advances of Studies on Mechanisms of Drugs for Activating Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis in Treatment of Primary Liver Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Primary liver cancer is mainly characterized by the mass in hypochondriac region, stabbing pain at a fixative region, tenderness, dim complexion,vascular spider, vein exposure, livid tongue,ecchymosis, taut and uneven pulse and other symptoms of blood stasis. Experimental studies have found that the patient with liver cancer is often accompanied with disturbance of microcirculation,increase of blood viscosity and high blood agglutinative state. Therefore, activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis is clinically an important therapy for primary liver cancer. A great number of studies on the mechanisms have been carried out in China and other countries. The follow is a review about the mechanisms.

  18. Risk Factors in Patients with Venous Stasis-Related Skin Lesions without Major Abnormalities on Duplex Ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikage, Noriyasu; Yamashita, Osamu; Harada, Takasuke; Samura, Makoto; Takeuchi, Yuriko; Mizoguchi, Takahiro; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify the risk factors for venous stasis-related skin lesions in the legs in patients without major abnormalities on duplex ultrasonography (DUS). Methods: Fifty patients (nine males and 41 females, age 27–93 years) with symptoms of C4 or greater according to the Clinical, Etiological, Anatomical, Pathological (CEAP) classification, but having no abnormalities on DUS were reviewed for known risk factors for chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) such as older age (>70 years), obesity (body mass index [BMI] >30 kg/m2), short walking distance (8h per day). Results: The risk factor was different between male and female patients; although all patients had at least one of the above risk factors, the most commonly found risk factor in male patients was occupation requiring prolonged standing (63%), while advanced age (78%) and limited walking distance (83%) were risk factors in female patients. Conclusions: Although male and female patients had different risk factors, insufficient walking seemed to be closely related to the development of venous stasis-related skin lesions. PMID:27738462

  19. Contrasting `Oceanic Anoxic Events' in Earth's History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, M. O.; Stirling, C. H.; Jenkyns, H. C.; Cooke, I. R.; Dickson, A.; Porcelli, D.; Pogge von Strandmann, P.

    2016-12-01

    Oxygen is fundamental to the evolution of life and a lack of oxygen in marine environments is often cited as a causal mechanism for mass extinctions. Anoxia was likely a main contributor to the Permo-Triassic extinction and also important for causing the delayed and complex recovery that took place during the Early Triassic. Despite strong evidence for anoxia, at various places, times and water depths, the extended Permo-to-Early Triassic interval was exceptionally complex and multiple environmental pressures occurred simultaneously. Each kill-mechanism holds a unique position in the carbon cycle and yet they are all inter-related. For example, oceanic anoxia is intimately linked to changes in weathering and nutrient availability, biological productivity and temperature increases. It also represents one of many powerful mechanisms that can help stabilize the global climate, where carbon burial under anoxic conditions can drive dramatic cooling. Here we examine the details of anoxia development for the Permo-Triassic extinction and Early Triassic recovery period, calling upon comparisons to the well-studied Mesozoic Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs). The OAEs represent discrete intervals of anoxia that may offer a framework for understanding oxygenation around the Permo-Triassic. In particular, we question whether the Early Triassic represents a series of separate carbon-cycle perturbations, like the OAEs, or a complex internal response to extreme environmental change. We present independent evidence for the global extent of anoxia during OAE2, using 238U/235U (δ238U). These data are placed into the wider carbon-cycle context in order to unravel the driving mechanisms and potential feedback responses of anoxia development. This conceptual OAE model will then be applied to the complexities of the extended Permo-Triassic interval to examine the details of carbon cycle behaviour.

  20. Earth materials and earth dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, K; Shankland, T. [and others

    2000-11-01

    In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  1. The International Big History Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael; Duffy, D'Neil

    2013-01-01

    IBHA, the International Big History Association, was organized in 2010 and "promotes the unified, interdisciplinary study and teaching of history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity." This is the vision that Montessori embraced long before the discoveries of modern science fleshed out the story of the evolving universe. "Big…

  2. Discussion on Theory of Phlegm and Blood Stasis Accumulation for Hypertension%高血压病痰瘀互结证理论探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦晓民; 阮琳

    2012-01-01

    原发性高血压病证属中医“眩晕”、“头痛”等范畴,痰瘀互结证为其常见证型.为能充分了解痰瘀互结型高血压病形成的病理基础,以期更好地指导高血压病的临床治疗,就痰瘀的形成及痰瘀互结与高血压的相关性做一论述.%Essential hypertension is attributable to vertigo, headache syndrome of traditional Chinese medicine. Syndrome of phlegm and blood stasis accumulation is the common syndrome. In order to fully understand the pathological basis of phlegm and blood stasis type of hypertension, and guide the clinical treatment of hypertension, this paper makes a discussion of the formation of phlegm and blood stasis and the relevance of phlegm and blood stasis syndrome and hypertension.

  3. 从瘀阻络脉论治子宫内膜异位症%Based on” Blood Stasis of the Collaterals” to Treat Endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史杨; 张婷婷; 谭丽; 赵莉; 曹阳

    2012-01-01

    Endometriosis (Ems) is a common and difficult gynecological diseases, blood stasis endometriosis is the pathological basis, and "blood stasis at the collaterals" is the basic endometriosis pathogenesis. The "blood stasis of the collaterals" theory consist of "chronic illness injury collaterals" , "long time pain will entry in collaterals" and "collaterals injured, blood overflow within", which can explain the features of endometriosis that it is difficult to cure, the recurrence is high after operation. In conclusion, we have indicated that eliminate stasis-activating meridian is the important pathway to treat endometriosis.%子宫内膜异位症( endometriosis,EMs)是妇科常见病、难治病.血瘀是子宫内膜异位症的病理基础,而“瘀阻络脉”是子宫内膜异位症的基本病机.“瘀阻络脉”理论由“久病伤络”、“盖久痛必入于络”和“阴络伤,血内溢”组成,可以说明子宫内膜异位症缠绵难愈、术后容易复发的特点.所以子宫内膜异位症的治法应以化瘀通络为主.

  4. [Effect of 5 warm-hot nature Chinese drugs for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis on 5-HT, NE, and endocrine hormones of rats of cold coagulation and blood stasis syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Fu, Xian-Jun; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Zhen-Guo

    2014-11-01

    To study the mechanism of warm-hot nature Chinese drugs (WHNCD) for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis (PBCRBS) for intervening model rats of cold coagulation and blood stasis syndrome (CCBSS). CCBSS rat model was set up in outbred SD rats using ice water immersion method. Totally 300 successfully modeled CCBSS rats were randomly divided into 5 groups according to the principle of balance weight, 60 in each group. Contents of triothyrone (T3), tetraiodothyroine (T4), progesterone (P), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and noradrenalin (NE) were paralleledly detected in all groups. Then rats in each group were subdivided into 6 subgroups as the model group, the curcuma group, the Ligsticum Chuanxiong group, the safflower group, the Rhizoma Corydalis group, and the Olibanumg group. Besides, 5 normal control groups were set up for 5 indices, 50 rats in total. We need 70 rats (7 groups) to finish observing 1 index, 350 rats in total for 5 indices. Except those in the model group and the normal control group, rats were administered with corresponding decoction at 20 g crude drugs/kg body weight by gastrogavage, 3 mL each time, once daily for 7 successive days. Equal volume of normal saline was given to rats in the normal control group and the model group. Contents of T3, T4, P, 5-HT, and NE were detected before treatment and 1 week after treatment. Compared with before treatment in the same group, T3 increased in the Ligsticum Chuanxiong group and the Olibanumg group, 5-HT increased in the Ligsticum Chuanxiong group, T4, NE, and P increased in all medicated groups (P endocrine system, which might be one of the pharmacodynamic mechanism of WHNCD for PBCRBS in intervening CCBSS.

  5. Snowball Earth

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In the ongoing quest to better understand where life may exist elsewhere in the Universe, important lessons may be gained from our own planet. In particular, much can be learned from planetary glaciation events that Earth suffered ∼600 million years ago, so-called `Snowball Earth' episodes. I begin with an overview of how the climate works. This helps to explain how the ice-albedo feedback effect can destabilise a planet's climate. The process relies on lower temperatures causing more ice to ...

  6. Sobrevida de pacientes con cáncer de mama y metástasis ósea

    OpenAIRE

    LOBOS M,ADRIANA; OLMEDO P,VALENTINA; ORTIZ B,EVELYN; OPAZO R,CLAUDIO

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El cáncer de mama es una importante causa de muerte por cáncer en las mujeres chilenas. Metastatiza a cualquier parte del cuerpo, siendo hueso la primera zona de diseminación en 26-50% de los casos, encontrándose un 75% de los pacientes que fallecen por esta causa. Se reporta una sobrevida de 18-24 meses, y una supervivencia a los 5 años del 20%. El objetivo del siguiente trabajo es determinar la sobrevida ante presencia de metástasis óseas. Pacientes y Método: Se realizó un est...

  7. Breast metastasis of primary colon cancer Metástasis en mama de carcinoma primario de colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fernández de Bobadilla

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumors to the breast from colon adenocarcinoma are very rare. They are usually indicative of disseminated disease, and the prognosis is poor. Generally, radical operation should be avoided unless needed for palliation. This case report described a patient with breast metastasis from colon adenocarcinoma treated by simple mastectomy.La metástasis en la mama de tumores de colon es una entidad muy poco frecuente. El pronóstico a largo plazo es infausto, pues esta lesión es expresión de enfermedad sistémica. El tratamiento quirúrgico debe ser lo más conservador posible, ya que es un tratamiento paliativo. Presentamos un caso de esta rara entidad, tratada mediante mastectomía.

  8. Evaluation of electromechanical coupling parameters of piezoelectric materials by using piezoelectric cantilever with coplanar electrode structure in quasi-stasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuejun; Zhu, Yuankun; Liu, Xun; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Jianguo

    2014-02-01

    Based on Timoshenko beam theory, a principle model is proposed to establish the relationship between electric charge and excitation acceleration, and in quasi-stasis we apply the direct piezoelectric effect of multilayer cantilever with coplanar electrode structure to evaluate the piezoelectric strain coefficient d15 and electromechanical coupling coefficient k15. They are measured as 678 pC/N and 0.74 for the commercial piezoelectric ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT-51) bulk specimen and 656 pC/N and 0.63 for the lead magnesium niobate (PMN) bulk specimen, and they are in agreement with the calibration and simulation values. The maximum of relative errors is less than 4.2%, so the proposed method is reliable and convenient.

  9. Weapons of Maths Instruction: A Thousand Years of Technological Stasis in Arrowheads from the South Scandinavian Middle Mesolithic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevan Edinborough

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some results from my doctoral research into the evolution of bow-arrow technology using archaeological data from the south Scandinavian Mesolithic (Edinborough 2004. A quantitative approach is used to describe the morphological variation found in samples taken from over 3600 armatures from nine Danish and Swedish lithic assemblages. A linked series of statistical techniques determines the two most significant metric variables across the nine arrowhead assemblages in terms of the cultural transmission of arrowhead technology. The resultant scatterplot uses confidence ellipses to reveal highly distinctive patterns of morphological variation that are related to population-specific technological traditions. A population-level hypothesis of a socially constrained transmission mechanism is presented that may explain the unusually long period of technological stasis demonstrated by six of the nine arrowhead phase-assemblages.

  10. Effect of wine processing and acute blood stasis on the serum pharmacochemistry of rhubarb: a possible explanation for processing mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Fu, Jinfeng; Lv, Mengying; Tian, Yuan; Xu, Fengguo; Song, Rui; Zhang, Zunjian

    2014-09-01

    As a specific item mentioned in traditional Chinese medicine theory, processing can fulfill different requirements of therapies. Crude and wine-processed rhubarbs are used as drastic and mild laxatives, respectively. In this study, a practical method based on ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed to screen and analyze multiple absorbed bioactive components and metabolites in the serum of both normal and acute blood stasis rats after oral administration of crude or wine-processed rhubarbs. A total of 16 compounds, mainly including phase II metabolites, were tentatively identified. Possible explanations for the processing-induced changes in pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicines were first explored at serum pharmacochemistry level.

  11. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahavir

    2014-02-01

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  12. Heme oxygenase-1 gene delivery by Sleeping Beauty inhibits vascular stasis in a murine model of sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, John D; Vineyard, Julie V; Bruzzone, Carol M; Chen, Chunsheng; Beckman, Joan D; Nguyen, Julia; Steer, Clifford J; Vercellotti, Gregory M

    2010-07-01

    Increases in heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and administration of heme degradation products CO and biliverdin inhibit vascular inflammation and vasoocclusion in mouse models of sickle cell disease (SCD). In this study, an albumin (alb) promoter-driven Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase plasmid with a wild-type rat hmox-1 (wt-HO-1) transposable element was delivered by hydrodynamic tail vein injections to SCD mice. Eight weeks after injection, SCD mice had three- to five-fold increases in HO-1 activity and protein expression in liver, similar to hemin-treated mice. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated increased perinuclear HO-1 staining in hepatocytes. Messenger RNA transcription of the hmox-1 transgene in liver was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (qRT-PCR RFLP) with no detectible transgene expression in other organs. The livers of all HO-1 overexpressing mice had activation of nuclear phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phospho-Akt, decreased nuclear expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) p65, and decreased soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) in serum. Hypoxia-induced stasis, a characteristic of SCD, but not normal mice, was inhibited in dorsal skin fold chambers in wt-HO-1 SCD mice despite the absence of hmox-1 transgene expression in the skin suggesting distal effects of HO activity on the vasculature. No protective effects were seen in SCD mice injected with nonsense (ns-) rat hmox-1 that encodes carboxy-truncated HO-1 with little or no enzyme activity. We speculate that HO-1 gene delivery to the liver is beneficial in SCD mice by degrading pro-oxidative heme, releasing anti-inflammatory heme degradation products CO and biliverdin/bilirubin into circulation, activating cytoprotective pathways and inhibiting vascular stasis at sites distal to transgene expression.

  13. Effect of Detoxification, Removing Stasis and Nourishing Yin Method on Corticosteroid-induced Hyperlipidemia in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of TCM therapy for detoxification, removing stasis, and nourishing yin on corticosteroid-induced hyperlipemia in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and to investigate its mechanism. Methods: One hundred and seventy patients with SLE were randomly assigned to the integrative medicine group (IM group) and the Western medicine group (WM group), 85 in each group. Also, 30 healthy subjects selected from blood donors were enrolled in the normal control (NC) group. All patients were treated mainly with prednisone,while those in the IM group were given TCM therapy additionally, and the therapeutic course for both groups was 6 successive months. The changes of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), Iow density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and apolipoprotein A (ApoA) were determined and observed. A 2-year follow-up study was carried out in 16 patients of the WM group and 25 of the IM group. Results: Before treatment, no significant difference had been found among the three groups in the serum levels of lipids and lipoproteins. After the 6-month treatment, as compared with the WM group, the IM group showed lower levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, and VLDL-C (P<0.05 or P<0.01) and higher levels of HDL-C and ApoA (P<0.05). A similar effect was also shown by the follow-up study in the IM group (P<0.05 or P<0.01).Conclusion: TCM therapy for detoxification, removing stasis, and nourishing yin can effectively regulate the levels of serum lipids and lipoproteins in preventing and treating SLE patients with corticosteroidinduced hyperlipemia.

  14. Earth Works Central. [Educational Packet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kids for Saving Earth Worldwide, Minneapolis, MN.

    Earth Works Central is an educational curriculum tool designed to provide environmental education support for the classroom. It features environmental materials for science, geography, history, art, music, dramatics, and physical education. It includes information on creating an environmental center where kids can learn and become empowered to…

  15. 活血益气法对气滞血瘀证2型糖尿病大鼠治疗的实验研究%The Experiment Research on Qi Stasis Plus Blood Stasis Diabetic Rat Models with Active-blood Soup and yiqi-vein's Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嘉斌; 柴可夫; 张副兴; 吕帅洁; 郑杨

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究活血益气法对于气滞血瘀证型2型糖尿病大鼠模型的治疗作用.方法:对大鼠用针刺激~[1]及高脂高糖饮食~[2]建立气滞血瘀证型.后给予大鼠日照并灌胃脂肪乳10日后尾静脉一次性注射四氧嘧啶(80m/kg)建立2型糖尿病模型.采用血府逐瘀汤加生黄芪怀山药进行治疗并检测指标.结果:通过血液流变学指标,血糖等客观指标分析,模型建立可靠,气滞血瘀证型2型糖尿病大鼠各指标明显好转.结论:使用针刺及高脂喂食建立模型可为将来2型糖尿病中医研究提供实验基础,活血益气法治疗气滞血瘀证2型糖尿病具有较好的疗效,但用药需谨慎配伍.%Objective: To study the effect on Qi stasis plus blood stasis diabetic rat models by Active - blood soup and yiqi - veins method. Methods:The Qi stasis plus blood stasis diabetic rat models were made by electroacupuncture stimulation and high - sugar - fat - diet. Then give them Fat Emulsion and sunlight for 10 days before injecting one - off Al-loxan monohydrate on the vein of tail. Give the treatment with Active - blood soup and yiqi - veins method and record the index. Results; According to the analysis of hemorheology indices and glucose objective index, it turns out that the models are reliable. The rats indexes improve. Conclusion Setting Qi stasis plus blood stasis diabetic rat models up will offer new experimental basis for the studies in the future. The treatment, Qi stasis plus blood stasis diabetic mellitus with Active -blood soup and yiqi -veins method,has good effectiveness,we should be careful with the traditional Medicine compatibility.

  16. Evolution of the Earth-Moon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touma, Jihad; Wisdom, Jack

    1994-01-01

    The tidal evolution of the Earth-Moon system is reexamined. Several models of tidal friction are first compared in an averaged Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics. With one of these models, full integrations of the tidally evolving Earth-Moon system are carried out in the complete, fully interacting, and chaotically evolving planetary system. Classic results on the history of the lunar orbit are confirmed by our more general model. A detailed history of the obliquity of the Earth which takes into account the evolving lunar orbit is presented.

  17. Diplopía y ptosis palpebral izquierda como primera manifestación de metástasis hipofisarias de adenocarcinoma pulmonar Diplopia and left palpebral ptosis as a first manifestation of hypophysary metastases of pulmonary adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Junquera

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Paciente sin antecedentes patológicos de interés que debuta con diplopía y ptosis palpebral izquierda como primera manifestación de metástasis hipofisarias de un cáncer de origen pulmonar ampliamente diseminado y no conocido previamente. El diagnóstico se hizo con pruebas de imagen específicas del área hipofisaria en donde se apreció una neoformación en silla turca, que invadía el seno cavernoso izquierdo con erosión del dorso selar, junto con la presencia de nódulos pulmonares y múltiples adenopatías, además del estudio histológico de las lesiones. Se detectó un hipogonadismo hipogonadotropo como única alteración hormonal debido a la infiltración de la hipófisis anterior por las metástasis óseas en la base del cráneo. El paciente, a pesar de recibir varias sesiones de radioterapia, sufrió un deterioro neurológico progresivo falleciendo a las pocas semanas.A patient, without significant previous medical history, who started with diplopia and left palpebral ptosis as the first manifestation of hypophysary metastases of a widely disseminated and previously undetected cancer of pulmonary origin. Together with a histological study of the lesions, the diagnosis was made with specific image tests of the hypophysary area, which detected a neoformation in the sella turca that was invading the left cavernous sinus with erosion of the verso of the sellar, together with the presence of pulmonary nodules and numerous adenopathies. An hypogonadotropic hypogonadism was detected as the only hormonal alteration due to the infiltration of the anterior hypophysis due to the osseous metastases at the base of the cranium. The patient, in spite of receiving several weeks of radiotherapy, suffered a progressive neurological deterioration and died after a few weeks.

  18. Detección de micrometástasis de carcinoma de colon en ganglios linfáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Roma

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available En el carcinoma colorrectal la diseminación a los ganglios linfáticos es un factor pronóstico reconocido. La presencia de ganglios linfáticos con micrometástasis en muchos casos no puede ser detectada por técnicas rutinarias. Se estudiaron prospectivamente 162 ganglios linfáticos de 30 pacientes con carcinoma de colon, los cuales según los resultados de las técnicas rutinarias fueron clasificados como Dukes A (2, Dukes B (19 y Dukes C (9. Un paciente con enfermedad colónica benigna se uso como control negativo. Todos los ganglios se seccionaron en mitades, una de las cuales se almacenó en nitrógeno líquido para su ulterior estudio por técnicas de biología molecular, mediante la expresión del antígeno carcinoembrionario (CEA. La otra mitad fue fijada en formaldehído e incluida en parafina para su estudio anatomopatológico e inmunohistoquímico. Del total de los casos se detectó un aumento del 50% de la sensibilidad en la detección de micrometástasis mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa reversa (RT-PCR para los Dukes A-B y se detectó la expresión de dicho antígeno en el total de los casos Dukes C. Estos resultados evidencian una mayor sensibilidad en la detección de micrometástasis utilizando RT-PCR en comparación con las técnicas rutinarias, incluyendo la inmunohistoquímica.Dissemination of lymph nodes is a known prognostic factor in colorectal carcinoma. Micrometastases in lymph nodes can be missed when studied by routine techniques. We analyzed 162 lymph nodes from 30 patients with colonic carcinoma and using routine techniques, they were classified as follows: two Dukes A; nineteen Dukes B; and nine Dukes C. A patient with benign colon disease served as negative control. Lymph nodes were all sectioned in halves, with one of the halves stored in liquid nitrogen for molecular biology examination by carcinoembryonic antigen expression. The other formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded

  19. Study on Treating Renal Hematuria from Kidney Collateral Stasis%从肾络瘀阻辨治肾性血尿探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕妮; 汤水福

    2012-01-01

    肾性血尿是慢性肾脏病的常见症状之一,临床上反复发作,缠绵难愈.文章试从肾络瘀阻的形成及病理变化,探讨其与肾性血尿的关系.提出从肾络瘀阻辩治肾性血尿,尤其是顽固性血尿,是提高临床疗效的重要方法.%Renal hematuria is a common and recurrent symptom of chronic kidney diseases. This paper discusses the formation and pathological changes of kidney collateral stasis, and the relationship with renal hematuria. We propose that treating renal hematuria from kidney collateral stasis, especial for obstinacy hematuria, is an important way to improve the clinical efficacy.

  20. Metástasis parotídea de un carcinoma renal: A propósito de un caso Parotid metastasis of renal carcinoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Mogedas Vegara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La aparición de metástasis de un carcinoma renal a nivel parotídeo es un fenómeno poco frecuente. En la literatura indexada, solo se han descrito 29 pacientes desde 1986. Presentamos un paciente de 61 años, que tras cinco años de la realización de una nefrectomía unilateral por un carcinoma renal de células claras, desarrolló una metástasis de localización parotídea.Metastastic spread of renal cell carcinoma to the parotid gland is rare. In the indexed literature, with only 29 patients recorded since 1986. The case of a 61-year-old patient who developed parotid metastasis of renal cell carcinoma five years after unilateral nephrectomy is reported.

  1. Resección de metástasis hepáticas en cáncer gástrico: Experiencia preliminar

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz J,Juan Carlos; CASTILLO K,JAIME; CSENDES J,ATTILA; SAURÉ M,ALEXANDRE

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: En pacientes con cáncer gástrico y metástasis hepáticas sincrónicas, la posibilidad de tener sólo 1 a 3 metástasis es cerca de 2%, ya que, en la inmensa mayoría, corresponde a una enfermedad sistémica. Objetivos: Comunicar una experiencia preliminar que se refiere a realizar metastasectomía hepática simultánea a la gastrectomía en pacientes con cáncer gástrico. Material y Método: En estudio prospectivo, 3 de 397 pacientes tratados por cáncer gástrico que cumplían algunos criteri...

  2. A Mission to Earth's Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, P.

    2016-12-01

    The last few decades have witnessed extraordinary progress on Earth's deep interior, particularly for Earth's core. Notable examples include seismic detection of fine structure and heterogeneity from the CMB to the depths of the inner core; improved constraints on the thermal regime and critical physical properties; direct experimental access to core pressures and temperatures; partial resolution of geomagnetic history into the deep past, new cosmochemical constraints on core formation, plus a first-order solution of the dynamo problem. Nevertheless, many fundamental questions about Earth's core remain unanswered, representing significant impediments to further understanding, not just of the Earth system, but also the interiors of other planets. A partial list of unsolved problems includes the composition of the core especially its light element inventory, the nature of heterogeneity in the core and its dynamical significance, quantifying heat and mass exchanges between core and mantle, the record of core evolution exemplified by inner core nucleation and the magnetic superchron cycle, and the role of core formation in governing Earth history. A more concerted and better-focused interdisciplinary effort is needed to resolve these long-standing problems, one that is comparable in its scale and structure to a planetary exploration mission. Such a Mission to Earth's Center would foster technological developments aimed specifically at these questions, such as seismic arrays designed for imaging the core, experimental capability for determining the phase diagram of the core, resolution of geomagnetic history into the deep past, plus next-generation dynamical models for the mantle, the core, and their interaction.

  3. Metástasis orbitarias del cáncer de mama Orbital metastases of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Illarramendi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las metástasis orbitarias representan una entidad definida dentro de la afectación ocular secundaria a la diseminación a distancia del cáncer de mama. Se revisa en este trabajo la incidencia sobre la afectación orbitaria en este tipo de tumor, haciendo mención a nuestra experiencia como oncólogos médicos, así como a las características clínicas más habituales y a los condicionantes que existen en el diagnóstico de imagen e histopatológico. El tratamiento de las metástasis orbitarias del cáncer de mama queda incluido dentro de la terapia sistémica que precisa la diseminación a distancia de la enfermedad, habiéndose obtenido beneficio de la hormonoterapia, quimioterapia y anticuerpos monoclonales. La radioterapia y la cirugía paliativa pueden tener también un papel importante en la atención a estas pacientes. Aunque existen casos de supervivencia a largo plazo, su pronóstico es malo, y se precisan nuevos avances en el conocimiento y tratamiento de esta complicación del cáncer de mama.Orbital metastases are a defined subgroup within ocular affection secondary to the distant spread of breast cancer. We review the published experience on the incidence of orbit extension from this type of tumour, with reference made to our experience as medical oncologists, together with the most common clinical features and the relevant aspects for imaging and histopathological diagnoses. The therapy for orbital metastases from breast cancer is included within the systemic therapy required by the distant spread of the disease, with some clinical benefits obtained from hormone therapy, chemotherapy and monoclonal antibodies. Palliative radiation and surgery may also play an important role in providing care to these patients. Although there are some published cases with long-term survival, the prognosis for these patients is poor, and new advances in knowledge and therapy are needed for this complication due to breast cancer.

  4. Reviews Opera: Doctor Atomic DVD: Doctor Atomic Equipment: Digital stopclock with external trigger Book: I Cyborg Book: Flat Earth: The History of an Infamous Idea Book: Mere Thermodynamics Book: CGP revision guides Book: Hiding the Elephant: How Magicians Invented the Impossible Book: Back of the Envelope Physics Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    WE RECOMMEND Doctor Atomic The new Doctor Atomic opera provkes discussion on ethics I Cyborg The world's first human cyborg shares his life story in I Cyborg Flat Earth: The History of an Infamous Idea Flat Earth gives us a different perspective on creationism Mere Thermodynamics An introductory text on the three laws CGP revision guides This revision guide suits all courses and every pocket Hiding the Elephant: How Magicians Invented the Impossible The mystery of many illusions are solved in this book Back of the Envelope Physics This reference deserves a place on your bookshelf WORTH A LOOK Doctor Atomic The DVD doesn't do justice to the live performance Digital stopclock with external trigger Use these stopclocks when you need an external trigger WEB WATCH Webcasts reach out to an online audience

  5. Metástasis en cuero cabelludo como primera manifestación de cáncer de tiroides mixto folicular-papilar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Junquera Bañares

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La aparición de metástasis a distancia en los cánceres diferenciados de tiroides es poco frecuente, y cuando se detectan en piel, suelen darse en el contexto de una enfermedad diseminada después de muchos años de evolución desde el diagnóstico. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 77 años, sin enfermedad tiroidea conocida que debutó con una metástasis en región parietooccipital del cuero cabelludo en la que se identificó tejido tiroideo. En la ecografía tiroidea se identificó un nódulo informado como tumor folicular y el estudio de extensión precirugía fue negativo. Se le hizo tiroidectomía total más vaciamiento ganglionar del compartimento central y el estudio AP fue informado de carcinoma mixto folicular-papilar sin afectación ganglionar. En el RCT post-I131 (dosis de 104,7 mCi se detectaron micrometástasis pulmonares, y a los 2 meses de una segunda dosis de I131 (125 mCi, la tiroglobulina fue indetectable. El cáncer tiroideo debe incluirse en el diagnóstico diferencial de las metástasis cutáneas, puesto que su diagnóstico y tratamiento temprano, excepto en los casos de enfermedad muy avanzada, el pronóstico de su hallazgo suele ser más favorable que en el resto de tumores sólidos.

  6. Cirugía de Hígado por Metástasis Secundarias a Cáncer Colo-Rectal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Lacouture Dangond

    2006-09-01

    Objetivo: El principal objetivo es presentar los resultados actuales de la cirugía para el tratamiento de las metástasis hepáticas consecutivas a cáncer colo-rectal, sus indicaciones y complicaciones. Este estudio revisó lo publicado en los centros quirúrgicos universitarios de diferentes partes del mundo. Considero que este análisis puede servir de base o guía para futuras investigaciones nacionales...

  7. Mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width as predictors of left atrial stasis in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Providência, Rui; Ferreira, Maria João; Gonçalves, Lino; Faustino, Ana; Paiva, Luís; Fernandes, Andreia; Barra, Sérgio; Pimenta, Joana; Leitão-Marques, António M

    2013-01-01

    The role of erythrocyte indexes for the prediction of left atrial stasis, assessed by transesophageal echocardiography in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, has not been previously clarified. Single center cross-sectional study comprising 247 consecutive patients admitted to the emergency department due to symptomatic atrial fibrillation and undergoing transesophageal echocardiogram evaluation for exclusion of left atrial appendage thrombus (LAAT) before cardioversion. All patients had a complete blood count performed up to 12 hours prior to the transesophageal echocardiogram. Markers of left atrial stasis were sought: LAAT, dense spontaneous echocardiographic contrast (DSEC) and low flow velocities (LFV) in the left atrial appendage. Erythrocyte indexes' accuracy for detecting transesophageal echocardiogram changes was evaluated through receiver operating curve analysis. Binary logistic multivariate analysis, using solely erythrocyte indexes and in combination with other variables (i.e. CHADS2, CHA2DS2VASc classifications and left ventricle ejection fraction), was used for transesophageal echocardiogram endpoints prediction. LAAT was found in 8.5%, DSEC in 26.1% and LFV in 12.1%. Mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width were independent predictors of LAAT and DSEC. Despite adding incremental predictive value to each other, when clinical risk factors from CHADS2 and CHA2DS2VASc classifications and left ventricle ejection fraction were added to the models, only mean corpuscular volume remained an independent predictor of LAAT and DSEC. These findings suggest that mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width may be linked to left atrial stasis markers.

  8. 活血化瘀治疗高血压病理论探讨%Theory Discussion of Activating Blood and Resolving Stasis Treatment on Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张竞之; 陈利国; 金伟孝; 李华锋; 区鸿斌

    2011-01-01

    活血化瘀在目前高血压痛治疗中逐渐受到重视,临床研究表明可以提高治疗高血压病的疗效,减少其并发症.文章从高血压病的中医发病机制、现代基础研究,活血化瘀中药的作用、优势及本病治疗要求等方面探讨高血压病活血化瘀治疗的理论基础,为临床治疗开拓思路.%The activating blood and resolving stasis has been taken a increasingly high attention in hypertension treatment, clinical studies have shown that can increase efficacy and reduce its complications in the treatment of hypertension. In this paper, discussion the theoretical basis of the activating blood and resolving stasis treatment in hypertension by analysis the pathogenesis of hypertension in Chinese medicine,modern basic research, the role and advantages of activating blood and resolving stasis medicine, and requirements of the hypertension treatment, to develop ideas for clinical treatment.

  9. Earth Science Multimedia Theater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, A. F.

    1998-01-01

    The presentation will begin with the latest 1998 NASA Earth Science Vision for the next 25 years. A compilation of the 10 days of animations of Hurricane Georges which were supplied daily on NASA to Network television will be shown. NASA's visualizations of Hurricane Bonnie which appeared in the Sept 7 1998 issue of TIME magazine. Highlights will be shown from the NASA hurricane visualization resource video tape that has been used repeatedly this season on network TV. Results will be presented from a new paper on automatic wind measurements in Hurricane Luis from 1 -min GOES images that will appear in the October BAMS. The visualizations are produced by the Goddard Visualization & Analysis Laboratory, and Scientific Visualization Studio, as well as other Goddard and NASA groups using NASA, NOAA, ESA, and NASDA Earth science datasets. Visualizations will be shown from the "Digital-HyperRes-Panorama" Earth Science ETheater'98 recently presented in Tokyo, Paris and Phoenix. The presentation in Paris used a SGI/CRAY Onyx Infinite Reality Super Graphics Workstation at 2560 X 1024 resolution with dual synchronized video Epson 71 00 projectors on a 20ft wide screen. Earth Science Electronic Theater '999 is being prepared for a December 1 st showing at NASA HQ in Washington and January presentation at the AMS meetings in Dallas. The 1999 version of the Etheater will be triple wide with at resolution of 3840 X 1024 on a 60 ft wide screen. Visualizations will also be featured from the new Earth Today Exhibit which was opened by Vice President Gore on July 2, 1998 at the Smithsonian Air & Space Museum in Washington, as well as those presented for possible use at the American Museum of Natural History (NYC), Disney EPCOT, and other venues. New methods are demonstrated for visualizing, interpreting, comparing, organizing and analyzing immense Hyperimage remote sensing datasets and three dimensional numerical model results. We call the data from many new Earth sensing satellites

  10. Reactive Eccrine Syringofibroadenoma Associated with Neuropathy, Venous Stasis, and Diabetic Foot Ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirawut Sirikham

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Eccrine syringofibroadenoma (ESFA is an uncommon benign adnexal neoplasm which derives from cells of the acrosyringium of eccrine sweat glands. The clinical appearance is nonspecific but the histological features are typical. Five clinical subtypes of ESFA exist: (1 solitary ESFA; (2 multiple ESFA associated with ectodermal dysplasia; (3 multiple ESFA without cutaneous features; (4 unilateral linear ESFA (nevoid, and (5 reactive ESFA associated with inflammatory or neoplastic dermatoses. We report the case of a 42-year-old man with long-standing diabetes and neuropathy, presenting with a 4-year history of asymptomatic erythematous plaques on a background of brown hyperpigmentation on the left foot. The clinical presentation and histopathological findings are compatible with reactive ESFA.

  11. Community History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Helen M.

    1997-01-01

    Recounts the experience of researching community history in Ivanhoe, Virginia, between 1987 and 1990. The Ivanhoe History Project involved community members in collecting photographs, memorabilia, and oral histories of their town. Subsequent published volumes won the W. D. Weatherford Award and inspired a quilt exhibit and a theatrical production.…

  12. Sulfur Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, B. H.

    2007-12-01

    Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to

  13. Network-Based Biomarkers for Cold Coagulation Blood Stasis Syndrome and the Therapeutic Effects of Shaofu Zhuyu Decoction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulan Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the reverse docking methodology was applied to predict the action targets and pathways of Shaofu Zhuyu decoction (SFZYD bioactive ingredients. Furthermore, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM cold coagulation blood stasis (CCBS syndrome was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats with an ice-water bath and epinephrine, and SFZYD was used to treat CCBS syndrome. A metabolomic approach was used to evaluate changes in the metabolic profiles and to analyze the pharmacological mechanism of SFZYD actions. Twenty-three potential protein targets and 15 pathways were discovered, respectively; among these, pathways are associated with inflammation and immunological stress, hormone metabolism, coagulation function, and glycometabolism. There were also changes in the levels of endogenous metabolites of LysoPCs and glucuronides. Twenty endogenous metabolites were identified. Furthermore, the relative quantities of 6 endogenous metabolites in the plasma and 5 in the urine were significantly affected by SFZYD (P<0.05. The pharmacological mechanism of SFZYD was partially associated with glycerophospholipid metabolism and pentose and glucuronate interconversions. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that TCM CCBS pattern induced by ice water and epinephrine was complex and related to multiple metabolic pathways. SFZYD did regulate the TCM CCBS by multitargets, and biomarkers and SFZYD should be used for the clinical treatment of CCBS syndrome.

  14. Network-based biomarkers for cold coagulation blood stasis syndrome and the therapeutic effects of shaofu zhuyu decoction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shulan; Duan, Jinao; Cui, Wenxia; Shang, Erxing; Liu, Pei; Bai, Gang; Guo, Sheng; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the reverse docking methodology was applied to predict the action targets and pathways of Shaofu Zhuyu decoction (SFZYD) bioactive ingredients. Furthermore, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) cold coagulation blood stasis (CCBS) syndrome was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats with an ice-water bath and epinephrine, and SFZYD was used to treat CCBS syndrome. A metabolomic approach was used to evaluate changes in the metabolic profiles and to analyze the pharmacological mechanism of SFZYD actions. Twenty-three potential protein targets and 15 pathways were discovered, respectively; among these, pathways are associated with inflammation and immunological stress, hormone metabolism, coagulation function, and glycometabolism. There were also changes in the levels of endogenous metabolites of LysoPCs and glucuronides. Twenty endogenous metabolites were identified. Furthermore, the relative quantities of 6 endogenous metabolites in the plasma and 5 in the urine were significantly affected by SFZYD (P < 0.05). The pharmacological mechanism of SFZYD was partially associated with glycerophospholipid metabolism and pentose and glucuronate interconversions. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that TCM CCBS pattern induced by ice water and epinephrine was complex and related to multiple metabolic pathways. SFZYD did regulate the TCM CCBS by multitargets, and biomarkers and SFZYD should be used for the clinical treatment of CCBS syndrome.

  15. Platelet proteomics and its advanced application for research of blood stasis syndrome and activated blood circulation herbs of Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Yin, Huijun; Chen, Keji

    2013-11-01

    The development of novel and efficient antiplatelet agents that have few adverse effects and methods that improve antiplatelet resistance has long been the focus of international research on the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Recent advances in platelet proteomics have provided a technology platform for high-quality research of platelet pathophysiology and the development of new antiplatelet drugs. The study of blood stasis syndrome (BSS) and activated blood circulation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the most active fields where the integration of TCM and western medicine in China has been successful. Activated blood circulation herbs (ABC herbs) of Chinese medicine are often used in the treatment of BSS. Most ABC herbs have antiplatelet and anti-atherosclerosis activity, but knowledge about their targets is lacking. Coronary heart disease (CHD), BSS, and platelet activation are closely related. By screening and identifying activated platelet proteins that are differentially expressed in BSS of CHD, platelet proteomics has helped researchers interpret the antiplatelet mechanism of action of ABC herbs and provided many potential biomarkers for BSS that could be used to evaluate the clinical curative effect of new antiplatelet drugs. In this article the progress of platelet proteomics and its advanced application for research of BSS and ABC herbs of Chinese medicine are reviewed.

  16. Helium in Earth's early core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhifd, M. A.; Jephcoat, Andrew P.; Heber, Veronika S.; Kelley, Simon P.

    2013-11-01

    The observed escape of the primordial helium isotope, 3He, from the Earth's interior indicates that primordial helium survived the energetic process of planetary accretion and has been trapped within the Earth to the present day. Two distinct reservoirs in the Earth's interior have been invoked to account for variations in the 3He/4He ratio observed at the surface in ocean basalts: a conventional depleted mantle source and a deep, still enigmatic, source that must have been isolated from processing throughout Earth history. The Earth's iron-based core has not been considered a potential helium source because partitioning of helium into metal liquid has been assumed to be negligible. Here we determine helium partitioning in experiments between molten silicates and iron-rich metal liquids at conditions up to 16GPa and 3,000K. Analyses of the samples by ultraviolet laser ablation mass spectrometry yield metal-silicate helium partition coefficients that range between 4.7×10-3 and 1.7×10-2 and suggest that significant quantities of helium may reside in the core. Based on estimated concentrations of primordial helium, we conclude that the early core could have incorporated enough helium to supply deep-rooted plumes enriched in 3He throughout the age of the Earth.

  17. 赵云芳从瘀论治糖尿病经验%Zhao Yunfang's Experience in Treating Diabetes from Blood Stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧海洋

    2014-01-01

    赵云芳教授认为对于糖尿病的治疗,活血化瘀法应贯穿糖尿病治疗的始终,同时应审因论与辨证治相结合,使血瘀消散,恢复血液循环系统的功能。常用治法包括:①滋阴清热、活血化瘀法,可选用天花粉、黄连、生地黄、葛根、麦冬、牛膝、丹参、赤芍等。②益气养阴、活血化瘀法,可选用人参、黄芪、生地、元参、山药、葛根、丹参、桃仁、红花等。③益气温阳、活血化瘀法,可选用附子、桂枝、人参、黄芪、干姜、水蛭、地龙、僵蚕等。%Professor Zhao Yunfang believes that promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis method should be run through the treatment of diabetes,should also be seeking the origin and syndrome differentiation and treatment,which make the blood stasis dissipa-ting,and restore the function of blood circulating system. Common treatments include:①nourishing yin and clearing heat,promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis method,choosing trichosanthin,rhizoma coptidis,radix rehmanniae,radix puerariae,ophio-pogon root,achyranthes,radix salviae miltiorrhizae,radix paeoniae rubra,etc. .②Supplementing qi and nourishing yin,promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis method in the choice of ginseng,astragalus,radix rehmanniae,radix scrophulariae,yam,salvia miltiorrhiza,radix puerariae,peach kernel,safflower,etc. .③Invigorating qi and warming yang,promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis method can choose monkshood,cassia twig,ginseng,astragalus,dried ginger,leech,earthworm,silkworm and others.

  18. Association of severity and sex with vasoactive substance and sexual hormone level in patients with vascular dementia in the type of kidney asthenia and blood stasis syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Du; Jing Cai; Shuanghong Shen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Kidney asthenia is the basic cause of the development of vascular dementia (VD). Kidney asthenia lasting for a long time will result in blood stasis. Also, the cause of VD may have relationships with endothelin (ET), nitric oxide (NO), homocysteine (HCY), estrogen (E2), and testosterone (T).OBJECTIVE: To observed clinical curative effect of the kidney tonic, pancreas tonic, and blood tonic with promoting blood circulation components in treating kidney asthenia with blood stasis syndrome of VD.DESIGN : Case controlled study.SETTING: Geriatric Institute of Integrated Medicine, Fujian College of Traditional Chinese Medicine.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 70 patients, including 39 males and 31 females aged 60-80 years, were selected from Department of Neurology, Pingshan Hospital from May 2000 to September 2002. Diagnostic criteria were used for probable VD of the American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical of Manual of Mental Disorder, 4th ed (DSM-Ⅳ), 1994 revised, mini-mental state examination (MMSE), and criteria of kidney asthenia with blood stasis with mixed weak and sthenia syndrome of Guidelines of Clinical Research of New Chinese Medicine in Treating Dementia. According to score of kidney asthenia with blood stasis syndrome, they were classified to three groups: mild (n =22), moderate (n =33) and severe (n =15). All of them with complete chest X-Ray, ECG, blood chemistry and other related examinations, exclusive of cardiovascular, liver, kidney diseases, homeopathy and psychiatry diseases. And hereby we also select 30 normal people as the comparing group, having no substantial diseases in heart, brain, kidney, liver, lung and other main organic systems after medical examination. Of this group, 11 were males and 19 were females, ranging from 62 years old to 78 years old. There were no obvious differences between the above two groups in sex, age, and education level after statistical analysis. All patients observed in Pingxi Hospital

  19. Oxygen - A Four Billion Year History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    Canfield--one of the world's leading authorities on geochemistry, earth history, and the early oceans--covers this vast history, emphasizing its relationship to the evolution of life and the evolving chemistry of the Earth. With an accessible and colorful first-person narrative, he draws from a variety......The air we breathe is twenty-one percent oxygen, an amount higher than on any other known world. While we may take our air for granted, Earth was not always an oxygenated planet. How did it become this way? Oxygen is the most current account of the history of atmospheric oxygen on Earth. Donald...... on a remarkable journey through the history of the oxygenation of our planet....

  20. En kort historie om mail art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Theis Vallø

    2016-01-01

    Fra New York Citys eksperimenterende kunstscene i 1950'erne, i stasi-arkiverne og frem til mail art-arkiverne som Mogens Otto Nielsens arkiv på Kunsten i Aalborg.......Fra New York Citys eksperimenterende kunstscene i 1950'erne, i stasi-arkiverne og frem til mail art-arkiverne som Mogens Otto Nielsens arkiv på Kunsten i Aalborg....

  1. Hurricane Excitation of Earth Eigenmodes

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Randall D.

    2005-01-01

    A non-conventional vertical seismometer, with good low-frequency sensitivity, was used to study earth motions in Macon, Georgia USA during the time of hurricane Charley, August 2004. During its transitions between water and land, the powerful storm showed an interesting history of microseisms and also generated more than half-a-dozen surprisingly coherent oscillations, whose frequencies ranged from 0.9 to 3 mHz.

  2. Earth and Terrestrial Planet Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Seth A

    2015-01-01

    The growth and composition of Earth is a direct consequence of planet formation throughout the Solar System. We discuss the known history of the Solar System, the proposed stages of growth and how the early stages of planet formation may be dominated by pebble growth processes. Pebbles are small bodies whose strong interactions with the nebula gas lead to remarkable new accretion mechanisms for the formation of planetesimals and the growth of planetary embryos. Many of the popular models for the later stages of planet formation are presented. The classical models with the giant planets on fixed orbits are not consistent with the known history of the Solar System, fail to create a high Earth/Mars mass ratio, and, in many cases, are also internally inconsistent. The successful Grand Tack model creates a small Mars, a wet Earth, a realistic asteroid belt and the mass-orbit structure of the terrestrial planets. In the Grand Tack scenario, growth curves for Earth most closely match a Weibull model. The feeding zon...

  3. Earth's early biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding our own early biosphere is essential to our search for life elsewhere, because life arose on Earth very early and rocky planets shared similar early histories. The biosphere arose before 3.8 Ga ago, was exclusively unicellular and was dominated by hyperthermophiles that utilized chemical sources of energy and employed a range of metabolic pathways for CO2 assimilation. Photosynthesis also arose very early. Oxygenic photosynthesis arose later but still prior to 2.7 Ga. The transition toward the modern global environment was paced by a decline in volcanic and hydrothermal activity. These developments allowed atmospheric O2 levels to increase. The O2 increase created new niches for aerobic life, most notably the more advanced Eukarya that eventually spawned the megascopic fauna and flora of our modern biosphere.

  4. Entangled histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotler, Jordan; Wilczek, Frank

    2016-12-01

    We introduce quantum history states and their mathematical framework, thereby reinterpreting and extending the consistent histories approach to quantum theory. Through thought experiments, we demonstrate that our formalism allows us to analyze a quantum version of history in which we reconstruct the past by observations. In particular, we can pass from measurements to inferences about ‘what happened’ in a way that is sensible and free of paradox. Our framework allows for a richer understanding of the temporal structure of quantum theory, and we construct history states that embody peculiar, non-classical correlations in time.

  5. 慢性关节炎宜从“血瘀”论治%DiscussionontheTreatmentofChronicArthritisbyBloodStasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成源; 丰杰; 姚琴; 吴玉华; 赵凤新

    2013-01-01

    Objective  The article is to investigate the treatment of chronic arthritis.  Methods  It can be concluded that the treatment of chronic arthritis is not only through the research on the pathogenesis and etiology, but also by the Pathology and clinical study. Results  Blood stasis syndrome type is ubiquity in the pathological change of chronic arthritis. The disease is mainly due to the stagnation of blood, not seem to be caused by the wind, cold, or humidity. The mechanism of chronic arthritis is the main and collateral channels blockage, deifciency origin and excess in superifciality. Conclusion  The treatment of chronic arthritis is not only by nourishing liver and kidney and removing the wind, humidity and cold. But also should have seized the main contradiction of the disease, and the key is to remove the blood stasis.%  目的 探讨慢性关节炎的治疗方法。方法 通过对其病因病机分析和病理学、临床实践研究结论进行归纳。结果 “血瘀”是慢性关节炎中普遍存在的病理改变,该病以血瘀为本,风、寒、湿为标,经络痹阻为机,属本虚标实,虚瘀相夹之症。结论 对慢性关节炎的治疗,不应仅从祛风除湿散寒、补益肝肾入手,更应以祛瘀为核心,抓住疾病主要矛盾,才可标本同治。

  6. The History of Astrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Perryman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The history of astrometry, the branch of astronomy dealing with the positions of celestial objects, is a lengthy and complex chronicle, having its origins in the earliest records of astronomical observations more than two thousand years ago, and extending to the high accuracy observations being made from space today. Improved star positions progressively opened up and advanced fundamental fields of scientific enquiry, including our understanding of the scale of the solar system, the details of the Earth's motion through space, and the comprehension and acceptance of Newtonianism. They also proved crucial to the practical task of maritime navigation. Over the past 400 years, during which positional accuracy has improved roughly logarithmically with time, the distances to the nearest stars were triangulated, making use of the extended measurement baseline given by the Earth's orbit around the Sun. This led to quantifying the extravagantly vast scale of the Universe, to a determination of the physical properties...

  7. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  8. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  9. Romerrigets historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik

    Romerrigets historie fra Roms legendariske grundlæggelse i 753 f.v.t. til Heraklios' tronbestigelse i 610 e.v.t.......Romerrigets historie fra Roms legendariske grundlæggelse i 753 f.v.t. til Heraklios' tronbestigelse i 610 e.v.t....

  10. Thermospheric emissions of the early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, D.; Barthélémy, M.; Gronoff, G.; Ménager, H.; Lilensten, J.

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the thermospheric emission of the Earth over its history. In this first step, we adapt a kinetic transport code developed for different planets of the Solar System to the first atmosphere of the Earth. We take into account the possible changes in the solar emission spectrum to compute the diurnal ionizations, excitations and dissociations. We deduce a thermospheric spectrum averaged over the planet. The effect of solar wind electron precipitation is also considered.

  11. Rare Earth Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Oversupply of rare earths led to the significant price drop of rare earth mineral products and separated products in Chinese domestic market. To stabilize the price, prevent waste of resources, further improve regulation capability on domestic rare earth market and rare earth price and maintain sustaining and healthy development of rare earth industry, partial rare earth producers in Baotou and Jiangxi province projected to cease the production for one month.

  12. Research of the correlation between estrogen and blood stasis from the vascular endothelial function%从血管内皮功能探讨雌激素与血瘀关联性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘卫冬; 眭承志

    2014-01-01

    Blood stasis is closely related to osteoporosis.The modern material and basic research of the pathological changes of blood stasis syndrome is a hot topic today.Studies have shown that the formation of blood stasis is closely related to the vascular endothelial-associated factors.Estrogen can affect the pathological changes of blood stasis syndrome by promoting the expression of vasodilation activity factors such as NO and PGI2, and inhibiting the expression of vascular contraction factors such as ET, Ang II, and TXA2.Estrogen may affected the occurrence of osteoporosis by improving blood stasis.%血瘀与骨质疏松关系密切。血瘀证病理变化的现代物质基础研究是当今研究的一个热点。研究表明血管内皮相关因子与血瘀的形成关系密切,雌激素通过促进NO、PGI2等血管舒张活性因子的表达,抑制ET、Ang Ⅱ、TXA2等血管收缩因子表达而对血瘀证病理变化有一定影响。雌激素可能通过改善血瘀而影响骨质疏松的发生。

  13. Quantum Histories

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, A

    1998-01-01

    There are good motivations for considering some type of quantum histories formalism. Several possible formalisms are known, defined by different definitions of event and by different selection criteria for sets of histories. These formalisms have a natural interpretation, according to which nature somehow chooses one set of histories from among those allowed, and then randomly chooses to realise one history from that set; other interpretations are possible, but their scientific implications are essentially the same. The selection criteria proposed to date are reasonably natural, and certainly raise new questions. For example, the validity of ordering inferences which we normally take for granted --- such as that a particle in one region is necessarily in a larger region containing it --- depends on whether or not our history respects the criterion of ordered consistency, or merely consistency. However, the known selection criteria, including consistency and medium decoherence, are very weak. It is not possibl...

  14. 从虚瘀浊毒论治消渴痹证%Trea of Virtual Thirsting Disorder From Deficiency Blood Stasis Turbidity Toxin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东军; 李永美; 王磊; 柴可夫

    2016-01-01

    [目的]研究消渴病痹证的重要病因病机虚、瘀、浊、毒。[方法]结合《黄帝内经》中关于消瘅和痹证的条文与《金匮要略》中的相关理论,探讨虚、瘀、浊、毒在消渴痹证发病中的相互作用。同时,以桂枝芍药知母汤的临床医案进一步说明祛浊化毒、扶正补虚、活血化瘀之法在消渴病合并痹证治疗中的应用。[结果]虚、瘀、浊、毒能很好地体现消渴痹证的病机,虚、瘀、浊、毒在消渴病痹证衍化过程中是联动的整体,桂枝芍药知母汤论治消渴痹证符合虚、瘀、浊、毒的的病机。[结论]消渴痹证的病机为虚瘀浊毒,全面认识四者在消渴痹证发病中的关系,有利于提高对该病的认识。%Objective]To study the deficiency, blood stasis and turbidity, drug abuse each other is the important cause of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. [Methods]Combination of Huangdi Neijing provisions about despair an illusion of elimination and poliomyelitis in the important theory and formula, and the synopsis discusses deficiency, blood stasis and turbidity, poison in collateral to incorporate the interaction in the onset of poliomyelitis, and connecting with the application of cassia twig peony rhizoma anemarrhenae decoction clinical basis to further remove soft poison, tonify centralizer deficiency, the method for activating blood circulation in root merger poliomyelitis treatment, the application of Guizhi Shaoao Zhimu Decoction according to clinical cases the method has its principle, counterevidence deficiency, blood stasis and turbidity, drug abuse each other are collateral material combination of poliomyelitis key factors of the disease. [Results] The deficiency, blood stasis, phlegm and toxin are metabolic disorder of qi-blood pathological product of four influence each other, each other cause and effect. Phlegm, blood stasis, turbidity, toxin are the key of pathological changes from the complications of

  15. Metástasis mandibular de adenocarcinoma gástrico: Presentación de un caso Mandibular metastases of gastric adenocarcinoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ferreras Granado

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Los tumores malignos de la cavidad oral y mandíbula representan aproximadamente un 5% de todas las neoplasias malignas del cuerpo, y sólo entre el 1 y el 4% son consideradas como metástasis. Tienen su localización más frecuente a nivel de la mandíbula (80%, fundamentalmente en la región molar. Las metástasis mandibulares, cuando aparecen, suelen tener su origen en tumores primarios que asientan en la mama, pulmón, riñón, tiroides, intestinos y próstata; y con menor frecuencia en el estómago, testículos y vesícula biliar. Suelen afectar a pacientes de edad avanzada (4ª-7ª décadas de la vida sin predilección por el sexo. El tratamiento en general es paliativo y pasa por el uso de la radioterapia, quimioterapia y hormonoterapia, reservando la cirugía para casos aislados. Describimos un caso de metástasis mandibular en un paciente adulto como primera manifestación clínica de un adenocarcinoma gástrico.Malignant tumors of the mouth and jaws represents approximately 5% of all malignant neoplasms in the body, and only 1-4% are considered to be metastatic. They are most frequently located in the mandible (80%, fundamentally in the molar region. Metastases to the jaws are usually from breast, lung, kidney, thyroid gland, intestines, and prostate gland; and less frequently from stomach, testes, and bladder. They are more frequent in elderly patients (between 4th and 7th decades with no gender differences. Treatment is usually palliative and based on the use of radiotherapy, chemotherapy andhormonal therapy. Surgery is only used in selected cases. A case of mandibular metastases as first sign of malignant disease of gastric adenocarcinoma is reported.

  16. Study on Blood Coagulant/Fibrinolytic Activity at Plasma andMonocytic Levels in Coronary Heart Disease Patients withBlood-Stasis Syndrome of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To explore and compare the changes of coagulant/fibrinolytic activity in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients with Blood Stasis Syndrome of TCM and evaluate the roles of these changes. Methods: Eighty patients of CHD were divided into two groups by Syndrome Differentiation of TCM, the Blood-Stasis (BS) group (30 cases) and the non-Blood-Stasis (NBS) group (50 cases, including 27 cases of Phlegm-Dampness Syndrome and 23 cases of Qi-Stagnation Syndrome); and 20 healthy persons were enrolled as normal control group. Tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and its inhibitor (PAI-1) in plasma and in human peripheral blood monocyte cell (PBMC), as well as the procoagulant activity (PCA) in PBMC were measured by chromogenic substrate method. Results: The plasma PAI-1 activity and PCA of PBMC in the BS group were significantly higher than those in the NBS group and the normal control group (P<0.01). PAI-1 activity of PBMC in the two groups of CHD patients was higher than those in the normal control group significantly (P<0.01), but no significant difference was found between the BS group and the NBS group (P>0.05). The difference of plasma t-PA activity between the two groups of CHD was insignificant. The PBMC t-PA activity in the BS group was lower than that in the NBS and normal control groups (P<0.01). Conclusion: In the CHD patients with BS, the PBMC PCA was increased and the fibrinolytic activity at both plasma and monocyte levels lowered significantly, these changes in coagulant/fibrinolytic activity may be the important pathologic factors in forming BS which suggests that CHD patients with BS were in the prothrombotic state.

  17. Plasma Metabonomics Analysis of Tumor Patients of Phlegm-Stasis Syndrome%痰瘀证肿瘤患者血浆代谢组学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巴吐尔·买买提明; 哈木拉提·吾甫尔

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study metabonomic changes in plasma of tumor patients of phlegm-stasis syndrome by Chinese medicine and their in vivo metabolic mechanism. Methods 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabonomic analysis was performed on plasma samples from 356 tumor patients of the phlegmstasis syndrome and 104 tumor patients of the non-phlegm-stasis syndrome, and 50 healthy subjects. The spectrogram integral results were analyzed by orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Results Compared with healthy subjects, various amino acids including leucine, alanine, citrulline, tyrosine, histidine, arginine, methionine, isoleucine, valine, acetylcysteine, etc. in the plasma of patients of the phlegm-stasis syndrome were significantly lowered (P <0. 05). Glucose, glycoprotein, glutamine, myo-inositol, lactic acid, choline, creatine also significantly decreased ( P < 0. 05). But the plasmal formic acid, acetone, acetic acid, acetoacetate, pyruvate, β-hydrocxy butyrate, carnitine, malonic acid, and unsaturated fatty acid, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) increased in tumor patients of the phlegm-stasis syndrome. Compared with tumor patients of non-phlegm-stasis syndrome, patients of the phlegm-stasis syndrome had obvious lower plasmal contents of leucine, alanine, citrulline, tyrosine, histidine, isoleucine, valine, glutamine, myo-inositol, scyllo-inositol, lactic acid, creatine ( P < 0. 05), higher plasmal contents of acetone, acetoacetate, unsaturated fatty acid, VLDL-C, α-glucose, β-glucose, glycoprotein, and so on ( P<0. 05). Conclusions Tumor patients of the phlegm-stasis syndrome had strengthened in vivo fat metabolism and lowered various amino acids. The decreased antioxidation capacities resulted in aggravated cell membrane injuries. The in vivo metabolic disorder was more severe in tumor patients of the phlegm-stasis syndrome than in tumor patients of the non-phlgem-stasis

  18. Discussion of Phlegm Stasis in the Treatment of Schizophrenia%精神分裂症可从“痰瘀”论治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪金涛; 郝秀梅

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid economical and social development,mental disorder,especially schizophre-nia becomes a public health issue seriously threatening the people. It was believed in the paper that this dis-ease is in the category of“manic - depressive disorder”in TCM. Phlegm stasis is taken as the pathogenesis, retention of phlegm damp,internal retention of stasis and blood and upward invasion of pathogens to the brain are the main inducing factors of manic - depressive disorder. In clinic,schizophrenia is differentiated as five types,named phlegm fire disturbing mind,internal retention of phlegm damp,stagnation of phlegm and qi, stagnation of qi and blood,excessive deficiency and stasis. The treatment should be removing damp,resolving damp and dispersing or removing stasis accordingly. The self - prepared mengshi zhutan decoction,erchen tang,xuefu zhuyu tang are modified in terms of the concrete cases. The clinical therapeutic effects are satis-factory,indicating the significance for further study.%随着经济社会的快速发展,精神疾病尤其是精神分裂症已经是严重危害大众的公共卫生问题,文章认为本病属中医学中的"癫狂"范畴,其病机多责之于痰瘀之邪,痰湿阻滞、瘀血内停、上犯于脑是诱发癫狂的主要原因。在临床工作中把精神分裂症总结为常见的五种证型,分别为痰火扰神型、痰湿内阻型、痰气郁结型、气滞血瘀型、多虚多瘀型;采用祛湿、化痰、逐痰以及化瘀、散瘀等辨证论治,以自拟礞石逐痰汤、二陈汤、血府逐瘀汤等加减治疗。在临床上取得满意的效果,具有一定的研究意义。

  19. Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for chronic prostatitis associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes: a meta-analysis and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Lei; Wang, Yongchuan; Yang, Baizhi; Dong, Xiaohong; Gao, Zhaowang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this meta-analysis and systematic review is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for chronic prostatitis (CP) associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Methods An electronic search of 13 databases up to May 2016 was screened to identify randomized controlled trials comparing the safety and efficacy of CHM for the treatment of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Studies reporting on effective rates, adverse events, National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptom index (NIH-CPSI) scores, and symptom index of Chinese medicine for chronic prostatitis (SI-CM) scores as outcomes were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed by fixed- or random-effect models using the Review Manager software. Results Thirteen articles with the modified Jadad score ≥4 were identified. It was found that CHM was superior to placebo in increasing the efficacy (odds ratio: 6.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.78–9.48, P<0.00001) and reducing the SI-CM scores (standardized mean difference: −1.08, 95% CI: −1.35 to −0.81, P<0.00001). Oral CHMs were significantly more effective than placebo at reducing NIH-CPSI scores, with a mean difference of −1.39 (95% CI: −1.87 to −0.92, P<0.00001). Nevertheless, no significant differences were found between Prostant and placebo (standardized mean difference: −0.23, 95% CI: −0.46 to 0.01, P=0.06). The frequency of adverse events associated with oral CHM was similar to that associated with placebo (risk ratio: 1.36, 95% CI: 0.72–2.55, P=0.34) and less than that associated with Prostant (risk ratio: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.14–2.34, P=0.008). Conclusion Our novel analysis demonstrates that CHM ranks highest in terms of improvement of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. While Prostant showed some efficacy in this disorder, it was associated with a smaller reduction in NIH-CPSI scores. In conclusion, CHM monotherapy is safe and

  20. Differential Gene Expression Profiles in Coronary Heart Disease Patients of Blood Stasis Syndrome in Traditional Chinese Medicine and Clinical Role of Target Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓娟; 殷惠军; 陈可冀

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the differential gene expression profiles in coronary heart disease(CHD) patients of blood-stasis syndrome(BSS) by oligonucleotide microarray technique,and the clinical significance of target gene.Methods:Subjects were assigned to CHD patients with BSS(n=8),CHD patients without BSS (n=8),and BSS patients without CHD(n=8) based on coronary angiography and the diagnostic criteria of BSS. The sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers(n=8) were enrolled as the control group.Venous bloo...

  1. Clinical Thoughts and Experiences of Treating Epididymitis and Orchitis from Stasis and Heat——Application of Professor ZHOU Zhong Ying's Blood Stasis and Heat Pathology Theory in Treatment of Andrology Diseases%从瘀热辨治子痈的临证思路与经验——周仲瑛教授瘀热病机男科运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩; 薛建国

    2016-01-01

    国医大师周仲瑛教授结合多年的临床经验对“瘀热”病机理论进行较为系统的论述.在周仲瑛教授指导下,通过文献分析,结合临床实践,初步探讨子痈瘀热的病机概念、临床表现、辨证思路、组方用药特点,并举案例说明,以更好丰富“瘀热”理论,也为子痈的辨证施治提供新的思路.%Based on years of clinical experience,the Chinese medicine great master ZHOU Zhongying has created a systematic pathogenesis theory of "blood stasis and heat".Under the guidance of Professor Zhou's theory,through analysis of the relating literature,and combined with the clinical practice,this paper discusses the pathogenesis,clinical manifestations,thoughts of differentiation and medication characteristics of blood stasis and heat in epididymitis and orchitis,with a case for illustration.It enriches the theory of "blood stasis and heat" and provides new insights for the treatment of epididymitis and orchitis based on syndrome differentiation.

  2. Early Earth(s) Across Time and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojzsis, S.

    2014-04-01

    The geochemical and cosmochemical record of our solar system is the baseline for exploring the question: "when could life appear on a world similar to our own?" Data arising from direct analysis of the oldest terrestrial rocks and minerals from the first 500 Myr of Earth history - termed the Hadean Eon - inform us about the timing for the establishment of a habitable silicate world. Liquid water is the key medium for life. The origin of water, and its interaction with the crust as revealed in the geologic record, guides our exploration for a cosmochemically Earth-like planets. From the time of primary planetary accretion to the start of the continuous rock record on Earth at ca. 3850 million years ago, our planet experienced a waning bolide flux that partially or entirely wiped out surface rocks, vaporized oceans, and created transient serpentinizing atmospheres. Arguably, "Early Earths" across the galaxy may start off as ice planets due to feeble insolation from their young stars, occasionally punctuated by steam atmospheres generated by cataclysmic impacts. Alternatively, early global environments conducive to life spanned from a benign surface zone to deep into crustal rocks and sediments. In some scenarios, nascent biospheres benefit from the exogenous delivery of essential bio-elements via leftovers of accretion, and the subsequent establishment of planetary-scale hydrothermal systems. If what is now known about the early dynamical regime of the Earth serves as any measure of the potential habitability of worlds across space and time, several key boundary conditions emerge. These are: (i) availability and long-term stability of liquid water; (ii) presence of energy resources; (iii) accessibility of organic raw materials; (iv) adequate inventory of radioisotopes to drive internal heating; (v) gross compositional parameters such as mantle/core mass ratio, and (vi) P-T conditions at or near the surface suitable for sustaining biological activity. Life could

  3. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  4. Earth from Above

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahley, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Google Earth is a free online software that provides a virtual view of Earth. Using Google Earth, students can view Earth by hovering over features and locations they preselect or by serendipitously exploring locations that catch their fascination. Going beyond hovering, they can swoop forward and even tilt images to make more detailed…

  5. Rare Earth Resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    BEFORE the early 1970s, China had no rare earth exports, and the world rare earth market was dominated by the United States, Europe and Japan. In the 1970s, China began to enter the world rare earth market and its share has picked up sharply in the following decades. Today, having the monopoly over global rare earth production, China must improve the benefits from rare earth production, not only from producing individual rare earth products, but also from mastering the intensive processing of rare earth products.

  6. The application of Clinical laboratory indexes in the syndrome differentiation about blood stasis syndrome%临床相关检验指标在血瘀证辨证分型中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长军; 陶庆春

    2015-01-01

    目的:从医学检验的角度,提供血瘀证(BSS )诊断的实验依据。以及进一步分析中医血瘀证辨证分型中的气虚血瘀证、气滞血瘀证、寒凝血瘀证与相关临床检验指标之间的相关性。方法选择中医气虚血瘀证、气滞血瘀证、寒凝血瘀证和健康人(健康组)各50例,采集血液样本按规定进行血流变学指标、凝血指标、血脂指标以及内皮素(E T )、一氧化氮(N O )、心钠素(ANP)、血清游离钙(F‐Ca2+)、C反应蛋白(CRP)检测。结果三型血瘀证与健康组相比,血流变学指标、血脂指标以及ET、NO、ANP、CRP差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);气滞血瘀证与气虚血瘀证患者比较,血流变学指标(血浆黏度除外)、血脂指标以及ET、NO、ANP、CRP差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);寒凝血瘀证与气虚血瘀证患者比较,血流变学指标、凝血指标、血脂指标以及ET、NO、ANP、F‐Ca2+、CRP差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);寒凝血瘀证与气滞血瘀证患者比较,血流变学指标、凝血指标、血脂指标以及ET、NO、ANP、F‐Ca2+、CRP差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论研究显示临床检验指标对气虚血瘀证、气滞血瘀证、寒凝血瘀证诊断分型提供实验依据,提高血瘀证诊断分型的客观性。为现代科学促进中医诊断学的发展提供了一种新的思路和方法。%Objective To provide diagnostic basis for blood stasis syndrome (BSS) ,from the point of laboratory medical science . And to further analysis the correlation between qi deficiency and blood stasis ,qi stagnation and blood stasis ,cold coagulation and blood stasis syndrome with clinical testing indicators .Methods Chinese medicine qi deficiency and blood stasis ,qi stagnation and blood stasis ,cold coagulation and blood stasis syndrome and healthy (healthy group) 50 cases each were analyzed .Blood

  7. A Clinical Study on the Treatment of Chronic Pelvic Inflammation of Qi-stagnation with Blood Stasis Syndrome by Penyanqing Capsule (盆炎清胶囊)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Bi-qiong; SITU Yi; HUANG Jian-ling; SU Xiao-mei; HE Wei-tang; ZHANG Mao-wei; CHEN Qu-bo

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical efficacy of Penyanqing Capsule (盆炎清胶囊, PYQC) in treating pelvic inflammation of Qi-stagnation with blood stasis syndrome. Methods: The randomized, single blinded, parallel positive drug controlled method was adopted, with 82 patients assigned into two groups by envelop method. The 42 patients in the treated group received PYQC 3 times a day, 4 capsules each time taken orally; the 40 patients in the control group were given orally Fuyankang tablets (妇炎康片, FYKT) 3 times a day, 6 tablets each time. The therapeutic course for both groups was 2 months, and 2 courses of treatment were given successively to observe the comprehensive effect, changes of symptoms and signs before and after treatment. The effects of PYQC on hemorrheological character in part of the patients and on the pathogenetic chlamydia and mycoplasma were also observed. Results: The total effective rate in the treated group was 83.3 %, which was insignificantly different from that in the control group ( 77.5 %, P > 0.05 ).However, PYQC could significantly lower the hemorrheologic indexes in patients and showed definite influence on the pathogenetic chlamydia and mycoplasma. Conclusion: PYQC has good therapeutic effect in treating chronic pelvic inflammation of Qi-stagnation with blood stasis syndrome, and showed definite effect on chlamydia and mycoplasma.

  8. Effect of Chinese Herbs for Activating Blood Circulation,Removing Stasis and Supplementing Qi on the Circulating Endothelial Cells in Patients with Unstable Angina Pectoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽红; 阮英茆; 焦增绵; 李晓惠

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect and clinical significance of circulating endothelial cells (CEC) in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease with unstable angina pectoris (CHD-UAP), and to explore the protective effect of Chinese herbs for activating blood circulation, removing stasis and supplementing Qi (CH) on CHD-UAP patient's CEC. Methods: Sixty patients with diagnosis of CHD-UAP confirmed and differentiated to be Qi-deficiency and blood stasis by TCM were randomly divided into two groups and treatime, with 1 month as one therapeutic course. The number of CEC in patients' blood circulation was counted before and after treatment. Besides, the number of CEC in 30 healthy persons was also counted for control.Results: The number of CEC in CHD-UAP patients was significantly higher than that in the healthy persons (P<0.01). After the patients were treated with CH, either TXL or HXTM, it significantly decreased (P<0.01)with insignificant difference between the two treated groups. Conclusion: CEC in CHD-UAP patients is severely damaged and endothelial function in disorder, Chinese herbs have protective effect on patients' CEC.

  9. Melanoma cutáneo con metástasis gástrica. Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Alonso Soto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma es una neoplasia maligna producto de la transformación de los melanocitos. Las metástasis en el aparato digestivo pueden ocurrir en un 10 %. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 70 años de edad, con antecedentes de hipertensión arterial, que llevaba tratamiento regular con enalapril, de ocupación marino mercante, con mucha exposición al sol. En el año 2009 se le diagnosticó un melanoma en piel para lo que recibió tratamiento combinado de cirugía y quimioterapia, se mantuvo estable con seguimiento en la consulta de oncología y dermatología. Acudió a consulta por presentar cuadros de epigastralgia con marcada acidez que no se aliviaba ante la administración de omeprazol con que se había automedicado el paciente. Se comprobó melanoma cutáneo con metástasis en estómago.

  10. Clinical Observation on Influence of Chinese Medicines for Promoting Blood Circulation to Remove Blood Stasis on FIB and DD in Plasma of Patients with Cerebral Thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晖; 陈甦; 陈少芳

    2002-01-01

    Objective: to study the influence of Chinese medicines for promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis on fibrinogen (FIB) and D-dimer (DD) in plasma of patients with cerebral thrombosis. Method: 73 inpatients with acute cerebral thrombosis were randomly divided into a control group of 34 cases and a treatment group of 39 cases. The content of FIB and DD in plasma was detected before treatment and on the 7th and 14th days after treatment. Result: FIB content in plasma after treatment was lower than that before treatment in the control group (P<0.01) and more remarkable in the treatment group (P<0.001). There was an obvious difference in DD content before and after treatment in both groups. DD content on the 7th and 14th days after treatment in the treatment group was obviously higher than that in the control group (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively). Conclusion: Chinese medicines for promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis can reduce the FIB content in plasma of patients with cerebral thrombosis, raise the DD content in plasma, cause the peak of DD content appear earlier and obviously improve hypercoagulability of blood in patients with cerebral thrombosis.

  11. Effect of the Principle of Activating Blood Circulation to Break Stasis on GMP-140 and D2 Dimer in Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ning

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical efficacy of the principle of activating blood circulation to break stasis (ABCBS) and its influence on platelet membranous protein particle (GMP-140) and D2 dimer (Ddimer) before and after treatment. Methods: Eighty-eight patients with blood stasis syndrome (BSS) of acute cerebral infarction (ACI) were randomly divided into two groups, both of which were treated with conventional treatment, i.e. with western medicine (WM), with Salvia injection added through intravenously dripping.One of the two groups was used as the control and the other group as the treated group who had ABCBS herbs orally taken in addition. The duration of treatment course for both groups was 3 weeks. Results: There were changes in both groups over clinical symptoms, nerve function deficit scoring and GMP-140, D-dimer, but the treated group showed significantly better than that of the control group, (P<0.05). Conclusion: ABCBS principle could serve as an important auxiliary treating method for BSS of ACI, as it can effectively alter the blood of ACI patients which was viscous, condense, coagulant and aggregating.

  12. Innovative Strategy in Treating Angina Pectoris with Chinese Patent Medicines by Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis: Experience from Combination Therapy in Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Moreover, angina pectoris is one of the most important types of CHD. Therefore, prevention and effective treatment of angina pectoris is of utmost importance in both China and western countries. However, undesirable effects of antianginal therapy do influence treatment adherence to a certain extent. Therefore, it's not surprising that, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including Chinese medicine (CM), are widely welcomed among patients with CHD, hoping that it might complement western medicine. In our previous studies, blood stasis syndrome (BSS) (Xueyu Zheng) was the main syndrome (Zheng-hou) of angina pectoris. Currently, China Food and Drug Administration authoritatively recommended more than 200 Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) as complementary or adjunctive therapies for symptom management and enhancing quality of life along with mainstream care on angina pectoris management in mainland China. This paper reviewed 4 kinds of most frequently-used CPMs by promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis in the treatment of angina pectoris. It aims to evaluate the current evidence of CPMs in combination therapy for angina pectoris. This review indicated that CPMs as adjunctive treatment to routine antianginal therapy play an active role in reducing the incidence of primary endpoint events, decreasing anginal attack rate, and improving electrocardiogram. Additionally, CPMs have been proven relatively safe. Further rigorously designed clinical trials should be conducted to confirm the results.

  13. La teoría de la alóstasis como mecanismo explicativo entre los apegos inseguros y la vulnerabilidad a enfermedades crónicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariantonia Lemos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El vínculo de apego ha mostrado ser un factor de vulnerabilidad para las enfermedades crónicas. El presente artículo busca clarificar esta relación mediante la teoría de la alóstasis. La teoría de la alóstasis hace referencia a la regulación de los procesos fisiológicos corporales complejos en el tiempo mediante una respuesta sistémica que mantiene la estabilidad fisiológica cuando se confronta la persona con cambios o retos. Los apegos inseguros confrontan a los niños desde sus primeros años con eventos estresantes, al no brindar al niño la seguridad sentida, finalidad fundamental del apego. De esta forma los apegos inseguros podrían tener impacto en la calibración del sistema de estrés en la edad temprana y serían factores de aumento de la carga alostática mediante mayores eventos vitales estresantes que las personas con apego seguro, una valoración cognitiva de amenaza que lleva al desarrollo de la hipervigilancia y el impacto en los sistemas de regulación del estrés en el cuerpo.

  14. Oligometástasis y oligorrecurrencia en el cáncer del pulmón:¿estados cercanos a la muerte?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Emilio García Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Los pacientes con carcinoma pulmonar de células no pequeñas metastásico tienen un mal pronóstico. En la actualidad se discute acerca de un grupo de estos pacientes con lesiones sincrónicas o metacrónicas que pueden sobrevivir largo tiempo después extirpadas la lesión primaria y sus metástasis -la gran mayoría, de localización cerebral y adrenal-. Al respecto se realizó una revisión exhaustiva de la bibliografía enfocada en el estado metastásico del carcinoma pulmonar de células no pequeñas. Se consultaron diferentes bases de datos (Pubmed, Medline, Ebsco, Cochrane, Redalyc y se revisaron las evidencias científicas sobre el tema. Se pudo concluir que las metástasis y recurrencias en los pacientes con cáncer pulmonar han sido consideradas como estados cercanos a la muerte. Estos pacientes han sido tratados como grupo con terapias sistémicas; sin embargo, la cirugía se mantiene como una opción de tratamiento que refuerza la "teoría de la semilla y la tierra".

  15. Near-Earth objects finding them before they find us

    CERN Document Server

    Yeomans, Donald K

    2012-01-01

    Of all the natural disasters that could befall us, only an Earth impact by a large comet or asteroid has the potential to end civilization in a single blow. Yet these near-Earth objects also offer tantalizing clues to our solar system's origins, and someday could even serve as stepping-stones for space exploration. In this book, Donald Yeomans introduces readers to the science of near-Earth objects--its history, applications, and ongoing quest to find near-Earth objects before they find us. In its course around the sun, the Earth passes through a veritable shooting gallery of million

  16. Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for chronic prostatitis associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes: a meta-analysis and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Z

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Zhiqiang Wang,1 Lei Yuan,1 Yongchuan Wang,2 Baizhi Yang,1 Xiaohong Dong,1 Zhaowang Gao3 1Department of Urology, Shouguang Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shouguang, 2Department of Urology, Weifang Traditional Chinese Hospital, Weifang, 3Department of Urology, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated Hospital, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this meta-analysis and systematic review is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM for chronic prostatitis (CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes.Methods: An electronic search of 13 databases up to May 2016 was screened to identify randomized controlled trials comparing the safety and efficacy of CHM for the treatment of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Studies reporting on effective rates, adverse events, National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptom index (NIH-CPSI scores, and symptom index of Chinese medicine for chronic prostatitis (SI-CM scores as outcomes were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed by fixed- or random-effect models using the Review Manager software.Results: Thirteen articles with the modified Jadad score ≥4 were identified. It was found that CHM was superior to placebo in increasing the efficacy (odds ratio: 6.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.78–9.48, P<0.00001 and reducing the SI-CM scores (standardized mean difference: -1.08, 95% CI: -1.35 to -0.81, P<0.00001. Oral CHMs were significantly more effective than placebo at reducing NIH-CPSI scores, with a mean difference of -1.39 (95% CI: -1.87 to -0.92, P<0.00001. Nevertheless, no significant differences were found between Prostant and placebo (standardized mean difference: -0.23, 95% CI: -0.46 to 0.01, P=0.06. The frequency of adverse events associated with oral CHM was similar to that associated with placebo (risk ratio: 1.36, 95% CI: 0.72–2.55, P=0.34 and less than that

  17. Reconstructing the Chronology of Supernovae: Determining Major Variations in the History of the Cosmic-ray Flux Incident on the Earth's Surface by Measuring the Concentration of 22Ne in Halite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahill, N. D.; Giegengack, R.; Lande, K.; Omar, G.

    2008-12-01

    We plan to measure the inventory of cosmogenically produced 22Ne atoms preserved in the mineral lattice of halite in deposits of rock salt, and to use that inventory to measure variations in the cosmic-ray flux to enable us to reconstruct the history of supernovae. Bedded rock salt consists almost entirely of the mineral halite (NaCl). Any neon trapped in the halite crystals during precipitation is primarily 20Ne, with a 22Ne concentration of 9% or less. Any neon resulting from cosmic-ray interactions with 23Na is solely 22Ne; therefore, 22Ne atoms in excess of 9% of the total neon are cosmogenic in origin. Measurement of the 22Ne inventory in halite from deposits covering a range of geologic ages may enable us to document the systematic growth of 22Ne through geologic time and, thus, establish the cosmic-ray flux and a chronology of supernovae. The cosmic-ray flux is attenuated in direct proportion to the mass of material overlying a halite deposit. To adjust the 22Ne inventory to account for that attenuation, we must reconstruct the post-depositional history of accumulation and removal of superjacent sediment for each halite deposit we study. As an example of our procedure, we reconstruct here the shielding history of the Permian halite deposit, the Salado Formation, Delaware Basin, New Mexico. The stratigraphy of the Delaware Basin has been well documented via exploration and production wells drilled in search of oil and gas, exploration boreholes associated with potash mining, and comprehensive geologic site assessment of the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). WIPP is a subsurface repository for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes, located in southeastern New Mexico, 42 km east of Carlsbad and approximately 655 m beneath the surface in the Salado Fm. The Salado Fm is part of the Late Permian Ochoan Series, and consists of 1) a lower member, 2) the McNutt Potash Zone, and 3) an upper member. WIPP lies between marker bed (MB)139 and MB136 in the

  18. Earth cycles:A historical perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Oldroyd

    2007-01-01

    @@ For at Jeast two centuries,most geologists have been convinced that Earth has experienced a"linear,"directional history.There iS no doubt that our planet is very different from what it was a few billion years ago.

  19. 糖尿病下肢动脉病变与血瘀的关系探讨%Relationship between Lower Extremity Arterial Disease and Blood Stasis in Diabetic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭欣; 银浩强; 徐蓉娟; 肖沪生

    2011-01-01

    目的 初步探讨糖尿病下肢动脉病变与血瘀证的关系,为临床早期防治糖尿病下肢动脉病变提供依据.方法 对纳入的459例糖尿病患者进行基本信息和中医临床信息的采集及下肢动脉病变临床诊查.辨证分型为兼血瘀证组和无血瘀证组.对其中147例患者进行下肢动脉病变相关指标检测.观察糖尿病下肢动脉病变与血瘀证之间的关系.结果 近75%的糖尿病患者合并有血瘀证.兼血瘀证组糖尿病下肢动脉病变(DLEAD)的患病率明显高于无血瘀证组(P<0.01).血瘀对DLEAD危险度估计的OR值为4.737.兼血瘀证组外周动脉疾病的患病率明显高于无血瘀证组(P<0.01).结论 大多数糖尿病患者都合并有血瘀.血瘀是糖尿病下肢动脉病变的重要致病因素.%Objective To explore the relationship between the lower extremity arterial disease and the blood stasis syndrome in diabetic,and provide evidences for the early treatment and prevention of this disease. Methods A total of 459 cases of diabetic patients were included. Basic data and TCM clinical information were collected, and clinical examination of lower extremity arterial diseases was performed. Differentiation of symptoms and signs for classification of syndrome with or without blood stasis was performed in all patients. The indexes correlated to the lower extremity arterial disease were detected in 147 cases among the total.The correlation between diabetic lower extremity arterial disease and blood stasis syndrome was observed. Results Nearly 75 percent of diabetic patients had syndrome of blood stasis. The morbidity rate of lower extremity arterial diseases in diabetic with the blood stasis syndrome was significantly higher than that without blood stasis( P <0.01 ). The OR value of blood stasis on the risk of lower extremity arterial diseases in diabetic was 4.737. The morbidity rate of peripheral arterial disease in diabetic with the blood stasis syndrome was

  20. Matematikkens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede.......Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede....

  1. Linjefaget historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch-Christensen, Andreas

    Afhandlingen er en undersøgelse af linjefaget historie ved læreruddannelsen. Med fokus på subjektperspektivet peger afhandlingen på en række afgørende udviklingsperspektiver for læreruddannelsen, uddannelsen af historielærere og folkeskolens historieundervisning.......Afhandlingen er en undersøgelse af linjefaget historie ved læreruddannelsen. Med fokus på subjektperspektivet peger afhandlingen på en række afgørende udviklingsperspektiver for læreruddannelsen, uddannelsen af historielærere og folkeskolens historieundervisning....

  2. Matematikkens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede.......Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede....

  3. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2016-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on....

  4. The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juuti, Kalle

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the…

  5. The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juuti, Kalle

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the…

  6. Cultural history as polyphonic history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This texts offers a reflection on the origins and actual development of the field of cultural history through a comparison with the term that has served as title for this seminar: “polyphonic history”. The author provides an overview of the themes that have structured the seminar (the history of representations, the history of the body and the cultural history of science with the aim of making explicit and clarifying this plurality of voices in the field of history as well as its pervasiveness in other research areas.

    En este texto se ofrece una reflexión sobre el origen y actual desarrollo del campo de la historia cultural a través de una comparación con el término que ha dado título a este seminario: “historia polifónica”. El autor propone un recorrido por las áreas temáticas que han conformado la estructura del seminario (la historia de las representaciones, la historia del cuerpo y la historia cultural de la ciencia con el objeto de explicitar y explicar esta pluralidad de voces en el campo de la historia, así como su repercusión en otras áreas del conocimiento.

  7. Recent Developments in Young-Earth Creationist Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Timothy H.

    2009-01-01

    Young-earth creationism has undergone a shift in emphasis toward building of historical models that incorporate Biblical and scientific evidence and the acceptance of scientific conclusions that were formerly rejected. The RATE Group admitted that massive amounts of radioactive decay occurred during earth history but proposed a period of…

  8. Recent Developments in Young-Earth Creationist Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Timothy H.

    2009-01-01

    Young-earth creationism has undergone a shift in emphasis toward building of historical models that incorporate Biblical and scientific evidence and the acceptance of scientific conclusions that were formerly rejected. The RATE Group admitted that massive amounts of radioactive decay occurred during earth history but proposed a period of…

  9. SELF-ORGANIZING ABIOGENIC DISSIPATIVE STRUCTURES IN THE GEOLOGIC HISTORY OF THE EARTH%地球地质历史中非生物成因的自组织耗散结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.L.Shvartsev

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that since the appearance of water on the Earth, a stationary disequilibrium-equilibrium water-rock system came into existence. This system is internally inconsistent, which determines its ability to develop continuously in a spontaneous manner for a long geologic time, leading to the formation of principally new mineral phases and geochemical types of water. Within the Earth's crust, this system persistently develops in a nonlinear field of the thermodynamic branch under the conditions far from equilibrium; it is capable of accumulating the solar energy and forms abiogenic dissipative structures playing a special role in the progressive development of inert matter and then of living matter. The inclination of this system to the progressive self-organization defines it as one of the fundamental and basic system in the development of inorganic matter. From this system there was a set of others having inherited most of its properties. The evolution of the water-rock system led to the formation of secondary mineral phases and new geochemical types of water, and as these increased, the system gradually became more complex in composition and structure and formed new geochemical media which, in turn, control the formation of new mineral phases having effect on the characteristics of the media. This process is geologically perpetual. This is the essence of self-organization in mineral kingdom, including initiation, growth and spatial-temporal dispersal of new structural forms, mineral and geochemical media formations, and finally, the origination of new organic substances and life.%自从地球上有水出现,就持续存在水-岩体系的平衡-不平衡.这一体系内部是不协调的,这就决定了它在地质历史的长河中自发地连续发展的可能性,并导致完全新的矿物相和水的不同地球化学类型的生成.在地壳中这一体系持续在一个热力学分支的线性域中,远离平衡而发育.它积聚太阳能,形成非

  10. Why History?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the way in which studying history contributes to intellectual development. Identifies five mental attributes it enhances: perspective--gained from placing people, events, institutions against larger background; encounter--confronting great ideas, personalities, etc.; relativism in a pluralistic world--developed from immersion in other…

  11. Bulletproof History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that the writers and producers of the television documentary, "The Valour and the Horror," provided a false impression of an event to fit preconceived and erroneous interpretations of history. Points out specific examples of inaccurate historical presentations and provides contradictory historical interpretations. (CFR)

  12. Business History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that a cultural and narrative perspective can enrich the business history field, encourage new and different questions and answers, and provide new ways of thinking about methods and empirical material. It discusses what culture is and how it relates to narratives. Taking...

  13. Potted history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Jordan Valley was once populated by a people, now almost forgotten by historians, with whom the pharaoh of Egypt sought favour. That is the conclusion reached by Niels Groot, the first researcher to take a PhD at the Delft-Leiden Centre for Archaeology, Art History and Science.

  14. To reactivate or not to reactivate: nature and varied behavior of structural inheritance in the Proterozoic basement of the Eastern Colorado mineral belt over 1.7 billion years of earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Jonathan Saul; Ridley, John; Wessel, Zachary R.

    2010-01-01

    The eastern central Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado has long been a region of geologic interest because of Laramide-age hydrothermal polymetallic vein-related ores. The region is characterized by a well-exposed array of geologic structures associated with ductile and brittle deformation, which record crustal strain over 1.7 billion years of continental growth and evolution. The mineralized areas lie along a broad linear zone termed the Colorado Mineral Belt. This lineament has commonly been interpreted as following a fundamental boundary, such as a suture zone, in the North American Proterozoic crust that acted as a persistent zone of weakness localizing the emplacement of magmas and associated hydrothermal fluid flow. However, the details on the controls of the location, orientation, kinematics, density, permeability, and relative strength of various geological structures and their specific relationships to mineral deposit formation are not related to Proterozoic ancestry in a simple manner. The objectives of this field trip are to show key localities typical of the various types of structures present, show recently compiled and new data, offer alternative conceptual models, and foster dialogue. Topics to be discussed include: (1) structural history of the eastern Front Range; (2) characteristics, kinematics, orientations, and age of ductile and brittle structures and how they may or may not relate to one another and mineral deposit permeability; and (3) characteristics, localization, and evolution of the metal and non–metal-bearing hydrothermal systems in the eastern Colorado Mineral Belt.

  15. Correlation between obesity and the development of blood stasis syndrome%肥胖与血瘀证形成的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈贵海; 孙建; 陈利国

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vascular complications usually occur in diseases related to obesity such as primary hypertension or diabetes. Treating obesity with the method of promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis gains a curative effect, so we presume that obesity may be correlated to blood stasis syndrome.OBJECTIVE: Analyzing the relationship between leptin(Lep) and insulinmetabolism of sugar and fat,endothelin(ET),blood pressure,body mass index(BMI), etc. Comparison of the differences in Lep and BMI between the blood stasis syndrome group and the non-blood stasis syndrome group was conducted to explore the correlation between obesity and the blood stasis syndrome.DESIGN: An observatory and controlled study based on patients with hypertension or diabetes.SETTING: Wards of the department of dardiovascular dedicine and the department of dndocrinology of a university of traditional Chinese medicine.PARTICIPANTS: All the patients in the present study were hospitalized at the Department of Internal Medicine of the Second Affiliated Hospital(Jinan City, Shangdong Province) of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from September 2000 to January 2001.Among them, 126 cases with hypertension were at the Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, and 133 cases with type 2 diabetes were at the Department of Endocrinology. Inclusion criteria: ① The diagnosis of diabetes followed the diagnostic criteria for diabetes that was formulated by the WHO in 1980; ② The diagnosis of hypertension followed the diagnostic criteria in"China' s Guidebook for Hypertension Prevention and Treatment." The patients were aged between 45-76 years. Exclusion criteria: ① Secondary hypertension,diabetics; ②Complicated with severe diseases; ③ Complicated with severe disfunction of the heart,lung,liver, kidney or severe primary diseases in hematopoietic system; ④ Patients with mental disorder or pregnant women or in the state of lactation; ⑤ Patients aged 76 years old; ⑥ Patients

  16. EarthKAM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sponsored by NASA, EarthKAM (Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students) is an educational outreach program allowing middle school students to take pictures...

  17. Earth on the Move.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on the layers of the earth, the relationship between changes on the surface of the earth and its insides, and plate tectonics. Teaching activities are included, with some containing reproducible worksheets and handouts to accompany them. (TW)

  18. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  19. Origin of the earth's ocean basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H.

    1977-01-01

    The earth's original ocean basins are proposed to be mare-type basins produced 4 billion y.a. by the flux of asteroid-sized objects responsible for the lunar mare basins. Scaling upward from the observed number of lunar basins for the greater capture cross-section and impact velocity of the earth indicates that at least 50% of an original global crust would have been converted to basin topography. These basins were flooded by basaltic liquids in times short compared to the isostatic adjustment time for the basin. The modern crustal dichotomy (60% oceanic, 40% continental crust) was established early in the history of the earth, making possible the later onset of plate tectonic processes. These later processes have subsequently reworked, in several cycles, principally the oceanic parts of the earth's crust, changing the configuration of the continents in the process. Ocean basins (and oceans themselves) may be rare occurrences on planets in other star systems.

  20. Effects of Blood-Activating and Stasis-Removing Drugs Combined with VEGF Gene Transfer on Angiogenesis in Ischemic Necrosis of the Femoral Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun-hui; WU Ya-ling; YE Jian-hong; NING Ya-gong; YU Hai-ying; PENG Zhong-jie; LUAN Xiao-wen

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To observe the promoting effects of blood-activating and stasis-removing Chinese drugs combined with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene transfer on angiogenesis in ischemic necrosis of the femoral head.Methods:Forty Japanese giant-ear rabbits were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, a Chinese drug group, a gene group, and a combined group.After 8 weeks of treatment, the rate of VEGF positive cell expression in the synovium of the femoral head was measured using the immunohistochemical method, and the number of blood vessels in the femoral head was measured by digital subtraction angiography.Results:The rate of VEGF positive cell expression in the model group was significantly lower than that in the Chinese drug group (P<0.05) and very significantly lower than those in other groups (P<0.01);but in the combined group it was significantly higher than in the Chinese drug group (P<0.05).The differences in the number of blood vessels in area A between the model group and other groups were not statistically significant.However, in area B, the number of blood vessels significantly increased in the control group, the gene group and the combined group as compared with the model group (P<0.05), and in the combined group the number of blood vessels was significantly more than in the gene group (P<0.05);but in the Chinese drug group it was not significantly different than the model group P>0.05).Conelusion:Either the blood-activating and stasis-removing Chinese drugs or VEGF gene transfer can promote the angiogenesis and building of collateral circulation for femoral head ischemic necrosis, and the combined therapy with Chinese drugs or VEGF gene transfer may show a better therapeutic effect.The present study provides an experimental basis for clinical application of the combined therapy with the blood-activating and stasis-removing Chinese drugs and VEGF gene transfer.

  1. Business History as Cultural History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    The paper engages with the larger question of how cultural heritage becomes taken for granted and offers a complimentary view to the anthropological ʻCopenhagen School’ of business history, one that draws attention to the way corporate wealth directly and indirectly influences the culture available...

  2. 高血压病血瘀证相关 m iRNA 的筛选%Screening of hypertension/blood stasis syndrome-related miRNA in endo-thelial cell models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何铃; 方梅霞; 陈利国; 袁静; 周建华; 徐婧

    2015-01-01

    AIM:To screen the miRNA related to blood stasis syndrome and to explore the genetic mechanism of blood stasis syndrome in hypertension.METHODS:Human umbilical vein endothelial cell line CRL-1730 was co-cul-tured with the human sera from healthy normal controls and hypertension patients to establish a blood stasis-hypertension cell modela.The hypertension patients showed qi deficiency and blood stasis, qi stagnation and blood stasis, cold retaining and blood stasis, heat retaining and blood stasis and non-blood stasis syndromes.The endothelial cell models of blood stasis in hypertension were established.Target cells were collected for total RNA extraction.The techniques of Solexa ( high-throughput sequencing method) and digital gene expression profiling were applied for screening the target miRNA, and miRWalk software was used for online prediction the mRNA which might be the relevant target.qRT-PCR was conducted to confirm the prediction.RESULTS:SAT1-Hsa-miR-199a-5p and ATF4-Hsa-miR-1283 were found to be highly expressed in these cell models.The expression of miR-1283 and miR-199a-5p was confirmed by qRT-PCR.CONCLUSION:miR-199a-5p and miR-1283 may be the relevant miRNA for the prediction of blood stasis syndrome in hypertension.%目的:筛选与高血压病血瘀证相关微小RNA( microRNA, miRNA),从基因组学探索高血压病血瘀证的发病机制。方法:运用高血压病气虚血瘀证、气滞血瘀证、寒凝血瘀证、热结血瘀证、非血瘀证患者和健康人的血清干预人脐静脉血管内皮细胞CRL-1730,建立高血压病血瘀证血管内皮细胞损伤模型;提取各组总RNA,采用Solexa高通量测序法和数字基因表达谱测序原理对各组样本进行测序分析,筛选各组间的差异表达miRNA和mR-NA,使用靶基因miRWalk预测软件对2者进行相关性的整合,筛选与血瘀证相关miRNA,qRT-PCR定量分析验证miRNA的表达。结果:整合气虚血瘀组与非血瘀组、气

  3. Sommerferiens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    favourite ways for com- mon people to spend their holidays, and with the introduction of holiday pay in the 1930s almost everybody could take a couple of weeks off work in the sum- mer. With the introduction of charter tourism many people went off to Southern Europe to spend their holidays on the same...... pattern. Finally, the history of the special holiday camps is told, which were established by American Jews because they were excluded from many hotels....

  4. Professor LI Jun Treating Dizziness Caused by Hypertension Based on Phlegm and Blood Stasis%李军教授从痰瘀互结论治高血压病眩晕

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷亚玲

    2012-01-01

    系统阐述李军教授临床辨治高血压病眩晕的思路及经验.痰、瘀为患贯穿高血压病眩晕病程始终,一旦痰瘀互结,则互为因果,恶性循环,加重病情.提出“见痰及瘀,见瘀及痰”的治疗思想,提倡“化痰活血,痰瘀同治”的基本大法,注重痰瘀偏重,强调兼夹证型,以清脑通络汤为基础加减,用药精良,临床疗效显著.文章对高血压病眩晕的临床辨治不仅具有理论指导作用,更具实践应用价值.%diagnosis and treatment of dizziness caused by hypertension.In dizziness caused by hypertension, phlegm and blood stasis exist throughout. Once phlegm and blood stasis form and influence each other, it will aggravate patients' condition. Professor LI Jun suggests that blood stasis is an accompaniment of phlegm, and phlegm is an accompaniment of blood stasis.Therefore, to the treatment of dizziness caused by hypertension, he advocates activating blood and dissipating phlegm simultaneously according to the varying severity of phlegm and blood stasis, and pays attention to whether there is any accompanying other syndromes. Professor Li Jun used a basical prescription ( Qingnaotongluo Decoction ) flexibly in clinic. The results indicated that Qingnaotongluo Decoction was effective. To sum up, the experience makes not only great academic significance but also practical significance to clinical diagnosis and treatment of dizziness caused by hypertension.

  5. Theories of the Earth and the Nature of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James

    1991-01-01

    Describes the history of the science of geology. The author expounds upon the discovery of deep time and plate tectonics, explaining how the theory of deep time influenced the development of Darwin and Wallace's theory of evolution. Describes how the history of earth science helps students understand the nature of science. (PR)

  6. [Effect of supplementing Qi-nourishing Yin-dispersing blood stasis-dredging collateral herbs on p38 MAPK signaling pathway in kidney of early diabetic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenhong; Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jianghua; Sun, Yufeng; Wang, Yuehua; Wang, Huiqing

    2010-03-01

    To study the effect of supplementing Qi-nourishing Yin and dispersing blood stasis-dredging collateral herbs on p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathway in the kidney of early diabetic rats. Dividing SD rats randomly into 6 groups: Simple nephrectomy group, model group, irbesatan group, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) low dose group, TCM middle dose group and TCM high dose group. Each group of rats was fed with the corresponding dose of medicine. After 6 weeks, detecting 24 h urine protein (UPro) level, renal function, p38 MAPK mRNA and p-p38 MAPK protein level. UPro levels of irbesatan group, TCM low group and TCM middle dose group decreased significantly (P herbs could treat DN rats effectively by inhibiting the expression of p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

  7. Clinical Observation in 45 Cases of Hemorrhagic Apoplexy of the Acute Stage Treated by Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国柱

    2003-01-01

    To explore the therapeutic effects of the method of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis on hemorrhagic apoplexy of acute stage, 45 cases were treated by the method and observed for their conscious state and motor function, which were compared with 40 cases treated with regular western drugs. The results showed that the effective rate in the treated group was 82.2% and that in control group 60% with a significant difference (P<0.05) between the two groups. In the treated group, the scores of the conscious state and the motor function after treatment were elevated dramatically (P<0.01), indicating a much better effect in the treated group than in the control group.

  8. Capturing Near Earth Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Baoyin, Hexi; CHEN Yang; Li, Junfeng

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Near Earth Objects (NEOs) have been attracting great attention, and thousands of NEOs have been found to date. This paper examines the NEOs' orbital dynamics using the framework of an accurate solar system model and a Sun-Earth-NEO three-body system when the NEOs are close to Earth to search for NEOs with low-energy orbits. It is possible for such an NEO to be temporarily captured by Earth; its orbit would thereby be changed and it would become an Earth-orbiting object after a small...

  9. Non-local competition drives both rapid divergence and prolonged stasis in a model of speciation in populations with degenerate resource consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atamas Nicholas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The theory of speciation is dominated by adaptationist thinking, with less attention to mechanisms that do not affect species adaptation. Degeneracy – the imperfect specificity of interactions between diverse elements of biological systems and their environments – is key to the adaptability of populations. A mathematical model was explored in which population and resource were distributed one-dimensionally according to trait value. Resource consumption was degenerate – neither strictly location-specific nor location-independent. As a result, the competition for resources among the elements of the population was non-local. Two modeling approaches, a modified differential-integral Verhulstian equation and a cellular automata model, showed similar results: narrower degeneracy led to divergent dynamics with suppression of intermediate forms, whereas broader degeneracy led to suppression of diversifying forms, resulting in population stasis with increasing phenotypic homogeneity. Such behaviors did not increase overall adaptation because they continued after the model populations achieved maximal resource consumption rates, suggesting that degeneracy-driven distributed competition for resources rather than selective pressure toward more efficient resource exploitation was the driving force. The solutions were stable in the presence of limited environmental stochastic variability or heritable phenotypic variability. A conclusion was made that both dynamic diversification and static homogeneity of populations may be outcomes of the same process – distributed competition for resource not affecting the overall adaptation – with the difference between them defined by the spread of trait degeneracy in a given environment. Thus, biological degeneracy is a driving force of both speciation and stasis in biology, which, by themselves, are not necessarily adaptive in nature.

  10. Pharmacokinetic effect of activating blood and dissolving stasis of Nao-an capsule on anti-epilepsy drug VPA-Mg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xiangan(于香安); Zhou Suqin(周素琴); Luo Qin(骆勤); Ju Yang(鞠洋); Cai Huaiyou (蔡怀友)

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the pharmacokinetic effect of activating blood and dissolving stasis of Nap-an capsule onanti-epilepsy drug VPA-Mg. Methods: Nine rabbits were divided into tow groups: VPA group (group 1) and VPA with Nap-an group(group 2). Blood samples of the two groups were obtained and Fluorescence deflection libration immunity was employed to determinethe blood concentration at different time point. TDx and Reagent pack valproic acid were adopted to draw the drug-time curve and thepharmacokinetic parameters of the two groups were self-eross-compared. All date were processed with computer pharmacokineticsoftware 3P97. Results: All pharmacokinetic parameters of group 2 were significantly superior than those of group 1(P<0.05). Thevalue of A was increased from 65.86 (group 1) to 116.37 (group 2) (P<0.01). The area under the curve was increased from 6478.32(group 1) to 10202.55 (group 2). The value of Ka was increased from 0.067 (group l) to 0.1414 (group 2) (P<0.05), tp2 (Ka) wasadvanced from 11.92 (group 1) to 6.93 (group 2) (P<0.05). Tpeak was advanced from 44.73 (group 1) to 27.51 (group 2), Cmax wasincreased from 46.89 (group 1) to 87.66 (group 2) (P<0.05). The bioavailability ratio of the two groups were 1:1.57. Conclusion: Theactivating blood and dissolving stasis of drug Nan-an can significantly stimulate the absorption of anti-epilepsy drug VPA-Mg. Thisstudy by method of ECP proved that Chinese drug can significantly improve the blood circulation and stimulate the absorption of otherdrugs in treatment of epilepsy.

  11. Uncovering History for Future History Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    The art of history teaching is at a crossroads. Recent scholarship focuses on the need to change the teaching of history so students can better learn history, and insists that history teachers must move beyond traditional structures and methods of teaching in order to improve their students' abilities to think with history. This article presents…

  12. Ildens historier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Henrik Roesgaard

    In December 2012 a manuscript entitled "Tællelyset" ['The Tallow Candle'] was discovered in an archive. The story was subsequently presented to the world as Hans Christian Andersen's first fairy tale and rather bombastically celebrated as such. In this book it is demonstrated that the text cannot...... from a point-by-point tracing of 'the origins and history' of Hans Christian Andersen's famous fairy tales. Where did the come from? How did they become the iconic texts that we know today? On this background it becomes quite clear that "Tællelyset" is a modern pastiche and not a genuine Hans Christian...... Andersen fairy tale....

  13. Marcadores bioquímicos en el estudio de la progresión de las metástasis óseas en cáncer de pulmón y de mama: modelo traslacional y clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Fernández, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Bioquímica. Fecha de lectura: 04//07/2014 El esqueleto representa un sitio preferente de metástasis en una variedad de tumores sólidos. Las metástasis óseas afectan gravemente a la calidad de vida y supervivencia de los pacientes. El conocimiento de su extensión y desarrollo es de gran importancia para el clínico. Las metástasis óseas producen alteraciones en el grado de remode...

  14. The Oxford Companion to the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Paul L.

    2001-06-01

    Here is a wealth of information on planet Earth, ranging from the heights of the ionsphere down to the red-hot molten core. Written by some 200 expert contributors, and illustrated with over 600 pictures, including 16 pages of color plates, The Oxford Companion to the Earth offers 900 alphabetically arranged entries that cover everything from deserts and wetlands to mountains, caves, glaciers, and coral reefs. There are articles on natural phenomena such as tornadoes and tsunamis, volcanoes and earthquakes, jet streams and weather fronts; on the history of Earth, including the origin of life, Burgess Shale fauna, dinosaurs, and the Ice Ages; on key figures, such as Agassiz, Cuvier, Darwin, and Lamarck; and on such important ecological concerns as acid rain, the ozone layer, industrial waste disposal, and the greenhouse effect. The Companion also examines the great sources of wealth to be found in the Earth, from coal and oil to gold, silver, and diamonds, and many curious land formations, from sinkholes and fiords to yardangs and quicksand. There are brief entries on rock types, from amber to travertine, and extensive essays on cutting-edge aspects of the earth sciences, such as seismology and marine geology. The Companion includes extensive cross-references, suggested further reading, an index, and many useful appendices, with a geological timescale, facts and figures about the Earth, and a table of chemical elements. The Oxford Companion to the Earth is a unique reference work, offering unrivaled coverage of our home planet. Generously illustrated and vividly written, it is a treasure house of information for all lovers of natural history, geology, and ecology, whether professional or amateur.

  15. a Walk Through Earth's Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, B. D.; Turrin, M.

    2012-12-01

    After "What is this rock?" the most common questions that is asked of Geologists is "How old is this rock/fossil?" For geologists considering ages back to millions of years is routine. Sorting and cataloguing events into temporal sequences is a natural tendency for all humans. In fact, it is an everyday activity for humans, i.e., keeping track of birthdays, anniversaries, appointments, meetings, AGU abstract deadlines etc… However, the time frames that are most familiar to the non scientist (seconds, minutes, hours, days, years) generally extend to only a few decades or at most centuries. Yet the vast length of time covered by Earth's history, 4.56 billion years, greatly exceeds these timeframes and thus is commonly referred to as "Deep Time". This is a challenging concept for most students to comprehend as it involves temporal and abstract thinking, yet it is key to their successful understanding of numerous geologic principles. We have developed an outdoor learning activity for general Introductory Earth Science courses that incorporates several scientific and geologic concepts such as: linear distance or stratigraphic thickness representing time, learning about major events in Earth's history and locating them in a scaled temporal framework, field mapping, abstract thinking, scaling and dimensional analysis, and the principles of radio isotopic dating. The only supplies needed are readily available in local hardware stores i.e. a 300 ft. surveyor's tape marked in feet, and tenths and hundredths of a foot, and the student's own introductory geology textbook. The exercise employs a variety of pedagogical learning modalities, including traditional lecture-based, the use of Art/Drawing, use of Visualization, Collaborative learning, and Kinesthetic and Experiential learning. Initially the students are exposed to the concept of "Deep Time" in a short conventional introductory lecture; this is followed by a 'field day'. Prior to the field exercise, students work with

  16. A brief history of stratospheric ozone research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Müller

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone is one of the most important trace species in the atmosphere. Therefore, the history of research on ozone has also received a good deal of attention. Here a short overview of ozone research (with a focus on the stratosphere is given, starting from the first atmospheric measurements and ending with current developments. It is valuable to study the history of ozone research, because much can be learned for current research from an understanding of how previous discoveries were made. Moreover, since the 1970s, the history of ozone research has also encompassed also the history of the human impact on the ozone layer and thus the history of policy measures taken to protect the ozone layer, notably the Montreal Protocol and its amendments and adjustments. The history of this development is particularly important because it may serve as a prototype for the development of policy measures for the protection of the Earth's climate.

  17. The Earth's Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Edda Lína Gunnarsdóttir 1988

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field is essential for life on Earth, as we know it, to exist. It forms a magnetic shield around the planet, protecting it from high energy particles and radiation from the Sun, which can cause damage to life, power systems, orbiting satellites, astronauts and spacecrafts. This report contains a general overview of the Earth's magnetic field. The different sources that contribute to the total magnetic field are presented and the diverse variations in the field are describ...

  18. Earth from Space: The Power of Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalati, W.

    2016-12-01

    Throughout history, humans have always valued the view from above, seeking high ground to survey the land, find food, assess threats, and understand their immediate environment. The advent of aircraft early in the 20th century took this capability literally to new levels, as aerial photos of farm lands, hazards, military threats, etc. provided new opportunities for security and prosperity. And in 1960, with the launch of the first weather satellite, TIROS, we came to know our world in ways that were not possible before, as we saw the Earth as a system of interacting components. In the decades since, our ability to understand the Earth System and its dynamic components has been transformed profoundly and repeatedly by satellite observations. From examining changes in sea level, to deformation of the Earth surface, to ozone depletion, to the Earth's energy balance, satellites have helped us understand our changing planet in ways that would not have otherwise been possible. The challenge moving forward is to continue to evolve beyond watching Earth processes unfold and understanding the underlying mechanisms of change, to anticipating future conditions, more comprehensively than we do today, for the benefit of society. The capabilities to do so are well within our reach, and with appropriate investments in observing systems, research, and activities that support translating observations into societal value, we can realize the full potential of this tremendous space-based perspective. Doing so will not just change our views of the Earth, but will improve our relationship with it.

  19. Effects of Qi Deficiency and Blood Stasis Syndrome after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention on Antithrombotic Therapy%冠脉介入术后气虚血瘀证对抗栓疗效的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娅; 陈慧; 李灿东; 吴红霞; 林云钗

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the effects of qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome after Percutaneous Coronary Interven tion PCI) on antithrombotic therapy. Methods; We adopted 123 CHD patients after receiving successful PCI. After 7 days of stand ard antithrombotic therapy, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) syndromes were differentiated into qi - deficiency blood - stasis type and non - qi - deficiency blood - stasis type. All patients were detected platelet count ( PLT) , maximum platelet aggregation rate( MPA) , plasma von Willebrand factor(vWF) >platelet membrane glycoproteins II b/II! A ( GP II b/IE a) , prothrombin frag mentl + 2 ( Fl + 2 ) and fibrinogen ( Fg ) . Results; Compared with the non - qi - deficiency blood - stasis group after PCI, the MPA ^ vWF and GP II b/ IH a were obviously higher in qi - deficiency blood - stasis group (P 0.05). Conclusion:Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome after PCI affected platelete activation and ndothelial function on standard antithrombotic therapy,whereas the number of blood platelet and coagulation function were not.%目的:探讨经皮冠状动脉介入(PCI)术后气虚血瘀证对抗栓疗效的影响.方法:123例行PCI成功的冠心痛患者进行术后规范抗栓治疗,根据术后1周是否有气虚血瘀证表型分为气虚血瘀组(49例)和非气虚血瘀组(74例),同时采血检测血小板计数(PLT)、最大血小板聚集率(MPA)、血浆遗传性假血友病因子(vWF)、血小板膜糖蛋白Ⅱb/Ⅲa( GPⅡb/Ⅲa)、凝血酶原片段1+2(F1 +2)和纤维蛋白原(Fg).结果:PCI术后气虚血瘀组MPA、vWF、GPⅡb/Ⅲa高于非气虚血瘀组(P<0.05),而PLT、F(1+2)和Fg两组间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:在PCI术后强化抗栓治疗的基础上,气虚血瘀证仍然存在明显的血小板活化和血管内皮损伤,但不影响血小板数量和凝血功能.

  20. “治血四法”用于慢性肾病血瘀证的治疗%“Four Methods for Blood Diseases”Applied in Blood Stasis in Chronic Nephrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘怡

    2015-01-01

    [目的]探讨慢性肾病血瘀证的治疗。[方法]通过对唐容川“治血四法”的深入研究,结合笔者的临床实践,研究“治血四法”在慢性肾病血瘀证中的应用。[结果]血瘀是慢性肾病的基本病因病机和证候之一,出血时以止血为第一要法;重视血瘀的微观辨证,消瘀活血以绝后患;针对病因,宁血防血复动;最后补血扶正以善后收功。[结论]瘀血贯穿慢性肾病始终,灵活运用“治血四法”,可达到标本同治,正本清源的目的,值得临床推广。%Objective] To discuss the treatment of blood stasis in chronic nephrosis. [Method] With deep study on Tang Rongchuang ’s“four methods for blood diseases”, by combining with author’s clinical practice, it studies the application of it in stasis of chronic nephrosis. [Result] Blood stasis is one of basic pathogenesis and syndromes;hemostasis is the first method for bleeding, paying attention to micro-differentiation of signs of stasis, avoiding the later troubles by removing stasis to activate blood circulation, pointing to the causa morbi, tranquilizing blood to prevent over-active blood, finally tonifying blood to support the essence for good result. [Conclusion] The blood stasis runs through the chronic nephrosis; to smartly apply the “four methods for blood diseases”can be the aim of the simultaneous treatment of principal and subordinate symptoms and radically reforming, worth clinical application.

  1. Near Earth Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    , Near Earth Objects: Asteroids and comets following paths that bring them near the Earth. NEOs have collided with the Earth since its formation, some causing local devastation, some causing global climate changes, yet the threat from a collision with a near Earth object has only recently been recognised...... of starlight by the Sun, and therefore directly observe the structure of space-time. This thesis explores several aspects of the observation of NEOs with Gaia, emphasising detection of NEOs and the quality of orbits computed from Gaia observations. The main contribution is the work on motion detection...

  2. Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Zaki; Lamb, Christopher A.; Ross, Shane D.

    2012-12-01

    The list of detected near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) is constantly growing. NEAs are likely targets for resources to support space industrialization, as they may be the least expensive source of certain needed raw materials. The limited supply of precious metals and semiconducting elements on Earth may be supplemented or even replaced by the reserves floating in the form of asteroids around the solar system. Precious metals make up a significant fraction NEAs by mass, and even one metallic asteroid of ˜1km size and fair enrichment in platinum-group metals would contain twice the tonnage of such metals already harvested on Earth. There are ˜1000 NEAs with a diameter of greater than 1 km. Capturing these asteroids around the Earth would expand the mining industry into an entirely new dimension. Having such resources within easy reach in Earth's orbit could provide an off-world environmentally friendly remedy for impending terrestrial shortages, especially given the need for raw materials in developing nations. In this paper, we develop and implement a conceptually simple algorithm to determine trajectory characteristics necessary to move NEAs into capture orbits around the Earth. Altered trajectories of asteroids are calculated using an ephemeris model. Only asteroids of eccentricity less than 0.1 have been studied and the model is restricted to the ecliptic plane for simplicity. We constrain the time of retrieval to be 10 years or less, based on considerations of the time to return on investment. For the heliocentric phase, constant acceleration is assumed. The acceleration required for transporting these asteroids from their undisturbed orbits to the sphere of influence of the Earth is the primary output, along with the impulse or acceleration necessary to effect capture to a bound orbit once the Earth's sphere of influence is reached. The initial guess for the constant acceleration is provided by a new estimation method, similar in spirit to Edelbaum's. Based on the

  3. Earth System Oxygenation: Toward an Integrated Theory of Earth Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    The cause of the progressive oxygenation of Earth's biosphere remains poorly understood. The problem is bounded by the interplay of three irreversible, secular changes: the escape of H to space, which makes the planet more oxidized; the evolution of photoautotrophy - which converts solar energy into redox disequilbrium - and related metabolisms; and the cooling of the planet, which affects the exchange of material between Earth's reduced interior and relatively oxidized surface through a variety of processes. The first of these changes is quantitatively considered elsewhere, and is connected to the other two because H escape depends on atmospheric H2 and CH4 contents. The second of these changes is an area of vigorous research, particularly over the past decade. Important work included efforts to constrain the timing of key evolutionary events using organic geochemical and genomic records, and to understand the timing and tempo of environmental oxidation, particularly preceding the "Great Oxidation Event" (GOE) at ~2.4 Ga. As the community sorts through various debates, evidence is accumulating that the pre-GOE period was a dynamic era of transient "whiffs" of oxidation, most likely due to small amounts of biogenic O2 that appeared as early as ~3.0 Ga. The implication is that O2 sinks generally overwhelmed substantial O2 sources through the first half of Earth history, and that a decrease in sink strength and/or increase in source strength could have resulted in increasing instability of trace pO2 in the runup to the GOE. The most likely sinks are coupled to reductants in Earth's interior, which leads us to the third major change—secular cooling of the planet. It is almost certain that this cooling led to changes in mantle dynamics, rates of plate motion, and melting behaviors, which in turn affected volcanism, crust composition, hydrothermal and metamorphic alteration, ocean nutrient budgets, and recycling at subduction zones. These factors have all been

  4. Giant Impacts on Earth-Like Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Earth has experienced a large number of impacts, from the cratering events that may have caused mass extinctions to the enormous impact believed to have formed the Moon. A new study examines whether our planets impact history is typical for Earth-like worlds.N-Body ChallengesTimeline placing the authors simulations in context of the history of our solar system (click for a closer look). [Quintana et al. 2016]The final stages of terrestrial planet formation are thought to be dominated by giant impacts of bodies in the protoplanetary disk. During this stage, protoplanets smash into one another and accrete, greatly influencing the growth, composition, and habitability of the final planets.There are two major challenges when simulating this N-body planet formation. The first is fragmentation: since computational time scales as N^2, simulating lots of bodies that split into many more bodies is very computationally intensive. For this reason, fragmentation is usually ignored; simulations instead assume perfect accretion during collisions.Total number of bodies remaining within the authors simulations over time, with fragmentation included (grey) and ignored (red). Both simulations result in the same final number of bodies, but the ones that include fragmentation take more time to reach that final number. [Quintana et al. 2016]The second challengeis that many-body systems are chaotic, which means its necessary to do a large number of simulations to make statistical statements about outcomes.Adding FragmentationA team of scientists led by Elisa Quintana (NASA NPP Senior Fellow at the Ames Research Center) has recently pushed at these challenges by modeling inner-planet formation using a code that does include fragmentation. The team ran 140 simulations with and 140 without the effects of fragmentation using similar initial conditions to understand how including fragmentation affects the outcome.Quintana and collaborators then used the fragmentation-inclusive simulations to

  5. Public History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gouveia de Oliveira Rovai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como proposta apresentar o conceito e as práticas de História Pública como um novo posicionamento da ciência histórica em diálogo com profissionais da comunicação, no sentido de produzir e divulgar as experiências humanas. Para isso, discute-se a origem do conceito de História Pública e as diferentes formas de educação histórica que a utilização das novas tecnologias podem proporcionar (dentre elas a internet. Nesse sentido, convida-se o leitor para a reflexão sobre as possibilidades de publicização e de democratização do conhecimento histórico e da cultura, ampliando-se a oportunidade de produção, de divulgação e de acesso do público a diferentes formas experiências no tempo. O artigo também intenciona chamar atenção dos profissionais que lidam com a História e com a Comunicação para os perigos de produções exclusivamente submetidas ao mercado que transformam a popularização da História no reforço de estigmas culturais.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: História Pública; Educação histórica e Comunicação; democratização e estigmatização.     ABSTRACT This article aims to present the concept and practices of Public History as a new positioning of historical science in dialogue with communication professionals, in the sense of producing and disseminating human experiences. For this, the origin of the concept of Public History and the different forms of historical education that the use of the new technologies can provide (among them the Internet is discussed. In this sense, the reader is invited to reflect on the possibilities of publicizing and democratizing historical knowledge and culture, expanding the opportunity for production, dissemination and public access to different forms of experience in time. The article also intends to draw attention from professionals dealing with History and Communication to the dangers of exclusively commercialized productions that transform the popularization

  6. 维持性血液透析患者血瘀证积分与 ET、NO 的相关性研究%Research on the correlation between blood stasis scores and ET, NO of the maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐万忠; 李思; 张昱

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between ET, NO and the formation of the blood stasis syndrome and the scores. Methods: 80 cases of blood stasis syndrome were selected to detect the levels of ET and NO by the euzymelinked immunosorbent assay, and the scores were calculated. Another 40 cases without blood stasis syndrome were selected as the control group. Results: The level of ET in the blood stasis group was higher than that in the non-blood stasis group. The level of NO in the blood stasis group was lower than that in the non-blood stasis group. The correlations between the points of the blood stasis and ET, NO had significant differences. The points of blood stasis was only positive correlated to ET by the regression analysis (P<0.01). Conclusion: The level of ET, NO were correlation to the scores of blood stasis. ET was positively correlated to the scores of blood stasis.%  目的:探寻慢性肾衰竭维持性血液透析患者血瘀证及积分与 ET、NO 的关系.方法:选取维持性血液透析血瘀证患者80例,检测透析前患者血 ET、NO 值,并计算血瘀证积分,非血瘀证患者40例作为对照.结果:血瘀证组 ET、ET/NO 值高于非血瘀证组(P<0.05),NO 值显著低于非血瘀证(P<0.01);血瘀证积分与 ET、NO 有相关性(P<0.05);与 ET 值呈正相关关系(P<0.01).结论:血液透析患者血瘀证积分与 ET 呈正相关关系,可以根据血瘀证积分判断患者内皮损伤和凝血功能的情况.

  7. History Matching: Towards Geologically Reasonable Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melnikova, Yulia; Cordua, Knud Skou; Mosegaard, Klaus

    This work focuses on the development of a new method for history matching problem that through a deterministic search finds a geologically feasible solution. Complex geology is taken into account evaluating multiple point statistics from earth model prototypes - training images. Further a functio...

  8. The Past and Present of Environmental History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Alfred W.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, although 18th-Century historians understand the significance of environmental influences, the concept of environmental history did not emerge until the mid-1900s. Discusses the influence of Earth Day, Rachel Carson's "Silent Spring," and the landing of humans on the moon. (CFR)

  9. The Future of History and History Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commager, Henry Steele

    1983-01-01

    Technical history, a quantitative record of history strengthened by new techniques in mathematics, computer science, and other fields has advantages over former approaches to history--history as philosophy and historical theology. For example, it makes available more source materials. However, it has drawbacks, e.g., it directs research to highly…

  10. The Future of History and History Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commager, Henry Steele

    1983-01-01

    Technical history, a quantitative record of history strengthened by new techniques in mathematics, computer science, and other fields has advantages over former approaches to history--history as philosophy and historical theology. For example, it makes available more source materials. However, it has drawbacks, e.g., it directs research to highly…

  11. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  12. The Earth's Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanloz, Raymond

    1983-01-01

    The nature of the earth's core is described. Indirect evidence (such as that determined from seismological data) indicates that it is an iron alloy, solid toward its center but otherwise liquid. Evidence also suggests that it is the turbulent flow of the liquid that generates the earth's magnetic field. (JN)

  13. Composition of The Essential Oil From Danggui-zhiqiao Herb-Pair and Its Analgesic Activity and Effect on Hemorheology in Rats With Blood Stasis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanqing; Yan, Jianye; Li, Shunxiang; Wang, Wei; Cai, Xiong; Huang, Dan; Gong, Limin; Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Angelica sinensis and Aurantii fructu used in a pair, named Danggui-Zhiqiao herb-pair (DZHP), which was rich in essential oil and has been adopted to promote blood circulation, dispel blood stasis, and relieve pain in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Objective: To analyze the composition and pharmacological effects of essential oil from DZHP Materials and Methods: The composition of the essential oil from DZHP was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Its analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing test and hot plate test. The hemorheology test was carried out to evaluate the effect on hemorheology in rats with blood stasis syndrome Results: Twenty-eight components were identified and the main components were α-pinene (3.07%), β-pinene (2.0%), β-myrcene (3.71%), D-limonene (49.28%), γ-terpinen (9.53%), α-terpinolene (1.80%), α-terpineol (2.02%), β-bisabolene (1.13%), butylidenephthalide (1.43%), and Z-ligustilide (16.08%). The pharmacology test showed that the essential oil significantly inhibited the number of writhes induced by acetic acid with inhibition rate of 44.64% and significantly increased hot-plate latency compared with control group from 30 to 90 min after oral administration of drugs in mice. It could significantly decrease plasma viscosity, whole blood relative index at high and low shear rate, whole blood reduced viscosity at high and low shear rate, and erythrocyte rigidity index in hemorheology test Conclusion: The composition of the essential oil of DZHP was determined successfully and it had analgesic and promoting blood circulation activities. SUMMARY Angelica sinensis and Aurantii fructu used in a pair, named Danggui-Zhiqiao herb-pair (DZHP), which was rich in Essential oil and has been adopted to promote blood circulation, dispel blood stasis and relieve pain in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).Twenty-eight components were identified and the main components were α-pinene (3

  14. Samario-153-Lexidronam (EDTMP en el tratamiento de las metástasis óseas Samarium-153-Lexidronam (EDTMP for the management of bone metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Torre

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Las metástasis óseas son una complicación frecuente en pacientes neoplásicos, en este sentido, el tejido óseo ocupa el tercer lugar de todos los órganos y sistemas con metástasis después del pulmón e hígado. Aproximadamente un 75% de los enfermos con metástasis óseas sufrirán dolor, siendo estas la causa más frecuente de dolor en pacientes con cáncer. El dolor óseo aumenta con los movimientos y a la presión, limitando la autonomía del enfermo y su calidad de vida. El tratamiento incluye varios abordajes terapéuticos complementarios entre sí, como AINE, opiáceos, bifosfonatos, radioterapia, radioisótopos, cirugía y técnicas intervencionistas. Presentamos dos casos clínicos, el primero una mujer diagnosticada de carcinoma de mama y el segundo un hombre con adenocarcinoma de próstata y carcinoma vesical, ambos casos con diseminación metastásica ósea. Ante la persistencia del dolor y la dificultad en su control fueron tratados con Samario-Lexidronam (Sm-153, Quadramet® con resultados satisfactorios. Se consiguió disminuir el dolor, también el descenso en el consumo de opiáceos a pesar de la progresión de la enfermedad. El Sm-153 es un radioisótopo emisor de radiaciones beta y gamma. Presenta una semivida física corta, una alta afinidad por el esqueleto óseo y una eliminación urinaria. El alivio del dolor es del 65-80%, el inicio de la analgesia es rápido y la duración de esta es de 8 a 12 semanas con escasos efectos secundarios.Bone metastases are a frequent complication in cancer patients. Bone tissue ranks third, after lung and liver, of all the organs and systems with metastases. Approximately 75 per cent of patients with bone metastases will suffer pain, this being the most frequent cause of pain in cancer patients. Bone pain increases with movement and pressure, restricting patient autonomy and quality of life. The treatment includes several complementary therapeutic regimes: NSAIs, opiates

  15. Mapping Near-Earth Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    How can we hunt down all the near-Earth asteroids that are capable of posing a threat to us? A new study looks at whether the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is up to the job.Charting Nearby ThreatsLSST is an 8.4-m wide-survey telescope currently being built in Chile. When it goes online in 2022, it will spend the next ten years surveying our sky, mapping tens of billions of stars and galaxies, searching for signatures of dark energy and dark matter, and hunting for transient optical events like novae and supernovae. But in its scanning, LSST will also be looking for asteroids that approach near Earth.Cumulative number of near-Earth asteroids discovered over time, as of June 16, 2016. [NASA/JPL/Chamberlin]Near-Earth objects (NEOs) have the potential to be hazardous if they cross Earths path and are large enough to do significant damage when they impact Earth. Earths history is riddled with dangerous asteroid encounters, including the recent Chelyabinsk airburst in 2013, the encounter that caused the kilometer-sized Meteor Crater in Arizona, and the impact thought to contribute to the extinction of the dinosaurs.Recognizing the potential danger that NEOs can pose to Earth, Congress has tasked NASA with tracking down 90% of NEOs larger than 140 meters in diameter. With our current survey capabilities, we believe weve discovered roughly 25% of these NEOs thus far. Now a new study led by Tommy Grav (Planetary Science Institute) examines whether LSST will be able to complete this task.Absolute magnitude, H, of asynthetic NEO population. Though these NEOs are all larger than 140 m, they have a large spread in albedos. [Grav et al. 2016]Can LSST Help?Based on previous observations of NEOs and resulting predictions for NEO properties and orbits, Grav and collaborators simulate a synthetic population of NEOs all above 140 m in size. With these improved population models, they demonstrate that the common tactic of using an asteroids absolute magnitude as a

  16. Solid Earth: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, R.

    1991-10-01

    The principles of the solid Earth program are introduced. When considering the study of solid Earth from space, satellites are used as beacons, inertial references, free fall probes and carrying platforms. The phenomenon measured by these satellites and the processes which can be studied as a result of these measurements are tabulated. The NASA solid Earth program focusses on research into surface kinematics, Earth rotation, land, ice, and ocean monitoring. The ESA solid Earth program identifies as its priority the Aristoteles mission for determining the gravity and magnetic field globally, with high spatial resolution and high accuracy. The Aristoteles mission characteristics and goals are listed. The benefits of the improved gravity information that will be provided by this mission are highlighted. This information will help in the following research: geodesy, orbit mechanics, geodynamics, oceanography, climate sea level, and the atmosphere.

  17. Theoretical discussion on promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis therapy for restless leg syndrome%活血化瘀法治疗不宁腿综合征的理论探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵阳; 刁倩; 李涛

    2012-01-01

    传统治疗思路认为具有柔肝养阴、缓急止痛作用的芍药甘草汤是治疗不宁腿综合征(restless legs syndrome,RLS)的有效方剂.但笔者通过临床实践、结合古代文献及中医药理论认为,血脉瘀阻是RLS的主要病机,活血化瘀应是治疗RLS的核心疗法.%Peony and Licorice Decoction was effective in treating Restless leg syndrome(RLS) with the function of nourishing yin for softening liver,relaxing spasm and relieving pain.Clinical practice,ancient literature and Chinese medicine theory were comprehensively studied to conclude that blood stasis is the key cause of RLS.Promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis was the crucial therapy for RLS.

  18. Relationship between Platelet Activation Related Factors and Polymorphism of Related Genes in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease of Blood-stasis Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Mei; CHEN Ke-ji; YIN Hui-jun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To comparatively study the expressive conditions of platelet activation related factors (GP Ⅰ b, GP Ⅱ b-Ⅲ a and GMP-140) in healthy subjects and patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) of blood-stasis (BS) or non-blood-stasis (non-BS) syndrome, and to analyze the relationship between the activities of various glycoproteins and the polymorphism of genes. Methods: With case control design adopted, patients with the CHD (40 of BS, 37 of non-BS) and 39 healthy subjects for control, all fitting to the inclusion criteria, were selected in this study. The number of affected coronary branches was recorded by the contrast examination. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of GP Ⅰ b, GP Ⅱ b-Ⅲ a, and GMP-140 (CD42b, CD61, CD62p) in patients and healthy persons was measured with flow cytometry, the polymorphism of HPA-3 gene was detected by Taqman probe technique and that of HPA-2 gene was determined by gene sequencing. Results: MFI of CD61 and CD62p was higher in the CHD patients than in the healthy control, which was also higher in patients of BS syndrome than in patients of non-BS syndrome (P0.05); at the same time, no significant difference of all the above-mentioned three MFI could be found in patients with various numbers of affected coronary branches, neither in patients with different genotypes at GP Ⅱ b HPA-3 and GP Ⅰ b HPA-2 polymorphism loci (P>0.05). Conclusion: (1) The activities of GP Ⅱ b-Ⅲ a and GMP-140 were obviously increased in the genesis and developing process of CHD and CHD of BS syndrome, and so they could be taken as one of the objective indexes for microscopic diagnosis of BS syndrome. (2) The level of GP Ⅰ b was lower in CHD patients than in healthy persons, but it was not a sensitive indicator for BS syndrome of CHD. (3) Levels of GP Ⅱ b-Ⅲ a, GP Ⅰ b and GMP-140 were not related with the number of affected coronary branches in CHD patients. (4) The changes in amino-acids expression induced by the two loci

  19. Comparison of the Two Modeling Methonds for Qi Stagnation and Blood Stasis%两种气滞血瘀证造模方法的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷婷; 贾乘; 宁天一; 姜静; 程嘉艺

    2013-01-01

    To compare methods of rat modeling for Qi stagnation and blood stasis for serving the experimental of etiological factors and pathogenesis. Methods; Apply various stimulations such as noise, light, electricity, tail - clamping, icewater - bath,bondage and adrenaline injection to establish the rat mode. Adopt the pressure sensing technology of MOTO to detect hemorheology - related indicators, use the coagulation method to detect coagulation - related indicators. Results: In hemorheology, compared with the negative control group, the viscosity of whole blood of high, medium, low shear and plasma viscosity increased in the multi - factor stimulation group (P < 0. 05). The viscosity of whole blood of high shear and plasma viscosity increased in the adrenaline injection group (P <0. 05). The fibrinogen content in blood coagulation indicated significant increase in both group(P <0. 05). Conclusion; Both multi -factor stimulation and adrenaline injection can lead to blood stasis. Adrenaline injection method can be convenient and easy. Multi - factor stimulation group relatively conform the theory of etiology and pathogenesis.%目的:比较两种大鼠气滞血瘀证模型的建立方法,为研究气滞血瘀病因病机提供实验基础.方法:分别采用声光电、夹尾、束缚、冰水浴多种刺激联合应用及肾上腺素注射的方法造模.采用MOTO压力传感技术检测血液流变学相关指标,采用凝固法检测凝血四项相关指标.结果:与空白对照组相比,多因素刺激组大鼠血液流变学指标中全血高、中、低切粘度与血浆黏度均显著升高(P<0.05),肾上腺素组大鼠全血高切粘度与血浆黏度显著升高(P<0.05);两组大鼠凝血四项指标中纤维蛋白原含量均显著升高(P<0.01).结论:多因素刺激与肾上腺素注射法均能导致动物出现血瘀状态,肾上腺素注射法方便易行,多因素刺激组较符合中医病因病机理论.

  20. 补肾祛瘀法治疗先兆流产的研究进展%Research progress of invigorating the kidney and removing blood stasis on the treatment of threatened abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚文姣; 罗纳新

    2015-01-01

    先兆流产是孕期最常见的一种并发症,据流行病学调查其发病率高达10%~15%,属于中医学中的"胎漏、胎动不安"、"妊娠腹痛"等范畴.导致胎漏、胎动不安的主要病机是冲任受损、胎元不固.常见分型有肾虚、血热、气血虚弱和血瘀型[1].但临床上以肾虚血瘀型最为常见,现就近年来临床上用补肾祛瘀法治疗肾虚血瘀型先兆流产的研究进展作综述.%Threatened abortion is a complication of pregnancy is the most common, according to the epidemiological survey of the incidence rate of up to 10% ~ 15%, which belongs to in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) "tire leakage, disturbed fetal movement", "abdominal pain in pregnancy" category. Result the main pathogenesis of fetal leakage, fetal irritability is damaged, not solid Taiyuan chongren. Common types of kidney deficiency, blood heat, Qi and blood deficiency and blood stasis type [1]. But clinical to kidney deficiency and blood stasis type is most common, now in recent years come bed with the research progress of threatened abortion with tonifying kidney and removing blood stasis method treatment of kidney deficiency and blood stasis are reviewed.

  1. Clinical Experience in Treating Pregnancy Uterine Cavity Effusion by Tonifying Kidney to Remove Blood Stasis%补肾祛瘀法治疗妊娠宫腔积液临床体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓芳; 楼凯凌

    2016-01-01

    Objective]To explore clinical experience in treating pregnancy uterine cavity effusion by tonifying kidney to remove blood stasis. [Method] With the study of TCM literature on pregnancy uterine cavity effusion, by combining with clinical practice, it expounds pathogenesis and treatment of syndrome differentiation of pregnancy uterine cavity effusion. [Result]The main pathogenesis of this disease focuses on kidney deficiency and blood stasis which can impair Chong and Ren channels,inducing insecurity of the fetal origin,so the clinical treatment principle centers on tonifying kidney to remove blood stasis,and the self-decoction that is the basic recipe may change with symptom, making the fetal origin secure. [Conclusion] Method of tonifying kidney to remove blood stasis is quite effective for pregnancy uterine cavity effusion in clinic,and it is worth further study.%[目的]探讨补肾祛瘀法治疗妊娠宫腔积液的临床体会。[方法]通过研习有关妊娠宫腔积液的中医文献,并结合临床实践,论述妊娠宫腔积液的发病机理和辨证论治。[结果]妊娠宫腔积液的主要病机以肾虚为本,血瘀为标,肾虚夹瘀,冲任受损,胎元不固,临床治疗以“补肾祛瘀”为大法,并以自拟方为基本方,随症加减治疗,使肾旺血充,胎元稳固。[结论]临床上采用补肾祛瘀法治疗妊娠宫腔积液疗效确切,值得进一步深入研究。

  2. Anti-aging Decoction Influence Kidney Aging-concerned Gene Expression of Rats of Blood Stasis%抗衰汤对血瘀证大鼠肾脏衰老相关基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何赛萍; 徐莉

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨血瘀与衰老的相关性、抗衰汤抗衰老的分子生物学机制,以利中药抗衰老制剂的开发.[方法]使用基因芯片技术,确定血瘀影响的衰老基因表达,并考核抗衰汤对血瘀证大鼠衰老相关基因表达谱的影响.[结果]确定16个基因为与血瘀相关的衰老基因,但其表达水平受到抗衰汤用药的影响.[结论]抗衰汤对与血瘀相关的衰老基因有明显地调控作用,血瘀是导致衰老的关键因素之一.%[Objective] To explore relativity between blood stasis and aging, molecular mechanism of Anti-aging Decoction, for development of anti-aging TCM preparation. [Method] Apply gene chip technology, define aging gene expression affected by blood stasis, check the influence of Anti-aging Decoction on senile rats' concerned gene expression spectrum. [Result] It defines that 16 genes are related with aging, while the expression level is influenced with Anti-aging Decoction application. [Conclusion] Anti-aging Decoction has marked regulation to senile gene related with blood stasis; blood stasis is one key factor of senium.

  3. Treatment of LDs induced by HAART with a view of the phlegm and blood stasis in TCM%从痰瘀论治HAART致脂肪代谢障碍综合征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓伟; 李强; 蒋自强; 郭会军

    2011-01-01

    Lipodystrophy syndrome is the common side effects of highly active anti-retroviral therapy, it is a broad term that refers to a variety of body shape changes and metabolic abnormalities, such as fat accumulation、 lipoatrophy、 insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, etc. It can be understood that a state of the phlegm and blood stasis in TCM, the main pathogenesis of lipodystrophy syndrome is Qi stagnation, phlegm and blood stasis, the phlegm and blood stasis is the pathological changes throughout the process of the disease. The treatment should be activating blood and resolving stasis, soothing liver and relieving depression, tonifying qi and removing toxin and pay attention to nursing the Stomach-qi.%脂肪代谢障碍综合征是艾滋病患者使用抗逆转录病毒治疗后常见的副反应,它涉及脂肪重新分布和代谢障碍等内容,脂肪重新分布又包括脂肪沉积和脂肪萎缩两部分内容,代谢障碍即代谢综合征或经X综合征主要指胰岛素抵抗、高血脂等.中医从痰、瘀角度来认识此病,气机郁滞、痰凝水聚、瘀血阻痹是主要病机变化过程,痰浊、瘀血贯穿在整个病理变化过程中.治疗当从祛痰化瘀、疏肝解郁、益气解毒之法,并注意顾护胃气.

  4. Earth Science Education in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kevin L.

    1999-05-01

    Zimbabwe is a mineral-rich country with a long history of Earth Science Education. The establishment of a University Geology Department in 1960 allowed the country to produce its own earth science graduates. These graduates are readily absorbed by the mining industry and few are without work. Demand for places at the University is high and entry standards reflect this. Students enter the University after GCE A levels in three science subjects and most go on to graduate. Degree programmes include B.Sc. General in Geology (plus another science), B.Sc. Honours in Geology and M.Sc. in Exploration Geology and in Geophysics. The undergraduate curriculum is broad-based and increasingly vocationally orientated. A well-equipped building caters for relatively large student numbers and also houses analytical facilities used for research and teaching. Computers are used in teaching from the first year onwards. Staff are on average poorly qualified compared to other universities, but there is an impressive research element. The Department has good links with many overseas universities and external funding agencies play a strong supporting role. That said, financial constraints remain the greatest barrier to future development, although increasing links with the mining industry may cushion this.

  5. 血瘀型腰椎间盘突出症的治疗方法研究%Study on the Treatment of Blood Stasis Type of Lumbar Disc Herniation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨爱国; 高建成; 王东

    2014-01-01

    腰椎间盘突出症是临床常见病、高发病,而血瘀型是其中的一个重要分型。对于血瘀型腰椎间盘突出症的治疗,目前已有口服汤剂、针灸、推拿等多种方法,本文将着重对各种治疗方法在血瘀型腰椎间盘突出症治疗中的应用作一综述。%Lumbar disc herniation is a kind of clinical common disease as well as high incidence, while blood stasis type is one of the most important types. There are various treatment for blood stasis type of lumbar disc herniation, such as oral decoction, acupuncture, massage and the like, this pa-per focuses on summarizing the application of various treatment for blood stasis type of lumbar disc herniation.

  6. Clinical Observation on Treatment of Pediatric Bronchitis of Blood-stasis Patten with Pollen Formula%花粉配方治疗小儿瘀血型支气管炎的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昌建

    2008-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of treating pediatric blood-stasis pattern bronchitis with pollen formula.Methods 260 cases of blood-stasis pattern bronchitis was randomly recruited into a treatment group(200 eases)and a control group(60 cases).The treatment group was treated with pollen formula,and the control group was treated with Benzylpenicillin intramuscularly and Ketelin OP.Both groups were treated for a therapeutic coarse of 3 days.Results The therapeutic effect of the treatment group and the control group was 96%and 89.9%respectively.Conclusion Pollen formula was effective in treating pediatric blood-stasis pattern bronchitis.%目的 观察花粉配方治疗小儿瘀血犁支气管炎的临床疗效.方法 将260例小儿瘀血型支气管炎分为治疗组200例和对照组60例,治疗组采用花粉配方,对照组肌注青霉素和口服咳特灵,两组均3 d为1个疗程.结果 治疗组总有效率为96%,对照组总有效率为89.9%.结论 花粉配方治疗瘀血型支气管炎有效.

  7. The Earth Through Time: Implications for Searching for Habitability and Life on Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    The Earth has been both a habitable and inhabited planet for around 4 billion years, yet distant observers studying Earth at different epochs in our history would have detected substantially different and probably varying conditions. Understanding Earth's history thus has much to tell us about how to interpret observations of potentially habitable exoplanets. In this talk I will review the history of life on Earth, from the earliest microbial biosphere living under a relatively methane-rich atmosphere to the modern world of animals, plants, and atmospheric oxygen, with a focus on how observable conditions on Earth changed as the planet and its biosphere evolved. I'll discuss the implications of this history for assessing the habitability of-or presence of life on-planets around other stars.

  8. Earth as art three

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    For most of us, deserts, mountains, river valleys, coastlines even dry lakebeds are relatively familiar features of the Earth's terrestrial environment. For earth scientists, they are the focus of considerable scientific research. Viewed from a unique and unconventional perspective, Earth's geographic attributes can also be a surprising source of awe-inspiring art. That unique perspective is space. The artists for the Earth as Art Three exhibit are the Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 satellites, which orbit approximately 705 kilometers (438 miles) above the Earth's surface. While studying the images these satellites beam down daily, researchers are often struck by the sheer beauty of the scenes. Such images inspire the imagination and go beyond scientific value to remind us how stunning, intricate, and simply amazing our planet's features can be. Instead of paint, the medium for these works of art is light. But Landsat satellite sensors don't see light as human eyes do; instead, they see radiant energy reflected from Earth's surface in certain wavelengths, or bands, of red, green, blue, and infrared light. When these different bands are combined into a single image, remarkable patterns, colors, and shapes emerge. The Earth as Art Three exhibit provides fresh and inspiring glimpses of different parts of our planet's complex surface. The images in this collection were chosen solely based on their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation only for your viewing pleasure. Enjoy!

  9. Sun-Earth Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Ng, C.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.

    2010-08-01

    Sun-Earth Day is a well-coordinated series of programs, resources and events under a unique yearly theme highlighting the fundamentals of heliophysics research and missions. A menu of activities, conducted throughout the year, inspire and educate participants. Sun-Earth Day itself can vary in date, but usually is identified by a celebration on or near the spring equinox. Through the Sun-Earth Day framework we have been able to offer a series of coordinated events that promote and highlight the Sun, its connection to Earth and the other planets. Sun-Earth Day events are hosted by educators, museums, amateur astronomers and scientists and occur at schools, community groups, parks, planetaria and science centers around the globe. Sun-Earth Day raises the awareness and knowledge of formal and informal education audiences concerning space weather and heliophysics. By building on the success of Sun-Earth Day yearly celebrations, we seek to affect people of all backgrounds and ages with the wonders of heliophysics science, discovery, and exploration in ways that are both tangible and meaningful to their lives.

  10. Accretion of the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canup, Robin M

    2008-11-28

    The origin of the Earth and its Moon has been the focus of an enormous body of research. In this paper I review some of the current models of terrestrial planet accretion, and discuss assumptions common to most works that may require re-examination. Density-wave interactions between growing planets and the gas nebula may help to explain the current near-circular orbits of the Earth and Venus, and may result in large-scale radial migration of proto-planetary embryos. Migration would weaken the link between the present locations of the planets and the original provenance of the material that formed them. Fragmentation can potentially lead to faster accretion and could also damp final planet orbital eccentricities. The Moon-forming impact is believed to be the final major event in the Earth's accretion. Successful simulations of lunar-forming impacts involve a differentiated impactor containing between 0.1 and 0.2 Earth masses, an impact angle near 45 degrees and an impact speed within 10 per cent of the Earth's escape velocity. All successful impacts-with or without pre-impact rotation-imply that the Moon formed primarily from material originating from the impactor rather than from the proto-Earth. This must ultimately be reconciled with compositional similarities between the Earth and the Moon.

  11. Earth Science Informatics - Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes over 180 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies.

  12. Earth Science Informatics - Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes over 180 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies.The talk will present an overview of current efforts in ESI, the role members of IEEE GRSS play, and discuss

  13. Earth before life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban, Caren; Viswanathan, Raju; Yurtsever, Ulvi

    2014-01-09

    A recent study argued, based on data on functional genome size of major phyla, that there is evidence life may have originated significantly prior to the formation of the Earth. Here a more refined regression analysis is performed in which 1) measurement error is systematically taken into account, and 2) interval estimates (e.g., confidence or prediction intervals) are produced. It is shown that such models for which the interval estimate for the time origin of the genome includes the age of the Earth are consistent with observed data. The appearance of life after the formation of the Earth is consistent with the data set under examination.

  14. Earth Sciences Division annual report 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-06-01

    This Annual Report presents summaries of selected representative research activities grouped according to the principal disciplines of the Earth Sciences Division: Reservoir Engineering and Hydrogeology, Geology and Geochemistry, and Geophysics and Geomechanics. Much of the Division`s research deals with the physical and chemical properties and processes in the earth`s crust, from the partially saturated, low-temperature near-surface environment to the high-temperature environments characteristic of regions where magmatic-hydrothermal processes are active. Strengths in laboratory and field instrumentation, numerical modeling, and in situ measurement allow study of the transport of mass and heat through geologic media -- studies that now include the appropriate chemical reactions and the hydraulic-mechanical complexities of fractured rock systems. Of particular note are three major Division efforts addressing problems in the discovery and recovery of petroleum, the application of isotope geochemistry to the study of geodynamic processes and earth history, and the development of borehole methods for high-resolution imaging of the subsurface using seismic and electromagnetic waves. In 1989 a major DOE-wide effort was launched in the areas of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Many of the methods previously developed for and applied to deeper regions of the earth will in the coming years be turned toward process definition and characterization of the very shallow subsurface, where man-induced contaminants now intrude and where remedial action is required.

  15. Dynamic active earth pressure on retaining structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepankar Choudhury; Santiram Chatterjee

    2006-12-01

    Earth-retaining structures constitute an important topic of research in civil engineering, more so under earthquake conditions. For the analysis and design of retaining walls in earthquake-prone zones, accurate estimation of dynamic earth pressures is very important. Conventional methods either use pseudo-static approaches of analysis even for dynamic cases or a simple single-degree of freedom model for the retaining wall–soil system. In this paper, a simplified two-degree of freedom mass–spring–dashpot (2-DOF) dynamic model has been proposed to estimate the active earth pressure at the back of the retaining walls for translation modes of wall movement under seismic conditions. The horizontal zone of influence on dynamic earth force on the wall is estimated. Results in terms of displacement, velocity and acceleration-time history are presented for some typical cases, which show the final movement of the wall in terms of wall height, which is required for the design. The non-dimensional design chart proposed in the present study can be used to compute the total dynamic earth force on the wall under different input ground motion and backfill conditions. Finally, the results obtained have been compared with those of the available Scott model and the merits of the present results have been discussed.

  16. Tracking a Very Near Earth Asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, R.; Rashid, S.; Peppard, T.

    2013-09-01

    The potential effects of an asteroid passing within close proximity to the Earth were recently realized. During the February 16, 2013 event, Asteroid 2012 DA14 passed within an estimated 27,700 kilometers of the earth, well within the geosynchronous (GEO) orbital belt. This was the closest known approach of a planetoid of this size, in modern history. The GEO belt is a region that is filled with critical communications satellites which provide relays for essential government, business and private datum. On the day of the event, optical instruments at Detachment 3, 21OG, Maui GEODSS were able to open in marginal atmospheric conditions, locate and collect metric and raw video data on the asteroid as it passed a point of near heliocentric orbital propinquity to the Earth. Prior to the event, the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) used propagated trajectory data from NASA's Near Earth Object Program Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to assess potential collisions with man-made objects in Earth orbit. However, the ability to actively track this asteroid through the populated satellite belt not only allowed surveillance for possible late orbital perturbations of the asteroid, but, afforded the ability to monitor possible strikes on all other orbiting bodies of anthropogenic origin either not in orbital catalogs or not recently updated in those catalogs. Although programmed only for tracking satellites in geocentric orbits, GEODSS was able to compensate and maintain track on DA14, collecting one hundred and fifty four metric observations during the event.

  17. "Thinking about a Sustainable Earth"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeshita, Makoto

    2014-05-01

    1.Introduction The Course of study for Junior high school teaching was changed in 2008 in Japan. We should especially mention about this change that ESD, "Education for Sustainable Development," was written as a point of view. ESD is a kind of educations that is studied with a target for a region and that aims at reorganize of consciousness through thinking of how to be a better region. ESD's view was written for Social studies, Science, Foreign Languages, Health and Physical Education, Home Economics and Technical Arts, and the Period for Integrated Studies. Of these subjects, Social studies are the one of core subjects. Social studies for Junior high school consist of Geography, History and Civics. "Problem of us and international society" is the last part of Civics. Teacher helps students to understand international society deeply and think about the role of our country for it. Students research many problems (global environment, resources and energy, poverty etc.) and organize their thoughts on how make a better society as a part of the human family. I taught them to think about how to solve many themes like religious problems, terrorism problems, the North-South problems, and resource and energy problems. It is my practice to let them think about what they should do to solve the global warming problem. 2.The truth of my class I pointed out to the students that the length of summer time in Japan is increasing, and we can anticipate it will continue to increase in the future. After that, I explained to them that occurrence of sudden, heavy downpour of rain is increasing and helped them understand the process of this kind of downpour through some diagrams and pictures. I helped them understand the context of this increase of the length of summer time and heavy downpour within the whole earth's ecosystem. Such increases as these things are causing global warming. I asked them to think about what are the possible problems if global warming progresses. The ideas the

  18. A new approach to an old conundrum--DNA barcoding sheds new light on phenotypic plasticity and morphological stasis in microsnails (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Carychiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Alexander M; Jochum, Adrienne; Pfenninger, Markus; Steinke, Dirk; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2011-03-01

    The identification of microsnail taxa based on morphological characters is often a time-consuming and inconclusive process. Aspects such as morphological stasis and phenotypic plasticity further complicate their taxonomic designation. In this study, we demonstrate that the application of DNA barcoding can alleviate these problems within the Carychiidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata). These microsnails are a taxon of the pulmonate lineage and most likely migrated onto land independently of the Stylommatophora clade. Their taxonomical classification is currently based on conchological and anatomical characters only. Despite much confusion about historic species assignments, the Carychiidae can be unambiguously subdivided into two taxa: (i) Zospeum species, which are restricted to karst caves, and (ii) Carychium species, which occur in a broad range of environmental conditions. The implementation of discrete molecular data (COI marker) enabled us to correctly designate 90% of the carychiid microsnails. The remaining cases were probably cryptic Zospeum and Carychium taxa and incipient species, which require further investigation into their species status. Because conventional reliance upon mostly continuous (i.e. nondiscrete) conchological characters is subject to fallibility for many gastropod species assignments, we highly recommend the use of DNA barcoding as a taxonomic, cutting-edge method for delimiting microsnail taxa.

  19. Do no-take reserves benefit Florida's corals? 14 years of change and stasis in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, L. T.; van Woesik, R.; Murdoch, T. J. T.; Smith, S. R.; Ogden, J. C.; Precht, W. F.; Aronson, R. B.

    2014-09-01

    With coral populations in decline globally, it is critical that we tease apart the relative impacts of ecological and physical perturbations on reef ecosystems to determine the most appropriate management actions. This study compared the trajectories of benthic assemblages from 1998 to 2011 in three no-take reserves and three sites open to fishing, at 7-9 and 15-18 m depth in the Florida Keys. We evaluated temporal changes in the benthic assemblage to infer whether fisheries bans in no-take reserves could have cascading effects on the benthos in this region. Coral cover declined significantly over time at our sites and that trend was driven almost exclusively by decline of the Orbicella (formerly Montastraea) annularis species complex. Other coral taxa showed remarkable stasis and resistance to a variety of environmental perturbations. Protection status did not influence coral or macroalgal cover. The dynamics of corals and macroalgae in the 15 years since the reserves were established in 1997 suggest that although the reserves protected fish, they were of no perceptible benefit to Florida's corals.

  20. Recurrent Cholangitis by Biliary Stasis Due to Non-Obstructive Afferent Loop Syndrome After Pylorus-Preserving Pancreatoduodenectomy: Report of a Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, Yukihiro; Yamada, Naoya; Taguchi, Masanobu; Morishima, Kazue; Kasahara, Naoya; Kaneda, Yuji; Miki, Atsushi; Ishiguro, Yasunao; Kurogochi, Akira; Endo, Kazuhiro; Koizumi, Masaru; Sasanuma, Hideki; Fujiwara, Takehito; Sakuma, Yasunaru; Shimizu, Atsushi; Hyodo, Masanobu; Sata, Naohiro; Yasuda, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    We report a 71-year-old man who had undergone pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD) using PPPD-IV reconstruction for cholangiocarcinoma. For 6 years thereafter, he had suffered recurrent cholangitis, and also a right liver abscess (S5/8), which required percutaneous drainage at 9 years after PPPD. At 16 years after PPPD, he had been admitted to the other hospital because of acute purulent cholangitis. Although medical treatment resolved the cholangitis, the patient was referred to our hospital because of dilatation of the intrahepatic biliary duct (B2). Peroral double-balloon enteroscopy revealed that the diameter of the hepaticojejunostomy anastomosis was 12 mm, and cholangiography detected intrahepatic stones. Lithotripsy was performed using a basket catheter. At 1 year after lithotripsy procedure, the patient is doing well. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy at 60 minutes after intravenous injection demonstrated that deposit of the tracer still remained in the upper afferent loop jejunum. Therefore, we considered that the recurrent cholangitis, liver abscess, and intrahepatic lithiasis have been caused by biliary stasis due to nonobstructive afferent loop syndrome. Biliary retention due to nonobstructive afferent loop syndrome may cause recurrent cholangitis or liver abscess after hepaticojejunostomy, and double-balloon enteroscopy and hepatobiliary scintigraphy are useful for the diagnosis of nonobstructive afferent loop syndrome. PMID:25058778

  1. Metabonomic phenotype and identification of "heart blood stasis obstruction pattern" and "qi and yin deficiency pattern" of myocardial ischemia rat models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Bei; GU ShengHua; HUANG Qing; ZHENG YuanTing; A JiYe; HAO HaiPing; WANG GuangJi; ZHU XuanXuan; ZHA WeiBin; LIU LinSheng; GUAN EnZe; ZHANG Ying

    2009-01-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine concepts of "Xinxueyuzuzheng (heart blood stasis obstruction pattern)" and "Qiyinliangxuzheng (qi and yin deficiency pattern)" for myocardial ischemia rat models were constructed in the present study.Endogenous metabolites in rat plasma were analyzed using the GC/TOF-MS-based metabonomic method.Significant metabolic differences were observed between the control and two model groups,and the three groups were distinguished clearly by pattern recognition.Compared with those of the control,the levels of hydroxyproline,threonic acid,glutamine and citric acid were strikingly up-or down-regulated in model rats.The metabolites contributing most to the classification between the two "pattern" rats were identified,such as valine,serine,threonine,ornithine,hydroxyproline,lysine,2-hydroxybutanoic acid,3.hydroxybutanoic acid,galactofuranose and inositol.These compounds were indicated as the potential biomarkers.The results suggested that the two "patterns" are involved in dysfunction in oxidative stress,energy metabolism and amino acid metabolism.These findings also provided the substantial foundation for exploring the scientific connotation of these two "Zhengxing (pattern types)" of myocardial ischemia,and "Bianzheng (pattern identification)".

  2. Metabonomic phenotype and identification of “heart blood stasis obstruction pattern” and “qi and yin deficiency pattern” of myocardial ischemia rat models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine concepts of "Xinxueyuzuzheng (heart blood stasis obstruction pattern)" and "Qiyinliangxuzheng (qi and yin deficiency pattern)" for myocardial ischemia rat models were constructed in the present study. Endogenous metabolites in rat plasma were analyzed using the GC/TOF-MS-based metabonomic method. Significant metabolic differences were observed between the control and two model groups, and the three groups were distinguished clearly by pattern recognition. Compared with those of the control, the levels of hydroxyproline, threonic acid, glutamine and citric acid were strikingly up or down-regulated in model rats. The metabolites contributing most to the classification between the two "pattern" rats were identified, such as valine, serine, threonine, ornithine, hydroxyproline, lysine, 2-hydroxybutanoic acid, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, galactofuranose and inositol. These compounds were indicated as the potential biomarkers. The results suggested that the two "patterns" are involved in dysfunction in oxidative stress, energy metabolism and amino acid metabolism. These findings also provided the substantial foundation for exploring the scientific connotation of these two "Zhengxing (pattern types)" of myocardial ischemia, and "Bianzheng (pattern identification)".

  3. Bringing Earth Magnetism Research into the High School Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, A. V.; Bluth, G.; Engel, E.; Kurpier, K.; Foucher, M. S.; Anderson, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    We present our work in progress from an NSF CAREER project that aims to integrate paleomagnetic research and secondary school physics education. The research project is aimed at quantifying the strength and geometry of the Precambrian geomagnetic field. Investigation of the geomagnetic field behavior is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of field generation, and the development of the Earth's atmosphere and biosphere, and can serve as a focus for connecting high-level Earth science research with a standard physics curriculum. High school science teachers have participated in each summer field and research component of the project, gaining field and laboratory research experience, sets of rock and mineral samples, and classroom-tested laboratory magnetism activities for secondary school physics and earth science courses. We report on three field seasons of teacher field experiences and two years of classroom testing of paleomagnetic research materials merged into physics instruction on magnetism. Students were surveyed before and after dedicated instruction for both perceptions and attitude towards earth science in general, then more specifically on earth history and earth magnetism. Students were also surveyed before and after instruction on major earth system and magnetic concepts and processes, particularly as they relate to paleomagnetic research. Most students surveyed had a strongly positive viewpoint towards the study of Earth history and the importance of studying Earth Sciences in general, but were significantly less drawn towards more specific topics such as mineralogy and magnetism. Students demonstrated understanding of Earth model and the basics of magnetism, as well as the general timing of life, atmospheric development, and magnetic field development. However, detailed knowledge such as the magnetic dynamo, how the magnetic field has changed over time, and connections between earth magnetism and the development of an atmosphere remained largely

  4. Penetration Dynamics of Earth Penetration Warhead into Composite Target Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Roy

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Attempts have been made to develop a suitable computer code that can find solutions to the axi-symmetric penetration of an Earth Penetrating Warhead yielding complete space-time histories of the resistive force offered by the target medium. The consequent warhead deceleration and velocity reduction, the resulting axial compressive stress developed in warhead casing as the penetration process progresses into the composite target media consisting of hard concrete of specified thickness followed by earth soil have been discussed.

  5. Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Herndon, J. Marvin

    2005-01-01

    The principles of Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics are disclosed leading to a new way to interpret whole-Earth dynamics. Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics incorporates elements of and unifies the two seemingly divergent dominant theories of continential displacement, plate tectonics theory and Earth expansion theory. Whole-Earth decompression is the consequence of Earth formation from within a Jupiter-like protoplanet with subsequent loss of gases and ices and concomitant rebounding. The i...

  6. Earth rotation and geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusz, Janusz; Brzezinski, Aleksander; Kosek, Wieslaw; Nastula, Jolanta

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the summary of research activities carried out in Poland in 2011-2014 in the field of Earth rotation and geodynamics by several Polish research institutions. It contains a summary of works on Earth rotation, including evaluation and prediction of its parameters and analysis of the related excitation data as well as research on associated geodynamic phenomena such as geocentre motion, global sea level change and hydrological processes. The second part of the paper deals with monitoring of geodynamic phenomena. It contains analysis of geodynamic networks of local, and regional scale using space (GNSS and SLR) techniques, Earth tides monitoring with gravimeters and water-tube hydrostatic clinometer, and the determination of secular variation of the Earth' magnetic field.

  7. Earth science: Extraordinary world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, James M. D.

    2016-09-01

    The isotopic compositions of objects that formed early in the evolution of the Solar System have been found to be similar to Earth's composition -- overturning notions of our planet's chemical distinctiveness. See Letters p.394 & p.399

  8. Gambling with the earth

    CERN Multimedia

    Muir, H

    2000-01-01

    The probability that dangerous Earth-devouring particles will be born at a new accelerator in the US may be tiny, but scientists have played down the devastating potential costs in their risk assessments according to a physicist (1 page).

  9. Astronomy: Earth's seven sisters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snellen, Ignas A. G.

    2017-02-01

    Seven small planets whose surfaces could harbour liquid water have been spotted around a nearby dwarf star. If such a configuration is common in planetary systems, our Galaxy could be teeming with Earth-like planets. See Letter p.456

  10. Rare Earth Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ July 20~31 Rare earth market still went downward, which was mainly led by sluggish demand for didymium products. Weak demand by domestic NdFeB market was attributed to continuous price falling of didymium mischmetal.

  11. Analyzing earth's surface data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, D. J.; Elifrits, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    Manual discusses simple inexpensive image analysis technique used to interpret photographs and scanner of data of Earth's surface. Manual is designed for those who have no need for sophisticated computer-automated analysis procedures.

  12. Managing Planet Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the human use of the planet earth. Describes the global patterns and the regional aspects of change. Four requirements for the cultivation of leadership and institutional competence are suggested. Lists five references for further reading. (YP)

  13. Earliest life on earth

    CERN Document Server

    Golding, Suzanne D

    2010-01-01

    This volume integrates the latest findings on earliest life forms, identified and characterized in some of the oldest rocks on Earth. It places emphasis on the integration of analytical methods with observational techniques and experimental simulations.

  14. Medication rule of Doctor CHEN Jinghe from Long Jiang Medical School in treating blood stasis syndrome%龙江医派名医陈景河治疗血瘀证用药规律分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婷婷; 刘彬; 韩彦华

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析龙江医派名医陈景河治疗血瘀证的用药规律。方法收集、整理龙江医派名医陈景河在齐齐哈尔中医院门诊治疗血瘀证的中药方剂,建立数据库,利用统计学方法对用药情况进行统计分析。结果整理治疗血瘀证的中药方剂50首,涉及中药194种,用药总频数为610次。结论核心单味药依次为川芎、当归、黄芪、丹参、乳香、没药、党参、红花、白芍等;治疗血瘀证以活血化瘀药、补虚药、清热药、解表药等为主要功效的药物为主;药性以温、寒、平为主;药味以苦、辛、甘为主;归经以肝、脾、心、肺、肾为主。%objective To analyze the medication rule of famous doctor Chen Jing - he from Long Jiang Medical School in Treating blood stasis syndrome. Methods Prescriptions for treatment of blood stasis syndrome of outpa-tients from Qiqihaer Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine written by Long Jiang Medical School’s famous doctor Chen Jing-he were collected and arranged,database was established,and medication rule was analyzed with statistical method. Results The 50 pieces of TCM prescription against blood stasis syndrome were collected,which involved 194 kinds of herbs,and total frequency of medication use reached 610 times. Conclusion Core herbs in proper or-der are Ligusticum chuanxiong,angelica,astragalus,radix salviae miltiorrhizae,Radix Codonopsis,frankincense, myrrh,safflower,Radix Paeoniae Alba,etc;drugs for the treatment of blood stasis were mainly of blood circulation promoting,blood stasis removing,heat clearing and diaphoretic effect;the properties of the herbs were mainly warm, cold and peace;the herbs were mainly of bitter,acrid and sweet;the meridians entered were mainly liver,spleen, heart ,lung and kidney.

  15. Discuss on vertigo from the wind,fire,phlegm,blood stasis and deficiency%从“风、火、痰、瘀、虚”探讨眩晕的证治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慧

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the treatment of vertigo from the wind, fire, phlegm, blood stasis and deficiency. Vertigo can be caused by wind, fire, phlegm, blood stasis and deficiency. Wind includes the types of hyperactive liver-yang causing syndrome of liver-wind and yin-deficiency leads to wind stirring. Fire includes the types of depression of the liver generates pathogenic fire and phlegm-fire attacking upwards. Phlegm includes the types of wind phlegm, phlegm retention, phlegm fire and phlegm damp. Blood stasis includes the types of blood stagnancy due to deficiency of Qi, blood stasis due to stagnation of qi and retention of phlegm and blood stasis in the meridian. Deficiency includes the types of deficiency of both qi and the blood, deficiency of liver-yin and kidney-yin, deficiency of the kidney essence and lucid yang failing to rise due to qi deficiency. The curative principles of vertigo are tonifying deficiency, reducing substantive, regulating yin and yang, ascertaining manifestation and root cause, balancing priorities, observing dynamically, treating flexible, disease integrating with syndrome and planning treatment according to diagnosis.%本文从风、火、痰、瘀、虚五个方面探讨眩晕的证治。因风致眩,有肝阳化风、阴虚生风之别;因火致眩,有肝郁化火、痰火上扰之分;因痰致眩,有风痰、痰饮、热痰、湿痰之异;因瘀致眩,有气虚血瘀、气滞血瘀、痰瘀阻络之差;因虚致眩,有气虚清阳不升、气血亏虚、肝肾阴虚、肾精不足之不同。治疗应把握补虚泻实,调整阴阳;分清标本,权衡缓急;动态观察,圆机活法;病证结合,随证治之的原则。

  16. Earth/Lands

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Earth is an essentially original and misunderstood raw material with great potential, from the positive environmental and energy ratio, to its admirable capacity to integrate other materials such as stone, wood, brick, lime, vegetable fibres, etc., capable also of constituting the sole material for whole buildings in climactical and geographically extreme situations. Earth offers a great capacity to respond to the housing needs of millions of human beings, not only quantitative needs compa...

  17. Earth rotation and geodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bogusz Janusz; Brzezinski Aleksander; Kosek Wieslaw; Nastula Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the summary of research activities carried out in Poland in 2011-2014 in the field of Earth rotation and geodynamics by several Polish research institutions. It contains a summary of works on Earth rotation, including evaluation and prediction of its parameters and analysis of the related excitation data as well as research on associated geodynamic phenomena such as geocentre motion, global sea level change and hydrological processes. The second part of the paper deals wit...

  18. Toward other Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzes, Artie P.

    2016-04-01

    How common are habitable Earth-like planets? This is a key question that drives much of current research in exoplanets. To date, we have discovered over one thousand exoplanets, mostly through the transit method. Among these are Earth-size planets, but these orbit very close to the star (semi-major axis approximately 0.01 Astronomical Units). Potentially rocky planets have also been discovered in a star's habitable zone, but these have approximately twice the radius of the Earth. These certainly do not qualify as Earth "twins". Several hundreds of multi-planet systems have also been discovered, but these are mostly ultra-compact systems with up to seven planets all with orbital distances less than that of Mercury in our solar system. The detection of a planetary system that is the direct analog of our solar system still eludes us. After an overview of the current status of exoplanet discoveries I will discuss the prospects and challenges of finding such Earth analogs from the ground and from future space missions like PLATO. After over two decades of searching, we may well be on the brink of finding other Earths.

  19. 出血性中风瘀热病机单元测量量表的研究%Research on Measuring Scale for Pathogen Unit of Hemorrhagic Stroke Due to Heat?Stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国春; 周学平; 王均琴; 过伟峰; 叶放; 吴勉华; 金妙文

    2015-01-01

    目的:制定出血性中风瘀热病机单元的测量量表,探索瘀热病机的客观、规范和定量测量方法。方法采用量表标准制作程序设计测量问卷,应用三轮专家咨询方法筛选瘀热表征信息,形成量表条目池。采用临床流行病学/DME 的方法现场采集出血性中风瘀热病机相关条目4个时间点测量数据,评价量表的信度、效度和适用性。结果通过主观评价法和基于重要性评价的逐步筛选法获得32个瘀热密切相关的表征信息,形成了出血性中风瘀热量表初表的条目池,分属于血热、血瘀和神志3个维度。通过临床样本的测试进一步优化了量表,所得量表的25个条目有较高的测量信度和效度。结论初步建立了一套出血性中风瘀热病机单元的测量工具,量表显示神志变化是出血性中风瘀热病机区别于其它疾病的重要表征。%ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE To establish measuring scale for the pathogen unit of heat?stasis on hemorrhagic stroke and explore the objectivestandard and quantitative method for measuring heat?stasis pathogenesis.METHODS Measuring questionnaire was designed according to the production process of standard scaleand heat?stasis information representation was selected through three rounds of expert consultationso as to establish the entry pool of scale.Related metrical data of hemorrhagic stroke due to heat?stasis was collected on spots with the clinic epidemiology/DME principles for 4 timesand the credibilityvalidity and applicability of scale were assessed.RESULTS By applying the method of subjective evaluation and step screening based on importance evaluationthe original entry pool of scale concerning hemorrhagic stroke due to heat?stasis was estab-lishedwhich included 32 information representationsbelonging to the dimension of blood heatblood stasis and consciousness respectively.And the scale was further optimized after testing

  20. 124 cases of systemic lupus erythematosus drug-related clinical cases stasis heat index analysis%124例系统性红斑狼疮瘀热毒相关指标分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周腊梅; 汪悦; 王艳艳

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Clinical studies of toxic heat stasis in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus important role. Methods: The clinical cases of 124 patients with SLE stasis toxic heat -related symptoms, signs, laboratory indicators, statistics, and for correlation analysis. Results: The literature and clinical studies, we believe that with the stasis, heat, drugsrelated symptoms and signs include: facial rash / erythema, oral ulcers, skin vasculitis / thrombosis, a week of erythema / frostbite, Raynaud's phenomenon, purpura, fever, abdominal pain, irritability, seizures, liver / spleen large, swollen lymph nodes and so on. Laboratory and stasis-related indicators are: platelets, coagulation, D2 polymers, lipids, anti-cardiolipin antibodies. Correlation with drug indicators are: self-specific antibody-related indicators, such as the IGG, C3, anti-ENA, etc. 8. Heatrelated indicators: such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C -reactive protein. Drug treatment, the blood circulation drugs, antiplatelet / anticoagulant drugs, hormones, antibiotics are the main drug. Conclusion: stasis heat toxin as the major pathological factors of systemic lupus erythematosus, toxic heat flaming, in -depth business of blood, blood stasis network, systemic lupus erythematosus is often the basic pathogenesis of living in the pathogenesis of this disease has played an extremely important role, and stasis throughout the course of the disease has always been.%目的:从临床研究探讨瘀热毒在系统性红斑狼疮发病中的重要作用.方法:对124例SLE临床病例瘀热毒相关症状、体征、实验室指标进行统计,并作相关性分析.结果:通过文献研究及临床研究,我们认为与瘀、热、毒相关的症状、体征有:面部皮疹/红斑、口腔溃疡、皮肤血管炎/血栓、甲周红斑/冻疮、雷诺现象、紫癜、发热、腹痛、烦躁、癫痫、肝/脾大、淋巴结肿等.实验室与瘀相关的指标有:血小板、凝血功能、D2

  1. Rapid postglacial diversification and long-term stasis within the songbird genus Junco: phylogeographic and phylogenomic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Guillermo; Aleixandre, Pau; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G; Milá, Borja

    2016-12-01

    Natural systems composed of closely related taxa that vary in the degree of phenotypic divergence and geographic isolation provide an opportunity to investigate the rate of phenotypic diversification and the relative roles of selection and drift in driving lineage formation. The genus Junco (Aves: Emberizidae) of North America includes parapatric northern forms that are markedly divergent in plumage pattern and colour, in contrast to geographically isolated southern populations in remote areas that show moderate phenotypic divergence. Here, we quantify patterns of phenotypic divergence in morphology and plumage colour and use mitochondrial DNA genes, a nuclear intron, and genomewide SNPs to reconstruct the demographic and evolutionary history of the genus to infer relative rates of evolutionary divergence among lineages. We found that geographically isolated populations have evolved independently for hundreds of thousands of years despite little differentiation in phenotype, in sharp contrast to phenotypically diverse northern forms, which have diversified within the last few thousand years as a result of the rapid postglacial recolonization of North America. SNP data resolved young northern lineages into reciprocally monophyletic lineages, indicating low rates of gene flow even among closely related parapatric forms, and suggesting a role for strong genetic drift or multifarious selection acting on multiple loci in driving lineage divergence. Juncos represent a compelling example of speciation in action, where the combined effects of historical and selective factors have produced one of the fastest cases of speciation known in vertebrates. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Fourteen Times the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    measurements, assuming the existence of two planets. The data were obtained over a time span of 80 days and the first points shown are the data from the 8 nights in June. Note that the full span of the vertical axis is only 40 m/s! Error bars indicate the accuracy of the measurements. The lower part of the diagram displays the deviation of the measurements from the best fit. ESO PR Photo 25d/04 ESO PR Photo 25d/04 Observed Velocity Variation of mu Arae [Preview - JPEG: 440 x 400 pix - 78k] [Normal - JPEG: 879 x 800 pix - 171k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 25d/04 displays the HARPS radial velocity measurements phase-folded with the orbital period of the newly found exoplanet (9.5 days). The measurements have been corrected from the effect of the two longer period companions. The semi-amplitude of the curve is less than 5 m/s! Coupled with the 9.5 days orbital period, this implies a minimum mass for the newly discovered planet of 14 times the mass of the Earth. During 8 nights in June 2004, mu Arae was repeatedly observed and its radial velocity measured by HARPS to obtain information on the interior of the star. This so-called astero-seismology technique (see ESO PR 15/01) studies the small acoustic waves which make the surface of the star periodically pulsate in and out. By knowing the internal structure of the star, the astronomers aimed at understanding the origin of the unusual amount of heavy elements observed in its stellar atmosphere. This unusual chemical composition could provide unique information to the planet formation history. Says Nuno Santos, another member of the team: "To our surprise, the analysis of the new measurements revealed a radial velocity variation with a period of 9.5 days on top of the acoustic oscillation signal!" This discovery has been made possible thanks to the large number of measurements obtained during the astero-seimology campaign. From this date, the star, that was also part of the HARPS consortium survey programme, was regularly monitored with a

  3. The Earth: A Changing Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Núria; Màrquez, Conxita

    2013-04-01

    text: We describe a didactic unit that rises from our own living impression about our experience on the planet. Most of us feel the Earth to be a very static place. Rocks don't easily move and most landscapes always look the same over time. Anyone would say (the same way most scientists believed until the beginning of the last century) that our planet has always remained unchanged, never transformed. But then, all of a sudden, as a misfortune for so many humans, natural hazards appear on the scene: an earthquake causing so many disasters, a tsunami carrying away everything in its path, an eruption that can destroy huge surrounding areas but also bring new geographical relief. Science cannot remain oblivious to these events, we must wonder beyond. What does an earthquake mean? Why does it happen? What about an eruption? If it comes from the inside, what can we guess from it? Researching about all of these events, scientists have been able to arrive to some important knowledge of the planet itself: It has been possible to theorize about Earth's interior. It has also been confirmed that the planet has not always been the quiet and stable place we once thought. Continents, as Wegener supposed, do move about and the Tectonic Plates Theory, thanks to the information obtained through earthquakes and eruption, can provide some interesting explanations. But how do we know about our planet's past? How can we prove that the Earth has always been moving and that its surface changes? The Earth's rocks yield the answer. Rocks have been the only witnesses throughout millions of years, since the planet first came to existence. Let's learn how to read them… Shouldn't we realize that rocks are to Geology what books are to History? This discursive process has been distributed in four learning sequences: 1. Land is not as solid nor firm as it would seem, 2. The Earth planet: a puzzle, 3. The rocks also recycle , 4. Field trip to "Sant Miquel del Fai". The subjects take about 30

  4. Popular history magazines and history education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Thorp

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that popular history magazines may be a welcome complement to other forms of historical media in history teaching. By outlining a theoretical framework that captures uses of history, the paper analyses popular history magazine articles from five European countries all dealing with the outbreak of World War I. The study finds that while the studied articles provide a rather heterogeneous view of the causes of the Great War, they can be used to discuss and analyse the importance of perspective in history, thus offering an opportunity to further a more disciplinary historical understanding.

  5. North pole, South pole the quest to understand Earth's magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Going all the way back to the Roman legend of a shepherd whose iron-studded boots stuck to the rocks, this book charts the history of the earth's magnetism, which intrigued and stumped scientists and ordinary people for centuries. Absorbing and accessible, it is a lively study of what exactly magnetic force is, what causes it, and what its place has been throughout scientific history, offering detailed insights into the inner workings of the planet and its magnetic shield.

  6. The earth's hydrological cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, R-M; Calisto, M; Destouni, G; Gurney, R; Johannessen, J; Kerr, Y; Lahoz, WA; Rast, M

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive presentation of our present understanding of the Earth's Hydrological cycle and the problems, consequences and impacts that go with this topic. Water is a central component in the Earth's system. It is indispensable for life on Earth in its present form and influences virtually every aspect of our planet's life support system. On relatively short time scales, atmospheric water vapor interacts with the atmospheric circulation and is crucial in forming the Earth's climate zones. Water vapor is the most powerful of the greenhouse gases and serves to enhance the tropospheric temperature. The dominant part of available water on Earth resides in the oceans. Parts are locked up in the land ice on Greenland and Antarctica and a smaller part is estimated to exist as groundwater. If all the ice over the land and all the glaciers were to melt, the sea level would rise by some 80 m. In comparison, the total amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is small; it amounts to ~ 25 kg/m2, or the ...

  7. The Sun and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2012-01-01

    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  8. Modeling the earth system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojima, D. [ed.

    1992-12-31

    The 1990 Global Change Institute (GCI) on Earth System Modeling is the third of a series organized by the Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies to look in depth at particular issues critical to developing a better understanding of the earth system. The 1990 GCI on Earth System Modeling was organized around three themes: defining critical gaps in the knowledge of the earth system, developing simplified working models, and validating comprehensive system models. This book is divided into three sections that reflect these themes. Each section begins with a set of background papers offering a brief tutorial on the subject, followed by working group reports developed during the institute. These reports summarize the joint ideas and recommendations of the participants and bring to bear the interdisciplinary perspective that imbued the institute. Since the conclusion of the 1990 Global Change Institute, research programs, nationally and internationally, have moved forward to implement a number of the recommendations made at the institute, and many of the participants have maintained collegial interactions to develop research projects addressing the needs identified during the two weeks in Snowmass.

  9. Book Review: A history of the ideas of theoretical physics: Essays on the 19th and 20th century physics (Vol. 213 of Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science). Salvo d'Agostino; Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London, 2000, 381pp., 173.00 US, ISBN 0-7923-6094-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Alfred

    The title of Salvo d'Agostino's book suggests that it may contain a collection of various and sundry ideas from the history of theoretical physics. However, d'Agostino pursues something far more specific and compelling, yet also far more controversial: a history of the idea of theoretical physics. When, how, and why did physics become theoretical physics, and what did this shift mean? While some would argue that physics became theoretical at a time of stasis and sterility, perhaps decadence or crisis, d'Agostino considers the epistemological turn of physics liberating, productive, even empowering.

  10. Contextualizing Earth Science Professional Development Courses for Geoscience Teachers in Boston: Earth Science II (Solid Earth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, M. S.; Kamerer, B.; Vugrin, M.; Miller, M.

    2009-12-01

    Earth Science II: The Solid Earth -- Earth History and Planetary Science -- is the second of two Earth Science courses, and one of eleven graduate level science Contextualized Content Courses (CCC), that have been developed by the Boston Science Partnership as part of an NSF-funded Math Science Partnership program. A core goal of these courses is to provide high level science content to middle and high school teachers while modeling good instructional practices directly tied to the Boston Public Schools and Massachusetts science curriculum frameworks. All of these courses emphasize hands-on, lab-based, inquiry-driven, student-centered lessons. The Earth Science II team aimed to strictly adhere to ABC (Activity Before Concept) and 5E/7E models of instruction, and limited lecture or teacher-centered instruction to the later “Explanation” stages of all lessons. We also introduced McNeill and Krajick’s Claim-Evidence-Reasoning (CER) model of scientific explanation for middle school classroom discourse, both as a powerful scaffold leading to higher levels of accountable talk in the classroom, and to model science as a social construct. Daily evaluations, dutifully filled out by the course participants and diligently read by the course instructors, were quite useful in adapting instruction to the needs of the class on a real-time basis. We find the structure of the CCC teaching teams - university-based faculty providing expert content knowledge, K-12-based faculty providing age appropriate pedagogies and specific links to the K-12 curriculum - quite a fruitful, two-way collaboration. From the students’ perspective, one of the most useful takeaways from the university-based faculty was “listening to experts model out loud how they reason,” whereas some of the more practical takeaways (i.e., lesson components directly portable to the classroom?) came from the K-12-based faculty. The main takeaways from the course as a whole were the promise to bring more hands

  11. Better Than Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, René

    2015-01-01

    Do We Inhabit The Best O All Possible Worlds? German mathematician Gottfried Leibniz thought so, writing in 1710 that our planet, warts and all, must be the most optimal one imaginable. Leibniz's idea was roundly scorned as unscientific wishful thinking, most notably by French author Voltaire in his magnum opus, Candide. Yet Leibniz might find sympathy from at least one group of scientists - the astronomers who have for decades treated Earth as a golden standard as they search for worlds beyond our own solar system. Because earthlings still know of just one living world - our own - it makes some sense to use Earth as a template in the search for life elsewhere, such as in the most Earth-like regions of Mars or Jupiter's watery moon Europa. Now, however, discoveries of potentially habitable planets orbiting stars other than our sun - exoplanets, that is - are challenging that geocentric approach.

  12. Better Than Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, René

    2015-01-01

    Do we inhabit the best of all possible worlds? German mathematician Gottfried Leibniz thought so, writing in 1710 that our planet, warts and all, must be the most optimal one imaginable. Leibniz's idea was roundly scorned as unscientific wishful thinking, most notably by French author Voltaire in his magnum opus, Candide. Yet Leibniz might find sympathy from at least one group of scientists - the astronomers who have for decades treated Earth as a golden standard as they search for worlds beyond our own solar system. Because earthlings still know of just one living world - our own - it makes some sense to use Earth as a template in the search for life elsewhere, such as in the most Earth-like regions of Mars or Jupiter's watery moon Europa. Now, however, discoveries of potentially habitable planets orbiting stars other than our sun - exoplanets, that is - are challenging that geocentric approach.

  13. Geoneutrino and Hydridic Earth model

    CERN Document Server

    Bezrukov, Leonid

    2013-01-01

    Uranium, Thorium and Potassium-40 abundances in the Earth were calculated in the frame of Hydridic Earth model. Terrestrial heat producton from U, Th and K40 decays was calculated also. We must admit the existance of Earth expansion process to understand the obtained large value of terrestrial heat producton. The geoneutrino detector with volume more than 5 kT (LENA type) must be constructed to definitely separate between Bulk Silicat Earth model and Hydridic Earth model.

  14. How Big is Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Bonnie B.

    2015-08-01

    How Big is Earth celebrates the Year of Light. Using only the sunlight striking the Earth and a wooden dowel, students meet each other and then measure the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes did it over 2,000 years ago. In Cosmos, Carl Sagan shared the process by which Eratosthenes measured the angle of the shadow cast at local noon when sunlight strikes a stick positioned perpendicular to the ground. By comparing his measurement to another made a distance away, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth. How Big is Earth provides an online learning environment where students do science the same way Eratosthenes did. A notable project in which this was done was The Eratosthenes Project, conducted in 2005 as part of the World Year of Physics; in fact, we will be drawing on the teacher's guide developed by that project.How Big Is Earth? expands on the Eratosthenes project by providing an online learning environment provided by the iCollaboratory, www.icollaboratory.org, where teachers and students from Sweden, China, Nepal, Russia, Morocco, and the United States collaborate, share data, and reflect on their learning of science and astronomy. They are sharing their information and discussing their ideas/brainstorming the solutions in a discussion forum. There is an ongoing database of student measurements and another database to collect data on both teacher and student learning from surveys, discussions, and self-reflection done online.We will share our research about the kinds of learning that takes place only in global collaborations.The entrance address for the iCollaboratory is http://www.icollaboratory.org.

  15. SUZHOU PARADISE ON EARTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ History and culture Suzhou,the cradle of Wu Culture,is a city with a history of more than 2,500 years,tracing back to the later ShahS Dynasty.The unique characteristics of the past are still retained in present-day Suzhou.The double-chessboard layout of Suzhou,with "the streets and rivers go side by side while the water and land routes run in parallel",are preserved basically intact.Strolling the streets,you can feel the unique lingering charm of this landscape left by its long history.

  16. 冠心巴布膏活血化瘀作用研究%Study of Promoting Blood Circulation for Removing Blood Stasis by Guanxin Cataplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岚; 杜茂波; 刘淑芝; 梁日欣; 王彦礼; 杨伟鹏; 王怡薇; 殷小杰; 杨庆

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨冠心巴布膏(冠心膏)的活血化瘀作用,为其临床应用提供实验依据.方法:采用大鼠sc肾上腺素加冰浴的血瘀证模型,观察冠心膏高、中、低3个剂量(含生药10.0,5.0,2.5 g·kg-1)外用涂抹给药5d对模型动物全血黏度、血浆黏度、纤维蛋白原含量、红细胞压积、血小板聚集的影响.采用iv脑垂体后叶素(0.5 U·kg-1)造成大鼠急性心肌缺血模型,观察冠心膏(剂量同前)外用涂抹给药7d对模型动物心律失常的发生时间、持续时间及室性心律失常发生率的影响.结果:冠心膏高剂量能降低血浆黏度[由(1.101±0.064) mPa·s降至(1.039±0.025) mPa·s]、血小板聚集率[由(54.92±6.53)%降至(49.05±4.15)%]、200 s-1切变率下的全血黏度[由(3.81±0.31) mPa·s降至(3.53±0.27) mPa·s],延迟心律失常的开始时间[由(20.90±7.74)s升至(36.08±16.91)s],并降低心律失常的发生率(由75%降至37.5%)及持续时间[由(1133.75±298.71)s降至(881.20±115.48)s].低剂量能降低10 s-1切变率下的全血黏度[由(7.14 ±0.88) mPa·s降至(6.38±0.69) mPa·s]以及200 s -1切变率下的全血黏度[由(3.81±0.31) mPa·s降至(3.48±0.15) mPa·s],中剂量可以降低心律失常发生率(由75%降至37.5%)和持续时间[由(1133.75±298.71)s降至(816.43±243.46)s],与模型组比较均具有显著性差异(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论:冠心巴布膏可以改善血瘀证大鼠的血液流变学指标,防止心律失常的发生,具有一定的活血化瘀作用.%Objective: To investigate the actions of promoting blood circulation for removing blood stasis by Guanxin Cataplasm and provide the experimental basis for clinical applications of the cataplasm. Method; The rat blood stasis syndrome model was induced by subcutaneous injection of adrenalin with ice-bath, the indexes of hemorheology including fibrinogen, whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, packed cell volume and platelet aggregation. The acute rat

  17. Alkaline earth metal thioindates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov-Ehmin, B.N.; Ivlieva, V.I.; Filatenko, L.A.; Zajtsev, B.E.; Kaziev, G.Z.; Sarabiya, M.G.

    1984-08-01

    Alkaline earth metal thioindates of MIn/sub 2/S/sub 4/ composition were synthesized by interaction of alkaline earth metal oxoindates with hydrogen sulfide during heating. Investigation into the compounds by X-ray analysis showed that calcium compound crystallizes in cubic crystal system and strontium and barium compounds in rhombic crystal system. Lattice parameters and the number of formula units were determined. Thioindates of M/sub 3/In/sub 2/S/sub 6/ composition were synthesized, their individuality was shown.

  18. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Méndez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  19. Teaching earth science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpha, Tau Rho; Diggles, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains 17 teaching tools: 16 interactive HyperCard 'stacks' and a printable model. They are separated into the following categories: Geologic Processes, Earthquakes and Faulting, and Map Projections and Globes. A 'navigation' stack, Earth Science, is provided as a 'launching' place from which to access all of the other stacks. You can also open the HyperCard Stacks folder and launch any of the 16 stacks yourself. In addition, a 17th tool, Earth and Tectonic Globes, is provided as a printable document. Each of the tools can be copied onto a 1.4-MB floppy disk and distributed freely.

  20. IR and the Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf; Stevenson, Hayley

    2017-01-01

    , in the end, one finite interconnected space. Together these two starting points make for the basic conundrum of Inter- national Relations and the Earth: how does a divided world live on a single globe? This introduction first provides an overview of the recent rise of ‘the environment’ in international......, ‘what has the environment ever done for IR?’, before the plan for the rest of the book sketches the content and direction of the ensuing chapters that explore the problematique of International Relations and the Earth....

  1. Clinical Experience of Professor Wei Guikang on Cervicogenic Blood Pressure Abnormality Based on the Theory of Six-type Stasis Syndrome and Methods of Six Deoppilation%韦贵康教授“六不通论”和“六通论”诊治颈源性血压异常的临证经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建航; 韦贵康; 徐志为; 陈道云; 彭新静; 陈日兰; 董岚

    2016-01-01

    Professor Wei Guikang said,as the foundation of the pathology of spinal disease,stasis syndrome has six common clinical manifestations on different degrees which are joint disturbance, muscle cramps or synechia, channels and collaterals blocking,stagnation of qi & blood activity,viscera disharmony,and skin denutrition. Therefore,the six types of stasis syndrome are disturbance stasis, tense stasis, blocking stasis, stagnation stasis, disharmony stasis, and denutirtion stasis. Based on the Theory of Six-type Stasis Syndrome,Professor Wei Guikang apply the Three Manipulations of " tendon-regulation,bone-adjustment,symptom -orientation" which go with normal physiology and go against pathology,and apply Chinese herbs as well to treat cervicogenic abnormal blood pressure and achieve the purpose of " Methods of Six Deoppilation". We summarize Professor Wei Guikang's experience on cervicogenic abnormal blood pressure and hope to provide reference for clinical treatment of this diseases.%韦贵康教授(韦师)认为,“不通”为脊柱病损的病理基础,“不通”常见有6种不同程度临床表现,分别为骨关节不正、肌肉痉挛或粘连不柔、经络行走不顺、气血瘀滞不动、脏腑失和不调、皮肤失养不荣,即“不正不通、不松不通、不顺不通、不动不通、不调不通、不荣不通”的病理“六不通论”。围绕此观点,临床上多以顺生理、反病理的“理筋、调骨、对症”三联手法为主要治疗方法,适当配合中医药治疗,以达到“正则通、松则通、顺则通、柔则通、调则通、荣则通”的“六通论”,从而达到治疗目的。本文总结了韦师治疗颈源性血压异常的临证经验,希望能为此类疾病的临床治疗提供参考。

  2. EarthCache as a Tool to Promote Earth-Science in Public School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochis, E. E.; Rose, W. I.; Klawiter, M.; Vye, E. C.; Engelmann, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    Geoscientists often find it difficult to bridge the gap in communication between university research and what is learned in the public schools. Today's schools operate in a high stakes environment that only allow instruction based on State and National Earth Science curriculum standards. These standards are often unknown by academics or are written in a style that obfuscates the transfer of emerging scientific research to students in the classroom. Earth Science teachers are in an ideal position to make this link because they have a background in science as well as a solid understanding of the required curriculum standards for their grade and the pedagogical expertise to pass on new information to their students. As part of the Michigan Teacher Excellence Program (MiTEP), teachers from Grand Rapids, Kalamazoo, and Jackson school districts participate in 2 week field courses with Michigan Tech University to learn from earth science experts about how the earth works. This course connects Earth Science Literacy Principles' Big Ideas and common student misconceptions with standards-based education. During the 2011 field course, we developed and began to implement a three-phase EarthCache model that will provide a geospatial interactive medium for teachers to translate the material they learn in the field to the students in their standards based classrooms. MiTEP participants use GPS and Google Earth to navigate to Michigan sites of geo-significance. At each location academic experts aide participants in making scientific observations about the locations' geologic features, and "reading the rocks" methodology to interpret the area's geologic history. The participants are then expected to develop their own EarthCache site to be used as pedagogical tool bridging the gap between standards-based classroom learning, contemporary research and unique outdoor field experiences. The final phase supports teachers in integrating inquiry based, higher-level learning student

  3. Earth-like Habitats in Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fritz, Jörg; Kührt, Ekkehard; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Tornow, Carmen; Wünnemann, Kai; Fernandes, Vera A; Grenfell, Lee J; Rauer, Heike; Wagner, Roland; Werner, Stephanie C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the concept of habitability is related to an evolutionary knowledge of the particular planet-in-question. Additional indications so-called "systemic aspects" of the planetary system as a whole governs a particular planet's claim on habitability. Here we focus on such systemic aspects and discuss their relevance to the formation of an 'Earth-like' habitable planet. We summarize our results obtained by lunar sample work and numerical models within the framework of the Research Alliance "Planetary Evolution and Life". We consider various scenarios which simulate the dynamical evolution of the Solar System and discuss the likelihood of forming an Earth-like world orbiting another star. Our model approach is constrained by observations of the modern Solar System and the knowledge of its history. Results suggest that the long-term presence of terrestrial planets is jeopardized due to gravitational interactions if giant planets are present. But habitability of inner rocky planets may be supported in th...

  4. Biological modulation of the earth's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L.; Lovelock, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Review of the evidence that the earth's atmosphere is regulated by life on the surface so that the probability of growth of the entire biosphere is maximized. Acidity, gas composition including oxygen level, and ambient temperature are enormously important determinants for the distribution of life. The earth's atmosphere deviates greatly from that of the other terrestrial planets in particular with respect to acidity, composition, redox potential and temperature history as predicted from solar luminosity. These deviations from predicted steady state conditions have apparently persisted over millions of years. These anomalies may be evidence for a complex planet-wide homeostasis that is the product of natural selection. Possible homeostatic mechanisms that may be further investigated by both theoretical and experimental methods are suggested.

  5. Kiropraktikkens historie i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Per

    Bogen er den første samlede, forskningsbaserede fremstilling om kiropraktikkens danske historie. Den har udblik til kiropraktikkens historie i USA.......Bogen er den første samlede, forskningsbaserede fremstilling om kiropraktikkens danske historie. Den har udblik til kiropraktikkens historie i USA....

  6. Microforms and Sport History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Explores the importance of sport history as it reflects the social and cultural history of the United States. Discussion covers the various sport history materials that are available in microform, including the Spalding Collection, twentieth-century microfilm sources, and sports and social history (Sports Periodicals microfilm series). (EJS)

  7. What Is Literary "History"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Wendell V.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the meaning of the word "history" as used in the common phrase "literary history" by critics and scholars. Asserts the differences between historical scholarship and literary history. Argues that the grounding activity of literary history is insulated from the relativism insisted upon by poststructuralist theorizing.…

  8. Bones of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Jose Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The film "Bones of the Earth" (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014) is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective…

  9. Earth as art 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2016-03-29

    Landsat 8 is the latest addition to the long-running series of Earth-observing satellites in the Landsat program that began in 1972. The images featured in this fourth installment of the Earth As Art collection were all acquired by Landsat 8. They show our planet’s diverse landscapes with remarkable clarity.Landsat satellites see the Earth as no human can. Not only do they acquire images from the vantage point of space, but their sensors record infrared as well as visible wavelengths of light. The resulting images often reveal “hidden” details of the Earth’s land surface, making them invaluable for scientific research.As with previous Earth As Art exhibits, these Landsat images were selected solely for their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation—only for your viewing pleasure. What do you see in these unique glimpses of the Earth’s continents, islands, and coastlines?

  10. DIORAMA Earth Terrain Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werley, Kenneth Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-10

    When simulating near-surface nuclear detonations, the terrain of the Earth can have an effect on the observed outputs. The critical parameter is called the “height of burst”. In order to model the effect of terrain on the simulations we have incorporated data from multiple sources to give 9 km resolution data with global coverage.

  11. Magnetic rare earth superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majkrzak, C.F.; Kwo, J.; Hong, M.;

    1991-01-01

    Advances in molecular beam epitaxy deposition techniques have recently made it possible to grow, an atomic plane at a time, single crystalline superlattices composed of alternating layers of a magnetic rare earth, such as Gd, Dy, Ho, or Er, and metallic Y, which has an identical chemical structure...

  12. Google Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, William H.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Secrest, Jeffery A.

    2015-01-01

    Google Earth has made a wealth of aerial imagery available online at no cost to users. We examine some of the potential uses of that data in illustrating basic physics and astronomy, such as finding the local magnetic declination, using landmarks such as the Washington Monument and Luxor Obelisk as gnomons, and showing how airport runways get…

  13. Understanding Earth's Albedo Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Chuck

    2012-01-01

    Earth and space science in the middle school classroom are composed of intricately intertwined sets of conceptual systems (AAAS 1993; NRC 1996). Some systems of study, such as the water and rock cycles, are quite explicit and often found as stand-alone middle school science units. Other phenomena are not so apparent, yet they play an extremely…

  14. Olympus and Earth Day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Let your gaze rest upon the poster for Earth Day on April 22. A small polar bear clings tightly to the stem of an aero-vane. Staring at the vanishing floating ice on the wild sea, his eyes are full of panic and fear.

  15. Google Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, William H.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Secrest, Jeffery A.

    2015-01-01

    Google Earth has made a wealth of aerial imagery available online at no cost to users. We examine some of the potential uses of that data in illustrating basic physics and astronomy, such as finding the local magnetic declination, using landmarks such as the Washington Monument and Luxor Obelisk as gnomons, and showing how airport runways get…

  16. Rare Earth Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Rare earth market continued drop tendency.There was not much transaction of didymium oxide and the alloy. Affected by reduced order of NdFeB magnetic materials and inactive dealings of didymium mischmetal,price of didymium mischmetal had dropped from RMB ¥95,000~98,000/ton to RMBY 93,000~95,000/ton currently.

  17. Cosmic rays on earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allkofer, O.C.; Grieder, P.K.F.

    1984-01-01

    A data collection is presented that covers cosmic rays on earth. Included are all relevant data on flux and intensity measurements, energy spectra, and related data of all primary and secondary components of the cosmic radiation at all levels in the atmosphere, at sea level and underground. In those cases where no useful experimental data have been available, theoretical predictions were substituted.

  18. "Galileo Calling Earth..."

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This guide presents an activity for helping students understand how data from the Galileo spacecraft is sent to scientists on earth. Students are asked to learn about the concepts of bit-rate and resolution and apply them to the interpretation of images from the Galileo Orbiter. (WRM)

  19. Earth flyby anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieto, Michael Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, John D [PROPULSION LAB.

    2009-01-01

    In the planet-centric system, a spacecraft should have the same initial and final energies, even though its energy and angular momentum will change in the barycenter of the solar system. However, without explanation, a number of earth flybys have yielded small energy changes.

  20. Protect the Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永兴

    2011-01-01

    The earth, a blue globe, is very beautiful. It is the home to all the living things. But the environment around us is becoming worse and worse. People cut down trees to build houses and throw about litter. The air pollution is almost everywhere in the world!

  1. Citizens of Planet Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    The inability of the nation-state system to handle contemporary environmental issues comprehensively has spurred greater cooperation between religious and secular civil society actors. An empirical analysis of the Alliance of Religions and Conservation (ARC) contributes to knowledge about this pr...... (2010a) have termed Terrapolitan Earth Religion....

  2. Earth-approaching asteroids: Populations, origin, and compositional types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, E. M.; Helin, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    Origin, physical properties, and discovery history of smaller asteroids are reviewed. They appear to link the main belt objects, namely the comets and meteorites. Physical observations suggest that a wide variety of compositional types are represented among the near-earth asteroids; the apparent rarity of carbonaceous objects is stated.

  3. In-Orbit Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) Battery Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anisa; Enciso, Marlon; Rao, Gopalakrishna

    2000-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation outlines the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) power system and battery history. ERBS spacecraft and battery cell failures are listed with the reasons for failure. The battery management decision and stabilization of the batteries is discussed. Present battery operations are shown to be successful.

  4. MODELLING EARTH SYSTEM CHANGES THROUGH THE SHURUM-WONOKA ANOMALY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Christian J.; Canfield, D. E.

    and organic carbon at lower values of d13CIC, with a cross-plot slope of about 1. This unit slope seems to be unique to the Neoproterozoic in Earth history and not easily explained. In our model, the carbon isotope excursions were driven by methane from sediment-hosted clathrate hydrate deposits. Being...

  5. Thoracic spinal cord compression secondary to metastatic synovial sarcoma: case report Compresión de la medula espinal torácica por metástasis secundaria de sarcoma sinovial: relato de caso Compressão da medula espinhal torácica por metástase secundária de sarcoma sinovial: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Arnold

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Synovial sarcoma is an uncommon malignant soft tissue neoplasm, occurring primarily in adolescents and young adults. It is prevalent in the periarticular soft tissues near large joints of the extremities and rarely involves the trunk. Metastases are not uncommon and usually involve the lungs; metastasis to the thoracic spine is rare. We report the case of a 47-year-old man with a history of synovial sarcoma of the lower back, with subsequent metastases to the lung, penis, and perineum (all previously resected, presenting with a 3-month history of low back pain and lower extremity paresthesias. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated multiple lesions involving multiple contiguous vertebral bodies, with the mass at T12 compressing the spinal cord. The patient underwent T11-T12 laminectomy, transpedicular decompression, tumor debulking, and posterior fixation and fusion. The patient died six months later due to disease progression. Although not curative, decompression and stabilization of the spine are often necessary in patients who present spinal cord compression.El sarcoma sinovial es una neoplasia rara de los tejidos blandos que afecta adolescentes y adultos jóvenes. Su mayor prevalencia es en las grandes articulaciones de las extremidades y raramente ataca el tronco. Las lesiones metastásicas son raras y generalmente atacan los pulmones, siendo que las metástasis de columna torácica son raras. Será relatado el cuadro clínico de un paciente de 47 años de edad con tres meses de historia de dolor lumbar y presentando metástasis de sarcoma sinovial en la columna lumbar. La resonancia magnética demostraba lesiones contiguas del cuerpo vertebral y compresión del canal vertebral al nivel de T12. El paciente fue sometido a la laminectomía de T11-T12, descompresión transpedicular, remoción de tejido tumoral y artrodesis con fijación posterior. El paciente fue a óbito después de seis meses debido a la progresión de la enfermedad

  6. History Made for Tomorrow: Hakka Tulou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Yelland

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The documentary film, History Made for Tomorrow: Hakka Tulou was an October 2010 release by History Channel International. This film is an in-depth study on the green building techniques and sustainable lifestyle of the Hakka people of Southern China with a focus on the ancient Tulou rammed earth structures. The television program follows West Virginia University research professor, Ruifeng Liang, as he initiates scientific studies to back claims that the rammed earth Tulou structures are “the greenest buildings in the world”, and Canadian architect, Jorg Ostrowski, of Autonomous Sustainable Housing Inc., who has been researching the ecological footprint of Hakka communities since August 2007, to promote them as “eco-villages” of best practices for planet Earth’s sustainability. The author is credited as Director, Writer, and Producer of this film. This paper is based on the script of the production.

  7. Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J M

    2005-01-01

    The principles of Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics are disclosed leading to a new way to interpret whole-Earth dynamics. Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics incorporates elements of and unifies the two seemingly divergent dominant theories of continential displacement, plate tectonics theory and Earth expansion theory. Whole-Earth decompression is the consequence of Earth formation from within a Jupiter-like protoplanet with subsequent loss of gases and ices and concomitant rebounding. The initial whole-Earth decompression is expected to result in a global system of major primary decompression cracks appearing in the rigid crust which persist as the basalt feeders for the global, mid-oceanic ridge system. As the Earth subsequently decompresses, the area of the Earth's surface increases by the formation of secondary decompression cracks, often located near the continental margins, presently identified as oceanic trenches. These secondary decompression cracks are subsequently in-filled with basalt, extruded fr...

  8. Clinical Research of Expelling Phlegm and Removing Blood Stasis Method Combined with Acupuncture in the Treatment of Tinnitus%豁痰祛瘀法配合针刺疗法治疗耳鸣临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟渠; 宋红梅; 袁淼; 熊大经; 郑桃晓

    2012-01-01

    目的:评价豁痰祛瘀法配合针刺疗法治疗耳鸣的临床疗效.方法:将60例耳鸣患者随机分为对照组30例和治疗组30例,对照组采用豁痰祛瘀法治疗,治疗组在对照组的基础上配合针刺治疗,均以30 d为1个疗程.结果:对照组有效率为73.33%,治疗组有效率为90.00%,两组有效率比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:豁痰祛瘀法配合针刺治疗耳鸣疗效显著.%Objective:To evaluate the curative effect of expelling phlegm and removing blood stasis method combined with acupuncture in the treatment of tinnitus. Methods:60 cases with tinnitus were randomly divided into control group and treatment group,30 cases of each group. The control group was given expelling phlegm and removing blood stasis method and the treatment group was given additional acupuncture treatment based on control group ,30 d as one course of treatment. Results: The effective rate was 73.33% in the control group and 90.00% in the treatment group. Conclusion: The curative effect of expelling phlegm and removing blood stasis method combined with acupuncture in the treatment of tinnitus is distinct.

  9. The Earth's Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In the last five years, scientists have been able to monitor our changing planet in ways never before possible. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, has given researchers an unprecedented view of the biological engine that drives life on Earth-the countless forms of plants that cover the land and fill the oceans. 'There is no question the Earth is changing. SeaWiFS has enabled us, for the first time, to monitor the biological consequences of that change-to see how the things we do, as well as natural variability, affect the Earth's ability to support life,' said Gene Carl Feldman, SeaWiFS project manager at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. SeaWiFS data, based on continuous daily global observations, have helped scientists make a more accurate assessment of the oceans' role in the global carbon cycle. The data provide a key parameter in a number of ecological and environmental studies as well as global climate-change modeling. The images of the Earth's changing land, ocean and atmosphere from SeaWiFS have documented many previously unrecognized phenomena. The image above shows the global biosphere from June 2002 measured by SeaWiFS. Data in the oceans is chlorophyll concentration, a measure of the amount of phytoplankton (microscopic plants) living in the ocean. On land SeaWiFS measures Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, an indication of the density of plant growth. For more information and images, read: SeaWiFS Sensor Marks Five Years Documenting Earth'S Dynamic Biosphere Image courtesy SeaWiFS project and copyright Orbimage.

  10. Sulfur in Earth's Mantle and Its Behavior During Core Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Nancy L.; Righter,Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The density of Earth's outer core requires that about 5-10% of the outer core be composed of elements lighter than Fe-Ni; proposed choices for the "light element" component of Earth's core include H, C, O, Si, S, and combinations of these elements [e.g. 1]. Though samples of Earth's core are not available, mantle samples contain elemental signatures left behind from the formation of Earth's core. The abundances of siderophile (metal-loving) elements in Earth's mantle have been used to gain insight into the early accretion and differentiation history of Earth, the process by which the core and mantle formed, and the composition of the core [e.g. 2-4]. Similarly, the abundance of potential light elements in Earth's mantle could also provide constraints on Earth's evolution and core composition. The S abundance in Earth's mantle is 250 ( 50) ppm [5]. It has been suggested that 250 ppm S is too high to be due to equilibrium core formation in a high pressure, high temperature magma ocean on early Earth and that the addition of S to the mantle from the subsequent accretion of a late veneer is consequently required [6]. However, this earlier work of Li and Agee [6] did not parameterize the metalsilicate partitioning behavior of S as a function of thermodynamic variables, limiting the different pressure and temperature conditions during core formation that could be explored. Here, the question of explaining the mantle abundance of S is revisited, through parameterizing existing metal-silicate partitioning data for S and applying the parameterization to core formation in Earth.

  11. Reversals of the Earth's Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Duene E.

    J.A. Jacobs of Cambridge University has written a concise, authoritative, and up-todate text on reversals of the earth's magnetic field. Chapter 1 is a concise summary of the basic attributes of the geomagnetic field and its behavior in different time frames. It explains spherical harmonic analysis of the field and presents the history of acquisition of the data that best represent the recent field. Lastly, it includes a short summary of the origin and electrodynamics of the magnetic field, outlining the current theoretical basis for its generation.

  12. Optical remote sensing of the earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Wellman, J. B.; Barnes, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    In the present assessment of the contributions of optical earth resources remote sensing in the 0.4-15.0 micron region, attention is given to underlying principles, applications to scientific disciplines such as geology, hydrology and oceanography, the recent development history of the requisite sensors, and sensor development trends. Development status characterizations are given for thematic mapping, modular optoelectronic multispectral scanning, the telescope/CCD 'SPOT' program of France, the thermal IR multispectral scanner for mineral signature identification, airborne imaging spectrometry, and the Advanced Visible and IR Imaging Spectrometer that is nearing deployment. Technology development trends and the capabilities they portend are projected.

  13. 3种不同血瘀证动物模型的建立与评价%The establishment and evaluation of three different kinds of animal model of blood stasis syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁耀月; 李佳佳; 董世芬; 张荣; 袁悦莹; 孙建宁

    2016-01-01

    目的:建立痰浊血瘀、气滞血瘀、痰浊+气滞血瘀大鼠模型,研究不同血瘀状态动物模型的特征。方法选用SD大鼠,随机分为正常对照组、高脂饲料组、慢性刺激组( chro-nic unpredictable mild stress,CUMS)、高脂饲料+慢性刺激组,分别采用相应因素干预6周。于2、4、6周动态监测动物体重、旷场行为、血脂和血清皮质酮指标;实验终点(6周)采用小动物超声和左心室插管法检测心功能,采用黏度仪、红细胞变形/聚集测试仪检测血液流变性相关指标。结果与正常对照组大鼠相比,采用高脂饲料、慢性不可预知性刺激后均可引起血瘀状态,对动物的行为学、血脂、心脏功能、血液黏度造成了不同程度的影响,当两因素叠加时,血瘀相关指标变化最明显,表现为:与正常对照组比较,体重明显降低(P<0.01),2周时水平运动、垂直运动、运动时间均减少(P<0.01或 P <0.05),2周、4周时,血清皮质酮上升( P <0.01或P<0.05),4周、6周时TG明显上升(P<0.01)。6周时,血流速度减慢(P<0.01),收缩末期左室前壁、后壁厚度均增厚(P<0.01或P<0.05),舒张期左心室指数上升(P<0.01),左心室最大收缩速率降低(P<0.05),全血黏度上升(P<0.01)。结论高脂饲料喂养和慢性不可预知性刺激均可形成血瘀状态,但是具有不同的特点。当两因素叠加时,动物可明显出现行为学、血液黏度、心脏功能、血脂等指标的异常,可为血瘀证以及相关药物的研究提供依据。%Aim To establish phlegm and blood stasis, qi-stag-nation and blood stasis, phlegm turbid+qi-stagnation and blood stasis model in rats and to study the characteristics of animal models with different blood stasis. Methods SD rats were ran-domly divided into normal group, high fat diet group, chronic unpredictable mild stress group ( CUMS ) and high fat diet +chronic unpredictable mild stress group. Different states

  14. Adrenalectomía bilateral laparoscópica por metástasis asincrónica de melanoma: comunicación de un caso con sobrevida prolongada

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Presentar un caso de metástasis suprarrenal bilateral asincrónica de Melanoma cutáneo tratado con adrenalectomía laparoscópica bilateral. Caso clínico: Paciente de 70 años con antecedente de melanoma del pabellón auricular extirpado 7 años antes de su consulta urológica. Posteriormente, presenta una recidiva bronquial tratada con quimioterapia, radioterapia y neumonectomía derecha. En sus exámenes de seguimiento una Tomografía computada muestra el hallazgo incidental de una lesión t...

  15. Meta-analysis of Statistical Frequency Relationship Between Heart Blood Stasis and Phlegm Blockage of CHD%CHD心血瘀阻型与痰浊痹阻型频数统计关系的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何茜; 田松

    2013-01-01

    从循证医学的角度评价分析CHD心血瘀阻型与痰浊痹阻型的的分布情况.方法:通过文献计量学方法分析纳入文献的有效性,代表性.利用Meta分析专用软件Review Manager 4.2对近10年CHD辨证分型的相关文献中心血瘀阻型与痰浊痹阻型数据进行Meta分析.结果:纳入文献的发表杂志主要是辽宁中医杂志,中国中医急症杂志,省份主要集中在湖南,广东等地,具有一定的代表性.CHD心血瘀阻型的证型较痰浊痹阻型临床分布广泛.结论:所纳入的文献主要集中在经济比较发达的地区,具有一定的代表性;另一方面心血瘀阻型是冠心病证型分布的主要证型,为临床治疗提供了有力的理论指导.%Objective:The investigation of the distribution relationship with blood stasis and phlegm blockage of CHD based on evidence-based medicine was made.Methods:Through the method of bibliometrics analysis into the literature on the effectiveness and representation,and Meta-analysis was used by software Review Manger 4.2 for the relevant literature in the blood stasis type and phlegm blockage type in 10 years.Results:It was significant because we can get that the articles were mainly published in Liaoning Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Chinese Medicine Emergency Magazine.The articles basically centered in Hunan,Guangdong and other places.On the other hand,CHD of blood stasis syndrome was common distributed.Conclusion:It has the certain representation that incorporating literature mainly concentrated in the economically developed areas.On the other hand the blood stasis type of coronary heart disease is the main syndromes,providing strong theoretical guidance for clinical treatment.

  16. 偏头痛从肝风瘀论治的理论探析及临床应用%Theoretical analysis and clinical application of migraine treatment from the liver, the wind and blood stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付彩红; 邹忆怀

    2016-01-01

    Objective] To discuss the theoretical basis of migraine treatment from the liver, the wind and blood stasis, and summarize the clinical application for providing thoughts for clinical prevention and treatment of migraine. [Methods] From the perspective of etiology and pathogenesis of traditional Chinese medicine, the present review emphasizes on the theoretical basis of migraine treatment from the liver, the wind and blood stasis. Then the composition and therapeutic feature of some effective prescriptions commonly used in clinic will be summarized. [Results] The study provides some evidence and traditional Chinese prescriptions for migraine treatment from the liver, the wind and blood stasis. [Conclusion] The attack of migraine is closely related to the liver, wind and blood stasis, and these treatments have satisfactory clinical effect in prevention and treatment of migraine. Nevertheless, the evaluation criterion of curative effect and the research of modern mechanism in migraine is needed further exploration.%[目的]讨论偏头痛从肝风瘀论治的理论依据,并对其临床应用情况予以概述,为临床防治偏头痛提供指导思路。[方法]从病因病机学角度,结合偏头痛的发病特点,重点介绍偏头痛从肝、从风、从瘀论治的理论依据,并对临床常用的有效方剂的组成和临床疗效特点进行了总结。[结果]为临床从“肝、风、瘀”论治偏头痛提供了理论依据和部分代表方剂。[结论]偏头痛治疗多“从肝风瘀论治”,疗效较佳,但关于偏头痛疗效评价标准的规范和现代机制的研究仍需要不断探索。

  17. Professor LIU Yu-Xin's Clinical Experience on Treating Dysmenorrhea with Cold Stagnation and Blood Stasis%导师刘宇新教授治疗寒凝血瘀型痛经临证体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铭欣; 刘宇新

    2012-01-01

    青春期原发性痛经是临床常见病,导师辨证求因,运用经前温补肾阳、经期祛瘀止痛、经后益气调经之法治疗寒凝血瘀型痛经,疗效显著.%Primary dysmenorrhea in adolescence is a clinical common disease, and professor LIU's diagnosis method is based on the overall analysis of symptoms, the methods of warming and invigorating kidney Yang before menstrual period, eliminating stasis and relieving pain in menstrual period, replenishing qi and regulating the menstrual function after menstrual period, are effective.

  18. Presentacion clínica inusual de metástasis cutánea de carcinoma mamario: A propósito de un caso Inusual Clinical Presentation Of Cutaneous Metastasis From Breast Carcinoma: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Las Metástasis Cutáneas (MC) son entidades clínicas destacadas pues representan entre el 1% al 5 % de las lesiones cutáneas observadas en Dermatología, adquieren mayor importancia ya que pueden ser el primer o único signo clínico de un tumor oculto. Pueden ser únicas o múltiples, asintomáticas y de aspecto clínico variado. Eventualmente cualquier neoplasia maligna puede metastatizar en la piel, pero en la mujer el origen mamario es el más frecuente y en el hombre ese lugar está ocupado por lo...

  19. Estudio del manejo anestésico perioperatorio en los pacientes intervenidos por metástasis hepáticas de cáncer colorrectal: Anestesia general "versus" anestesia combinada

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Navarro, Guillermo Ignacio; Serrablo Requejo, Alejandro; Martínez Ubieto, Javier; Borrego Estella, Vicente Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: En la actualidad, existe suficiente experiencia acumulada en estudios retrospectivos y prospectivos como para considerar la resección hepática como el tratamiento de elección para algunos pacientes con metástasis hepáticas de cáncer colorrectal. La técnica anestésica combinada (Anestesia general asociada a técnica analgésica epidural) es una opción anestésico-analgésica aceptada y utilizada frecuentemente para el manejo perioperatorio de cirugía abdominal mayor, torácica y cardi...

  20. Earth: A Ringed Planet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, L. O.; Povenmire, H.

    2010-12-01

    Among the most beautiful findings of the Space Age have been the discoveries of planetary rings. Not only Saturn but also Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune have rings; Saturn’s ring system has structures newly discovered; even Saturn's moon Rhea itself has a ring. All these are apparently supplied by material from the planetary moons (Rhea's ring by Rhea itself). The question naturally arises, why should the Earth not have a ring, and on the other hand, if it does, why has it not been observed? No rings have yet been observed in the inner solar system, but after all, rings in the inner solar system might simply tend to be fainter and more transient than those of the outer solar system: the inner solar system is more affected by the solar wind, and the Sun’s perturbing gravitational influence is greater. J.A. O’Keefe first suggested (1980) that Earth might have a ring system of its own. An Earth ring could account for some climate events. O’Keefe remarked that formation or thickening of a ring system in Earth’s equatorial plane could drive glaciation by deepening the chill of the winter hemisphere. (It is very well established that volcanic dust is an effective agent for the extinction of sunlight; this factor can be overwhelmingly apparent in eclipse observations.) O’Keefe died in 2000 and the speculation was not pursued, but the idea of an Earth ring has a prima facie reasonableness that calls for its renewed consideration. The program of this note is to hypothesize that, as O’Keefe proposed: (a) an Earth ring system exists; (b) it affects Earth's weather and climate; (c) the tektite strewn fields comprise filaments of the ring fallen to Earth's surface on various occasions of disturbance by comets or asteroids. On this basis, and drawing on the world's weather records, together with the Twentieth Century Reanalysis by NCEP/CIRES covering the period 1870-2010 and the geology of the tektite strewn fields, we herein propose the hypothesized Earth ring

  1. In search of future earths: assessing the possibility of finding Earth analogues in the later stages of their habitable lifetimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley-James, Jack T; Greaves, Jane S; Raven, John A; Cockell, Charles S

    2015-05-01

    Earth will become uninhabitable within 2-3 Gyr as a result of the increasing luminosity of the Sun changing the boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ). Predictions about the future of habitable conditions on Earth include declining species diversity and habitat extent, ocean loss, and changes to geochemical cycles. Testing these predictions is difficult, but the discovery of a planet that is an analogue to future Earth could provide the means to test them. This planet would need to have an Earth-like biosphere history and to be approaching the inner edge of the HZ at present. Here, we assess the possibility of finding such a planet and discuss the benefits of analyzing older Earths. Finding an old-Earth analogue in nearby star systems would be ideal, because this would allow for atmospheric characterization. Hence, as an illustrative example, G stars within 10 pc of the Sun are assessed as potential old-Earth-analog hosts. Six of these represent good potential hosts. For each system, a hypothetical Earth analogue is placed at locations within the continuously habitable zone (CHZ) that would allow enough time for Earth-like biosphere development. Surface temperature evolution over the host star's main sequence lifetime (assessed by using a simple climate model) is used to determine whether the planet would be in the right stage of its late-habitable lifetime to exhibit detectable biosignatures. The best candidate, in terms of the chances of planet formation in the CHZ and of biosignature detection, is 61 Virginis. However, planet formation studies suggest that only a small fraction (0.36%) of G stars in the solar neighborhood could host an old-Earth analogue. If the development of Earth-like biospheres is rare, requiring a sequence of low-probability events to occur, biosphere evolution models suggest they are rarer still, with only thousands being present in the Galaxy as a whole.

  2. Rotation and magnetism of Earth`s inner core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, G.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Roberts, P.H. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1996-12-13

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the geodynamo suggest that a super-rotation of Earth`s solid inner core relative to the mantle is maintained by magnetic coupling between the inner core and an eastward thermal wind in the fluid outer core. This mechanism, which is analogous to a synchronous motor, also plays a fundamental role in the generation of Earth`s magnetic field. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Visualizing Earth Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A.; Stibbon, E.; Harris, R.

    2016-12-01

    Earth materials are fundamental to art. They are pigments, they are clay, they provide form and color. Earth scientists, however, rarely attempt to make the physical properties of Earth materials visible through art, and similarly many artists use Earth materials without fully understanding their physical and chemical properties. Here we explore the intersection between art and science through study of the physical properties of Earth materials as characterized in the laboratory, and as transferred to paper using different techniques and suspending media. One focus of this collaboration is volcanic ash. Ash is interesting scientifically because its form provides information on the fundamental processes that drive volcanic eruptions, and determines its transport properties, and thus its potential to affect populations far downwind of the volcano. Ash properties also affect its behavior as an art material. From an aesthetic point of view, ash lends a granular surface to the image; it is also uncontrollable, and thus requires engagement between artist and medium. More fundamentally, using ash in art creates an exchange between the medium and the subject matter, and imparts something of the physical, visceral experience of volcanic landscapes to the viewer. Another component of this work uses powdered rock as a printing medium for geologic maps. Because different types of rock create powders with different properties (grain size distributions and shapes), the geology is communicated not only as color, but also by the physical characteristics of the material as it interacts with the paper. More importantly, the use of actual rocks samples as printing material for geologic maps not only makes a direct connection between the map and the material it represents, but also provides an emotional connection between the map, the viewer and the landscape, its colors, textures and geological juxtapositions. Both case studies provide examples not only of ways in which artists can

  4. Towards earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Meijer, R. J.; Smit, F. D.; Brooks, F. D.; Fearick, R. W.; Wortche, H. J.; Mantovani, F.

    2006-01-01

    The programme Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH) proposes to build ten underground facilities each hosting a telescope. Each telescope consists of many detector modules, to map the radiogenic heat sources deep in the interior of the Earth by utilising direction sensitive geoneutrino detection.

  5. Life, hierarchy, and the thermodynamic machinery of planet Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidon, Axel

    2010-12-01

    Throughout Earth's history, life has increased greatly in abundance, complexity, and diversity. At the same time, it has substantially altered the Earth's environment, evolving some of its variables to states further and further away from thermodynamic equilibrium. For instance, concentrations in atmospheric oxygen have increased throughout Earth's history, resulting in an increased chemical disequilibrium in the atmosphere as well as an increased redox gradient between the atmosphere and the Earth's reducing crust. These trends seem to contradict the second law of thermodynamics, which states for isolated systems that gradients and free energy are dissipated over time, resulting in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium. This seeming contradiction is resolved by considering planet Earth as a coupled, hierarchical and evolving non-equilibrium thermodynamic system that has been substantially altered by the input of free energy generated by photosynthetic life. Here, I present this hierarchical thermodynamic theory of the Earth system. I first present simple considerations to show that thermodynamic variables are driven away from a state of thermodynamic equilibrium by the transfer of power from some other process and that the resulting state of disequilibrium reflects the past net work done on the variable. This is applied to the processes of planet Earth to characterize the generation and transfer of free energy and its dissipation, from radiative gradients to temperature and chemical potential gradients that result in chemical, kinetic, and potential free energy and associated dynamics of the climate system and geochemical cycles. The maximization of power transfer among the processes within this hierarchy yields thermodynamic efficiencies much lower than the Carnot efficiency of equilibrium thermodynamics and is closely related to the proposed principle of Maximum Entropy Production (MEP). The role of life is then discussed as a photochemical process that generates

  6. China Rare Earth Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ February, 2010 Rare earth separation plants and downstream producers like NdFeB magnetic materials and phosphor materials successively ceased production due to Spring Festival, Chinese New Year. Transactions in rare earth market were few affected by public holidays.

  7. Mirador - Earth Surface and Interior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Science data access made simple. The goal of the Earth Surface and Interior focus area is to assess, mitigate and forecast the natural hazards that affect...

  8. China Rare Earth Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Active demands from downstream industry drove the price rise of rare earth products in Chinese domestic marketrecently, particularly didymium and dysprosium products. Prices of other rare earth products remained stable.

  9. China rare earth market review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Rare earth market fluctuated slightly recently and the transactions remained sluggish. Environment control was strengthened in southern China and many rare earth plants had gone out of production. Some traders were considering selling commodities at low p

  10. NASA Benefits Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several ways in which NASA research has benefited Earth and made life on Earth better. These innovations include: solar panels, recycled pavement, thermometer pill, invisible braces for straightening teeth, LASIK, aerodynamic helmets and tires for bicycles, cataract detection, technology that was used to remove Anthrax spores from mail handling facilities, study of atomic oxygen erosion of materials has informed the restoration of artwork, macroencapsulation (a potential mechanism to deliver anti cancer drugs to specific sites), and research on a salmonella vaccine. With research on the International Space Station just beginning, there will be opportunities for entrepreneurs and other government agencies to access space for their research and development. As well as NASA continuing its own research on human health and technology development.

  11. Life Before Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Sharov, Alexei A

    2013-01-01

    An extrapolation of the genetic complexity of organisms to earlier times suggests that life began before the Earth was formed. Life may have started from systems with single heritable elements that are functionally equivalent to a nucleotide. The genetic complexity, roughly measured by the number of non-redundant functional nucleotides, is expected to have grown exponentially due to several positive feedback factors: gene cooperation, duplication of genes with their subsequent specialization, and emergence of novel functional niches associated with existing genes. Linear regression of genetic complexity on a log scale extrapolated back to just one base pair suggests the time of the origin of life 9.7 billion years ago. This cosmic time scale for the evolution of life has important consequences: life took ca. 5 billion years to reach the complexity of bacteria; the environments in which life originated and evolved to the prokaryote stage may have been quite different from those envisaged on Earth; there was no...

  12. Heat-pipe Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G

    2013-09-26

    The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics.

  13. Visions of the Future: Astronomy and Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. M. T.

    2001-07-01

    Preface J. M. T. Thompson; Part I. Creation and History of the Universe: 1. Big Bang riddles and their revelations Joao Magueijo and Kim Baskerville; 2. The origin of structure in the universe Jaun Garcia-Bellido; 3. The dark side of the universe Ben Moore; Part II. Exploring the Stars and Planets: 4. The hottest spots in space? Malcolm Gray; 5. Our solar system and beyond in the new millennium Andrew J. Coates; 6. Unveiling the face of the Moon Sarah K. Dunkin and David J. Heather; Part III. Understanding Planet Earth: 7. The Earth's deep interior Lidunka Vocadlo and David Dobson; 8. Three-dimensional imaging of a dynamic Earth Lidia Lonergan and Nicky White; Part IV. Global Warming and Climate Change: 9. Geophysical and astrophysical vortices N. Robb McDonald; 10. Earth's future climate Mark A. Saunders.

  14. Future methane emissions from the heavy-duty natural gas transportation sector for stasis, high, medium, and low scenarios in 2035.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nigel N; Johnson, Derek R; McKain, David L; Wayne, W Scott; Li, Hailin; Rudek, Joseph; Mongold, Ronald A; Sandoval, Cesar; Covington, April N; Hailer, John T

    2017-08-22

    Today's heavy-duty natural gas fueled fleet is estimated to represent less than two percent of the total fleet. However, over the next couple of decades, predictions are that the percentage could grow to represent as much as 50 percent. While fueling switching to natural gas could provide a climate benefit relative to diesel fuel, the potential for emissions of methane (a potent greenhouse gas) from natural gas fueled vehicles has been identified as a concern. Since today's heavy-duty natural gas fueled fleet penetration is low, today's total fleet wide emissions will be also be low regardless of per vehicle emissions. However, predicted growth could result in a significant quantity of methane emissions. To evaluate this potential and identify effective options for minimizing emissions, future growth scenarios of heavy-duty natural gas fueled vehicles and compressed natural gas and liquefied natural gas fueling stations that serve them, have been developed for 2035, when the populations could be significant. The scenarios rely on the most recent measurement campaign of the latest manufactured technology, equipment, and vehicles reported in a companion paper as well as projections of technology and practice advances. These "Pump-to-Wheels"(PTW) projections do not include methane emissions outside of the bounds of the vehicles and fuel stations themselves and should not be confused with a complete Wells-to-Wheels analysis. Stasis, high, medium, and low scenario PTW emission projections for 2035 were 1.32%, 0.67%, 0.33%, and 0.15% of the fuel used. The scenarios highlight that a large emissions reductions could be realized with closed crankcase operation, improved best practices, and implementation of vent mitigation technologies. Recognition of the potential pathways for emission reductions could further enhance the heavy-duty transportation sectors ability to reduce carbon emissions. Implications Newly collected Pump to Wheels methane emissions data for current

  15. Qi and removing blood stasis in treating early stage cirrhosis%益气化瘀法治疗早期肝硬化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶思文

    2012-01-01

      目的:就益气化瘀法治疗早期肝硬化进行探讨。方法:选取三个案例进行分析,将益气健脾,活血化瘀辨证治疗肝硬化。结果:案例1:服上方治疗3个月后病愈。随访至今未见再发。案例2诸症悉除,复查肝功能,肝胆脾彩超均属正常范围。后用上方加减研末冲服月余,以巩固疗效,随访1年未见再发。案例3诸症悉除,复查肝功能及肝胆脾彩超,其中彩超示:脾脏肿大,余项均属正常范围。后用上方加减蜜丸服药月余,病告痊愈,随访2年未见再发。结论:臌胀为临床四大疑难重症之一,其病机为肝脾肾三脏功能失调,气、血、水停于腹中,本虚标实,虚实夹杂的病理过程。%  Objective:Yiqi Huayu method treatment early time liver cirrhosis of. Methods:a total of three cases were analyzed, the Qi of the spleen, promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis syndrome differentiation and treatment of liver cirrhosis. Results:the case of 1: served 3 months after the treatment was over. Up to now no longer hair. 2 cases are in addition to all disease, the liver function, liver spleen ultrasound within the normal range. After using the above addition and subtraction grind end each month, in order to consolidate the curative effect, follow-up of 1 years again. 3 cases are in addition to all disease, the liver function and liver spleen ultrasound, including ultrasonography indicated: enlargement of spleen, the remainder were within normal range. After taking over addition and subtraction pill month, disease to cure, follow-up of 2 years showed no recurrence. Conclusion:swelling for clinical four severe problems, its pathogenesis is spleen kidney three dirty function disorders, gas, blood, water stop in the abdomen, the superficial, inclusion of actual pathological process.

  16. Thirty Cases of the Blood-Stasis Type Prolapse of Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Treated by Acupuncture at the Xi (cleft) Point plus Herbal Intervention Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuang Ziqi; Jiang Ganghui

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical therapeuric effects and explore the mechanism of acupuncture at the xi (cleft)points combined witll herbal intervention injection for treatment of prolapse of the lumbar intervertebral disc with TCM symptoms and signs of blood stasis.Methods:The 60 CaSeS in this series were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group,30 cases in each group.The patients in the treatment group were treated by acupuncture at Jiaji L4-S1,Waiqiu(GB 36),Weizhong(BL 40)and Xiaxi (GB 43)plus intervention injection of Gegensu Zhusheye(葛根素注射液 Puerarin Injectio).The patients of the control group were given the routine acupuncture combined with injection of Gegensu Zhusheye (葛根素注射液 Puerarin Injectio)into the Ashi points.The changes in interleukin-6(IL-6) and hempdynamics were observed before and after treatment in both the two groups.Resuits:The total therapeutic effect in the treatment group was obviously better(P<0.05)and the treatment course was obviously shorter than that of the control group(P<0.01).After the treatment,the total score,the visual analog scale(VAS)pain-evaluating score,and the score in straight-leg raising test were obviously improved in both the two groups,in which the improvement in the treatment group shown by the score in straight-leg raising test and the total score superior to that of the control group(P<0.05).The IL-6 level,red blood cell ratio,K value of blood sedimentation equation.and whole blood high shearing specific viscosity were improved in both the two groups.but the treatment group showed better improvement than that of the control group in the red blood cell ratio,K value of blood sedimentation,and IL-6 level(P<0.05 or P<0.01).Conclusions:The treatment group was superior to the control group in improvement of the symptoms and signs,the daily life ability,and in pain alleviation.The mechanism is possibly related witb the improvement in the IL-6 level and hemodynamic indexes

  17. Testing MOND on Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Ignatiev, A Yu

    2014-01-01

    MOND is one of the most popular alternatives to Dark Matter (DM). While efforts to directly detect DM in laboratories have been steadily pursued over the years, the proposed Earth-based tests of MOND are still in their infancy. Some proposals recently appeared in the literature are briefly reviewed, and it is argued that collaborative efforts of theorists and experimenters are needed to move forward in this exciting new area. Possible future directions are outlined.

  18. Superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T [Clinton, TN; D& #x27; Urso, Brian R [Clinton, TN

    2012-07-10

    A superhydrophobic powder is prepared by coating diatomaceous earth (DE) with a hydrophobic coating on the particle surface such that the coating conforms to the topography of the DE particles. The hydrophobic coating can be a self assembly monolayer of a perfluorinated silane coupling agent. The DE is preferably natural-grade DE where organic impurities have been removed. The superhydrophobic powder can be applied as a suspension in a binder solution to a substrate to produce a superhydrophobic surface on the substrate.

  19. Why Earth aurorae shine?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ By using the data obtained from three satellites of the Cluster mission launched by the European Space Agency (ESA), CAO Jinbin from the CAS Center for Space Science and Applied Research (CSSAR) and his US and European co-workers have clarified why Earth's aurorae shine.Their work entitled Joint Observations by Cluster Satellites of Bursty Bulk Flows in the Magnetotail was published in a recent issue of Journal of Geophysical Research.

  20. Life Before Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Sharov, Alexei A; Gordon, Richard

    2013-01-01

    An extrapolation of the genetic complexity of organisms to earlier times suggests that life began before the Earth was formed. Life may have started from systems with single heritable elements that are functionally equivalent to a nucleotide. The genetic complexity, roughly measured by the number of non-redundant functional nucleotides, is expected to have grown exponentially due to several positive feedback factors: gene cooperation, duplication of genes with their subsequent specialization,...

  1. Mission to Planet Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Wilson, Gregory S.; Backlund, Peter W.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA program described is an international study to predict changes in the earth's environment by means of multidisciplinary remote sensing from satellites. An international consortium dedicates satellites with advanced sensors to data collection, and a data processing system is described to collect and analyze a large amount of terrestrial data. The program requires international multidisciplinary involvement to collect and interpret the data and thereby manage and preserve the global environment.

  2. Earth Abides Arsenic Biotransformations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic element and causes health problems throughout the world. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are largely determined by its speciation, and arsenic speciation changes are driven, at least to some extent, by biological processes. In this article, biotransformation of arsenic is reviewed from the perspective of the formation of Earth and the evolution of life, and the connection between arsenic geochemistry and biology ...

  3. Earth before life

    OpenAIRE

    Marzban, Caren; Viswanathan, Raju; Yurtsever, Ulvi

    2014-01-01

    Background A recent study argued, based on data on functional genome size of major phyla, that there is evidence life may have originated significantly prior to the formation of the Earth. Results Here a more refined regression analysis is performed in which 1) measurement error is systematically taken into account, and 2) interval estimates (e.g., confidence or prediction intervals) are produced. It is shown that such models for which the interval estimate for the time origin of the genome i...

  4. Hunan Rare Earth Group Approved

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Following Guangdong,Guangxi,Fujian and Jiangxi,Hunan announced that it would consolidate its rare earth resources-the consolidation plan of Hunan Rare Earth Group has been approved. Consolidation of the rare earth industry of south China is in full swing.According to "Several Opinions of the State Council on Promoting the Sustainable and Healthy Development of Rare Earth Industry"(hereinafter referred to as "Several Opinions")released in 2011,

  5. China Rare Earth Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    September 20-30, 2011 Rare earth market remained steady recently. Quoted prices of didymium products by separation and smelting plants kept stable. Some rare earth industrial zones in Baotou, Sichuan and Ganzhou had suspended production with the intensified environmental protection control and consolidation of rare earth industry. Persons in the industry hold a positive attitude toward the rare earth market after the National Day' s holiday in China. The market will develop healthily and orderly in the future.

  6. Characterising Super-Earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia D.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The era of Super-Earths has formally begun with the detection of transiting low-mass exoplanets CoRoT-7b and GJ 1214b. In the path of characterising super-Earths, the first step is to infer their composition. While the discovery data for CoRoT-7b, in combination with the high atmospheric mass loss rate inferred from the high insolation, suggested that it was a rocky planet, the new proposed mass values have widened the possibilities. The combined mass range 1−10 M⊕ allows for a volatile-rich (and requires it if the mass is less than 4 M⊕ , an Earth-like or a super-Mercury-like composition. In contrast, the radius of GJ 1214b is too large to admit a solid composition, thus it necessarily to have a substantial gas layer. Some evidence suggests that within this gas layer H/He is a small but non-negligible component. These two planets are the first of many transiting low-mass exoplanets expected to be detected and they exemplify the limitations faced when inferring composition, which come from the degenerate character of the problem and the large error bars in the data.

  7. EARTH ROADS ARE EASY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Whitten

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The earliest European immigrants in America traveled on waterways and on pathways worn into the earth by animals and Native Americans. Once their communities began to thrive, settlers widened paths and cleared new roads and streets then began experimenting with inexpensive surfacing to reduce dust in dry weather and mud in wet. “Earth Roads Are Easy” investigates materials and techniques used to maintain primitive thoroughfares with a minimum of effort and expense. The options range from the mundane—clay, sand, gravel, calcium chloride, oil, and tar—to the extraordinary—water glass, adobe clay, beet juice, and carpeting.There is no more dfficult problem confronting highway engineers than that of properly constructing and maintaining an earth road. The work may be less spectacular than the construction and maintenance of hard-surfaced roads, but there is greater latitude in location, methods of construction and choice of materials, consequently there is more scope for the exercise of sound judgment on the part of the engineer.1

  8. The Active Solid Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinger, Cynthia

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic processes in Earth's crust, mantle and core shape Earth's surface and magnetic field over time scales of seconds to millennia, and even longer time scales as recorded in the ca. 4 Ga rock record. Our focus is the earthquake-volcano deformation cycles that occur over human time scales, and their comparison with time-averaged deformation studies, with emphasis on mantle plume provinces where magma and volatile release and vertical tectonics are readily detectable. Active deformation processes at continental and oceanic rift and back arc zones provide critical constraints on mantle dynamics, the role of fluids (volatiles, magma, water), and plate rheology. For example, recent studies of the East African rift zone, which formed above one of Earth's largest mantle upwellings reveal that magma production and volatile release rates are comparable to those of magmatic arcs, the archetypal zones of continental crustal creation. Finite-length faults achieve some plate deformation, but magma intrusion in the form of dikes accommodates extension in continental, back-arc, and oceanic rifts, and intrusion as sills causes permanent uplift that modulates the local time-space scales of earthquakes and volcanoes. Volatile release from magma intrusion may reduce fault friction and permeability, facilitating aseismic slip and creating magma pathways. We explore the implications of active deformation studies to models of the time-averaged structure of plume and extensional provinces in continental and oceanic plate settings.

  9. Earth System Monitoring, Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, John

    This section provides sensing and data collection methodologies, as well as an understanding of Earth's climate parameters and natural and man-made phenomena, to support a scientific assessment of the Earth system as a whole, and its response to natural and human-induced changes. The coverage ranges from climate change factors and extreme weather and fires to oil spill tracking and volcanic eruptions. This serves as a basis to enable improved prediction and response to climate change, weather, and natural hazards as well as dissemination of the data and conclusions. The data collection systems include satellite remote sensing, aerial surveys, and land- and ocean-based monitoring stations. Our objective in this treatise is to provide a significant portion of the scientific and engineering basis of Earth system monitoring and to provide this in 17 detailed articles or chapters written at a level for use by university students through practicing professionals. The reader is also directed to the closely related sections on Ecological Systems, Introduction and also Climate Change Modeling Methodology, Introduction as well as Climate Change Remediation, Introduction to. For ease of use by students, each article begins with a glossary of terms, while at an average length of 25 print pages each, sufficient detail is presented for use by professionals in government, universities, and industries. The chapters are individually summarized below.

  10. Afganistan and rare earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian M. Dobrescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available On our planet, over a quarter of new technologies for the economic production of industrial goods, are using rare earths, which are also called critical minerals and industries that rely on these precious items being worth of an estimated nearly five trillion dollars, or 5 percent of world gross domestic product. In the near future, competition will increase for the control of rare earth minerals embedded in high-tech products. Rare minerals are in the twenty-first century what oil accounted for in the twentieth century and coal in the nineteenth century: the engine of a new industrial revolution. Future energy will be produced increasingly by more sophisticated technological equipment based not just on steel and concrete, but incorporating significant quantities of metals and rare earths. Widespread application of these technologies will result in an exponential increase in demand for such minerals, and what is worrying is that minerals of this type are almost nowhere to be found in Europe and in other industrialized countries in the world, such as U.S. and Japan, but only in some Asian countries, like China and Afghanistan.

  11. Sun, Earth and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    This Second Edition of Sun, Earth and Sky updates the popular text by providing comprehensive accounts of the most recent discoveries made by five modern solar spacecraft during the past decade. Their instruments have used sound waves to peer deep into the Sun’s inner regions and measure the temperature of its central nuclear reactor, and extended our gaze far from the visible Sun to record energetic outbursts that threaten Earth. Breakthrough observations with the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are also included, which explain the new physics of ghostly neutrinos and solve the problematic mismatch between the predicted and observed amounts of solar neutrinos. This new edition of Sun, Earth and Sky also describes our recent understanding of how the Sun’s outer atmosphere is heated to a million degrees, and just where the Sun’s continuous winds come from. As humans we are more intimately linked with our life-sustaining Sun than with any other astronomical object, and the new edition therefore p...

  12. China Rare Earth Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Supply of rare earth concentrate remained tight recently. Rare earth market exhibited rising tendency holistically Affected by tight supply of rare earth concentrate, many plants were operated under the capacity. Supply of didymium oxide got tighter and the price was on rising.

  13. Story-telling, Earth-Sciences and Geoethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohle, Martin; Sibilla, Anna; Graells, Robert Casals i.

    2015-04-01

    People are engineers, even the artist. People like stories, even the engineers. Engineering shapes the intersections of humans and their environments including with the geosphere. Geoethics considers values upon which to base practices how to intersect the geosphere. Story-telling is a skilful human practice to describe perception of values in different contexts to influence their application. Traditional earth-centric narrations of rural communities have been lost in the global urbanisation process. These former-time narrations related to the "sacrum" - matters not possible to be explained with reasoning. Science and technology, industrialisation and global urbanisation require an other kind of earth-centric story-telling. Now at the fringe of the Anthropocene, humans can base their earth-centricity on knowledge and scientific thinking. We argue that modern story-telling about the functioning of Earth's systems and the impact of humankind's activities on these systems is needed, also in particular because citizens rarely can notice how the geosphere intersects with their daily dealings; putting weather and disasters aside. Modern earth-centric story-telling would offer citizens opportunities to develop informed position towards humankind's place within earth-systems. We argue that such "earth-science story-lines" should be part of the public discourse to engage citizens who have more or less "expert-knowledge". Understanding the functioning of the Earth is needed for economy and values suitable for an anthropophil society. Multi-faceted discussion of anthropogenic global change and geoengineering took off recently; emerging from discussions about weather and hazard mitigation. Going beyond that example; we illustrate opportunities for rich story-telling on intersections of humans' activities and the geosphere. These 'modern narrations' can weave science, demographics, linguistics and cultural histories into earth-centric stories around daily dealings of citizens

  14. Strategy for earth explorers in global earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the current NASA Earth System Science initiative is to obtain a comprehensive scientific understanding of the Earth as an integrated, dynamic system. The centerpiece of the Earth System Science initiative will be a set of instruments carried on polar orbiting platforms under the Earth Observing System program. An Earth Explorer program can open new vistas in the earth sciences, encourage innovation, and solve critical scientific problems. Specific missions must be rigorously shaped by the demands and opportunities of high quality science and must complement the Earth Observing System and the Mission to Planet Earth. The committee believes that the proposed Earth Explorer program provides a substantial opportunity for progress in the earth sciences, both through independent missions and through missions designed to complement the large scale platforms and international research programs that represent important national commitments. The strategy presented is intended to help ensure the success of the Earth Explorer program as a vital stimulant to the study of the planet.

  15. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education What's New Emergency Preparedness and You Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... or can be used as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min ...

  16. "Hillary - en god historie"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2007-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Carl Bernsteins Hillary Rodham Clinton og Michael Ehrenreichs Hillary - En amerikansk historie Udgivelsesdato: 15. november......Anmeldelse af Carl Bernsteins Hillary Rodham Clinton og Michael Ehrenreichs Hillary - En amerikansk historie Udgivelsesdato: 15. november...

  17. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Reaching At-Risk Populations MedCon Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  18. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What's New Emergency Preparedness and You Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  19. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education What's New Emergency Preparedness and You Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... or can be used as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min ...

  20. The fluvial history of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Michael H

    2012-05-13

    River channels and valleys have been observed on several planetary bodies in addition to the Earth. Long sinuous valleys on Venus, our Moon and Jupiter's moon Io are clearly formed by lava, and branching valleys on Saturn's moon Titan may be forming today by rivers of methane. But by far the most dissected body in our Solar System apart from the Earth is Mars. Branching valleys that in plan resemble terrestrial river valleys are common throughout the most ancient landscapes preserved on the planet. Accompanying the valleys are the remains of other indicators of erosion and deposition, such as deltas, alluvial fans and lake beds. There is little reason to doubt that water was the erosive agent and that early in Mars' history, climatic conditions were very different from the present cold conditions and such that, at least episodically, water could flow across the surface. In addition to the branching valley networks, there are large flood features, termed outflow channels. These are similar to, but dwarf, the largest terrestrial flood channels. The consensus is that these channels were also cut by water although there are other possibilities. The outflow channels mostly postdate the valley networks, although most are still very ancient. They appear to have formed at a time when surface conditions were similar to those that prevail today. There is evidence that glacial activity has modified some of the water-worn valleys, particularly in the 30-50° latitude belts, and ice may also be implicated in the formation of geologically recent, seemingly water-worn gullies on steep slopes. Mars also has had a long volcanic history, and long, sinuous lava channels similar to those on the Moon and Venus are common on and around the large volcanoes. These will not, however, be discussed further; the emphasis here is on the effects of running water on the evolution of the surface.

  1. Adenocarcinoma primario de pulmón metastásico a Schwannoma: Un caso de metástasis de tumor a tumor Tumor-to-tumor metastasis: Pulmonary adenocarcinoma metastatic to Schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO CAMMARATA-SCALISI

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available La coexistencia de múltiples tumores malignos primarios en un huésped no es un evento infrecuente. Sin embargo, la presencia de una neoplasia con metástasis en otra neoplasia (metástasis de tumor a tumor es una entidad inusual, según lo publicado en la literatura el tumor receptor más frecuente es el carcinoma de células renales y el donante el carcinoma de pulmón. En el siguiente reporte se presenta un caso de adenocarcinoma moderadamente diferenciado metastásico a schwannoma, donde por inmunomarcaje con el Factor 1 de Transcripción Tiroidea (TTF-1 se demostró el origen pulmonar de la lesión, este correspondería al primer caso según nuestra revisión bibliográficaThe coexistence of multiple primary malignant tumors in the same host is not unusual; however, tumor-to-tumor metastasis is rare. According to previous publications, the most common recipient tumor is renal cell carcinoma, and lung carcinoma is the most frequent donor site. According our bibliographic search we are presenting the first published case of primary pulmonary moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma metastatic to a schwannoma, demonstrated with Thyroid Transcription Factor 1 (TTF-1; immunostaining has become an important tool for guiding diagnosis of adenocarcinoma

  2. Connections between the bulk composition, geodynamics and habitability of Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinek, A. M.; Jackson, M. G.

    2015-08-01

    The bulk composition of the silicate part of Earth has long been linked to chondritic meteorites. Ordinary chondrites -- the most abundant meteorite class -- are thought to represent planetary building materials. However, a landmark discovery showed that the 142Nd/144Nd ratio of the accessible parts of the modern terrestrial mantle on Earth is greater than that of ordinary chondrites. If Earth was derived from these precursors, mass balance requires that a missing reservoir with 142Nd/144Nd lower than ordinary chondrites was isolated from the accessible mantle within 20 to 30 million years of accretion. This reservoir would host the equivalent of the modern continents' budget of radioactive heat-producing elements (uranium, thorium and potassium), yet has not been discovered. We argue that this reservoir could have been lost to space by ablation from early impactors. If so, Earth's radiogenic heat generation is between 18 and 45% lower than estimates based on a chondritic composition. Calculations of Earth's thermal history that incorporate such reduced radiogenic heating are consistent with a transition to the current plate tectonic mode in the past 2.5 billion years or so, a late onset of the dynamo and an evolving rate of volcanic outgassing consistent with Earth's long-term habitable climate. Reduced heat production compared with Venus and Mars could also explain aspects of the differences between the current climatic regimes of these planets and Earth.

  3. HAD Oral History Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

  4. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  5. The natural history of oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, M

    1965-09-01

    The nuclear reactions occurring in the cores of stars which are believed to produce the element oxygen are first described. Evidence for the absence of free oxygen in the early atmosphere of the earth is reviewed. Mechanisms of creation of atmospheric oxygen by photochemical processes are then discussed in detail. Uncertainty regarding the rate of diffusion of water vapor through the cold trap at 70 km altitude in calculating the rate of the photochemical production of oxygen is avoided by using data for the concentration of hydrogen atoms at 90 km obtained from the Meinel OH absorption bands. It is estimated that the present atmospheric oxygen content could have been produced five to ten times during the earth's history. It is shown that the isotopic composition of atmospheric oxygen is not that of photosynthetic oxygen. The fractionation of oxygen isotopes by organic respiration and oxidation occurs in a direction to enhance the O(18) content of the atmosphere and compensates for the O(18) dilution resulting from photosynthetic oxygen. Thus, an oxygen isotope cycle exists in nature.

  6. Towards a European History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van Dijk (Henk)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractAlthough historical writing is a profession with a long tradition, history as an academic discipline is strongly related to the development of the nation state in the nineteenth century. Notwithstanding specialisations like e.g. cultural history and social and economic history put less e

  7. Modern History of Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Authored by Xu Guangzhi, this book is a subsidiary project of Research Into Traditional Culture and History (of the PRC Ministry of Education) conducted by China Tibetology Research Institute of Tibet University. The book combines modern history of Tibet with modern history of China as a whole. It tells the close ties between various members of the Chinese nation.

  8. Conducting the Medical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Martin A.; Alexander, Randell A.

    2011-01-01

    A key portion of the medical evaluation of child sexual abuse is the medical history. This differs from interviews or histories obtained by other professionals in that it is focuses more on the health and well-being of the child. Careful questions should be asked about all aspects of the child's medical history by a skilled, compassionate,…

  9. History of Science and History of Philologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daston, Lorraine; Most, Glenn W

    2015-06-01

    While both the sciences and the humanities, as currently defined, may be too heterogeneous to be encompassed within a unified historical framework, there is good reason to believe that the history of science and the history of philologies both have much to gain by joining forces. This collaboration has already yielded striking results in the case of the history of science and humanist learning in early modern Europe. This essay argues that first, philology and at least some of the sciences (e.g., astronomy) remained intertwined in consequential ways well into the modern period in Western cultures; and second, widening the scope of inquiry to include other philological traditions in non-Western cultures offers rich possibilities for a comparative history of learned practices. The focus on practices is key; by shifting the emphasis from what is studied to how it is studied, deep commonalities emerge among disciplines--and intellectual traditions--now classified as disparate.

  10. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  11. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  12. Virtual Exploration of Earth's Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A. D.; Bruce, G.; Semken, S. C.; Summons, R. E.; Buxner, S.; Horodyskyj, L.; Kotrc, B.; Swann, J.; Klug Boonstra, S. L.; Oliver, C.

    2014-12-01

    Traditional introductory STEM courses often reinforce misconceptions because the large scale of many classes forces a structured, lecture-centric model of teaching that emphasizes delivery of facts rather than exploration, inquiry, and scientific reasoning. This problem is especially acute in teaching about the co-evolution of Earth and life, where classroom learning and textbook teaching are far removed from the immersive and affective aspects of field-based science, and where the challenges of taking large numbers of students into the field make it difficult to expose them to the complex context of the geologic record. We are exploring the potential of digital technologies and online delivery to address this challenge, using immersive and engaging virtual environments that are more like games than like lectures, grounded in active learning, and deliverable at scale via the internet. The goal is to invert the traditional lecture-centric paradigm by placing lectures at the periphery and inquiry-driven, integrative virtual investigations at the center, and to do so at scale. To this end, we are applying a technology platform we devised, supported by NASA and the NSF, that integrates a variety of digital media in a format that we call an immersive virtual field trip (iVFT). In iVFTs, students engage directly with virtual representations of real field sites, with which they interact non-linearly at a variety of scales via game-like exploration while guided by an adaptive tutoring system. This platform has already been used to develop pilot iVFTs useful in teaching anthropology, archeology, ecology, and geoscience. With support the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, we are now developing and evaluating a coherent suite of ~ 12 iVFTs that span the sweep of life's history on Earth, from the 3.8 Ga metasediments of West Greenland to ancient hominid sites in East Africa. These iVFTs will teach fundamental principles of geology and practices of scientific inquiry, and expose

  13. [The cornea: stasis and dynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Teruo

    2008-03-01

    The physiological roles of the cornea are to conduct external light into the eye, focus it, together with the lens, onto the retina, and to provide rigidity to the entire eyeball. Good vision thus requires maintenance of the transparency and proper refractive shape of the cornea. Although the cornea appears to be a relatively static structure, dynamic processes operate within and around the cornea at the tissue, cell, and molecular level. In this article, I review the mechanisms responsible for maintenance of corneal homeostasis as well as the development of new modes of treatment for various corneal diseases. I. The static cornea: structure and physiological functions. The cornea is derived from ectoderm, so that it can be considered as transparent skin. It is devoid of blood vessels and manifests the highest sensitivity in the entire body. The surface of the cornea is covered by tear fluid, which serves both as a lubricant and as a conduit for regulatory molecules. The cornea is also supplied with oxygen and various nutrients by the aqueous humor and a loop vascular system in addition to tear fluid. The cornea interacts with its surrounding tissues directly as well as indirectly through tear fluid or aqueous humor, with such interactions playing an important role in the regulation of corneal structure and functions. The resident cells of the cornea-epithelial cells, fibroblasts (keratocytes), and endothelial cells--also engage in mutual interactions through network systems. These interactions as well as those with infiltrated cells and regulation by nerves contribute to the maintenance of the normal structure and functions of the cornea as well as to the repair of corneal injuries. II. The dynamic cornea: maintenance of structure and functions by network systems. Developments in laser and computer technology have allowed observation of the cells and collagen fibers within the cornea. Furthermore, progress in cell and molecular biology has allowed characterization of dynamic network systems-including cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions as well as cytokines and neural factors-that contribute to the maintenance of corneal transparency and shape. III. Disruption of network systems: persistent corneal epithelial defects and corneal ulcer. Selection of the appropriate treatment for pathologic lesions of the cornea and the accompanying decrease in visual acuity requires localization of the lesion with regard to the epithelium, stroma, or endothelium of the cornea. In certain instances, however, it is not possible to determine the cause of the problem within the cornea. In such cases, the cause of the pathologic lesion and the target for treatment may lie in the surrounding tissues or environment. For example, corneal epithelial wound healing may be delayed, leading to the development of persistent epithelial defects, as a result of disruption of intercellular junctions between epithelial cells, an abnormality of the corneal basement membrane, altered concentrations of various cytokines in tear fluid, a lowered corneal sensation, or allergic reactions in the lid conjunctiva. Loss of corneal epithelial barrier function can further allow inflammatory cytokines present in tear fluid, together with infiltrated cells, to activate keratocytes and elicit excessive degradation of collagen in the stroma, thereby giving rise to corneal ulcer. IV. Development of new drugs for corneal diseases. We have attempted to apply the results of basic scientific research to the development of new drugs for corneal diseases that remain difficult to treat. The process of authorization for new drugs from the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare takes more than two decades, however. The path from the bench to clinical practice is thus a long one. 1. Development of eyedrops for treatment of persistent corneal epithelial defects. We demonstrated the clinical efficacy of fibronectin eyedrops for the treatment of persistent epithelial defects of the cornea. However, the possibility of blood-borne infections has interfered with the development of serum-derived fibronectin as a drug. An automated machine for the preparation of autologous fibronectin eyedrops has therefore recently been developed. Furthermore, in seeking an alternative to fibronectin eyedrops, we are investigating the effects of a peptide corresponding to the second cell-binding domain of fibronectin on corneal epithelial wound healing. Considering that urokinase-type plasminogen activator may be expressed at the site of corneal epithelial defects and facilitates epithelial migration, the potential clinical application of annexin V, which stimulates the secretion of urokinase-type plasminogen activator for the treatment of persistent corneal epithelial defects is also now under investigation in Japan. 2. Development of eyedrops for treatment of neurotrophic keratopathy. Substance P, a neurotransmitter, stimulates corneal epithelial migration in a synergistic manner with insulin-like growth factor (IGF)--1. We have shown that eyedrops containing both the substance P-derived peptide FGLM-amide and the IGF-1--derived peptide SSSR are effective for the treatment of persistent corneal epithelial defects in individuals with diabetic keratopathy or neurotrophic keratopathy, both of which are associated with a reduction in corneal sensation. 3. Development of drugs for corneal ulcer. Treatment of corneal infection with antibiotics does not necessarily halt the process of corneal ulceration, which is characterized by excessive degradation of stromal collagen, or resolve persistent corneal epithelial defects. In addition to eyedrops for the treatment of persistent corneal epithelial defects, we have therefore also been working on the development of new drugs for the treatment of corneal ulcer. To this end, we have established an experimental system in which corneal fibroblasts are cultured in a three-dimensional collagen gel. With this system, we have shown that triptolide and steroids inhibit collagen degradation by corneal fibroblasts. Triptolide or its derivatives are thus potential drugs for the treatment of corneal ulcer and would work by acting directly on corneal fibroblasts rather than by inhibiting the secreted enzymes(matrix metalloproteinases) responsible for collagen degradation.

  14. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, Arthur C.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Furlong, Kevin P.; Rhea, Susan; Benz, Harley M.

    2010-01-01

    This map illustrates more than one century of global seismicity in the context of global plate tectonics and the Earth's physiography. Primarily designed for use by earth scientists and engineers interested in earthquake hazards of the 20th and early 21st centuries, this map provides a comprehensive overview of strong earthquakes since 1900. The map clearly identifies the location of the 'great' earthquakes (M8.0 and larger) and the rupture area, if known, of the M8.3 or larger earthquakes. The earthquake symbols are scaled proportional to the moment magnitude and therefore to the area of faulting, thus providing a better understanding of the relative sizes and distribution of earthquakes in the magnitude range 5.5 to 9.5. Plotting the known rupture area of the largest earthquakes also provides a better appreciation of the extent of some of the most famous and damaging earthquakes in modern history. All earthquakes shown on the map were carefully relocated using a standard earth reference model and standardized location procedures, thereby eliminating gross errors and biases in locations of historically important earthquakes that are often found in numerous seismicity catalogs.

  15. History of mathematics and history of science

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Tony

    2011-01-01

    This essay argues that the diversity of the history of mathematics community in the United Kingdom has influenced the development of the subject and is a significant factor behind the different concerns often evident in work on the history of mathematics when compared with that of historians of science. The heterogeneous nature of the community, which includes many who are not specialist historians, and the limited opportunities for academic\\ud careers open to practitioners have had a profoun...

  16. Clinical study of Yinqin Qinggan decoction combined with tiopronin on treatment of alcoholic liver disease with heat-damp and blood stasis syndrome%茵芩清肝汤联合硫普罗宁治疗湿热兼血瘀型酒精性肝病的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张压西; 于慧杰; 石松; 叶之华; 向婷婷

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察茵芩清肝汤联合硫普罗宁对酒精性肝病湿热兼血瘀型患者的临床疗效.方法:对武汉市中医医院肝病科门诊110例确诊为酒精性肝病,饮酒史5年以上,近1月内未接受中西药物及其他治疗方法的男性患者,按就诊顺序编号,运用随机数字表法分为治疗组与对照组,各55例.治疗组患者口服茵芩清肝汤和硫普罗宁、对照组患者口服硫普罗宁,观察患者症状、体征、肝功能、血脂、肝纤维化指标、腹部超声波等方面的改善情况,以1个月为1个疗程,共观察两个疗程.结果:通过治疗前后中医证候综合评分的变化来分析各组患者中医证候疗效,结果显示,治疗组总有效率、临床症状改善等方面明显优于对照组(P<0.05),两组患者治疗后肝功能、血脂、血清肝纤维化指标和腹部超声波结果均有明显改善,与本组治疗前比较,差异有显著性意义(P <0.01或P<0.05),且治疗组患者改善更明显.结论:茵芩清肝汤联合硫普罗宁对酒精性肝病湿热兼血瘀型治疗效果好,未见明显不良反应,值得临床推广应用.%Objective: To observe the clinical effects of Yinqin Qinggan decoction combined tiopronin on treatment of alcoholic liver disease with heat-damp and blood stasis syndrome. Methods: One hundred and ten male patients with alcoholic liver disease (history of drinking more than five years, nearly 1 month did not receive Chinese and Western medicine treatment and other therapy) were numbered sequentially according to treatment , and were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, each group was 55 cases. The treatment group were given oral Yin qin Qinggan decoction and tiopronin, the control group was treated with tiopronin only. The symptoms and signs, liver function, blood lipids, liver fibrosis, ultrasound and other aspects were observed for two manths. Results; The total efficiency, clinical symptoms of the treatment group

  17. Toward understanding early Earth evolution: Prescription for approach from terrestrial noble gas and light element records in lunar soils

    OpenAIRE

    Ozima, Minoru; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Podosek, Frank A.; Miura, Yayoi N.

    2008-01-01

    Because of the almost total lack of geological record on the Earth's surface before 4 billion years ago, the history of the Earth during this period is still enigmatic. Here we describe a practical approach to tackle the formidable problems caused by this lack. We propose that examinations of lunar soils for light elements such as He, N, O, Ne, and Ar would shed a new light on this dark age in the Earth's history and resolve three of the most fundamental questions in earth science: the onset ...

  18. Inseparability of science history and discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Herndon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Science is very much a logical progression through time. Progressing along a logical path of discovery is rather like following a path through the wilderness. Occasionally the path splits, presenting a choice; the correct logical interpretation leads to further progress, the wrong choice leads to confusion. By considering deeply the relevant science history, one might begin to recognize past faltering in the logical progression of observations and ideas and, perhaps then, to discover new, more precise understanding. The following specific examples of science faltering are described from a historical perspective: (1 Composition of the Earth's inner core; (2 Giant planet internal energy production; (3 Physical impossibility of Earth-core convection and Earth-mantle convection, and; (4 Thermonuclear ignition of stars. For each example, a revised logical progression is described, leading, respectively, to: (1 Understanding the endo-Earth's composition; (2 The concept of nuclear georeactor origin of geo- and planetary magnetic fields; (3 The invalidation and replacement of plate tectonics; and, (4 Understanding the basis for the observed distribution of luminous stars in galaxies. These revised logical progressions clearly show the inseparability of science history and discovery. A different and more fundamental approach to making scientific discoveries than the frequently discussed variants of the scientific method is this: An individual ponders and through tedious efforts arranges seemingly unrelated observations into a logical sequence in the mind so that causal relationships become evident and new understanding emerges, showing the path for new observations, for new experiments, for new theoretical considerations, and for new discoveries. Science history is rich in "seemingly unrelated observations" just waiting to be logically and causally related to reveal new discoveries.

  19. Predicting loss of evolutionary history: Where are we?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veron, Simon; Davies, T Jonathan; Cadotte, Marc W; Clergeau, Philippe; Pavoine, Sandrine

    2017-02-01

    The Earth's evolutionary history is threatened by species loss in the current sixth mass extinction event in Earth's history. Such extinction events not only eliminate species but also their unique evolutionary histories. Here we review the expected loss of Earth's evolutionary history quantified by phylogenetic diversity (PD) and evolutionary distinctiveness (ED) at risk. Due to the general paucity of data, global evolutionary history losses have been predicted for only a few groups, such as mammals, birds, amphibians, plants, corals and fishes. Among these groups, there is now empirical support that extinction threats are clustered on the phylogeny; however this is not always a sufficient condition to cause higher loss of phylogenetic diversity in comparison to a scenario of random extinctions. Extinctions of the most evolutionarily distinct species and the shape of phylogenetic trees are additional factors that can elevate losses of evolutionary history. Consequently, impacts of species extinctions differ among groups and regions, and even if global losses are low within large groups, losses can be high among subgroups or within some regions. Further, we show that PD and ED are poorly protected by current conservation practices. While evolutionary history can be indirectly protected by current conservation schemes, optimizing its preservation requires integrating phylogenetic indices with those that capture rarity and extinction risk. Measures based on PD and ED could bring solutions to conservation issues, however they are still rarely used in practice, probably because the reasons to protect evolutionary history are not clear for practitioners or due to a lack of data. However, important advances have been made in the availability of phylogenetic trees and methods for their construction, as well as assessments of extinction risk. Some challenges remain, and looking forward, research should prioritize the assessment of expected PD and ED loss for more taxonomic

  20. Bones of the Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Correa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The film Bones of the Earth (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014 is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective creation is built. A sense of community, on-going inquiry, connections and social commitment inform the creative process. As a result, the video’s nearly five intense minutes are a metaphor for the search for personal meaning, connection with nature and intersubjective positioning in a world that undergoes constant change.