WorldWideScience

Sample records for earth elements ce

  1. Distribution behavior of uranium, neptunium, rare-earth elements (Y, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd) and alkaline-earth metals (Sr,Ba) between molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and liquid cadmium or bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, M.; Sakamura, Y.; Hijikata, T.; Kinoshita, K.

    1995-01-01

    Distribution coefficients of uranium neptunium, eight rare-earth elements (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) and two alkaline-earth metals (Sr and Ba) between molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and either liquid cadmium or bismuth were measured at 773 K. Separation factors of trivalent rare-earth elements to uranium or neptunium in the LiCl-KCl/Bi system were by one or two orders of magnitude larger than those in the LiCl-KCl/Cd system. On the contrary, the separation factors of alkaline-earth metals and divalent rare-earth elements to trivalent rare-earth elements were by one or two orders of magnitude smaller in the LiCl-KCl/Bi system. (orig.)

  2. Effect of rare earth elements on uranium electrodeposition in LiCl-KCI eutectic salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Bin; Kang, Young Ho; Hwang, Sung Chan; Lee, Han Soo; Peak, Seung Woo; Ahn, Do Hee

    2015-01-01

    It is necessary to investigate the electrodeposition behavior of uranium and other elements on the cathode in the electrorefining process to recover the uranium selectively from the reduced metals of the electrolytic reduction process since transuranic elements and rare earth elements is dissolved in the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt. Study on separation factors of U, Ce, Y and Nd based on U and Ce was performed to investigate the deposition behavior of the cathode with respect to the concentration of rare earth elements in LiCl-KCl eutectic salt. After electrorefining with constant current mode by using Ce metal as a sacrifice anode, the contents of U, Ce, Y and Nd in the salt phase and the deposit phase of the cathode were analyzed, and separation factors of the elements were obtained from the analyses. Securing conditions of pure uranium recovery in the electrorefining process was investigated by considering the separation factors with respect to UCl 3 and CeCl 3 /UCl 3 ratio

  3. A Novel Synthesis Routine for Woodwardite and Its Affinity towards Light (La, Ce, Nd and Heavy (Gd and Y Rare Earth Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirio Consani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic Cu-Al-SO4 layered double hydroxide (LDH, analogue to the mineral woodwardite [Cu1−xAlx(SO4x/2(OH2·nH2O], with x < 0.5 and n ≤ 3x/2, was synthesised by adding a solution of Cu and Al sulphates to a solution with NaOH. The pH values were kept constant at 8.0 and 10.0 by a continuous addition of NaOH. The material obtained had poor crystallinity, turbostratic structure, and consisted of nanoscopic crystallites. The analyses performed in order to characterise the obtained materials (X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetry (TG, and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR spectroscopy showed that the Cu-Al-SO4 LDH is very similar to woodwardite, although it has a smaller layer spacing, presumably due to a lesser water content than in natural samples. The synthesis was performed by adding light rare earth elements (LREEs (La, Ce, and Nd and heavy rare earth elements (HREEs (Gd and Y in order to test the affinity of the Cu-Al-SO4 LDH to the incorporation of REEs. The concentration of rare earth elements (REEs in the solid fraction was in the range of 3.5–8 wt %. The results showed a good affinity for HREE and Nd, especially for materials synthesised at pH 10.0, whereas the affinities for Ce and La were much lower or non-existent. The thermal decomposition of the REE-doped materials generates a mixture of Cu, Al, and REE oxides, making them interesting as precursors in REE oxide synthesis.

  4. Study of polyoxide catalysts of methane combustion on Mn, Cu, Ni, rare earth elements, alkaline earth elements base by the X-ray fluorescence analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'eva, V.P.; Popova, N.M.; Zheksenbaeva, Z.T.; Sass, A.S.; Salakhova, R.Kh.; Dosumov, K.D.

    2002-01-01

    The results of X-ray fluorescence analysis of polyoxide catalysts on of Mn, Cu, Ni, rare earth elements, alkaline earth elements base supported on 2 % Ce/θ-Al 2 O 3 are presented. This polyoxide catalysts are using for deep methane oxidation. DRON-4-7 X-ray diffractometers was applied for the analysis. It was found, that oxides in Ni-Cu-Cr catalysts after long time heating up to 1200 deg. C have been interacted with catalyst supports with Ni(Cu)Al 2 O 3 aluminates formation and due to its decomposition transformation degree of CH 4 to CO 2 are reduced. Activity of MnBaSrCeLa catalysts after heating up to 1200 deg. C does not changed

  5. Towards the development of new phosphors with reduced content of rare earth elements: Structural and optical characterization of Ce:Tb: Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiriu, D.; Stagi, L.; Carbonaro, C.M.; Corpino, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, S.P.n°8 Km 0, 700, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy); Casula, M.F. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche and INSTM, Università di Cagliari, S.P.n°8 Km 0, 700, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy); Ricci, P.C., E-mail: carlo.ricci@dsf.unica.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, S.P.n°8 Km 0, 700, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A new promising inert matrix as host of luminescent ions is proposed. • Al2SiO5 matrix is free from Rare earths (critical raw materials). • Doping the matrix with Ce and Tb we obtain an efficient green emitter. • Cerium acts as sensitizer for Terbium emission. - Abstract: A new promising inert matrix as host of luminescent ions is proposed. Al2SiO5 samples, doped with rare earths (Ce, Tb single doped and co-doped) are proposed as good prospect for the development of new UV–vis converter with reduced content of rare earths elements. Structural characterization by Raman, XRD spectroscopy and TEM imaging reveals the sillimanite phase and nano sized dimension of the investigated powders. Optical characterization by steady time and time resolved emission spectroscopy for the single doped and co-doped samples allows to identify an efficient energy transfer from Ce to Tb ions under near UV excitation wavelength. The intense green emission observed in the Ce:Tb co-doped Al2SiO5 system suggests its potential application as efficient blue pumped green emitter phosphor to be exploited for white LED: to this purpose we tested the compound in combination with a red emitting doping ion recording for Ce:Tb:Cr:ASO system a correlated color temperature of 6720 K.

  6. Recovery and purification of rare earth elements and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sungur, A.; Saygi, Z.; Yildiz, H.

    1985-01-01

    Rare earth elements and thorium found in the low-grade Eskisehir-Beylikahir ore have been recovered by HCl leaching, Lanthanides and thorium were separated and purified from the leach solutions through the precipitation sequence as double sulphate, hydroxide and oxalate. The Ln 2 O 3 and Th(OH) 4 products, finally obtained contained 36% Ce and 65% Th. The analysis of rare earth elements, thorium and other present ingredients were carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy, vis-spectroscopy and gravimetry. (author)

  7. 141Ce as a tracer to find the efficient washing method for hair in the analysis of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Shilu

    1989-01-01

    Various procedures were compared in relation to the removal of 141 Ce exogenously contaminated as well as endogenously incorporated in hair. Extraction efficiency of cerium with hot EDTA was the greatest among the four washing procedures. However, no procedure can effectively remove all exogenous cerium without reducing the endogenous cerium. Among the four procedures evaluated, washing with 0.1 mol/l EDTA (50 deg C, 10 minutes) is recommended before the analysis of rare earth elements in hair because of its efficiency in removing exogenous cerium and causing less loss on endogenous cerium

  8. The environmental toxicology of rare earth elements (147Pm, 141Ce, 147Nd) and their safety evaluation in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zuyi; Liu Yu; Cheng Wei; Zhang Ligan; Li Huixin; Wang Yuanxing

    2001-01-01

    The environmental behaviour, bioconcentration of rare earth elements and their effects on the animal gonadial hormone secretion were studied using the radioisotope tracer. The results were as follows: (1) The 147 Pm, 141 Ce and 147 Nd have strong adsorption in soil. They accumulated in soil easily and belonged to the matter which was difficult to move. When in water body, they concentrated in the bottom mud. (2) The authors tested bioconcentration factors (BCF) of 5 aquatics and absorption coefficients of 3 aquatic vegetables on 147 Pm, and their concentration in edible organ-stems. The materials for study showed apparent concentrating capabilities. (3) The distribution of 147 Pm, 141 Ce and 147 Nd residues were uneven in the animal's viscera and tissue. But, the higher residues were in bone, marrow, eye, brain, heart, adipose and testis, and their accumulation increased with dosage and time, which showed selective accumulation. There were much higher accumulation of RE in bone than in other viscera and tissues, and 141 Ce was highest in eye. (4) With the Nd or Ce of dose 200 mg/kg by once intraperitoneally, gonadial hormone (testosterone or progesterone) concentration in the serum decreased significantly compared with the control. This showed apparent inhibition on gonadial hormone secretion in mice; however with different dosages of Ce (200 and 800 mg/kg · d) in feed, the testosterone concentration of serum made no significant difference, but, the misshape rate of spermatozoon proved higher, and the misshape rate increased with feeding time and dosage. Rudimentary exploration on safety of agricultural use of Re for eco-environment are made, and some suggestions are proposed

  9. Effect of similar elements on improving glass-forming ability of La-Ce-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tao; Li Ran; Pang Shujie

    2009-01-01

    To date the effect of unlike component elements on glass-forming ability (GFA) of alloys have been studied extensively, and it is generally recognized that the main consisting elements of the alloys with high GFA usually have large difference in atomic size and atomic interaction (large negative heat of mixing) among them. In our recent work, a series of rare earth metal-based alloy compositions with superior GFA were found through the approach of coexistence of similar constituent elements. The quinary (La 0.5 Ce 0.5 ) 65 Al 10 (Co 0.6 Cu 0.4 ) 25 bulk metallic glass (BMG) in a rod form with a diameter up to 32 mm was synthesized by tilt-pour casting, for which the glass-forming ability is significantly higher than that for ternary Ln-Al-TM alloys (Ln = La or Ce; TM = Co or Cu) with critical diameters for glass-formation of several millimeters. We suggest that the strong frustration of crystallization by utilizing the coexistence of La-Ce and Co-Cu to complicate competing crystalline phases is helpful to construct BMG component with superior GFA. The results of our present work indicate that similar elements (elements with similar atomic size and chemical properties) have significant effect on GFA of alloys.

  10. Rare earth elements in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. [Pr, Tb, Ho, Tm, Lu, La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Yb, Ce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baar, H J.W. de; Bacon, M P; Brewer, P G; Bruland, K W

    1985-09-01

    The first profiles of Pr, Tb, Ho, Tm and Lu in the Pacific Ocean, as well as profiles of La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd and Yb are reported. Concentrations of REE (except Ce) in the deep water are two to three times higher than those observed in the deep Atlantic Ocean. Surface water concentrations are typically lower than in the Atlantic Ocean, especially for the heavier elements Ho,Tm,Yb and Lu. Cerium is strongly depleted in the Pacific water column, but less so in the oxygen minimum zone. The distribution of the REE group is consistent with two simultaneous processes: (1) cycling similar to that of opal and calcium carbonate, and (2) adsorptive scavenging by settling particles and possibly by uptake at ocean boundaries. However, the first process can probably not be sustained by the low REE contents of shells, unless additional adsorption on surfaces is invoked. The second process, adsorptive scavenging, largely controls the oceanic distribution and typical seawater pattern of the rare earths. (author).

  11. Activation analysis of rare-earth elements in opium and cannabis samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, G.

    1977-01-01

    Rare-earth concentrations in 65 Opium, Cannabis and Cannabis resin samples seized from various parts of the world were determined by destructive NAA. Because of the greater concentrations of Ca, P, K, Fe, Na and Si in plant materials, rare-earth elements were isolated after neutron irradiation and determined by gamma-spectrometry. The main steps of the method are: Preashing of 1 g Cannabis resin, 2.5 g Cannabis or 7.5 g Opium, respectively, in quartz ampoules (5 h, 500 deg C). Neutron irradiation, 24 h at 5x10 13 n cm -2 sec -1 . Cooling period 2-3 days. After addition of 0.1 μCi 139 Ce and rare-earth carriers wet ashing of irradiated samples with H 2 SO 4 /HNO 3 , followed by alternate addition of HNO 3 and H 2 O 2 (30%). Precipitation and removal of silicates, precipitation of fluorides, precipitation of hydroxides. Dissolution of hydroxides in HCl. Extraction with di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (DEHP)/toluene and twice back-extraction of rare earths, gamma-spectrometry of HCl phase. Due to sample activity and half-life of nuclides, three measurements were made on each sample: 2 days (for La, Sm, Gd, Ho, Er, Yb); 14 days (for Nd, Lu) and 30 days after irradiation (for Ce, Eu, Tb). Great variations in absolute element concentrations, but only small significant differences of rare earth concentration ratios were found, indicating inconsiderable biogeochemical fractionation. The mean values of these ratios correspond to the relative abundances of the rare earths in the upper continental earth's crust. (T.G.)

  12. Rare earth elements recycling from waste phosphor by dual hydrochloric acid dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hu; Zhang, Shengen; Pan, Dean; Tian, Jianjun; Yang, Min; Wu, Maolin; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The article provides a new method for recycling rare earth (RE) from waste phosphor. • When compared with the traditional methods, leach rate was much higher. • Y–Eu concentrate and Tb–Ce concentrate were obtained successively. • It would reduce the burden of later extraction, separation and purification. - Abstract: This paper is a comparative study of recycling rare earth elements from waste phosphor, which focuses on the leaching rate and the technical principle. The traditional and dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid (DHA) methods were compared. The method of dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid has been developed. The Red rare earth phosphor (Y 0.95 Eu 0.05 ) 2 O 3 in waste phosphor is dissolved during the first step of acid leaching, while the Green phosphor (Ce 0.67 Tb 0.33 MgAl 11 O 19 ) and the Blue phosphor (Ba 0.9 Eu 0.1 MgAl 10 O 17 ) mixed with caustic soda are obtained by alkali sintering. The excess caustic soda and NaAlO 2 are removed by washing. The insoluble matter is leached by the hydrochloric acid, followed by solvent extraction and precipitation (the DHA method). In comparison, the total leaching rate of the rare earth elements was 94.6% by DHA, which is much higher than 42.08% achieved by the traditional method. The leaching rate of Y, Eu, Ce and Tb reached 94.6%, 99.05%, 71.45%, and 76.22%, respectively. DHA can decrease the consumption of chemicals and energy. The suggested DHA method is feasible for industrial applications

  13. The Marine Geochemistry of the Rare Earth Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    C3): 2045-2056. BACON, M.P., P.G. BREWER, D.W. SPENCER, T.W. MURRAY & T. GODDARD (1980). Lead - 210 , polonium - 210 , manganese and iron in the Cariaco...191 La and Pr 197 Ce: its oxidation and reduction 197 Eu 207 4.5. Conclusions 210 CHAPTER 5. Behaviour of the Rare Earth Elements in anoxic waters of...seawater and algal food . When the radioactive particles were no longer available, the accumulated radioactivity of the zooplankters was rapidly lost

  14. Rare-earth elements in uranium deposits in the municipality of Pedra, Pernambuco, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy Francys Rodrigues Damascena; Romilton dos Santos Amaral; Jose Araujo dos Santos Junior; Alberto Antonio da Silva; Romulo Simoes Cezar Menezes

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, soil and rock samples were collected from uranium deposits in the city of Pedra, Pernambuco, Brazil. These samples were analyzed using neutron activation analysis to identify the occurrence of rare-earth elements (REE). The most abundant elements found were Ce, Nd and La, with concentrations 12 times higher than the average in the earth's crust and 4.6 times higher than values reported in worldwide studies, including Brazil. Nonetheless, further studies to examine the economic feasibility of mining REEs from this site are necessary. (author)

  15. Extraction of rare earth elements with organophosphorus extractants as carriers in supported liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopunec, R.; Benitez, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The membrane extraction of Y, Ce, Eu, Tm and their binary mixtures Ce-Y, Ce-Eu, Ce-Tm with supported liquid membranes containing TBP and HDEHP as carriers in decane-dodecane hydrocarbon solvent, has been studied. Upon extraction with TBP aqueous nitrate solutions of rare earth elements (REE) were used as feed phase. In some cases they also contained EDTA or DCTA. In most cases, the receiving phase was an aqueous solution of EDTA. Extraction with HDEHP was performed from nitrate and chloride solutions and the receiving phase was the corresponding dilute acid. Pertraction of an element through a membrane was studied as a function of time and of initial composition of phases. The results are presented in the following forms: flux of metal through membrane, coefficients of permeability, separation factors and effective diffusion coefficients. (author) 24 refs.; 8 figs.; 3 tabs

  16. Rare earth elements in a uranium deposit in Pedra, Pernambuco, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damascena, Kennedy Francys Rodrigues; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Bezerra, Jairo Dias; Oliveira, Iane Andrade de; Silva, Alberto Antonio da

    2013-01-01

    Rare Earth Elements (REEs) are similar in the physical and chemical properties of their compounds and are most commonly found in nature associated with terrestrial radionuclides. The high interest in conducting research on REEs is due to their multiple applications and high economic value. In this light, the present study analyzed samples of soil and rocks from an anomalous area replete with uranium and thorium, in the town of Pedra, Pernambuco, Brazil, in an attempt to identify the occurrence and concentrations of these elements. For these analyses, neutron activation, followed by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, was used to define the REEs. The following REEs were identified in the study area: La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, and Sc. The most abundant elements in the region, within samples of soil and rock, respectively, were: Ce (63-503 mg.kg -1 / 19.6 to 2243.5 mg.kg -1 ), Nd (25.0 to 249.0 mg.kg -1 / 3.8 to 1951.0 mg.kg -1 ), and La (30.6 to 253.0 mg.kg -1 / 12.1 to 517.0 mg.kg -1 ). The other REEs presented concentrations of between the detection limit and 46.0 mg.kg -1 . The results indicate that the Ce, La, and Nd concentrations appeared in up to 12 times the average occurrences in the earth's crust and up to 4.6 times higher than the averages reported in studies worldwide, including Brazil. Therefore, further studies are warranted to examine the economic viability of REEs in the area and to confirm the occurrence of these anomalous elements in the studied region. (author)

  17. Mechanochemical decomposition of monazite to assist the extraction of rare earth elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Wantae; Bae, Inkook; Chae, Soochun [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 92 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Heeyoung, E-mail: hyshin@kigam.re.k [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 92 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-11-03

    Mechanochemical decomposition by milling a mixture of monazite and sodium hydroxide powder and subsequent leaching by sulfuric acid for the extraction of rare earth elements at room temperature has been investigated. The milling of the mixture allows the mechanochemical formation of rare earth hydroxides and sodium phosphate as milling progresses. Nearly all the monazite is decomposed within 120 min under the present milling conditions. A 0.05N sulfuric acid solution enables us to improve the yield of each of La, Nd and Sm to around 85% or more in the powder milled for 120 min. Also, respective Ce and Pr yields of about 20% and 70% remain un-dissolved since they are changed into oxide forms during and after the milling operation. These rare earth oxides are mostly dissolved as the acid concentration increases to 5N. The yield of rare earth elements increases with increasing milling time. Thus mechanochemical milling plays a significant role in achieving high yield of rare earth elements from the leaching of the milled powder.

  18. Mechanochemical decomposition of monazite to assist the extraction of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wantae; Bae, Inkook; Chae, Soochun; Shin, Heeyoung

    2009-01-01

    Mechanochemical decomposition by milling a mixture of monazite and sodium hydroxide powder and subsequent leaching by sulfuric acid for the extraction of rare earth elements at room temperature has been investigated. The milling of the mixture allows the mechanochemical formation of rare earth hydroxides and sodium phosphate as milling progresses. Nearly all the monazite is decomposed within 120 min under the present milling conditions. A 0.05N sulfuric acid solution enables us to improve the yield of each of La, Nd and Sm to around 85% or more in the powder milled for 120 min. Also, respective Ce and Pr yields of about 20% and 70% remain un-dissolved since they are changed into oxide forms during and after the milling operation. These rare earth oxides are mostly dissolved as the acid concentration increases to 5N. The yield of rare earth elements increases with increasing milling time. Thus mechanochemical milling plays a significant role in achieving high yield of rare earth elements from the leaching of the milled powder.

  19. Rare earth elements recycling from waste phosphor by dual hydrochloric acid dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Shengen, E-mail: zhangshengen@mater.ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Pan, Dean; Tian, Jianjun; Yang, Min; Wu, Maolin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Volinsky, Alex A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The article provides a new method for recycling rare earth (RE) from waste phosphor. • When compared with the traditional methods, leach rate was much higher. • Y–Eu concentrate and Tb–Ce concentrate were obtained successively. • It would reduce the burden of later extraction, separation and purification. - Abstract: This paper is a comparative study of recycling rare earth elements from waste phosphor, which focuses on the leaching rate and the technical principle. The traditional and dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid (DHA) methods were compared. The method of dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid has been developed. The Red rare earth phosphor (Y{sub 0.95}Eu{sub 0.05}){sub 2}O{sub 3} in waste phosphor is dissolved during the first step of acid leaching, while the Green phosphor (Ce{sub 0.67}Tb{sub 0.33}MgAl{sub 11}O{sub 19}) and the Blue phosphor (Ba{sub 0.9}Eu{sub 0.1}MgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}) mixed with caustic soda are obtained by alkali sintering. The excess caustic soda and NaAlO{sub 2} are removed by washing. The insoluble matter is leached by the hydrochloric acid, followed by solvent extraction and precipitation (the DHA method). In comparison, the total leaching rate of the rare earth elements was 94.6% by DHA, which is much higher than 42.08% achieved by the traditional method. The leaching rate of Y, Eu, Ce and Tb reached 94.6%, 99.05%, 71.45%, and 76.22%, respectively. DHA can decrease the consumption of chemicals and energy. The suggested DHA method is feasible for industrial applications.

  20. Distribution characteristics of rare earth elements in plants from a rare earth ore area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.Y.; Wang, Y.Q.; Li, F.L.; Xiao, H.Q.; Chai, Z.F.

    2002-01-01

    The contents of eight rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in various plant species taken from a rare earth ore area were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. For a given plant, the REE patterns in root, leaf and host soil are different from each other. The REE distribution characteristics in roots of various species are very similar and resemble those in the surface water. The results of this study suggest that there is no significant fractionation between the REEs during their uptake by the plant roots from soil solution. However, the variation of the relative abundance of individual REE occurs in the process of transportation and deposition of REEs in plants. (author)

  1. Determination Of Rare Earth And Other Elements In YEN-PHU Rare Earth Ore And Other Intermediate Products From The Floatation And Hydrometallurgical Process On Portable XRF Si-PIN Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan Thanh Son; Phung Vu Phong; Nguyen Hanh Phuc

    2014-01-01

    The concentration of rare earths elements such as La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Gd and other elements as Ca, Fe, U, Th in Yen Phu rare earth ore and other intermediate products from the flotation and hydrometallurgical process was determined by using Si-PIN detector fluorescence spectrometry. The precision and accuracy of quantitative analysis was tested by standard reference materials and comparative analysis with different analytical methods. The analytical procedures were set-up and applied for the determination of rare earth and other elements in Yen Phu rare earth ore and other intermediate products from the flotation and hydrometallurgical process with high precision and accuracy. (author)

  2. ACGT-containing abscisic acid response element (ABRE) and coupling element 3 (CE3) are functionally equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobo, T; Asada, M; Kowyama, Y; Hattori, T

    1999-09-01

    ACGT-containing ABA response elements (ABREs) have been functionally identified in the promoters of various genes. In addition, single copies of ABRE have been found to require a cis-acting, coupling element to achieve ABA induction. A coupling element 3 (CE3) sequence, originally identified as such in the barley HVA1 promoter, is found approximately 30 bp downstream of motif A (ACGT-containing ABRE) in the promoter of the Osem gene. The relationship between these two elements was further defined by linker-scan analyses of a 55 bp fragment of the Osem promoter, which is sufficient for ABA-responsiveness and VP1 activation. The analyses revealed that both motif A and CE3 sequence were required not only for ABA-responsiveness but also for VP1 activation. Since the sequences of motif A and CE3 were found to be similar, motif-exchange experiments were carried out. The experiments demonstrated that motif A and CE3 were interchangeable by each other with respect to both ABA and VP1 regulation. In addition, both sequences were shown to be recognized by a VP1-interacting, ABA-responsive bZIP factor TRAB1. These results indicate that ACGT-containing ABREs and CE3 are functionally equivalent cis-acting elements. Furthermore, TRAB1 was shown to bind two other non-ACGT ABREs. Based on these results, all these ABREs including CE3 are proposed to be categorized into a single class of cis-acting elements.

  3. Activation analysis of rare-earth elements in opium and cannabis samples. [Neutron reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, G [Muenster Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Pharmazeutische Chemie

    1977-01-01

    Rare-earth concentrations in 65 Opium, Cannabis and Cannabis resin samples seized from various parts of the world were determined by destructive NAA. Because of the greater concentrations of Ca, P, K, Fe, Na and Si in plant materials, rare-earth elements were isolated after neutron irradiation and determined by gamma-spectrometry. The main steps of the method are: Preashing of 1 g Cannabis resin, 2.5 g Cannabis, or 7.5 g Opium, respectively, in quartz ampoules (5 h, 500 deg C). Neutron irradiation, 24 h at 5x10/sup 13/n cm/sup -2/sec/sup -1/. Cooling period 2-3 days. After addition of 0.1 ..mu..Ci /sup 139/Ce and rare-earth carriers wet ashing of irradiated samples with H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//HNO/sub 3/, followed by alternate addition of HNO/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ (30%). Precipitation and removal of silicates, precipitation of fluorides, precipitation of hydroxides. Dissolution of hydroxides in HCl. Extraction with di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (DEHP)/toluene and twice back-extraction of rare earths, gamma-spectrometry of HCl phase. Due to sample activity and half-life of nuclides, three measurements were made on each sample: 2 days (for La, Sm, Gd, Ho, Er, Yb); 14 days (for Nd, Lu) and 30 days after irradiation (for Ce, Eu, Tb). Great variations in absolute element concentrations, but only small significant differences of rare earth concentration ratios were found, indicating inconsiderable biogeochemical fractionation. The mean values of these ratios correspond to the relative abundances of the rare earths in the upper continental earth's crust.

  4. Rare earth, major and trace element composition of Leg 127 sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R.W.; Buchholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.; Brumsack, Hans-Juergen; Gerlach, David C.; Russ III, G. Price

    1992-01-01

    The relative effects of paleoceanographic and paleogeographic variations, sediment lithology, and diagenetic processes on the final preserved chemistry of Japan Sea sediments are evaluated by investigating the rare earth element (REE), major element, and trace element concentrations in 59 squeeze-cake whole-round and 27 physical-property sample residues from Sites 794, 795, and 797, cored during ODP Leg 127. The most important variation in sedimentary chemical composition is the increase in SiO2 concentration through the Pliocene diatomaceous sequences, which dilutes most other major and trace element components by various degrees. This biogenic input is largest at Site 794 (Yamato Basin), moderately developed at Site 797 (Yamato Basin), and of only minor importance at Site 795 (Japan Basin), potentially reflecting basinal contrasts in productivity with the Yamato Basin recording greater biogenic input than the Japan Basin and with the easternmost sequence of Site 794 lying beneath the most productive waters. There are few systematic changes in solid-phase chemistry resulting from the opal-A/opal-CT or opal-CT/quartz silica phase transformations. Most major and trace element concentrations are controlled by the aluminosilicate fraction of the sediment, although the effects of diagenetic silica phases and manganese carbonates are of localized importance. REE total abundances (IREE) in the Japan Sea are strongly dependent upon the paleoceanographic position of a given site with respect to terrigenous and biogenic sources. REE concentrations at Site 794 overall correspond well to aluminosilicate chemical indices and are strongly diluted by SiO2 within the upper Miocene-Pliocene diatomaceous sequence. Eu/Eu* values at Site 794 reach a maximum through the diatomaceous interval as well, most likely suggesting an association of Eu/Eu* with the siliceous component, or reflecting slight incorporation of a detrital feldspar phase. XREE at Site 795 also is affiliated strongly

  5. A major light rare-earth element (LREE) resource in the Khanneshin carbonatite complex, southern Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Robert D.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Peters, Stephen G.; Horton, Forrest; Buttleman, Kim; Scott, Emily R.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid rise in world demand for the rare-earth elements (REEs) has expanded the search for new REE resources. We document two types of light rare-earth element (LREE)-enriched rocks in the Khanneshin carbonatite complex of southern Afghanistan: type 1 concordant seams of khanneshite-(Ce), synchysite-(Ce), and parisite-(Ce) within banded barite-strontianite alvikite, and type 2 igneous dikes of coarse-grained carbonatite, enriched in fluorine or phosphorus, containing idiomorphic crystals of khanneshite-(Ce) or carbocernaite. Type 1 mineralized barite-strontianite alvikite averages 22.25 wt % BaO, 4.27 wt % SrO, and 3.25 wt % ∑ LREE2O3 (sum of La, Ce, Pr, and Nd oxides). Type 2 igneous dikes average 14.51 wt % BaO, 5.96 wt % SrO, and 3.77 wt % ∑ LREE2O3. A magmatic origin is clearly indicated for the type 2 LREE-enriched dikes, and type 1 LREE mineralization probably formed in the presence of LREE-rich hydrothermal fluid. Both types of LREE mineralization may be penecontemporaneous, having formed in a carbonate-rich magma in the marginal zone of the central vent, highly charged with volatile constituents (i.e., CO2, F, P2O5), and strongly enriched in Ba, Sr, and the LREE. Based on several assumptions, and employing simple geometry for the zone of LREE enrichment, we estimate that at least 1.29 Mt (million metric tonnes) of LREE2O3 is present in this part of the Khanneshin carbonatite complex.

  6. Distribution of rare earth elements in an alluvial aquifer affected by acid mine drainage: the Guadiamar aquifer (SW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olias, M.; Ceron, J.C.; Fernandez, I.; Rosa, J. de la

    2005-01-01

    This work analyses the spatial distribution, the origin, and the shale-normalised fractionation patterns of the rare earth elements (REE) in the alluvial aquifer of the Guadiamar River (south-western Spain). This river received notoriety in April 1998 for a spill that spread a great amount of slurry (mainly pyrites) and acid waters in a narrow strip along the river course. Groundwaters and surface waters were sampled to analyse, among other elements, the REEs. Their spatial distribution shows a peak close to the mining region, in an area with low values of pH and high concentrations of sulphates and other metals such as Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Pb, and Cd. The patterns of shale-normalised fractionation at the most-contaminated points show an enrichment in the middle rare earth elements (MREE) with respect to the light (LREE) and heavy (HREE) ones, typical of acid waters. The Ce-anomaly becomes more negative as pH increases, due to the preferential fractionation of Ce in oxyhydroxides of Fe. - Pollution of the aquifer with rare earth elements is documented at a site of a major spill from a mining operation

  7. NEW RARE EARTH ELEMENT ABUNDANCE DISTRIBUTIONS FOR THE SUN AND FIVE r-PROCESS-RICH VERY METAL-POOR STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneden, Christopher; Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth A.; Cowan, John J.; Ivans, Inese I.

    2009-01-01

    We have derived new abundances of the rare earth elements Pr, Dy, Tm, Yb, and Lu for the solar photosphere and for five very metal-poor, neutron-capture r-process-rich giant stars. The photospheric values for all five elements are in good agreement with meteoritic abundances. For the low-metallicity sample, these abundances have been combined with new Ce abundances from a companion paper, and reconsideration of a few other elements in individual stars, to produce internally consistent Ba, rare earth, and Hf (56 ≤ Z ≤ 72) element distributions. These have been used in a critical comparison between stellar and solar r-process abundance mixes.

  8. Rare earth element geochemistry of South Atlantic deep sea sediments: Ce anomaly change at approx. 54 My

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.L.; Liu, Y.-G.; Schmitt, R.A.; Oregon State Univ., Corvallis; Oregon State Univ., Corvallis; Oregon State Univ., Corvallis

    1986-01-01

    The geochemistry of the REE (rare earth elements) in oceanic sediments is discussed, based mainly on samples from DSDP Holes 530A and 530B, Leg 75, and Hole 525A, Leg 74. The proposed mechanisms for incorporation of the REE into the marine carbonate phases are adsorption, chiefly onto the carbonate minerals and on Sc, Hf, and Ta-rich FE-Mn hydroxide flocs as carbonate coatings. The Ce anomaly of marine carbonate was used as an indicator of paleo-ocean water redox conditions: the bottom water of the Angola Basin was in a reducing condition in the Cretaceous. At ca. 54 My, the South Atlantic water condition became oxidizing, similar to the present seawater redox condition. This change was related to the improvement of circulation due to the widening of South Atlantic and the subsidence of water circulation barriers such as the Walvis Ridge and perhaps the Romanche Fracture Zone. The REE abundances and patterns of younger sediments in the Angola Basin (YSAB) are very similar to those observed in NASC, PAAS, and ES sediments. The YSAB REE abundances and patterns may represent the average REE distribution of the exposed African continental crust. The strong resemblance of REE distributions of YSAB, NASC, PAAS and ES suggests thorough REE mixing from different sources and the uniformity of the average crustal compositions of different continents: Africa, North America, Australia, and Europe. (author)

  9. Behaviour of Rare Earth Elements during the Earth's core formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Pierre; Bouhifd, Mohamed Ali; Boyet, Maud; Hammouda, Tahar; Manthilake, Geeth

    2017-04-01

    Rare Earth Elements (REE) are classified in the refractory group, which means that they have a high temperature condensation and their volatility-controlled fractionation is limited to high-temperature processes. Anomalies have been measured for Eu, Yb and Sm, which are the REE with the lowest condensation temperatures in CAIs and chondrules (e.g. [1]). REE are particularly abundant in the sulfides of enstatite chondrites, 100 to 1000 times the CI value [e.g. 2,3], proving that these elements are not strictly lithophile under extremely reducing conditions. However by investigating experimentally the impact of Earth's core formation on the behavior of Sm and Nd, we have shown the absence of fractionation between Sm and Nd during the segregation of the metallic phase [4]. Recently, Wohlers and Wood [5] proposed that Nd and Sm could be fractionated in presence of a S-rich alloy phase. However, their results were obtained at pressure and temperature conditions below the plausible conditions of the Earth's core formation. Clearly, large pressure range needs to be covered before well-constrained model can be expected. Furthermore, our preliminary metal-silicate partitioning results show that Ce and Eu have higher metal/silicate partition coefficients than their neighboring elements, and that the presence of sulphur enhances the relative difference between partition coefficients. In this presentation, we will present and discuss new metal-silicate partition coefficients of all REE at a deep magma ocean at pressures ranging from those of the uppermost upper mantle ( 5 GPa) to a maximum pressure expected in the range of 20 GPa, temperatures ranging from 2500 to about 3000 K, and oxygen fugacities within IW-1 to IW-5 (1 to 5 orders of magnitude lower than the iron-wüstite buffer). We will discuss the effect of S, as well as the effect of H2O on the behaviour of REE during the Earth's core formation: recent models suggest that contrary to currently accepted beliefs, the

  10. Rare earth elements as a tool for studying the formation of cemented layers in an area affected by acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grawunder, Anja; Lonschinski, Martin; Merten, Dirk; Büchel, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Spatially resolved analysis of 14 rare earth elements (REE) by LA-ICP-MS. • Positive correlation of Mn contents and (positive) Ce anomalies. • Linkage of the two cemented layer’s formation to soil solution and groundwater. - Abstract: In a profile with two cemented layers sampled in an area affected by acid mine drainage, both have rare earth element (REE) signatures with positive Ce anomalies in the Post Archean Australian Shale-normalised patterns. Both cemented layers have higher contents of environmentally relevant metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, U, and Zn) than the over- and underlying unconsolidated Quaternary sediments and are depleted of Al, Ca, K, and Mg. The cemented layers are enriched in middle and heavy REE, but only the bulk pattern of the lower cemented layer reveals a positive Ce anomaly. For the upper cemented layer, this positive Ce anomaly was only determined by spatially resolved laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) studies only for segments with a high abundance of Mn, occurring as Mn phases as proven by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The Mn phases are formed secondarily to the ferric cement and are especially enriched in Ce and Co. The Ce anomaly of the lower cemented layer most probably is inherited from groundwater to the ferric cement, whereas the Ce anomaly of the upper cemented layer is the result of preferential scavenging of Ce onto the Mn phases compared to other REE

  11. Development of constraint algorithm for the number of electrons in molecular orbitals consisting mainly 4f atomic orbitals of rare-earth elements and its introduction to tight-binding quantum chemical molecular dynamics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endou, Akira; Onuma, Hiroaki; Jung, Sun-ho

    2007-01-01

    Our original tight-binding quantum chemical molecular dynamics code, Colors', has been successfully applied to the theoretical investigation of complex materials including rare-earth elements, e.g., metal catalysts supported on a CeO 2 surface. To expand our code so as to obtain a good convergence for the electronic structure of a calculation system including a rare-earth element, we developed a novel algorithm to provide a constraint condition for the number of electrons occupying the selected molecular orbitals that mainly consist of 4f atomic orbitals of the rare-earth element. This novel algorithm was introduced in Colors. Using Colors, we succeeded in obtaining the classified electronic configurations of the 4f atomic orbitals of Ce 4+ and reduced Ce ions in a CeO 2 bulk model with one oxygen defect, which makes it difficult to obtain a good convergence using a conventional first-principles quantum chemical calculation code. (author)

  12. Preconcentration of rare earth elements from rocks by thin-layer chromatography and their neutron-activation determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabukhin, V.A.; Volynets, M.P.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1990-01-01

    Conditions were studied for separation of rare earths and accompanying elements in rocks on Fixion 50x8 thin-layer plates using solutions of oxalic acid and ammonium chloride in ammonia medium. A simple technique was developed for TLC proconcentration of rare earths followed by gamma spectrometric analysis of the irradiated fractions that enabled to determine 8-10 elements in samples with a mass of up to 30 mg. The limits of detection (μg/g) were 0.05 (Eu), 0.1 (Sm), 0.2 (Tb), 0.3 (Yb), 0.4 (La), 1.0 (Tu), 2.0 (Ce), 10 (Nd). The relative standard deviation was 0.05-0.20 at element levels 5-10 times as high as the detection limits

  13. Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Geological Samples Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Chet R; Jain, Jinesh C; Goueguel, Christian L; McIntyre, Dustin L; Singh, Jagdish P

    2018-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to detect rare earth elements (REEs) in natural geological samples. Low and high intensity emission lines of Ce, La, Nd, Y, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, and Dy were identified in the spectra recorded from the samples to claim the presence of these REEs. Multivariate analysis was executed by developing partial least squares regression (PLS-R) models for the quantification of Ce, La, and Nd. Analysis of unknown samples indicated that the prediction results of these samples were found comparable to those obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Data support that LIBS has potential to quantify REEs in geological minerals/ores.

  14. Rare earth elements: end use and recyclability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Rare earth elements are used in mature markets (such as catalysts, glassmaking, lighting, and metallurgy), which account for 59 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements, and in newer, high-growth markets (such as battery alloys, ceramics, and permanent magnets), which account for 41 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements. In mature market segments, lanthanum and cerium constitute about 80 percent of rare earth elements used, and in new market segments, dysprosium, neodymium, and praseodymium account for about 85 percent of rare earth elements used. Regardless of the end use, rare earth elements are not recycled in large quantities, but could be if recycling became mandated or very high prices of rare earth elements made recycling feasible.

  15. Effect of rare earth ion Ce3+ on the lactate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns of six mouse organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiangyan, L.; Guojun, S.; Hengyi, L.; Yinhua, L.; Ting, W.; Yansheng, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Effect of rare earth ion Ce 3+ on the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme patterns of six organs of mouse (heart, liver, kidney, muscle, stomach) were investigated by utilizing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) methods. The results indicated: Ce 3+ not only can make some LDH bands disappear but also can induce some new bands. Under the action of Ce 3+ , the shades of some LDH bands were changed and the shade variations were different from organ to organ. In the muscle, it appeared the shade of LDH bands was related to the rare earth concentration in the feed. Rare earth can affect the muscle LDH patterns widely and apparently

  16. Interactions of rare earth elements with bacteria and organic ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Takuo; Suzuki, Yoshinori; Nankawa, Takuya; Yoshida, Takahiro; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Kimura, Takaumi; Francis, Arokiasamy J.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the interactions of rare earth elements (REEs) Eu(III) and/or Ce(III, IV) with the common soil bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens and organic ligands, such as malic acid, citric acid, a siderophore (DFO), cellulose, chitin, and chitosan. Malic acid formed complexes with Eu(III), but degradation of malic acid was observed when the ratio of malic acid to Eu(III) was higher than 100. Citric acid formed a stoichiometric complex with Eu(III) that was not degraded by P. fluorescens. Adsorption of Eu(III) from the DFO complex occurred as a free ion dissociated from DFO and not as the Eu(III)-DFO complex. Cerium(III) was oxidized to Ce(IV) during complexation with DFO to form the Ce(IV)-DFO complex. Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) analysis showed that cellulose, chitin, and chitosan, respectively, formed a weak complex, an inner-spherical complex, and an outer-spherical complex with Eu(III). This method also demonstrated that the coordination environment of Eu(III) adsorbed on P. fluorescens possessed similar characteristics to that of chitin, and revealed that adsorption of Eu(III) on P. fluorescens was through a multidentate and predominantly inner-spherical coordination

  17. Extraction and separation of Am and rare earth elements in HNO3 solution with P507-sulphonating kerosene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhenhu; Jiao Rongzhou; Zhu Yongjun

    1994-01-01

    A study has been made of the extraction equilibrium of Am(III) and rare earth elements (III) in HNO 3 solution with P507-sulphonating kerosene. It has been found that this equilibrium depends on saponification ratio of P507, feed acidity, metal concentration as well as phase ratio. The extraction ability in order is La< Ce< Am< Pr< Nd< Sm. The model of distribution ratio has been founded. The agreement for calculated and experimental values of distribution ratio is fairly good. These values can be used to design the extraction and separation process of Am and rare earth elements

  18. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Méndez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  19. Choice of excitation source for determination of rare earth elements with radioisotope excited X ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Quanshi; Chang Yongfu

    2000-01-01

    The comparisons of two radioisotope source ( 241 Am and 238 Pu) which are the most available in the radioisotope excited X Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis technique and two characteristic X ray series (KX and LX) analyzed for the determination of the rare-earth (RE) elements were investigated in detail. According to the principle of emission and detection of X ray , the relative excitation efficiencies were calculated by the some fundamental physical parameters including the photoelectric mass attenuation coefficient, the fluorescent yield, the absorption jump factor, the emission probability of the detected fluorescent line with reference to other liens of the same series etc., The advantages and disadvantages of the two conditions are discussed. These results may determine the optimal excitation and detection conditions for different rare-earth elements. The experimental results with nine rare-earth elements (Ce, Nd, Sm, Tb, Tm, Ho, Er, Yb and Lu) are in agreement with the results of theoretical calculations

  20. Chemical analysis of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukahara, Ryoichi; Sakoh, Takefumi; Nagai, Iwao

    1994-01-01

    Recently attention has been paid to ICP-AES or ICP-MS, and the reports on the analysis of rare earth elements by utilizing these methods continue to increase. These reports have become to take about 30% of the reports on rare earth analysis, and this is because these methods are highly sensitive to rare earth elements, and also these methods have spread widely. In ICP-AES and ICP-MS, mostly solution samples are measured, therefore, solids must be made into solution. At the time of quantitatively determining the rare earth elements of low concentration, separation and concentration are necessary. Referring to the literatures reported partially in 1990 and from 1991 to 1993, the progress of ICP-AES and ICP-MS is reported. Rare earth oxides and the alloys containing rare earth elements are easily decomposed with acids, but the decomposition of rocks is difficult, and its method is discussed. The separation of the rare earth elements from others in geochemical samples, cation exchange process is frequently utilized. Also solvent extraction process has been studied. For the separation of rare earth elements mutually, chromatography is used. The spectral interference in spectral analysis was studied. The comparison of these methods with other methods is reported. (K.I)

  1. Effect of Rare Earth Element on Microstructure and Properties of in situ Synthesized TiB2/Al Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QU Min

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of rare earth element Ce, Sc and Er on TiB2 particles and matrix alloy micros-tructure of TiB2/Al composites was studied with in situ synthesis method. It shows that the addition of rare earth element improves the microstructure and properties of TiB2/Al composites notably. The particles of TiB2 are relatively homogenously distributed as adding 0.3% (mass fraction rare earth element Sc and Er, moreover, it is Er that refines the microstructure of matrix alloy most significantly, then is Sc. Similarly, it is demonstrated that the addition of Sc and Er results in better tensile strength, which is enhanced by 32% and 31%, respectively; the addition of Er also leads to the best ductility by 85% with optimal tensile property. Meanwhile, fracture morphology analysis reveals that the fracture of the composites is microporous gathered ductile fracture when adding Sc and Er. Finally, it is verified that the mechanism of rare earth element on composites lies in two aspects:one is that the addition of rare earth element improves the wettability of the composites and suppresses the agglomeration of TiB2 particles; the other is that the addition of rare earth element refines the microstructure of matrix alloy and then improves the tensile strength of the composites.

  2. Rare earth elements in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baar, H.J.W. de; Bacon, M.P.; Brewer, P.G.; Bruland, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    The first profiles of Pr, Tb, Ho, Tm and Lu in the Pacific Ocean, as well as profiles of La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd and Yb are reported. Concentrations of REE (except Ce) in the deep water are two to three times higher than those observed in the deep Atlantic Ocean. Surface water concentrations are typically lower than in the Atlantic Ocean, especially for the heavier elements Ho,Tm,Yb and Lu. Cerium is strongly depleted in the Pacific water column, but less so in the oxygen minimum zone. The distribution of the REE group is consistent with two simultaneous processes: (1) cycling similar to that of opal and calcium carbonate, and (2) adsorptive scavenging by settling particles and possibly by uptake at ocean boundaries. However, the first process can probably not be sustained by the low REE contents of shells, unless additional adsorption on surfaces is invoked. The second process, adsorptive scavenging, largely controls the oceanic distribution and typical seawater pattern of the rare earths. (author)

  3. Rare earth element patterns in nigerian coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewa, I.O.B.; Elegba, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    Rare Earth Elements (REE's) retain group coherence in their environment and are therefore useful geochemical markers. We report the pattern of ten REE's (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu) determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) for coals obtained from eight mines in Nigeria, namely, Okaba, Enugu, Ogbete, Onyeama, Gombe, Lafia, Asaba and Afikpo. Our results show the existence of fractionations with the highest index of 13.19 for Lafia coal, depletion in HREE, negative Eu anomaly for most of the coals, REE patterns that are consistent with chondritic trends; prominent (Eu/Eu * ) cn for Okaba and Gombe coals. Variations in geochemical data observed could suggest strong departures from band metamorphism during the coalification events of the Benue Trough geosynclines, where the coal deposits are all located. (author) 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Effect of rare earth Ce on the fatigue life of SnAgCu solder joints in WLCSP device using FEM and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liang; Han, Ji-guang; Guo, Yong-huan; He, Cheng-wen

    2014-01-01

    With the addition of 0.03 wt% rare earth Ce, in our previous works, the properties of SnAgCu solder were enhanced obviously. Based on the Garofalo–Arrhenius creep constitutive model, finite element method was used to simulate the stress–strain response during thermal cycle loading, and combined with the fatigue life prediction models, the fatigue life of SnAgCu/SnAgCuCe solder joints was calculated respectively, which can demonstrate the effect of the rare earth Ce on the fatigue life of SnAgCu solder joints. The results indicated that the maximum stress–strain can be found on the top surface of the corner solder joint, and the warpage of the PCB substrate occurred during thermal cycle loading. The trends obtained from modeling results have a good agreement with the experimental data reported in the literature for WLCSP devices. In addition, the stress–strain of SnAgCuCe solder joints is lower than that of SnAgCu solder joints. The thermal fatigue lives of solder joints calculated based on the creep model and creep strain energy density model show that the fatigue life of SnAgCuCe solder joints is higher than the SnAgCu solder joints. The fatigue life of SnAgCuCe solder joints can be enhanced significantly with the addition of Ce, is 30.2% higher than that of SnAgCu solder joints, which can be attributed to the CeSn 3 particles formed resisting the motion of dislocation; moreover, the refinement of microstructure and the IMC sizes also contribute to the enhancement of fatigue life, which elucidates that SnAgCuCe solder can be utilized in electronic industry with high reliability replacing the SnAgCu solder

  5. Electrical and dielectric properties of lithium manganate nanomaterials doped with rare-earth elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javed; Ahmad, Zahoor [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2008-05-01

    Substituted LiR{sub x}Mn{sub 2} {sub -} {sub x}O{sub 4} (R = La{sup 3+}, Ce{sup 3+}{sub ,} Pr{sup 3+} and x = 0.00 - 0.20) nanoparticles are prepared by the sol-gel method and the consequent changes in their lattice structure, dielectric and electrical parameters are determined by XRD, ED-XRF, SEM, LCR meter bridge and dc electrical resistivity measurements. Diffraction data show that the samples are single-phase spinel materials with crystallites sizes between 21 and 38 nm. The lattice parameter, cell volume and X-ray density are found to be affected by doping the Li-manganate with the rare-earth elements. The ED-XRF analysis confirms the stoichiometric composition of the synthesized samples and SEM reveals their morphology. Calculated values of the dielectric constant ({epsilon}) and the dielectric loss (tan {delta}) decrease with the frequency of the applied field. This is attributed to Maxwell-Wagner polarization. Replacement of manganese by the rare-earth elements results in an improvement in the structural stability of the material, which is considered to be useful for enhancement of the cycleability of the compounds when used in lithium rechargeable batteries, and increases significantly the values of {epsilon} and tan {delta} (except for Ce). Lithium manganate nanomaterials with high {epsilon} and low tan {delta} may be attractive for application in memory storage devices. (author)

  6. Rare earth elements (REEs): effects on germination and growth of selected crop and native plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Philippe J; Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline; Allison, Jane E

    2014-02-01

    The phytotoxicity of rare earth elements (REEs) is still poorly understood. The exposure-response relationships of three native Canadian plant species (common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L., showy ticktrefoil, Desmodium canadense (L.) DC. and switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L.) and two commonly used crop species (radish, Raphanus sativus L., and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L.) to the REEs lanthanum (La), yttrium (Y) and cerium (Ce) were tested. In separate experiments, seven to eight doses of each element were added to the soil prior to sowing seeds. Effects of REE dose on germination were established through measures of total percent germination and speed of germination; effects on growth were established through determination of above ground biomass. Ce was also tested at two pH levels and plant tissue analysis was conducted on pooled samples. Effects on germination were mostly observed with Ce at low pH. However, effects on growth were more pronounced, with detectable inhibition concentrations causing 10% and 25% reductions in biomass for the two native forb species (A. syriaca and D. canadense) with all REEs and on all species tested with Ce in both soil pH treatments. Concentration of Ce in aboveground biomass was lower than root Ce content, and followed the dose-response trend. From values measured in natural soils around the world, our results continue to support the notion that REEs are of limited toxicity and not considered extremely hazardous to the environment. However, in areas where REE contamination is likely, the slow accumulation of these elements in the environment could become problematic. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Rare earth elements behavior in Peruibe black mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson K.; Carvalho, Leandro P.; Gouvea, Paulo F.M.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements in sediments have been used as powerful tools for environmental studies because of their behavior during geochemical processes and are also widely accepted as reliable provenance tracers because they are largely water-immobile and thus behave conservatively during sedimentary processes. The Peruibe Black Mud (PBM) is a sedimentary deposit originated from the interactions of marine sediments and organic matter in an estuarine environment that originates a peloid currently used for medicinal purposes. The objective of this study was to examine rare earth elements pattern distribution in the Peruibe black mud sedimentary deposit as a proxy for its geochemical development. Elemental ratios such as LaN/YbN, Th/U and La/Th were determined and a normalization of the mean rare earth elements concentrations in the samples related to NASC indicates that the light (La to Eu) rare earth elements present values close to the unity while the heavy (Tb to Lu) rare earth elements are depleted related to NASC. It can be observed that the light rare earth elements present enrichment values slightly enriched over the unity while the heavy rare earth elements present values generally below the unity reflecting the enrichment of the light rare earth elements over the heavy rare earth. Rare earth elements concentrations determined in Peruibe black mud samples showed a distribution similar to that found in the NASC for the light rare earth elements and depleted for the heavy rare earth elements. (author)

  8. Rare earth elements behavior in Peruibe black mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson K.; Carvalho, Leandro P.; Gouvea, Paulo F.M.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da, E-mail: jeffkoy@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Rare earth elements in sediments have been used as powerful tools for environmental studies because of their behavior during geochemical processes and are also widely accepted as reliable provenance tracers because they are largely water-immobile and thus behave conservatively during sedimentary processes. The Peruibe Black Mud (PBM) is a sedimentary deposit originated from the interactions of marine sediments and organic matter in an estuarine environment that originates a peloid currently used for medicinal purposes. The objective of this study was to examine rare earth elements pattern distribution in the Peruibe black mud sedimentary deposit as a proxy for its geochemical development. Elemental ratios such as LaN/YbN, Th/U and La/Th were determined and a normalization of the mean rare earth elements concentrations in the samples related to NASC indicates that the light (La to Eu) rare earth elements present values close to the unity while the heavy (Tb to Lu) rare earth elements are depleted related to NASC. It can be observed that the light rare earth elements present enrichment values slightly enriched over the unity while the heavy rare earth elements present values generally below the unity reflecting the enrichment of the light rare earth elements over the heavy rare earth. Rare earth elements concentrations determined in Peruibe black mud samples showed a distribution similar to that found in the NASC for the light rare earth elements and depleted for the heavy rare earth elements. (author)

  9. Determination of Rare Earth Elements in plants by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Maria, Sheila P.; Ceccantini, Gregorio C.T.

    1996-01-01

    In the present work, instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed to the determination of rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Tb, Yb e Lu) in plants, aiming biogeochemical studies. The precision and accuracy of the method were verified by the analysis of the reference materials Citrus Leaves (NIST 1572) and Pine Needles (NIST 1575). With exception of terbium, the results obtained agreed with reference values, giving relative errors less than 25%. The method was applied to different species of plants growing in the alkaline-ultramafic complex of Salitre, MG and the obtained data were compared to the average content in plants. (author)

  10. Characterization of three Brazilian bauxites and the corresponding bayer liquors in regard to rare earth and other minor elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda Oba, C.A.; Avritscher, W.; Pini, R.A.; Abrao, A.; Chaves, A.P.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In this paper the results of chemical analysis of representative Brazilian bauxites are presented and discussed. Analyses were made on original mother rocks, ores, tailings from washing plants, Bayer liquors produced from this ores and also from the red muds. Samples of the ores were submitted to size, magnetic and density separation and these fractions were also analysed. Minor elements of interest assayed were rare earth, gallium and vanadium. Atomic absorption spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence and emission spectroscopy were applied for the minor elements and also conventional wet chemical analyses mainly for major elements. A special technique for a rapid identification and semi-quantitative analysis of gallium and a permanent file for the results are presented as well. Brazilian bauxites are all of lateritic origin, constituted essentially by gibbsite and formed by intense tropical weathering of different rocks. This paper presents the chemical characterization of three Brazilian bauxites, namely Porto Trombetas, Cataguazes and Pocos de Caldas and the behaviour of their minor elements during the industrial processing in the mines and alumina mills. The grades of rare earths elements, gallium and vanadium show significant variations. This is most probably due to mother rocks characteristics than to bauxitization processes. The review deposits have the following mother rocks: Porto Trombetas Sedimentary - Cataguazes Metamorphic - Pocos de Caldas Alkaline (sienite). The samples from Pocos de Caldas show high grade for La+Ce with an average over 800ppm, Cataguazes has an average of 76 ppm La+Ce and Porto Trombetas 6,5ppm. Gallium grades are higher for Pocos de Caldas (average 135 ppm), followed by Porto Trombetas (62 ppm) and Cataguazes (37ppm). Vanadium grades are higher for Porto Trombetas (243 ppm) then Pocos de Caldas (165 ppm). Pocos de Caldas shows 50% enrichment in Ce in the washed ore and in Porto Trombetas most of the Y goes to the fines (product

  11. Rare Earth Elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Sm from a Carbonatite Deposit: Mineralogical Characterization and Geochemical Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Edahbi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical characterization including mineralogical measurements and kinetic testing was completed on samples from the Montviel carbonatite deposit, located in Quebec (Canada. Three main lithological units representing both waste and ore grades were sampled from drill core. A rare earth element (REE concentrate was produced through a combination of gravity and magnetic separation. All samples were characterized using different mineralogical techniques (i.e., quantitative evaluation of minerals by scanning electron microscopy (QEMSCAN, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy with X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDS in order to quantify modal mineralogy, liberation, REE deportment and composition of REE-bearing phases. The REE concentrate was then submitted for kinetic testing (weathering cell in order to investigate the REE leaching potential. The mineralogical results indicate that: (i the main REE-bearing minerals in all samples are burbankite, kukharenkoite-Ce, monazite, and apatite; (ii the samples are dominated by REE-free carbonates (i.e., calcite, ankerite, and siderite; and (iii LREE is more abundant than HREE. Grades of REE minerals, sulfides and oxides are richer in the concentrate than in the host lithologies. The geochemical test results show that low concentrations of light REE are leached under kinetic testing conditions (8.8–139.6 µg/L total light REE. These results are explained by a low reactivity of the REE-bearing carbonates in the kinetic testing conditions, low amounts of REE in solids, and by precipitation of secondary REE minerals.

  12. Tracing crystal-field splittings in the rare-earth-based intermetallic CeIrIn5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q. Y.; Wen, C. H. P.; Yao, Q.; Huang, K.; Ding, Z. F.; Shu, L.; Niu, X. H.; Zhang, Y.; Lai, X. C.; Huang, Y. B.; Zhang, G. B.; Kirchner, S.; Feng, D. L.

    2018-02-01

    Crystal electric field states in rare earth intermetallics show an intricate entanglement with the many-body physics that occurs in these systems and that is known to lead to a plethora of electronic phases. Here we attempt to trace different contributions to the crystal electric field (CEF) splittings in CeIrIn5, a heavy-fermion compound and member of the Ce M In5 (M = Co, Rh, Ir) family. To this end, we utilize high-resolution resonant angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and present a spectroscopic study of the electronic structure of this unconventional superconductor over a wide temperature range. As a result, we show how ARPES can be used in combination with thermodynamic measurements or neutron scattering to disentangle different contributions to the CEF splitting in rare earth intermetallics. We also find that the hybridization is stronger in CeIrIn5 than CeCoIn5 and the effects of the hybridization on the Fermi volume increase is much smaller than predicted. By providing experimental evidence for 4 f7/2 1 splittings which, in CeIrIn5, split the octet into four doublets, we clearly demonstrate the many-body origin of the so-called 4 f7/2 1 state.

  13. Chemiluminescent Diagnostics of Free-Radical Processes in an Abiotic System and in Liver Cells in the Presence of Nanoparticles Based on Rare-Earth Elements nReVO4:Eu3+ (Re = Gd, Y, La) and CeO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averchenko, E. A.; Kavok, N. S.; Klochkov, V. K.; Malyukin, Yu. V.

    2014-11-01

    We have used luminol-dependent chemiluminescence with Fenton's reagent to study the effect of nanoparticles based on rare-earth elements of different sizes and shapes on free-radical processes in abiotic and biotic cell-free systems, and also in isolated cells in vitro. We have estimated the effects of rare-earth orthovanadate nanoparticles of spherical (GdYVO4:Eu3+, 1-2 nm), spindle-shaped (GdVO4:Eu3+, 25 ×8 nm), and rod-shaped (LaVO4:Eu3+, 57 × (6-8) nm) nanoparticles and spherical CeO2 nanoparticles (sizes 1-2 nm and 8-10 nm). We have shown that in contrast to the abiotic system, in which all types of nanoparticles exhibit antiradical activity, in the presence of biological material, extra-small spherical (1-2 nm) nanoparticles of both types exhibit pro-oxidant activity, and also enhance pro-oxidant induced oxidative stress (for the pro-oxidants hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide). The effect of rare-earth orthovanadate spindle and rod shaped nanoparticles in this system was neutral; a moderate antioxidant effect was exhibited by 8-10 nm CeO2 nanoparticles.

  14. Mobility of rare earth element in hydrothermal process and weathering product: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintjewas, L.; Setiawan, I.

    2018-02-01

    The Rare Earth Element (REE), consists of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Lu, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, are important elements to be used as raw materials of advanced technology such as semiconductors, magnets, and lasers. The research of REE in Indonesia has not been done. Several researches were conducted on granitic rocks and weathering product such as Bangka, Sibolga, West Kalimantan, West Sulawesi and Papua. REE can be formed by hydrothermal processes such as Bayan Obo, South China. The REE study on active hydrothermal system (geothermal) in this case also has the potential to produce mineral deposits. The purpose of this review paper is to know the mobility of REE on hydrothermal process and weathering products. Mobility of REE in the hydrothermal process can change the distribution patterns and REE content such as Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, and Y. Another process besides the hydrothermal is weathering process. REE mobility is influenced by weathering products, where the REE will experience residual and secondary enrichment processes in heavier minerals.

  15. Determination of rare earth elements in seawater by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, P.; Dulski, P.; Luck, J.

    1992-01-01

    Shortly after sampling, rare earth elements (REEs) from 11.5 l of seawater were concentrated in 35 ml solutions by ion exchange chromatography on board the German research vessel ''Sonne'' using Chelex 100 chelating resin for preconcentration. Two millilitres of a 0.2 μg g -1 Lu spike was added to the seawater samples (i) for monitoring the chemical yield which was always found to vary between 85 and 112% (mean: 100±6) and (ii) as an internal standard. Rare earth elements have been determined by ICP-MS, with REE concentrations ranging from 100 (La) to 1 (Eu) pmol kg -1 . La in blanks can be as high as 30 pmol kg -1 , but blank concentrations for other REEs range between 0.5 and 0.01 pmol kg -1 . The trend of the precision of relative response factors varies between 12% (La) and 4% (Yb). The accuracy is estimated to be about 10% with the exception of La and Ce. Methodology improvements are suggested. (author)

  16. Sc, Y, La-Lu - Rare Earth Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    At present extensive efforts are being made in completing work on system number Rare Earth Elements. Part A is devoted to the occurrence of these elements on the earth and in the universe. Part B deals with the pure metals; the 7 volumes published cover the description of the separation from the raw materials, the preparation of pure metals,their uses and toxicology, the physical properties of nuclei, atoms, molecules, and isotopes; in addition the behavior of ions in solution and the electrochemical behavior of rare earth elements are described. The compounds are described in Part C. Part D with 6 volumes has been devoted to the description of coordination compounds and is completed. The volume ''Rare Earth Elements C 10'' deals with the rare earth tellurides, oxide tellurides, tellurates, telluride halides, tellurate halides, sulfide tellurides, selenide tellurides, and alkali rare earth tellurates. Another topic of this volume are the compounds of the rare earth elements with polonium. So far as meaningful and in accordance with all earlier volumes of ''Rare Earth Elements'' Series C, comparative data are presented in sections preceding treatment of the individual compounds and systems

  17. Loparite-(Ce) from the Khibiny Alkaline Pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopleva, N. G.; Ivanyuk, G. Yu.; Pakhomovsky, Ya. A.; Yakovenchuk, V. N.; Mikhailova, Yu. A.

    2017-12-01

    Data on the occurrence, morphology, anatomy, composition, and formation conditions of loparite-(Ce) in the Khibiny alkaline pluton are given. Loparite-(Ce), (Na,Ce,Sr)(Ce,Th)(Ti,Nb)2O6, resulted from metasomatic alteration and assimilation of metamorphic host rocks at the contact with foyaite as well as foyaite on the contact with foidolite. This alteration was the highest in pegmatite, and albitite developed there. A decrease in temperature resulted in enrichment of the perovskite and tausonite endmembers in loparite-(Ce) owing to a decrease in the loparite and lueshite endmembers. La and Ce sharply predominate among rare earth elements in the composition of loparite-(Ce).

  18. Thorium and rare earth elements in crystal and brown sugar consumed in Brazil and Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, Paula M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P. R. de

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to contaminants in foods is a matter of general health concern. There is a growing interest in determine and quantify contaminants in food chain including natural radionuclides and rare earth elements (REE). Irradiation effects of radioactive nuclides and REE may cause lesions from their interaction with the human body. This study aimed to identify the presence of thorium and rare earth elements in crystal and brown sugar samples available for consumption in Brazil and Argentina. To determine the chemical elements, the 5g-sample methodology established at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte, using the neutron activation technique, k 0 -method, was applied. The element Sm was determined in crystal sugar samples analyzed that were available to consumption in both countries. Similarly to the brown sugar samples which presented La, Sc and Sm. The elements Ce and Th were found in brown sugar sample available to consumption in Brazil. Thus, the detection of these elements in sugar samples is important insofar as the increasing consumption of sugar around the world. The presence of impurities and its concentration may contribute to health issues to consumers. (author)

  19. Thorium and rare earth elements in crystal and brown sugar consumed in Brazil and Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, Paula M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P. R. de, E-mail: pauladesalles@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Human exposure to contaminants in foods is a matter of general health concern. There is a growing interest in determine and quantify contaminants in food chain including natural radionuclides and rare earth elements (REE). Irradiation effects of radioactive nuclides and REE may cause lesions from their interaction with the human body. This study aimed to identify the presence of thorium and rare earth elements in crystal and brown sugar samples available for consumption in Brazil and Argentina. To determine the chemical elements, the 5g-sample methodology established at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte, using the neutron activation technique, k{sub 0}-method, was applied. The element Sm was determined in crystal sugar samples analyzed that were available to consumption in both countries. Similarly to the brown sugar samples which presented La, Sc and Sm. The elements Ce and Th were found in brown sugar sample available to consumption in Brazil. Thus, the detection of these elements in sugar samples is important insofar as the increasing consumption of sugar around the world. The presence of impurities and its concentration may contribute to health issues to consumers. (author)

  20. Continental shelves as potential resource of rare earth elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourret, Olivier; Tuduri, Johann

    2017-07-19

    The results of this study allow the reassessment of the rare earth elements (REE) external cycle. Indeed, the river input to the oceans has relatively flat REE patterns without cerium (Ce) anomalies, whereas oceanic REE patterns exhibit strong negative Ce anomalies and heavy REE enrichment. Indeed, the processes at the origin of seawater REE patterns are commonly thought to occur within the ocean masses themselves. However, the results from the present study illustrate that seawater-like REE patterns already occur in the truly dissolved pool of river input. This leads us to favor a partial or complete removal of the colloidal REE pool during estuarine mixing by coagulation, as previously shown for dissolved humic acids and iron. In this latter case, REE fractionation occurs because colloidal and truly dissolved pools have different REE patterns. Thus, the REE patterns of seawater could be the combination of both intra-oceanic and riverine processes. In this study, we show that the Atlantic continental shelves could be considered potential REE traps, suggesting further that shelf sediments could potentially become a resource for REE, similar to metalliferous deep sea sediments.

  1. Determination of rare earth elements in the biological reference materials Pine Needles and Spruce Needles by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, C.N.; Maria, S.P.; Saiki, M.; Figueiredo, A.M.G.

    1998-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to determine La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu and Sc in two biological reference materials: NIST 1575 Pine Needles and BCR-CRM 101 Spruce Needles. The purpose was to contribute to the reference data for these two reference materials. The results were obtained with a good precision (relative standard deviations less than 15%). For the Pine Needles reference material there are already some proposed values and our results showed, in general, a good agreement with the data published. The contribution of uranium fission products to La, Ce, Nd and Sm was evaluated and considered in the determination of these elements. Interferences in the determination of rare earth elements in biological materials are also discussed. (author)

  2. Preliminary study on the existence characteristics of rare earth elements in the interstratified oxidized zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinping

    2006-10-01

    There were few of studies on rare earth elements (REE) in sandstone hosted uranium deposits, except the study of sediments source tracing and REE distribution modalities. Based on the study of existence characteristics of REE in subzones of interstratified oxidized zone in Shihongtan uranium deposit, Tuha basin, the possible migration features of REE was traced, and the significance of ΣREE, LREE/HREE ratios and δEu, δCe value during the interstratified oxidation were illustrated. (authors)

  3. Geochemical and rare earth elements distribution pattern in gaiman F M.phosphatic levels, Chubu t, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, L.; Fazio, A.; Tourn, S.; Scasso, R.

    2004-01-01

    Phosphatic concretions in the Early Miocene marine sediments of the Gaiman Formation (Miocene) were analyzed for rare earth elements (REE), in order to discuss their pattern in the context of paleoenvironmental interpretations. P2O5 in concretions is between 15,61 to 21,82%. Two types of concretions are found: Type 1 represented by in situ ones developed within transgressive-early highstand system tracts which shows little evidence for significant transportation, and Type 2 related to reworking, winnowing and mechanical concentration of resistant particles. Type 1 exhibits higher REE/P ratios and a significant enrichment in HREE than Type 2. The REE pattern in both shows a slight depletion in LREE with a weak Ce anomaly (-0.08 to 0.04), and an enrichment in high rare earth elements, in comparison to the a verage shale. Their mean content in REE (915 ppm) and Y (500 ppm) doubles the worldwide phosphorite average (462 ppm and 275 ppm). No significant correlation is found between REEs and P2O5. On the other hand, HREE enrichment (Lu/Ce) increases with the REEs bulk content. The pattern is consistent with shallow water inner shelf marine environment which is also suggested by sedimentological and paleontological evidence [es

  4. Separation of rare earth elements in monazite sand by anion exchange resin (pt. II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, K.W.; Lee, J.H.; Yoon, S.H.; Ha, Y.G.

    1980-01-01

    An anion exchange method for separating Y, La, Ce, Pr, and Nd element in monazaites and into enriched fractions has been developed. The complexed rare earth ions with EDTA at pH 8.4 passed through the resin column of the various size and eluted with 0.0301 M EDTA as eluent at flow rate of 1 ml/min and 2 ml/min. The result of separation is good in the high column length rather than the low on using the resin of the same amount and the volume of eluent required in eluting all the rare earths at 2 ml/min flow rare is larger than that at 1 ml/min and the result of separation obtained here is unsatisfactory. (author)

  5. Rare earth elements in sediment profiles from marginal lagoons of the Moji-Guacu River basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.R.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Franca, E.J.; Tavares, G.A.; Silva, N.C. da; Taddei, M.H.T.

    2006-01-01

    Sediment cores from Catingueiro, Barrinha and Rio das Pedras marginal lagoons of the Moji-Guacu River basin were analyzed for rare earth elements (REEs), Fe, Ta and Th by instrumental neutron activation analysis (k 0 -INAA). Data indicated similarities between Catingueiro and Barrinha lagoons, while a distinct scenario was seen for Rio das Pedras likely due to changes of sedimentation rate in 1950's. By using Fe, Sc, Ta and Th as conservative elements, double normalization technique was performed in order to assess the distribution pattern of Ce, Eu, La, Sm and Tb for each core. In all cases, it was evident a depletion of lighter REE elements in the Rio das Pedras lagoon. (author)

  6. Oil-refinery and automotive emissions of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitto, M.E.; Gordon, G.E.; Anderson, D.L.; Olmez, I.

    1991-01-01

    The concentration pattern of rare-earth elements (REEs) in emissions from oil refineries and newer-model automobiles shows a distortion from the crustal abundance pattern. The REEs arise from the zeolite cracking catalysts used in petroleum refining and emission-control substrates used in automobile catalytic converters, respectively. Ten petroleum cracking catalysts from four countries and 12 catalytic converters from five automobile manufacturers were characterized for their REE content. The cracking catalysts are highly enriched in light REEs, whereas the automobile catalysts are enriched primarily in Ce. Incorporation of zeolite catalysts into refined oil provides new atmospheric elemental signatures for tracing emissions from refineries and oil-fired power plants on a regional scale. Though both have enhanced La/REE ratios, emissions from these two sources can be distinguished by their La/V ratios. Although REE demand by the petroleum industry has dropped considerably in recent years, automobile catalytic converters containing REEs are expected to increase dramatically as more stringent emission regulations are adopted in Europe, Japan and the US

  7. Study of quantitative analysis of rare earth elements (Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) in soil samples by inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong Duc Toan; Nguyen Giang; Vo Tran Quang Thai; Do Tam Nhan; Nguyen Le Anh; Nguyen Viet Duc; Luong Thi Tham; Truong Thi Phuong Mai

    2015-01-01

    Method for the determination of 16 rare earth elements (REEs) in soil samples without separating by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been studied at Dalat Nuclear Research Institute. The optimal conditions for ICP-MS NexION 300X with three modes: Standard, Collision (KED), and Reaction (DRC) have been studied on the Montana II soil reference material. The result analysis shows that: DRC mode only gives good analysis result for Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Tm, Yb, and Lu; Standard mode exhibits good analysis results for all elements with error from 1.2 - 29.0% and KED mode is the best one with error less than 15%. The concentrations of elements in the soil samples of Cau Dat, Bao Loc, and Da Lat were determined, which concentrations of REEs in soil samples of Cau Dat are higher than that of the other areas in Lam Dong Province. (author)

  8. Rare earth element geochemistry of oceanic ferromanganese nodules and associated sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elderfield, H.; Hawkesworth, C. J.; Greaves, M. J.; Calvert, S. E.

    1981-04-01

    Analyses have been made of REE contents of a well-characterized suite of deep-sea (> 4000 m.) principally todorokite-bearing ferromanganese nodules and associated sediments from the Pacific Ocean. REE in nodules and their sediments are closely related: nodules with the largest positive Ce anomalies are found on sediments with the smallest negative Ce anomalies; in contrast, nodules with the highest contents of other rare earths (3 + REE) are found on sediments with the lowest 3 + REE contents and vice versa. 143Nd /144Nd ratios in the nodules (˜0.51244) point to an original seawater source but an identical ratio for sediments in combination with the REE patterns suggests that diagenetic reactions may transfer elements into the nodules. Analysis of biogenic phases shows that the direct contribution of plankton and carbonate and siliceous skeletal materials to REE contents of nodules and sediments is negligible. Inter-element relationships and leaching tests suggest that REE contents are controlled by a P-rich phase with a REE pattern similar to that for biogenous apatite and an Fe-rich phase with a pattern the mirror image of that for sea water. It is proposed that 3 + REE concentrations are controlled by the surface chemistry of these phases during diagenetic reactions which vary with sediment accumulation rate. Processes which favour the enrichment of transition metals in equatorial Pacific nodules favour the depletion of 3 + REE in nodules and enrichment of 3 + REE in associated sediments. In contrast, Ce appears to be added both to nodules and sediments directly from seawater and is not involved in diagenetic reactions.

  9. Rare earth and precious elements in the urban sewage sludge and lake surface sediments under anthropogenic influence in the Republic of Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yessoufou, Arouna; Ifon, Binessi Edouard; Suanon, Fidèle; Dimon, Biaou; Sun, Qian; Dedjiho, Comlan Achille; Mama, Daouda; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2017-11-09

    Nowadays, sewage sludge and water bodies are subjected to heavy pollution due to rapid population growth and urbanization. Heavy metal pollution represents one of the main challenges threatening our environment and the ecosystem. The present work aims to evaluate the contamination state of the sewage sludge and lake sediments in the Republic of Benin. Twenty metallic elements including 15 rare earth elements (Eu, Sb, Cs, Nd, Pr, Gd, La, Ce, Tb, Sm, Dy, Ho, Eu, Yb, and Lu) and five precious elements (Ag, Au, Pd, Pt, and Ru) were investigated using inductive plasma-mass spectrometry. Results showed broad range concentrations of the elements. Ce, La, and Nd were present in both sediments and sewage sludge at concentrations ranging 5.80-41.30 mg/kg dry matter (DM), 3.23-15.60 mg/kg DM, and 2.74-19.26 mg/kg DM, respectively. Pr, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Eu, Er, Yb, Cs, Ho, and Tm concentrations were lower (0.02-5.94 mg/kg DM). Among precious elements, Ag was detected at the highest concentration in all sites (0.43-4.72 mg/kg DM), followed by Pd (0.20-0.57 mg/kg DM) and Au (0.01-0.57 mg/kg DM). Ru and Pt concentrations were sewage sludge. This revealed a growing anthropogenic input which was also implied by principal component analysis. The evaluation of pollution loading index (PLI) indicated a moderate to strong contamination (0.12 ≤ PLI ≤ 0.58; 37 ≤ PLI ≤ 114, respectively, for rare earth elements and precious elements), while the degree of contamination indicated a moderate polymetallic contamination for rare earth elements and significant contamination for precious elements.

  10. Highly fractionated rare-earth elements in ferromagnesian chondrules from the Felix (CO3) meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misawa, Keiji; Nakamura, Noboru

    1988-01-01

    Here we describe two ferromagnesian chondrules from the Felix (Ornans-subtype) carbonaceous chondrite which carry a marker signature of REE (rare earth element) fractionation in the nebula. Both show positive Ce and Yb anomalies and one exhibits a light/heavy REE fractionation. On the basis of the REE characteristics of these chondrules, as well as those of the authors' work on Allende (CV) [N Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. in press], we suggest that one of the precursor materials of chondrules in CO-CV carbonaceous chondrites is a high-temperature condensate from the nebular gas. (author)

  11. Determination of rare earth, major and trace elements in authigenic fraction of Andaman Sea (Northeastern Indian Ocean) sediments by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Alagarsamy, R.; You, C.-F.; Nath, B.N.; SijinKumar, A.V.

    Downcore variation of rare earth elements (REEs) in the authigenic Fe-Mn oxides of a sediment core (covering a record of last approx. 40 kyr) from the Andaman Sea, a part of the Indian Ocean shows distinctive positive Ce and Eu anomalies...

  12. Rare earth elements in Japan Sea sediments and diagenetic behavior of Ce/Ce∗: results from ODP Leg 127

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R.; Buchholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.; Brumsack, Hans-Juergen; Gerlach, David C.; Russ III, G. Price

    1991-01-01

    The relative effects of paleoceanographic and paleogeographic variations, sediment lithology, and diagenetic processes on the recorded rare earth element (REE) chemistry of Japan Sea sediments are evaluated by investigating REE total abundances and relative fractionations in 59 samples from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 127.

  13. Determination of Barium and selected rare-earth elements in geological materials employing a HpGe detector by radioisotope excited x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Preiss, I.L.

    1984-01-01

    The laterite material (geological) from Cerro Impacto was first studied by air radiometric techniques in the 1970's and was found to have an abnormally high radioactive background. Further studies showed this deposit to be rich in thorium, columbium, barium and rare-earth elements (mostly La, Ce, Pr and Nd). A similar work has been reported for the analysis of Brazil's lateritic material from Morro do Ferro to determine elemental compositions (including barium and rare-earth elements) and its relationship to the mobilization of thorium from the deposit using a Co-57 radioisotope source. The objective of this work was to develop an analytical method to determine barium and rare-earth element present in Venezuelan lateritic material from Cerro Impacto. We have employed a method before, employing a Si(Li) detector, but due to the low detection efficiencies in the rare-earth K-lines region (about 30 KeV - 40 KeV), we have decided to study the improvement in sensitivities and detection limits using an hyperpure germanium detector

  14. Micro-alloying Mg with Y, Ce, Gd and La for texture modification-A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanford, N.

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study of the effectiveness of Y, La, Ce and Gd as texture modifiers during the extrusion of magnesium-based alloys has been carried out. It was found that La, Ce and Gd are all effective texture modifiers, being able to produce the 'rare earth' texture at the low alloying levels of 300, 400 and 600 ppm respectively. Y was not as effective as the other three elements in modifying the texture, and at no concentration studied did this element form a typical 'rare earth' texture. It is proposed that a strong interaction of solutes with dislocations and grain boundaries is responsible for the significant impact rare earth additions have on the extruded grain size and texture at very low alloying levels.

  15. Rare Earth Elements Distribution in Beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gawish, H.K.; Nada, N.; Ghaly, W.A.; Helal, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Laser ablation method is applied to a double focusing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer to determine the rare earth element distribution in some selected beryl samples. White, green and blue beryl samples are selected from the Egyptian eastern desert. Distributions of chondrite- normalized plot for the rare earth element in the selected beryl samples are investigated

  16. Geochemistry of rare earths elements from ferriferous formations of the Serpentina's range, Conceicao do Mato Dentro, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dossin, T.M.; Dossin, I.A.; Dardenne, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The banded iron formations of the Serpentina's Range constitute the aim of this report. Their stratigraphy and geochemistry are suggestive that deposits formed under epicontinental basin environments of Lake Superior type. Their mineralogy is essentially represented by hematite and magnetite, locally with siderite and ankerite. Rare earth elements data from the iron formations of the are show Eu and Ce anomalies relatively the other elements, which is interpreted as a response to intermediate oxigenation levels of atmosphere and hidrosphere between the Archean and the Upper Proterozoic. (author) [pt

  17. Study on the contents of trace rare earth elements and their distribution in wheat and rice samples by RNAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jingxin; Zhao Hang; Wang Yuqi

    1994-01-01

    The concentrations of 8 REE (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in wheat and rice samples have been determined by RNAA. The contents and distributions of REE in each part of the plants (i.e. root, leaf, stem, husk and seed) and their host soils were studied, which included samples applied with rare earth elements in farming and control samples. The effects of applying rare earth on the uptake of REE by the plants and the REE accumulation in the grains of human health were also discussed. (author) 9 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs

  18. The Ce-Ni-Si system as a representative of the rare earth-Ni-Si family: Isothermal section and new rare-earth nickel silicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozkin, A.V., E-mail: morozkin@tech.chem.msu.ru [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, House 1, Building 3, Moscow, GSP-1, 119991 (Russian Federation); Knotko, A.V.; Garshev, A.V. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, House 1, Building 3, Moscow, GSP-1, 119991 (Russian Federation); Faculty of Materials Science, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, House 1, Building 73, Moscow, GSP-1, 119991 (Russian Federation); Yapaskurt, V.O. [Department of Petrology, Geological Faculty Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Nirmala, R. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Quezado, S.; Malik, S.K. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, 59082-970 (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    Si{sub 2}; while no appreciable solubility was observed for the other binary compounds of the Ce-Ni-Si system. As a prolongation of Rare Earth-Ni-Si system’s isostructural rows, LaNi{sub 7}Si{sub 6} and YNi{sub 6.6}Si{sub 6.1} (GdNi{sub 7}Si{sub 6}-type), ScNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6} (YCo{sub 6}Ge{sub 6}-type), NdNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6} (YNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}-type), (Tb, Ho){sub 2}Ni{sub 15}Si{sub 2} (Th{sub 2}Zn{sub 17}-type), Nd{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.3}Si{sub 0.7} and Sm{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.2}Si{sub 0.8} (Mo{sub 2}NiB{sub 2}-type), Nd{sub 3}Ni{sub 2.55}Si{sub 1.45} (W{sub 3}CoB{sub 3}-type) and (Tb, Dy){sub 7}Ni{sub 50}Si{sub 19} (Y{sub 7}Ni{sub 49}Si{sub 20}-type) compounds were synthesized and investigated. Magnetic properties of the CeNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}, CeNi{sub 7}Si{sub 6}, CeNi{sub 8.8}Si{sub 4.2}, Ce{sub 6}Ni{sub 7}Si{sub 4}, CeNi{sub 5}Si, Ce{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.5}Si{sub 0.5}, Nd{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.3}Si{sub 0.7} and Dy{sub 7}Ni{sub 50}Si{sub 19} compounds have also been investigated and are presented here. - Highlights: • Ce-Ni-Si isothermal section was obtained at 870/1070 K. • Twenty one known ternary cerium nickel silicides were confirmed in Ce-Ni-Si. • Five new cerium nickel silicides were detected in Ce-Ni-Si. • Eleven new rare earth nickel silicides were detected in R-Ni-Si. • Magnetic properties of eight rare earth nickel silicides were investigated.

  19. Effect of CeO2 on TiC Morphology in Ni-Based Composite Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yangchuan; Luo, Zhen; Chen, Yao

    2018-03-01

    The TiC/Ni composite coating with different content of CeO2 was fabricated on the Cr12MoV steel by laser cladding. The microstructure of cladding layers with the different content of CeO2 from the bottom to the surface is columnar crystal, cellular crystal, and equiaxed crystal. When the content of CeO2 is 0 %, the cladding layer has a coarse and nonuniform microstructure and TiC particles gathering in the cladding layer, and then the wear resistance was reduced. Appropriate rare-earth elements refined and homogenised the microstructure and enhanced the content of carbides, precipitated TiC particles and original TiC particles were spheroidised and refined, the wear resistance of the cladding layer was improved significantly. Excessive rare-earth elements polluted the grain boundaries and made the excessive burning loss of TiC particles that reduced the wear resistance of the cladding layer.

  20. A survey of 16 rare Earth elements in the major foods in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ding Guo; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Shuo; Yang, Da Jin

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this survey was to investigate the level of contamination of the most consumed foods in China with 16 rare earth elements (REEs), and to provide the basic data for establishing and revising food safety standards for REEs. Sixteen REEs in foods were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the labs of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of four provinces and two municipalities, during 2009-2010. 1 231 samples were analyzed and 19 121 concentration data of 16 REEs were collected. The REEs levels in the investigated foods varied significantly. The concentrations of cerium (Ce), dysprosium (Dy), yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), and neodymium (Nd) were relatively high, while the remaining eleven REEs were at low levels. The mean values of total rare earth element oxides (REOs) in cereals, fresh vegetables, fresh aquatic products, fresh meats and eggs varied from 0.052 mg/kg to 0.337 mg/kg. 16 REEs in the major foods were at very low contamination levels in the investigated regions. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Calculation of binary phase diagrams between the actinide elements, rare earth elements, and transition metal elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selle, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Attempts were made to apply the Kaufman method of calculating binary phase diagrams to the calculation of binary phase diagrams between the rare earths, actinides, and the refractory transition metals. Difficulties were encountered in applying the method to the rare earths and actinides, and modifications were necessary to provide accurate representation of known diagrams. To calculate the interaction parameters for rare earth-rare earth diagrams, it was necessary to use the atomic volumes for each of the phases: liquid, body-centered cubic, hexagonal close-packed, and face-centered cubic. Determination of the atomic volumes of each of these phases for each element is discussed in detail. In some cases, empirical means were necessary. Results are presented on the calculation of rare earth-rare earth, rare earth-actinide, and actinide-actinide diagrams. For rare earth-refractory transition metal diagrams and actinide-refractory transition metal diagrams, empirical means were required to develop values for the enthalpy of vaporization for rare earth elements and values for the constant (C) required when intermediate phases are present. Results of using the values determined for each element are presented

  2. Dissolved rare earth elements in the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijf, Johan; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Landing, William M.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrations of rare earths in the deep anoxic Black Sea are about one order of magnitude higher than in normal open ocean waters. From a minimum at the suboxic-anoxic interface at about 107 m depth, concentrations increase strongly to a maximum at about 300–400 m depth. Concentrations of Ce range

  3. Radium, thorium, and the light rare earth elements in soils and vegetables grown in an area of high natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsalata, P.; Franca, E.P.; Sachett, I.

    1987-01-01

    A study is in progress in Brazil to assess the soil-to-plant concentration ratios (CR) of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 232 Th, 230 Th, and 228 Th and the light rare earth elements (REE) La, Ce, and Nd. Thorium serves as an analog for Pu(IV) and La or Nd as analogs for Am and Cm(III). A near-surface deposit of Th (∼30,000 tons) and REE (>100,000 tons) exists at the center of the plateau near the summit of a small hill. No trends have been observed between farm soil concentrations and proximity to the ore body, substantiating earlier conclusions of the relative immobility of these elements from the deposit. New analytical procedures are presented for the sequential determination of isotopic thorium and the light REE in large biological samples. Typical radiochemical yields are 50 to 70% for Th and 80 to 100% for the REE. Preliminary analyses of seven vegetable types indicate that concentrations of Th, La, Nd, Ce, and Sm are quite variable between and among species. Average concentrations in plant tissues generally reflect soil abundances as: Ce > La > Nd > Sm ∼ Th. Mean CRs are 604, 270, 24, 17, 8 and 1 for 228 Ra, 226 Ra, La, Nd, Ce, and Th, respectively. Plant uptake of elements with stable oxidation states of II, III, and IV decreases as Ra(II) > REE(III) > Th(IV), which may reflect the availability of these elements in soil. 33 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  4. Cermets based on rhenium and rare earth element oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varfolomeev, M.B.; Velichko, A.V.; Zajtseva, L.L.; Shishkov, N.V.

    1977-01-01

    The reduction of perrhenates of rare earth elements and of yttrium by hydrogen and the subsequent sintering have yielded cermets based on rhenium and rare earth element oxides inherent in which are more disperse and homogeneous structures than those of the ''molecular'' rare earth element-Tc cermets. The dispersity of cermets increases in the rare earth elements series from La to Lu. The microhardness of the Re phase in cermets is 490 kgf/mm 2 ; the total microhardness of a cermet is substantially higher

  5. Concentration levels of rare-earth elements and thorium on plants from the Morro de Ferro environment as an indicator for the biological availability of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miekeley, N.; Casartelli, E.A.; Dotto, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Plants and soils from a natural thorium and rare-earth element occurrence (Morro do Ferro, Brazil) were analyzed by alpha spectrometry (Th) and ICP-AES (REE), after pre-concentration of the elements by solvent extraction, co-precipitation and ion exchange procedures. Leaching experiments with humic acid solutions and different soils were performed to estimate the fraction of elements biologically available. High concentrations of the light rare-earth elements (LREE) and of Th, reaching some hundreds of μg/g-ash, were measured in plant leaves from the areas of the highest concentration of these elements in soil and in near-surface waters. Chondrite normalized REE plots of plant leaves and corresponding soils are very similar, suggesting that there is no significant fractionation between the REE during uptake from the soil solution and incorporation into the leaves. However, Ce-depletion was observed for some plant species, increasing for Solanum ciliatum in the sequence: leaves -3 to 10 -2 . Leaching experiments confirmed the importance of humic acid complexation for the bio-uptake of Th and REE and further showed that only a very small fraction of these elements in soil is leachable. The implications of these results on the calculated CR's will be discussed. (author) 26 refs.; 5 figs.; 5 tabs

  6. Rare earth element mineralogy and geochemistry in a laterite profile from Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Alfons; Janots, Emilie; Gnos, Edwin; Frei, Robert; Bernier, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Secondary REE-mineralogy depend on redox conditions inside a laterite. • Detailed mineralogy in different layers of a laterite is given. • A Gd-sulfate is described. • Change in bulk rock chemistry control REE mineralogy. - Abstract: In this study, rare earth element (REE) distribution has been investigated in a weathering profile from central Madagascar. Combination of bulk rock geochemical data (elements and isotopes) with mineral characterization reveals a remarkable evolution of the REE abundances and REE-minerals in the vertical weathering profile. In the fresh tonalite (bedrock), REE + Y concentrations are typical of granitoids (299–363 ppm) and the main REE-minerals are allanite and chevkinite. In the C-horizon (saprolite), primary REE-minerals disappear and REEs are transported via fluid to precipitate rhabdophane group minerals in cracks and pores. The presence of sulfate ligands, produced by sulfide oxidation, may be responsible for the REE speciation, as suggested by the composition of the secondary REE-minerals. Rhabdophane group minerals contain up to 9 wt% SO 3 and 7 wt% CaO, indicating a mixture between rhabdophane sensu stricto, (REE)PO 4 ·H 2 O, and tristamite, (Ca,U,Fe (III) )(PO 4 ,SO 4 )·2H 2 O. Due to intense Ca-leaching, rhabdophane disappears and Al-phosphates (alunite–jarosite group) are found in the soil. Cerianite (Ce (IV) O 2 ) also precipitates in the B-horizon of the soil. Mass transfer calculations based on immobile Ti indicate significant REE leaching in A-horizon with preferential leaching of the heavy REE. REEs accumulate partly in the B-horizon. The uniform Nd isotope compositions and the constant proportion of immobile elements do not reveal external input. In the B-horizon, total REE + Y reach 2194 ppm with high Ce concentrations (1638 ppm; 9 * Ce bedrock ) compared to other REE (3–4 * REE bedrock ). Tetravalent Ce state is dominant in the B-horizon and requires oxidizing conditions that likely

  7. The preparation and corrosion resistance of Ce and Nd modified anodic films on aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qizheng; Tang Yuming; Zuo Yu

    2010-01-01

    Rare earth element Ce and Nd modified anodic films were prepared on aluminum surface by a relatively simple method: the aluminum samples were first immersed in Ni(NO 3 ) 2 solutions containing Ce or Nd salts at 90 deg. C, then were dried and anodized. The contents of Ce or Nd in the anodic films were from 0.5% to 0.9%, and about 4-5% Ni was also introduced in the films. The modified anodic films were more compact with much smaller pores and increased hardness. In neutral, acidic and basic NaCl solutions, the rare earth modified films showed obviously improved corrosion resistance. The Ce modified films showed better corrosion resistance than Nd modified films. The cracking resistance of the films under heating was also improved.

  8. Leaching of rare earth elements from bentonite clay

    OpenAIRE

    van der Watt, J.G; Waanders, F.B

    2012-01-01

    Due to increasing concerns of global rare earth element shortfalls in the near future, possible alternative sources of rare earth elements have recently become of economic interest. One such alternative is decanting acid mine water originating primarily from abandoned old mines in the Witwatersrand region of the Republic of South Africa. In this study, a novel way of rare earth element removal from the acid mine drainage was employed, making use of bentonite clay, which has very good adsorben...

  9. Fractionation of rare earths elements in weathering profiles on phonolites in area of Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formoso, M.L.L.; Valeton, J.; Retzmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    Niobium and rare earth elements are associated with alkaline intrusions, especially in sequences containing carbonatites. During deep ferralitic weathering on the Lower Tertiary peneplanation plain REE are mobilized and depleted as well in the lower saprolite as in the upper ferralite, except Cerium which shows a positive anormaly. Triangular diagrams of Ce, Nd, La represent a relative enrichment of La, whereas comparing Ce, La and Nb, the increase of Niobium is strongest with rising weathering. After intersection of the landscape into inselbergs and lowering of the aquifers a later period of mobilization and migration of the REE together with manganese, aluminium and silica took place in descending direction. Their absolute enrichment by precipitation is concentrated in fissure fillings and porespaces in the lowermost part of the profiles. Main minerals are lithiophorite and halloysite. (author) [pt

  10. Effect of cerium on the corrosion behaviour of sintered (Nd,Ce)FeB magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijing; Bi, Mengxue; Jiang, Jianjun; Ding, Xuefeng; Zhu, Minggang; Li, Wei; Lv, Zhongshan; Song, Zhenlun

    2017-06-01

    For the balanced consumption of rare-earth elements, cerium (Ce) was partially used for NdFeB magnets instead of Nd. The corrosion behaviour of the (Nd,Ce)FeB magnet with different Ce contents in 3.5% NaCl solution was investigated by SEM, XRD, EDS and electrochemical tests. After immersion, the weight loss was calculated and the magnetic properties of the samples were measured. Results showed that Ce affected the corrosion of the (Nd,Ce)FeB magnet. Compared with the NdFeB magnet without Ce but of the same grade as the magnetic energy product, (Nd,Ce)FeB magnet showed better corrosion resistance. With increased Ce content, the corrosion resistances and magnetic properties of (Nd,Ce)FeB magnets were investigated.

  11. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The rare earth elements like La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu and the heavy metals like Mg, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, U, Th were analysed by using standard analytical methods. The Post-Archean Australian Shale composition was used to normalise the rare earth elements. It was found that the sediments ...

  12. Core-Mantle Partitioning of Volatile Elements and the Origin of Volatile Elements in Earth and Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Pando, K.; Danielson, L.; Nickodem, K.

    2014-01-01

    Depletions of siderophile elements in mantles have placed constraints on the conditions on core segregation and differentiation in bodies such as Earth, Earth's Moon, Mars, and asteroid 4 Vesta. Among the siderophile elements there are a sub-set that are also volatile (volatile siderophile elements or VSE; Ga, Ge, In, As, Sb, Sn, Bi, Zn, Cu, Cd), and thus can help to constrain the origin of volatile elements in these bodies, and in particular the Earth and Moon. One of the fundamental observations of the geochemistry of the Moon is the overall depletion of volatile elements relative to the Earth, but a satisfactory explanation has remained elusive. Hypotheses for Earth include addition during accretion and core formation and mobilized into the metallic core, multiple stage origin, or addition after the core formed. Any explanation for volatile elements in the Earth's mantle must also be linked to an explanation of these elements in the lunar mantle. New metal-silicate partitioning data will be applied to the origin of volatile elements in both the Earth and Moon, and will evaluate theories for exogenous versus endogenous origin of volatile elements.

  13. RRh2Al10 (R = Ce, Yb): New intermetallic compounds in the 1 : 2 : 10 stoichiometry series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strydom, A. M.; Djoumessi, R. F.; Blinova, M.; Tursina, A.; Nesterenko, S.; Avzuragova, V.

    2018-05-01

    The orthorhombic, space group Cmcm YbFe2Al10 structure type series of compounds are known to form with practically the entire series of rare-earth elements R, but only with the three d - electron elements Fe, Ru, and Os. The Ce-derivatives in particular have been of much interest since the first reports of their highly unusual physical properties. Classified as Kondo insulators, CeRu2Al10 and CeOs2Al10 controversially order magnetically and with uncharacteristically high Néel temperatures of ≃ 28 K. CeFe2Al10 on the other hand shows pronounced semiconducting and Kondo features but remains paramagnetic. As part of our ongoing studies into the rich physics of this class of materials we have succeeded in synthesizing new members of the 1:2:10 stoichiometry involving the chemical element Rh for the first time. CeRh2Al10 is found to crystallize in the tetragonal system with space group I41 / amd . Yb Rh2Al10 on the other hand forms in the serial Cmcm orthorhombic structure type. We discuss important similarities between the two types. At 5.310 Å the shortest Ce-Ce distance is, likewise to the situation in CeRu2Al10 and CeOs2Al10 , also well above the Hill limit of 3.40 Å. Despite the cage-like structure and large rare-earth separation distances, this study reveals the onset of long-range magnetic ordering in CeRh2Al10 at 3.9 K. The magnetic ordering develops out of an incoherent Kondo state that dominates the electrical resistivity below about 40 K.

  14. Rare earth elements materials production from apatite ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anufrieva, A V; Buynovskiy, A S; Makaseev, Y N; Mazov, I N; Nefedov, R A; Sachkov, V I; Valkov, A V; Andrienko, O S; Stepanova, O B

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the study of processing apatite ores with nitric acid and extraction of the rare earth elements. The rare earth elements can be successfully separated and recovered by extraction from the nitrate- phosphate solution, being an tributyl phosphate as extraction agent. The developed scheme of the processing apatite concentrate provides obtaining rare earth concentrates with high qualitative characteristics. (paper)

  15. Mechanochemical synthesis of ultrafine Ce2S3 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuzuki, T.; McCormick, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Rare earth sulphides have been receiving an increasing attraction for various applications including infrared window materials and magneto-optical devices. In particular, Ce 2 S 3 has been under intensive study for use as a red pigment to replace toxic cadmium sulfoselenide. The conventional method for synthesising Ce 2 S 3 is the sulphidization of the element or sesquioxide with hydrogen sulphide gas. However, the method usually requires a high-temperature process (>1000 deg C), and hence coarse particles larger than the optimal size of ∼ 2 S 3 powder by mechanochemical processing using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, BET surface area analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Mechanical milling of the mixture of a cerium salt and an alkali/alkali-earth sulphide powders led to a solid state displacement reaction in a steady-state manner, forming Ce 2 S 3 nanoparticles in a salt by-product matrix. After a simple washing process to remove the salt by-product, ultrafine Ce 2 S 3 particles with sizes of 20 - 200 nm having an orthorhombic structure were obtained. Using a diluent and mechanically alloyed CaS nanoparticles in the starting powder, particles of only a cubic γ-Ce 2 S 3 phase with sizes of 10 - 80 nm were formed

  16. Determination of rare earth elements in biomonitors by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Saiki, Mitiko; Ticianelli, R.B.; Domingos, M.; Alves, E.S.; Marcelli, M.P.

    2000-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are becoming more and more important from the technological point of view, due to their increasing use in modern industry. Due to this fact, environmental contamination by REE may become significant, and little information are still available about biological effects of REE in plants, animals and human beings. The use of biomonitors to control environmental pollution has been an ecological and economical alternative in Europe and United Sates, to minimize the high costs of conventional equipment s. In the present paper, neutron activation analysis was employed to determine La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu in the lichen Canoparmelia texana and in Tillandsia usneoides, species that have been widely used as monitors of atmospheric pollution. The results showed an accumulation of REE in the biomonitors, indicating good possibilities of their utilization in the study of environmental contamination by REE. (author)

  17. Contributions of Rare Earth Element (La,Ce) Addition to the Impact Toughness of Low Carbon Cast Niobium Microalloyed Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkamani, Hadi; Raygan, Shahram; Garcia Mateo, Carlos; Rassizadehghani, Jafar; Palizdar, Yahya; San-Martin, David

    2018-03-01

    In this research Rare Earth elements (RE), La and Ce (200 ppm), were added to a low carbon cast microalloyed steel to disclose their influence on the microstructure and impact toughness. It is suggested that RE are able to change the interaction between the inclusions and matrix during the solidification process (comprising peritectic transformation), which could affect the microstructural features and consequently the impact property; compared to the base steel a clear evolution was observed in nature and morphology of the inclusions present in the RE-added steel i.e. (1) they changed from MnS-based to (RE,Al)(S,O) and RE(S)-based; (2) they obtained an aspect ratio closer to 1 with a lower area fraction as well as a smaller average size. Besides, the microstructural examination of the matrix phases showed that a bimodal type of ferrite grain size distribution exists in both base and RE-added steels, while the mean ferrite grain size was reduced from 12 to 7 μm and the bimodality was redressed in the RE-added steel. It was found that pearlite nodule size decreases from 9 to 6 μm in the RE-added steel; however, microalloying with RE caused only a slight decrease in pearlite volume fraction. After detailed fractography analyses, it was found that, compared to the based steel, the significant enhancement of the impact toughness in RE-added steel (from 63 to 100 J) can be mainly attributed to the differences observed in the nature of the inclusions, the ferrite grain size distribution, and the pearlite nodule size. The presence of carbides (cementite) at ferrite grain boundaries and probable change in distribution of Nb-nanoprecipitation (promoted by RE addition) can be considered as other reasons affecting the impact toughness of steels under investigation.

  18. Enzymatic determination of rare earth elements using pyrophosphatases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhovtsova, T.N.; Pirogova, S.V.; Fedorova, O.M.; Dolmanova, I.F.; Bajkov, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    A highly sensitive(determination limit 8x10 -6 -4x10 -4 μ g/m) and selective enzymatic method for determination of rare earth elements has been developed. The method is based on inhibition action of rare earths on the catalytic activity of pyrophosphates isolated from bakery geast and E.Coli. The mechanism of the rare earth element action, corresponding to competitive inhibition, has been established

  19. Identification of rare earth elements by their fluorescence complexes with tetracycline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanotti-Cavazzoni, J.C.; Boveda V, J.C.; Abrao, A.

    1994-01-01

    A procedure for identification of rare earth elements (REE) based on the complex formation with tetracycline (TC) and visual observation under ultraviolet light is described. One micro drop of REE chloride is placed over the filter paper impregnated with tetracycline and previously dried before use. After dried (30-60 O C) the paper is examined under the UV light. In a second procedure for the identification of mixture of REE a drop of the analyte is added over a filter paper strip impregnated with TC followed by a chromatographic development using a 2:1:1:1 (vol/vol) ethanol, acetone, ether and 1% acetic acid mixture of pH 5,8. After dried, the strip is observed under UV light. Sc, Y, La, Dy, Ho and Lu exhibited high yellow fluorescence; Gd, Tm and Yb a weak yellow; Ce an intense violet; Pr, ND, Sm and Tb violet: Eu a high red fluorescence and Er a violet brown wish, not well defined. It is possible to identify for instance 0.3 ug Ce (concentration 6 mg/L) and 0.2 ug Er (concentration 6 mg/L). Preliminary experiments indicated that those REE-TC chelates can be used for the identification and determination of the REE by spectro fluorimetry. (author). 30 refs

  20. Distribution and Translocation of 141Ce (III) in Horseradish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoshan; Zhou, Qing; Lu, Tianhong; Fang, Min; Huang, Xiaohua

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Rare earth elements (REEs) are used in agriculture and a large amount of them contaminate the environment and enter foods. The distribution and translocation of 141Ce (III) in horseradish was investigated in order to help understand the biochemical behaviour and toxic mechanism of REEs in plants. Method The distribution and translocation of 141Ce (III) in horseradish were investigated using autoradiography, liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and electron microscopic autoradiography (EMARG) techniques. The contents of 141Ce (III) and nutrient elements were analysed using an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). Results The results from autoradiography and LSC indicated that 141Ce (III) could be absorbed by horseradish and transferred from the leaf to the leaf-stalk and then to the root. The content of 141Ce (III) in different parts of horseradish was as follows: root > leaf-stalk > leaf. The uptake rates of 141Ce (III) in horseradish changed with the different organs and time. The content of 141Ce (III) in developing leaves was greater than that in mature leaves. The results from EMARG indicated that 141Ce (III) could penetrate through the cell membrane and enter the mesophyll cells, being present in both extra- and intra-cellular deposits. The contents of macronutrients in horseradish were decreased by 141Ce (III) treatment. Conclusions 141Ce (III) can be absorbed and transferred between organs of horseradish with time, and the distribution was found to be different at different growth stages. 141Ce (III) can enter the mesophyll cells via apoplast and symplast channels or via plasmodesmata. 141Ce (III) can disturb the metabolism of macronutrients in horseradish. PMID:17921527

  1. Separation and Recycling for Rare Earth Elements by Homogeneous Liquid-Liquid Extraction (HoLLE Using a pH-Responsive Fluorine-Based Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shotaro Saito

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A selective separation and recycling system for metal ions was developed by homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction (HoLLE using a fluorosurfactant. Sixty-two different elemental ions (e.g., Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Hg, Ho, In, Ir, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Nb, Nd, Ni, Os, P, Pb, Pd, Pr, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tb, Te, Ti, Tl, Tm, V, W, Y, Yb, Zn, and Zr were examined. By changing pH from a neutral or alkaline solution (pH ≥ 6.5 to that of an acidic solution (pH < 4.0, gallium, zirconium, palladium, silver, platinum, and rare earth elements were extracted at >90% efficiency into a sedimented Zonyl FSA® (CF3(CF2n(CH22S(CH22COOH, n = 6–8 liquid phase. Moreover, all rare earth elements were obtained with superior extraction and stripping percentages. In the recycling of rare earth elements, the sedimented phase was maintained using a filter along with a mixed solution of THF and 1 M sodium hydroxide aqueous solution. The Zonyl FSA® was filtrated and the rare earth elements were recovered on the filter as a hydroxide. Furthermore, the filtrated Zonyl FSA was reusable by conditioning the subject pH.

  2. MaRGEE: Move and Rotate Google Earth Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dordevic, Mladen M.; Whitmeyer, Steven J.

    2015-12-01

    Google Earth is recognized as a highly effective visualization tool for geospatial information. However, there remain serious limitations that have hindered its acceptance as a tool for research and education in the geosciences. One significant limitation is the inability to translate or rotate geometrical elements on the Google Earth virtual globe. Here we present a new JavaScript web application to "Move and Rotate Google Earth Elements" (MaRGEE). MaRGEE includes tools to simplify, translate, and rotate elements, add intermediate steps to a transposition, and batch process multiple transpositions. The transposition algorithm uses spherical geometry calculations, such as the haversine formula, to accurately reposition groups of points, paths, and polygons on the Google Earth globe without distortion. Due to the imminent deprecation of the Google Earth API and browser plugin, MaRGEE uses a Google Maps interface to facilitate and illustrate the transpositions. However, the inherent spatial distortions that result from the Google Maps Web Mercator projection are not apparent once the transposed elements are saved as a KML file and opened in Google Earth. Potential applications of the MaRGEE toolkit include tectonic reconstructions, the movements of glaciers or thrust sheets, and time-based animations of other large- and small-scale geologic processes.

  3. Magnetic properties of the layered oxypnictides (LnOMnAs (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morosawa Y.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the rare earth elements dependence on the magnetism to understand the contribution to physical properties of the 4f electrons of (LnOMnAs (Pn = La, Ce, Pr, Nd. (CeOMnAs, (PrOMnAs and (NdOMnAs shows the antiferromagnetic behaviors at low temperature. (CeOMnAs and (NdOMnAs have the magnetic anomalies around 34 K and 24 K, respectively. So, it is speculated that the anomalies depend on the Mn -Mn distance directly

  4. Ln3+ (Ln=Ce, Tb, Dy) and Hf doping of LuI3 powders – A material and spectroscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiatrowska, Aneta; Keur, Wilco; Ronda, Cees

    2016-01-01

    The moisture sensitivity of LuI 3 :Ce,Hf and luminescent properties of undoped LuI 3 and LuI 3 :M (M=Ce 3+ , Tb 3+ , Dy 3+ ) powders were investigated. The possibility of improving the air and moisture stability of LuI 3 :Ce by Hf doping was tested. It was proven that the Hf contribution to the LuI 3 :Ce stability is very limited and is insignificant to render LuI 3 :Ce scintillator powders suitable for applications. Photoluminescence results of LuI 3 without dopants added on purpose showed luminescence due to a plurality of rare-earth elements' impurities. Two types of self-trapped luminescence were found. Energy transfer between host lattice, self-trapped excitons and rare-earth ions was investigated.

  5. Nuclear orientation on rare earth nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, K.

    1998-01-01

    A hyperfine interaction study of the light rare earth elements, Ce, Pr, Nd and Pm, in the rare earth nickel and CeNi 2 Al 5 compounds by means of the low temperature nuclear orientation is summarised. The magnitudes and directions of the magnetic hyperfine fields obtained through measurements of γ-ray anisotropy and angular distributions reveal the magnetic structures of the ions. The experiments extracted peculiar results for the magnetic properties of the ions, and show certain novel features of the technique to the study of solid-state magnetism. Copyright (1998) Australian Journal of Physics

  6. Phase characteristics of rare earth elements in metallic fuel for a sodium-cooled fast reactor by injection casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuk, Seoung Woo, E-mail: swkuk@kaeri.re.kr [Next Generation Fuel Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Oh, Seok Jin; Park, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Chan Bock [Next Generation Fuel Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Young-Sang [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Yun [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Radiochemistry & Nuclear Nonproliferation, University of Science & Technology, Gajeong-ro 217, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34113 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-01

    Uranium-zirconium-rare earth (U-Zr-RE) fuel slugs for a sodium-cooled fast reactor were manufactured using a modified injection casting method, and investigated with respect to their uniformity, distribution, composition, and phase behavior according to RE content. Nd, Ce, Pr, and La were chosen as four representative lanthanide elements because they are considered to be major RE components of fuel ingots after pyroprocessing. Immiscible layers were found on the top layers of the melt-residue commensurate with higher fuel slug RE content. Scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) data showed that RE elements in the melt-residue were distributed uniformly throughout the fuel slugs. RE element agglomeration did not contaminate the fuel slugs but strongly affected the RE content of the slugs.

  7. Rare earth element abundances and distribution patterns in plant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aidid, S.B.

    1994-01-01

    Eight out of the fourteen rare earth elements were estimated from the leaves of Pelthophorum pterocarpum, the leaves and roots of Impatiens balsamina, and the soils from four sampling sites by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The chondrite normalized rare earth element abundances and distribution patterns in the plant materials were found to be significantly correlated to the abundances of the rare earth elements occurring in the soils. The extent of accumulation of the rare earth elements in some plant materials was also governed by the age of the plants and the plant organs. (author) 16 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  8. The effects of rare earth elements on the growth and nutrition of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diatloff, E.; Asher, C.J.; Smith, F.W.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The rare earth elements (REEs) have many and varied uses throughout the world. However, the large scale use of REEs in agriculture is confined to China where some beneficial effects of REEs have been reported. Very little is known about the basic physiological effects of REEs on plants. Such information is essential for an understanding of how these elements may influence agricultural crop production. In this paper we summarise results of experiments rigorously conducted over 3 years to examine the effects of lanthanum (La) and cerium (Ce) on the growth and mineral nutrition of plants. Lanthanum and Ce were applied to the foliage or roots of two plant species (Corn ( Zea mays) and mungbean ( Vigna radiata)) of agricultural importance in the sub-tropical and tropical areas of the world. A commercial REE fertiliser was obtained from China, chemically analysed and found to contain mainly La and Ce nitrates. This fertiliser and comparable synthetic REE solutions were applied at the recommended rates to the leaves of corn and mungbean plants grown on a low-REE medium under well-controlled environmental conditions. Foliar application of REEs did not significantly increase the shoot dry weight of corn or mungbean. Both REE sources applied at 0.5 and 1.0% produced symptoms of foliar damage and reduced shoot dry weight in both plant species. Damage symptoms and growth reductions of plants sprayed with pure La and Ce solutions were similar to those of plants sprayed with commercial REE fertiliser. When REEs were maintained in a soluble form in nutrient solutions comparable in composition to soil solutions, concentrations of La or Ce from 1 to 16 μM (0.1 - 2 ppm) were found to be toxic to the root elongation of corn and mungbean. Subsequently, when concentrations of La or Ce below 1.5 μM (<0.2 ppm) were accurately maintained in solution, concentrations as low as 0.2 μM (0.03 ppm) were shown to be toxic to mungbean. Thus Ce at 0.2 μM (0.03 ppm) reduced the total

  9. Modification of Non-Metallic Inclusions by Rare-Earth Elements in Microalloyed Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Opiela

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The modification of the chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions by rare-earth elements in the new-developed microalloyed steels was discussed in the paper. The investigated steels are assigned to production of forged elements by thermo- mechanical treatment. The steels were melted in a vaccum induction furnace and modification of non-metallic inclusions was carried out by the michmetal in the amount of 2.0 g per 1 kg of steel. It was found that using material charge of high purity and a realization of metallurgical process in vacuous conditions result in a low concentration of sulfur (0.004%, phosphorus (from 0.006 to 0.008% and oxygen (6 ppm. The high metallurgical purity is confirmed by a small fraction of non-metallic inclusions averaging 0.075%. A large majority of non-metallic inclusions are fine, globular oxide-sulfide or sulfide particles with a mean size 17m2. The chemical composition and morphology of non-metallic inclusions was modified by Ce, La and Nd, what results a small deformability of non- metallic inclusions during hot-working.

  10. SEPARATION OF TRANSURANIC ELEMENTS FROM RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohman, T.P.

    1961-11-21

    A process of separating neptunium and plutonium values from rare earths and alkaline earth fission products present on a solid mixed actinide carrier (Th or U(IV) oxalate or fluoride) --fission product carrier (LaF/sub 3/, CeF/sub 3/, SrF/sub 2/, CaF/sub 2/, YF/sub 3/, La oxalate, cerous oxalate, Sr oxalate, Ca oxalate or Y oxalate) by extraction of the actinides at elevated temperature with a solution of ammonium fluoride and/or ammonium oxalate is described. Separation of the fission-product-containing carriers from the actinide solution formed and precipitation of the neptunium and plutonium from the solution with mineral acid are also accomplished. (AEC)

  11. The equiatomic intermetallics REPtCd (RE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu) and magnetic properties of CeAuCd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnscher, Michael; Niehaus, Oliver; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Tappe, Frank [Hochschule Hamm-Lippstadt, Hamm (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    The cadmium intermetallics REPtCd (RE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu) and CeAuCd were synthesized by induction-melting of the elements in sealed niobium ampoules followed by annealing in muffle furnaces. The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction. The structures of CePtCd (ZrNiAl type, P anti 62m, a = 763.8(6), c = 409.1(4) pm, wR2 = 0.0195, 298 F{sup 2} values, 14 variables) and EuPtCd (TiNiSi type, Pnma, a = 741.3(2), b = 436.4(1), c = 858.0(4) pm, wR2 = 0.0385, 440 F{sup 2} values, 20 variables) were refined from single-crystal data. The REPtCd structures exhibit three-dimensional networks of corner- and edge-sharing Cd rate at Pt{sub 2/6}Pt{sub 2/3} and Cd rate at Pt{sub 4/4} tetrahedra, which leave cages for the rare earth atoms. Temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility data of CeAuCd reveal a paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic phase transition at T{sub N} = 3.7(5) K.

  12. The equiatomic intermetallics REPtCd (RE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu) and magnetic properties of CeAuCd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnscher, Michael; Niehaus, Oliver; Poettgen, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The cadmium intermetallics REPtCd (RE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu) and CeAuCd were synthesized by induction-melting of the elements in sealed niobium ampoules followed by annealing in muffle furnaces. The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction. The structures of CePtCd (ZrNiAl type, P anti 62m, a = 763.8(6), c = 409.1(4) pm, wR2 = 0.0195, 298 F 2 values, 14 variables) and EuPtCd (TiNiSi type, Pnma, a = 741.3(2), b = 436.4(1), c = 858.0(4) pm, wR2 = 0.0385, 440 F 2 values, 20 variables) were refined from single-crystal data. The REPtCd structures exhibit three-dimensional networks of corner- and edge-sharing Cd rate at Pt 2/6 Pt 2/3 and Cd rate at Pt 4/4 tetrahedra, which leave cages for the rare earth atoms. Temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility data of CeAuCd reveal a paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic phase transition at T N = 3.7(5) K.

  13. Direct observation of multivalent states and 4 f →3 d charge transfer in Ce-doped yttrium iron garnet thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasili, H. B.; Casals, B.; Cichelero, R.; Macià, F.; Geshev, J.; Gargiani, P.; Valvidares, M.; Herrero-Martin, J.; Pellegrin, E.; Fontcuberta, J.; Herranz, G.

    2017-07-01

    Due to their large magneto-optic responses, rare-earth-doped yttrium iron garnets, Y3F e5O12 (YIG), are highly regarded for their potential in photonics and magnonics. Here, we consider the case of Ce-doped YIG (Ce-YIG) thin films, in which substitutional C e3 + ions are magnetic because of their 4 f1 ground state. In order to elucidate the impact of Ce substitution on the magnetization of YIG, we have carried out soft x-ray spectroscopy measurements on Ce-YIG films. In particular, we have used the element specificity of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism to extract the individual magnetization curves linked to Ce and Fe ions. Our results show that Ce doping triggers a selective charge transfer from Ce to the Fe tetrahedral sites in the YIG structure. This, in turn, causes a disruption of the electronic and magnetic properties of the parent compound, reducing the exchange coupling between the Ce and Fe magnetic moments and causing atypical magnetic behavior. Our work is relevant for understanding magnetism in rare-earth-doped YIG and, eventually, may enable a quantitative evaluation of the magneto-optical properties of rare-earth incorporation into YIG.

  14. Effect of cerium on the corrosion behaviour of sintered (Nd,Ce)FeB magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lijing [CAS Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Bi, Mengxue [CAS Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Nano Science and Technology Institute, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Jiang, Jianjun; Ding, Xuefeng [CAS Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhu, Minggang; Li, Wei [Functional Materials Research Institute, Central Iron & Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Lv, Zhongshan [Ningbo Shuo Teng new material Co., Ltd., Cixi 315301 (China); Song, Zhenlun, E-mail: songzhenlun@nimte.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • A little Ce could promote the magnets for a better corrosion resistance. • With increased Ce contents, the corrosion resistances of magnets decrease. • As the corrosion developed, the magnetic properties decreased. - Abstract: For the balanced consumption of rare-earth elements, cerium (Ce) was partially used for NdFeB magnets instead of Nd. The corrosion behaviour of the (Nd,Ce)FeB magnet with different Ce contents in 3.5% NaCl solution was investigated by SEM, XRD, EDS and electrochemical tests. After immersion, the weight loss was calculated and the magnetic properties of the samples were measured. Results showed that Ce affected the corrosion of the (Nd,Ce)FeB magnet. Compared with the NdFeB magnet without Ce but of the same grade as the magnetic energy product, (Nd,Ce)FeB magnet showed better corrosion resistance. With increased Ce content, the corrosion resistances and magnetic properties of (Nd,Ce)FeB magnets were investigated.

  15. Bioleaching of rare earth elements from monazite sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, Vanessa L; Zhuang, Wei-Qin; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Three fungal strains were found to be capable of bioleaching rare earth elements from monazite, a rare earth phosphate mineral, utilizing the monazite as a phosphate source and releasing rare earth cations into solution. These organisms include one known phosphate solubilizing fungus, Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015, as well as two newly isolated fungi: an Aspergillus terreus strain ML3-1 and a Paecilomyces spp. strain WE3-F. Although monazite also contains the radioactive element Thorium, bioleaching by these fungi preferentially solubilized rare earth elements over Thorium, leaving the Thorium in the solid residual. Adjustments in growth media composition improved bioleaching performance measured as rare earth release. Cell-free spent medium generated during growth of A. terreus strain ML3-1 and Paecilomyces spp. strain WE3-F in the presence of monazite leached rare earths to concentrations 1.7-3.8 times those of HCl solutions of comparable pH, indicating that compounds exogenously released by these organisms contribute substantially to leaching. Organic acids released by the organisms included acetic, citric, gluconic, itaconic, oxalic, and succinic acids. Abiotic leaching with laboratory prepared solutions of these acids was not as effective as bioleaching or leaching with cell-free spent medium at releasing rare earths from monazite, indicating that compounds other than the identified organic acids contribute to leaching performance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Siderophore-mediated oxidation of Ce and fractionation of HREE by Mn (hydr)oxide-coprecipitation and sorption on MnO2: Experimental evidence for negative Ce-anomalies in abiogenic manganese precipitates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Dennis; Tepe, Nathalie; Bau, Michael

    2014-05-01

    )oxides (e.g., Tanaka et al., 2010, Loges et al., 2012). Our experimental results demonstrate that biogenic organic ligands such as hydroxamate siderophores, may produce solutions with positive Ce anomaly (Bau et al., 2013) and may even counteract the surface oxidation of Ce on Mn (hydr)oxides. References Bau, M., Tepe, N., Mohwinkel, D., 2013. Siderophore-promoted transfer of rare earth elements and iron from volcanic ash into glacial meltwater, river and ocean water. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 364, 30-36. Christenson E. A. and Schijf J. (2011) Stability of YREE complexes with the trihydroxamate siderophore desferrioxamine B at seawater ionic strength. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 7047-7062. Loges, A., Wagner, T., Barth, M., Bau, M., Göb, S., and Markl, G. 2012. Negative Ce anomalies in Mn oxides: The role of Ce4+ mobility during water-mineral interaction. Geochimica and Cosmochimica Acta 86, 296-317 Ohta A. and Kawabe I. (2001) REE (III) adsorption onto Mn dioxide (delta-MnO2) and Fe oxyhydroxide: Ce(III) oxidation by delta-MnO2. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 65, 695-703. Tanaka K., Tani Y., Takahashi Y., Tanimizu M., Suzuki Y., Kozai N. and Ohnuki T. (2010) A specific Ce oxidation process during sorption of rare earth elements on biogenic Mn oxide produced by Acremonium sp. strain KR21-2. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 5463-5477.

  17. Pressure-induced structural phase transition and elastic properties in rare earth CeBi and LaBi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankad, Venu; Gupta, Sanjay D.; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Jha, Prafulla

    2011-01-01

    Pressure is one of the external parameters by which the interplay of the f-electrons with the normal conduction electrons may be varied. At ambient conditions the rare-earth compounds are characterized by a fixed f n configuration of atomic-like f-electrons, but the decreased lattice spacing resulting from the application of pressure eventually leads to the destabilization of the f-shell. The theoretical description of this electronic transition remains a challenge. The present study reports a comprehensive study on structural, electronic band structures, elastic and lattice dynamical properties of rare earth monopnictides CeBi and LaBi using first principles density functional calculations within the pseudopotential approximation. Both compounds possess NaCI (B1) structure at ambient pressure and transform either to CsCI or body centered tetragonal (BCT) structure. Our results concerning equilibrium lattice parameter and bulk modulus agree well with the available experimental and previous theoretical data. The volume change at the crystallographic transition is attributed to a decrease of the cerium valence or a lowering of the p-f hybridization due to the larger interatomic distances in both high pressure phases. The equation of state for rare earth bismuth compounds are calculated and compared with available experimental results. From the total energy and relative volume one can clearly see the relative stabilities of the high pressure phases of both compounds. As the primitive tetragonal phase of both compounds. As the primitive tetragonal phase can be viewed as a CsCl structure, one may think of a transition from B1 to B2. We have also calculated band structure for both phase and here we have presented for B1 case. The narrow bands originating above the Fermi level are mainly due to Ce 'f'-like states, and the major contribution to the density of states is mainly from Ce 'd'-like states. Furthermore, in high-pressure CsCI phase, there is an appreciable

  18. Electrochemical behaviours of Eu(III/E(II and Ce(IV/Ce(III in H3PO4-H2O media : solvation and complexation reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belqat B.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many kinds of rare earth elements (REE such as europium and cerium have been make them essential elements in many high-tech components. The electrochemical studies can be presented as an interesting indication for europium and cerium extraction from phosphoric solutions, including solvation and complexation reactions. The normal redox potentials of Eu3+/Eu2+ and Ce4+/Ce3+ systems have been determined in H3PO4-H2O media with various phosphoric acid concentration. The solvation of these elements in phosphoric media is characterized by their transfer activity coefficients "f" calculated from the corresponding normal redox potentials. The corresponding solvation increases with increasing the H3PO4 concentration. For each REE, the electrochemical properties depend on its number of charges and on its basic properties. Results suggest that solvation and complexation of REE phosphates are important in controlling REE concentration.

  19. General geochemical properties and abundances of the rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, P.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reviews some of the fundamental aspects of rare earth elements (REE) geochemistry and gives data on abundances in the solar system, the bulk Earth and the Earth's crust. It describes the state of knowledge on the partitioning of the REE, especially in igneous rock systems, and cites reference works concerned with the REE. Several chemical properties of REE are discussed (oxidation states; redox conditions; element coordination and ionic radii; element substitution). (Auth.)

  20. Membrane assisted solvent extraction for rare earth element recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhave, Ramesh R.; Kim, Daejin; Peterson, Eric S.

    2018-05-15

    Systems and methods for the recovery of rare earth elements are provided. The systems and methods generally include membrane assisted solvent extraction using permeable hollow fibers having an immobilized organic phase within the pores of the hollow fibers. The permeable hollow fibers are generally in contact with an acidic aqueous feed on one side thereof and a strip solution on another side thereof. The systems and methods generally include the simultaneous extraction and stripping of rare earth elements as a continuous recovery process that is well suited for post-consumer products, end-of-life products, and other recovery sources of rare earth elements.

  1. Thorium, uranium and rare earth elements content in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue of Lynas advanced materials plant (LAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Majid, Amran Ab.; Sarmani, Sukiman

    2014-02-01

    Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP) has been licensed to produce the rare earths elements since early 2013 in Malaysia. LAMP processes lanthanide concentrate (LC) to extract rare earth elements and subsequently produce large volumes of water leach purification (WLP) residue containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This residue has been rising up the environmental issue because it was suspected to accumulate thorium with significant activity concentration and has been classified as radioactive residue. The aim of this study is to determine Th-232, U-238 and rare earth elements in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue collected from LAMP and to evaluate the potential radiological impacts of the WLP residue on the environment. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and γ-spectrometry were used for determination of Th, U and rare earth elements concentrations. The results of this study found that the concentration of Th in LC was 1289.7 ± 129 ppm (5274.9 ± 527.6Bq/kg) whereas the Th and U concentrations in WLP were determined to be 1952.9±17.6 ppm (7987.4 ± 71.9 Bq/kg) and 17.2 ± 2.4 ppm respectively. The concentrations of Th and U in LC and WLP samples determined by γ- spectrometry were 1156 ppm (4728 ± 22 Bq/kg) & 18.8 ppm and 1763.2 ppm (7211.4 Bq/kg) &29.97 ppm respectively. This study showed that thorium concentrations were higher in WLP compare to LC. This study also indicate that WLP residue has high radioactivity of 232Th compared to Malaysian soil natural background (63 - 110 Bq/kg) and come under preview of Act 304 and regulations. In LC, the Ce and Nd concentrations determined by INAA were 13.2 ± 0.6% and 4.7 ± 0.1% respectively whereas the concentrations of La, Ce, Nd and Sm in WLP were 0.36 ± 0.04%, 1.6%, 0.22% and 0.06% respectively. This result showed that some amount of rare earth had not been extracted and remained in the WLP and may be considered to be reextracted.

  2. Thorium, uranium and rare earth elements content in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue of Lynas advanced materials plant (LAMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Majid, Amran Ab.; Sarmani, Sukiman

    2014-01-01

    Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP) has been licensed to produce the rare earths elements since early 2013 in Malaysia. LAMP processes lanthanide concentrate (LC) to extract rare earth elements and subsequently produce large volumes of water leach purification (WLP) residue containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This residue has been rising up the environmental issue because it was suspected to accumulate thorium with significant activity concentration and has been classified as radioactive residue. The aim of this study is to determine Th-232, U-238 and rare earth elements in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue collected from LAMP and to evaluate the potential radiological impacts of the WLP residue on the environment. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and γ-spectrometry were used for determination of Th, U and rare earth elements concentrations. The results of this study found that the concentration of Th in LC was 1289.7 ± 129 ppm (5274.9 ± 527.6Bq/kg) whereas the Th and U concentrations in WLP were determined to be 1952.9±17.6 ppm (7987.4 ± 71.9 Bq/kg) and 17.2 ± 2.4 ppm respectively. The concentrations of Th and U in LC and WLP samples determined by γ- spectrometry were 1156 ppm (4728 ± 22 Bq/kg) and 18.8 ppm and 1763.2 ppm (7211.4 Bq/kg) and 29.97 ppm respectively. This study showed that thorium concentrations were higher in WLP compare to LC. This study also indicate that WLP residue has high radioactivity of 232 Th compared to Malaysian soil natural background (63 - 110 Bq/kg) and come under preview of Act 304 and regulations. In LC, the Ce and Nd concentrations determined by INAA were 13.2 ± 0.6% and 4.7 ± 0.1% respectively whereas the concentrations of La, Ce, Nd and Sm in WLP were 0.36 ± 0.04%, 1.6%, 0.22% and 0.06% respectively. This result showed that some amount of rare earth had not been extracted and remained in the WLP and may be considered to be reextracted

  3. Thorium, Uranium and Rare Earth Elements content in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue of Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Areqi, W.M.; Amran Abdul Majid; Sukiman Sarmani

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP) has been licensed to produce the rare earths elements since early 2013 in Malaysia. LAMP processes lanthanide concentrate (LC) to extract rare earth elements and subsequently produce large volumes of water leach purification (WLP) residue containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This residue has been rising up the environmental issue because it was suspected to accumulate thorium with significant activity concentration and has been classified as radioactive residue. The aim of this study is to determine Th-232, U-238 and rare earth elements in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue collected from LAMP and to evaluate the potential radiological impacts of the WLP residue on the environment. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and γ-spectrometry were used for determination of Th, U and rare earth elements concentrations. The results of this study found that the concentration of Th in LC was 1289.7 ± 129 ppm (5274.9 ± 527.6 Bq/ kg) whereas the Th and U concentrations in WLP were determined to be 1952.9 ± 17.6 ppm (7987.4 ± 71.9 Bq/ kg) and 17.2 ± 2.4 ppm respectively. The concentrations of Th and U in LC and WLP samples determined by γ- spectrometry were 1156 ppm (4728 ± 22 Bq/ kg) and 18.8 ppm and 1763.2 ppm (7211.4 Bq/ kg) and 29.97 ppm respectively. This study showed that thorium concentrations were higher in WLP compare to LC. This study also indicate that WLP residue has high radioactivity of 232 Th compared to Malaysian soil natural background (63 - 110 Bq/ kg) and come under preview of Act 304 and regulations. In LC, the Ce and Nd concentrations determined by INAA were 13.2 ± 0.6 % and 4.7 ± 0.1 % respectively whereas the concentrations of La, Ce, Nd and Sm in WLP were 0.36 ± 0.04 %, 1.6 %, 0.22 % and 0.06 % respectively. This result showed that some amount of rare earth had not been extracted and remained in the WLP and may be considered to be re

  4. Thorium, uranium and rare earth elements content in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue of Lynas advanced materials plant (LAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M., E-mail: walareqi@yahoo.com; Majid, Amran Ab., E-mail: walareqi@yahoo.com; Sarmani, Sukiman, E-mail: walareqi@yahoo.com [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP) has been licensed to produce the rare earths elements since early 2013 in Malaysia. LAMP processes lanthanide concentrate (LC) to extract rare earth elements and subsequently produce large volumes of water leach purification (WLP) residue containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This residue has been rising up the environmental issue because it was suspected to accumulate thorium with significant activity concentration and has been classified as radioactive residue. The aim of this study is to determine Th-232, U-238 and rare earth elements in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue collected from LAMP and to evaluate the potential radiological impacts of the WLP residue on the environment. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and γ-spectrometry were used for determination of Th, U and rare earth elements concentrations. The results of this study found that the concentration of Th in LC was 1289.7 ± 129 ppm (5274.9 ± 527.6Bq/kg) whereas the Th and U concentrations in WLP were determined to be 1952.9±17.6 ppm (7987.4 ± 71.9 Bq/kg) and 17.2 ± 2.4 ppm respectively. The concentrations of Th and U in LC and WLP samples determined by γ- spectrometry were 1156 ppm (4728 ± 22 Bq/kg) and 18.8 ppm and 1763.2 ppm (7211.4 Bq/kg) and 29.97 ppm respectively. This study showed that thorium concentrations were higher in WLP compare to LC. This study also indicate that WLP residue has high radioactivity of {sup 232}Th compared to Malaysian soil natural background (63 - 110 Bq/kg) and come under preview of Act 304 and regulations. In LC, the Ce and Nd concentrations determined by INAA were 13.2 ± 0.6% and 4.7 ± 0.1% respectively whereas the concentrations of La, Ce, Nd and Sm in WLP were 0.36 ± 0.04%, 1.6%, 0.22% and 0.06% respectively. This result showed that some amount of rare earth had not been extracted and remained in the WLP and may be considered to be reextracted.

  5. Recovery Ce from Ce - TBP Used Oxalic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwani, MV; Subagiono, R.; Suyanti

    2007-01-01

    Recovery or stripping Ce from Ce - TBP product of monazite sand used oxalic acid. Ce - TBP as organic phase and oxalic acid as aqueous phase and as strong precipitant compound to precipitate metal element. The stripping product as Ce - oxalic precipitate. The influence parameter were percentage of oxalic acid, volume ratio of Ce-TBP with oxalic acid, time and rate of stripping. At stripping of 25 ml Ce - TBP used oxalic acid, the optimum condition were achieve at using 5% oxalic acid, volume ratio of Ce - TBP : 5% oxalic acid = 1 : 1, time of stripping 7.5 minute and rate of stripping 150 rpm. At the optimum condition was obtained the recovery efficiency was 100%. (author)

  6. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits–A deposit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2011-01-01

    The rare earth elements are not as rare in nature as their name implies, but economic deposits with these elements are not common and few deposits have been large producers. In the past 25 years, demand for rare earth elements has increased dramatically because of their wide and diverse use in high-technology applications. Yet, presently the global production and supply of rare earth elements come from only a few sources. China produces more than 95 percent of the world's supply of rare earth elements. Because of China's decision to restrict exports of these elements, the price of rare earth elements has increased and industrial countries are concerned about supply shortages. As a result, understanding the distribution and origin of rare earth elements deposits, and identifying and quantifying our nation's rare earth elements resources have become priorities. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusive complexes, as well as their weathering products, are the primary sources of rare earth elements. The general mineral deposit model summarized here is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new descriptive mineral deposit models to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related REE deposits are discussed together because of their spatial association, common enrichment in incompatible elements, and similarities in genesis. A wide variety of commodities have been exploited from carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks, such as rare earth elements, niobium, phosphate, titanium, vermiculite, barite, fluorite, copper, calcite, and zirconium. Other enrichments include manganese, strontium, tantalum, thorium, vanadium, and uranium.

  7. Effect of Ce on Casting Structure of Near-rapidly Solidified Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Gao-ren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Through using XRD,DSC,SEM,EDS and other modern analysis methods, the effects of rare earth element Ce on microstructure and solidification temperature of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu under different cooling rates were studied, the principle of Ce on grain refining and melt cleaning of alloys was analyzed and discussed. The results show that MgZn2 phase and α-Al matrix are the main precipitations, Al,Cu,Mg and other elements dissolve in MgZn2 phase, a new phase Mg(Zn, Cu, Al2 is formed, solute elements in the grain boundary have higher concentration, eutectic reaction takes place between MgZn2 and α-Al, lamellar eutectic structure is generated. The addition of Ce decreases the dendritic arm spacing,reduces the layer spacing between eutectic phases and refines the eutectic structure and the grain significantly, and inhibits the appearance of the impurity phase Al7Cu2Fe in aluminum alloys. The addition of Ce also reduces the precipitation temperature of α-Al matrix and eutectic phase by 6.4℃ and 5.6℃ respectively.

  8. A study of the biological effects of rare earth elements at cellular level using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhihui; Wang Xi; Zhang Sunxi; An Lizhi; Zhang Jingxia; Yao Huiying

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the biological effects and the effecting mechanisms of rare earth elements La, Gd and Ce on cultured rat cells. Methods: The biological effects of La 3+ on cultured rat cells and the subcellular distribution of La and Gd and Ce, and the inflow of 45 Ca 2+ into the cells and total cellular calcium were measured by isotopic tracing, Proton Induced X Ray Emission Analysis (PIXE) and the techniques of biochemistry and cellular biology. Results: La 3+ at the concentration of 10- 10( or 10 -9 ) - 10 -6 mol/L significantly increased quantity of incorporation of 3 H-TdR into DNA, total cellular protein and the activity of succinic dehydrogenase of mitochondria. The cell cycle analysis showed that the proportions of cells in S phase were accordingly increased acted by La 3+ at above range of concentration. But these values were significantly decreased when concentration of La 3+ raised to 10 -4 - 10 -3 mol/L. It was further discovered that La, Gd and Ce distributed mostly in the nuclei, and then in membranes. Gd and Ce also promoted the inflow of 45 Ca 2+ into the cells and increased the total calcium content in cells. Conclusions: 1) La 3+ at a wide concentration range of 10 -10 ( or 10 -9 ) - 10 -6 mol/L promotes proliferation of cultured rat cells, but at even higher concentration (10 -4 - 10 -3 mol/L) shows cellular toxicity, and there is a striking dose-effect relationship. 2) La, Gd and Ce can enter the cells and mainly distribute in the nuclei. 3) Gd and Ce can promote the inflow of extracellular Ca 2+ into the cells and increase total cellular calcium

  9. Coprecipitation of rare earth elements with hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, Osamu

    1979-01-01

    The distribution behavior of trace rare earth elements between an aqueous phase and hydroxyapatite crystals was investigated. The apatite prepared by adding phosphate ion extremely slowly to an aqueous solution containing calcium, rare earth elements, ethylenediamine and nitrilotriacetate ion at 80 0 C. Apparently the coprecipitation reaction seems to be anomalous, because the apparent distribution coefficient did not have a constant value through the reaction. But when the true distribution coefficient was calculated by using the thermodynamic data at 80 0 C, it was revealed that rare earth ions were coprecipitated obeying logarithmic distribution law. The true distribution coefficient values of trivalent yttrium, scandium, europium and cerium ions were about 10sup(7.3), 10sup(9.8), 10sup(7.4) and 10sup(6.5) respectively. (author)

  10. The fractionation and geochemical characteristics of rare earth elements measured in ambient size-resolved PM in an integrated iron and steelmaking industry zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qili; Li, Liwei; Yang, Jiamei; Liu, Baoshuang; Bi, Xiaohui; Wu, Jianhui; Zhang, YuFen; Yao, Lin; Feng, Yinchang

    2016-09-01

    Improved understanding of the fractionation and geochemical characteristic of rare earth elements (REEs) from steel plant emissions is important due to the unclear atmospheric signature of these elements and their adverse impact on human health and the environment. In this study, ambient particulate matter of different sizes was collected from one site in an integrated iron and steelmaking industrial zone (HG) and one urban background site with no direct industrial emissions (ZWY) during a 1-year sampling campaign in China. The total concentrations of REEs for TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 were 27.248, 14.989, 3.542 ng/m(3) in HG and 6.326, 5.274, 1.731 ng/m(3), respectively, in ZWY, which revealed the local influence of the steelmaking activities to the air quality. With respect to ZWY, the REEs in HG site are obviously fractionated in the coarser fraction, and LREEs account for more than 80 % of the total REE burden in all of the samples. Additionally, the REEs in HG and ZWY show a homogeneous trend with successively increased LREE/HREE ratios from the coarse particles to the fine particles. In our samples, La, Ce, Nd, and Sm are the most enriched rare earth elements, especially in the HG site. Moreover, ternary diagrams of LaCeSm indicate that the REEs in HG are potentially contributed by steelworks, carrier vehicles, coal combustion, and road dust re-suspension.

  11. Spectrofluorimetric determination of rare earth elements using solidmatrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, I.S.; Chi, K.Y.

    1982-01-01

    In this experiment, rare earth elements are separated from uranium by using the alumina column, anion exchange resin column, and 20% TOA in xylene and fluorescence characteristics were found in the solid matrix to analyze these elements without preseparation from each other. It becomes clear that the YVO 4 matrix is more sensitive than the Y 2 O 3 matrix when the red filter is used to minimized the second order peak intensity. And micro quantity of the rare earth elements in the yellow cake are analyzed by the using of the YVO 4 soid matrix. (Author)

  12. Studies on the separation of rare earth elements and the nuclear decay properties of short lived rare-earth nuclides in U-235 fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyoshi, Akira; Ohyoshi, Emiko.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of a complex-forming agent, with which rare earths consecutively form the complexes, on the separation of a pair of adjacent rare earths by electromigration has been investigated. The relation between the separation factor for two complexes and the ligand-ion concentration was examined in the separation of La-Ce and Ce-Pr pairs with nitrilotriacetic acid. Rare earths were able to be isolated rapidly at the optimum ligand-ion concentration in lower one, and this method was applied to study the nuclear decay properties of the short lived isotopes of La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Yt formed in the fission of U-235. This method permits the direct measurement of the decay of La-144 without the interference from the radiation of other fission products. The gamma-ray spectrum of La-144 was measured with a high resolution Ge(Li) detector, and the gamma-transition was observed. From the decay plots of two strong photopeaks, the half-life of La-144 was determined. In the case of Ce fraction, the photopeaks assigned to respective isotopes were observed. In the studies on the decay properties of Pr-148 and Pr-149, the decay plot of the strong photopeak showed good linearity, and the accurate half-life of Pr-148 was determined. Similarly, the half-life of Pr-149 was longer than the previously reported value. (Kako, I.)

  13. Genome-wide analysis of ABA-responsive elements ABRE and CE3 reveals divergent patterns in Arabidopsis and rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaño-Pachón Diego

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In plants, complex regulatory mechanisms are at the core of physiological and developmental processes. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA is involved in the regulation of various such processes, including stomatal closure, seed and bud dormancy, and physiological responses to cold, drought and salinity stress. The underlying tissue or plant-wide control circuits often include combinatorial gene regulatory mechanisms and networks that we are only beginning to unravel with the help of new molecular tools. The increasing availability of genomic sequences and gene expression data enables us to dissect ABA regulatory mechanisms at the individual gene expression level. In this paper we used an in-silico-based approach directed towards genome-wide prediction and identification of specific features of ABA-responsive elements. In particular we analysed the genome-wide occurrence and positional arrangements of two well-described ABA-responsive cis-regulatory elements (CREs, ABRE and CE3, in thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa. Results Our results show that Arabidopsis and rice use the ABA-responsive elements ABRE and CE3 distinctively. Earlier reports for various monocots have identified CE3 as a coupling element (CE associated with ABRE. Surprisingly, we found that while ABRE is equally abundant in both species, CE3 is practically absent in Arabidopsis. ABRE-ABRE pairs are common in both genomes, suggesting that these can form functional ABA-responsive complexes (ABRCs in Arabidopsis and rice. Furthermore, we detected distinct combinations, orientation patterns and DNA strand preferences of ABRE and CE3 motifs in rice gene promoters. Conclusion Our computational analyses revealed distinct recruitment patterns of ABA-responsive CREs in upstream sequences of Arabidopsis and rice. The apparent absence of CE3s in Arabidopsis suggests that another CE pairs with ABRE to establish a functional ABRC capable of

  14. Genome-wide analysis of ABA-responsive elements ABRE and CE3 reveals divergent patterns in Arabidopsis and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Porras, Judith L; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Dreyer, Ingo; Mayer, Jorge E; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2007-08-01

    In plants, complex regulatory mechanisms are at the core of physiological and developmental processes. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in the regulation of various such processes, including stomatal closure, seed and bud dormancy, and physiological responses to cold, drought and salinity stress. The underlying tissue or plant-wide control circuits often include combinatorial gene regulatory mechanisms and networks that we are only beginning to unravel with the help of new molecular tools. The increasing availability of genomic sequences and gene expression data enables us to dissect ABA regulatory mechanisms at the individual gene expression level. In this paper we used an in-silico-based approach directed towards genome-wide prediction and identification of specific features of ABA-responsive elements. In particular we analysed the genome-wide occurrence and positional arrangements of two well-described ABA-responsive cis-regulatory elements (CREs), ABRE and CE3, in thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa). Our results show that Arabidopsis and rice use the ABA-responsive elements ABRE and CE3 distinctively. Earlier reports for various monocots have identified CE3 as a coupling element (CE) associated with ABRE. Surprisingly, we found that while ABRE is equally abundant in both species, CE3 is practically absent in Arabidopsis. ABRE-ABRE pairs are common in both genomes, suggesting that these can form functional ABA-responsive complexes (ABRCs) in Arabidopsis and rice. Furthermore, we detected distinct combinations, orientation patterns and DNA strand preferences of ABRE and CE3 motifs in rice gene promoters. Our computational analyses revealed distinct recruitment patterns of ABA-responsive CREs in upstream sequences of Arabidopsis and rice. The apparent absence of CE3s in Arabidopsis suggests that another CE pairs with ABRE to establish a functional ABRC capable of interacting with transcription factors. Further studies will be

  15. Effects of rare earth elements on growth and metabolism of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhong Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The rare earth elements (REEs are a set of 17 chemical elements. They include the lanthanide series from lanthanum (La to lutetium (Lu, scandium (Sc, and yttrium (Y in the periodic table. Although REEs are used widely in industry and agriculture in China for a long time, there has been increasing interest in application of REEs to medicinal plants in recent years. In this paper, we summarize researches in the past few decades regarding the effects of REEs on the germination of seeds, the growth of roots, total biomass, and the production of its secondary metabolites, as well as their effects on the absorption of minerals and metals by medicinal plants. By compilation and analysis of these data, we found that REEs have promoting effects at low concentrations and negative effects at comparatively high concentrations. However, most studies focused only on a few REEs, i.e., La, cerium (Ce, neodymium (Nd and europium (Eu, and they made main emphasis on their effects on regulation of secondary metabolism in tissue-cultured plants, rather than cultivated medicinal plants. Advanced research should be invested regarding on the effects of REEs on yields of cultivated plants, specifically medicinal plants.

  16. Improvement in photovoltaic properties of silicon solar cells with a doped porous silicon layer with rare earth (Ce, La) as antireflection coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atyaoui, Malek; Dimassi, Wissem; Atyaoui, Atef; Elyagoubi, Jalel; Ouertani, Rachid; Ezzaouia, Hatem

    2013-01-01

    The performance improvement of solar cells due to the formation of a porous silicon layer treated with rare earth (Ce, La) in the n + emitter of silicon n + /p junctions has been investigated. The photovoltaic properties of the cells with and without treatment of the porous silicon layer are compared. From the reflection measurements, it was shown that the cells with treated PS layers have lower reflectivity value compared to cell with untreated PS layer. The main result is that the photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency of solar cells can be enhanced by using the treated porous silicon layers with the rare earth (Ce, La) as anti-reflection coatings. -- Highlights: • The reduction of optical loss in silicon (c-Si) solar cells attracts the attention of many researches to achieve high efficiencies. • To attain this aim, the treated PS layers with rare earth (La, Ce) are suggested to be used as an (ARC) of c-Si solar cell. • The result showed a decrease in the optical losses which can explain the improved photovoltaic properties

  17. Improvement in photovoltaic properties of silicon solar cells with a doped porous silicon layer with rare earth (Ce, La) as antireflection coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atyaoui, Malek, E-mail: atyaoui.malek@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de recherches et des technologies de l' energie, technopole de Borj-Cédria, PB:95, Hammam Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Dimassi, Wissem [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de recherches et des technologies de l' energie, technopole de Borj-Cédria, PB:95,Hammam Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Atyaoui, Atef [Laboratoire de traitement des eaux usées, Centre de recherches et des technologies des eaux, technopole de Borj-Cédria, PB: 273, Soliman 8020 (Tunisia); Elyagoubi, Jalel; Ouertani, Rachid; Ezzaouia, Hatem [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de recherches et des technologies de l' energie, technopole de Borj-Cédria, PB:95,Hammam Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2013-09-15

    The performance improvement of solar cells due to the formation of a porous silicon layer treated with rare earth (Ce, La) in the n{sup +} emitter of silicon n{sup +}/p junctions has been investigated. The photovoltaic properties of the cells with and without treatment of the porous silicon layer are compared. From the reflection measurements, it was shown that the cells with treated PS layers have lower reflectivity value compared to cell with untreated PS layer. The main result is that the photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency of solar cells can be enhanced by using the treated porous silicon layers with the rare earth (Ce, La) as anti-reflection coatings. -- Highlights: • The reduction of optical loss in silicon (c-Si) solar cells attracts the attention of many researches to achieve high efficiencies. • To attain this aim, the treated PS layers with rare earth (La, Ce) are suggested to be used as an (ARC) of c-Si solar cell. • The result showed a decrease in the optical losses which can explain the improved photovoltaic properties.

  18. Comment on “Synthesis of ceria (CeO_2 and CeO_2_−_x) nanoparticles via decarbonation and Ce(III) oxidation of synthetic bastnaesite (CeCO_3F)” by Montes-Hernandez et al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gysi, Alexander P.; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    2016-01-01

    Montes-Hernandez et al. [5] recently reported results of a study of the decarbonation of fine-grained synthetic bastnäsite-(Ce) precipitates involving the oxidation of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) and the formation of ceria (CeO_2 and CeO_2_-_x with oxygen vacancies) nano-particles. The purpose of their study was to show that oxidation of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) occurs spontaneously during heating of bastnäsite-(Ce) in air, a vacuum, N_2 or Ar gas. However, their interpretation of the formation of CeO_2 is not supported by the findings of Gysi and Williams-Jones [3], who showed that natural bastnäsite-(Ce) decomposes to form rare earth element (REE) oxyfluorides (REEOF). The latter was documented using differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and thermogravimetric (TGA) experiments under a deoxygenated N_2 atmosphere. In their experiments, Gysi and Williams-Jones [3] found no evidence for the oxidation of Ce(III) to Ce(IV). This raises the question of whether the experiments of Montes-Hernandez et al. [5] in a N_2 atmosphere (and by extension in an Ar atmosphere) were compromised because of contamination by O_2 and that, as a result, they reached the erroneous conclusion that Ce(III) oxidizes spontaneously to Ce(IV) during heating of bastnäsite-(Ce) under these conditions. In order to explain the disagreement between their findings and those of Gysi and Williams-Jones [3], Montes-Hernandez et al. [5], proposed that the X-ray diffraction data of the former study were incorrectly interpreted. Here, we provide further evidence that the natural bastnäsite-(Ce) employed in the study by Gysi and Williams-Jones [3] decomposed to form REE oxyfluorides (i.e., CeOF, LaOF, PrOF and NdOF) and not CeO_2, and supply explanations for why Montes-Hernandez et al. [5] erroneously concluded that CeO_2 is produced during decomposition of this mineral under N_2 and Ar atmospheres. In so doing, we hope to provide new insights into the decomposition of bastnäsite-(Ce) that will help guide future

  19. The origin of secondary heavy rare earth element enrichment in carbonatites: Constraints from the evolution of the Huanglongpu district, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.; Kynicky, J.; Xu, Cheng; Song, Wenlei; Spratt, J.; Jeffries, T.; Brtnicky, M.; Kopriva, A.; Cangelosi, D.

    2018-05-01

    The silico‑carbonatite dykes of the Huanglongpu area, Lesser Qinling, China, are unusual in that they are quartz-bearing, Mo-mineralised and enriched in the heavy rare earth elements (HREE) relative to typical carbonatites. The textures of REE minerals indicate crystallisation of monazite-(Ce), bastnäsite-(Ce), parisite-(Ce) and aeschynite-(Ce) as magmatic phases. Burbankite was also potentially an early crystallising phase. Monazite-(Ce) was subsequently altered to produce a second generation of apatite, which was in turn replaced and overgrown by britholite-(Ce), accompanied by the formation of allanite-(Ce). Bastnäsite and parisite where replaced by synchysite-(Ce) and röntgenite-(Ce). Aeschynite-(Ce) was altered to uranopyrochlore and then pyrochlore with uraninite inclusions. The mineralogical evolution reflects the evolution from magmatic carbonatite, to more silica-rich conditions during early hydrothermal processes, to fully hydrothermal conditions accompanied by the formation of sulphate minerals. Each alteration stage resulted in the preferential leaching of the LREE and enrichment in the HREE. Mass balance considerations indicate hydrothermal fluids must have contributed HREE to the mineralisation. The evolution of the fluorcarbonate mineral assemblage requires an increase in aCa2+ and aCO32- in the metasomatic fluid (where a is activity), and breakdown of HREE-enriched calcite may have been the HREE source. Leaching in the presence of strong, LREE-selective ligands (Cl-) may account for the depletion in late stage minerals in the LREE, but cannot account for subsequent preferential HREE addition. Fluid inclusion data indicate the presence of sulphate-rich brines during alteration, and hence sulphate complexation may have been important for preferential HREE transport. Alongside HREE-enriched magmatic sources, and enrichment during magmatic processes, late stage alteration with non-LREE-selective ligands may be critical in forming HREE

  20. Luminescence of Lanthanoides (Rare-earth elements) – Probes of structural variations in minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenz, C.

    2015-01-01

    This cumulative PhD thesis summarises several individual studies on the luminescence of REE (rare-earth elements; i.e., trivalent lanthanoides), which are typically incorporated in accessory minerals such as zircon, titanite, monazite–(Ce) and xenotime–(Y). A main objective of these studies is to examine the powerfulness of REE luminescence-spectroscopy as structural probe. In particular, this concerns the potential use of REE3+ emissions in characterising structural disorder of their accessory host minerals as caused by radiation damage and/or compositional heterogeneity. Especially the former (i.e., mineral disorder due to radiation damage) is of interest to Earth and materials scientists, for instance for the understanding of changed physicochemical properties of initially crystalline materials that are affected by structural damage as caused by the radioactive decay of actinides. Moreover, a substantial contribution of the studies presented lies in the field of basic properties of the REE luminescence of natural accessory minerals. First, the investigations have addressed the identification of diverse REE species in diverse natural host minerals (which is done using synthetic REE-doped analogues). Second, factors that may bias the quantitative estimation of spectroscopic parameters have been studied, including effects of experimental parameters (crystal orientation and temperature) and the samples’ compositional heterogeneity. The results will be particularly useful to the growing community of Earth scientists who apply REE luminescence-spectroscopy in studying geological materials. (author) [de

  1. Influence of rare earths on shrinkage porosity in thin walled ductile cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2009-01-01

    Ductile cast iron has been cast in test bars with thickness from 2 to 10 mm. The rare earth elements La and Ce have been added to some of the castings to evaluate their influence on microstructure and shrinkage tendency. Both La and Ce increased the graphite nodule count, especially for thickness...

  2. Enzymatic determination of rare earth elements by use of pyrophosphotases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhovtseva, T.N.; Pirogova, S.V.; Fedorova, O.M.; Dolmanova, I.F.; Bajkov, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    A highly sensitive (determination limit 8 x 10 -6 - 4 x 10 -4 μg/ml) and selective enzymatic method for determination of rare earth elements has been developed. The method is based on inhibition action of rare earths on the catalytic activity of pyrophosphates isolated from bakery geast and E. Coli. The mechanism of the rare earth element action, corresponding to competitive inhibition, has been established

  3. Rare earth element recycling from waste nickel-metal hydride batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiuli; Zhang, Junwei; Fang, Xihui

    2014-08-30

    With an increase in number of waste nickel-metal hydride batteries, and because of the importance of rare earth elements, the recycling of rare earth elements is becoming increasingly important. In this paper, we investigate the effects of temperature, hydrochloric acid concentration, and leaching time to optimize leaching conditions and determine leach kinetics. The results indicate that an increase in temperature, hydrochloric acid concentration, and leaching time enhance the leaching rate of rare earth elements. A maximum rare earth elements recovery of 95.16% was achieved at optimal leaching conditions of 70°C, solid/liquid ratio of 1:10, 20% hydrochloric acid concentration, -74μm particle size, and 100min leaching time. The experimental data were best fitted by a chemical reaction-controlled model. The activation energy was 43.98kJ/mol and the reaction order for hydrochloric acid concentration was 0.64. The kinetic equation for the leaching process was found to be: 1-(1-x)(1/3)=A/ρr0[HCl](0.64)exp-439,8008.314Tt. After leaching and filtration, by adding saturated oxalic solution to the filtrate, rare earth element oxalates were obtained. After removing impurities by adding ammonia, filtering, washing with dilute hydrochloric acid, and calcining at 810°C, a final product of 99% pure rare earth oxides was obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Game meat authentication through rare earth elements fingerprinting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danezis, G.P.; Pappas, A.C.; Zoidis, E.; Papadomichelakis, G.; Hadjigeorgiou, I.; Zhang, P.; Brusic, V.; Georgiou, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate labelling of meat (e.g. wild versus farmed, geographical and genetic origin, organic versus conventional, processing treatment) is important to inform the consumers about the products they buy. Meat and meat products declared as game have higher commercial value making them target to fraudulent labelling practices and replacement with non-game meat. We have developed and validated a new method for authentication of wild rabbit meat using elemental metabolomics approach. Elemental analysis was performed using rapid ultra-trace multi-element measurement by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Elemental signatures showed excellent ability to discriminate the wild rabbit from non-wild rabbit meat. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of metabolic markers -rare earth signatures, as well as other trace element signatures for game meat authentication. - Highlights: • Elemental metabolomics is a powerful new methodology for authentication of game rabbit meat. • New method for meat authentication utilizing rare earths elemental signatures. • Samples are compared to group signatures using angular and Euclidean distances. • Meat reference materials (>70 elements) can be used for cross-comparison between studies.

  5. Proximity effect of Pb on CeCu6 and La0.05Ce0.95Cu6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.P.; Tipparachi, U.; Yang, H.D.; Wang, J.T.; Chen, B.; Chen, J.C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy fermion materials have attracted a great deal of attention since 1979. These materials which contain a rare earth (U, or Ce, etc.) element exhibit unusual behavior at low temperature. The effective mass m* of the Landau quasiparticles is found to be orders of magnitude higher than that of a bare electron. Some of the Heavy Fermion materials become superconductors at low temperature. The pairing of electrons in these superconductors may not be of s symmetry like those in BCS type superconductors. The mismatch in electronic mass and the difference in pairing state between the light conventional superconducting electrons and the heavy fermion electrons have brought the coupling between light electrons (BCS type) and the heavy fermion electrons into question. Proximity effect of Pb on CeCu 6 , Pb on La 0.05 Ce 0.95 Cu 6 , and Pb on Cu was used to investigate the coupling between the conventional superconducting electrons of Pb and the heavy electrons in CeCu 6 or La 0.05 Ce 0.95 Cu 6 . In this experiment proximity effect was found between Pb and CeCu 6 , as well as between Pb and La 0.05 Ce 0.95 Cu 6 . However, the proximity effect is small when compared with that between Pb and Cu. This indicates a much shorter extrapolation length in the heavy fermion materials than in Cu. Such a phenomenon can be explained by the mismatch in effective mass between the superconducting Pb electrons and the heavy fermion electrons

  6. Neutron activation analysis of the rare earth elements in Nasu hot springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Nagao; Takahashi, Naruto.

    1978-01-01

    Eleven rare earth elements (lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, holmium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium) in hot spring waters and sinter deposits in the Nasu area were determined by the neutron activation method. The rare earth elements in hot spring water were preconcentrated in ferric hydroxide precipitate and neutron-irradiated. The rare earth elements were chemically separated into lighter and heavier groups and the activity of each group was measured with a Ge(Li) detector. Distribution of the rare earth elements between the hot spring water and the sinter deposit was also discussed. (auth.)

  7. Pyrometallurgical partitioning of uranium and transuranic elements from rare earth elements by electrorefining and reductive extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uozumi, Koichi; Kinoshita, Kensuke; Inoue, Tadashi; Storvick, T.S.; Krueger, C.L.; Nabelek, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    High-level liquid waste generated from PUREX reprocessing contains a small amount of transuranic elements, such as Np, Pu, Am, and Cm, with long-lived radioactivities. A pyrometallurgical partitioning process is being developed to recover transuranic elements from such waste. Small amounts of U contained in the high-level liquid waste are also recovered in the process. A key issue for developing the process is effective separation of U and the transuranic elements from the rare-earth elements, because the two elemental groups are chemically analogous. A series of process tests were carried out in the present study to demonstrate that a combination of electrorefining and reductive extraction is useful for separating U and transuranic elements from the rare-earth elements. The results indicate that 99% of U and each transuranic elements is recovered by the combination process as a product, and that the quantity of rare-earth elements contained in the product is smaller than the transuranic elements by weight. The overall mass balance of U and transuranic elements in the system ranged within the experimental errors assigned to sampling and analysis. (author)

  8. Determination of rare earth elements in Solanum lycocarpum in `Cerrado de Emas`- Pirassununga, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piorino-Maria, S.; Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Ticianelli, R.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ceccantini, G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1997-10-01

    In the present work, the rare earth elements concentration (REE) in plant leaves of the species Solanum lycocarpum from `Cerrado de Emas`, Pirassununga, Sao Paulo, and the soil where they have grown up, was determined by using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The obtained values for most of the light REE (La, Ce, Nd) were higher than the reference values for REE in plants. These results suggest that the light REE are more available in the soil than the heavy REE. The concentration of REE in the plant and the soil were normalized to chondrite contents, showing in the soil diagram a negative anomaly for the concentration of Eu and a positive anomaly for the concentration of Ce, which were not observed in the plant diagram. (author). 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. Determination of rare earth elements in Solanum lycocarpum in 'Cerrado de Emas'- Pirassununga, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piorino-Maria, S.; Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Ticianelli, R.B.; Ceccantini, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the present work, the rare earth elements concentration (REE) in plant leaves of the species Solanum lycocarpum from 'Cerrado de Emas', Pirassununga, Sao Paulo, and the soil where they have grown up, was determined by using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The obtained values for most of the light REE (La, Ce, Nd) were higher than the reference values for REE in plants. These results suggest that the light REE are more available in the soil than the heavy REE. The concentration of REE in the plant and the soil were normalized to chondrite contents, showing in the soil diagram a negative anomaly for the concentration of Eu and a positive anomaly for the concentration of Ce, which were not observed in the plant diagram. (author). 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  10. Luminescence properties of Ce3+-activated alkaline earth silicon nitride M2Si5N8 (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.Q.; With, de G.; Hintzen, H.T.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The luminescence properties of Ce3+, Li+ or Na+ co-doped alkaline-earth silicon nitride M2Si5N8 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) are reported. The solubility of Ce3+ and optical properties of M2-2xCexLixSi5N8 (x0.1) materials have been investigated as function of the cerium concentration by X-ray powder diffraction

  11. Advances in chromatography of the rare earth elements (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, Koichi; Kuroda, Rokuro; Shimizu, Tsuneo.

    1995-01-01

    A review is presented which covers liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and related techniques. This article intends to describe the chromatographic methods playing an important role in the separation of the rare earth elements. Special attention is paid to the usefulness of various types of liquid chromatography which enable the complete mutual separation of the rare earth elements. Applications are also discussed. (author) 161 refs

  12. Evaluation of short-term effects of rare earth and other elements used in magnesium alloys on primary cells and cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, Frank; Fischer, Janine; Holtz, Jakob; Witte, Frank; Willumeit, Regine; Drücker, Heiko; Vogt, Carla; Hort, Norbert

    2010-05-01

    Degradable magnesium alloys for biomedical application are on the verge of being used clinically. Rare earth elements (REEs) are used to improve the mechanical properties of the alloys, but in more or less undefined mixtures. For some elements of this group, data on toxicity and influence on cells are sparse. Therefore in this study the in vitro cytotoxicity of the elements yttrium (Y), neodymium (Nd), dysprosium (Dy), praseodymium (Pr), gadolinium (Gd), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), europium (Eu), lithium (Li) and zirconium (Zr) was evaluated by incubation with the chlorides (10-2000 microM); magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) were tested at higher concentrations (200 and 50mM, respectively). The influence on viability of human osteosarcoma cell line MG63, human umbilical cord perivascular (HUCPV) cells and mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7) was determined, as well as the induction of apoptosis and the expression of inflammatory factors (TNF-alpha, IL-1alpha). Significant differences between the applied cells could be observed. RAW exhibited the highest and HUCPV the lowest sensitivity. La and Ce showed the highest cytotoxicity of the analysed elements. Of the elements with high solubility in magnesium alloys, Gd and Dy seem to be more suitable than Y. The focus of magnesium alloy development for biomedical applications should include most defined alloy compositions with well-known tissue-specific and systemic effects. Copyright (c) 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comment on “Synthesis of ceria (CeO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2−x}) nanoparticles via decarbonation and Ce(III) oxidation of synthetic bastnaesite (CeCO{sub 3}F)” by Montes-Hernandez et al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gysi, Alexander P., E-mail: agysi@mines.edu [Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1516 Illinois Street, Golden, CO, 80401 (United States); Williams-Jones, Anthony E. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill University, 3450 University Street, Montreal, QC, Canada, H3A 2A7 (Canada)

    2016-11-01

    Montes-Hernandez et al. [5] recently reported results of a study of the decarbonation of fine-grained synthetic bastnäsite-(Ce) precipitates involving the oxidation of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) and the formation of ceria (CeO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2-x} with oxygen vacancies) nano-particles. The purpose of their study was to show that oxidation of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) occurs spontaneously during heating of bastnäsite-(Ce) in air, a vacuum, N{sub 2} or Ar gas. However, their interpretation of the formation of CeO{sub 2} is not supported by the findings of Gysi and Williams-Jones [3], who showed that natural bastnäsite-(Ce) decomposes to form rare earth element (REE) oxyfluorides (REEOF). The latter was documented using differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and thermogravimetric (TGA) experiments under a deoxygenated N{sub 2} atmosphere. In their experiments, Gysi and Williams-Jones [3] found no evidence for the oxidation of Ce(III) to Ce(IV). This raises the question of whether the experiments of Montes-Hernandez et al. [5] in a N{sub 2} atmosphere (and by extension in an Ar atmosphere) were compromised because of contamination by O{sub 2} and that, as a result, they reached the erroneous conclusion that Ce(III) oxidizes spontaneously to Ce(IV) during heating of bastnäsite-(Ce) under these conditions. In order to explain the disagreement between their findings and those of Gysi and Williams-Jones [3], Montes-Hernandez et al. [5], proposed that the X-ray diffraction data of the former study were incorrectly interpreted. Here, we provide further evidence that the natural bastnäsite-(Ce) employed in the study by Gysi and Williams-Jones [3] decomposed to form REE oxyfluorides (i.e., CeOF, LaOF, PrOF and NdOF) and not CeO{sub 2}, and supply explanations for why Montes-Hernandez et al. [5] erroneously concluded that CeO{sub 2} is produced during decomposition of this mineral under N{sub 2} and Ar atmospheres. In so doing, we hope to provide new insights into the decomposition of

  14. Rare-earth elements in human colostrum milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poniedziałek, Barbara; Rzymski, Paweł; Pięt, Małgorzata; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Mleczek, Mirosław; Wilczak, Maciej; Rzymski, Piotr

    2017-11-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are used in a growing number of applications, and their release to environment has increased over the decades. Knowledge of REEs in human milk and factors that could possibly influence their concentration is scarce. This study evaluated the concentrations of 16 REEs (Ce, Eu, Er, Gd, La, Nd, Pr, Sc, Sm, Dy, Ho, Lu, Tb, Tm, Y, and Yb) in human colostrum milk collected from Polish women (n = 100) with the ICP-OES technique. The concentrations (mean ± SD) of Pr (41.9 ± 13.2 μg L -1 ), Nd (11.0 ± 4.0 μg L -1 ), La (7.1 ± 5.2 μg L -1 ), and Er (2.2 ± 0.8 μg L -1 ) were found above detection limits. The total mean ± SD concentration of detected REEs was 60.9 ± 17.8 μg L -1 . Current smokers displayed significantly increased Nd concentrations compared to women who had never smoked. No other associations between REEs in colostrum milk and age, diet in pregnancy (food supplement use and frequency of fish, meat, and vegetable consumption) or place of living (urban/rural) were found. This study adds to general understanding of the occurrence and turnover of REEs in women and human fluids.

  15. Distribution of rare earths in liver of mice administered with chloride compounds of 12 rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, A.; Chiba, M.; Inaba, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Rare earths are used in high technology field, however, the information on their biological effects are not sufficient. The behaviour of rare earths in biology is of interest in connection with their toxicity. In the present study, the distribution of rare earths in liver of mice administered with these elements was investigated. The effects on Ca and other biological essential elements were also determined. Male mice (5 weeks old) were injected with one of 12 kinds of rare earths (chlorides of Y, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Yb) at the dose of 25 mg/KXg body weight. After 20 hours of administration, mice were sacrificed, then liver and other organs were taken out. Liver was homogenized and separated by centrifugation. The concentrations of rare earths administered were measured by microwave-induced plasma-mass spectrometry (MIP-MS) after acid digestion. The concentrations of administered elements in whole liver were about 100μg/g (wet weight), where the difference between elements was few. Distribution amounts of elements administered in four fractions were following order; 700μg precipitate > mitocondrial fraction > microsomal fraction > cytosol. The relative contents in these fractions, however, was different depending on the element administered. Calcium concentrations in liver of administered mice were higher than those of control mice. Increase of Ca concentrations were observed in all four fractions and the increase ratio was also dependent on the elements administered

  16. Concentrations of rare elements in some Australian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diatloff, E.; Smith, F.W.; Asher, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Total, exchangeable, and soil solution concentrations were measured for 15 rare earth elements (REEs) in 9 soils from Queensland and New South Wales. In a further 10 acid soils, effects of amendment with CaCO 3 or CaSO 4 . 2H 2 O were measured on the concentrations of REEs in soil solution. The total concentration of the REEs in soil solutions from unamended soils ranged from below the detection limit (0.007 μM) to 0.64 μM. Lanthanum (La) and cerium (Ce) were the REEs present in the greatest concentrations, the highest concentrations measured in the diverse suite of soils being 0.13 μM La and 0.51 μM Ce. Rare earth elements with higher atomic numbers were present in very low concentrations. Exchangeable REEs accounted for 0.07 to 12.6% of the total REEs measured in the soils. Addition of CaCO 3 increased soil solution pH and decreased REE concentrations in soil solution, whilst CaSO 4 . 2H 2 O decreased soil solution pH and increased the concentrations of REEs in soil solution. Solubility calculations suggest that CePO 4 may be the phase controlling the concentration of Ce in soil solution. 33 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs

  17. Rare earth element lithogeochemistry of granitoid mineral deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.P.; Fryer, B.J. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences)

    1983-12-01

    As a monitor of the processes involved in the formation of granitoid mineral deposits the coherent group behaviour of the rare earth elements (REE) actively reflects changing fluid characteristics. For example, in the porphyry environment, magmatic-hydrothermal fluids produce potassic alteration with strong enrichment in the light rare earth elements, reflecting their high pH, low fluid/rock ratios, and the dominant role of Cl/sup -/ complexing in metal (i.e. Cu, Au) transport. With increasing fluid/rock ratios and decreasing pH accompanying the progressive involvement of meteoric fluids (and the production of propylitic, argillic, and phyllic alteration) anionic species such as F/sup -/ and CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ become important in metal (e.g. Mo, W) transport through complexing, and their activity in the hydrothermal fluids is illustrated by mobilization of the heavy rare earth elements. The relative involvement of Cl/sup -/ versus F/sup -/ versus CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ in metal transport in other granite-related systems can also be monitored through REE behaviour. Hence granitoid tin-tungsten mineralization and associated greisenization typically exhibit heavy rare earth enrichment and evidence the importance of F/sup -/ and CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ in metal transport. Similarly, heavy rare earth element enrichment in hydrothermal uranium deposits can be related to the transport of uranium as carbonate complexes. REE are widely accepted as powerful tools in the study of rock petrogenesis, but their use has been neglected in the investigation of mineral deposits. The recognition of the systematic variation of REE distributions in granitoid mineral deposits suggests that the application of REE geochemistry, particularly when integrated with fluid inclusion and isotope studies, can provide l) an effective method for identifying the physiochemical controls of metal transport and 2) a useful criterion of elucidating metal distribution.

  18. Rare earth element lithogeochemistry of granitoid mineral deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.P.; Fryer, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a monitor of the processes involved in the formation of granitoid mineral deposits the coherent group behaviour of the rare earth elements (REE) actively reflects changing fluid characteristics. For example, in the porphyry environment, magmatic-hydrothermal fluids produce potassic alteration with strong enrichment in the light rare earth elements, reflecting their high pH, low fluid/rock ratios, and the dominant role of Cl - complexing in metal (i.e. Cu, Au) transport. With increasing fluid/rock ratios and decreasing pH accompanying the progressive involvement of meteoric fluids (and the production of propylitic, argillic, and phyllic alteration) anionic species such as F - and CO 3 2- become important in metal (e.g. Mo, W) transport through complexing, and their activity in the hydrothermal fluids is illustrated by mobilization of the heavy rare earth elements. The relative involvement of Cl - versus F - versus CO 3 2- in metal transport in other granite-related systems can also be monitored through REE behaviour. Hence granitoid tin-tungsten mineralization and associated greisenization typically exhibit heavy rare earth enrichment and evidence the importance of F - and CO 3 2- in metal transport. Similarly, heavy rare earth element enrichment in hydrothermal uranium deposits can be related to the transport of uranium as carbonate complexes. REE are widely accepted as powerful tools in the study of rock petrogenesis, but their use has been neglected in the investigation of mineral deposits. The recognition of the systematic variation of REE distributions in granitoid mineral deposits suggests that the application of REE geochemistry, particularly when integrated with fluid inclusion and isotope studies, can provide l) an effective method for identifying the physiochemical controls of metal transport and 2) a useful criterion of elucidating metal distribution

  19. Earth, Air, Fire and Water in Our Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievesley, Tara

    2007-01-01

    The idea that everything is made of the four "elements", earth, air, fire and water, goes back to the ancient Greeks. In this article, the author talks about the origins of ideas about the elements. The author provides an account that attempts to summarise thousands of years of theoretical development of the elements in a thousand words or so.

  20. Peculiarities of rare-earth-element distribution in environmental objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunov, A.V.; Onischenko, T.L.; Gundorina, S.F.; Frontasyeva, M.V.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of the production of phosphorus fertilizers on the pollution of the environment by rare-earth elements is reviewed. The main sources of rare-earth element pollution in the environment are described. The levels of REEs in components of the environment - atmosphere, snow, different types of soil, native and agricultural types of vegetation - that provide evidence for their participation in the biological cycle of plants are considered. The high values of the correlation coefficients lead one to think that the REE distribution in vegetation occurs under specific laws true for this family of elements. (author) 9 refs.; 6 figs.; 5 tabs

  1. Rare earth element recycling from waste nickel-metal hydride batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiuli; Zhang, Junwei; Fang, Xihui

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Leaching kinetics of REEs has rarely been reported. • A new method, including hydrochloric acid leaching and oxalic acid precipitation, was proposed. • REEs recovery rate of 95.16% and pure rare earth oxides of 99% were obtained. • Leaching process was controlled by chemical reaction. • The kinetic equation was determined. - Abstract: With an increase in number of waste nickel-metal hydride batteries, and because of the importance of rare earth elements, the recycling of rare earth elements is becoming increasingly important. In this paper, we investigate the effects of temperature, hydrochloric acid concentration, and leaching time to optimize leaching conditions and determine leach kinetics. The results indicate that an increase in temperature, hydrochloric acid concentration, and leaching time enhance the leaching rate of rare earth elements. A maximum rare earth elements recovery of 95.16% was achieved at optimal leaching conditions of 70 °C, solid/liquid ratio of 1:10, 20% hydrochloric acid concentration, −74 μm particle size, and 100 min leaching time. The experimental data were best fitted by a chemical reaction-controlled model. The activation energy was 43.98 kJ/mol and the reaction order for hydrochloric acid concentration was 0.64. The kinetic equation for the leaching process was found to be: 1−(1−x) 1/3 =A/ρr 0 [HCl] 0.64 exp((−439,800)/(8.314T) )t. After leaching and filtration, by adding saturated oxalic solution to the filtrate, rare earth element oxalates were obtained. After removing impurities by adding ammonia, filtering, washing with dilute hydrochloric acid, and calcining at 810 °C, a final product of 99% pure rare earth oxides was obtained

  2. Studies on the absorption, distribution of rare earth elements and its effect on absorption of phosphorus and potassium in sugarcane (Saccharum officnarum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang Yanhua; Liu Qiongying; Zheng Yuemei; Deng Zhouhuo; Xu Shengjie

    1991-01-01

    Study on the absorption, distribution and translocation of area earth elements (RE) and their effects on absorption of phosphorus and potassium ( 86 Rb as tracer) in sugarcane showed that the sugarcane could absorb soluble RE fast by its root or leaves. Within the 1-7 days after treatment, the absorption rate of 141 Ce in organs of the plant increased with the time. At the 7th day after treatment, the absorption rate of 141 Ce by sugarcane plant reached the maximum which was about 2-3 times of that at the 1st day and after that it gradually decreased. The utilization efficiency of 141 Ce by sugarcane plant was 0.836-3.24%. The absorption and distribution of RE in sugarcane plant varied with the treatment methods. It was shown that about 90% 141 Ce in nutrient solution was concentrated in the roots while only about 10% of them was transferred into the shoots. The distribution and accumulation of 141 Ce in suggarcene plant was in order of root>stem>leaf. If smeared on the leaf of sugarcane, the distribution and accumulation of 141 Ce in sugarcane plant was in order of leaf>stem>root. When treated with 300, 500 and 800 ppm R(NO 3 ) 3 ·4H 2 O, Ce, La, Sm, Pr, Nd and Y, the absorption and translocation rate of phosphorus and rubidium in sugarcane were increased

  3. Reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography of the rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, R.; Adachi, M.; Oguma, K.

    1988-01-01

    Partition chromatographic behaviour of the rare earth elements on C 18 bonded silica reversed-phase material has been investigated by thin-layer chromatography in methanol - lactate media. The rare earth lactato complexes are distributed and fractionated on bonded silica layers without ion-interaction reagents. The concentration and pH of lactate solution, methanol concentration and temperature have effects on the migration and resolution of the rare earth elements. The partition system is particularly suited to separate adjacent rare earths of middle atomic weight groups, allowing the separation of gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium and thulium to be achieved by development to 18 cm distance. (orig.)

  4. Rapid separation of individual rare-earth elements from fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, J.D.; Gehrke, R.J.; Greenwood, R.C.; Meikrantz, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    A microprocessor-controlled radiochemical separation system has been developed to rapidly separate rare-earth elements from gross fission products. The system is composed of two high performance liquid chromatography columns coupled in series by a stream-splitting injection valve. The first column separates the rare-earth group by extraction chromatography using dihexyldiethylcarbamylmethylenephosphonate (DHDECMP) adsorbed on Vydac C 8 resin. The second column isolates the individual rare-earth elements by cation exchange using Aminex A-9 resin with α-hydroxyisobutyric acid (α-HIBA) as the eluent. With this system, fission-product rare-earth isotopes with half-lives as short as three minutes have been studied

  5. Chalcogenides formed by trivalent rare earth elements with d-elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flao, Zh.; Laruehl', P.; Olitro, R.

    1981-01-01

    Data on ternary compounds formed by trivalent rare earth elements with 3d-, 4d- and 5d-elements of the Periodic system is presented. Compounds of 3d-elements both in bivalent and trivalent states are considered. The main attention is paid to the structure of the compounds. Description of a great number of new structural types of compounds is given. In certain cases the structure has not been deciphered and, besides, structural investigations with monocrystals are not numerous. Attention is drawn to the existence of nonstoichiometric compounds. References to the works on investigation of thermal (melting temperature), magnetic, optical and electric properties as well as Moessbauer effect are presented

  6. Effect of Ce addition on microstructure of Al20Cu2Mn3 twin phase in an Al–Cu–Mn casting alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhongwei; Chen Pei; Li Shishun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Rare earth element Ce can retard the formation of the Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 twin phase in an Al–Cu–Mn casting alloy. ► Patterns of the particles of the Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 phase in Al–Cu–Mn free Ce alloy are more diverse. ► The symmetry of neighboring components of twins is characterized by glide reflection and reflection. ► The twins of Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 phase can enhance the mechanical properties of the Al–Cu–Mn casting alloys. - Abstract: Effects of Ce addition on microstructure of Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 twin phase and mechanical properties of an Al–Cu–Mn casting alloy were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and tensile test. The results show that rare earth element Ce can retard the formation of the Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 phase in the Al–Cu–Mn alloy. Compared with the Ce containing alloy, patterns of particles of the Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 phase in the Al–Cu–Mn free Ce alloy are more diverse. The symmetry of neighboring components of twins is characterized by glide reflection and reflection. In addition, twins of the Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 phase can enhance the mechanical properties of the Al–Cu–Mn alloy.

  7. Comparative toxicities of selected rare earth elements: Sea urchin embryogenesis and fertilization damage with redox and cytogenetic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagano, Giovanni, E-mail: gbpagano@tin.it [“Federico II” University of Naples, Environmental Hygiene, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Guida, Marco; Siciliano, Antonietta [“Federico II” University of Naples, Environmental Hygiene, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Oral, Rahime [Ege University, Faculty of Fisheries, TR-35100 Bornova, İzmir (Turkey); Koçbaş, Fatma [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Biology, TR-45140 Yunusemre, Manisa (Turkey); Palumbo, Anna; Castellano, Immacolata; Migliaccio, Oriana [Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples (Italy); Thomas, Philippe J. [Environment Canada, Science & Technology Branch, National Wildlife Research Center – Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Trifuoggi, Marco [“Federico II” University of Naples, Department of Chemical Sciences, I-80126 Naples (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    Background: Broad-ranging adverse effects are known for rare earth elements (REE), yet only a few studies tested the toxicity of several REE, prompting studies focusing on multi-parameter REE toxicity. Methods: Trichloride salts of Y, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd were tested in Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos and sperm for: (1) developmental defects in either REE-exposed larvae or in the offspring of REE-exposed sperm; (2) fertilization success; (3) mitotic anomalies in REE-exposed embryos and in the offspring of REE-exposed sperm, and (4) reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels. Results: REEs affected P. lividus larvae with concentration-related increase in developmental defects, 10{sup −6} to 10{sup −4} M, ranking as: Gd(III)>Y(III)>La(III)>Nd(III)≅Eu(III)>Ce(III)≅Sm(III). Nominal concentrations of REE salts were confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significant increases in MDA levels, ROS formation, and NO levels were found in REE-exposed embryos. Sperm exposure to REEs (10{sup −5} to 10{sup −4} M) resulted in concentration-related decrease in fertilization success along with increase in offspring damage. Decreased mitotic activity and increased aberration rates were detected in REE-exposed embryos and in the offspring of REE-exposed sperm. Conclusion: REE-associated toxicity affecting embryogenesis, fertilization, cytogenetic and redox endpoints showed different activities of tested REEs. Damage to early life stages, along with redox and cytogenetic anomalies should be the focus of future REE toxicity studies. - Highlights: • Seven rare earth elements exerted different effects on sea urchin early life stages. • Embryo-, spermio- and mitotoxicity, and oxidative/ nitrosative stress were found. • Nominal vs. analytical REE concentrations were checked. • Comparative toxicities were evaluated for the different REE.

  8. Comparative toxicities of selected rare earth elements: Sea urchin embryogenesis and fertilization damage with redox and cytogenetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagano, Giovanni; Guida, Marco; Siciliano, Antonietta; Oral, Rahime; Koçbaş, Fatma; Palumbo, Anna; Castellano, Immacolata; Migliaccio, Oriana; Thomas, Philippe J.; Trifuoggi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Background: Broad-ranging adverse effects are known for rare earth elements (REE), yet only a few studies tested the toxicity of several REE, prompting studies focusing on multi-parameter REE toxicity. Methods: Trichloride salts of Y, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd were tested in Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos and sperm for: (1) developmental defects in either REE-exposed larvae or in the offspring of REE-exposed sperm; (2) fertilization success; (3) mitotic anomalies in REE-exposed embryos and in the offspring of REE-exposed sperm, and (4) reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels. Results: REEs affected P. lividus larvae with concentration-related increase in developmental defects, 10 −6 to 10 −4 M, ranking as: Gd(III)>Y(III)>La(III)>Nd(III)≅Eu(III)>Ce(III)≅Sm(III). Nominal concentrations of REE salts were confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significant increases in MDA levels, ROS formation, and NO levels were found in REE-exposed embryos. Sperm exposure to REEs (10 −5 to 10 −4 M) resulted in concentration-related decrease in fertilization success along with increase in offspring damage. Decreased mitotic activity and increased aberration rates were detected in REE-exposed embryos and in the offspring of REE-exposed sperm. Conclusion: REE-associated toxicity affecting embryogenesis, fertilization, cytogenetic and redox endpoints showed different activities of tested REEs. Damage to early life stages, along with redox and cytogenetic anomalies should be the focus of future REE toxicity studies. - Highlights: • Seven rare earth elements exerted different effects on sea urchin early life stages. • Embryo-, spermio- and mitotoxicity, and oxidative/ nitrosative stress were found. • Nominal vs. analytical REE concentrations were checked. • Comparative toxicities were evaluated for the different REE.

  9. Uncovering the end uses of the rare earth elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Xiaoyue, E-mail: xiaoyue.du@empa.ch [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA), Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Yale University, 195 Prospect Street, New Haven CT 06511 (United States); Graedel, T.E. [Yale University, 195 Prospect Street, New Haven CT 06511 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging and conventional established technologies. However, quantitative knowledge of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in future availability of the resources. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supply vulnerable to short term disruption. We have drawn upon the published literature and unpublished materials in different languages to derive the first quantitative annual domestic production by end use of individual rare earth elements from 1995 to 2007. The information is illustrated in Sankey diagrams for the years 1995 and 2007. Other years are available in the supporting information. Comparing 1995 and 2007, the production of the rare earth elements in China, Japan, and the US changed dramatically in quantities and structure. The information can provide a solid foundation for industries, academic institutions and governments to make decisions and develop strategies. - Highlights: • We have derived the first quantitative end use information of the rare earths (REE). • The results are for individual REE from 1995 to 2007. • The end uses of REE in China, Japan, and the US changed dramatically in quantities and structure. • This information can provide solid foundation for decision and strategy making.

  10. Investigation of local magnetism in RZn (R = Ce, Gd, Tb, Dy) and GdCu intermetallic compounds using perturbed angular correlation gamma-gamma spectroscopy; Investigacao do magnetismo local em compostos intermetalicos do tipo RZn (R = Ce, Gd, Tb, Dy) e GdCu pela espectroscopia de correlacao angular gama-gama perturbada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Brianna Bosch dos

    2010-07-01

    This work presents, from a microscopic point of view, a systematic study of the local magnetism in RZn (R = Ce, Gd, Tb, Dy) and GdCu intermetallic compounds through measurements of hyperfine interactions using the Perturbed Angular Correlation Gamma- Gamma Spectroscopy technique with {sup 111}In {yields} {sup 111}Cd and {sup 140}La {yields} {sup 140}Ce as probe nuclei. As the magnetism in these compounds originates from the 4f electrons of the rare-earth elements it is interesting to observe in a systematic study of RZn compounds the behavior of the magnetic hyperfine field with the variation of the number of 4f electrons in the R element. The use of probe nuclei {sup 140}La {yields} {sup 140}Ce is interesting because Ce{sup +3} ion posses one 4f electron which may contribute to the total hyperfine field, and the results showed anomalous behavior. The results for {sup 111}Cd probe showed that the temperature dependence of the magnetic hyperfine field follows the Brillouin function, and the magnetic hyperfine field decreases linearly with increase of the atomic number of rare earth when plotted as a function of the rare-earth J spin projection, showing that the main contribution to the magnetic hyperfine field in RZn compounds comes from the polarization of the conduction electrons. The results for the electric field gradient measured with {sup 111}Cd for all compounds showed a strong decrease with the atomic number of the rare-earth element. We have therefore assumed that the major contribution to the electric field gradient originates from the 4f electrons of the rare-earths. The measurements of the electric field gradient for GdCu with {sup 111}Cd, after temperature decreases and increases again showed that two different structures, CsCl-type cubic and FeB-type orthorhombic structures co-exist. Finally, it is the first time that measurements of hyperfine parameters have been carried out with theses two probe nuclei in the studied RZn. (author)

  11. Determination of active oxygen content in rare earth peroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Carlos A.S.; Abrao, Alcidio

    1993-01-01

    The content of active oxygen in rare earth peroxides have been determined after the dissolution of the samples with hydrocloridic acid in the presence of potassium iodide. The free generated iodine is titrated with sodium thiosulfate using starch as indicator. The oxidation of iodide to the free iodine indicates the presence of a higher valence state rare earth oxide, until now specifically recognized for the oxides of cerium (Ce O 2 ), praseodymium (Pr 6 O 1 1) and terbium (TB 4 O 7 ). recently the authors synthesized a new series of rare earth compounds, the peroxides. These new compounds were prepared by precipitating the rare earth elements complexed with carbonate ion by addition of hydrogen peroxide. the authors demonstrated that all rare earth elements, once solubilized by complexing with carbonate ion, are quantitatively precipitated as peroxide by addition of hydrogen peroxide. (author)

  12. Comparison of the partitioning behaviours of yttrium, rare earth elements, and titanium between hydrogenetic marine ferromanganese crusts and seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bau, M.; Koschinsky, A.; Dulski, P.; Hein, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    In order to evaluate details of the partitioning behaviours of Y, rare earth elements (REEs), and Ti between inorganic metal oxide surfaces and seawater, we studied the distribution of these elements in hydrogenetic marine ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts from the Central Pacific Ocean. Nonphosphatized Fe-Mn crusts display shale-normalized rare earths and yttrium (REYSN) patterns (Y inserted between Dy and Ho) that are depleted in light REEs (LREEs) and which show negative anomalies for YSN, and positive anomalies for LaSN, EuSN, GdSN, and in most cases, CeSN. They show considerably smaller Y/ Ho ratios than seawater or common igneous and clastic rocks, indicating that Y and Ho are fractionated in the marine environment. Compared to P-poor crusts, REYSN patterns of phosphatized Fe-Mn crusts are similar, but yield pronounced positive YSN anomalies, stronger positive LaSN anomalies, and enrichment of the HREEs relative to the MREEs. The data suggest modification of REY during phosphatization and indicate that studies requiring primary REY distributions or isotopic ratios should be restricted to nonphosphatized (layers of) Fe-Mn crusts. Apparent bulk coefficients, KMD, describing trace metal partitioning between nonphosphatized hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts and seawater, are similar for Pr to Eu and decrease for Eu to Yb. Exceptionally high values of KCeD, which are similar to those of Ti, result from oxidative scavenging of Ce and support previous suggestions that Ce(IV) is a hydroxide-dominated element in seawater. Yttrium and Gd show lower KD values than their respective neighbours in the REY series. Results of modelling the exchange equilibrium between REY dissolved in seawater and REY sorbed on hydrous Fe-Mn oxides corroborate previous studies that suggested the surface complexation of REY can be approximated by their first hydroxide binding constant. Negative "anomalies" occur for stabilities of bulk surface complexes of Gd, La, and particularly Y. The differences in

  13. Rare-earth elements in granites: concentration and distribution pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    The geochemistry of rare earth elements in granites is studied. The rare earth element (REE) distribution pattern in granites is characterized by a smooth curve with decreasing concentrations from La to Lu, and frequently a marked Eu negative anomaly. It seems to exist relationship between granite genesis and its REE pattern, in that bodies of primary (magmatic differentiation) origin always show this negative Eu anomaly, while those bodies generated by crustal anatexis do not show this anomaly. (E.G.) [pt

  14. Rare earth elements during diagenesis of abyssal sediments: analogies with a transuranic element americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boust, D.

    1987-03-01

    One of the possibilities for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes consists in burying them into abyssal sediments, the sediments being supposed to barrier out radionuclides migration. The objective of the work was to estimate the efficiency of sediment barrier with respect to americium. As there is no americium in abyssal sediments, an indirect approach was used: the behaviour of the rare earth elements, the best natural analogs of americium. They were analysed in a 15 m long core, from the Cap Verde abyssal plateau. The terrigenous phase derived from the African continent was modified by short-term processes (1-1000 years); the intermediate rare earth elements were dissolved. Mineral coatings, enriched in rare earth appeared. After burial, the evolution continued at a much slower rate (10 5 - 10 6 years). The rare elements of the mineral coatings derived from the dissolution of the terrigenous phase and from an additional source, deeper in the sediment column. The fluxes of rare earth elements from sediment to water column were estimated. In suboxic sediments, the dissolved particulate equilibrium was related to redox conditions. The short-term reactivity of americium was studied in laboratory experiments. Simple americium migration models showed that the sediments barrier was totally efficient with respect to americium. In the conditions, neptunium 237 a daughter product of americium 241 could induce fluxes of 10 16 atoms per year per ton of stored waste (10 -8 Ci y-1), during millions years, towards the water column [fr

  15. Rare earth elements in pore waters from Cabo Friós western boundary upwelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoak, J. M.; Silva-Filho, E. V.; Rousseau, T.; Albuquerque, A. L.; Caldeira, P. P.; Moreira, M.

    2015-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are a group of reactive trace elements in aqueous media, they have a coherent chemical behavior with however a subtle and gradual shift in physicochemical properties allowing their use as tracers of sources and processes. Uncertainties on their oceanic inputs and outputs still remains [Arsouze et al., 2009; Siddall et al., 2008; Tachikawa et al., 2003]. The water-sediment interface were early on identified as a relevant REE source due to the high distribution coefficient between sediments and pore waters [Elderfield and Sholkovitz, 1987] and substantially higher concentration then the water column [Abbott et al., 2015; Haley et al., 2004; Sholkovitz et al., 1989; Soyol-Erdene and Huh, 2013]. Here we present a cross shelf transect of 4 short pore waters REE profiles on a 680 km2 mud bank located in the region of Cabo Frio, Brazil. This study reveals similar trends at the four sites: a REE production zone reflected by a maximum in concentration at the top of the sediment evolving with depth toward a REE consumption zone reflected by a minimum in REE concentrations. PAAS normalized patterns shows 1) a progressive depletion in LREE with depth with HREE/LREE ratios comprised between 1.1 and 1.6 in the 2 first centimeters evolving gradually to ratios comprised between 2.8 and 4.7 above 7 cm 2) A sharp gradient in negative Ce anomaly with Ce/Ce* values reaching 0.3. With maximum Nd concentrations comprised between 780 and 1200 pmol.kg and considering that seawater Nd concentrations of Brazilian shelf bottom waters are comprised between 24 and 50 pmol.Kg-1 we apply the Fick´s First Law of diffusion and estimate that 340 +/- 90 nmol. m-2 Y-1 of Nd is released in the Cabo frio´s mudbank. This flux is in the same order of magnitude of recent estimates by [Abbott et al., 2015] in the slope of Oregon´s margin. Unraveling processes responsible for the REE production zone will help to refine the global REE fluxes estimates.

  16. Application of k0-based INAA method in the studies of rare earth and other elements in manganese nodules from Indian Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, R.K.; Chakravortty, V.; Acharya, R.; Nair, A.G.C.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Manohar, S.B.; Chintalapudi, S.N.

    2005-01-01

    Five manganese nodules obtained from different locations with varying water depths of the Indian Ocean were analysed by k 0 -based instrumental neutron activation analysis (k 0 -INAA) method. A total of 22 elements were estimated including nine rare earth elements (REE). The accuracy of the method has been evaluated by analysing USGS manganese nodule reference material NOD P1. The nodules have been classified into hydrogenous and diagenetic on the basis of their Mn/Fe ratios. Data on elemental concentrations were used to explain the possible differences in the trace element distribution. The minor elements were found to be enriched in the hydrogenous nodules compared to the diagenetic one. An attempt was made to characterise the distribution of these minor elements in the light of known geochemical evidences of Pacific Ocean nodules. The dissimilarity of the geochemistry of Ce and Mn in the Indian Ocean nodules has been discussed. The manganese nodules under investigation exhibit a positive cerium anomaly, indicating an oxidising environment. The possible mechanism of incorporation of elements like REE into the iron oxyhydroxide phase has been discussed. (author)

  17. The occurrence of rare earth elements in some Finnish mires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yliruokanen, I.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The content of the more abundant rare earths (RE (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in the ash of 399 peat samples from 26 Finnish mires was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The content of all rare earths (La-Lu, Y in 29 samples was also determined by spark source mass spectrometry. The median RE contents in peat ashes from areas where the bedrock consists of rapakivi granite, granite or archean gneiss are reported. Detailed data concerning the individual mires are also presented. The highest RE contents were found in samples from rapakivi granite areas where a strong negative Eu anomaly was also observed. The RE contents were in general highest at the basal peat layers.

  18. Prospecting and exploration of rare earth bearing mineral resources in India: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, R.

    2014-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) have a wide range of applications including nuclear and the REE bearing minerals occur in varied geological environments.The commercial rare earth bearing minerals are monazite ((Ce,La,Pr,Nd,Th,Y)PO 4 ), xenotime (YPO 4 ), bastnasite ((Ce,La,Y)CO 3 F) and pyrochlore ((Na,Ca) 2 Nb 2 O 6 (OH,F) which occur either as placer concentrations or in tracer quantities in rocks. While Monazite contains dominantly LREE, Xenotime and Bastnasite are richer in HREE. The exploration and evaluation of these two types of occurrences follow different methodologies

  19. Distribution patterns of rare earth elements in various plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyttenbach, A.; Tobler, L.; Furrer, V. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The elements La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb and Lu have been determined in 6 different plant species by neutron activation analysis. When the concentrations of each species were normalized to Norway spruce, smooth curves were obtained which revealed systematic inter-species differences. (author) 3 figs., 4 refs.

  20. Distribution patterns of rare earth elements in various plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyttenbach, A.; Tobler, L.; Furrer, V.

    1997-01-01

    The elements La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb and Lu have been determined in 6 different plant species by neutron activation analysis. When the concentrations of each species were normalized to Norway spruce, smooth curves were obtained which revealed systematic inter-species differences. (author) 3 figs., 4 refs

  1. Determination of rare earth elements in tomato plants by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalla, S; Baffi, C; Barbante, C; Turetta, C; Turretta, C; Cozzi, G; Beone, G M; Bettinelli, M

    2009-10-30

    In recent years identification of the geographical origin of food has grown more important as consumers have become interested in knowing the provenance of the food that they purchase and eat. Certification schemes and labels have thus been developed to protect consumers and genuine producers from the improper use of popular brand names or renowned geographical origins. As the tomato is one of the major components of what is considered to be the healthy Mediterranean diet, it is important to be able to determine the geographical origin of tomatoes and tomato-based products such as tomato sauce. The aim of this work is to develop an analytical method to determine rare earth elements (RRE) for the control of the geographic origin of tomatoes. The content of REE in tomato plant samples collected from an agricultural area in Piacenza, Italy, was determined, using four different digestion procedures with and without HF. Microwave dissolution with HNO3 + H2O2 proved to be the most suitable digestion procedure. Inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICPQMS) and inductively coupled plasma sector field plasma mass spectrometry (ICPSFMS) instruments, both coupled with a desolvation system, were used to determine the REE in tomato plants in two different laboratories. A matched calibration curve method was used for the quantification of the analytes. The detection limits (MDLs) of the method ranged from 0.03 ng g(-1) for Ho, Tm, and Lu to 2 ng g(-1) for La and Ce. The precision, in terms of relative standard deviation on six replicates, was good, with values ranging, on average, from 6.0% for LREE (light rare earth elements) to 16.5% for HREE (heavy rare earth elements). These detection limits allowed the determination of the very low concentrations of REE present in tomato berries. For the concentrations of REE in tomato plants, the following trend was observed: roots > leaves > stems > berries. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Effect of Ce-rich rare earth on microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-10Zn-5Al-0.1Sb magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Zhiyong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve the comprehensive mechanical properties of Mg-10Zn-5Al-0.1Sb magnesium alloy, different amount of Ce-rich rare earth (RE was added to the alloy, and the effect of RE addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-10Zn-5Al-0.1Sb alloy was investigated by means of Brinell hardness measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The results show that an appropriate amount of Ce-rich rare earth addition can make the Al4Ce phase particles and CeSb phase disperse more evenly in the alloy. These phases refine the alloy抯 matrix and make the secondary phases [t-Mg32(Al,Zn49 phase and f-Al2Mg5Zn2 phase] finer and more dispersive, therefore significantly improve the mechanical properties of the Mg-10Zn-5Al-0.1Sb alloy. When the RE addition is 1.0 wt.%, the tensile strengths of the alloy both at room temperature and 150 篊 reach the maximum values while the impact toughness is slightly lower than that of the matrix alloy. The hardness increases with the increase of RE addition.

  3. Investigation on fuel-cladding chemical interaction in metal fuel for FBR. Reaction of rare earth elements with Fe-Cr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Kenta; Ogata, Takanari

    2010-01-01

    Rare-earth fission product (FP) elements generated in the metal fuel interact with cladding alloy and result in the wastage of the cladding (Fuel-Cladding Chemical Interaction (FCCI)). To evaluate FCCI quantitatively, several influential factors must be considered. They are temperature, temperature gradient, time, composition of the cladding and the behavior of rare-earth FP. In this research, the temperature and time dependencies are investigated with tests in the simplified system. Fe-12wt%Cr was used as stimulant material of cladding and rare-earth alloy 13La -24Ce -12Pr -39Nd -12Sm (RE) as a rare-earth FP. A diffusion couple Fe-Cr/RE was made and annealed at 923K, 853K, 773K or 693K. The structures of reaction layers were analyzed with Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA) and the details of the structures were clarified. The width of the reaction layer in the Fe-Cr alloy grew in proportion to the square root of time. The reaction rate constants K=(square of the width of reaction layer / time) were evaluated. It was confirmed that the relation between K and the inverse of the temperature showed linearity above 773 K. (author)

  4. Preliminary Study on the Dissolutions of Ce, Nd, Y and La from Mineral Cassiterite by Acid and Alkaline Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdiyono, F.; Andriyah, L.; Aini, F. N.; Arini, T.; Lalasari, L. H.

    2018-03-01

    Rare Earth Metal is a rare element that its availability in nature is very small. In Indonesia, the potential of rare earth metals is generally found as the associated mineral in major commodities, especially gold and alluvial tin. These associated minerals can be processed using a particular technology so that the result is a by-product that can increase the added value of the mineral. This purpose of this research was to investigate the dissolution of Cerium (Ce), Neodymium (Nd), Yttrium (Y) and Lanthanum (La) from mineral cassiterite by leaching process using dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfate acid (H2SO4) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Firstly, cassiterite was grinded to -100 mesh of particle size and characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques. Secondly, 10 gram of cassiterite was leached in 100 ml solution of 3.26 N HCl, H2SO4 and NaOH at variation leaching time of 2, 4, 6, 24 and 48 hours in atmospheric conditions. The products were then filtered to separate filtrate and residue of cassiterite. Finally, to investigate the dissolution of Ce, La, Nd and Y, filtrate from dissolved cassiterite was analyzed by Induced Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), while to know the chemical composition of cassiterite leached by dilute HCl, H2SO4 and NaOH, residue products of cassiterite was characterized by XRF analysis. The result of ICP-OES analysis showed the dissolution of Ce element higher than Nd, Y and La elements for leaching cassiterite using HCl, H2SO4 and NaOH. The increase of leaching time was accompanied by the rise in the amount of dissolved elements from cassiterite. The result of XRF analysis showed the chemistry composition of Ce, Nd, Y and La elements on residue decreased insignificantly from chemistry composition of cassiterite (raw mineral) in all conditions. However, the dissolution of Ce, La, Nd and Y was insignificant in all conditions.

  5. Geological research on rare earth elements, results and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortin, H

    1999-01-01

    This is a report of the geological investigation of rare earth elements carried out by CCHEN and ENAMI (Empresa Nacional de Mineria) over 70,000 square kilometers in Chile's northern coastal mountain range. Twenty areas were identified with sphena, davidite, ilmenite, pyroxene, anatase and magnetite minerals containing 0.3 kg/t to 6.0 kg/t of rare earth elements. Additional research on Cerro Carmen Prospect, located near Diego de Almagro, define it as a metasomatic deposit, hosted in metamorphic contact rocks, between andesites (Pliensbachian to early Jurassic) and intrusive monzonitic rocks. This information increases knowledge about the metallogenesis of Chile's copper - iron - rare earth - uranium deposits and the application of this geological model of ore deposits as defined in Australia's Olympic Dam

  6. Anthropogenic Cycles of Rare Earth Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X.; Graedel, T. E.

    2009-12-01

    This research will develop quantitatively resolved anthropogenic cycles and in-use stocks for the rare earth metals specifically cerium, lanthanum and dysprosium in Japan, China, and the U.S. for the year of 2007. Rare earth elements (REE) is a group of 17 scare metals widely used in a growing number of emerging technologies and have been in high demand for emerging technologies as raw materials during past the three decades. New market participants from newly industrializing countries, primarily China, have had strong impacts on the demand of share. Consequently, the importance to sustain a reliable, steady, uninterrupted supply on global market triggered comprehensive research to recognize and understand the life cycles of rare earths. Moreover, because China plays a dominant role in mining production since 1990, it requires the assessment for the countries, which are almost completely dependent on imports from China with respect to rare earth resources. The study aims to analyze the flows and stocks of rare earth elements individually as elemental form in spite of their natural geological co-occurrence and mixed composition in applications. By applying the method of Material Flow Analysis (MFA) work has been done on evaluating current and historical flows of specific technologically significant materials, for example, copper, zinc, nickel, etc., determining the stocks available in different types of reservoirs (e.g., lithosphere, in-use) and the flows among the reservoirs, developing scenarios of possible futures of metal use, and assessing the environmental and policy implications of the results. Therefore, REE as a new target deserves inclusion because of its potential demand-supply conflict and importance to secure the competitive advantage of technical innovation in future. This work will generate a quantitatively resolved anthropogenic life cycle and in-use stocks for REE for the main target countries for a chosen year, 2007, providing flows and stocks from

  7. Relationship between accumulation of rare earth element in tumor and ionic radius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, N [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-02-01

    The accumulation of rare earth elements in the different organs of Ehrlich's tumor-bearing mice at 48 hours after intraperitoneal administration was measured by a Ge(Li) semiconductor detector. Accumulation of all the rare earth elements was the highest in the pancreas. Accumulation of /sup 152/Eu in the different organs of Ehrlich's tumor-bearing mice was very high. The accumulation of rare earth elements in Ehrlich's tumor was lower than the accumulation of /sup 67/Ga and /sup 46/Sc. The tumor-organ concentration ratio of rare earth elements was remarkably lower than the accumulation of /sup 67/Ga and /sup 46/Sc. However, the accumulation of /sup 152/Eu in Ehrlich's tumor was somewhat higher than that of /sup 67/Ga. The relationship between the accumulation and the carrier content was examined. The lower the carrier content was, the higher was the accumulation in different organs. However, the carrier effect of rare earth on the uptake in different organs elements was slight. The author postulated that the elements in which the ionic radius is similar to that of Mg(0.62 A) or Ca(0.99 A) are abundant in the tumor cell membrane, and they might pass through the tumor cell membrane much more easily than would the other elements. However, the result was negative.

  8. Synthesis and crystal structure of the isotypic rare earth thioborates Ce[BS3], Pr[BS3], and Nd[BS3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunger, Jens; Borna, Marija; Kniep, Ruediger

    2010-01-01

    The orthothioborates Ce[BS 3 ], Pr[BS 3 ] and Nd[BS 3 ] were prepared from mixtures of the rare earth (RE) metals together with amorphous boron and sulfur summing up to the compositions CeB 3 S 6 , PrB 5 S 9 and NdB 3 S 6 . The following preparation routes were used: solid state reactions with maximum temperatures of 1323 K and high-pressure high-temperature syntheses at 1173 K and 3 GPa. Pr[BS 3 ] and Nd[BS 3 ] were also obtained from rare earth chlorides RECl 3 and sodium thioborate Na 2 B 2 S 5 by metathesis type reactions at maximum temperatures of 1073 K. The crystal structure of the title compounds was determined from X-ray powder diffraction data. The thioborates are isotypic and crystallize in the orthorhombic spacegroup Pna2 1 (No. 33; Z=4; Ce: a=7.60738(6)A, b=6.01720(4)A, c=8.93016(6)A; Pr: a=7.56223(4)A, b=6.00876(2)A, c=8.89747(4)A; Nd: a=7.49180(3)A, b=6.00823(2)A, c=8.86197(3)A) . The crystal structures contain isolated [BS 3 ] 3- groups with boron in trigonal-planar coordination. The sulfur atoms form the vertices of undulated kagome nets, which are stacked along [100] according to the sequence ABAB. Within these nets every second triangle is occupied by boron and the large hexagons are centered by rare earth ions, which are surrounded by overall nine sulfur species. - Abstract: Graphical Abstract Legend (TOC Figure): Table of Contents Figure The isotypic orthothioborates Ce[BS 3 ], Pr[BS 3 ] and Nd[BS 3 ] were prepared using different preparation routes. The crystal structure of the title compounds was determined from X-ray powder diffraction data. The crystal structures contain isolated [BS 3 ] 3- groups with boron in trigonal-planar coordination. The sulfur atoms form the vertices of corrugated kagome nets (sketched with blue dotted lines), which are stacked along [100] according to the sequence ABAB. Within these nets every second triangle is occupied by boron and the large hexagons are centered by rare earth ions, which are surrounded by

  9. The application of micro-column solid phase extraction techniques for the determination of rare earth elements in actinide containing matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, K.P.; Cummings, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    The design and characterization of an argon segmented-solid phase extraction system is described. A 200 ul volume micro-column has been constructed for the preconcentration of rare earth elements (REEs) from salt matrices containing uranium. An inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer has been utilized for simultaneous detection of Sr, Y and the REEs (namely Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Pr, Sm) at levels ranging from 5- to 2000 ppm in LiCl/KCl samples containing U. Preconcentration factors of 100 fold have been demonstrated. The precision, linear dynamic range and column performance of the system will be presented. (author). 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Behaviour of rare earth elements, thorium, uranium and strontium isotopes in soil samples of Bryansk region contaminated due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Yonehara, H.; Kurotaki, K.; Shiraishi, K.; Ramzaev, V.; Barkovski, A.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the processes which control retention of rare earth elements, U and Th in soil samples of Bryansk region in one of Russian territory contaminated due to Chernobyl accident. Acid sandy and loam sand podzolic soils are typical of this area. We have classified soil samples into forest, pasture, field, yard and kitchen garden. Rare earth elements, U and Th concentrations were measured by digestion soil samples using acid digestion and microwave digestion method followed by ICP-MS whereas Sr isotope ratio ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) was determined by using a thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS). In case of forest soil samples, ratio of U/Th varied from 3.32 to 3.60. Though concentration of U and Th varies, ratio does not show much variation. Pasture soil showed higher concentration of REEs, U and Th. Chondrite normalized pattern of soil samples did not differ much from one another excep Ce and Eu and were similar to that for average concentration of continental crust. In case of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio, top layer soil sample shows a relatively higher isotope ratio than lower layers. These data, within the study area, may be reflective of variations in the concentration of elements in reservoir rocks at depth. (author)

  11. Trace elemental imaging of rare earth elements discriminates tissues at microscale in flat fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueriau, Pierre; Mocuta, Cristian; Dutheil, Didier B; Cohen, Serge X; Thiaudière, Dominique; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Clément, Gaël; Bertrand, Loïc

    2014-01-01

    The interpretation of flattened fossils remains a major challenge due to compression of their complex anatomies during fossilization, making critical anatomical features invisible or hardly discernible. Key features are often hidden under greatly preserved decay prone tissues, or an unpreparable sedimentary matrix. A method offering access to such anatomical features is of paramount interest to resolve taxonomic affinities and to study fossils after a least possible invasive preparation. Unfortunately, the widely-used X-ray micro-computed tomography, for visualizing hidden or internal structures of a broad range of fossils, is generally inapplicable to flattened specimens, due to the very high differential absorbance in distinct directions. Here we show that synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectral raster-scanning coupled to spectral decomposition or a much faster Kullback-Leibler divergence based statistical analysis provides microscale visualization of tissues. We imaged exceptionally well-preserved fossils from the Late Cretaceous without needing any prior delicate preparation. The contrasting elemental distributions greatly improved the discrimination of skeletal elements material from both the sedimentary matrix and fossilized soft tissues. Aside content in alkaline earth elements and phosphorus, a critical parameter for tissue discrimination is the distinct amounts of rare earth elements. Local quantification of rare earths may open new avenues for fossil description but also in paleoenvironmental and taphonomical studies.

  12. Study on recovering directly the commercial cerium oxide and total of residue rare earths from Dongpao bastnasite concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Trong Hung; Nguyen Thanh Chung; Luu Xuan Dinh

    2003-01-01

    A technology for decomposition roasting and sequential leaching processes of Dong Pao bastnasite concentrate to recover directly commercial cerium oxide and total of residue rare earth elements from the leaching solution of the roasted product have been investigated. The bastnasite concentrate is initially roasted at temperature range of 600 - 650 degC and for time of 4 hrs in order to decompose and convert the hardly soluble carbonate forms of ore into easily soluble oxide. The roasted solid is then leached with sulfuric acid solution of 6N at 60 degC for 4 hrs to convert rare earths in oxide and fluoride form into rare earth sulfate. The recovery yield of rare earths of these stages is more than 95%. The attention has especially been paid on recovering directly the commercial cerium oxide and total of residue rare earth element from the above leaching solution. Complex ions of CeSO 4 2+ , Ce(SO 4 ) 2 , Ce(SO 4 ) 3 2- and Ce(SO 4 ) 4 4- exist in aqueous solution of cerium (IV) sulfate. Based on the property, the method of ion - sieve with DOWEX cation resin column has been applied to estimating separation of the ceric complex anions from Ln(III). The survey showed that most of the ceric complex anions are separated from total of residue rare earths. The latter which are absorbed in the cation column are recovered by elution of HCl of 4N. The recovery yield of cerium can only be reached 20% but the purity of that is very high, can be reached 99.6%. About 5 kg of CeO 2 of high grade and 5 kg of TREO of commercial specification have been produced. (author)

  13. Heavy rare earth elements affect early life stages in Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula sea urchins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral, Rahime; Pagano, Giovanni; Siciliano, Antonietta; Gravina, Maria; Palumbo, Anna; Castellano, Immacolata; Migliaccio, Oriana; Thomas, Philippe J.; Guida, Marco; Tommasi, Franca; Trifuoggi, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Background: Heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) have been scarcely studied for their toxicity, in spite of their applications in several technologies. Thus HREEs require timely investigations for their adverse health effects. Methods: Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula embryos and sperm were exposed to trichloride salts of five HREEs (Dy, Ho, Er, Yb and Lu) and to Ce(III) as a light REE (LREE) reference to evaluate: 1) developmental defects (% DD) in HREE-exposed larvae or in the offspring of HREE-exposed sperm; 2) mitotic anomalies; 3) fertilization success; and 4) reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Nominal HREE concentrations were confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: HREEs induced concentration-related DD increases in P. lividus and A. lixula larvae, ranging from no significant DD increase at 10 −7 M HREEs up to ≅100% DD at 10 −5 M HREE. Larvae exposed to 10 −5 M Ce(III) resulted in less severe DD rates compared to HREEs. Decreased mitotic activity and increased aberration rates were found in HREE-exposed P. lividus embryos. Significant increases in ROS formation and NO levels were found both in HREE-exposed and in Ce(III) embryos, whereas only Ce(III), but not HREEs resulted in significant increase in MDA levels. Sperm exposure to HREEs (10 −5 –10 −4 M) resulted in a concentration-related decrease in fertilization success along with increase in offspring damage. These effects were significantly enhanced for Dy(III), Ho(III), Er(III) and Yb(III), compared to Lu(III) and to Ce(III). Conclusion: HREE-associated toxicity affected embryogenesis, fertilization, cytogenetic and redox endpoints showing different toxicities of tested HREEs. - Highlights: • Different toxicities were exerted by five tested HREEs on sea urchin early life stages. • Sea urchin embryos and sperm were sensitive to HREE levels ranging from 1 to 100 μM, according to

  14. Sediment geochronology and geochemical behavior of major and rare earth elements in the Oualidia Lagoon in the western Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejjad, N.; El-Hammoumi, O.; Fekri, A.; Laissaoui, A.; Benmansour, M.; Bounouira, H.; Benkdad, A.; Bounakhla, M.; Benbrahim, S.; Bouthir, F.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides and 137 Cs were measured in a sediment core and surface deposit collected from the bed channel of the Oualidia Lagoon located in the western Morocco. Major and rare earth elements (REE) profiles were determined by instrumental NAA technique. 210 Pb and 137 Cs were used to establish the sedimentation chronology over the last decades by using conventional models. 210 Pb displayed relatively higher concentrations and rate of supply to the sediment than typical levels found in other coastal areas in Morocco. REE ratios and Ce anomalies showed that the direct incorporation of particles from seawater to the bed sediment is the most important, followed by the terrigenous component. (author)

  15. Column extraction chromatography with HEH (EHP) for separating rare earth elements from coexistent elements and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Chunlin; Sun Baocheng; Zhao Junwu; Liu Xuan

    1985-01-01

    For separating rare earths from large amount of coexistent elements a new method of column extraction chromatography with HEH (EHP) as a stationary phase and sulphosalicylic acid, gluconic acid, ascorbic acid respectively as a mobile phase has been developed. It has been applied to the determination of trace rare earth elements in nickel-base alloys and iron-nickel-base alloys with satisfactory results

  16. U.S. trade dispute with China over rare earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. government has brought a new trade case against China over rare earth elements (REE) as well as tungsten and molybdenum, President Barack Obama announced on 13 March. Japan and the European Union also have taken similar actions against China about REEs, which are a group of 17 chemically similar metallic elements that are used in a variety of electronic, optical, magnetic, and catalytic applications. REEs are plentiful in the Earth's crust, although China currently has about 37% of the world's reserves and accounts for more than 95% of the world's production of the elements, according to the British Geological Survey. The United States has requested consultations with China at the World Trade Organization (WTO) concerning "China's unfair export restraints on rare earths, as well as tungsten and molybdenum," the Office of the United States Trade Representative announced in a 13 March statement.

  17. Direct quantification of thorium, uranium and rare earth element concentration in natural waters by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Knupp, Eliana A.N.; Auler, Lucia M.L.A.; Gomes, Luiza M.F.; Windmoeller, Claudia C.

    2011-01-01

    A direct quantification of the thorium, uranium and rare earth elements in natural water samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was evaluated with respect to selection of isotopes, detection limits, accuracy, precision, matrix effects for each isotope and spectral interferences. Accuracy of the method was evaluated by analysis of Spectra pure Standards (SPS-SW1 Batch 116-Norway) for the rare earth elements (REEs), thorium, uranium, scandium and yttrium. The measurements were carried out for each of the following analytical isotopes: 139 La, 140 Ce, 141 Pr, 143 Nd, 147 Sm, 151 Eu, 160 Gd, 159 Tb, 163 Dy, 165 Ho, 167 Er, 16 9Tm, 174 Yb, 175 Lu, 45 Sc, 89 Y, 232 Th and 238 U. Recovery percentage values found in these certified samples varied between 95 and 107%. The method was applied to the analysis of spring water samples collected in fountains spread throughout the historical towns of Ouro Preto, Mariana, Sabara and Diamantina in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In the past these fountains played an essential and strategic role in supplying these towns with potable water. Until today this water is used by both the local population and tourists who believe in its quality. REE were quantified at levels comparable to those found in estuarine waters, which are characterized by low REE concentrations. In two fountains analyzed the concentration of REEs presented high levels and thus possible health risks for humans may not be excluded. (author)

  18. Trace elemental imaging of rare earth elements discriminates tissues at microscale in flat fossils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Gueriau

    Full Text Available The interpretation of flattened fossils remains a major challenge due to compression of their complex anatomies during fossilization, making critical anatomical features invisible or hardly discernible. Key features are often hidden under greatly preserved decay prone tissues, or an unpreparable sedimentary matrix. A method offering access to such anatomical features is of paramount interest to resolve taxonomic affinities and to study fossils after a least possible invasive preparation. Unfortunately, the widely-used X-ray micro-computed tomography, for visualizing hidden or internal structures of a broad range of fossils, is generally inapplicable to flattened specimens, due to the very high differential absorbance in distinct directions. Here we show that synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectral raster-scanning coupled to spectral decomposition or a much faster Kullback-Leibler divergence based statistical analysis provides microscale visualization of tissues. We imaged exceptionally well-preserved fossils from the Late Cretaceous without needing any prior delicate preparation. The contrasting elemental distributions greatly improved the discrimination of skeletal elements material from both the sedimentary matrix and fossilized soft tissues. Aside content in alkaline earth elements and phosphorus, a critical parameter for tissue discrimination is the distinct amounts of rare earth elements. Local quantification of rare earths may open new avenues for fossil description but also in paleoenvironmental and taphonomical studies.

  19. Two main and a new type rare earth elements in Mg alloys: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Linghang

    2017-09-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys stand for the lightest structure engineering materials. Moreover, the strengthening of Mg alloys in ductility, toughness and corrosion predominates their wide applications. With adding rare earth elements in Mg, the mechanical properties will be improved remarkably, especially their plasticity and strength. A brief overview of the addition of rare earth elements for Mg alloys is shown. The basic mechanisms of strengthening Mg alloys with rare earth elements are reviewed, including the solid solution strengthening, grain refinement and long period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase. Furthermore, the available rare earth elements are summarized by type, chemical or physical effects and other unique properties. Finally, some challenge problems that the research is facing and future expectations of ra-re-earth Mg alloys are stated and discussed.

  20. Assessment of metal, trace and rare earth element concentrations in a sedimentary profile from Ponte Nova reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Flavio R.; Bordon, Isabella C.C.L.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: flavio@baquara.com, E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Sharlleny A.; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail: shasilva@sp.gov.br, E-mail: rfranklin@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (ELAI/CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Quimica Inorganica

    2015-07-01

    Ponte Nova reservoir, located in the upper basin of the Tiete River in the southern region of Sao Paulo State, covers an area of 25.7 km{sup 2} and drains an area of 320 km{sup 2}. It was built in 1972 to control the rivers flow in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP) and water supply. A 30 cm sediment core was collected in the dam in August 2014, sliced at every 2.5 cm. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to the sediment samples to determine some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements. The enrichment factor (EF) and Igeo were applied to the results by using NASC (North American Shale Composite) as reference values for sediment contamination index assessment. An EF>1.5 was obtained for As, Hf, Rb, Ta, Th, U, and rare earths Ce, Eu, La, Nd and Sm when NASC values were used, but only for Br, when the last layer concentration values were used as reference values. Similar results were obtained for the Igeo index. For semi-metal As and metals Cr and Zn concentration values were compared to oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL) only Cr exceeded TEL value in some slices of the profile. These results may indicate that there is no anthropogenic contribution for the elements analyzed in this reservoir. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to the results. (author)

  1. Assessment of metal, trace and rare earth element concentrations in a sedimentary profile from Ponte Nova reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Flavio R.; Bordon, Isabella C.C.L.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Silva, Sharlleny A.; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Ponte Nova reservoir, located in the upper basin of the Tiete River in the southern region of Sao Paulo State, covers an area of 25.7 km 2 and drains an area of 320 km 2 . It was built in 1972 to control the rivers flow in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP) and water supply. A 30 cm sediment core was collected in the dam in August 2014, sliced at every 2.5 cm. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to the sediment samples to determine some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements. The enrichment factor (EF) and Igeo were applied to the results by using NASC (North American Shale Composite) as reference values for sediment contamination index assessment. An EF>1.5 was obtained for As, Hf, Rb, Ta, Th, U, and rare earths Ce, Eu, La, Nd and Sm when NASC values were used, but only for Br, when the last layer concentration values were used as reference values. Similar results were obtained for the Igeo index. For semi-metal As and metals Cr and Zn concentration values were compared to oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL) only Cr exceeded TEL value in some slices of the profile. These results may indicate that there is no anthropogenic contribution for the elements analyzed in this reservoir. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to the results. (author)

  2. Plasma-assisted adsorption of elemental mercury on CeO2/TiO2 at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Zheng, Chenghang; Gao, Xiang

    2017-11-01

    Mercury is a kind of pollutants contained in flue gas which is hazardous for human beings. In this work, CeO2 was packed in the discharge zone of a plasma reactor to adsorb elemental mercury at low temperatures. Plasma-catalyst reactor can remove Hg0 efficiently with CeO2/TiO2 catalysts packed in the discharge zone. The Hg0 concentration continued to decrease gradually when the plasma was turned on, but not sank rapidly. This tendency was different with other catalysts. The treatment of plasma to CeO2/TiO2 catalysts has a promotion effect on the adsorption of Hg0. Plasma has the effect of changing the surface properties of the catalysts and the changes would restitute if the condition changed. The long-running test demonstrated that this method is an effective way to remove Hg0. The removal efficiency remained at above 99% throughout 12 hours when plasma had been turned on (15kV, 0.5 g packed CeO2/TiO2).

  3. Determination of rare earth elements by liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, K.; Haraguchi, H.

    1984-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) interfaced with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been applied to the determination of rare earth elements. ICP-AES was used as an element-selective detector for HPLC. The separation of rare earth elements with HPLC helped to avoid erroneous analytical results due to spectral interferences. Fifteen rare earth elements (Y and 14 lanthanides) were determined selectively with the HPLC/ICP-AES system using a concentration gradient method. The detection limits with the present HPLC/ICP-AES system were about 0.001-0.3 μg/mL with a 100-μL sample injection. The calibration curves obtained by the peak height measurements showed linear relationships in the concentration range below 500 μg/mL for all rare earth elements. A USGS rock standard sample, rare earth ores, and high-purity lanthanide reagents (>99.9%) were successfully analyzed without spectral interferences

  4. Rare earth elements in sinters from the geothermal waters (hot springs) on the Tibetan Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jin-Liang; Zhao, Zhen-Hong; Chen, Feng; Hu, Hai-Ping

    2014-10-01

    The mineralogical and geochemical composition of sinters from the geothermal areas on the Tibetan Plateau was determined. They occur as siliceous, salty and calcareous sinters but biogenic siliceous sinters were also found. The analyses indicate that there are no distinct inter -element relationships between individual rare earth elements (REEs) and other elements. Formed from the same geothermal water, the mineralogical and chemical composition of the sinters is influenced by their genesis and formation conditions. The REE distributions depend on the origin of the sinters. Fe-Mn phases in sinters tend to scavenge more REEs from geothermal water. Neither the REE fractionation nor the Ce anomaly seems to be associated with Fe-Mn phases in the sinters. The fourth tetrads of some sinters display weak W-type (concave) effects. In contrast, the third tetrads present large effects in some sinters due to positive Gd anomalies. The origin of the positive Eu anomalies in some sinters seems to be caused by preferential dissolution of feldspars during water-rock interaction. The complexing ligands in geothermal water may contribute significantly to the fractionation of REEs in sinters. The dominant CO32- and HCO3- complexing in geothermal water favors enrichment of heavy REEs in calcareous sinters.

  5. Preparation of nanocrystalline Ce1-xSmx(Fe,Co)11Ti by melt spinning and mechanical alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuest, H.; Bommer, L.; Huber, A. M.; Goll, D.; Weissgaerber, T.; Kieback, B.

    2017-04-01

    Permanent magnetic materials based on Ce(Fe, Co)12-xTix with the ThMn12 structure are promising candidates for replacing NdFeB magnets. Its intrinsic magnetic properties are not far below the values of Nd2Fe14B, and the high amount of Fe and the fact that Ce is much more abundant and less expensive than Nd encourages the reasonable interest in these compounds. Nanocrystalline magnetic material of the composition Ce1-xSmxFe11-yCoyTi (x=0-1 and y=0; 1.95) has been produced by both melt spinning and mechanical alloying. Alloys containing only Ce as rare earth element (x=0) show coercivities below 77 kA/m, while for x=1 Hc,J values up to 392 kA/m are reached. Coercivity shows rather an exponential than a linear dependence on the gradual substitution of Ce by Sm.

  6. Uranium, thorium and rare earth elements distribution from different iron quadrangle spring waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Cláudia A.; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Menezes, Maria A. de B.C.; Rodrigues, Paulo C.H.

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of thorium, uranium and the rare earth elements (REE) in 26 spring waters, as well as the patterns of the REE of the samples from the Cercadinho, Moeda and Caue aquifers in different municipalities of the Iron Quadrangle (Quadrilatero Ferrifero), located in the central-southeast of Minas Gerais state. The pH value of the ground waters ranged from 3.8 to 7.0, indicating an acid nature of most of the spring waters. The investigation of REE speciation showed that all the REEs exist in the free X"3"+ ionic forms, under the prevailing Eh and pH conditions. In the studied samples the uranium concentrations ( 1000 ng L"-"1) originating from aquifers located in Sabara, Barao de Cocais, Santa Barbara, Mario Campos, Congonhas and Lavras Novas. The REEs patterns in the spring waters from the Cercadinho, Caue and Moeda aquifers are characterized by middle REE (MREE) enrichment compared to light REE (LREE) and heavy REEs (HREE), negative Ce anomalies (except for one sample) and positive Eu anomalies in all three aquifers studied. (author)

  7. Major, trace and rate earth elements in sediments of the Julian Adame-Alatorre dam by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mireles, F.; Pinedo, J. L.; Davila, J. I.; Oliva, J. E.; Speakman, R. J.; Glascock, M. D.

    2010-10-01

    The rapid industrial development in regions of Mexico during recent years has had the side effect of introducing toxic metals, fertilizers, and pesticides into the ecosystem. Sediment cores were collected from eight locations around the Julian Adame-Alatorre dam located in Municipality of Villanueva in the Zacatecas State, Mexico. The cores were analyzed for 32 major, trace, and rare earth elements (As, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, U, Yb, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Zn, Zr, Al, Ba, Ca, Dy, K, Mn, Na, Ti, V) in order to estimate the health risk. The samples were analyzed by instrument neutron activation analysis using thermal neutron fluxes of 8 x 10 13 and 5 x 10 13 n cm -2 s -1 for short and long irradiations, respectively. The results of the contamination levels for elements such as As, Ba, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ta, V, and Zn were compared with the Mexican regulations and the guidelines of US EPA. (Author)

  8. Pyrazolates advance cerium chemistry: a CeIII/CeIV redox equilibrium with benzoquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Daniel; Deacon, Glen B; Junk, Peter C; Anwander, Reiner

    2017-05-16

    Two stable cerium(iv) 3,5-dialkylpyrazolate complexes are presented, namely dimeric [Ce(Me 2 pz) 4 ] 2 (Me 2 pz = 3,5-dimethylpyrazolate) and monomeric Ce(tBu 2 pz) 4 (tBu 2 pz = 3,5-di-tert-butylpyrazolate) along with their trivalent counterparts [Ce(Me 2 pz) 3 ] and [Ce(tBu 2 pz) 3 ] 2 . All complexes were obtained from protonolysis reactions employing the silylamide precursors Ce[N(SiHMe 2 ) 2 ] 4 and Ce[N(SiMe 3 ) 2 ] 3 . Treatment of homoleptic Ce IV and Ce III Me 2 pz complexes with 1,4-hydroquinone (H 2 hq) or 1,4-benzoquinone (bq), respectively, ultimately gave the same trimetallic Ce III species via a cerium redox equilibrium. The Ce III complex Ce 3 (Me 2 pz) 5 (pchd) 2 (L) (pchd = 1,4-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)cyclohex-2,5-diene-1,4-diolato; L = Me 2 pzH or (thf) 2 ) results from a di-1,4-pyrazolyl attack on pre-coordinated bq. The reduction of bq by [Ce(Me 2 pz) 3 (thf)] 2 , and re-oxidation by the resulting Ce IV species was supported by UV-vis spectroscopic investigations. Comparisons with the redox-innocent complexes [Ln(Me 2 pz) 3 (thf)] 2 (Ln = La and Pr) revealed far less selective reactions with bq, giving hexametallic and octametallic rare-earth metal side products containing 2-Me 2 pz substituted hq ligands.

  9. Elemental transfer from Chinese soil via diet to whole human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hongda; Fan Tiqiang; Wu Quan; Liu Qingfen; Zhang Wei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To calculate elemental transfer coefficients from soil via diet to whole human body and DFs of alkaline earth and alkaline metal elements in these transfers. Methods: Based on the results in this research series, including updated values of elemental dietary intakes and whole body burdens for Chinese adult man as well quoted national elemental background values in Chinese soil, their transfer coefficients and DFs of alkaline earth and alkaline metal elements in these transfers were calculated by using UNSCEAR model and Observed Ratio Method. Results: Both the transfer coefficients of 50 elements and the DF values of alkaline earth elements with Pb and alkaline metal elements in these transfers have been obtained. Conclusion: The obtained P 23 or P 234 were all much less than P 34 for these elements. For the observed elements, the highest P 23 , P 34 and P 234 were for Hg, Ca and Se respectively, while the lowest for Ce, In and Y. The P 23 and P 234 of rare earth elements were all less than those of alkaline metal or alkaline earth elements. All of these DFs for alkaline earth elements were all smaller than 1, with increasing or decreasing atomic order, the DF values of alkaline earth elements for these transfers were successfully decreasing. The DFs of Pb seem to be between Sr and Ba. For alkaline metal element, DF of Rb or Cs from soil to diet was smaller than 1, but that from diet to whole human body more than 1. (authors)

  10. Application of the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) in the rare earth elements determination in reference geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Moraes, Noemia M.P. de; Shihomatsu, Helena M.

    1997-01-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) were applied to the determination of rare earth elements (REE) in the geological reference materials AGV-1, G-2 and GSP-1 (USGS). Results obtained by both techniques showed good agreement with certified values, giving relative errors less than 10%. The La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu REE elements were determined. All the REE except Dy and Y were determined by HPLC. The reference material G94, employed in the International Proficiency Test for Analytical Geochemistry Laboratories (GeoTP1) was analysed. The results obtained are a contribution to REE contents in this sample. The INAA and HPLC application to the determination of REE in this kind of matrix is also discussed. (author). 10 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  11. [Spectroscopic Research on Slag Nanocrystal Glass Ceramics Containing Rare Earth Elements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Shun-li; Li, Bao-wei; Zhang, Xue-feng; Jia, Xiao-lin; Zhao, Ming; Deng, Lei-bo

    2015-08-01

    The research group prepared the high-performance slag nanocrystal glass ceramics by utilizing the valuable elements of the wastes in the Chinese Bayan Obo which are characterized by their symbiotic or associated existence. In this paper, inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (Raman) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are all used in the depth analysis for the composition and structure of the samples. The experiment results of ICP, XRD and SEM showed that the principal crystalline phase of the slag nanocrystal glass ceramics containing rare earth elements is diopside, its grain size ranges from 45 to 100 nm, the elements showed in the SEM scan are basically in consistent with the component analysis of ICP. Raman analysis indicated that its amorphous phase is a three-dimensional network structure composed by the structural unit of silicon-oxy tetrahedron with different non-bridging oxygen bonds. According to the further analysis, we found that the rare earth microelement has significant effect on the network structure. Compared the nanocrystal slag glass ceramic with the glass ceramics of similar ingredients, we found that generally, the Raman band wavenumber for the former is lower than the later. The composition difference between the glass ceramics and the slag nanocrystal with the similar ingredients mainly lies on the rare earth elements and other trace elements. Therefore, we think that the rare earth elements and other trace elements remains in the slag nanocrystal glass ceramics have a significant effect on the network structure of amorphous phase. The research method of this study provides an approach for the relationship among the composition, structure and performance of the glass ceramics.

  12. Evaluation of Rare Earth Element Extraction from North Dakota Coal-Related Feed Stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudal, Daniel A.

    The rare earth elements consist of the lanthanide series of elements with atomic numbers from 57-71 and also include yttrium and scandium. Due to their unique properties, rare earth elements are crucial materials in an incredible array of consumer goods, energy system components and military defense applications. However, the global production and entire value chain for rare earth elements is dominated by China, with the U.S. currently 100% import reliant for these critical materials. Traditional mineral ores including previously mined deposits in the U.S., however, have several challenges. Chief among these is that the content of the most critical and valuable of the rare earths are deficient, making mining uneconomical. Further, the supply of these most critical rare earths is nearly 100% produced in China from a single resource that is only projected to last another 10 to 20 years. The U.S. currently considers the rare earths market an issue of national security. It is imperative that alternative domestic sources of rare earths be identified and methods developed to produce them. Recently, coal and coal byproducts have been identified as one of these promising alternative resources. This dissertation details a study on evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of rare earth element recovery from North Dakota lignite coal and lignite-related feedstocks. There were four major goals of this study: i) identify lignite or lignite-related feedstocks with total rare earth element content above 300 parts per million, a threshold dictated by the agency who funded this research as the minimum for economic viability, ii) determine the geochemistry of the feedstocks and understand the forms and modes of occurrence of the rare earth elements, information necessary to inform the development of extraction and concentration methods, iii) identify processing methods to concentrate the rare earth elements from the feedstocks to a target of two weight percent, a value

  13. Using Ce to modify inclusion in spring steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Q.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of rare earth metals addition on the Al2O3 inclusions in spring steel used in fastener of high speed railway was investigated by metallographic examination, SEM-EDS and composition analysis. To deform those harmful inclusions to improve material performance,the evolution process of Al2O3 inclusions was investigated through the surface and line scanning. Ce metal modifying Al2O3 is a stepwise reduction process based on a formation of ring shape Ce-riched band around the Al2O3 inclusions during reaction process. Through experiment and thermodynamic calculation, an evolvement rule about Al2O3 inclusions change after Ce addition is obtained, i.e. Al2O3→Ce2O3-Al2O3→Ce2O2S. Changing the inclusions from Al2O3 to rare earth inclusions could improve the resistance to pitting corrosion based on potentiodynamic anodic polarization test.

  14. Extraction of rare earth elements from low-grade Bauxite via precipitation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusrini, E.; Nurani, Y.; Bahari, ZJ

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the optimum hydrometallurgical parameters to extract the rare earth elements (REE) from low-grade bauxite through acid leaching and precipitation reaction. REE or lanthanide recovery by a precipitation method with sodium sulphate and sodium phosphate as precipitation agents is reported where the effect of pH and recovery of REE are described. The metal composition of REE in low-grade bauxite after treatment were analyzed by ICP-OES. The total recovery values of REE elements at the first precipitation reaction using sodium sulphate as the precipitation agent at pH 3.5 showed ~68.2% of lanthanum, ~18.9% cerium, and ~7.8% yttrium. Lanthanum was the rare-earth element present at the highest concentration in the low-grade bauxite after the series treatments. An optimum pH of 3.5 for precipitation of rare-earth elements using sodium sulphate was demonstrated where this method is recommended for the extraction of REE elements from low-grade bauxite.

  15. Formation and decomposition of some rare earth (RE = La, Ce, Pr) hydroxides and oxides by homogeneous precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Masakuni; Onoe, Ryota; Kato, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    Formation and thermal decomposition of rare earth (RE = La, Ce, Pr) hydroxides and oxides by homogeneous precipitation using hexamethylenetetramine. The precipitatates were examined using thermal gravimetry and differential thermal analysis, infrared spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The as-precipitated powders from the present process were La(OH) 3 , CeO 2 , Pr(OH) 3 . In the case of Ce, a cubic fluorite phase of cerium dioxide was directly obtained. The lanthanum trihydroxide decomposed to oxides via three steps. Two-step dehydration decomposition behavior at 340 and 500 o C was observed as La(OH) 3 → LaOOH + H 2 O and 2LaOOH → La 2 O 3 + H 2 O. The activation energy (ΔH) for dehydration was 240 and 244 kJ/mol, respectively. The additional decomposition of carbonate-containing species was observed at 670 o C with ΔH of 390 kJ/mol. Pr(OH) 3 did not show additional TGA profile of carbonate decomposition. Since no carbonate species form in solution during the HMT precipitation (hydrolysis of this molecule), the difference between La and Pr depends on the strength of basicity in the reaction with CO 2 after precipitation

  16. Intermetallic precipitation in rare earth-treated A413.1 alloy. A metallographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, Agnes M.; Samuel, Fawzy H.

    2018-01-01

    The present study was performed mainly on A413.1 alloy. Measured amounts of La, Ce or La+Ce, Ti and Sr were added to the molten alloy in the form of master alloys. Samples sectioned from castings obtained from thermal analysis experiments were used for preparing samples for metallographic examination. The results show that addition of rare earth (RE) metals to Al-Si alloys increased the α-Al nucleation temperature and depressed the Al-Si eutectic formation temperature, thereby increasing the solidification range. Depending upon the alloying elements/additives, a large number of RE-based intermetallics could be formed: Al 4 (Ce,La), Al 13 (Ce,La) 2 Cu 3 , Al 7 (Cu,Fe) 6 (Ce,La) 6 Si 2 , Al 4 La, Al 2 La 5 Si 2 , Al 2 Ce 5 Si 2 , Al 2 (Ce,La) 5 Si 2 . Under an electron microscope, these phases appear in backscatter imaging mode in the form of thin grayish-white platelets on the dark gray Al matrix. The average thickness of these platelets is about 1.5 μm. When the alloy is grain refined with Ti-based master alloys, precipitation of a gray phase in the form of sludge is observed: Al 12 La 3 Ti 2 , or Al 12 (Ce,La) 3 Ti 2 . Regardless the alloy composition, the RE/Al ratios remain constant in each type of intermetallic. Rare earth metals have a strong affinity to react with Sr (resulting in partial modification of the eutectic Si particles) as well as some transition elements, in particular Ti and Cu. Iron has a very low affinity for interaction with RE metals. It is only confined to Fe-based intermetallics.

  17. Intermetallic precipitation in rare earth-treated A413.1 alloy. A metallographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, Agnes M.; Samuel, Fawzy H. [Univ. du Quebec a Chicoutimi (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Appliquees; Doty, Herbert W. [General Motors, Pontiac, MI (United States). Materials Engineering; Valtierra, Salvador [Nemak, S.A., Garza Garcia (Mexico)

    2018-02-15

    The present study was performed mainly on A413.1 alloy. Measured amounts of La, Ce or La+Ce, Ti and Sr were added to the molten alloy in the form of master alloys. Samples sectioned from castings obtained from thermal analysis experiments were used for preparing samples for metallographic examination. The results show that addition of rare earth (RE) metals to Al-Si alloys increased the α-Al nucleation temperature and depressed the Al-Si eutectic formation temperature, thereby increasing the solidification range. Depending upon the alloying elements/additives, a large number of RE-based intermetallics could be formed: Al{sub 4}(Ce,La), Al{sub 13}(Ce,La){sub 2}Cu{sub 3}, Al{sub 7}(Cu,Fe){sub 6}(Ce,La){sub 6}Si{sub 2}, Al{sub 4}La, Al{sub 2}La{sub 5}Si{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}Ce{sub 5}Si{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}(Ce,La){sub 5}Si{sub 2}. Under an electron microscope, these phases appear in backscatter imaging mode in the form of thin grayish-white platelets on the dark gray Al matrix. The average thickness of these platelets is about 1.5 μm. When the alloy is grain refined with Ti-based master alloys, precipitation of a gray phase in the form of sludge is observed: Al{sub 12}La{sub 3}Ti{sub 2}, or Al{sub 12}(Ce,La){sub 3}Ti{sub 2}. Regardless the alloy composition, the RE/Al ratios remain constant in each type of intermetallic. Rare earth metals have a strong affinity to react with Sr (resulting in partial modification of the eutectic Si particles) as well as some transition elements, in particular Ti and Cu. Iron has a very low affinity for interaction with RE metals. It is only confined to Fe-based intermetallics.

  18. Origin of the earth's moon: constraints from alkali volatile trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreutzberger, M.E.; Drake, M.J.; Jones, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Although the Moon is depleted in volatile elements compared to the Earth, these depletions are not in accord with simple volatility. For example, the Cs/Rb ratios of the Earth and Moon inferred from basalts are approximately one seventh and one half of the CI ratio, respectively. Volatility considerations alone predict that the lunar Cs/Rb ratio should be equal to or lower than the terrestrial ratio if the Moon was derived entirely from Earth mantle material. Thus hypotheses such as rotational fission which invoke derivation of lunar material entirely from the Earth's mantle may be excluded. The collisional ejection hypothesis of lunar origin requires at least 18% of lunar material to be derived from a projectile with dehydrated CI composition to match the lunar Cs/Rb ratio, and 25% to 50% to match both the lunar Cs/Rb ratio and absolute concentrations of Cs and Rb. It remains to be demonstrated that this relatively large contribution of projectile material is consistent with other elemental abundances and element ratios in the Moon. (author)

  19. Processing of spent Ni-MH batteries for the recovery of cobalt, nickel and rare earth elements bearing materials by means of a chemical and electrochemical sequential process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvasto, P.; Orta Rodríguez, R.; Blanco, S.

    2016-02-01

    Rechargeable Ni-MH batteries contain strategic metal values which are worth to be recovered. In the present work, a preliminary sequential chemical and electrochemical procedure is proposed, in order to reclaim materials bearing Ni, Co and rare earth elements (REE) from Ni-MH spent batteries. Initially, spent batteries are disassembled to separate the electrode materials (anode and cathode), which are then leached with an aqueous solution of 5w% sulphuric acid. The metal content of this solution is checked by atomic absorption spectrometry techniques. The obtained solution is pH-adjusted (with NaOH), until pH is between 4.0 and 4.3; then, it is heated up to 70°C to precipitate a rare earth elements sulphate (Nd, La, Pr, Ce), as determined by means of x-ray fluorescence techniques. The solids-free solution is then electrolyzed, in order to recover a Ni-Co alloy. The electrolysis conditions were established through a cyclic voltammetry technique.

  20. Ecological effect of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Aitang; Zhou Quansuo; Zheng Shaojian; Zhai Hai; Zhao Xiulan; Pang Yonglin; Wang Yuqi; Sun Jingxin; Zhang Shen; Wang Lijun

    1997-01-01

    Water and soil culture were carried out to study the ecological effect of rare earth elements (REEs) in the aspect of plant-soil system. Contents of REEs were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). There was a limit to REEs-tolerance of crops, which differed with the development periods of plant and soil types. The REEs concentration in plant, especially in root, was marked related to the concentration in culture material. Beyond the concentration-limit appeared phototoxicity. The chemical behavior of REEs in plants and soils varied with soil types and elements. The bio-availability of REEs in soil mainly depended on the exchangeable fraction of REEs affected strongly by the physi-chemical properties of soils

  1. Thermodynamic modeling of the Ce-Zn and Pr-Zn systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.P.; Chen, X.; Liu, X.J.; Pan, F.S.; Ishida, K.

    2008-01-01

    In order to develop the thermodynamic database of phase equilibria in the Mg-Zn-Re (Re: rare earth element) base alloys, the thermodynamic assessments of the Ce-Zn and Pr-Zn systems were carried out by using the calculation of phase diagrams (CALPHAD) method on the basis of the experimental data including thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria. Based on the available experimental data, Gibbs free energies of the solution phases (liquid, bcc, fcc, hcp and dhcp) were modeled by the subregular solution model with the Redlich-Kister formula, and those of the intermetallic compounds were described by the sublattice model. A consistent set of thermodynamic parameters has been derived for describing the Gibbs free energies of each solution phase and intermetallic compound in the Ce-Zn and Pr-Zn binary systems. An agreement between the present calculated results and experimental data is obtained

  2. Living target of Ce(III) action on horseradish cells: proteins on/in cell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangmei; Sun, Zhaoguo; Lv, Xiaofen; Deng, Yunyun; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2012-12-01

    Positive and negative effects of rare earth elements (REEs) in life have been reported in many papers, but the cellular mechanisms have not been answered, especially the action sites of REEs on plasma membrane are unknown. Proteins on/in the plasma membrane perform main functions of the plasma membrane. Cerium (Ce) is the richest REEs in crust. Thus, the interaction between Ce(III) and the proteins on/in the plasma membrane, the morphology of protoplast, and the contents of nutrient elements in protoplast of horseradish were investigated using the optimized combination of the fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. It was found that Ce(III) at the low concentrations (10, 30 μM) could interact with proteins on/in the plasma membrane of horseradish, leading to the improvement in the structure of membrane proteins and the plasma membrane, which accelerated the intra-/extra-cellular substance exchange and further promoted the development of cells. When horseradish was treated with Ce(III) at the high concentrations (60, 80 μM), Ce(III) also could interact with the proteins on/in the plasma membrane of horseradish, leading to the destruction in the structure of membrane proteins and the plasma membrane. These effects decelerated the intra-/extra-cellular substance exchange and further inhibited the development of cells. Thus, the interaction between Ce(III) and proteins on/in the plasma membrane in plants was an important reason of the positive and negative effects of Ce(III) on plants. The results would provide some references for understanding the cellular effect mechanisms of REEs on plants.

  3. Heavy rare earth elements affect early life stages in Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula sea urchins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oral, Rahime [Ege University, Faculty of Fisheries, TR-35100 Bornova, İzmir (Turkey); Pagano, Giovanni, E-mail: gbpagano@tin.it [“Federico II” University of Naples, Department of Chemical Sciences, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples (Italy); Siciliano, Antonietta; Gravina, Maria [“Federico II” University of Naples, Department of Biology, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Palumbo, Anna; Castellano, Immacolata; Migliaccio, Oriana [Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples (Italy); Thomas, Philippe J. [Environment and Climate Change Canada, Science & Technology Branch, National Wildlife Research Center – Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Guida, Marco [“Federico II” University of Naples, Department of Biology, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Tommasi, Franca [University of Bari, Department of Biology, Bari (Italy); Trifuoggi, Marco [“Federico II” University of Naples, Department of Chemical Sciences, I-80126 Naples (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    Background: Heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) have been scarcely studied for their toxicity, in spite of their applications in several technologies. Thus HREEs require timely investigations for their adverse health effects. Methods: Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula embryos and sperm were exposed to trichloride salts of five HREEs (Dy, Ho, Er, Yb and Lu) and to Ce(III) as a light REE (LREE) reference to evaluate: 1) developmental defects (% DD) in HREE-exposed larvae or in the offspring of HREE-exposed sperm; 2) mitotic anomalies; 3) fertilization success; and 4) reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Nominal HREE concentrations were confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: HREEs induced concentration-related DD increases in P. lividus and A. lixula larvae, ranging from no significant DD increase at 10{sup −7} M HREEs up to ≅100% DD at 10{sup −5} M HREE. Larvae exposed to 10{sup −5} M Ce(III) resulted in less severe DD rates compared to HREEs. Decreased mitotic activity and increased aberration rates were found in HREE-exposed P. lividus embryos. Significant increases in ROS formation and NO levels were found both in HREE-exposed and in Ce(III) embryos, whereas only Ce(III), but not HREEs resulted in significant increase in MDA levels. Sperm exposure to HREEs (10{sup −5}–10{sup −4} M) resulted in a concentration-related decrease in fertilization success along with increase in offspring damage. These effects were significantly enhanced for Dy(III), Ho(III), Er(III) and Yb(III), compared to Lu(III) and to Ce(III). Conclusion: HREE-associated toxicity affected embryogenesis, fertilization, cytogenetic and redox endpoints showing different toxicities of tested HREEs. - Highlights: • Different toxicities were exerted by five tested HREEs on sea urchin early life stages. • Sea urchin embryos and sperm were sensitive to HREE levels ranging from 1 to 100

  4. Deep-sea mud in the Pacific Ocean as a potential resource for rare-earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yasuhiro; Fujinaga, Koichiro; Nakamura, Kentaro; Takaya, Yutaro; Kitamura, Kenichi; Ohta, Junichiro; Toda, Ryuichi; Nakashima, Takuya; Iwamori, Hikaru

    2011-08-01

    World demand for rare-earth elements and the metal yttrium--which are crucial for novel electronic equipment and green-energy technologies--is increasing rapidly. Several types of seafloor sediment harbour high concentrations of these elements. However, seafloor sediments have not been regarded as a rare-earth element and yttrium resource, because data on the spatial distribution of these deposits are insufficient. Here, we report measurements of the elemental composition of over 2,000 seafloor sediments, sampled at depth intervals of around one metre, at 78 sites that cover a large part of the Pacific Ocean. We show that deep-sea mud contains high concentrations of rare-earth elements and yttrium at numerous sites throughout the eastern South and central North Pacific. We estimate that an area of just one square kilometre, surrounding one of the sampling sites, could provide one-fifth of the current annual world consumption of these elements. Uptake of rare-earth elements and yttrium by mineral phases such as hydrothermal iron-oxyhydroxides and phillipsite seems to be responsible for their high concentration. We show that rare-earth elements and yttrium are readily recovered from the mud by simple acid leaching, and suggest that deep-sea mud constitutes a highly promising huge resource for these elements.

  5. Addressing Rare-Earth Element Criticality: An Example from the Aviation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Anthony Y.; Dosch, Christopher; Grossman, Theodore R.; Herzog, Joseph L.; Maricocchi, Antonio F.; Polli, Drew; Lipkin, Don M.

    2014-11-01

    Rare-earth (RE) elements are enablers for a wide range of technologies, including high-strength permanent magnets, energy-efficient lighting, high-temperature thermal barrier coatings, and catalysts. While direct material substitution is difficult in many of these applications because of the specific electronic, optical, or electrochemical properties imparted by the individual rare-earth elements, we describe an example from the aviation industry where supply chain optimization may be an option. Ceramic matrix composite engine components require environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) to protect them from extreme temperatures and adverse reactions with water vapor in the hot gas path. EBC systems based on rare-earth silicates offer a unique combination of environmental resistance, thermal expansion matching, thermal conductivity, and thermal stability across the service temperature window. Several pure rare-earth silicates and solid solutions have been demonstrated in EBC applications. However, all rely on heavy rare-earth elements (HREEs) for phase stability. This article considers the possibility of using separation tailings containing a mixture of HREEs as a source material in lieu of using the high-purity HREE oxides. This option arises because the desired properties of RE-silicate EBCs derive from the average cation size rather than the electronic properties of the individual rare-earth cations. Because separation tailings have not incurred the costs associated with the final stages of separation, they offer an economical alternative to high-purity oxides for this emerging application.

  6. Effect of Rare Earth Metals on the Microstructure of Al-Si Based Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A. Alkahtani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed on A356 alloy [Al-7 wt %Si 0.0.35 wt %Mg]. To that La and Ce were added individually or combined up to 1.5 wt % each. The results show that these rare earth elements affect only the alloy melting temperature with no marked change in the temperature of Al-Si eutectic precipitation. Additionally, rare earth metals have no modification effect up to 1.5 wt %. In addition, La and Ce tend to react with Sr leading to modification degradation. In order to achieve noticeable modification of eutectic Si particles, the concentration of rare earth metals should exceed 1.5 wt %, which simultaneously results in the precipitation of a fairly large volume fraction of insoluble intermetallics. The precipitation of these complex intermetallics is expected to have a negative effect on the alloy performance.

  7. Evaluation and distribution of metals, trace elements and rare earths in sediments profiles of Promissão Reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, Matheus; Rocha, Flavio R.; Fávaro, Deborah I.T.; Franklin, Robson L.

    2017-01-01

    The concentration of elements at two points in the reservoir (1 and 3) was evaluated. Two profiles of fractionated sediments were collected in the field every 2.5 cm, generating 14 and 20 fractions, respectively, according to their depths (35 and 50 cm). The concentrations of the elements: As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, U, Zn and the rare earth elements (Ce, Eu, Gd, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) were determined using the technique of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The validation of the methodology was done through the analysis of certified reference materials. The values of the North American Shale Composite (NASC) were used as reference values for calculation of Enrichment Factor (FE) and Geoacumulation Index (IGeo), tools used to evaluate pollution levels. The concentration of the As, Cr and Zn elements was also compared with the Guideline values TEL (Treshold Effect Level) and PEL (Probable Effect Level), values that provide concentration ranges for these elements indicating the presence or not of probable effects in aquatic biota from these concentrations

  8. Rare-earth element geochemistry in the Luanga Mafic-Ultramafic Complex, Para

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suita, M.T.F.; Nilson, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Six whole-rock samples (harzburgite, orthopyroxenic and norite) of the Luanga Mafic-Ultramafic Complex (Para) were analysed for rare-earth elements (REE) through plasma spectrometry. The Luanga Complex is a deformed and metamorphosed layered mafic-ultramafic body of Archaean age. The Complex underwent medium-grade metamorphism in three stages. The first stage (medium grade) involved local formation of tremolite and reduction of Ca content in plagioclase. The second stage (low grade) consisted of serpentinization of amphibole or ortopyroxene forming bastile and generation of albite + epidote + white mica + actinolite from plagioclase. The third stage involved renewed serpentinization and/or talcification of pre-existing minerals (including serpentine) along fracture and fault surfaces. The analysed rocks display light rare-earth element (LREE) enrichment up to sixty times the composition of the Leedly chondrite and La/Yb ratios from 6.2 to 20.0 they are low in medium rare-earth elements (MREE), displaying discrete to strong negative Eu anomaly even in plagioclase cumulates and are slightly enriched in heavy rare-earth elements (HREE), usually higher than chondrite values. The low MREE area related to the occurrence of orthopyroxene (bronzite) in a way similar to the pattern of alpine periodotites, while HREE enrichment is compatible with the presence of bronzite and Mg-olivine, probably an inherited igneous feature. (author) [pt

  9. Assessing rare earth elements in quartz rich geological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, A; Thoss, V; Ribeiro Guevara, S; Urgast, D; Raab, A; Mastrolitti, S; Feldmann, J

    2016-01-01

    Sodium peroxide (Na2O2) fusion coupled to Inductively Coupled Plasma Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) measurements was used to rapidly screen quartz-rich geological samples for rare earth element (REE) content. The method accuracy was checked with a geological reference material and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) measurements. The used mass-mode combinations presented accurate results (only exception being (157)Gd in He gas mode) with recovery of the geological reference material QLO-1 between 80% and 98% (lower values for Lu, Nd and Sm) and in general comparable to INAA measurements. Low limits of detection for all elements were achieved, generally below 10 pg g(-1), as well as measurement repeatability below 15%. Overall, the Na2O2/ICP-MS/MS method proved to be a suitable lab-based method to quickly and accurately screen rock samples originating from quartz-rich geological areas for rare earth element content; particularly useful if checking commercial viability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Variation of the rare earth element concentrations in the soil, soil extract and in individual plants from the same site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyttenbach, A.; Tobler, L.; Furrer, V.; Schleppi, P.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of various types (spruce needles, blackberry leaves, soils, and soil extracts) have each been taken at 6 places from the same site. In addition, 4 whirls each from 2 spruce trees were sampled. Rare earth elements (REEs) were determined in these samples by neutron activation analysis with a chemical group separation. Variations between places were found to be small with soils and soil extracts, but large with plants. Variations between whirls were small. Plants neither reflected the soil nor the soil extract. Both plant species were dissimilar, but the logarithm of their ratio was a linear function of the atomic number of the REE. A negative Ce anomaly (with respect to soil) was found in both plant species. (author)

  11. Ternary rare earth sulfide CaCe2S4: Synthesis and characterization of stability, structure, and photoelectrochemical properties in aqueous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Paola; Orr, Melissa; Galante, Miguel Tayar; Hossain, Mohammad Kabir; Firouzan, Farinaz; Vali, Abbas; Li, Jun; Subramanian, Mas; Longo, Claudia; Rajeshwar, Krishnan; Macaluso, Robin T.

    2018-06-01

    A red-orange rare earth ternary chalcogenide, CaCe2S4, was prepared in powder form by solid-state synthesis. The structural details of this compound were determined by powder X-ray diffraction. The optical band gap of CaCe2S4 was determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) to be 2.1 eV, consistent with the observed red-orange color. Quantitative colorimetry measurements also support the observed color and band gap of CaCe2S4. Both direct and indirect optical transitions were gleaned from Tauc analyses of the DRS data. Photoelectrochemistry experiments on CaCe2S4 films showed n-type semiconductor behavior. Analyses of these data via the Butler-Gärtner model afforded a flat-band potential of - 0.33 V (vs. Ag/AgCl/KCl 4 M) in pH 9 aqueous sulfite electrolyte. The potential and limitations of this material for solar water splitting and photocatalytic environmental remediation (e.g., dye photodegradation) are finally presented against the backdrop of its photoelectrochemical stability and surface hole transfer kinetics in aqueous electrolytes.

  12. Rare earth elements, U and Th in tunnel dusts of SÃO Paulo City, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nory, Renata M.; Figueireido, Ana Maria G., E-mail: renata.nory@ipen.br, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    São Paulo is one of the most populated cities in the world, with about 20 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, more than 12 million motor vehicles and intense industrial activity. Given its importance as a major urban center in South America and the lack of information concerning urban dust composition, the present study aimed to determine rare earth elements (REEs), U and Th mass fractions in tunnel dust, collected in the Jânio Quadros Tunnel, and to assess their possible sources. The study of REEs distribution in urban environments has become of interest over the last decades, due to the increasing industrial use of these elements. The REEs, that are as common as the most familiar metals, are found in metallurgical additives, fluid cracking catalysts and automobile converter catalysts, among other applications. In this study, which employed Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) as analytical technique, the mass fractions of eight REEs were determined and normalized to the chondrite concentration values. The results showed that major concentrations were found for light REEs, following the sequence Ce > La > Nd > Sm > Yb > Eu > Tb > Lu. The pattern of the results pointed to a natural origin for these elements. Regarding U and Th concentrations, the results varied between 1.0 - 9.4 μg g{sup -1} and 3.3 - 35.9 μg g{sup -1}, respectively. Since there is almost no information about the concentration of these elements in this kind of matrix in São Paulo city, these data are important to support further investigations. (author)

  13. The distribution of rare earth and other elements and the mineralogy of the iron oxyhydroxide phase in marine ferromanganese concretions from within Slupsk Furrow in the southern Baltic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Ikuta, K.; Latka, K.; Goerlich, E.A.; Kunzendorf, H.; Glasby, G.P.; Szefer, P.

    1998-01-01

    Rare earth element concentrations in ferromanganese concretions sampled from Slupsk Furrow in the Polish Exclusive Economic Zone are similar to those of concretions from the Gulf of Bothnia. The lack of positive Ce anomalies in the concretions from Slupsk Furrow indicates that they are formed under less oxidizing conditions than spheroidal concretions from the Gulf of Bothnia. Moessbauer studies indicate that poorly crystalline lepidocrosite is the principal iron oxyhydroxide mineral present in these concretions. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  14. Production of Rare Earth Elements from Malaysian Monazite by Selective Precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Nor Aniza Che Zainul Bahri; Al- Areqi, W.M.; Amran Abdul Majid; Mohd Izzat Fahmi Mohd Ruf

    2016-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are very valuable and have high demands for advanced technology nowadays. REEs can be classified to light rare earth elements (LREEs) and heavy rare earth elements (HREEs). Malaysian rare earth ore especially monazite, is rich with LREEs compared to HREEs. Therefore a study was carried out to extract the REE from Malaysian monazite. The objectives of this study are to determine the content of REEs in Malaysian monazite leach solution, as well as to produce high grade of REEs. Concentrated sulphuric acid was used in digestion process and the filtrate containing the REEs was determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma- Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Ammonia solution was used for REEs precipitation from monazite leach solution. The result indicated that REEs was successfully separated from monazite leach solution through selective precipitation using ammonia at pH 2.34 and the percentage of REEs that successfully separated was 70.03 - 81.85 %. The percentage of REEs which successfully separated from final solution was 96.05 - 99.10 %. Therefore, to have high purification of individual REEs, solvent extraction process should be carried out. (author)

  15. Rare earths and actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coqblin, B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews the different properties of rare-earths and actinides, either as pure metals or as in alloys or compounds. Three different cases are considered: (i) First, in the case of 'normal' rare-earths which are characterized by a valence of 3, we discuss essentially the magnetic ordering, the coexistence between superconductivity and magnetism and the properties of amorphous rare-earth systems. (ii) Second, in the case of 'anomalous' rare-earths, we distinguish between either 'intermediate-valence' systems or 'Kondo' systems. Special emphasis is given to the problems of the 'Kondo lattice' (for compounds such as CeAl 2 ,CeAl 3 or CeB 6 ) or the 'Anderson lattice' (for compounds such as TmSe). The problem of neutron diffraction in these systems is also discussed. (iii) Third, in the case of actinides, we can separate between the d-f hybridized and almost magnetic metals at the beginning of the series and the rare-earth like the metals after americium. (orig.)

  16. Developing alternative resources of rare earth elements in Europe - EURARE and the red mud challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deady, Eimear; Mouchos, Evangelos; Goodenough, Kathryn; Wall, Frances; Williamson, Ben

    2015-04-01

    part of this study. Red muds from these deposits contain on average 900 ppm REE compared with typical values of Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, 2014. [3] Z. Maksimović and G. Pantó, "Authigenic rare earth minerals in karst-bauxites and karstic nickel deposits". In: A.P. Jones, F. Wall and C.T. Williams, Rare earth minerals, chemistry, origin and ore deposits, Chapter 10, pp. 257-279, 1996. [4] G. Bárdossy, "Karst Bauxites, Bauxite Deposits on Carbonate Rocks". Elsevier, 444pp, 1982. [5] M. Ochsenkühn-Petropoulou, T. Lyberopoulou, and G. Parissakis, "Direct determination of lanthanides, yttium and scandium in bauxites and red mud from alumina production", Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 296, no. 3, pp. 305-313, October 1994. [6] É. Deady, E. Mouchos, K. Goodenough, B. Williamson and F. Wall. "Rare Earth Elements in Karst-Bauxites: a Novel Untapped European Resource?" ERES 1st European Rare Earth Resources conference, Milos, Greece, (5-6/09/2014). [7] A. Wagh and W. Pinnock, "Occurrence of scandium and rare earth elements in Jamaican bauxite waste", Economic Geology, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 757-761, May 1987. [8] G. Mongelli, "Ce-anomalies in the textural components of Upper Cretaceous karst bauxites from the Apulian carbonate platform (southern Italy)", Chemical Geology, vol. 140, no. 1, pp. 69-79, June 1997. Additional resources: www.eurare.eu; www.redmud.org.

  17. Study on Yen Phu rare earth ore concentrate treatment technology and separation of major heavy rare earth elements by solvent extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ba Thuan; Pham Quang Trung; Vu Lap Lai

    2003-01-01

    1. Yenphu rare earth ore concentrate treatment by alkali under pressure: On the base of studying mineral and chemical compositions of Yenphu rare earth ore concentrate containing 28% TREO and conditions for digestion of ore concentrate by alkali under pressure such as ore concentrate/ NaOH ratio, alkali concentration, pressure and temperature at bench scale (100 gram and 5 kg per batch), the optimal conditions for decomposition of REE ore concentrate have been determined. The yield of the decomposition stage is about 90%. The studies on alkali washing, REE leaching by HCl, pH for leaching process, and iron and radioactive impurities removing by Na 2 S + Na 2 PO 4 have been carried out. The obtained results show that mixture of Na 2 S 5% + Na2PO 4 1% is effective in iron and radioactive impurities removing. The obtained REE oxides get purity of > 99% and meet the need of solvent extraction (SX) individual separation of rare earth elements. The schema for recovery of REEs from Yenphu REE ore concentrate by alkali decomposition under high pressure has been proposed. 2. Fractionation of Yenphu rare earth mixture into subgroups by solvent extraction with PC88A: On the base of simulation program, the parameters for fractional process of rare earths mixture into subgroups by solvent extraction with PC88A have been proposed and determined by experimental verification on mixer-settler set. According to this process, rare earths mixture fractionated into yttrium and light subgroups. In their turn, the light subgroup was separated into light (La, Ce, Pr, Nd) and middle (Sm, Eu, Gd) subgroups. The average yield of the process reached value > 95%. The composition of light subgroup meets the needs for individual separation of Gd, Eu, and Sm. 3. Separation and purification of yttrium: The process for recovery of yttrium consists of two stages: upgrade to get high quality Y concentrate by PC88A and purification by Aliquat 336 in NH 4 SCN-NH 4 Cl medium. The process parameter for

  18. Geochemical prospecting for rare earth elements using termite mound materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Yu; Ohno, Tetsuji; Hoshino, Mihoko; Shin, Ki-Cheol; Murakami, Hiroyasu; Tsunematsu, Maiko; Watanabe, Yasushi

    2014-12-01

    The Blockspruit fluorite prospect, located in North West State of the Republic of South Africa, occurs within an actinolite rock zone that was emplaced into the Kenkelbos-type granite of Proterozoic age. There are a large number of termite mounds in the prospect. For geochemical prospecting for rare earth elements (REEs), in total, 200 samples of termite mound material were collected from actinolite rock and granite zones in the prospect. Geochemical analyses of these termite mound materials were conducted by two methods: portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Comparison of the two methods broadly indicates positive correlations of REEs (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Y), in particular Y and La having a strong correlation. As the result of modal abundance analyses, the actinolite rock at surface mainly consists of ferro-actinolite (89.89 wt%) and includes xenotime (0.26 wt%) and monazite (0.21 wt%) grains as REE minerals. Termite mound materials from actinolite rock also contain xenotime (0.27 wt%) and monazite (0.41 wt%) grains. In addition, termite mound materials from the actinolite rock zone have high hematite and Fe silicate contents compared to those from granite zone. These relationships suggest that REE minerals in termite mound materials originate form actinolite rock. Geochemical anomaly maps of Y, La, and Fe concentrations drawn based on the result of the portable XRF analyses show that high concentrations of these elements trend from SW to NE which broadly correspond to occurrences of actinolite body. These results indicate that termite mounds are an effective tool for REE geochemical prospection in the study area for both light REEs and Y, but a more detailed survey is required to establish the distribution of the actinolite rock body.

  19. Direct quantification of rare earth element concentrations in natural waters by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Michael G.; Greig, Alan; Collerson, Kenneth D.; Kamber, Balz S.

    2006-01-01

    A direct quadrupole ICP-MS technique has been developed for the analysis of the rare earth elements and yttrium in natural waters. The method has been validated by comparison of the results obtained for the river water reference material SLRS-4 with literature values. The detection limit of the technique was investigated by analysis of serial dilutions of SLRS-4 and revealed that single elements can be quantified at single-digit fg/g concentrations. A coherent normalised rare earth pattern was retained at concentrations two orders of magnitude below natural concentrations for SLRS-4, demonstrating the excellent inter-element accuracy and precision of the method. The technique was applied to the analysis of a diluted mid-salinity estuarine sample, which also displayed a coherent normalised rare earth element pattern, yielding the expected distinctive marine characteristics

  20. Study on trace and rare earth elements in Indonesian oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Jing-ru; Wang, Qing; Liu, Hong-peng; Bai, Zhang [Northeast Dianli Univ., Jilin (China). Engineering Research Centre

    2013-07-01

    Major, trace elements and rare earth and mineral composition of the oil sand samples (ST1, ST2, ST3) and the oil sand retorting residue (semi-coke: SC1, SC2, SC3) from Indonesian were determined by XFS, ICP-MS and XRD methods. The trace elements content in oil sand is pretty much the same thing in Earth's Clarke value. The trace element is abundantly in earth's Clarke, in oil sand yet, for Ti, Mn, Ba, Sr, but these elements are lower enrichment. However, the Cr (EF = 16.8) and Mo (EF = 11.8) are ''enrichment'' in ST1; the Ni (EF =10.5), Se (EF = 17.5), Sr (EF = 28.7), Mo (EF = 106.5), Sc (EF = 12.8) and U (EF = 43.2) are ''enrichment'' in ST2; the Se (EF = 12.6), Sr (EF = 18.4), Mo (EF = 47.5), and U (EF = 27.8) are ''enrichment'' in ST3. Calculations show that trace elements in sime-coke have lower evaporation rate during Fischer Assay. Trace elements in raw oil sand are so stable that trace elements can't move easily to other pyrolysis product but enrich to sime-coke. After retorting, more elements are EF > 10, such as B, V, Ni, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Hg, Cs and U. It is essential to take the pollution produced by trace elements in sime-coke during the sime-coke utilization into consideration. The REEs content had a high correlation with the ash in oil sand. The REE is closely related to terrigenous elastic rocks.

  1. The determination of the rare earth elements in naturally-occurring materials zy flame spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    Because the quantitative collection of the rare-earth elements retains natural abundance ratios, adequate analytical methodology incorporates their individual sensitivities, and tolerates their mutual contamination. To achieve these ends, the sensitivities of 15 rare-earths in flame emission were determined in the unseparated nitrous oxide/acetylene flame, their mutual interference ascertained at practical concentrations, and useful emission lines selected for their determination in natural materials. Sources of atomic emission interference were extraneous in origin. Fe in the determination of Dy and Zr in the determination of Nd. Inter-element interferences of the rare-earth elements were minimal after wavelength selection and reduction of the spectral band width. For comparison, five rare earths were determined by flame AAS. (author)

  2. Volatile elements - water, carbon, nitrogen, noble gases - on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, B.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the origin and evolution of life-bearing volatile elements (water, carbon, nitrogen) on Earth is a fruitful and debated area of research. In his pioneering work, W.W. Rubey inferred that the terrestrial atmosphere and the oceans formed from degassing of the mantle through geological periods of time. Early works on noble gas isotopes were consistent with this view and proposed a catastrophic event of mantle degassing early in Earth's history. We now have evidence, mainly from noble gas isotopes, that several cosmochemical sources contributed water and other volatiles at different stages of Earth's accretion. Potential contributors include the protosolar nebula gas that equilibrated with magma oceans, inner solar system bodies now represented by chondrites, and comets. Stable isotope ratios suggest volatiles where primarily sourced by planetary bodies from the inner solar system. However, recent measurements by the European Space Agency Rosetta probe on the coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko permit to set quantitative constraints on the cometary contribution to the surface of our planet. The surface and mantle reservoirs volatile elements exchanged volatile elements through time, with rates that are still uncertain. Some mantle regions remained isolated from whole mantle convection within the first tens to hundreds million years after start of solar system formation. These regions, now sampled by some mantle plumes (e.g., Iceland, Eifel) preserved their volatile load, as indicated by extinct and extant radioactivity systems. The abundance of volatile elements in the mantle is still not well known. Different approaches, such as high pressure experimental petrology, noble gas geochemistry, modelling, resulted in somewhat contrasted estimates, varying over one order of magnitude for water. Comparative planetology, that is, the study of volatiles on the Moon, Venus, Mars, Vesta, will shed light on the sources and strengths of these elements in the

  3. Mineralogy of the rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper contains mineralogic properties of the rare earth elements (REE). Notes are given on total REE abundances, distribution patterns, and modes of occurrence. References are confined as far as possible to papers containing usable REE data. The minerals are grouped alphabetically within each major cationic group. The paper includes an alphabetic table of mineral names, chemical formulas, crystal system and section number. It functions as a handy entrance to the mineralogic and bibliographic paper. (G.J.P.)

  4. Electro-kinetic separation of rare earth elements using a redox-active ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Huayi; Cole, Bren E.; Qiao, Yusen; Bogart, Justin A.; Cheisson, Thibault; Manor, Brian C.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Schelter, Eric J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-10-16

    Purification of rare earth elements is challenging due to their chemical similarities. All of the deployed separation methods rely on thermodynamic properties, such as distribution equilibria in solvent extraction. Rare-earth-metal separations based on kinetic differences have not been examined. Herein, we demonstrate a new approach for rare-earth-element separations by exploiting differences in the oxidation rates within a series of rare earth compounds containing the redox-active ligand [{2-(tBuN(O))C_6H_4CH_2}{sub 3}N]{sup 3-}. Using this method, a single-step separation factor up to 261 was obtained for the separation of a 50:50 yttrium-lutetium mixture. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Formation and decomposition of some rare earth (RE = La, Ce, Pr) hydroxides and oxides by homogeneous precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, Masakuni [Ceramics Research Laboratory, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Tajimi, 507-0071 Gifu (Japan)]. E-mail: ozawa@crl.nitech.ac.jp; Onoe, Ryota [Ceramics Research Laboratory, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Tajimi, 507-0071 Gifu (Japan); Kato, Hajime [Ceramics Research Laboratory, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Tajimi, 507-0071 Gifu (Japan)

    2006-02-09

    Formation and thermal decomposition of rare earth (RE = La, Ce, Pr) hydroxides and oxides by homogeneous precipitation using hexamethylenetetramine. The precipitatates were examined using thermal gravimetry and differential thermal analysis, infrared spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The as-precipitated powders from the present process were La(OH){sub 3}, CeO{sub 2}, Pr(OH){sub 3}. In the case of Ce, a cubic fluorite phase of cerium dioxide was directly obtained. The lanthanum trihydroxide decomposed to oxides via three steps. Two-step dehydration decomposition behavior at 340 and 500 {sup o}C was observed as La(OH){sub 3} {sup {yields}} LaOOH + H{sub 2}O and 2LaOOH {sup {yields}} La{sub 2}O{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O. The activation energy ({delta}H) for dehydration was 240 and 244 kJ/mol, respectively. The additional decomposition of carbonate-containing species was observed at 670 {sup o}C with {delta}H of 390 kJ/mol. Pr(OH){sub 3} did not show additional TGA profile of carbonate decomposition. Since no carbonate species form in solution during the HMT precipitation (hydrolysis of this molecule), the difference between La and Pr depends on the strength of basicity in the reaction with CO{sub 2} after precipitation.

  6. Effect of CeO2 addition on electrical and optical properties of lithium borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedam, R.S.; Ramteke, D.D.

    2011-01-01

    Rare earth (RE) ions play an important role in modern technology as an active ion in many optical materials. RE-doped glasses were used in many optical devices because of abundant number of the absorption and emission bands arising from the transitions between the RE elements energy levels. Among all rare earth, glasses containing CeO 2 are extensively studied for scintillating applications. Radiation length of CeO 2 containing lithium silicate glasses decreases and absorption edge in transmittance shift towards longer wavelength. In the present study an attempt has been made to verify similar results in borate containing glasses. Therefore glass series 15Li 2 O-xCeO 2 -(85''x)B 2 O 3 where x= 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1 mol% was prepared by conventional melt quench technique. Their electrical and optical properties have been investigated. It is observed that the conductivity of these glasses decreases while density, glass transition temperature and refractive index increases with the addition of CeO 2 . The conductivity of the glasses is mostly controlled by the activation energy. Since the lithium fraction in the present series is kept constant, the decrease in conductivity for glasses may be attributed to the reduction in the number of available vacant sites for the mobile lithium ions when boron is substituted with CeO 2 . The radiation length was determined using density values and it was found to decrease with the addition of CeO 2 . The absorption coefficient a were determined near the absorption edge of different photon energy for all glass samples and plot of (αhν) 1/2 Vs. hν (Tauc's plot) is shown. It is observed that the optical band gap energy (E g Opt ) decreases with the addition of CeO 2

  7. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in a passive treatment system built for acid mine drainage remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudêncio, Maria Isabel; Valente, Teresa; Marques, Rosa; Sequeira Braga, Maria Amália; Pamplona, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) were used to assess attenuation processes in a passive system for acid mine drainage treatment (Jales, Portugal). Hydrochemical parameters and REE contents in water, soils and sediments were obtained along the treatment system, after summer and winter. A decrease of REE contents in the water resulting from the interaction with limestone after summer occurs; in the wetlands REE are significantly released by the soil particles to the water. After winter, a higher water dynamics favors the AMD treatment effectiveness and performance since REE contents decrease along the system; La and Ce are preferentially sequestered by ochre sludge but released to the water in the wetlands, influencing the REE pattern of the creek water. Thus, REE fractionation occurs in the passive treatment systems and can be used as tracer to follow up and understand the geochemical processes that promote the remediation of AMD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Concentrations and health risk assessment of rare earth elements in vegetables from mining area in Shandong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Maoqiang; Zhao, Jinshan; Li, Suyun; Liu, Danru; Wang, Kebo; Xiao, Peirui; Yu, Lianlong; Jiang, Ying; Song, Jian; Zhou, Jingyang; Wang, Liansen; Chu, Zunhua

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the concentrations of rare earth elements in vegetables and assess human health risk through vegetable consumption, a total of 301 vegetable samples were collected from mining area and control area in Shandong, China. The contents of 14 rare earth elements were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The total rare earth elements in vegetables from mining and control areas were 94.08 μg kg -1 and 38.67 μg kg -1 , respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (p vegetable had the highest rare earth elements concentration (984.24 μg kg -1 and 81.24 μg kg -1 for mining and control areas, respectively) and gourd vegetable had the lowest rare earth elements concentration (37.34 μg kg -1 and 24.63 μg kg -1 for mining and control areas, respectively). For both areas, the rare earth elements concentration in vegetables declined in the order of leaf vegetable > taproot vegetable > alliaceous vegetable > gourd vegetable. The rare earth elements distribution patterns for both areas were characterized by enrichment of light rare earth elements. The health risk assessment demonstrated that the estimated daily intakes (0.69 μg kg -1 d -1 and 0.28 μg kg -1 d -1 for mining and control areas, respectively) of rare earth elements through vegetable consumption were significantly lower than the acceptable daily intake (70 μg kg -1 d -1 ). The damage to adults can be neglected, but more attention should be paid to the effects of continuous exposure to low levels of rare earth elements on children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Uptake of rare earth elements by dryopteris erythrosora (autumn fern)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Takuo; Enomoto, Shuichi

    2001-01-01

    Mechanisms of uptake of rare earth elements (REEs) were investigated, particularly those by REE accumulator species (autumn fern). Rare earth elements are practically insoluble under natural conditions, suggesting some unknown mechanisms in REE accumulator species. In the present investigation, two notable phenomena were observed. (1) Concerning the ionic-radius dependence of REE uptake by leaves, nonaccumulator species showed an extremely high uptake for Y compared with the adjacent-ionic-radius REEs in the multitracer, while accumulator species showed no anomaly. (2) REE uptake by autumn fern was influenced by the addition of chelating chemical reagents in the uptake solution, while no effect was observed for nonaccumulator species. (author)

  10. Labile rhizosphere soil solution fraction for prediction of bioavailability of heavy metals and rare earth elements to plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xiao-Quan; Wang, Zhongwen; Wang, Weisheng; Zhang, Shuzhen; Wen, Bei

    2003-02-01

    A labile rhizosphere soil solution fraction has been recommended to predict the bioavailability of heavy metals and rare earth elements to plants. This method used moist rhizosphere soil in combination with a mixture of 0.01 mol L(-1) of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) as extractant. The extracted soil solutions were fractionated into two colloidal fractions of soil solution fraction, F(lrss). For the soil solutions extracted with a mixture of LMWOAs the concentrations of heavy metals and rare earth elements in F(2) and F(3) were quite similar. However, the mean concentrations of Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, La, Ce, Pr, and Nd in F(lrss) accounted for 79.9%, 91.3%, 90.8%, 60.1%, 77.5%, 75.3%, 81.2%, 77.2%, 80.3%, and 79.5%, respectively, of their concentrations in F(2). In contrast, there were no differences in the extractable metal concentrations between the three fractions while the first step of the method recommended by the European Community of Reference (BCR), where 0.1 mol L(-1) acetic acid was used as an extractant. The single correlation analysis was made between metal concentrations in the different fractions of soil solutions and their concentrations in wheat. If the first step of BCR method was used there was no good correlation between heavy metals in soil pools and that in wheat shoots and roots. When LMWAOs were used a good correlation was obtained between the concentrations of heavy metals in soil pools and that in wheat roots, which followed a general order of r(1 kD, LMWOAs) >r(0.2 microm, LMWOAs) approximately r(0.45 microm, LMWOAs). In the case of rare earth elements the good correlation was obtained for both the wheat roots and shoots. Generally, the correlation coefficients obtained by LMWAOs were better than that obtained by the first step of BCR method. Therefore, LMWAOs and F(lrss) were strongly recommended to predict the bioavailability of metals in soil pools to plants.

  11. Inverted opal luminescent Ce-doped silica glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Scotti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverted opal Ce-doped silica glasses (Ce : Si molar ratio 1 ⋅ 10−3 were prepared by a sol-gel method using opals of latex microspheres as templates. The rare earth is homogeneously dispersed in silica host matrix, as evidenced by the absence of segregated CeO2, instead present in monolithic Ce-doped SG with the same cerium content. This suggests that the nanometric dimensions of bridges and junctions of the host matrix in the inverted opal structures favor the RE distribution avoiding the possible segregation of CeO2.

  12. Study of the hyperfine magnetic field acting on Ce probes substituting for the rare earth and the magnetic ordering in intermetallic compounds RAg (R=rare earth) by first principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Luciano Fabricio Dias

    2006-01-01

    In this work the magnetic hyperfine field acting on Ce atoms substituting the rare-earths in R Ag compounds (R = Gd e Nd) was studied by means of first-principles electronic structure calculations. The employed method was the Augmented Plane Waves plus local orbitals (APW+lo), embodied in the WIEN2k program, within the framework of the Density Functional Theory (DFT) and with the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) for the exchange and correlation potential. The super-cell approach was utilized in order to simulate for the Ce atoms acting as impurities in the R Ag matrix. In order to improve for correlation effects within the 4f shells, a Hubbard term was added to the DFT Hamiltonian, within a procedure called GGA+U. It was found that the magnetic hyperfine field (MHF) generated by the Ce 4f electron is the main component of the total MHF and that the Ce 4f ground state level is probably a combination of the m l = -2 and m l = -1 sub-levels. In addition, the ground-state magnetic structure was determined for Ho Ag and Nd Ag by observing the behavior of the total energy as a function of the lattice volume for several possible magnetic ordering in these compounds, namely, ferromagnetic, and the (0,0,π), (π,π,0) and ((π,π,π) types of anti-ferromagnetic ordering of rare-earth atoms. It was found that the ground-state magnetic structure is anti-ferromagnetic of type (π,π,0) for both, the Ho Ag and Nd Ag compounds. The energy difference of the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic ordering is very small in the case of the Nd Ag compound. (author)

  13. Rare earth elements in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems in the eastern Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Gwyneth Anne; Chételat, John; Heath, Joel P; Mickpegak, Raymond; Amyot, Marc

    2017-10-18

    Few ecotoxicological studies exist for rare earth elements (REEs), particularly field-based studies on their bioaccumulation and food web dynamics. REE mining has led to significant environmental impacts in several countries (China, Brazil, U.S.), yet little is known about the fate and transport of these contaminants of emerging concern. Northern ecosystems are potentially vulnerable to REE enrichment from prospective mining projects at high latitudes. To understand how REEs behave in remote northern food webs, we measured REE concentrations and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (∂ 15 N, ∂ 13 C) in biota from marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems of the eastern Canadian Arctic (N = 339). Wildlife harvesting and tissue sampling was partly conducted by local hunters through a community-based monitoring project. Results show that REEs generally follow a coherent bioaccumulation pattern for sample tissues, with some anomalies for redox-sensitive elements (Ce, Eu). Highest REE concentrations were found at low trophic levels, especially in vegetation and aquatic invertebrates. Terrestrial herbivores, ringed seal, and fish had low total REE levels in muscle tissue (∑REE for 15 elements <0.1 nmol g -1 ), yet accumulation was an order of magnitude higher in liver tissues. Age- and length-dependent REE accumulation also suggest that REE uptake is faster than elimination for some species. Overall, REE bioaccumulation patterns appear to be species- and tissue-specific, with limited potential for biomagnification. This study provides novel data on the behaviour of REEs in ecosystems and will be useful for environmental impact assessment of REE enrichment in northern regions.

  14. Rare earth impurities in high purity lanthanum oxide determined by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Suc; Desai, H.B.; Parthasarathy, R.; Gangadharan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Individual rare earth impurities in high purity La 2 O 3 (≥99.9%) have been determined by NAA after pre-separation of the matrix (La). The separation is carried out on an anion exchanger (Dowex 1x8) using different mixtures of methanol/nitric acid as eluants. The rare earth elements from Dy to Lu are eluted quantitatively using a 10% 1M HNO 3 - 90% methanol mixture, while the light rare earths from Ce to Gd are eluted quantitatively using a 10% 0.05M HNO 3 - 90% methanol mixture. La, which is retained on the column, is eluted using 0.1M HNO 3 . The recoveries of the various rare earth elements have been checked using radiotracers and also by spiking the sample with known amount of elements, and the recoveries are found to be quantitative. Results obtained on a typical high purity lanthanum oxide are reported here. (author) 5 refs.; 1 fig

  15. Study of CeO{sub x}, PrO{sub x}, and Ce{sub x}Pr{sub 1-x}O{sub 2-{delta}} films on Si(111) by means of high-energetic X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; Untersuchung von CeO{sub x}-, PrO{sub x}- und Ce{sub x}Pr{sub 1-x}O{sub 2-{delta}}- Filmen auf Si (111) mittels hochenergetischer Roentgen-Photoelektronenspektroskopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allahgholi, Aschkan

    2013-03-15

    The intention of this work is to shed light on two much discussed topics in the study of rare earth oxides (REO) by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES): (i) Due to the complex spectral shape of the Ce3d region, there have been many discussions on proper approaches to determine the concentration of Ce{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 4+} species in CeO{sub x} over the last decades. (ii) Recently, the true electron structure of rare earth oxides gained new attention, since ab initio calculations showed the necessity of considering additional inter atomic charge transfer to Ce5d levels. Using HAXPES and resonant HAXPES, the question of the true electronic structure of rare earth oxides is approached from the experimental side. As a third topic, the obtained results for cerium oxide and praseodymium oxide are applied in order to investigate the plasma oxidized mixed oxide Ce{sub x}Pr{sub 1-x}O{sub 2-{delta}} grown on Si(111) during thermal reduction. (orig.)

  16. Game meat authentication through rare earth elements fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danezis, G P; Pappas, A C; Zoidis, E; Papadomichelakis, G; Hadjigeorgiou, I; Zhang, P; Brusic, V; Georgiou, C A

    2017-10-23

    Accurate labelling of meat (e.g. wild versus farmed, geographical and genetic origin, organic versus conventional, processing treatment) is important to inform the consumers about the products they buy. Meat and meat products declared as game have higher commercial value making them target to fraudulent labelling practices and replacement with non-game meat. We have developed and validated a new method for authentication of wild rabbit meat using elemental metabolomics approach. Elemental analysis was performed using rapid ultra-trace multi-element measurement by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Elemental signatures showed excellent ability to discriminate the wild rabbit from non-wild rabbit meat. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of metabolic markers -rare earth signatures, as well as other trace element signatures for game meat authentication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Spectroscopic identification of rare earth elements in phosphate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devangad, Praveen; Tamboli, Maktum; Muhammed Shameem, K. M.; Nayak, Rajesh; Patil, Ajeetkumar; Unnikrishnan, V. K.; Santhosh, C.; Kumar, G. A.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, rare earth-doped phosphate glasses were synthesized and characterized using three different spectroscopic techniques. The absorption spectra of the prepared praseodymium (Pr) and samarium (Sm) doped glasses, recorded by a UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer, show the characteristic absorption bands of these elements. To confirm this inference, laser-induced fluorescence spectra of Pr and Sm were obtained at a laser excitation of 442 nm. Their emission bands are reported here. The elemental analysis of these samples was carried out using a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system. Characteristic emission lines of Pr and Sm have been identified and reported by the recorded LIBS spectra of glass samples. Results prove that using these three complimentary spectroscopic techniques (absorption, fluorescence and LIBS), we can meaningfully characterize rare earth-doped glass samples.

  18. Major, trace and rate earth elements in sediments of the Julian Adame-Alatorre dam by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mireles, F.; Pinedo, J. L.; Davila, J. I.; Oliva, J. E. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Speakman, R. J. [Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, MD 20746 (United States); Glascock, M. D., E-mail: fmireles@uaz.edu.m [Research Reactor Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The rapid industrial development in regions of Mexico during recent years has had the side effect of introducing toxic metals, fertilizers, and pesticides into the ecosystem. Sediment cores were collected from eight locations around the Julian Adame-Alatorre dam located in Municipality of Villanueva in the Zacatecas State, Mexico. The cores were analyzed for 32 major, trace, and rare earth elements (As, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, U, Yb, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Zn, Zr, Al, Ba, Ca, Dy, K, Mn, Na, Ti, V) in order to estimate the health risk. The samples were analyzed by instrument neutron activation analysis using thermal neutron fluxes of 8 x 10{sup 13} and 5 x 10{sup 13} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for short and long irradiations, respectively. The results of the contamination levels for elements such as As, Ba, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ta, V, and Zn were compared with the Mexican regulations and the guidelines of US EPA. (Author)

  19. Effect of inclusions modified by rare earth elements (Ce, La) on localized marine corrosion in Q460NH weathering steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chao; Revilla, Reynier I.; Liu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Dawei; Li, Xiaogang; Terryn, Herman

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The initial stages of the pitting corrosion of Q460NH steel in a marine environment was studied. •Two different types of inclusions formed in the Q460NH steel after adding rare earth. •Both types of inclusions showed a lower Volta potential than the matrix. •Pitting corrosion was induced by the dissolution of inclusions rather than the matrix. •Inclusions containing (RE)AlO 3 dissolved completely as a result of the acidic solution formed in the pits. -- Abstract: In this work the initial stages of the pitting corrosion in Q460NH weathering steel in a marine environment was studied. To elucidate the effects of inclusions modified by rare earth (RE) elements on pitting corrosion, field emission-scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometry (FE-SEM-EDS) analyses, scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) tests, and a series of immersion tests were conducted. Two main types of inclusions were formed in the steel, and different pit morphologies were observed. The pitting corrosion was initiated by the dissolution of (RE) 2 O 2 S-(RE)xSy in both types of inclusions due to the lower potential of this phase compared to the matrix, which indicated that the inclusions in the Q460NH weathering steel had a lower pitting corrosion resistance than the matrix.

  20. Rare earth elements and permanent magnets (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Peter C.

    2012-04-01

    Rare earth (RE) magnets have become virtually indispensible in a wide variety of industries such as aerospace, automotive, electronics, medical, and military. RE elements are essential ingredients in these high performance magnets based on intermetallic compounds RECo5, RE2TM17 (TM: transition metal), and RE2TM14B. Rare earth magnets are known for their superior magnetic properties—high induction, and coercive force. These properties arise due to the extremely high magnetocrystalline anisotropy made possible by unique 3d-4f interactions between transition metals and rare earths. For more than 40 years, these magnets remain the number one choice in applications that require high magnetic fields in extreme operating conditions—high demagnetization forces and high temperature. EEC produces and specializes in RECo5 and RE2TM17 type sintered magnets. Samarium and gadolinium are key RE ingredients in the powder metallurgical magnet production processes which include melting, crushing, jet milling, pressing, sintering, and heat treating. The magnetic properties and applications of these magnets will be discussed. We will also briefly discuss the past, current, and future of the permanent magnet business. Currently, over 95% of all pure rare earth oxides are sourced from China, which currently controls the market. We will provide insights regarding current and potential new magnet technologies and designer choices, which may mitigate rare earth supply chain issues now and into the future.

  1. Scanning Electron Microscope-Cathodoluminescence Analysis of Rare-Earth Elements in Magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imashuku, Susumu; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki; Kawai, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Scanning electron microscope-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) analysis was performed for neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) and samarium-cobalt (Sm-Co) magnets to analyze the rare-earth elements present in the magnets. We examined the advantages of SEM-CL analysis over conventional analytical methods such as SEM-energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and SEM-wavelength-dispersive X-ray (WDX) spectroscopy for elemental analysis of rare-earth elements in NdFeB magnets. Luminescence spectra of chloride compounds of elements in the magnets were measured by the SEM-CL method. Chloride compounds were obtained by the dropwise addition of hydrochloric acid on the magnets followed by drying in vacuum. Neodymium, praseodymium, terbium, and dysprosium were separately detected in the NdFeB magnets, and samarium was detected in the Sm-Co magnet by the SEM-CL method. In contrast, it was difficult to distinguish terbium and dysprosium in the NdFeB magnet with a dysprosium concentration of 1.05 wt% by conventional SEM-EDX analysis. Terbium with a concentration of 0.02 wt% in an NdFeB magnet was detected by SEM-CL analysis, but not by conventional SEM-WDX analysis. SEM-CL analysis is advantageous over conventional SEM-EDX and SEM-WDX analyses for detecting trace rare-earth elements in NdFeB magnets, particularly dysprosium and terbium.

  2. Double Solvent for Extracting Rare Earth Concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bintarti, AN; Bambang EHB

    2007-01-01

    An extraction process to rare earth concentrate which contain elements were yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), gadolinium (Gd) and dysprosium (Dy) which were dissolved in to nitric acid has been done. The experiment of the extraction by double solvent in batch to mix 10 ml of the feed with 10 ml solvent contained the pair of solvent was TBP and TOA, D2EHPA and TOA, TBP and D2EHPA in cyclohexane as tinner. It was selected a right pairs of solvent for doing variation such as the acidity of the feed from 2 - 6 M and the time of stirring from 5 - 25 minutes gave the good relatively extraction condition to Dy element such as using 10 % volume of TOA in D2EHPA and cyclohexane, the acidity of the feed 3 M and the time stirring 15 minutes produced coefficient distribution to dysprosium = 0.586 and separation factor Dy-Ce = ∼ (unlimited); Dy-Nd = 4.651. (author)

  3. Structure and Composition of Scales Formed on AISI 316 L Steel Alloyed with Ce/La Using High Intensity Plasma Pulses after Oxidation in 1000o

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartowska, B.; Walis, L.; Starosta, W.; Piekoszewski, J.; Barlak, M.; Pochrybniak, C.; Bochenska, K.

    2011-01-01

    It is well documented that the high oxygen affinity elements such as Y, Ce, La, Er and other rare earth elements added to steel in small amounts can improve their high temperature oxidation resistance. Rare earth elements can be either alloyed during the steel making process or introduced through surface treatment techniques. Improvement of high temperature oxidation resistance of AISI 316 L steel by incorporation Ce and La elements into its near surface region using high intensity pulsed plasma beams in so-called deposition by the pulse erosion mode was investigated in the present work. The samples were irradiated with 3 short (μs scale) intense (energy density 3 J/cm 2 ) plasma pulses. Heating and cooling processes occur under non-equilibrium conditions. In all samples the near surface layer of the thickness in μm range was melted and simultaneously doped with cerium and lanthanum. The modified samples were oxidized at 1000 o C for 100 h in air. The obtained effects were: oxide scales formed on the treated samples were more fine-grained, compact and adhering better that those formed on the un-treated samples. (author)

  4. Rare Earth Elements - A New Challenge for the World Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Bumbac

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rare Earth Elements or Rare Earth Metals (REM are a collection of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, namely scandium, yttrium and fifteen lanthanides. The term "rare earth" arises from the rare earth minerals from which they were first isolated. They are uncommon oxide-type minerals (earths found in Gandolinite extracted from one mine in Sweden. The first discovery was made in 1794, but it was only in 1940 that the scientist Frank Spedding developed an ion exchange procedure for separating and purifying the REM. For the next decades, they were hardly used in some "minor" industrial fields. Only after 2000 their importance grew, once the multitude of possibilities to use them was discovered due to technological progress. Now REM are incorporated into almost all modern technological devices: superconductors, magnets, electronic polishers, refining catalysts hybrid car components and military techniques. They are used in small quantities, but due to their extraordinary properties the prices are very high. The main problem is that China dominates this market, with 97% of total global supply. The highest concentration of rare earth metals are in Inner Mongolia in China, Mountain Pass in California U.S.A. and in Mount Weld in Australia. The developed countries are far behind China regarding production and are indeed depending on Chinese exports. Hence, there is a difficult situation on this particular market, with an uncertain future.

  5. Sources and distribution of yttrium and rare earth elements in surface sediments from Tagus estuary, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Pedro; Prego, Ricardo; Mil-Homens, Mário; Caçador, Isabel; Caetano, Miguel

    2018-04-15

    The distribution and sources of yttrium and rare-earth elements (YREE) in surface sediments were studied on 78 samples collected in the Tagus estuary (SW Portugal, SW Europe). Yttrium and total REE contents ranged from 2.4 to 32mg·kg -1 and 18 to 210mg·kg -1 , respectively, and exhibited significant correlations with sediment grain-size, Al, Fe, Mg and Mn, suggesting a preferential association to fine-grained material (e.g. aluminosilicates but also Al hydroxides and Fe oxyhydroxides). The PAAS (Post-Archean Australian Shale) normalized patterns display three distinct YREE fractionation pattern groups along the Tagus estuary: a first group, characterized by medium to coarse-grained material, a depleted and almost flat PAAS-normalized pattern, with a positive anomaly of Eu, representing one of the lithogenic components; a second group, characterized mainly by fine-grained sediment, with higher shale-normalized ratios and an enrichment of LREE relative to HREE, associated with waste water treatment plant (WWTP) outfalls, located in the northern margin; and, a third group, of fine-grained material, marked by a significant enrichment of Y, a depletion of Ce and an enrichment of HREE over LREE, located near an inactive chemical-industrial complex (e.g. pyrite roast plant, chemical and phosphorous fertilizer industries), in the southern margin. The data allow the quantification of the YREE contents and its spatial distribution in the surface sediments of the Tagus estuary, identifying the main potential sources and confirming the use of rare earth elements as tracers of anthropogenic activities in highly hydrodynamic estuaries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Advances in the hydrometallurgical separation techniques of high purity rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayalakshmi, R.; Kain, V.

    2017-01-01

    Rare Earths are a series of 15 chemically similar elements that occur together in monazite mineral found in the beach sands of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Orissa. The rare earth elements (REE) are becoming increasingly strategically important considering their essential role in permanent magnets such as, SmCo_5, Sm_2Co_1_7 and Nd_2Fe_1_4B, phosphors for LED screens and lamps, rechargeable nickel metal hydride batteries and catalysts and other green applications. The increasing popularity of hybrid and electric cars, wind turbines and compact fluorescent lamps is causing an increase in the demand and price of REE. The European Commission considers the REE as the most critical raw materials group, with the highest supply risk. According to the medium-term criticality matrix of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the five most critical REE are neodymium (Nd), europium (Eu), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy) and yttrium (Y). China is presently producing more than 90% of all rare earths, although they possess less than 405 of the proven reserves. Due to large and increasing domestic demands, China tightened its REE export quota from 2012 onwards. These export quotas caused serious problems for REE users outside of China. Fortunately India is blessed with large resources of rare earths in the form of monazite found in the beach sands of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Orissa. Indian Rare Earths Limited at Aluva near Kochi produces mainly mixed rare earths chloride and till recent past exporting to USA, UK, France, Japan, etc. They have revived their rare earth separation plant to meet the in-house demands of the strategic, defense and nuclear industry. This paper discusses the recent advances made in hydrometallurgical separation techniques based on solvent extraction technique, ion-exchange resins, hollow fibre membrane extractor, solvent encapsulated polymeric beads, etc for the production of high purity rare earth elements from both primary (Monazite, xenotime) and secondary sources

  7. Qualitative analysis of the rare earth element by simulation of inductively coupled plasma emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, M.S.; Tobishima, Taeko; Kamitake, Seigo; Yasuda, Kazuo.

    1985-01-01

    The emission lines for qualitative analysis of rare earth elements by a simulation technique of ICP spectra were proposed. The spectra were simulated by employing a Gaussian (or a Lorentzian at high concentrations) profile. The simulated spectra corresponded quite well with the observed ones. The emission lines were selected so that the interference was as small as possible. The present qualitative analysis is based on a pattern recognition method where observed intensity ratios of the emission lines in each element are compared with those of a single analyte element. The qualitative analysis was performed for twelve standard solutions containing a single rare earth element and for eight standard solutions containing an element other than rare earth elements. The selection of the emission lines and the algorithm of the present qualitative analysis were justified. (author)

  8. Determination of the Earth's Plasmapause Location from the CE-3 EUVC Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Zhang, Xiao-Xin; Chen, Bo; Fok, Mei-Ching; Nakano, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    The Moon-based Extreme Ultraviolet Camera (EUVC) aboard China's Chang'e-3 (CE-3) mission has successfully imaged the entire Earth's plasmasphere for the first time from the side views on lunar surface. An EUVC image on 21 April 2014 is used in this study to demonstrate the characteristics and configurations of the Moon-based EUV imaging and to illustrate the determination algorithm of the plasmapause locations on the magnetic equator. The plasmapause locations determined from all the available EUVC images with the Minimum L Algorithm are quantitatively compared with those extracted from insitu observations (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms, and Radiation Belt Storm Probes). Excellent agreement between the determined plasmapauses seen by EUVC and the extracted ones from other satellites indicates the reliability of the Moon-based EUVC images as well as the determination algorithm. This preliminary study provides an important basis for future investigation of the dynamics of the plasmasphere with the Moon-based EUVC imaging.

  9. High coercivity rare earth-transition metal magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croat, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    Ferromagnetic compositions having intrinsic magnetic coercivities at room temperature of at least 1,000 Oersteds are formed by the controlled quenching of molten rare earth-transition metal alloys. Hard magnets may be inexpensively formed from the lower atomic weight lanthanide elements and iron. The preferable compositions lie within: at least one of Fe, Ni, Co; 20 - 70 atomic percent: at least one of Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Y; 80 - 30 atomic percent. (author)

  10. Cathodoluminescent characteristics and light technical parameters of thin-film screens based on oxides and oxysulfides of rare-earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondar, Vyacheslav D.; Grytsiv, Myroslav; Groodzinsky, Arkady; Vasyliv, Mykhailo

    1995-11-01

    Results on creation of thin-film single-crystal high-resolution screens with energy control of luminescence color are presented. In order to create phosphor films ion-plasma technology for deposition of yttrium and lanthanum oxides and oxysulfides activated by rare earth elements has been developed. The screen consists of phosphor film on phosphor substrate with different colors of luminescence (e.g. Y2O3-Eu film with red color on Y3Al5O12- Tb, Ce substrate with green color of luminescence). Electron irradiation causes luminescence with color that depends on energy of the electron beam. The physical reason for color change is that electron beam energy defines electron penetration depth. If the energy is weak, only the film is excited. More powerful beam penetrates into the substrate and thus changes the color of luminescence.

  11. Th, U, Ra and rare earth element distributions in farm animal tissues from an elevated natural radiation background environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsalata, Paul; Morse, Robert; Ford, Helen; Eisenbud, Merril; Franca, E.P.; de Castro, M.B.; Lobao, Nazyo; Sachett, Ivanor; Carlos, Marcia

    1991-01-01

    A field study was conducted in an area of elevated natural background radioactivity (the Pocos de Caldas plateau, Brazil) to assess tissue concentrations and the comparative bioavailability of isotopic Th (IV), U (IV, VI), Ra (II) and light rare earth elements (REE), i.e. La (III) and Ce (III, IV) in adult steers, pigs and chickens. The assessment of comparative bioavailability was aided by normalizing tissue concentrations to local soil concentrations, i.e. by calculating soil-to-tissue concentration ratios (CRs). Mean CRs (for muscle/soil) in these animals were very similar for U, La and Th which, as a group, decreased among the farm animals sampled as (all x 10 -4 ): chicken (1) ≥ steer (0.7) ≥ pig (0.4). For 226 Ra, CRs in muscle decreased in the same order among animals although mean values were 3-5 times greater than those quoted. Much greater values and greater differences among the elements are noted for bone/soil CRs, which for all animals decreased as: Ra >> U > La=Th, indicating the order of elemental bioavailability (assuming bone to be the major retention compartment). Isotopic ratios in farm animal tissue are shown to resemble closely those in soils over which the animals forage, with few exceptions, indicating the importance of the soil component in the transfer of these elements to tissues. (author)

  12. Rare Earth Elements: A Tool for Understanding the Behaviour of Trivalent Actinides in the Geosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buil, Belen; Gomez, Paloma; Garralon, Antonio; Turrero, M. Jesus

    2007-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) concentrations have been determined in groundwaters, granite and fracture fillings in a restored uranium mine. The granitoids normalized REE patterns of groundwaters show heavy rare earth elements (HREE)-enrichment and positive Eu anomalies. This suggests that the REE are fractionated during leaching from the source rocks by groundwaters. Preferential leaching of HREE would be consistent with the greater stability of their aqueous complexes compared to those of the light rare earth elements (LREE), together with the dissolution of certain fracture filling minerals, dissolution/alteration of phyllosilicates and colloidal transport. (authors)

  13. Isolation and functional characterization of CE1 binding proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ji-hyun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abscisic acid (ABA is a plant hormone that controls seed germination, protective responses to various abiotic stresses and seed maturation. The ABA-dependent processes entail changes in gene expression. Numerous genes are regulated by ABA, and promoter analyses of the genes revealed that cis-elements sharing the ACGTGGC consensus sequence are ubiquitous among ABA-regulated gene promoters. The importance of the core sequence, which is generally known as ABA response element (ABRE, has been demonstrated by various experiments, and its cognate transcription factors known as ABFs/AREBs have been identified. Although necessary, ABRE alone is not sufficient, and another cis-element known as "coupling element (CE" is required for full range ABA-regulation of gene expression. Several CEs are known. However, despite their importance, the cognate transcription factors mediating ABA response via CEs have not been reported to date. Here, we report the isolation of transcription factors that bind one of the coupling elements, CE1. Results To isolate CE1 binding proteins, we carried out yeast one-hybrid screens. Reporter genes containing a trimer of the CE1 element were prepared and introduced into a yeast strain. The yeast was transformed with library DNA that represents RNA isolated from ABA-treated Arabidopsis seedlings. From the screen of 3.6 million yeast transformants, we isolated 78 positive clones. Analysis of the clones revealed that a group of AP2/ERF domain proteins binds the CE1 element. We investigated their expression patterns and analyzed their overexpression lines to investigate the in vivo functions of the CE element binding factors (CEBFs. Here, we show that one of the CEBFs, AtERF13, confers ABA hypersensitivity in Arabidopsis, whereas two other CEBFs enhance sugar sensitivity. Conclusions Our results indicate that a group of AP2/ERF superfamily proteins interacts with CE1. Several CEBFs are known to mediate defense or

  14. Isolation and functional characterization of CE1 binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-ji; Park, Ji Hye; Lee, Mi Hun; Yu, Ji-hyun; Kim, Soo Young

    2010-12-16

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that controls seed germination, protective responses to various abiotic stresses and seed maturation. The ABA-dependent processes entail changes in gene expression. Numerous genes are regulated by ABA, and promoter analyses of the genes revealed that cis-elements sharing the ACGTGGC consensus sequence are ubiquitous among ABA-regulated gene promoters. The importance of the core sequence, which is generally known as ABA response element (ABRE), has been demonstrated by various experiments, and its cognate transcription factors known as ABFs/AREBs have been identified. Although necessary, ABRE alone is not sufficient, and another cis-element known as "coupling element (CE)" is required for full range ABA-regulation of gene expression. Several CEs are known. However, despite their importance, the cognate transcription factors mediating ABA response via CEs have not been reported to date. Here, we report the isolation of transcription factors that bind one of the coupling elements, CE1. To isolate CE1 binding proteins, we carried out yeast one-hybrid screens. Reporter genes containing a trimer of the CE1 element were prepared and introduced into a yeast strain. The yeast was transformed with library DNA that represents RNA isolated from ABA-treated Arabidopsis seedlings. From the screen of 3.6 million yeast transformants, we isolated 78 positive clones. Analysis of the clones revealed that a group of AP2/ERF domain proteins binds the CE1 element. We investigated their expression patterns and analyzed their overexpression lines to investigate the in vivo functions of the CE element binding factors (CEBFs). Here, we show that one of the CEBFs, AtERF13, confers ABA hypersensitivity in Arabidopsis, whereas two other CEBFs enhance sugar sensitivity. Our results indicate that a group of AP2/ERF superfamily proteins interacts with CE1. Several CEBFs are known to mediate defense or abiotic stress response, but the physiological functions

  15. Study of rare earth elements, uranium and thorium migration in rocks from Espinharas uranium deposit, Paraiba - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao, Cirilo C.S.

    2009-01-01

    The determination of rare earth elements as natural analogue in patterns geologic has grown as a tool for predicting the long-term safety of nuclear disposal in geological formation. Migration of natural radionuclides is one of the most serious problems in the waste deposit from nuclear fuel cycle. Rare earth elements show the same kinetic behavior in rocks as natural radionuclides. This similar property of the analogues allows perform studies and models on the subject of radionuclides migration. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of rare earth elements in rocks located at Espinharas - Paraiba - Brazil, uranium deposit. In this work are presented the results from the study above the distribution of rare earth elements in function of the degree of mineralized rocks, composition and the conditions of radioactive equilibrium of the uranium and thorium in some fractures on the rocks from radioactive occurrence of Espinharas-Brazil. The results show that there is a correlation of heavy rare earth elements, uranium and Thorium concentrations to oxidation factor of the rocks. However this correlation was not observed for light rare earth elements. It means that heavy rare earth elements follow the natural radionuclides in oxidation process of rocks. The samples were analyzed by ICP-MS, alpha and gamma spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and fluorimetry. (author)

  16. Optimized elemental analysis of fluorescence lamp shredder waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobohm, Julia; Kuchta, Kerstin; Krüger, Oliver; van Wasen, Sebastian; Adam, Christian

    2016-01-15

    Fluorescence lamps contain considerable amounts of rare earth elements (REE). Several recycling procedures for REE recovery from spent lamps have been established. However, despite their economic importance, the respective recycling is scarce so far, with an REE recovery rate of less than 1%. A reliable analysis of REE and other relevant metals like Yttrium is crucial for a thorough and complete recovery process. This applies both to the solid matter and aqueous phase, since most of the recycling processes include wet-chemical steps. We tested seven different reagent mixtures for microwave-assisted digestion of fluorescent lamp shredder, including hydrofluoric acid, perchloric acid, and hydrogen peroxide. We determined the concentrations of 25 of the most relevant rare earth and other trace elements (Al, P, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Ga, Ge, As, Y, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, La, Ce, Eu, Gd, Tb, W, Au, Hg, and Pb) in the respective dilutions. Two independent digestions, one a mixture of perchlorid/nitric/hydrofluoric acid and the other aqua regia, showed the highest concentrations of 23 of these elements, excluding only Sn and Tb. The REE concentrations in the tested lamp shredder sample (stated in g/kg) were 10.2 (Y), 12.1 (La), 7.77 (Ce), 6.91 (Eu), 1.90 (Gd), and 4.11 (Tb). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Application and evaluation of the mass spectrometric isotope dilution technique in the determination of rare earths in geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, N.M.P. de.

    1988-01-01

    Establishment of the experimental procedures employed in the rare earth element determination of geological samples by mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis is discussed in the present work. The procedures involve preparation and calibration of the isotope tracers isotope dilution, dissolution in a teflon pressure vessel, chemical separation and isotope analysis using a fully automated Micromass VG ISOTOPES model 354 thermal ionization mass spectrometer. For the initial chemical separation of total rare earths the cationic resin was employed and HC1 and HNO 3 acids as eluents. In the second step rare earths elements were separated into individual (La, Ce and Nd) and subgroups (Sm-Eu-Gd, Yb-Er-Dy) fractions using the same cationic resin and α-HIBA as eluent. Nine elements La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Er and Yb are determined by this method in the ''United States Geological Survey'' (USGS) standard samples GSP-1, AGV-1 and G-2, with an overall precision of +- 1 to 2% and an accuracy of 5%. The concentration of rare earth element determined in the standard sample PCC-1 showed that the total analytical blanks are in submicrogram levels. The concentration of rare earth elements in the same USGS standard samples were also determined by Instrumental neutron activation analysis, neutron activation analysis with chemical separation before irradiation and inductively coupled argon plasma spectroscopy. The chemical procedures employed for these methods are the same as that used for mass spectrometric isotope dilution. Based on the results obtained, each method was evaluated pointing out their merits and defects. The study clearly showed that the chemical procedure employed for all these techniques was satisfactory. (author) [pt

  18. Magnetic hyperfine field in Tb Zn compound measured by PAC spectroscopy using {sup 111}Cd and {sup 140}Ce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch-Santos, B.; Cabrera-Pasca, G.A.; Carbonari, A.W.; Costa, M.S.; Saxena, R.N., E-mail: brianna@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The ferromagnetic compound Tb Zn has been investigated by perturbed {gamma}-{gamma} angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy using {sup 111}In{yields}{sup 111}Cd (t{sub 1/2} = 85 ns) and {sup 140}La{yields}{sup 140}Ce (t{sub 1/2} = 3,4 ns) as probe nuclei. Measurements were carried out in the temperature range of 10 - 295K for the {sup 111}Cd probe and below Curie temperature (T{sub C}) for the {sup 140}Ce probe. The study of magnetic properties of rare earth (R) and zinc compounds of the type RZn is interesting because Zn ion is a closed shell atom and the rare earth elements present a localized magnetism associated with 4f electrons, which do not participate in chemical bonds. Therefore, the magnetic properties of these compounds are only originated from the 4f electrons of rare earth. Furthermore, the compounds exhibit the highly symmetric cubic structure of the CsCl prototype and have a Curie temperature of TbZn is T{sub C} {approx} 204 K. (author)

  19. Rare earth elements in street dust and associated health risk in a municipal industrial base of central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guangyi; Li, Zhonggen; Liu, Ting; Chen, Ji; Wu, Tingting; Feng, Xinbin

    2017-12-01

    The content levels, distribution characteristics, and health risks associated with 15 rare earth elements (REEs) in urban street dust from an industrial city, Zhuzhou, in central China were investigated. The total REE content (∑REE) ranged from 66.1 to 237.4 mg kg -1 , with an average of 115.9 mg kg -1 , which is lower than that of Chinese background soil and Yangtze river sediment. Average content of the individual REE in street dust decreased in the order Ce > La > Nd > Y > Pr > Sm > Gd > Dy > Er > Yb > Eu > Ho > Tb > Tm > Lu. The chondrite-normalized REE pattern indicated light REE (LREE) enrichment, a relatively steep LREE trend, heavy REE (HREE) depletion, a flat HREE trend, a Eu-negative anomaly and a Ce-positive anomaly. Foremost heavy local soil and to less degree anthropogenic pollution are the main sources of REE present in street dust. Health risk associated with the exposure of REE in street dust was assessed based on the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effect and lifetime average daily dose. The obtained cancer and non-cancer risk values prompt for no augmented health hazard. However, children had greater health risks than that of adults.

  20. Recover of some rare earth elements from leach liquor of the Saghand uranium ore using combined precipitation and cation exchange methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanchi, A. R.; Rafati, H.; Rezvaniyanzadeh, M. R.

    2008-01-01

    In this research work, the recovery and separation of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III), Dy(III) and Nd(III) from Saghand uranium ore have been studied by precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography methods using Dowex 50 W-X 8 cation exchanger. At first, some preliminary and preconcentration experiments such as comminution, sieve analysis, gravity table and electrostatic in preconcentration of lanthanides were performed. Then, acidic digesting and leaching procedure were used. The results of experiments showed that rare earth elements, along with interfering ions such as Al(III), Fe(III), Mg(II) and Mn(II) present in the leach liquor solution. The investigation of separation process by precipitation method revealed that precipitation and then fast separation using centrifugal technique had the best results in the elimination of interference elements. In order to separate the lanthanides and to obtain their elution curves, the chromatographic column containing Dowex 50 W-X 8 resin was employed. For efficient separation of lanthanides from interference elements the hydrochloric acid with concentration of two and six molar was used respectively. Recovery of lanthanides from the leach liquor solution was achieved more than 85%

  1. Magnetic interactions and magnetic anisotropy in exchange coupled 4f-3d systems: a case study of a heterodinuclear Ce3+-Fe3+ cyanide-bridged complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorace, Lorenzo; Sangregorio, Claudio; Figuerola, Albert; Benelli, Cristiano; Gatteschi, Dante

    2009-01-01

    We report here a detailed single-crystal EPR and magnetic study of a homologous series of complexes of the type Ln-M (Ln = La(III), Ce(III); M = Fe(III), Co(III)). We were able to obtain a detailed picture of the low-lying levels of Ce(III) and Fe(III) centres through the combined use of single-crystal EPR and magnetic susceptibility data. We show that classical ligand field theory can be of great help in rationalising the energies of the low-lying levels of both the transition-metal and rare-earth ions. The combined analysis of single-crystal EPR and magnetic data of the coupled system Ce-Fe confirmed the great complexity of the interactions involving rare-earth elements. With little uncertainty, it turned out clearly that the description of the interaction involving the lowest lying spin levels requires the introduction of the isotropic, anisotropic and antisymmetric terms.

  2. Acid pressure leaching of a concentrate containing uranium, thorium and rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Xinghua; Peng Ruqing.

    1987-01-01

    The acid pressure leaching of a concentrate containing rinkolite for recovering uranium, thorium and rare earth elements is described. The laboratory and the pilot plant test results are given. Under the optimum leaching conditions, the recovery of uranium, thorium and rare earth elements are 82.9%, 86.0% and 88.3% respectively. These results show that the acid pressure leaching process is a effective process for treating the concentrate

  3. Mott state and quantum critical points in rare-earth oxypnictides RO1-xFxFeAS (R= La, Sm, Nd, Pr, Ce)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giovannetti, G.; Kumar, S.; van den Brink, J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the magnetic phase diagram of the newly discovered iron-based high temperature oxypnictide superconductors of the type RO1-xFxFeAs, with rare earths R=La, Sm, Nd, Pr and Ce by means of ab initio SGGA and SGGA+U density functional computations. We find undoped LaOFeAs to be a Mott

  4. Constraining Mantle Differentiation Processes with La-Ce and Sm-Nd Isotope Systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willig, M.; Stracke, A.

    2016-12-01

    Cerium (Ce) and Neodymium (Nd) isotopic ratios in oceanic basalts reflect the time integrated La-Ce and Sm-Nd ratios, and hence the extent of light rare earth element element (LREE) depletion or enrichment of their mantle sources. New high precision Ce-Nd isotope data from several ocean islands define a tight array in ԑCe-ԑNd space with ԑNd = -8.2±0.4 ԑCe + 1.3±0.9 (S.D.), in good agreement with previous data [1, 2]. The slope of the ԑCe-ԑNd array and the overall isotopic range are sensitive indicators of the processes that govern the evolution of the mantle's LREE composition. A Monte Carlo approach is employed to simulate continuous mantle-crust differentiation by partial melting and recycling of crustal materials. Partial melting of mantle peridotites produces variably depleted mantle and oceanic crust, which evolve for different time periods, before the oceanic crust is recycled back into the mantle including small amounts of continental crust (GLOSS [3]). Subsequently, depleted mantle and recycled materials of variable age and composition melt, and the respective melts mix in different proportions. Mixing lines strongly curve towards depleted mantle, and tend to be offset from the data for increasingly older and more depleted mantle. Observed ԑCe-ԑNd in ridge [1] and ocean island basalts and the slope of the ԑCe-ԑNd array therefore define upper limits for the extent and age of LREE depletion preserved in mantle peridotites. Very old average mantle depletion ages (> ca. 1-2 Ga) for the bulk of the mantle are difficult to reconcile with the existing ԑCe-ԑNd data, consistent with the range of Nd-Hf-Os model ages in abyssal peridotites [4-6]. Moreover, unless small amounts of continental crust are included in the recycled material, it is difficult to reproduce the relatively shallow slope of the ԑCe-ԑNd array, consistent with constraints from the ԑNd - ԑHf mantle array [7]. [1] Makishima and Masuda, 1994 Chem. Geol. 118, 1-8. [2] Doucelance et al

  5. Preparation of hollow microspheres of Ce{sup 3+} doped NiCo ferrite with high microwave absorbing performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Hong-zhen, E-mail: duanhz2000@163.com; Zhou, Fang-ling; Cheng, Xia; Chen, Guo-hong; Li, Qiao-ling

    2017-02-15

    Hollow microspheres of Ce{sup 3+} doped NiCo-ferrites were synthesized by template-based-deposition and surface reaction method with carbon sphere as the template. The phase structure, morphology, magnetic properties and wave absorbing properties of the sample were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction(XRD), Scanning electronic microscopy(SEM), Vibration sample magnetometer (VSM) and a network vector analyzer (NVA), respectively. The results indicated that the particle size of the carbon sphere sample prepared by hydrothermal method was about 0.5 µm and the particle size of the Ni{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sample prepared by template-based method was about 300 nm. The influence of the amount of rare earth element on the magnetic and absorbing properties of sample was studied. The saturation magnetization and coercivity decreased gradually with the increase of the content of Ce. When the content of Ce was 0.02, the maximal saturation magnetization value and coercivity was 75.72 emu• g{sup −1} and 789.88 Oe, respectively. The associated ferrite hollow spheres have good absorbing performance, and the return loss value was −18.8 dB at 5500 MHz. - Highlights: • Hollow microspheres of Ce{sup 3+} doped NiCo-ferrites were synthesized by template-based-deposition and surface reaction method. • The influence of rare earth Ce{sup 3+} on the magnetic and absorbing properties of sample was studied. • When the content of Ce was 0.02, the maximal saturation magnetization value and coercivity was 75.72 emu• g{sup −1} and 789.88 Oe, respectively.

  6. Determination of rare earth elements in rice by INAA and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Thi Huynh, M.; Chu Pham Ngoc, S.; Carrot, F.; Revel, G.; Dang Vu, M.

    1997-01-01

    Irrigation of rice plants with a solution of rare earth elements increases both the production capacity and the resistance to disease. Assuming that the treated plants remain expendable, the different parts of plants, root stalk and grain, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and by mass spectrometry after plasma excitation (ICP-MS). About 40 elements were determined. The results showed that the contamination remained in the roots and was absent in rice grains. The analytical distribution of different elements in different parts of both treated and non-treated plants has given some information concerning the possible effect of the rare earth treatment. The performances of the two analytical methods have been compared. (author)

  7. Determination of rare earth elements in aluminum by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahanti, H.S.; Barnes, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy is evaluated for the determination of 14 rare earth elements in aluminum. Spectral line interference, limit of detection, and background equivalent concentration values are evaluated, and quantitative recovery is obtained from aluminum samples spiked with rare earth elements. The procedure is simple and suitable for routine process control analysis. 20 references, 5 tables

  8. Characteristics and genesis of Rare Earth Element (REE) in western Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoko, A. D.; Sanjaya, E.

    2018-02-01

    Rare Earth Element (REE) has unique properties that have been used in many hightech applications. The demand of REE increased recently in the world due to its special properties. Although REE concentration in the crust is higher than gold, economically viable deposits are still rare. Reduction of REE exports by China cause increased prices of REE. Due to this condition, exploration of potential REE mines emerged. Indonesia also participates in this phenomenon, and explore the possibility of REE mines in its area. This review will discuss the characteristics and genesis of REE and its occurrence in western Indonesia; focused in Sumatera, Tin Island, and Kalimantan. The review is done based on literature research from several resources about characteristics of rare earth element in general and in the given area. The research shows that the potential REE mines can be found in several different locations in Indonesia, such as Tin Island, Sumatera, and Kalimantan. Most of them are composed of monazite, zircon, and xenotime as rare earth minerals. Monazite iss known for its elevated number of radioactive elements, so study about radioactive content and more environment friendly ore processing becomes compulsory.

  9. Element Abundances in Meteorites and the Earth: Implication for the Accretion of Planetary Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezger, K.; Vollstaedt, H.; Maltese, A.

    2017-12-01

    Essentially all known inner solar system materials show near chondritic relative abundances of refractory elements and depletion in volatile elements. To a first approximation volatile element depletion correlates with the respective condensation temperature (TC) of the elements. Possible mechanisms for this depletion are incomplete condensation and partial loss by evaporation caused by heating prior to or during the planetesimal accretion. The stable isotope compositions of almost all moderately volatile elements in different meteorite classes show only minor, or no evidence for a Rayleigh-type fractionation that could be attributed to partial condensation or evaporation. The different classes of meteorites also show that the degree of depletion in their parent bodies (i.e. mostly planetesimals) is quite variable, but nevertheless systematic. For primitive and least disturbed carbonaceous chondrites the element depletion pattern is a smooth function of TC. The accessible silicate Earth also shows this general depletion pattern, but in detail it is highly complex and requires differentiation processes that are not solely controlled by TC. If only highly lithophile elements are considered the depletion pattern of the silicate Earth reveals a step function that shows that moderately volatile lithophile elements have abundances that are ca. 0.1 times the chondritic value, irrespective of their TC. This element pattern observed for bulk silicate Earth can be modelled as a mixture of two distinct components: ca. 90% of a strongly reduced planetary body that is depleted in highly volatile elements and ca. 10% of a more volatile element rich and oxidized component. This mixture can account for the apparent Pb- paradox observed in melts derived from the silicate Earth and provides a time constraint for the mixing event, which is ca. 70 My after the beginning of the solar system. This event corresponds to the giant impact that also formed the Moon.

  10. High coercivity rare earth-transition metal magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croat, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    Ferromagnetic compositions having intrinsic magnetic coercivities at room temperature of at least 1,000 Oersteds are formed by the controlled quenching of molten rare earth -transition metal alloys. Hard magnets may be inexpensively formed from the lower atomic weight lanthanide elements and iron. The preferable compositions lie within: at least one of Fe, Ni, Co (20 to 70 atomic percent); and at least one of Ce, Pr, Na, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Y (80 to 30 atomic percent). (author)

  11. Use of nuclear techniques in the study of the behavior of rare earth elements on the use of phosphogypsum in cerrado agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Kerley A.P.; Sperling, Eduardo von, E-mail: kerley@ufmg.b, E-mail: eduardo@desa.ufmg.b [Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Menezes, Maria A.B.C.; Brito, Walter; Jacomino, Vanusa M.F., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.b, E-mail: britol@cdtn.b, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b [Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of the 'wet process', whereby sulfuric acid reacts with phosphate rock to produce phosphoric acid. The Brazilian production of this material is around 12 million tons per year which is stacked in piles at the same place where it is produced. Researches carried out in several countries worldwide have demonstrated the potential use of PG in agriculture not only as a source for calcium and sulphur, but also as a conditioner for soils that contain high levels of aluminum. In Brazil, these studies are mainly focused on the application of phosphogypsum to the Cerrado region, the main agriculture region of the country. Taking into account the presence of natural radionuclides and rare earth elements (REE) in this material and the fact that the mobility and bioaccumulation of these elements can vary significantly with changes in climate, a research project has been conducted in partnership with the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering of Federal University of Minas Gerais in order to investigate the impact of using phosphogypsum in crops cultivated in Cerrado soils. For this purpose a set of greenhouse experiments have been conducted in two types of soil (one clayey and other sandy loam textured) to determine the transfer factor of rare earth elements from soil to crops (lettuce, corn and soybean). This paper aims to report preliminary results of the study, including the characterization of mineralogical phases and the determination of REE (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho and Yb) concentration in PG samples. The characterization of mineralogical phases has been carried out by X-ray diffraction analyses and determination of REE concentration in PG samples has been conducted by neutron activation analysis (k{sub 0}-standardization method). The REE most present in PG samples was Ce (1730 ppm), followed by La (936 ppm) and Nd (791 ppm). Sm (85 ppm), Eu (29 ppm) and Yb (5 ppm

  12. Use of nuclear techniques in the study of the behavior of rare earth elements on the use of phosphogypsum in cerrado agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Kerley A.P.; Sperling, Eduardo von; Menezes, Maria A.B.C.; Brito, Walter; Jacomino, Vanusa M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of the 'wet process', whereby sulfuric acid reacts with phosphate rock to produce phosphoric acid. The Brazilian production of this material is around 12 million tons per year which is stacked in piles at the same place where it is produced. Researches carried out in several countries worldwide have demonstrated the potential use of PG in agriculture not only as a source for calcium and sulphur, but also as a conditioner for soils that contain high levels of aluminum. In Brazil, these studies are mainly focused on the application of phosphogypsum to the Cerrado region, the main agriculture region of the country. Taking into account the presence of natural radionuclides and rare earth elements (REE) in this material and the fact that the mobility and bioaccumulation of these elements can vary significantly with changes in climate, a research project has been conducted in partnership with the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering of Federal University of Minas Gerais in order to investigate the impact of using phosphogypsum in crops cultivated in Cerrado soils. For this purpose a set of greenhouse experiments have been conducted in two types of soil (one clayey and other sandy loam textured) to determine the transfer factor of rare earth elements from soil to crops (lettuce, corn and soybean). This paper aims to report preliminary results of the study, including the characterization of mineralogical phases and the determination of REE (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho and Yb) concentration in PG samples. The characterization of mineralogical phases has been carried out by X-ray diffraction analyses and determination of REE concentration in PG samples has been conducted by neutron activation analysis (k 0 -standardization method). The REE most present in PG samples was Ce (1730 ppm), followed by La (936 ppm) and Nd (791 ppm). Sm (85 ppm), Eu (29 ppm) and Yb (5 ppm) appear in

  13. Determination of the rare earth elements in marine pore waters and associated sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, H.; Elderfield, H.

    Accurate and precise determinations of natural levels of rare earth elements (R.E.E.) in sea water and pore water are highly reliant upon the size and variability of the analytical blank, the method for determining the yield, and, to a lesser extent, the inherent precision of the instrument used. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) together with ultra-clean room techniques has been successfully used in the determinations of rare earth elements in pore waters. Simultaneous multi-element analysis by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP) provides an alternative to IDMS for a rapid determination of R.E.E. in sediments. (author)

  14. Effect of rare earth elements on the distribution of photosynthate in sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Baozhang; Yang Yuchang; Meng Xianju; Wang Yuefeng; Bai Song

    1995-01-01

    The effect of rare earth elements on the distribution of photosynthate in sugar beet was studied. The results indicated that rare earth elements stimulated CO 2 assimilation, increased the ratio of root and tops (R/T), improved the distribution of photosynthate and stimulated the transport of organic matter from leaf to root of sugar beet plant. The treatment with 0.05% was shown to have the most significant effect among all the treatments

  15. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in the mainstream of the Yangtze River, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Zhang, S.; Wang, L.; Zhang, C.

    1998-01-01

    Water, suspended matter, and sediment samples were taken from 8 locations along the Yangtze River in 1992. The concentration and speciation (exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to Fe-Mn oxides, bound to organic matter, and residual forms) of rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, and Lu) were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA).The contents of the soluble fraction of REEs in the river are low, and REEs mainly reside in particulate form. In the particles, the chondrite-normalized distribution patterns show significant LREE enrichment and Eu-depletion. While normalized to shales, both sediments and suspended matter samples show relative LREE enrichment and HREE depletion. REEs are relatively enriched in fine-grained fractions of the sediments.exchangeable. About 65 to 85% of REEs in the particles exist in the residual form, and the exchangeable form is very low. High proportions of residual REEs reveal that REEs in sediments and suspended matter are controlled by their abundances in the earth's crust. Carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide and organic fractions of REEs in sediments account for 2.4-6.9%, 5.2-11.1%, and 7.3-14.0% of the total contents respectively. They are similar to those in the suspended matter. This shows that carbonates, Fe-Mn oxides and organic matter play important roles during the particle-water interaction processes. By normalization to shales, the 3 forms of REEs follow convex shapes according to atomic number with middle REE (Sm, Eu, and Tb) enrichment, while light REE and heavy REE are depleted. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. An improved ion-exchange separation of rare-earth elements for spectrographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    Rare-earth elements are separated from scandium and base metals by adsorption onto anion resin BIORAD AG1-X8 in the nitrate form from a mixture of 5 per cent 7M nitric acid and 95 per cent methanol. The yttrium subgroup is eluted with a mixture of 45 per cent 7M nitric acid and 55 per cent methanol, followed by elution of the cerium subgroup with 8M nitric acid. This separation facilitates the determination of the traces of the heavier yttrium subgroup of rare-earth elements

  17. Determination of individual rare earth elements in Vietnamese monazite by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Suc; Nguyen Mong Sinh

    1993-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) has been applied for determination of rare earth elements (REE) in Vietnamese monazite. The chemical separation procedure used is based on the chromatographic elution of rare earth groups, after the separation of 233 Pa(Th) in irradiated monazite samples by coprecipitation with MnO 2 , the rare earth elements were retained by Biorad AG1 x 8 resin column in 10% 15.4M HNO 3 -90% methanol solution. The elution of heavy rare earth (HREE) and middle rare earth (MREE) groups was carried out with 10% 1M HNO 3 - 90% methanol and 10% 0.05M HNO 3 -90% methanol solution, respectively; while the light rare earths (LREE) were eluted from the column by 0.1M HNO 3 solution. The accuracy of the method was checked by the analysis of granodiorite GSP-I and the rare earth values were in good agreement. (author) 7 refs.; 3 tabs

  18. Maria Goeppert Mayer's Theoretical Work on Rare-Earth and Transuranic Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Frank Y.

    2008-01-01

    After the discovery of element 93 neptunium by Edwin McMillan and Philip H. Abelson in 1941, Maria Goeppert Mayer applied the Thomas-Fermi model to calculate the electronic configuration of heavy elements and predicted the occurrence of a second rare-earth series in the vicinity of elements 91 or 92 extending to the transuranic elements. Mayer was motivated by Enrico Fermi, who was at the time contemplating military uses of nuclear energy. Historical development of nuclear science research le...

  19. RARE EARTH ELEMENTS: A REVIEW OF PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, RECYCLING, AND ASSOCIATED ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are a group of 15 chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the lanthanides. Two other elements, scandium and yttrium, have a similar physiochemistry to the lanthanides, are commonly found in the same mineral assemblages, and are often refe...

  20. Investigations on fabricating strategies and utilization of rare earth based multicomponent oxide powders in radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, Seema; Pitale, S.S.; Banthia, S.; Ghosh, M.; Tyagi, M.; Sen, S.; Gadkari, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    Materials containing rare earths demonstrate a broad field of applications as high energy radiation detectors, mainly due to their fascinating optical properties. Currently, Ce 3+ -doped rare earth silicates and garnets dominate the scintillator market because they show a high light yield, fast decay time, and high chemical stability. Moreover, the emission wavelength of silicates (410-440 nm) matches the wavelength sensitivity of conventional PMTs while, Si-photo-detector readouts are possible with garnets (emission near 550 nm). The composition, structure and phase of rare earth silicates are rather complex. For example, there are many phases like oxyorthosilicate R 2 SiO 5 , disilicate R 2 Si 2 O 7 , hexagonal R x (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 oxyapatite etc (where R= Rare earth element). The controlled synthesis of single phase rare earth silicates and garnets nanomaterials is not easy and can only be reached with precisely controlled experimental conditions. In this work, we provide a broad overview of our recent scientific developments linked to a few aspects of synthesizing cerium activated rare earth based silicates and garnet materials, namely Gd 2 SiO 5 :Ce 3+ , Gd 4.67 (SiO 4 ) 3 O, Gd 2 Si 2 O 7 :Ce 3+ and Gd 3 Al x Ga 1-x O 12 :Ce 3+ (where 0≤x≤5) exploiting the advantages of solution combustion, chemical co-precipitation and hydrothermal techniques. A brief summary of results based on synthesis strategy adopted, composition, size shape and corresponding luminescence features of Gd based compounds are tabulated. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) features of compounds listed. Efforts towards finding new properties and new materials will be continued and several applications, in particular energy-conversion and scintillator detectors, will benefit from these rare earth materials

  1. Influence of rare earth additions on the oxidation resistance of chromia forming alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillis, Marina Fuser

    1995-01-01

    The addition of rare earths to alloys, either in elemental form or as surface coatings reduces the oxidation rate of chromia forming alloys. The rare earths either act as nucleation sites for surface oxides or get incorporates into the surface oxide and diffuse to oxide grain boundaries. If the latter occurs, a change in the defect structure close to the grain boundaries, probably takes place. In this manner, the rare earths inhibits the movement of chromium ions to the oxide/gas interface. The influence of rare earth additions to AISI 316, AISI 316L and Ni-20 Cr on their oxidation behavior has been studied., AISI 316+Ce, AISI 316+Y, Ni-20 Cr and Ni-20 Cr-2 Al-1 Ce were prepared by melting and AISI 316L, AISI 316L+Ce O 2 and AISI 316L+Y 2 O 3 by powder compaction. The effect of superficial deposits of rare earth oxides was also studied. The alloys were coated with rare earth oxides by high temperature conversion of the respective rare earth nitrates. Isothermal oxidation tests were carried out at 900-1100 deg C and the cyclic oxidation tests consisted of 6 cycles of 2 hours each at 900 deg C, followed by cooling to room temperature. All the tests were carried out in air. Oxidation behavior was evaluated gravimetrically. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study surface morphology. Energy dispersive analysis and X-ray diffraction techniques were used to identify oxide constituents. Overall, it has been observed that with the addition of rare earths, oxidation resistance increases by decreasing oxidation rates and increasing oxide adhesion. Addition of rare earths to AISI 316 prepared by melting resulted in rapid formation of a chromium rich oxide layered near the metal/oxide interface which reduced overall oxidation rate. The addition of Ce O 2 to AISI 316L was found to improve oxidation behavior after 10 hours at 1100 deg C and also inhibit the formation of volatile Cr O 3 . The isothermal oxidation behavior of rare earth oxide covered Ni-20 Cr at 900 deg C

  2. Bioavailability of heavy metals, germanium and rare earth elements at Davidschacht dump-field in mine affected area of Freiberg (Saxony)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midula, Pavol; Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    with the other elements from this group. High amounts of As, Cd, Pb in mould horizons were proved. The surprisingly highest concentrations were determined for As (in average 3328 mg kg-1). The results of the pH measurement indicates acid conditions (in average 4.86, min. 3.89) for whole mine heap. Due to the mobility of Cd and Pb in acid environment, a high mobility of Cd in mobile soil fractions (in average 0.58 mg kg-1) was found, that seems to be responsible for the Cd pollution of Freiberger Mulde river, situated near the dump-field in the East direction from the studied area. The Pb content was in the average 1513 mg kg-1. SE analyses shows, that only the minor amounts of these metals were accounted in fractions I - IV (As: 7.75 %, Pb: 5.48 %, Cd: 26.77 %). The total Ge content in soil samples was 2.7 mg.kg-1in average. The concentrations of Nd and Ce were 17.7 mg kg-1and 38.5 mg kg-1, which is even lower than the average Nd and Ce contents in the Earth crust. However, the concentration of Ge was roughly a factor of two higher, than this average showing a large pool of Ge that could be accessed by phytoextraction. The SE analyses shows, that the average in fractions I - IV is even much lower, than in the case of the above mentioned heavy metals in comparison with Ge (1.75 %), Nd (3.28 %) and Ce (3.12 %). The BCF calculated for plants shows, that the only element, which could be possibly used as the object of phytoaccumulation is Cd (the BCF > 1) in species Populus tremula (3.0, 1.7), Spirea douglasii (1.4, 2.2) and Tanacetum vulgare (3.2, 1.3) at the most sampling places. Since these species represent the natural occurring vegetation of the dump, the use of these species together with soil amendments enhancing the plant availability of elements in soil fractions hold promise for phytoextraction of economically valuable metalloids and consequently an in situ bioremediation of the dump field. This work was realised with the support of Christin Jahns on behalf of the

  3. Study of alkaline-earth element complexes in anhydrous acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, N.

    1968-10-01

    We have studied the complexes of alkaline-earth elements in anhydrous acetic acid. Using glass-electrode potentiometry we have studied the titration of alkaline earth acetates with perchloric acid which is the strongest acid in anhydrous acetic acid. These titrations have shown that the basic strength of these acetates increases as follows: Mg 4 ); the mixed acetate-acid sulfate complex of barium: Ba (OAc)(HSO 4 ); the mixed acetate-chloride of barium: Ba (OAc)(Cl). (author) [fr

  4. Some crystal chemistry of (Ln,Ce)2CuO4-δ superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, P.; Keating, A.; Myhra, S.; White, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Compounds of the form (Ln, Sr, Ce) 2 CuO 4-δ (Ln = rare earth element) crystallise as the Nd 2 CuO 4 structure type, K 2 NiF 4 structure type or perfectly and imperfectly ordered intergrowths of these parent structures. These structurally similar phases exhibit superconductivity in which the charge carriers are holes (in Sr-doped material) or electrons (in Ce doped material). In this study, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and High Resolution Electron Microscopy (HREM) were used to investigate the charge balancing mechanisms operating in each superconducting regime and the structural changes accompanying compositional variation. It was found that under slightly reducing conditions charge coupled cation substitutions predominate, whilst at low pO 2 ( -5 atm) perfectly ordered oxygen superlattices form. The structural and electronic changes which accompany deoxygenation were observed in situ during XPS and HREM observations. 29 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Geochemical Study on an Abandoned Copper Smelting Plant Using Rare Earth Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Shuei Nan Dong Copper Smelting Plant smelting is located on the northern coast of New Taipei City, Taiwan. The plant built in 1906 for but has been shut down since 1987. However, the watershed is continuing to discharge acid mine water into the sea; and, the acid mine drainage releases high amounts of sulfate, heavy metals without any treatment. In this study, the water samples were sequentially collected along the main channel and its tributaries in the watershed. The results of hydrochemical analysis show that the untreated inflow water can be characterized with low pH value of 80% of the total variance and almost all chemical components have high loadings in the PC. Therefore, the hydrochemical properties in the watershed are mainly dominated by the mixing process between main channel and the major tributary but the geochemical reactions during flow down the channel is insignificant. Rare earth elements (REE) are an excellent tracer, which can indicate sources of chemical components and geochemical reactions in water. The analysis results demonstrate two distinct REE patterns. The water with low REE can be characterized by prominent Eu positive anomaly and Ce negative anomaly, which may result from the alteration of Na-plagioclase in sandstone and oxidation reaction when contact with air, respectively. On the contrary, the water with high REE shows only minor Ce negative anomaly and insignificant Eu positive anomaly. In addition, there is an enrichment of middle REE in high-REE water, which is quite different with the REE pattern of pyrite. According to the Grawunder's study (2014), it corresponds to the complexation to sulphite during pyrite oxidation. It is worth noting that REE show no considerable fractionation along the channel and confirms the results from PCA. It can be derived that the water may not reached equilibrium condition. A simple aerated retention pool could dramatically reduce the pollutants due to coprecipitation of iron oxide and aluminum

  6. Study of rare earth elements as material for control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-03-01

    The properties of rare earth elements as the material for control rods were studied. The rare earth elements, especially europium oxide, has the nuclear property corresponding to boron carbide, and its neutron absorption process does not emit alpha particles. The elements produced as a result of neutron capture also have large capture cross sections. This paper presents survey report on the properties and nuclear properties of rare earth elements, and comparison with other materials. Preliminary experiment was performed to make the pellets of europium oxide, and is described in this paper. Because of large density, the crystal form to be made was monoclinic system. Europium hydroxide was decomposed at 1000 0 C and 10 -5 torr. The obtained powder was dipped into benzene, and dryed in the air at 450 0 C. This powder was pressed and sintered in the air for one hour at 1500 0 C. The density of the obtained pellets was 97.0% of the theoretical density. The cross section of europium for fast neutron absorption is not yet accurately obtained, and is in the range between 4.65 and 8.5 barn for 151 Eu(n,γ) reaction. Since chain absorption reaction is caused in Eu, the overall capability of neutron absorption is not much changed by the loss of original material due to absorption. The pellets of europium oxide may be handled in air, but must be kept in dry atmosphere. The reactions of europium oxide with various metals were also investigated. The characteristic behavior in case of irradiation depends on the amount of silicon contained, and it was very good if the amount was less than 0.03%. (Kato, T.)

  7. Microstructural characterisation of Al-Si cast alloys containing rare earth additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgallad, E. M.; Ibrahim, M. F.; Doty, H. W.; Samuel, F. H.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a thorough study on the effect of rare earth elements, specifically La and Ce, on the microstructure characteristics of non-modified and Sr-modified A356 and A413 alloys. Several alloys were prepared by adding 1% La and 1% Ce either individually or in combination. Microstructural characterisation was carried out using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis as well as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The results showed that the individual and combined additions of La and Ce did not bring about any modification or even refinement in the eutectic Si structure. Moreover, these additions were found to negate the modification effect of Sr, particularly in the presence of La. The A356 and A413 alloys containing La and/or Ce displayed high phase volume fractions owing to the formation of Al-Si-La/Ce/(La,Ce) and Al-Ti-La/Ce intermetallic phases. DSC analysis revealed that the formation temperatures of these phases varied from 560 to 568 °C and 568 to 574 °C, respectively. This analysis also showed that the addition of La and Ce whether individually or in combination resulted in a depression in the eutectic temperature and a considerable increase in the solidification range, particularly for the A413 alloy.

  8. Relationship between concentration of rare earth elements in soil and their distribution in plants growing near a frequented road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczek, Patrycja; Borowiak, Klaudia; Budka, Anna; Niedzielski, Przemysław

    2018-06-05

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are a group of elements whose concentration in numerous environmental matrices continues to increase; therefore, the use of biological methods for their removal from soil would seem to be a safe and reasonable approach. The aim of this study was to estimate the phytoextraction efficiency and distribution of light and heavy (LREEs and HREEs) rare earth elements by three herbaceous plant species: Artemisia vulgaris L., Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. and Trifolium repens L., growing at a distance of 1, 10, and 25 m from the edge of a frequented road in Poland. The concentration of REEs in soil and plants was highly correlated (r > 0.9300), which indicates the high potential of the studied plant species to phytoextraction of these elements. The largest proportion of REEs was from the group of LREEs, whereas HREEs comprised only an inconsiderable portion of the REEs group. The dominant elements in the group of LREEs were Nd and Ce, while Er was dominant in the HREEs group. Differences in the amounts of these elements influenced the total concentration of LREEs, HREEs, and finally REEs and their quantities which decreased with distance from the road. According to the Friedman rank sum test, significant differences in REEs concentration, mainly between A. vulgaris L., and T. repens L. were observed for plants growing at all three distances from the road. The same relation between A. vulgaris L. and T. officinale was observed. The efficiency of LREEs and REEs phytoextraction in the whole biomass of plants growing at all distances from the road was A. vulgaris L. > T. officinale L. > T. repens L. For HREEs, the same relationship was recorded only for plants growing at the distance 1 m from the road. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) values for LREEs and HREEs were respectively higher and lower than 1 for all studied plant species regardless of the distance from the road. The studied herbaceous plant species were able to effectively phytoextract

  9. Incorporation of natural radionuclides and rare earth element into a salt tolerant plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summerton, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    A highly salt tolerant shrub, samphire (Halosarcia halocnemoides), found growing in the solid alkaline residues in an evaporation pond at a former uranium and monazite treatment plant, has been analysed for natural radionuclides and rare earths. The data obtained have been copared with that for plants from the local natural environment. Vegetation-to-soil concentration ratios have been determined. The radionuclide concentration ratios for samples from the contaminated site are similar to those from the natural environment. Significant differences have been noted in the case of the rare earth elements with an apparent preferential incorporation of the light rare earth elements into the plant growing in the chemical residues. (author) 10 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  10. Kinetics of Roasting Decomposition of the Rare Earth Elements by CaO and Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The roasting method of magnetic tailing mixed with CaO and coal was used to recycle the rare earth elements (REE in magnetic tailing. The phase transformation and decomposition process were researched during the roasting processes. The results showed that the decomposition processes of REE in magnetic tailing were divided into two steps. The first step from 380 to 431 °C mainly entailed the decomposition of bastnaesite (REFCO3. The second step from 605 to 716 °C mainly included the decomposition of monazite (REPO4. The decomposition products were primarily RE2O3, Ce0.75Nd0.25O1.875, CeO2, Ca5F(PO43, and CaF2. Adding CaO could reduce the decomposition temperature of REFCO3 and REPO4. Meanwhile, the decomposition effect of CaO on bastnaesite and monazite was significant. Besides, the effects of the roasting time, roasting temperature, and CaO addition level on the decomposition rate were studied. The optimum technological conditions were a roasting time of 60 min; roasting temperature of 750 °C; and CaO addition level of 20% (w/w. The maximum decomposition rate of REFCO3 and REPO4 was 99.87%. The roasting time and temperature were the major factors influencing the decomposition rate. The kinetics process of the decomposition of REFCO3 and REPO4 accorded with the interfacial reaction kinetics model. The reaction rate controlling steps were divided into two steps. The first step (at low temperature was controlled by a chemical reaction with an activation energy of 52.67 kJ/mol. The second step (at high temperature was controlled by diffusion with an activation energy of 8.5 kJ/mol.

  11. Nanocrystalline Mn-Mo-Ce Oxide Anode Doped Rare Earth Ce and Its Selective Electro-catalytic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHI Yan-hua

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The anode oxide of nanocrystalline Mn-Mo-Ce was prepared by anode electro-deposition technology, and its nanostructure and selective electro-catalytic performance were investigated using the SEM, EDS, XRD, HRTEM, electrochemical technology and oxygen evolution efficiency testing. Furthermore, the selective electro-catalytic mechanism of oxygen evolution and chlorine depression was discussed. The results show that the mesh-like nanostructure Mn-Mo-Ce oxide anode with little cerium doped is obtained, and the oxygen evolution efficiency for the anode in the seawater is 99.51%, which means a high efficiency for the selective electro-catalytic for the oxygen evolution. Due to the structural characteristics of γ-MnO2, the OH- ion is preferentially absorbed, while Cl- absorption is depressed. OH- accomplishes the oxygen evolution process during the valence transition electrocatalysis of Mn4+/Mn3+, completing the selective electro-catalysis process. Ce doping greatly increases the reaction activity, and promotes the absorption and discharge; the rising interplanar spacing between active (100 crystalline plane promotes OH- motion and the escape of newborn O2, so that the selective electro-catalytic property with high efficient oxygen evolution and chlorine depression is achieved from the nano morphology effect.

  12. Generalized phase diagram for the rare-earth elements: Calculations and correlations of bulk properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, B.; Rosengren, A.

    1975-01-01

    A ''generalized'' phase diagram is constructed empirically for the lanthanides. This diagram makes it possible, not only in one picture, to assemble a lot of information but also to predict phase transitions not yet experimentally accessible. Further, it clearly illustrates the close relation between the members of the lanthanide group. To account for some of its features, the pseudopotential method is applied. The trend in crystal structure through the lanthanide series can thereby be qualitatively accounted for, as can the trend in crystal structure for an individual element, when compressed. A scaling procedure makes it possible to extend the treatment to elements neighboring the lanthanides in the Periodic Table. In total 25 elements are considered. An atomic parameter f (relatable to the pseudopotential) is introduced, by means of which different phase transitions, both for an individual rare-earth element and intra-rare-earth alloys, can be correlated to certain critical values of this parameter. A nonmagnetic rare-earth series (Sc, Lu, Y, La, and Ac) is introduced and the occurrence of superconductivity is discussed with special emphasis on the pressure dependence of the transition temperature. This temperature can be correlated to the above-mentioned parameter f, both for intra-rare-earth alloys and pure elements at different pressures. The correlation implies that actinium is a superconductor with a critical temperature which could be as high as (11--12) degree K

  13. Characterization of the alteration products formed at the surface of LaYSiAlO and CeYSiAlO glasses using ERDA and RBS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavarini, S.; Trocellier, P.; Matzen, G.

    2004-01-01

    Leaching tests have been performed on LnYSiAlO glasses (Ln = La or Ce) that are considered as potential matrices for the specific immobilization of minor actinides. Elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) performed on leached samples indicated a superficial hydration of LaYSiAlO glass of about 100-150 nm. This hydrated layer is (Al, Y)-enriched according to SEM-EDS analysis, suggesting the formation of hydroxide (or hydroxycarbonates) compounds including these two elements. This process leads to a very efficient passivation of the material due to the low solubility of Al and Y hydroxides (and hydroxycarbonates) species in near neutral media, even when the solution is rapidly replenished is dynamic leaching experiments. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry elemental mapping revealed very localized and significantly Y-enriched deposits at the surface of the sample after leaching. This could be the sign of heterogeneities already present on the pristine glass. These may be correlated with the weak solubility of yttrium (and rare earth) elements in silicate matrices (Y + Ln initial content in the glass ∼11 at.%). In the case of CeYSiAlO glass, a thin layer was formed on the solid after leaching. The simulation of the corresponding RBS spectra showed a surface (Y, Ce)-enrichment and (Al, Si)-depletion in both cases. This could be explained by the oxidation of trivalent cerium initially present in the glass structure during leaching. This might be explained by the low solubility of Ce(IV)-compounds (CeO 2 and/or Ce(OH) 4 ) in solution leading to an enrichment of this element at the glass/solution interface, to form a mixture of amorphous CeO 2 and Y(OH) 3 , as confirmed by XPS and XRD experiments

  14. Low-temperature SCR of NO with NH{sub 3} over activated semi-coke composite-supported rare earth oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jinping; Yan, Zheng; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Yingyi; Zhang, Zuotai; Wang, Xidong, E-mail: xidong@pku.edu.cn

    2014-08-01

    The catalysts with different rare earth oxides (La, Ce, Pr and Nd) loaded onto activated semi-coke (ASC) via hydrothermal method are prepared for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH{sub 3} at low temperature (150–300 °C). It is evidenced that CeO{sub 2} loaded catalysts present the best performance, and the optimum loading amount of CeO{sub 2} is about 10 wt%. Composite catalysts by doping La, Pr and Nd into CeO{sub 2} are prepared to obtain further improved catalytic properties. The SCR mechanism is investigated through various characterizations, including XRD, Raman, XPS and FT-IR, the results of which indicate that the oxygen defect plays an important role in SCR process and the doped rare earth elements effectively serve as promoters to increase the concentration of oxygen vacancies. It is also found that the oxygen vacancies in high concentration are favored for the adsorption of O{sub 2} and further oxidation of NO, which facilitates a rapid progressing of the following reduction reactions. The SCR process of NO with NH{sub 3} at low temperature over the catalysts of ASC composite-supported rare earth oxides mainly follows the Langmuir–Hinshlwood mechanism.

  15. PIXE methodology of rare earth element analysis and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xinpei

    1992-01-01

    The Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) methodology of rare earth element (REEs) analysis is discussed, including the significance of REE analysis, the principle of PIXE applied to REE, selection of characteristic X-ray for Lanthanide series elements, deconvolution of highly over lapped PIXE spectrum and minimum detection limit (MDL) of REEs. Some practical applications are presented. And the specialities of PIXE analysis to the high pure REE chemicals are discussed. (author)

  16. Neutron activation analysis of the rare earth elements in rocks from the earth's upper mantle and deep crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stosch, H.-G.; Koetz, J.; Herpers, U.

    1986-01-01

    Three techniques for analyzing rare earth elements (REE) in geological materials are described, i.e. instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), neutron activation analysis with pre-irradiation chemical REE separation (PCS-NAA) and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA). The knowledge of REE concentrationd in eclogites, peridotites and minerals from the earth's lower crust and upper mantle is very useful in constraining their petrogenetic history. (author)

  17. Evaluation of the concentrations of rare earth elements, metals and traces in sediments of the Graminha Reservoir, São Paulo, SP, Brazil by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junqueira, Lucas S.; Fávaro, Déborah I.T.; Silva, Sharlleny A.

    2017-01-01

    Sediment profiles were collected in the Graminha (Caconde) supply reservoir, SP, in Aug / 2014 (points 1 and 4). The analytical technique of Neutral Activation with Instrumental Neutrons (INAA) was used and the determined elements were: As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Ta, Th, U and Zn and the rare earth elements (ETRs) (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Sc, Tb and Yb). The concentration values for the elements As, Cr and Zn were compared to the concentration guideline values (TEL and PEL) established by CCME (Canada) and adopted by CETESB. The sediments were classified as of good or optimal quality, for these 3 elements. The values found in the last slices of profile 1 (depth 90 cm) were taken as baseline values and from these values, the enrichment factors (FE) and the Geoacumulation Index (IGeo) were calculated. Values of FE> 1.5 were found, mainly, for the ETRs, U and Th, in both points, indicative of presence of anthropic contribution. The IGeo values confirmed FE values, with values of 1 elements, in both profiles

  18. Microstructure and fatigue behaviors of a biomedical Ti–Nb–Ta–Zr alloy with trace CeO2 additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Xiu; Wang, Lei; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Nakai, Masaaki; Liu, Yang; Zhu, Miaoyong

    2014-01-01

    The new β-type Ti–29Nb–13Ta–4.6Zr (TNTZ) alloy containing trace amounts of CeO 2 additions has been designed as a biomedical implant with improved fatigue properties achieved by keeping Young's modulus to a low value. The results show that the microstructure is refined by the addition of CeO 2 ; the β grain size becomes a little larger when Ce content increases from 0.05% to 0.10%. This occurs because dispersed CeO 2 particles can act as nucleation sites for β grains; thus, the effect of rare earth oxides on microstructure refinement mainly depends on the size and dispersion of the rare earth oxides. Young's moduli of TNTZ with CeO 2 additions are maintained as low as those of TNTZ without CeO 2 , while the fatigue limit is highly improved. The 0.10% Ce alloy exhibits the best fatigue strength among the experimental alloys; its fatigue strength is increased by 66.7% compared to that of pure TNTZ. The mechanism by which rare earth oxides affect fatigue performance is dominated by dispersion strengthening. The stiff rare earth oxides can hinder the movement of dislocations, resulting in resistance to the formation of fatigue cracks. Rare earth oxides also change the crack propagation direction and the crack propagation route, effectively decreasing the crack propagation rate

  19. Determination of trace elements in cockle Anadara Granosa L. using INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Noorddin

    1994-01-01

    This study determines the trace metal content in Anadara Granosa L., a popular seafood amongst South-East-Asians. Using the technique of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) identification has been made of the presence of 17 trace metals including elements which are classified as toxic (As, Br, Cs) and those which are rare-earths (Eu, Ce, Lu, Tb, Yb). (author)

  20. Corrosion Resistance of Murataite-Based Ceramics Containing Simulated Actinide/Rare Earth Fraction of High Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovsky, S.V.; Varlakova, G.A.; Burlaka, O.A.; Stefanovsky, O.I.; Nikonov, B.S.; Yudintsev, S.V.

    2009-01-01

    Two samples of murataite-based ceramics containing simulated Actinide/Rare Earth (An/RE) fraction of high level waste (HLW) produced by a cold crucible inductive melting (CCIM) were tested using a single-pass-flow-through (SPFT) procedure. As-prepared and leached samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive system (SEM/EDS). The as-prepared ceramics were composed of murataite, perovskite and crichtonite as well as minor zirconolite and rutile (in one sample). Elemental concentrations at pH=2 and T=90 deg. C were measured and leach rates were calculated. Perovskite concentrating Ca and Ce-group REs (La, Ce, Pr, Nd) was found to be the lowest durable phase. Leach rates of Ca and Ce-group REs (Ce, Nd) from the sample with higher perovskite content were found to be higher than those of U and Zr by one to three orders of magnitude. Elemental leach rates from the ceramic with lower perovskite content are lower by up to 10 times. (authors)

  1. Studies of mineralogy and geochemistry of Rare Earth Elements in permo-Triassic Bauxite deposit, Northeast of Bukan, North West of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedini, A.; Calagari, A. A.; Hadjalilu, B.; Jahangiri, A.

    2008-01-01

    Bauxite deposit of Permo-Triassic age in northeast of Bukan was developed stratiformly along the boundary between Ruteh and Elika formations, and includes four distinct rock units. This deposit was affected by tectonic and morphological processes. Mineralogical and geochemical investigations showed that during weathering processes, two mechanisms of ferrugenization and deferrugenization played crucial role in formation of minerals such as Diaspora, boehmite, hematite, goethite, kaolinite, pyrophyllite, clinochlore, illite, montmorillonite, anatase, rutile, albite, sanidine, quartz, and calcite in this deposit. By taking notice of field evidence and of mineralogical and geochemical data, the basalts (whose remnants are still present along the contact of this deposit with carbonate bedrock) are the potential parent rock of this deposit. The distribution pattern of rare earth elements (normalized to chondrite and basaltic parent rock) along with anomaly variations of Eu, Ce, and (La/Yb) N indicates differentiation of LREEs from HREEs during bauxitization processes. Further geochemical considerations indicate that the concentrations of LREEs were occurred by hematite, goethite, manganese oxides, cerianite, and secondary phosphates (rhabdophane, vitusite, gorceixite, monazite) and of HREEs by clay minerals; rutile, anatase, zircon, euxenite, and fergusonite. Incorporation of the results obtained from mineralogical and geochemical investigations suggests that in addition to factors such as p H of weathering solutions, ionic potential, composition of the parent rock, and fixation by residual minerals, adsorption processes also played crucial role in enrichment of rare earth elements during moderate to intense lateritization in the study area

  2. Geochemistry of trace elements and Sr- Nd isotopes of foraminifera shell from the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Trace elemental associations and Sr - Nd isotopic compositions are of important to recognition of biogenic material from mixed marine sediments. The foraminifera shell from the Okinawa Trough strongly enrichesSr, P, Mn andBa, enriches Li, U, Th, Sc, Co, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Rb, Y, Sb and light rare earth elements, slightly enriches V, Ga, Zr, Nb, Cd and middle rare earth elements,is short of Mo, In, Sn, Cs, Hf, Ta, W, Ti, Bi and heavy rare earth elements. The mechanism of elemental enrichment in forminifera is the concentrations of trace elements in sea water and selective absorption of trace elements during foraminifera living, as well as the geochemical affinity between major elements and trace elements. The REE (rare earth elements) partition pattern of foraminifera shell of the Okinawa Trough shows enrichment of middle rare earth elements with slightly negative Ce anomaly,which are different from those of foraminifera of the Pacific Ocean. The Sr, Nd isotopic ratios of the Okinawa Trough foraminifera are 0.709 769 and 0.512 162, respectively, which are different not only from those of oceanic water, but also from those of river water of China's Mainland, the former is slightly higher than those of oceanic water, but much lower than those of river water; the latter is slightly lower than those of oceanic water, but higher than those of river water, demonstrating that the Okinawa Trough sea water has been influenced by river water of China's Mainland.

  3. Characterization of Rare Earth Element Minerals in Coal Utilization Byproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montross, Scott N. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Verba, Circe A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States). Research Innovation Center; Collins, Keith [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States). Research Innovation Center

    2017-07-17

    The United States currently produces over 100 million tons of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) per year in the form of fly ash, bottom ash, slag, and flue gas (American Coal Ash Association (ACCA), 2015). But this “waste material” also contains potentially useful levels of rare earth elements (REE). Rare earth elements are crucial for many existing and emerging technologies, but the U.S. lacks a domestic, sustainable REE source. Our project explored the possibility of developing a supply of REEs for U.S. technologies by extracting REEs from CUBs. This work offers the potential to reduce our dependence on other countries for supply of these critical elements (NETL, REE 2016 Project Portfolio). Geologic and diagenetic history, industrial preparation methods, and the specific combustion process all play major roles in the composition of CUB. During combustion, inorganic mineral phases of coal particles are fluidized at temperatures higher than 1400oC, so inorganic mineral materials are oxidized, fused, disintegrated, or agglomerated into larger spherical and amorphous (non-crystalline) particles. The original mineralogy of the coal-containing rock and heating/cooling of the material significantly affects the composition and morphology of the particles in the combustion byproduct (Kutchko and Kim, 2006). Thus, different types of coal/refuse/ash must be characterized to better understand mineral evolution during the combustion process. Our research focused on developing a working model to address how REE minerals behave during the combustion process: this research should help determine the most effective engineering methods for extracting REEs from CUBs. We used multimodal imaging and image processing techniques to characterize six rock and ash samples from different coal power plants with respect to morphology, grain size, presence of mineral phases, and elemental composition. The results of these characterization activities provided thresholds for realizing the

  4. Adduct formation in Ce(IV) thenolytrifluoroacetonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anufrieva, S.I.; Polyakova, G.V.; Snezhko, N.I.; Pechurova, N.I.; Martynenko, L.I.; Spitsyn, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    The literature contains no information on adduct formation in Ce(IV) β-diketonates with additional ligands. Since tetrakis-β-diketonates of Ce(IV) have four six-membered chelate rings, we can suppose that the introduction of an additional monodentate or bidentate ligand into the coordination sphere of Ce(IV) β-diketonates would lead to an increase in the coordination number (CN) of the Ce(IV) to nine or ten. The possibility of realization of such a high CN for Ce(IV) has not been proved; a study of adduct formation by Ce(IV) tetrakis-β-diketonates is thus of theoretical interest. Such an investigation might also be of practical interest, because the introduction of an additional ligand into the coordination sphere of a rare-earth β-diketonate usually increases the solubility of the β-diketonate in nonpolar solvents and increases the volatility of the compound; such a modification of the properties is important for various practical purposes. The aim of our work was to study the possibility of separating solid adducts of Ce(IV) tetrakis-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate with certain oxygen-containing and nitrogen-containing donor monodentate and bidentate ligands, and also to investigate their properties. As the β-diketone we used thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTFA), since in a parallel investigation it was found that Ce(TTFA) 4 has a high oxidation-reduction stability

  5. Rare earths: critical elements for various applications and challenges in their separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.K.; Chakravartty, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    High purity rare earths oxides, metal and alloys find wide applications in high tech area such as nuclear energy, permanent magnets, materials for storing hydrogen, phosphors, laser, etc. Rare earths consists a group of 15 elements from La to Lu in the periodic table and it also includes Sc and Y. Due to similar chemical nature owing to common oxidation state of +3, rare earths are very difficult to separate from each other. They have very low separation factors with acidic extractants like D2EHPA and EHEHPA and hence require large number of stages in various cascade of extraction process. Monazite (a source of rare earths, thorium and uranium) is processed at IREL to separate rare earths from thorium and uranium. The rare earths are fractionated into three groups namely light rare earths (LRE), middle rare earths (MRE) and heavy rare earths (HRE) by solvent extraction method employing EHEHPA as extractant

  6. Determination of rare earth elements in biomonitors by neutron activation; Determinacao de elementos terras raras em biomonitores por ativacao neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Saiki, Mitiko; Ticianelli, R.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, M.; Alves, E.S.; Marcelli, M.P. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are becoming more and more important from the technological point of view, due to their increasing use in modern industry. Due to this fact, environmental contamination by REE may become significant, and little information are still available about biological effects of REE in plants, animals and human beings. The use of biomonitors to control environmental pollution has been an ecological and economical alternative in Europe and United Sates, to minimize the high costs of conventional equipment s. In the present paper, neutron activation analysis was employed to determine La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu in the lichen Canoparmelia texana and in Tillandsia usneoides, species that have been widely used as monitors of atmospheric pollution. The results showed an accumulation of REE in the biomonitors, indicating good possibilities of their utilization in the study of environmental contamination by REE. (author)

  7. Elemental composition changes in citrus affected by the CVC disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadai Fernandes de, A.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.; Turra, C.; Franca de, E.J.; Bacchi, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) disease results in serious economical losses for the Brazilian citriculture. The influence of CVC disease on the elemental composition of citrus plants was investigated. Leaves of sweet orange varieties Hamlin, Pera Rio and Valencia were collected from healthy and CVC-affected trees for chemical characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Significant differences between healthy and CVC-affected leaves were identified for Ca, Ce, Co, Eu, Fe, K, La, Na, Nd, Rb, Sc and Sm. Rare earth elements presented consistently higher mass fractions in the healthy leaves. (author)

  8. The transfer of rare earth elements through liquid extraction membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapranchik, V.P.; Proyaev, V.V.; Kopyrin, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The transfer of rare earth elements through liquid extraction membranes, presenting Dacron nuclear filters, impregnated by extractants of different types (tributylphosphine oxide; di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid, HDEHP; trioctylamine, TOA) is investigated. It is ascertained that in systems with extractant-carriers TOA and HDEHP inversion of dependences of flow values and distribution coefficients on the element atomic number is observed. Mathematical model of transfer, permitting to establish relation between extractional and transport characteristics of the membrane, is suggested

  9. Optical properties of pure and Ce3+ doped gadolinium gallium garnet crystals and epitaxial layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syvorotka, I.I.; Sugak, D.; Wierzbicka, A.; Wittlin, A.; Przybylińska, H.; Barzowska, J.; Barcz, A.; Berkowski, M.; Domagała, J.; Mahlik, S.; Grinberg, M.; Ma, Chong-Geng

    2015-01-01

    Results of X-ray diffraction and low temperature optical absorption measurements of cerium doped gadolinium gallium garnet single crystals and epitaxial layers are reported. In the region of intra-configurational 4f–4f transitions the spectra of the bulk crystals exhibit the signatures of several different Ce 3+ related centers. Apart from the dominant center, associated with Ce substituting gadolinium, at least three other centers are found, some of them attributed to the so-called antisite locations of rare-earth ions in the garnet host, i.e., in the Ga positions. X-ray diffraction data prove lattice expansion of bulk GGG crystals due to the presence of rare-earth antisites. The concentration of the additional Ce-related centers in epitaxial layers is much lower than in the bulk crystals. However, the Ce-doped layers incorporate a large amount of Pb from flux, which is the most probable source of nonradiative quenching of Ce luminescence, not observed in crystals grown by the Czochralski method. - Highlights: • Ce 3+ multicenters found in Gadolinium Gallium Garnet crystals and epitaxial layers. • High quality epitaxial layers of pure and Ce-doped GGG were grown. • Luminescence quenching of Ce 3+ by Pb ions from flux detected in GGG epitaxial layers. • X-ray diffraction allows measuring the amount of the rare-earth antisites in GGG

  10. Bacterial Cell Surface Adsorption of Rare Earth Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Y.; Park, D.; Reed, D.; Fujita, Y.; Yung, M.; Anderko, A.; Eslamimanesh, A.

    2015-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) play a critical role in many emerging clean energy technologies, including high-power magnets, wind turbines, solar panels, hybrid/electric vehicle batteries and lamp phosphors. In order to sustain demand for such technologies given current domestic REE shortages, there is a need to develop new approaches for ore processing/refining and recycling of REE-containing materials. To this end, we have developed a microbially-mediated bioadsorption strategy with application towards enrichment of REE from complex mixtures. Specifically, the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus was genetically engineered to display lanthanide binding tags (LBTs), short peptides that possess high affinity and specificity for rare earth elements, on its cell surface S-layer protein. Under optimal conditions, LBT-displayed cells adsorbed greater than 5-fold more REE than control cells lacking LBTs. Competition binding experiments with a selection of REEs demonstrated that our engineered cells could facilitate separation of light- from heavy- REE. Importantly, binding of REE onto our engineered strains was much more favorable compared to non-REE metals. Finally, REE bound to the cell surface could be stripped off using citrate, providing an effective and non-toxic REE recovery method. Together, this data highlights the potential of our approach for selective REE enrichment from REE containing mixtures.

  11. Determination of rare earth elements in high purity rare earth oxides by liquid chromatography, thermionic mass spectrometry and combined liquid chromatography/thermionic mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stijfhoorn, D.E.; Stray, H.; Hjelmseth, H.

    1993-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of rare earth elements in rocks has been modified and used for the determination of rare earth elements (REE) in high purity rare earth oxides. The detection limit was 1-1.5 ng or 2-3 mg/kg when a solution corresponding to 0.5 mg of the rare earth oxide was injected. The REE determination was also carried out by adding a mixture of selected REE isotopes to the sample and analysing the collected HPLC-fractions by mass spectrometry (MS) using a thermionic source. Since the matrix element was not collected, interference from this element during the mass spectrometric analysis was avoided. Detection limits as low as 0.5 mg/kg could then be obtained. Detection limits as low as 0.05 mg/kg were possible by MS without HPLC-pre-separation, but this approach could only be used for those elements that were not affected by the matrix. Commercial samples of high purity Nd 2 O 3 , Gd 2 O 3 and Dy 2 O 3 were analysed in this study, and a comparison of results obtained by HPLC, combined HPLC/MS and direct MS is presented. (Author)

  12. Recovery and separation of rare-earth elements, barium, and strontium from bastnasite with sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisele, J.A.; Bauer, D.J.

    1974-01-01

    A bench-scale investigation was made of a concentrated H 2 SO 4 reaction for recovering and separating rare earth elements, barium, and strontium from a bastnaesite ore and byproduct. Barium and strontium were dissolved in the concentrated acid and precipitated as a mixed product by water dilution. Separation of strontium from barium was effected by reaction with Na 2 CO 3 solution, followed by a dilute acid leach of the SrCO 3 formed. After removing the barium and strontium from bastnaesite ore, the rare-earth elements were roasted to water-soluble sulfates. The rare earth sulfate solution was subsequently processed by solvent extraction to produce rare-earth oxides low in lead and magnesium. (U.S.)

  13. Rare earth silicate (Ce, La, Nd, Ca, Th) SiO4 and cheralite (Th, Ca, Ce, La) (Psi)O4 are the responsible minerals for the anomalies of Morro de Ferro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, K.

    1982-01-01

    The Rare Earth silicate (La, Ce, Nd, Ca, Th)SiO 4 and cheralite (identified by Prof. Freeborn on a sample prepared from drilling core) were recognized as the most probable radioactive minerals that gave origin to high radioactive anomaly at Morro do Ferro hill together with coffinite, thorite, pyrochlore, apatite, etc., that are found in small quantity. The acids produced by decomposition of pyrite and fluorite have etched these radioactive minerals giving the high radioactive anomaly caracterized by high grade desiquilibrium of 232 Th serie. (Author) [pt

  14. Ce3 - xMgxCo9 : Transformation of a Pauli Paramagnet into a Strong Permanent Magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Tej N.; Taufour, Valentin; Palasyuk, Andriy; Lin, Qisheng; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2018-02-01

    We report on the synthesis of single-crystal and polycrystalline samples of Ce3 -xMgxCo9 solid solution (0 ≤x ≲1.4 ) and characterization of their structural and magnetic properties. The crystal structure remains rhombohedral in the whole composition range and Mg partially replaces Ce in the 6 c site of the CeCo3 structure. Ferromagnetism is induced by Mg substitutions starting as low as x =0.18 and reaching a Curie temperature as high as 450 K for x =1.35 . Measurements on single crystals with x =1.34 and TC=440 K indicate an axial magnetic anisotropy with an anisotropy field of 6 T and a magnetization of 6 μB/f .u . at 300 K. Coercicity is observed in the polycrystalline samples consistent with the observed axial magnetic anisotropy. Our discovery of ferromagnetism with large axial magnetic anisotropy induced by substituting a rare-earth element by Mg is a very promising result in the search of inexpensive permanent-magnet materials and suggests that other nonmagnetic phases, similar to CeCo3 , may also conceal nearby ferromagnetic phases.

  15. Rare earth elements as a by-catch of sedimentary deposits. Exploration program of rare earth elements; Selten Erd Elemente als Beifang sedimentaerer Lagerstaetten. Erkundungsprogramm Selten Erd Elemente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhardt, E.; Gebhardt, A. (comps.)

    2014-02-15

    The increasing demand for rare earth elements (REE) in the field of ''green technologies'' on the one hand and the shortage of raw materials on the world markets on the other hand confronted also Bavaria as an industrial location with growing supply problems in these ''high tech raw materials''. The aim of exploration was the clarification of the feedstock REE potential of heavy mineral concentrates which are obtained in the industrial extraction and processing of sand and kaolin in existing extraction operations in northern Bavaria as by catch and are potentially winnable or marketable. The in-depth investigation enabled the potential of found rare earth elements and other high-tech metal oxides that can be classified as very likely find it in terms of an economic recovery. [German] Der zunehmende Bedarf an Selten Erd Elementen (SEE) im Bereich der ''Gruenen Technologien'' zum Einen sowie die Rohstoffverknappung auf den Weltmaerkten zum Anderen konfrontiert auch Bayern als Industriestandort mit wachsenden Versorgungsproblemen bei diesen ''high tech-Grundstoffen''. Ziel der Erkundung war die Klaerung des rohstofflichen SEE-Potenzials von Schwermineralkonzentraten, die bei der grosstechnischen Gewinnung und Aufbereitung von Sand und Kaolin in vorhandenen Gewinnungsbetrieben Nordbayerns als Beifang anfallen und potenziell gewinn- bzw. vermarktbar sind. Im Zuge der Untersuchung konnten nutzbare Potenziale von Selten Erd Elementen und anderen high-tech - Metalloxiden gefunden werden, die sehr wahrscheinlich als fuendig im Hinblick auf eine wirtschaftliche Gewinnung eingestuft werden koennen.

  16. Yttrium separation of Xenotime waste in Pitinga (Brazil), in order to obtain rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo.

    1996-01-01

    The xenotime (YPO 4 and rare earth elements) found in the mine of Pitinga, Amazonas State, Brazil, has its origin in a primal depository ('eluvio' kind) of cassiterite, having considerable quantities of zirconite, ilmenite, topaz and niobates-tantalates. This xenotime has different characteristics in relation of the depositories that exist in other countries for presenting more concentration of rare earth heavy oxides. The mineralization of this cassiterite is problematic, because of the high level of radioactive elements. In the present work, we will process only the xenotime. The separation of rare earth elements is very difficult due to their great chemical similarity. For a more exactly determination, it is necessary to separate them at least of the macron constituents of the sample. As the Yttrium is considerate one of the rare earth elements, due to its chemical similarity, we can understand the difficulty of a chemical separation, mainly when this one is also a macro constituent of the sample, as in the case of xenotime. The process of separation will be based on the little difference that exists between the constants of complexation and the fluoride. (authors). 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  17. Studies on rare earth elements in seawater and uptake by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.; Koyanagi, T.; Saiki, M.

    1975-01-01

    The contents of rare earth elements in marine environmental samples were determined by neutron activation analysis to examine the existing state in coastal seawater and the concentration by marine organisms of the elements. Seawater was filtered through a Millipore filter GS (pore size 0.22 μm), before the analysis. Some of the seawater was treated with HC1 solution before filtration and some after filtration. Certain marine organisms were also analysed for determination of rare earth elements. These were: flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus); yellowtails (Seriola quinqueradiata); immature anchovy (Engraulis japonica); clams (Meretrix lusoria); green algae (Ulva pertusa); brown algae (Hizikia fusiforme, Sargassum fulvellum, Undaria pinnatifida). In the seawater without HC1 treatment before filtration, considerable amounts of the elements existed in residue on the filter, whereas in the seawater treated with HC1 before filtration, the greater part remained in the dissolved state. Concentration factors calculated from the contents of stable elements, therefore, are affected remarkably by the existing state of the elements in seawater. If only the dissolved state is assumed available for marine organisms, values one order higher are attained compared with the case where total amounts of the elements were used for the calculation. However, the contribution of the insoluble state seems to be not negligible with some organisms. The higher concentration factors for immature anchovy and clams observed in this study were considered to be caused by surface adsorption of elements in particulate form and also ingested sediment with high element concentration. (author)

  18. Transport of rare earth element-tagged soil particles in response to thunderstorm runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matisoff, G; Ketterer, M E; Wilson, C G; Layman, R; Whiting, P J

    2001-08-15

    The downslope transport of rare earth element-tagged soil particles remobilized during a spring thunderstorm was studied on both a natural prairie and an agricultural field in southwestern Iowa (U.S.A.). A technique was developed for tagging natural soils with the rare earth elements Eu, Tb, and Ho to approximately 1,000 ppm via coprecipitation with MnO2. Tagged material was replaced in target locations; surficial soil samples were collected following precipitation and runoff; and rare earth element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Diffusion and exponential models were applied to the concentration-distance data to determine particle transport distances. The results indicate that the concentration-distance data are well described by the diffusion model, butthe exponential model does not simulate the rapid drop-off in concentrations near the tagged source. Using the diffusion model, calculated particle transport distances at all hillside locations and at both the cultivated and natural prairie sites were short, ranging from 3 to 73 cm during this single runoff event. This study successfully demonstrates a new tool for studying soil erosion.

  19. Marine Phosphorites as Potential Resources for Heavy Rare Earth Elements and Yttrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Hein

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine phosphorites are known to concentrate rare earth elements and yttrium (REY during early diagenetic formation. Much of the REY data available are decades old and incomplete, and there has not been a systematic study of REY distributions in marine phosphorite deposits that formed over a range of oceanic environments. Consequently, we initiated this study to determine if marine phosphorite deposits found in the global ocean host REY concentrations of high enough grade to be of economic interest. This paper addresses continental-margin (CM and open-ocean seamount phosphorites. All 75 samples analyzed are composed predominantly of carbonate fluorapatite and minor detrital and authigenic minerals. CM phosphorites have low total REY contents (mean 161 ppm and high heavy REY (HREY complements (mean 49%, while seamount phosphorites have 4–6 times higher individual REY contents (except for Ce, which is subequal; mean ΣREY 727 ppm, and very high HREY complements (mean 60%. The predominant causes of higher concentrations and larger HREY complements in seamount phosphorites compared to CM phosphorites are age, changes in seawater REY concentrations over time, water depth of formation, changes in pH and complexing ligands, and differences in organic carbon content in the depositional environments. Potential ore deposits with high HREY complements, like the marine phosphorites analyzed here, could help supply the HREY needed for high-tech and green-tech applications without creating an oversupply of the LREY.

  20. Determination of rare-earth elements in rocks by isotope-excited X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunzendorf, Helmar; Wollenberg, H.A.

    1970-01-01

    Isotope-excited X-ray fluorescence spectrometry furnishes a rapid determination of rare-earth elements in unprepared rock samples. The samples are excited by 241Am γ-rays, generating X-ray spectra on a multichannel pulse-height analyser. Gaussian peaks of the Kα and Kβ X-ray energies are treated ......-ray spectrometric scan of a longitudinally sliced drill core showed a close correlation between rare-earth abundances and appropriate minerals.......Isotope-excited X-ray fluorescence spectrometry furnishes a rapid determination of rare-earth elements in unprepared rock samples. The samples are excited by 241Am γ-rays, generating X-ray spectra on a multichannel pulse-height analyser. Gaussian peaks of the Kα and Kβ X-ray energies are treated...

  1. PIXE studies on elemental characterization of offset printing ink tagged with rare-earth taggants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, D.; Saxena, A.; Choudhury, R.K.; Maind, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    Proton Induced X-ray Emission Technique (PIXE) has been used for elemental characterization of offset printing ink tagged with rare-earth taggants, with a proton beam of energy 4 MeV at Folded Tandem Ion Accelerator (FOTIA) at BARC, Trombay, Mumbai, India. The offset printing ink was tagged with rare-earth (La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate chelates at about 1000 ppm level for each element separately. Small aliquots (approximately 20 mg) of tagged inks were coated on paper supports and then analyzed. Well-resolved rare-earth L X-rays were detected using a high resolution Si(Li) detector. Satisfactory results to identify and quantify the taggants were achieved. (author)

  2. Microstructural stability of heat-resistant high-pressure die-cast Mg-4Al-4Ce alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jinghuai; Li, Guoqiang; Feng, Yan; Su, Minliang; Wu, Ruizhi; Zhang, Zhongwu [Harbin Engineering Univ. (China). Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology; Jiao, Yufeng [Jiamusi Univ. (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering

    2017-05-15

    The thermal stability of Al-RE (rare earth) intermetallic phases with individual RE for heat-resistant high-pressure die-casting Mg-Al-RE alloys is investigated. The results of this study show that the main strengthening phase of Mg-4Al-4Ce alloy is Al{sub 11}Ce{sub 3}, whose content is about 5 wt.% according to quantitative X-ray diffraction phase analysis. The Al{sub 11}Ce{sub 3} phase appears to have high thermal stability at 200 C and 300 C, while phase morphology change with no phase structure transition could occur for Al{sub 11}Ce{sub 3} when the temperature reaches 400 C. Furthermore, besides the kinds of rare earths and temperature, stress is also an influencing factor in the microstructural stability of Mg-4Al-4Ce alloy.

  3. Study on the extraction of rare earth elements in liquid bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, M.; Adachi, M.; Kai, Y.; Koike, K.

    1987-01-01

    Three factors, which are important for the extraction of rare earth elements in liquid bismuth - molten salt system, were studied, i. e., the equilibrium distribution of neodymium, samarium and bismuth between molten LiCl - liquid Bi-Li alloys, the extraction rate of rare earths, and the characteristics of the extractor with drop dispersion. The rare earth elements were extracted through redox reactions. In high range of Li-mole fraction in the alloy phase, X Li , the distribution of neodymium and bismuth in the salt phase markedly increased as X Li increased. The anomalous increase is attributed to the formation of the compound comprised of Nd, Li, Bi and oxygen in the salt phase. The redox reaction processes were very fast and the extraction rates for rare earths are controlled by the diffusion processes of the solute and the metallic lithium. The process for the formation of liquid metal drops in the continuous phase is predictable from semiempirical correlations reported for aqueous solution - organic solvent systems. The height of droplet bed being accumulated on drop settling portion is predictable from the coalescence time of single drop to a flat metal interface. The coalescence of metal drop to clean interface was very fast. The extractor type of liquid metal dispersion in molten salt is suitable for the extraction process in the fuel reprocessing of MSR or MSBR. (author)

  4. Rare earth element abundances in presolar SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, T. R.; Ávila, J. N.; Lugaro, M.; Cristallo, S.; Holden, P.; Lanc, P.; Nittler, L.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Gyngard, F.; Amari, S.

    2018-01-01

    Individual isotope abundances of Ba, lanthanides of the rare earth element (REE) group, and Hf have been determined in bulk samples of fine-grained silicon carbide (SiC) from the Murchison CM2 chondrite. The analytical protocol involved secondary ion mass spectrometry with combined high mass resolution and energy filtering to exclude REE oxide isobars and Si-C-O clusters from the peaks of interest. Relative sensitivity factors were determined through analysis of NIST SRM reference glasses (610 and 612) as well as a trace-element enriched SiC ceramic. When normalised to chondrite abundances, the presolar SiC REE pattern shows significant deficits at Eu and Yb, which are the most volatile of the REE. The pattern is very similar to that observed for Group III refractory inclusions. The SiC abundances were also normalised to s-process model predictions for the envelope compositions of low-mass (1.5-3 M⊙) AGB stars with close-to-solar metallicities (Z = 0.014 and 0.02). The overall trace element abundances (excluding Eu and Yb) appear consistent with the predicted s-process patterns. The depletions of Eu and Yb suggest that these elements remained in the gas phase during the condensation of SiC. The lack of depletion in some other moderately refractory elements (like Ba), and the presence of volatile elements (e.g. Xe) indicates that these elements were incorporated into SiC by other mechanisms, most likely ion implantation.

  5. Analysis of Fe, Ca, Ti, Ba, Ce, Zr and La element in the Sea sediment at Muria peninsula by X RF method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukirno and Sri Murniasih

    2009-01-01

    he analysis of metals (Fe, Ca, Ti, Ba, Ce, Zr and La) in the sea sediment environmental samples at Muria peninsula has been carried out with X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) method. The aim of this analysis is to know the distribution metals which accommodate the recent environmental data in supporting the license of site and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for the Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). Samples taken preparation and analysis based on the procedures of environmental analysis. The result analysis that contents of mayor elements in 7 sea sediment location of sampling were Ca, Ti and Fe with concentration are (6.74 – 11.69 ) %; (0.74 – 6.89 ) % and (0.45 -1.94 ) % successively; while minor elements were Ba, Ce, Zr and La with concentration are 451.4 – 1331.6 ) mg/kg; (201.8 – 427.3) mg/kg; (192.3 – 338.5) mg/kg dan (171.7 – 298.4) mg/kg. The statistic test result shows that sampling location there is a significant difference all of element with the level significant of 95 %. (author)

  6. Rare earth minerals and resources in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanazawa, Yasuo [Human Resource Department, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)]. E-mail: y.kanazawa@aist.go.jp; Kamitani, Masaharu [Institute for Geo-Resources and Environment, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8567 (Japan)

    2006-02-09

    About 200 rare earth (RE) minerals are distributed in a wide variety of mineral classes, such as halides, carbonates, oxides, phosphates, silicates, etc. Due to the large ionic radii and trivalent oxidation state, RE ions in the minerals have large coordination numbers (c.n.) 6-10 by anions (O, F, OH). Light rare earth elements (LREEs) tend to occupy the larger sites of 8-10 c.n. and concentrate in carbonates and phosphates. On the other hand, heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and Y occupy 6-8 c.n. sites and are abundant in oxides and a part of phosphates. Only a few mineral species, such as bastnaesite (Ce,La)(CO{sub 3})F, monazite (Ce,La)PO{sub 4}, xenotime YPO{sub 4}, and RE-bearing clay have been recovered for commercial production. Bayan Obo, China is the biggest RE deposit in the world. One of probable hypotheses for ore geneses is that the deposit might be formed by hydrothermal replacement of carbonate rocks of sedimentary origin. The hydrothermal fluid may be derived from an alkaline-carbonatite intrusive series. Following Bayan Obo, more than 550 carbonatite/alkaline complex rocks constitute the majority of the world RE resources. The distribution is restricted to interior and marginal regions of continents, especially Precambrian cratons and shields, or related to large-scale rift structures. Main concentrated areas of the complexes are East African rift zones, northern Scandinavia-Kola peninsula, eastern Canada and southern Brazil. Representative sedimentary deposits of REE are placer- and conglomerate-types. The major potential countries are Australia, India, Brazil, and Malaysia. Weathered residual deposits have been formed under tropical and sub-tropical climates. Bauxite and laterite nickel deposit are the representative. Ion adsorption clay without radioactive elements is known in southern China. Weathering processes concentrate REE in a particular clay mineral-layer in the weathered crusts whose source were originally REE-rich rocks like granite

  7. Rare earth minerals and resources in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Yasuo; Kamitani, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    About 200 rare earth (RE) minerals are distributed in a wide variety of mineral classes, such as halides, carbonates, oxides, phosphates, silicates, etc. Due to the large ionic radii and trivalent oxidation state, RE ions in the minerals have large coordination numbers (c.n.) 6-10 by anions (O, F, OH). Light rare earth elements (LREEs) tend to occupy the larger sites of 8-10 c.n. and concentrate in carbonates and phosphates. On the other hand, heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and Y occupy 6-8 c.n. sites and are abundant in oxides and a part of phosphates. Only a few mineral species, such as bastnaesite (Ce,La)(CO 3 )F, monazite (Ce,La)PO 4 , xenotime YPO 4 , and RE-bearing clay have been recovered for commercial production. Bayan Obo, China is the biggest RE deposit in the world. One of probable hypotheses for ore geneses is that the deposit might be formed by hydrothermal replacement of carbonate rocks of sedimentary origin. The hydrothermal fluid may be derived from an alkaline-carbonatite intrusive series. Following Bayan Obo, more than 550 carbonatite/alkaline complex rocks constitute the majority of the world RE resources. The distribution is restricted to interior and marginal regions of continents, especially Precambrian cratons and shields, or related to large-scale rift structures. Main concentrated areas of the complexes are East African rift zones, northern Scandinavia-Kola peninsula, eastern Canada and southern Brazil. Representative sedimentary deposits of REE are placer- and conglomerate-types. The major potential countries are Australia, India, Brazil, and Malaysia. Weathered residual deposits have been formed under tropical and sub-tropical climates. Bauxite and laterite nickel deposit are the representative. Ion adsorption clay without radioactive elements is known in southern China. Weathering processes concentrate REE in a particular clay mineral-layer in the weathered crusts whose source were originally REE-rich rocks like granite and

  8. Enhanced separation of rare earth elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Herbst, R. S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Welty, A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Soderstrom, M. D. [Cytec Solvay Group, Tempe, AZ (United States); Jakovljevic, B. [Cytec Solvay Group, Niagara Falls, ON (Canada)

    2016-09-01

    Industrial rare earth separation processes utilize PC88A, a phosphonic acid ligand, for solvent extraction separations. The separation factors of the individual rare earths, the equipment requirements, and chemical usage for these flowsheets are well characterized. Alternative ligands such as Cyanex® 572 and the associated flowsheets are being investigated at the pilot scale level to determine if significant improvements to the current separation processes can be realized. These improvements are identified as higher separation factors, reduced stage requirements, or reduced chemical consumption. Any of these improvements can significantly affect the costs associated with these challenging separation proccesses. A mid/heavy rare earth element (REE) separations flowsheet was developed and tested for each ligand in a 30 stage mixer-settler circuit to compare the separation performance of PC88A and Cyanex® 572. The ligand-metal complex strength of Cyanex® 572 provides efficient extraction of REE while significantly reducing the strip acid requirements. Reductions in chemical consumption have a significant impact on process economics for REE separations. Partitioning results summarized Table 1 indicate that Cyanex® 572 offers the same separation performance as PC88A while reducing acid consumption by 30% in the strip section for the mid/heavy REE separation. Flowsheet Effluent Compositions PC88A Cyanex® 572 Raffinate Mid REE Heavy REE 99.40% 0.60% 99.40% 0.60% Rich Mid REE Heavy REE 2.20% 97.80% 0.80% 99.20% Liquor Strip Acid Required 3.4 M 2.3 M Table 1 – Flowsheet results comparing separation performance of PC88A and Cyanex® 572 for a mid/heavy REE separation.

  9. Geochemical characteristics of trace and rare earth elements in Xiangyangping uranium deposit of Guangxi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qi; Xiao Jianjun; Fan Liting; Wen Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The trace and rare earth elements analysis were performed on two kinds ore-hosting rocks (Xiangcaoping granite and Douzhashan granite), alternated cataclastic granite and uranium ores in Xiangyangping uranium deposit of Guangxi. The results show that both of the two kinds granites display similar maturity features of highly evolved crust with the enrichment of Rb, Th, U, Ta and Pb, the depletion of Ba and Sr, high Rb/Sr and low Nb/Ta ratio, moderately rich light rare earth elements, strong negative Eu anomaly. Moreover, Douzhashan granite have higher Rb/Sr ratio and U content, which indicate it experienced more sufficient magma evolution and have higher potential of uranium source. There are almost no change in the content of trace and rare earth elements and distribution patterns during chloritization, hydromicazation and potash feldspathization of granite, but there occurred uranium enrichment and mineralization and REE remobilization while hematitization was superposed. This suggest that hematitization is most closely correlated with uranium mineralization in the working area. Because Most hematitization cataclastic rocks and uranium ore display similar geochemical characteristics to Douzhashan granite with relative high Rb/Sr and low Nb/Ta, Zr/Hf, ΣREE, LREE/HREE ration, and the trace and rare earth elements content and distribution patterns of some Xiangcaoping hematitization cataclastic rocks are between the two kinds of granite, therefore it can be concluded that the mineralization materials were mainly from Douzhashan granite and partly from Xiangcaoping granite. (authors)

  10. Unraveling Recrystallization Mechanisms Governing Texture Development from Rare Earth Element Additions to Magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imandoust, Aidin

    The origin of texture components associated with rare-earth (RE) element additions in wrought magnesium (Mg) alloys is a long-standing problem in magnesium technology. The objective of this research is to identify the mechanisms accountable for rare-earth texture during dynamic recrystallization (DRX). Towards this end, we designed binary Mg-Cerium and Mg-Gadolinium alloys along with complex alloy compositions containing zinc, yttrium and Mischmetal. Binary alloys along with pure Mg were designed to individually investigate their effects on texture evolutions, while complex compositions are designed to develop randomized texture, and be used in automotive and aerospace applications. We selected indirect extrusion to thermo-mechanically process our materials. Different extrusion ratios and speeds were designed to produce partially and fully recrystallized microstructures, allowing us to analyze DRX from its early stages to completion. X-ray diffraction, electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to conduct microstructure and texture analyses. Our analyses revealed that rare-earth elements in zinc-containing magnesium alloys promote discontinuous dynamic recrystallization at the grain boundaries. During nucleation, the effect of rare earth elements on orientation selection was explained by the concomitant actions of multiple Taylor axes in the same grain. Isotropic grain growth was observed due to rare earth elements segregating to grain boundaries, which lead to texture randomization. The nucleation in binary Mg-RE alloys took place by continuous formation of necklace structures. Stochastic relaxation of basal and non-basal dislocations into low-angle grain boundaries produced chains of embryos with nearly random orientations. Schmid factor analysis showed a lower net activation of dislocations in RE textured grains compared to ones on the other side of the stereographic triangle. Lower dislocation densities within

  11. Rare earth element geochemistry characteristics of seawater and porewater from deep sea in western Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinan; Ren, Jiangbo; Guo, Qingjun; Cao, Jun; Wang, Haifeng; Liu, Chenhui

    2017-11-28

    Deep-sea sediments contain high concentrations of rare earth element (REE) which have been regarded as a huge potential resource. Understanding the marine REE cycle is important to reveal the mechanism of REE enrichment. In order to determine the geochemistry characteristics and migration processes of REE, seawater, porewater and sediment samples were systematically collected from the western Pacific for REE analysis. The results show a relatively flat REE pattern and the HREE (Heavy REE) enrichment in surface and deep seawater respectively. The HREE enrichment distribution patterns, low concentrations of Mn and Fe and negative Ce anomaly occur in the porewater, and high Mn/Al ratios and low U concentrations were observed in sediment, indicating oxic condition. LREE (Light REE) and MREE (Middle REE) enrichment in upper layer and depletion of MREE in deeper layer were shown in porewater profile. This study suggests that porewater flux in the western Pacific basin is a minor source of REEs to seawater, and abundant REEs are enriched in sediments, which is mainly caused by the extensive oxic condition, low sedimentation rate and strong adsorption capacity of sediments. Hence, the removal of REEs of porewater may result in widespread REE-rich sediments in the western Pacific basin.

  12. Anthropogenic gadolinium anomalies and rare earth elements in the water of Atibaia River and Anhumas Creek, Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Francisco Ferreira; Enzweiler, Jacinta

    2016-05-01

    The concentrations of rare earth elements (REE), measured in water samples from Atibaia River and its tributary Anhumas Creek, Brazil, present excess of dissolved gadolinium. Such anthropogenic anomalies of Gd in water, already described in other parts of the world, result from the use of stable and soluble Gd chelates as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. Atibaia River constitutes the main water supply of Campinas Metropolitan area, and its basin receives wastewater effluents. The REE concentrations in water samples were determined in 0.22-μm pore size filtered samples, without and after preconcentration by solid-phase extraction with bis-(2-ethyl-hexyl)-phosphate. This preconcentration method was unable to retain the anthropogenic Gd quantitatively. The probable reason is that the Gd chelates dissociate slowly in acidic media to produce the free ion that is retained by the phosphate ester. Strong correlations between Gd and constituents or parameters associated with effluents confirmed the source of most Gd in water samples as anthropogenic. The shale-normalized REE patterns of Atibaia River and Anhumas Creek water samples showed light and heavy REE enrichment trends, respectively. Also, positive Ce anomalies in many Atibaia River samples, as well as the strong correlations of the REE (except Gd) with terrigenous elements, imply that inorganic colloidal particles contributed to the REE measured values.

  13. Determination of rare earth elements with group separation irradiation followed by neutron activation analysis. Application to brazilian standards BB-1 and GB-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcala, A.L.; Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Marques, L.S.; Astolfo, R.

    1989-01-01

    In order to determine the rare earth elements (REE) in rocks, by neutron activation analysis, a group separation, before irradiation, was developed. The Brazilian geological standards BB-1 and GB-1, provided by Instituto de Geociencias da Universidade da Bahia, were analyzed. The method was based on acid digestion of the samples, cation exchange separation with a Dowex 50WX8 column and coprecipitation of the REE with calcium oxalate. Interferents, like U, Th, Ta and Fe were eliminated. The concentration values of ten REE's (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho, Yb and Lu) were determined. The analysis of Pr made a contribution to the knowledge of the REE contents in these geological standards, since there are not yet results in the literature. The other REE data obtained were compared with literature values and some discrepancies are discussed. (author) [pt

  14. Direct Quantification of Rare Earth Elements Concentrations in Urine of Workers Manufacturing Cerium, Lanthanum Oxide Ultrafine and Nanoparticles by a Developed and Validated ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Yu, Hua; Zheng, Siqian; Miao, Yang; Yin, Shi; Li, Peng; Bian, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have undergone a steady spread in several industrial, agriculture and medical applications. With the aim of exploring a sensitive and reliable indicator of estimating exposure level to REEs, a simple, accurate and specific ICP-MS method for simultaneous direct quantification of 15 REEs (89Y, 139La, 140Ce, 141Pr, 146Nd, 147Sm, 153Eu, 157Gd, 159Tb, 163Dy, 165Ho, 166Er, 169Tm, 172Yb and 175Lu) in human urine has been developed and validated. The method showed good linearity for all REEs in human urine in the concentrations ranging from 0.001–1.000 μg∙L−1 with r2 > 0.997. The limits of detection and quantification for this method were in the range of 0.009–0.010 μg∙L−1 and 0.029–0.037 μg∙L−1, the recoveries on spiked samples of the 15 REEs ranged from 93.3% to 103.0% and the relative percentage differences were less than 6.2% in duplicate samples, and the intra- and inter-day variations of the analysis were less than 1.28% and less than 0.85% for all REEs, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of 15 REEs in 31 urine samples obtained from the control subjects and the workers engaged in work with manufacturing of ultrafine and nanoparticles containing cerium and lanthanum oxide. The results suggested that only the urinary levels of La (1.234 ± 0.626 μg∙L−1), Ce (1.492 ± 0.995 μg∙L−1), Nd (0.014 ± 0.009 μg∙L−1) and Gd (0.023 ± 0.010 μg∙L−1) among the exposed workers were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the levels measured in the control subjects. From these, La and Ce were the primary components, and accounted for 88% of the total REEs. Lanthanum comprised 27% of the total REEs while Ce made up the majority of REE content at 61%. The remaining elements only made up 1% each, with the exception of Dy which was not detected. Comparison with the previously published data, the levels of urinary La and Ce in workers and the control subjects show a higher trend

  15. Control of oxygen vacancies and Ce+3 concentrations in doped ceria nanoparticles via the selection of lanthanide element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehata, N.; Meehan, K.; Hudait, M.; Jain, N.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of lanthanides that have positive association energies with oxygen vacancies, such as samarium and neodymium, and the elements with negative association energies, such as holmium and erbium, on ionization state of cerium and, consequentially, the oxygen vacancy concentration in doped ceria nanoparticles are investigated in this article. Structural and optical characterizations of the doped and undoped ceria nanoparticles, synthesized using chemical precipitation, are carried out using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, optical absorption spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. It is deduced that the negative association energy dopants decrease the conversion of Ce +4 into Ce +3 and, hence, scavenge the oxygen vacancies, evidenced by the observed increase in the allowed direct bandgap, decrease in the integrated fluorescence intensity, and increased the size of doped nanoparticles. The opposite trends are obtained when the positive association dopants are used. It is concluded that the determining factor as to whether a lanthanide dopant in ceria acts as a generator or scavenger of oxygen vacancies in ceria nanoparticles is the sign of the association energy between the element and the oxygen vacancies. The ability to tailor the ionization state of cerium and the oxygen vacancy concentration in ceria has applications in a broad range of fields, which include catalysis, biomedicine, electronics, and environmental sensing.

  16. Levels of major and trace elements, including rare earth elements, and ²³⁸U in Croatian tap waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiket, Željka; Rožmarić, Martina; Krmpotić, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of 46 elements, including major, trace, and rare earth elements, and (238)U in Croatian tap waters were investigated. Selected sampling locations include tap waters from various hydrogeological regions, i.e., different types of aquifers, providing insight into the range of concentrations of studied elements and (238)U activity concentrations in Croatian tap waters. Obtained concentrations were compared with the Croatian maximum contaminant levels for trace elements in water intended for human consumption, as well as WHO and EPA drinking water standards. Concentrations in all analyzed tap waters were found in accordance with Croatian regulations, except tap water from Šibenik in which manganese in concentration above maximum permissible concentration (MPC) was measured. Furthermore, in tap water from Osijek, levels of arsenic exceeded the WHO guidelines and EPA regulations. In general, investigated tap waters were found to vary considerably in concentrations of studied elements, including (238)U activity concentrations. Causes of variability were further explored using statistical methods. Composition of studied tap waters was found to be predominately influenced by hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer, at regional and local level, the existing redox conditions, and the household plumbing system. Rare earth element data, including abundances and fractionation patterns, complemented the characterization and facilitated the interpretation of factors affecting the composition of the analyzed tap waters.

  17. Rare earths and energy critical elements: a roadmap and strategy for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharadwaj, Mridula Dixit; Balasubramanian, N.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to summarise and update the report 'Rare Earths (RE) and Energy Critical Elements (ECE): A Roadmap and Strategy for India' released in July 2012. The background to the report is as follows. The Ministry of Mines (MoM), Government of India constituted a steering committee in August 2011 to develop a strategy paper on status and availability of Rare Earth Elements (REE) and Energy Critical Elements (ECE). The race to find alternatives to RE by the use of supercomputers and genetic algorithms will be described. Many of the ECE eg. gallium, germanium, indium, selenium and tellurium are by-products of main metals: aluminium, copper, zinc and tin. Their production is restricted by that of main metals. Saline brine and subsoil bitterns are sources of lithium. Uranium, and niobium alloying with zirconium are critical to nuclear energy. Exploration, applications, recycling and recovery of these elements will be discussed. Our report and presentation lay stress on novel routes that emphasise self-reliance and not merely economic viability and also provide short, medium and long term options along with proposals for specific policy and legislative interventions

  18. Magnetic interactions in equi-atomic rare-earth intermetallic alloys RScGe (R = Ce, Pr, Nd and Gd) studied by time differential perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy and ab initio calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S N

    2009-03-18

    Applying the time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) technique we have measured electric and magnetic hyperfine fields of the (111)Cd impurity in equi-atomic rare-earth intermetallic alloys RScGe (R = Ce, Pr and Gd) showing antiferro- and ferromagnetism with unusually high ordering temperatures. The Cd nuclei occupying the Sc site show high magnetic hyperfine fields with saturation values B(hf)(0) = 21 kG, 45 kG and 189 kG in CeScGe, PrScGe and GdScGe, respectively. By comparing the results with the hyperfine field data of Cd in rare-earth metals and estimations from the RKKY model, we find evidence for the presence of additional spin density at the probe nucleus, possibly due to spin polarization of Sc d band electrons. The principal electric field gradient component V(zz) in CeScGe, PrScGe and GdScGe has been determined to be 5.3 × 10(21) V m(-2), 5.5 × 10(21) V m(-2) and 5.6 × 10(21) V m(-2), respectively. Supplementing the experimental measurements, we have carried out ab initio calculations for pure and Cd-doped RScGe compounds with R = Ce, Pr, Nd and Gd using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method based on density functional theory (DFT). From the total energies calculated with and without spin polarization we find ferrimagnetic ground states for CeScGe and PrScGe while NdScGe and GdScGe are ferromagnetic. In addition, we find a sizable magnetic moment at the Sc site, increasing from ≈0.10 μ(B) in CeScGe to ≈0.3 μ(B) in GdScGe, confirming the spin polarization of Sc d band electrons. The calculated electric field gradient and magnetic hyperfine fields of the Cd impurity closely agree with the experimental values. We believe spin polarization of Sc 3d band electrons, strongly hybridized with spin polarized 5d band electrons of the rare-earth, enables a long range Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction between RE 4f moments which in turn leads to high magnetic ordering temperatures in

  19. Change of sulfide inclusions in steel microalloying with rare earth and alkaline-earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averin, V.V.; Polonskaya, S.M.; Chistyakov, V.F.

    1977-01-01

    The conditions for the formation of sulfides in molten and solid iron were determined by considering the thermodynamics of the interaction of sulfur and of oxygen with various components. It was shown in casting of low-carbon steel under a blanket of slag-forming briquettes, calcium of the silicocalcium partly passes to iron and to the sulfide phase. The sulfide inclusions with calcium in rolling become lens-shaped and acquire a greater strength, proportional to the content of calcium, thus ensuring a lesser anisotropy of steel. The change in the shape and the composition of sulfide inclusions effects the fracture of the metal which changes in type from separation along lamellar inclusions to a plastic fracture, i.e., enhances resilience. It is thus noted that rare-earth and alkali-earth elements, in particular, cerium and calcium are promising agents for desulfurating molten iron

  20. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of the spatial distribution of uranium, thorium and rare earth elements of surficial sediments from Black sea coast nearby Istanbul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyuz, T; Bolcal, C.; Akyuz, S.; Mukhamedshina, N.M.; Mirsagatova, A.A

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The Black Sea is an inland sea between south-eastern Europe and Asia minor. It is the largest anoxic marine basin in the word and connected to the Mediterranean Sea by the Bosporus and the Sea of Marmara, to the Sea of Azov by the Strait of Kerch. One of the most useful approaches to long-term monitoring of aquatic systems is the analysis of marine sediments. In this study the abundance of uranium, thorium and some rare earth elements was analysed in surface sediments of the Southern part of the Black Sea using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The spatial distribution patterns of the elements studied were investigated. The surficial sediment samples (0-4 cm) were collected during 1999-2005, from 18 sampling stations of the Turkish Coast of the Black Sea, by using a Lenz Bottom Sampler and were deposited into plastic bags. The samples were dried at 40 degrees Celcius for 24 hours, crushed and homogenised prior to the analysis and were irradiated simultaneously with reference materials at a fission spectra neutron flux of the density of 5.10 1 3 cm - 2.s - 1 (WWR-SM) nuclear reactor of Institute of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The gamma-spectra were measured in a gamma-spectrometer. A linear regression correlation test was performed to investigate the correlation between the elemental concentrations of our sediment samples. Correlation analysis revealed close relationships between Th and U (r=0.82), Th and La (r=0.87), Th and Ce (r=0.89). In nature, rare earth elements are often associated to thorium, thus the results indicate that Th and Lanthanides have a natural origin. The mean values of thorium (8.38) to uranium (3.80) is found to be Th/U= 2.20

  1. Rare earth element concentrations and Nd isotopes in the Southeast Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeandel, C.; Delattre, H.; Grenier, M.; Pradoux, C.; Lacan, F.

    2013-02-01

    vertical profiles of rare earth element concentrations and Nd isotopic compositions have been measured in the remote southeast Pacific Ocean. The three stations represent contrasting environments: the oligotrophic center of the gyre (station GYR), the "transition zone" east of the South Tropical Front (station EGY), and the Peru-Chile upwelling marked by a pronounced oxygen minimum (station UPX). Rare earth concentrations display nutrient like vertical profiles except at UPX where surface waters are enriched. At this station Nd isotopic compositions are clearly more radiogenic than in the open ocean, suggesting that boundary exchange process is releasing lithogenic rare earth element from the volcanic Andes. Unexpected radiogenic values (ɛNd reaching -3.7) are also observed at 2000 m at station GYR in the Upper Circumpolar Deep Water that commonly have ɛNd values around -6. Exchange processes related to hydrothermal activity are suspected to produce this increase in ɛNd in the vicinity of the East Pacific Rise. These results provide some guidance for higher resolution studies planned in this region by the international GEOTRACES program.

  2. Separation method for rare-earths using high-voltage electrophoresis on paper strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarence, J.

    1966-01-01

    The equipment includes an electrophoresis set running at 3 000 V and 20 mA. Two cooling plates are used as heat exchanger, and a pneumatic pressure device to insure an uniform pressure on the paper strip laid flat. The mobilities and the separations of the rare earths in lactic, and, α hydroxy-isobutyric acid solutions are investigated on cellulose acetate strip. Better results are obtained with α hydroxy-isobutyric acid. The method is rapid and allows a fine fractionation of rare earth elements within less than an hour. A complete separation of a Ce - Pr - Nd - Pm - Eu mixture, and a Y - Tb mixture is obtained. (author) [fr

  3. Neutron activation analysis of rare earths in uranium containing rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, S.; Pinte, G.

    1984-01-01

    The determination of rare earths by activation analysis in uranium rocks is disturbed either by fission-produced rare earths, or by neptunium-239 originating from uranium-238. In order to eliminate these interferencies, the chemical separation of rare earths from uranium prior to activation should be performed. The chemical process is as follows: the rock sample is fused with sodium borate, then, after addition of hydrochloric acid, the resulting solution is passed through a Dowex 1x8 column. Uranium is retained on the resin, and rare earths and scandium are eluted. Aluminium is added as a carrier to the solution, and rare earths and scandium are coprecipitated with aluminium hydroxide. This precipitate is irradiated in the nuclear reactor. Gamma spectrometry is used for the determination of earth radionuclide. Activity measurements are performed in successive steps during one month. The following elements are determined: Pr, La, Sm, Nd, Yb, Lu, Ce, Tb, Eu and Sc. The chemical yield is measured by using scandium as an internal standard. (author)

  4. Distribution of trace elements in land plants and botanical taxonomy with special reference to rare earth elements and actinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Mutsuo

    1989-01-01

    Distribution profiles of trace elements in land plants were studied by neutron activation analysis and radioactivity measurements without activation. Number of botanical samples analyzed were more than three thousand in which more than three hundred botanical species were included. New accumulator plants of Co, Cr, Zn, Cd, rare earth elements, Ac, U, etc., were found. Capabilities of accumulating trace elements can be related to the botanical taxonomy. Discussions are given from view points of inorganic chemistry as well as from botanical physiology

  5. Online preconcentration ICP-MS analysis of rare earth elements in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathorne, Ed C.; Haley, Brian; Stichel, Torben; Grasse, Patricia; Zieringer, Moritz; Frank, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REEs) with their systematically varying properties are powerful tracers of continental inputs, particle scavenging intensity and the oxidation state of seawater. However, their generally low (˜pmol/kg) concentrations in seawater and fractionation potential during chemical treatment makes them difficult to measure. Here we report a technique using an automated preconcentration system, which efficiently separates seawater matrix elements and elutes the preconcentrated sample directly into the spray chamber of an ICP-MS instrument. The commercially available "seaFAST" system (Elemental Scientific Inc.) makes use of a resin with ethylenediaminetriacetic acid and iminodiacetic acid functional groups to preconcentrate REEs and other metals while anions and alkali and alkaline earth cations are washed out. Repeated measurements of seawater from 2000 m water depth in the Southern Ocean allows the external precision (2σ) of the technique to be estimated at mine water reference materials diluted with a NaCl matrix with recommended values in the literature. This makes the online preconcentration ICP-MS technique advantageous for the minimal sample preparation required and the relatively small sample volume consumed (7 mL) thus enabling large data sets for the REEs in seawater to be rapidly acquired.

  6. Origin assessment of uranium ore concentrates based on their rare-earth elemental impurity pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, Z.; Wallenius, M.; Mayer, K. [Commission of the European Communities, Karlsruhe (Germany). European Inst. for Transuranium Elements

    2010-07-01

    The rare-earth element pattern was used as an additional tool for the identification and origin assessment of uranium ore concentrates (yellow cakes) for nuclear forensic purposes. By this means, the source of an unknown material can be straightforwardly verified by comparing the pattern with that of a known or declared sample. In contrast to other indicators used for nuclear forensic studies, the provenance of the material can also be assessed in several cases even if no comparison sample is available due to the characteristic pattern. The milling process was found not to change the pattern and no significant elemental fractionation occurs between the rare-earth elements, thus the pattern in the yellow cakes corresponds to that found in the uranium ore. (orig.)

  7. Determination of rare earth elements in red mud by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjukta A.; Suvarna, S.; Kiran Kumar, G.

    2017-01-01

    Red mud or red sludge is a highly alkaline waste product composed mainly of iron oxide that is generated in the industrial production of aluminum from bauxite. With about 77 million tons of this hazardous material being produced annually, red mud poses a serious disposal problem in the mining industry. Discharge of red mud is hazardous environmentally because of its alkalinity. Many studies have been conducted to develop uses of red mud. An estimated 2 to 3 million tones are used annually in the production of cement, road construction and as a source for iron. Potential applications include the production of low cost concrete, application to sandy soils to improve phosphorus cycling, amelioration of soil acidity, landfill capping and carbon sequestration. Red mud contains a large amount of iron along with appreciable concentrations of many strategic elements such as rare earth elements and therefore can be a source of valuable secondary raw material. This necessitates the elemental characterization of red mud. This paper presents an effective dissolution procedure using a mixture of phosphoric acid and nitric acid for red mud followed by determination of rare earth elements by ICP-MS. The method was validated by spike recovery experiments. The recoveries were found within 98 to 102 %. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the method was found to be within 5 %

  8. The significant role of the rare earth ions on the elastic and thermodynamic parameters of LiCoDy- and ZnCoCe-ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishay, Samiha T.

    2006-01-01

    Two types of rare earth ferrites [Li 0.6 Co 0.1 Dy x Fe 2.3-x O 4 ; 0.0= 0.5 Co 0.5 Ce y Fe 2-y O 4 ; 0.0= L ) and shear (V S ) velocities, Young's modulus (E), Debye temperature (θ D ) and specific heat capacity (C v ) have been evaluated for all the investigated samples. The rare earth content as well as its ionic radius plays a significant role in the evaluated parameters. According to the experimental results, the two investigated types of rare earth ferrite are considered as insulator magnetic solids. It was found that for each composition there exists a characteristic temperature, down to which the resonance frequency of the investigated samples drops smoothly, but above this temperature the resonance frequency stays constant. Accordingly, these samples seem to be of importance in industrial applications especially in the field of electronics

  9. Assessing rare earth elements in quartz rich geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, A.; Thoss, V.; Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Urgast, D.; Raab, A.; Mastrolitti, S.; Feldmann, J.

    2016-01-01

    Sodium peroxide (Na_2O_2) fusion coupled to Inductively Coupled Plasma Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) measurements was used to rapidly screen quartz-rich geological samples for rare earth element (REE) content. The method accuracy was checked with a geological reference material and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) measurements. The used mass-mode combinations presented accurate results (only exception being "1"5"7Gd in He gas mode) with recovery of the geological reference material QLO-1 between 80% and 98% (lower values for Lu, Nd and Sm) and in general comparable to INAA measurements. Low limits of detection for all elements were achieved, generally below 10 pg g"−"1, as well as measurement repeatability below 15%. Overall, the Na_2O_2/ICP-MS/MS method proved to be a suitable lab-based method to quickly and accurately screen rock samples originating from quartz-rich geological areas for rare earth element content; particularly useful if checking commercial viability. - Highlights: • Na_2O_2 fusion coupled to ICP-MS/MS was used to determine REE in quartz-rich samples. • The method accuracy was checked with a geological reference material and INAA. • Results were within 80–98% recovery of QLO-1 reference material, comparable to INAA. • Detection limits were generally below 10 pg g"−"1, and repeatability was below 15%. • Na_2O_2/ICP-MS/MS proved to be a suitable method for REE in quartz-rich samples.

  10. Production of a tracer packet of heavier rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahiri, S.; Nayak, D.; Maji, S.

    2004-01-01

    Production of a tracer packet of heavier rare earth elements containing carrier-free radionuclides of 153,155 Tb, 153,155,157 Dy, 159 Ho, 159,161 Er, 161 Tm produced by medium energy 7 Li and 12 C irradiation on an europium oxide target and the subsequent separation of bulk europium from the carrier-free products is described. (author)

  11. Synthesis and physicochemical investigation of complexes of rare earth, alkaline earth elements and copper with some β-diketones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichiporuk, R.V.; Pechurova, N.I.; Snezhko, N.I.; Martynenko, L.I.; Kaul', A.R.; Zanina, A.S.; Shergina, S.I.; Sokolov, I.E.

    1991-01-01

    Complexes of rare earth, alkaline earth elements and copper with 2-methoxy-2,6,6-trimethylheptanedion-3,5 as well as complexes of yttrium and barium with 2-methoxy-2,6-dimethylheptanedion-3,5 were synthesized. Prepared complexes were investigated by the methods of chemical, thermal, X-ray phase analyses, IR spectroscopy. Complex sublimation was studied at 10 -1 -10 -2 mm Hg. Complexes of rare earths and copper don't change their composition during sublimation, and sublimation of hydrated complexes of barium, strontium and calcium leads to formation of anhydrous complexes. All prepared complexes are able to transsublimate multiply and qualitatively without change of composition. All isolated complexes can be used for preparation of film oxide coatings by CVD method

  12. Spectral Analysis of Rare Earth Elements using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Madhavi Z [ORNL; Fox, Dr. Richard V [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Miziolek, Andrzej W [United States Army Research Laboratory; DeLucia, Frank C [United States Army Research Laboratory; Andre, Nicolas O [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in rapid analysis of rare earth elements (REEs) both due to the need to find new natural sources to satisfy increased demand in their use in various electronic devices, as well as the fact that they are used to estimate actinide masses for nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) appears to be a particularly well-suited spectroscopy-based technology to rapidly and accurately analyze the REEs in various matrices at low concentration levels (parts-per-million). Although LIBS spectra of REEs have been reported for a number of years, further work is still necessary in order to be able to quantify the concentrations of various REEs in realworld complex samples. LIBS offers advantages over conventional solution-based radiochemistry in terms of cost, analytical turnaround, waste generation, personnel dose, and contamination risk. Rare earth elements of commercial interest are found in the following three matrix groups: 1) raw ores and unrefined materials, 2) as components in refined products such as magnets, lighting phosphors, consumer electronics (which are mostly magnets and phosphors), catalysts, batteries, etc., and 3) waste/recyclable materials (aka e-waste). LIBS spectra for REEs such as Gd, Nd, and Sm found in rare earth magnets are presented.

  13. Spectral Analysis of Rare Earth Elements using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Madhavi Z [ORNL; Fox, Dr. Richard V [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Miziolek, Andrzej W [United States Army Research Laboratory; DeLucia, Frank C [United States Army Research Laboratory; Andre, Nicolas O [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in rapid analysis of rare earth elements (REEs) both due to the need to find new natural sources to satisfy increased demand in their use in various electronic devices, as well as the fact that they are used to estimate actinide masses for nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) appears to be a particularly well-suited spectroscopy-based technology to rapidly and accurately analyze the REEs in various matrices at low concentration levels (parts-per-million). Although LIBS spectra of REEs have been reported for a number of years, further work is still necessary in order to be able to quantify the concentrations of various REEs in real-world complex samples. LIBS offers advantages over conventional solution-based radiochemistry in terms of cost, analytical turnaround, waste generation, personnel dose, and contamination risk. Rare earth elements of commercial interest are found in the following three matrix groups: 1) raw ores and unrefined materials, 2) as components in refined products such as magnets, lighting phosphors, consumer electronics (which are mostly magnets and phosphors), catalysts, batteries, etc., and 3) waste/recyclable materials (aka e-waste). LIBS spectra for REEs such as Gd, Nd, and Sm found in rare earth magnets are presented.

  14. A preliminary research on characteristics of rare-earth elements in ancient pottery of neolithic age in Su Wan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shuyu; Lin Shuqin; Peng Zicheng; Liu Fangxin; Zhang Jingguo

    1995-01-01

    The content of rare-earth elements in the three ancient ruins of pottery of the Neolithic age along Yangtze River is analyzed by means of Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence Spectrometry. It is shown that the distribution of rare-earth elements varies with the sites where the ancient pottery samples were unearthed. Therefore the analysis of the content of the rate-earth elements may help explore the ancient pottery production sites and the route of the ancient culture exchange

  15. Investigations for chromatographic separation and determination of the rare earths and auxiliary group elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, K.

    1981-01-01

    Different method have been developed to quantitatively determine rare earth elements after their column chromatographic separation. The influence of the active solvents in the running systems diethyl ether/tetra hydrofuran (THF)/nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and diethyl ether/bis-(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphate (HDEHP)/HNO 3 was investigated on the column chromatographic separation of all rare earth elements is possible by the synergistic combination of the active running components THF and HDEHP. Further from product isotopes could also be separated using the running agents described here in investigations to separate fission product mixtures of irradiated uranium. (orig./HBR) [de

  16. Scientific Objectives of China Chang E 4 CE-4 Lunar Far-side Exploration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Zeng, Xingguo; Chen, Wangli

    2017-10-01

    China has achieved great success in the recently CE-1~CE-3 lunar missions, and in the year of 2018, China Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP) is going to launch the CE-4 mission. CE-4 satellite is the backup satellite of CE-3, so that it also consists of a Lander and a Rover. However, CE-4 is the first mission designed to detect the far side of the Moon in human lunar exploration history. So the biggest difference between CE-4 and CE-3 is that it will be equipped with a relay satellite in Earth-Moon-L2 Point for Earth-Moon Communication. And the scientific payloads carried on the Lander and Rover will also be different. It has been announced by the Chinese government that CE-4 mission will be equipped with some new international cooperated scientific payloads, such as the Low Frequency Radio Detector from Holland, Lunar Neutron and Radiation Dose Detector from Germany, Neutral Atom Detector from Sweden, and Lunar Miniature Optical Imaging Sounder from Saudi Arabia. The main scientific objective of CE-4 is to provide scientific data for lunar far side research, including: 1)general spatial environmental study of lunar far side;2)general research on the surface, shallow layer and deep layer of lunar far side;3)detection of low frequency radio on lunar far side using Low Frequency Radio Detector, which would be the first time of using such frequency band in lunar exploration history .

  17. Determination of rare earth elements by photometric microtitration using xylenol orange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, V.; Jancarova, I.; Sommer, L.

    1989-01-01

    Stock solutions were prepared of rare earth elements in approx 0.1M nitric acid, xylenol orange and EDTA. All measurements were made using a double-beam digital recording spectrophotometer (Superscan 3) with a titration measuring cell with a volume of approx. 30 ml and optical length of 20 mm. Titration agents were pipetted using an automatic piston microburette. Measured were absorbance pH curves of solutions of several lanthanides with xylenol orange, the absorption spectra of solutions of xylenol orange with lanthanides with increasing addition of titration agents EDTA, and the titration curves of the dependence of absorbance of lanthanide solutions with xylenol orange during titration with the EDTA solution. It was found that photometric microtitration allowed accurate and correct determination of all rare earth elements within the concentration range 0.04 - 0.5 mmol/l by titration with standard EDTA solution of a concentration of xylenol orange of 20 μmol/l. (E.S.). 4 figs., 3 tabs., 7 refs

  18. Synthesis and luminescence of CePO4 and CePO4:Tb hollow and core-shell microspheres composed of single-crystal nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Mingyun; Sun Jianhua; Han Min; Xu Zheng; Tao Feifei; Yin Gui; Wei Xianwen; Zhu Jianmin; Jiang Xiqun

    2007-01-01

    Lanthanide phosphate microspheres composed of single-crystal CePO 4 and CePO 4 :Tb nanorods were successfully synthesized, respectively, using the functionalized composite aggregate as a template, which is composed of P123, H 6 P 4 O 13 and Ce 3+ , and also as a resource of reaction species with high chemical potential. The shape and the phase structure of the CePO 4 nanocrystal can be easily controlled via adjusting reaction temperature, monomer concentration and annealing temperature. SEM images show the spherical superstructure composed of nanorods. HRTEM and SAED images reveal the single-crystalline nature of nanorod and TEM images show the hollow interiors of the superstructure. XRD patterns indicate that the crystal structure of the nanorods is hexagonal before and monoclinic after annealing. The formation mechanism was proposed. Strong UV and green luminescence were observed for the CePO 4 and CePO 4 :Tb microspheres, respectively. The synthesis method can be extended to the fabrication of NRHS and core-shell microspheres of other rare-earth or doped LnPO 4 materials for wide applications

  19. Tetragonal Ce-based Ce-Sm(Fe, Co, Ti){sub 12} alloys for permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Cid, Andres; Salazar, Daniel [BCMaterials, Bizkaia Science and Tecnology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Gabay, Aleksandr M.; Hadjipanayis, George C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 19716 (United States); Barandiaran, Jose Manuel [BCMaterials, Bizkaia Science and Tecnology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Department of Electricity and Electronics, University Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2016-12-15

    Abundance and relatively low cost of Ce provide a great incentive for its use in rare-earth permanent magnets. It has been recently reported that the tetragonal Ce(Fe,Co,Ti)12 compounds may exhibit application-worthy intrinsic magnetic properties. In this work the effect of the α-Fe phase formation due to the evaporation of Sm during alloy fabrication has been studied, as a previous step in the attempt to convert the intrinsic magnetic properties into functional properties of a permanent magnet. Ce{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 9}Co{sub 2}Ti alloys based on the ThMn12-type crystal structure have been synthesized via melt-spinning with different Sm content. Coercive fields between 2.8 and 1.4 kOe have been found for α-Fe phase contents between 8 and 46% in volume, showing the influence of the α-Fe phase on the coercivity and exchange coupling between the hard and soft phase. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Extension of CE/SE method to non-equilibrium dissociating flows

    KAUST Repository

    Wen, C.Y.

    2017-12-08

    In this study, the hypersonic non-equilibrium flows over rounded nose geometries are numerically investigated by a robust conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) code, which is based on hybrid meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. The dissociating and recombination chemical reactions as well as the vibrational energy relaxation are taken into account. The stiff source terms are solved by an implicit trapezoidal method of integration. Comparison with laboratory and numerical cases are provided to demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of the present CE/SE code in simulating hypersonic non-equilibrium flows.

  1. Enhanced phytoextraction of germanium and rare earth elements - a rhizosphere-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Germanium (Ge) and rare earth elements (REEs) are economically valuable raw materials that have become an integral part of our modern high tech society. While most of these elements are not actually rare in terms of general amounts in the earth's crust, they are rarely found in sufficient abundances in single locations for their mining to be economically viable. The average concentration of Ge in soils is estimated at 1.6 μg g-1. The REEs comprise a group of 16 elements including La, the group of lanthanides and Y that are abundant in the earth crust with concentrations varying from 35 μg g-1 (La), 40 μg g-1 (Nd), 6 μg g-1 (Gd) and 3.5 μg g-1 (Er) to 0.5 μg g-1 in Tm. Thus, a promising chance to improve supply of these elements could be phytomining. Unfortunately, bioavailability of Ge and REEs in soils appears to be low, in particular in neutral or alkaline soils. A sequential dissolution analysis of 120 soil samples taken from the A-horizons of soils in the area of Freiberg (Saxony, Germany) revealed that only 0.2% of total Ge and about 0.5% of La, Nd, Gd and Er of bulk concentrations were easily accessible by leaching with NH4-acetate (pH 7). Most of the investigated elements were bound to Fe-/Mn-oxides and silicates and were therefore only poorly available for plant uptake. Here we report an environmentally friendly approach for enhanced phytoextraction of Ge and REEs from soils using mixed cultures of plant species with efficient mechanisms for the acquisition of nutrients in the rhizosphere. The rhizosphere is characterized as the zone in soil sourrounding a plant root that consists of a gradient in chemical, physical and biological soil properties driven by rhizodeposits like carboxylates and protons. Some species like white lupin (Lupinus albus) are able to excrete large amounts of organic acid anions(predominantly citrate and malate) and show a particularly high potential for the acidification of the rhizosphere. In our experiments, mixed cultures

  2. Solvent extraction of rare earth elements by γ-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudha Vani, T.J.; Krishna Rao, K.S.V.; Krishna Reddy, L.; Jaya Rami Reddy, M.; Lee, Yong III

    2010-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) is a mine of new material and has very wide uses in industry. India has second largest abundant resources of rare earths and with its products and exports playing an important part in the world. REEs are important in nuclear energy programs, hence the separation and purification of rare earths is demanded. As well known, the separation between trivalent REEs is one of the most difficult tasks in separation chemistry due to their similar chemical properties. A large number of acidic and neutral organo-phosphorus and sulphur extractants have been widely employed industrially for the solvent extraction separation of REEs. However, these reagents display various shortcomings, such as poor selectivity, third phase formation, etc. In view of the ever increasing demand for high purity REEs as a group or from one another, there is a growing interest in the development of new and more selective solvent extraction reagents

  3. Structural studies of type N superconductive compounds: R{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4{+-}{delta}} (R = Gd, Eu, Sm, Nd, Pr); influences of chemical treatments on physical properties; Etudes structurales des composes supraconducteurs de type N: R{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4{+-}{delta}} (R = Gd, Eu, Sm, Nd, Pr); influences des traitements chimiques sur les proprietes physiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigoureux, P

    1995-06-01

    Different chemical treatments of R{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4{+-}{delta}} compounds monocrystals (gadolinium, europium, samarium, neodymium and praseodymium cuprates) modify their physical properties especially their superconductive properties. The presented chemical treatments are: the substitution of the trivalent rare earth element R by an other trivalent lanthanide, its substitution by tetravalent cerium, and heat treatment under low oxygen pressure. After these chemical treatments, structural modifications are observed by neutrons and X-rays diffraction, and allow to precise their actions: size effect of the rare earth element on the deformation of the CuO{sub 2} planes, links between deformation and superconductivity and magnetic properties. (A.B.). 394 refs/.

  4. Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Thai Monazite by Inductively Coupled Plasma and Nuclear Analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busamongkol, Arporn; Ratanapra, Dusadee; Sukharn, Sumalee; Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart

    2003-10-01

    The inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) for the determination of individual rare-earth elements (REE) was evaluated by comparison with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The accuracy and precision of INAA and ICP-AES were evaluated by using standard reference material IGS-36, a monazite concentrate. For INAA, the results were close to the certified value while ICP-AES were in good agreement except for some low concentration rare earth. The techniques were applied for the analysis of some rare earth elements in two Thai monazite samples preparing as the in-house reference material for the Rare Earth Research and Development Center, Chemistry Division, Office of Atoms for Peace. The analytical results obtained by these techniques were in good agreement with each other

  5. A novel approach for acid mine drainage pollution biomonitoring using rare earth elements bioaccumulated in the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnail, Estefanía; Pérez-López, Rafael; Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Nieto, José Miguel; DelValls, T Ángel

    2017-09-15

    Lanthanide series have been used as a record of the water-rock interaction and work as a tool for identifying impacts of acid mine drainage (lixiviate residue derived from sulphide oxidation). The application of North-American Shale Composite-normalized rare earth elements patterns to these minority elements allows determining the origin of the contamination. In the current study, geochemical patterns were applied to rare earth elements bioaccumulated in the soft tissue of the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea after exposure to different acid mine drainage contaminated environments. Results show significant bioaccumulation of rare earth elements in soft tissue of the clam after 14 days of exposure to acid mine drainage contaminated sediment (ΣREE=1.3-8μg/gdw). Furthermore, it was possible to biomonitor different degrees of contamination based on rare earth elements in tissue. The pattern of this type of contamination describes a particular curve characterized by an enrichment in the middle rare earth elements; a homologous pattern (E MREE =0.90) has also been observed when applied NASC normalization in clam tissues. Results of lanthanides found in clams were contrasted with the paucity of toxicity studies, determining risk caused by light rare earth elements in the Odiel River close to the Estuary. The current study purposes the use of clam as an innovative "bio-tool" for the biogeochemical monitoring of pollution inputs that determines the acid mine drainage networks affection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A new potentiometric method for the estimation of the rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selig, W.S.

    1988-01-01

    Chinese workers recently described a new potentiometric method for lead using sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) as a titrant. Based on a previous Chinese publication, the authors have recently developed a method for the estimation of the alkaline earth metals by sequential titration with NaTPB. In the present work, the authors report a similar method for the estimation of the rare earth elements, including Sc and Y. The sensing electrode is a spectrographic graphite rod, coated with a solution of poly(vinyl chloride) and dioctylphthalate in tetrahydrofuran as previously described. The reference electrode was a double-junction Ag/AgCl electrode. The titration system is controlled by a Tektronix 4051 graphics computer system. Single cations or mixtures up to 0.5 mequiv are determined by potentiometric titration with 0.05 N NaTPB, after formation of the oxonium cations by reaction with an aqueous solution of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Best results are obtained with PEGs of molecular weights from 8,000 to 20,000. Sequential estimation of Pb + Ba, Sr, and Ca, and the sum of the rare earth elements is also reported, plus possible applications to Al, Ga, and anions precipitated by lead

  7. Processing of Pakistani carbonatites for separation of cerium from adjacent rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, M.; Qazi, N.K.; Khan, M.F.; Hasan, G.H.; Ahmed, N.; Chughtai, N.A.

    2003-01-01

    Carbonatite rock of Loe-Shilman area in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan contains rare earth elements. This rock was upgraded in terms of its rare earths content from 2,000 ppm to 10,000 ppm rare earths oxide (REO) by crushing, calcination at 1000 deg. C for 3 hrs and cold leaching with 2% HCl for 1 hr. 80% to 95% of rare earths present in carbonatite powder were digested in nitric acid at 60 deg. C after 2 hrs stirring. Tributyl phosphate (TBP), diluted with dodecane, was used as extractant for extraction of rare earths. Since extraction is dependent on pH of the aqueous feed solution, the role of nitrate ions concentration in the solvent extraction of rare earth elements (REEs) was studied. It was observed that extraction of REEs was maximum at pH 1.1. The solvent had been unable to extract REEs from high acidic feed solutions. Solvents of different molarities were also tried against aqueous phase of pH 1.1. Studies showed a poor gain at 0 M and 0.5 M of organic phase while no gain observed beyond 2 molar solvent. 1 M organic phase gave maximum yield of rare earths salt, Ln(OH)/sub 3/, when stripped solution precipitated with ammonium hydroxide solution. It was also observed that if aqueous solution of 3.0 N was treated with blank solvent (i.e. Molarity = 0), it gave almost the same result. It was further established that optimum quantity of caging agent, Al(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/-9H/sub 2/O added to aqueous solution prior to pH adjustment (i.e. 10 gm/100 gm powder dissolved) suppressed fluoride ions (F') which were hindering the extraction of rare earths. This improved the extraction efficiency of desired elements. To optimise the process parameters like solvent dilution, aqueous to organic ratio and extraction/stripping times, a' series of experiments were performed. Recovery for the desired elements had been between 78% to 86%. The optimum extraction parameters were found to be TBP concentration 40% (v/v) for aqueous to organic ratio 1:5 and 50

  8. Metal, trace and rare earth element assessment in a sedimentary profile from Itupararanga Reservoir, São Paulo State, Brazil, by NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sharlleny A.; Henrique, Heloise A.R., E-mail: shasilva@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (ELAI/CETESB), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Química Inorgânica; Fávaro, Déborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In the present study the preliminary results for 2 sediment cores from the Itupararanga Reservoir are presented. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was also applied to the sediment samples to determine the total concentration of some metal, trace and rare earth elements. The results obtained were compared to the reference values NASC (North American Shale Composite). The enrichment factor (EF) was applied to the results obtained by using NASC (North American Shale Composite) and the concentration values of the last layer of this profile as reference values for sediment contamination index assessment. The EF calculated with the NASC values presented enrichment for As, Ce, Fe, La, Th and U in the two profiles Nd, Sm Hf and Tb, only present enrichment in the 2{sup nd} campaign. However, with respect to the base of the profile there was no element with enrichment. For semi metal As and for metals Cr and Zn the concentration values were compared to the oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL). As and Cr presented values between TEL and PEL and Zn, values below TEL. The distribution pattern of light and heavy REEs was also verified in relation to the normatization of PAAS (Pos Archean Australian Shale). (author)

  9. The determination of minor amounts of rare earth elements in high purity earth oxides by HPLC/IDMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stijfhoorn, D.E.; Stray, H.; Hjelmseth, H.

    1991-05-01

    Since the early seventies isotopic dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) has been used at Institutt for energiteknikk, Kjeller, Norway for determination and certification of rare earth elements in high purity Y 2 O 3 . These lanthanides have, during the last few decades, become more widely used in highly specialized technology. High purity, quality 4 N (99.99%) or even 5 N materials are needed for phosphors, lasers, optical fibers, X-ray films, and in contrast fluids for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, in a matrix constisting primarily of a single lanthanide, IDMS alone will not be effective due to isobaric interferences from the main elements or the mono-oxides formed in the ion source. On the other hand, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) may be used, but the detection limit will be in the order of 5 to 10 ppm/W. In this work a combination of HPLC and IDMS has been used to lower the detection limit to 1 ppm/W, where the sample is spiked before separation by HPLC, followed by IDMS analysis of the HPLC- fractions. In some cases the HPLC-process has to be repeated to remove the main element completly. Results are presented for Dy 2 O 3 and Nd 2 O 3 , but similar separating procedures can be applied for other rare earth oxides. 3 refs., 2 figs. 2 tabs

  10. The effect of acid rain stress on membrane protective system of spinach and the conservation of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chongling, Y; Yetang, H.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Based on pot experiments, the effect of acid rain stress on membrane protective system of spinach and the effect of rare earth elements has been studied. The results showed, stress of acid rain resulted in decrease of over all level of superoxide dismutase activity, catalase activity and increase of peroxidase (POD) activity. After being treated by rare earth elements, the overall level of superoxide dismutase activity and catalase activity were increased and the peak value of activity variation curve moved toward to the direction of higher acidity. POD activity increased slightly, comparing with the plants that hadn't been treated by rare earth elements under same acid rain condition; the three important enzymes of membrane protective system could be kept on a relatively stable level. It was clear that in relative lower acidity condition, rare earth elements can reduce the impact of acid rain on the membrane protective system

  11. Positivity-preserving space-time CE/SE scheme for high speed flows

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Hua

    2017-03-02

    We develop a space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme using a simple slope limiter to preserve the positivity of the density and pressure in computations of inviscid and viscous high-speed flows. In general, the limiter works with all existing CE/SE schemes. Here, we test the limiter on a central Courant number insensitive (CNI) CE/SE scheme implemented on hybrid unstructured meshes. Numerical examples show that the proposed limiter preserves the positivity of the density and pressure without disrupting the conservation law; it also improves robustness without losing accuracy in solving high-speed flows.

  12. Positivity-preserving space-time CE/SE scheme for high speed flows

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Hua; Parsani, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    We develop a space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme using a simple slope limiter to preserve the positivity of the density and pressure in computations of inviscid and viscous high-speed flows. In general, the limiter works with all existing CE/SE schemes. Here, we test the limiter on a central Courant number insensitive (CNI) CE/SE scheme implemented on hybrid unstructured meshes. Numerical examples show that the proposed limiter preserves the positivity of the density and pressure without disrupting the conservation law; it also improves robustness without losing accuracy in solving high-speed flows.

  13. Application of stochastic approach based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for life cycle inventory (LCI) of the rare earth elements (REEs) in beneficiation rare earth waste from the gold processing: case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieda, Bogusław; Grzesik, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The study proposes an stochastic approach based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for life cycle assessment (LCA) method limited to life cycle inventory (LCI) study for rare earth elements (REEs) recovery from the secondary materials processes production applied to the New Krankberg Mine in Sweden. The MC method is recognizes as an important tool in science and can be considered the most effective quantification approach for uncertainties. The use of stochastic approach helps to characterize the uncertainties better than deterministic method. Uncertainty of data can be expressed through a definition of probability distribution of that data (e.g. through standard deviation or variance). The data used in this study are obtained from: (i) site-specific measured or calculated data, (ii) values based on literature, (iii) the ecoinvent process "rare earth concentrate, 70% REO, from bastnäsite, at beneficiation". Environmental emissions (e.g, particulates, uranium-238, thorium-232), energy and REE (La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Dy, Eu, Tb, Y, Sc, Yb, Lu, Tm, Y, Gd) have been inventoried. The study is based on a reference case for the year 2016. The combination of MC analysis with sensitivity analysis is the best solution for quantified the uncertainty in the LCI/LCA. The reliability of LCA results may be uncertain, to a certain degree, but this uncertainty can be noticed with the help of MC method.

  14. Rare earth elements (REEs in vertebrate microremains from the upper Pridoli Ohesaare beds of Saaremaa Island, Estonia: geochemical clues to palaeoenvironment c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živilė Žigaitė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth element (REE compositions of Nostolepis sp. scales, spines, plates and tesserae from Ohesaare bone beds were measured by in situ microsampling using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS. The obtained REE concentrations, normalized to Post-Archean Australian Shale concentrations, were evaluated using basic geochemical calculations and quantifications. The REE compositions were nearly identical across all the morphotypes and histologies of Nostolepis microremains, showing flat REE patterns with slight depletion in heavy REEs. There was no visible enrichment in middle REEs, indicating good geochemical preservation of bioapatite and absence of any pronounced fractionated REE incorporation during later stages of diagenesis. The shale-normalized (La/YbSN and (La/SmSN REE ratio compilations indicated adsorption as the dominating REE uptake mechanism across all datapoints. The absence of well-defined Ce anomaly suggested oxic palaeoseawater conditions, which agrees with the existing interpretations of the Ohesaare sequence as high-energy shoal and regressive open ocean sedimentary environments.

  15. The effect of acid rain stress on chlorophyll, peroxidase of the conservation of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chongling, Y.; Yetang, H.; Xianke, Y.; Shunzhen, F.; Shanql, W.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Based on pot experiment, the effect of acid rain stress on chlorophyll, peroxidase of wheat, the relationship of them and the conservation of rare earth elements has been studied. The result showed: stress of acid rain resulted in decrease of chlorophyll content and a/b values, chlorophyll a/b value and chlorophyll content is positive correlation with pH value of acid rain: peroxidase activity was gradually rise with pH value decrease, which indirectly increased decomposition intensity of chlorophyll. Decreased content and a/b value of chlorophyll further speeded blade decay affected the transport and transformation of light energy and metabolism of carbohydrates. After being treated by rare earth elements content and pH value of chlorophyll and peroxidase activity could be relatively stable. Therefore, under lower acidity condition, rare earth elements can influence the effect of acid rain on chlorophyll and peroxidase activity of wheat

  16. RARE EARTH ELEMENT IMPACTS ON BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Y.; Barnes, J.; Fox, S.

    2016-09-01

    Increasing demand for rare earth elements (REE) is expected to lead to new development and expansion in industries processing and or recycling REE. For some industrial operators, sending aqueous waste streams to a municipal wastewater treatment plant, or publicly owned treatment works (POTW), may be a cost effective disposal option. However, wastewaters that adversely affect the performance of biological wastewater treatment at the POTW will not be accepted. The objective of our research is to assess the effects of wastewaters that might be generated by new rare earth element (REE) beneficiation or recycling processes on biological wastewater treatment systems. We have been investigating the impact of yttrium and europium on the biological activity of activated sludge collected from an operating municipal wastewater treatment plant. We have also examined the effect of an organic complexant that is commonly used in REE extraction and separations; similar compounds may be a component of newly developed REE recycling processes. Our preliminary results indicate that in the presence of Eu, respiration rates for the activated sludge decrease relative to the no-Eu controls, at Eu concentrations ranging from <10 to 660 µM. Yttrium appears to inhibit respiration as well, although negative impacts have been observed only at the highest Y amendment level tested (660 µM). The organic complexant appears to have a negative impact on activated sludge activity as well, although results are variable. Ultimately the intent of this research is to help REE industries to develop environmentally friendly and economically sustainable beneficiation and recycling processes.

  17. Distribution of rare earth elements in the estuarine and coastal sediments of the Daliao River System, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chunye Lin; Shaoqing Liu; Mengchang He; Ruiping Li

    2013-01-01

    The Daliao River System (DRS) estuary in Liaodong Bay features a highly industrial, urbanized, and agricultural catchment. The objective of this study was to determine the content, behavior, and distribution of the rare earth elements (REEs) in the estuarine and coastal sediments. To this end, 35 sediment samples were collected from the estuarine and coastal area and analyzed for REEs, Fe, Al, and Mn. The mean concentrations in mg kg -1 of the sediments were 33.4 (La), 64.1 (Ce), 7.9 (Pr), 29.0 (Nd), 5.4 (Sm), 1.2 (Eu), 4.2 (Gd), 0.78 (Tb), 4.0 (Dy), 0.84 (Ho), 2.3 (Er), 0.40 (Tm), 2.3 (Yb), and 0.37 (Lu). The REE concentrations in the sediments were significantly correlated with one another (r 2 = 0.959-0.988) and the concentrations of Fe, Al, and Mn (r 2 = 0.768-0.870). The total concentration ΣREE ranged from 73.5 to 203.5 mg kg -1 , with an average of 156.0 mg kg -1 being observed, and generally higher in the estuarine sediments than in the coastal sediments, most likely due to the salt-induced coagulation of river colloids and subsequently their accumulation at the estuarine bottom. The ratio of light REEs (ΣLREE) to heavy REEs (ΣHREE) was 9.4. Chondrite-normalized REE distributions were observed to be similar for the estuarine and coastal sediments, riverine suspended particles, and watershed soils of the DRS with higher LRRE enrichment than HREE and greater Eu depletion than Ce depletion. These results demonstrate that neither geochemical processes that carry soils to estuarine sediments nor long-term industrial and agricultural activities alter the distribution or fractionation of the REEs in the study area. (author)

  18. Preparation of new phthalocyanine complexes of some rare-earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Higashi, Teruaki; Mori, Masayasu

    1982-01-01

    The reaction of tris(1,3-diphenyl-1,3-propanedionato) complexes of heavier rare-earth elements, M 3+ (dbm) 3 and lithium phthalocyaninato (2-), Li 2 (pc) gave two types of new stable phthalocyanine complexes, [M 3+ (pc)(dbm)(dbmH)] and [M 3+ (pc)(dbm)] depending on the solvents used for the preparation. The structure of both types of complexes are tentatively proposed. (author)

  19. Rare earth and trace elements of fossil vertebrate bioapatite as palaeoenvironmental and sedimentological proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žigaitė, Živilė; Fadel, Alexandre; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Jeffries, Teresa

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth (REE) and trace element compositions of fossil vertebrate dental microremains have been studied in Silurian and Devonian vertebrate dental scales and spines in-situ, using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Samples were selected from the well-known Silurian bone beds of Vesiku and Ohesaare in Saaremaa island of Estonia, and a number of Lower Devonian localities from Spitsbergen (Svalbard), Andrée Land group. Biomineral preservation was assessed using spot semi-quantitative elemental chemistry (SEM-EDS) and electron back-scatter difractometry (EBSD) for cristallinity imaging. The obtained PAAS shale-normalised REE concentrations were evaluated using basic geochemical calculations and quantifications. The REE patterns from the Lower Devonian vertebrate apatite from Andrée Land, Spitsbergen (Wood Bay and Grey Hœk formations) did not show any recognisable taxon-specific behavior, but had rather well expressed differences of REE compositions related to biomineral structure and sedimentary settings, suggesting REE instead to reflect burial environments and sedimentological history. The Eu anomaly recorded in two of the studied localities but not in the other indicate different taphonomic conditions and palaeoenvironment, while La/Sm, La/Yb ratios sugeest considerable influence of terrestrial freshwater during the early diagenesis. The La/Yb and La/Sm plots also agree with the average REE concentrations, reflecting domination of the adsoption over substitution as principal REE uptake mechanism in the fossils which had significantly lower overall REE concentrations, and vice versa. Vesiku (Homerian, Wenlock) microremains yielded very uniform REE patterns with slightly lower overall REE concentrations in enameloid than in dentine, with strong enrichment in middle REE and depletion in heavy REE. Negative Europium (Eu) anomaly was pronounced in all the profiles, but Cerium (Ce) anomalies were not detected suggesting possible

  20. Comparative study of rare earth hexaborides using high resolution angle-resolved photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramankutty, S.V., E-mail: s.v.ramankutty@uva.nl [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, Institute of Physics (IoP), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jong, N. de; Huang, Y.K.; Zwartsenberg, B. [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, Institute of Physics (IoP), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Massee, F. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Bay, T.V. [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, Institute of Physics (IoP), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Golden, M.S., E-mail: m.s.golden@uva.nl [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, Institute of Physics (IoP), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Frantzeskakis, E., E-mail: e.frantzeskakis@uva.nl [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, Institute of Physics (IoP), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • ARPES electronic structure study of rare-earth (RE) hexaborides SmB{sub 6}, CeB{sub 6} and YbB{sub 6}. • Increasing RE valence Yb[II], Sm[II/III], Ce[III] increases d-band occupancy. • YbB{sub 6} and SmB{sub 6} posses 2D states at E{sub F}, whereas the Fermi surface of CeB{sub 6} is 3D. • ARPES, LEED and STM data prove structural relaxation of the SmB{sub 6}(001) surface. - Abstract: Strong electron correlations in rare earth hexaborides can give rise to a variety of interesting phenomena like ferromagnetism, Kondo hybridization, mixed valence, superconductivity and possibly topological characteristics. The theoretical prediction of topological properties in SmB{sub 6} and YbB{sub 6} has rekindled the scientific interest in the rare earth hexaborides, and high-resolution ARPES has been playing a major role in the debate. The electronic band structure of the hexaborides contains the key to understand the origin of the different phenomena observed, and much can be learned by comparing the experimental data from different rare earth hexaborides. We have performed high-resolution ARPES on the (001) surfaces of YbB{sub 6}, CeB{sub 6} and SmB{sub 6}. On the most basic level, the data show that the differences in the valence of the rare earth element are reflected in the experimental electronic band structure primarily as a rigid shift of the energy position of the metal 5d states with respect to the Fermi level. Although the overall shape of the d-derived Fermi surface contours remains the same, we report differences in the dimensionality of these states between the compounds studied. Moreover, the spectroscopic fingerprint of the 4f states also reveals considerable differences that are related to their coherence and the strength of the d–f hybridization. For the SmB{sub 6} case, we use ARPES in combination with STM imaging and electron diffraction to reveal time dependent changes in the structural symmetry of the highly debated SmB{sub 6

  1. Evaluating rare earth element availability: a case with revolutionary demand from clean technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Elisa; Sherman, Andrew M; Wallington, Timothy J; Everson, Mark P; Field, Frank R; Roth, Richard; Kirchain, Randolph E

    2012-03-20

    The future availability of rare earth elements (REEs) is of concern due to monopolistic supply conditions, environmentally unsustainable mining practices, and rapid demand growth. We present an evaluation of potential future demand scenarios for REEs with a focus on the issue of comining. Many assumptions were made to simplify the analysis, but the scenarios identify some key variables that could affect future rare earth markets and market behavior. Increased use of wind energy and electric vehicles are key elements of a more sustainable future. However, since present technologies for electric vehicles and wind turbines rely heavily on dysprosium (Dy) and neodymium (Nd), in rare-earth magnets, future adoption of these technologies may result in large and disproportionate increases in the demand for these two elements. For this study, upper and lower bound usage projections for REE in these applications were developed to evaluate the state of future REE supply availability. In the absence of efficient reuse and recycling or the development of technologies which use lower amounts of Dy and Nd, following a path consistent with stabilization of atmospheric CO(2) at 450 ppm may lead to an increase of more than 700% and 2600% for Nd and Dy, respectively, over the next 25 years if the present REE needs in automotive and wind applications are representative of future needs.

  2. The origin of the ore-bearing solution in the Pb-Zn veins of the western Harz, Germany, as deduced from rare-earth element and isotope distributions in calcites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, P.; Parekh, P.P.; Morteani, G.; Hoefs, J.

    1979-01-01

    Rare-earth element (REE) and stable-isotope distribution patterns in calcites from the mining areas of St. Andreasberg, Clausthal and Bad Grund, western Harz, Germany, have been determined. Three types of REE distribution patterns were found: type I is characterized by high amounts of light REE without any Ce and Eu anomalies and relativity homogeneous C- and O-isotopic composition. Type II displays conspicuous Ce and Eu anomalies at lower levels of concentration of the light REE. Type III has very low amounts of REE. Type II and III exhibit a more variable C-isotopic composition than type I. The calcite with type I patterns is assumed to be derived mainly from magnetic waters. A possible source for the magnetic waters seems to be the Brocken-Oker granite. Type-II calcites and the sulfides are probably derived from upheated country rock whereas calcite with type-III pattern mineralized from relatively cold descending solutions. The calcite with type-I pattern turns out to be not in equilibrium with sulfides, although both are in intimate contact, e.g. in banded ores. This non-equilibrium indicates two independent sources for this calcite with type-I pattern and the sulfides. (Auth.)

  3. The effect of hydrogen absorption on the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of the C15 Friauf-Laves phase compounds CeFe2, CeRu2 and LaRu2 : an x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaboy, J.; Garcia, J.; Marcelli, A.

    1995-08-01

    An x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) investigation of the structural changes occurred upon hydriding in the Friauf-Laves phase compounds CeFe 2 , CeRu 2 and LaRu 2 compounds is presented. The analysis of the extended x-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS) spectra at the L-edges of the rare-earth and at the Fe K-edge indicates that the hydrogenation process leads to the suppression of the long-range crystalline order in all the hydride derivates investigated, as well as the different influence of H 2 in both the rare earth and transition metal sublattices. The correlation between the structural and magnetic changes induced by the hydrogen in the lost matrix is discussed in terms of the modification of the electronic properties, i.e., intermediate-valence of Ce, and of the hybridization between the transition metal and rare-earth

  4. An upwind space-time conservation element and solution element scheme for solving dusty gas flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Asad; Ali, Ishtiaq; Qamar, Shamsul

    An upwind space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme is extended to numerically approximate the dusty gas flow model. Unlike central CE/SE schemes, the current method uses the upwind procedure to derive the numerical fluxes through the inner boundary of conservation elements. These upwind fluxes are utilized to calculate the gradients of flow variables. For comparison and validation, the central upwind scheme is also applied to solve the same dusty gas flow model. The suggested upwind CE/SE scheme resolves the contact discontinuities more effectively and preserves the positivity of flow variables in low density flows. Several case studies are considered and the results of upwind CE/SE are compared with the solutions of central upwind scheme. The numerical results show better performance of the upwind CE/SE method as compared to the central upwind scheme.

  5. Variation of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) in the Sulu and Celebes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study provides a dataset of rare earth elements (REEs) in the seawater of Sulu and Celebes Seas of Malaysian waters during the PMSE 09' expedition, which was conducted to define the pattern of REEs in both seas. Samples were collected, filtered and pre-concentrated on-board ship then analyzed by using ICP-MS.

  6. Effect of Ce addition on the mechanical and electrochemical properties of a lithium battery shell alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Junchao; Ding, Dongyan; Xu, Xinglong; Gao, Yongjin; Chen, Guozhen; Chen, Weigao; You, Xiaohua; Huang, Yuanwei; Tang, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fabrication of Ce-free and Ce-containing Al–Cu–Mn–Fe–Mg alloy. • TEM, tensile and electrochemical characterization of the alloys. • Ce element greatly affects the precipitation of the alloy. • Ce element had great impact on the tensile strength and corrosion potential of the alloys. - Abstract: Due to severe application environment lithium battery shell of new-energy automotives requires increasing demands for using high performance aluminum alloys. In the present work, effect of Ce addition on the microstructure, tensile and electrochemical properties of an Al–Cu–Mn–Mg–Fe alloy were investigated through using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), tensile tests and electrochemical tests. The experimental results indicated that the addition of Ce element could promote the precipitation of second phases. With addition of 0.36% Ce, high melting point Al 8 Cu 4 Ce phase and many Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 particles could be found. In addition, the precipitation of conventionally dominant phase of Al 2 Cu could be suppressed in alloy. The Ce addition was found to result in enhanced tensile strength and improved corrosion resistance

  7. Effect of Ce addition on the mechanical and electrochemical properties of a lithium battery shell alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Junchao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ding, Dongyan, E-mail: dyding@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Xu, Xinglong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gao, Yongjin; Chen, Guozhen; Chen, Weigao; You, Xiaohua [Huafon NLM Al Co., Ltd, Shanghai 201506 (China); Huang, Yuanwei; Tang, Jinsong [Shanghai Huafon Materials Technology Institute, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2014-12-25

    Highlights: • Fabrication of Ce-free and Ce-containing Al–Cu–Mn–Fe–Mg alloy. • TEM, tensile and electrochemical characterization of the alloys. • Ce element greatly affects the precipitation of the alloy. • Ce element had great impact on the tensile strength and corrosion potential of the alloys. - Abstract: Due to severe application environment lithium battery shell of new-energy automotives requires increasing demands for using high performance aluminum alloys. In the present work, effect of Ce addition on the microstructure, tensile and electrochemical properties of an Al–Cu–Mn–Mg–Fe alloy were investigated through using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), tensile tests and electrochemical tests. The experimental results indicated that the addition of Ce element could promote the precipitation of second phases. With addition of 0.36% Ce, high melting point Al{sub 8}Cu{sub 4}Ce phase and many Al{sub 20}Cu{sub 2}Mn{sub 3} particles could be found. In addition, the precipitation of conventionally dominant phase of Al{sub 2}Cu could be suppressed in alloy. The Ce addition was found to result in enhanced tensile strength and improved corrosion resistance.

  8. Relationship between Microstructure and Properties of Cu-Cr-Ag-(Ce) Alloy Using Microscopic Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huiming; Yuan, Dawei; Wu, Shanjiang; Wang, Hang; Xie, Weibin; Yang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Microstructure, precipitation hardening response, and mechanical and physical properties of Cu-Cr-Ag alloy and Cu-Cr-Ag-Ce alloy have been investigated using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscope, optical microscope, electrical conductivity analysis, and tensile test. The influence of element Ce on the matrix refinement, impurity removal, and precipitation in the Cu-Cr-Ag alloys has been analyzed. The experimental results show that the strength and electrical conductivity of Ce containing alloys are greater than those of Ce-free alloys after each processing step. Improvement of strength and electrical conductivity of the Cu-Cr-Ag alloy by adding Ce element is attributed to removing oxygen and sulfur from as-cast alloy.

  9. Strong broad green UV-excited photoluminescence in rare earth (RE = Ce, Eu, Dy, Er, Yb) doped barium zirconate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja-Urby, R. [Grupo de Espectroscopia de Materiales Avanzados y Nanoestructurados (EMANA), Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A. C., Leon, Gto. 37150 (Mexico); Diaz-Torres, L.A., E-mail: ditlacio@cio.mx [Grupo de Espectroscopia de Materiales Avanzados y Nanoestructurados (EMANA), Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A. C., Leon, Gto. 37150 (Mexico); Salas, P. [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 1-1010, Queretaro, Qro. 76000 (Mexico); Angeles-Chavez, C. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Ciudad de Mexico, D. F. 07730 (Mexico); Meza, O. [Grupo de Espectroscopia de Materiales Avanzados y Nanoestructurados (EMANA), Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A. C., Leon, Gto. 37150 (Mexico)

    2011-10-25

    Highlights: > Trivalent rare earth (RE) substitution on Zr{sup 4+} sites in BaZrO{sub 3} lead to band gap narrowing. > RE substitution lead to enhanced blue-green intrinsic emission of nanocrystalline BaZrO{sub 3} > Blue-green hue of BaZrO3:RE depends on RE dopant and excitation UV wavelength > BaZrO3: Dy{sup 3+} PL chromatic coordinates correspond to pure white color coordinates of CIE 1931 model - Abstract: The wet synthesis hydrothermal method at 100 deg. C was used to elaborate barium zirconate (BaZrO{sub 3}) unpurified with 0.5 mol% of different rare earth ions (RE = Yb, Er, Dy, Eu, Ce). Morphological, structural and UV-photoluminescence properties depend on the substituted rare earth ionic radii. While the crystalline structure of RE doped BaZrO{sub 3} remains as a cubic perovskite for all substituted RE ions, its band gap changes between 4.65 and 4.93 eV. Under 267 nm excitation the intrinsic green photoluminescence of the as synthesized BaZrO{sub 3}: RE samples is considerably improved by the substitution on RE ions. For 1000 deg. C annealed samples, under 267 nm, the photoluminescence is dominated by the intrinsic BZO emission. It is interesting to notice that Dy{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} doped samples present whitish emissions that might be useful for white light generation under 267 nm excitation. CIE color coordinates are reported for all samples.

  10. Zircon/fluid trace element partition coefficients measured by recrystallization of Mud Tank zircon at 1.5 GPa and 800-1000 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, John C.; Peters, Timothy J.

    2018-02-01

    Hydrothermal zircon grains have trace element characteristics such as low Th/U, high U, and high rare earth element (REE) concentrations that distinguish them from magmatic, metamorphic, and altered zircon grains, but it is unclear whether these characteristics result from distinctive fluid compositions or zircon/fluid fractionation effects. New experiments aimed at measuring zircon/fluid trace element partition coefficients Dz/f involved recrystallizing natural Mud Tank zircon with low trace element concentrations in the presence of H2O, 1 m NaOH, or 1 m HCl doped with ∼1000 ppm of rare earth elements (REE), Y, U and Th and ∼500 ppm of Li, B, P, Nb, Ba, Hf, and Ta. Experiments were run for 168 h at 1.5 GPa, 800-1000 °C, and fO2 = NNO in a piston cylinder apparatus using the double capsule method. LA-ICP-MS analysis shows that run product zircon crystals have much higher trace element concentrations than in Mud Tank zircon starting material. Dz/f values were estimated from run product zircon analyses and bulk composition using mass balance. Most elements behave incompatibly, with median Dz/f being highest for Hf = 8 and lowest for B = 0.02. Addition of NaOH or HCl had little influence on Dz/f values. Dz/f for LREE are anomalously high, likely due to contamination of run product zircon with quenched solutes enriched in incompatible elements, so DLREE were estimated using lattice strain theory. Brice curves for +3 ions yield zircon/fluid DLu/DLa of ∼800-5000. A Brice curve fit to +4 ions yielded DCe4+ values. Estimated concentrations of Ce3+ and Ce4+ show that the average Ce4+/Ce3+ in zircon of 27 is much higher than in fluid of 0.02. Th and U show little fractionation, with median DTh/DU = 0.7, indicating that the low Th/U in natural hydrothermal zircon is inherited from the fluid. Natural fluid compositions estimated from measured Dz/f and published compositions of hydrothermal zircon grains from aplite and eclogite reflect the mineralogy of the host rock, e

  11. Study of the hyperfine magnetic field acting on Ce probes substituting for the rare earth and the magnetic ordering in intermetallic compounds RAg (R=rare earth) by first principles calculations; Estudo do campo hiperfino magnetico na sonda de Ce colocada nos compostos intermetalicos do tipo RAg (R=terra rara) e do ordenamento magnetico desses compostos usando calculos de primeiros principios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Luciano Fabricio Dias

    2006-07-01

    In this work the magnetic hyperfine field acting on Ce atoms substituting the rare-earths in R Ag compounds (R = Gd e Nd) was studied by means of first-principles electronic structure calculations. The employed method was the Augmented Plane Waves plus local orbitals (APW+lo), embodied in the WIEN2k program, within the framework of the Density Functional Theory (DFT) and with the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) for the exchange and correlation potential. The super-cell approach was utilized in order to simulate for the Ce atoms acting as impurities in the R Ag matrix. In order to improve for correlation effects within the 4f shells, a Hubbard term was added to the DFT Hamiltonian, within a procedure called GGA+U. It was found that the magnetic hyperfine field (MHF) generated by the Ce 4f electron is the main component of the total MHF and that the Ce 4f ground state level is probably a combination of the m{sub l} = -2 and m{sub l} = -1 sub-levels. In addition, the ground-state magnetic structure was determined for Ho Ag and Nd Ag by observing the behavior of the total energy as a function of the lattice volume for several possible magnetic ordering in these compounds, namely, ferromagnetic, and the (0,0,{pi}), ({pi},{pi},0) and (({pi},{pi},{pi}) types of anti-ferromagnetic ordering of rare-earth atoms. It was found that the ground-state magnetic structure is anti-ferromagnetic of type ({pi},{pi},0) for both, the Ho Ag and Nd Ag compounds. The energy difference of the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic ordering is very small in the case of the Nd Ag compound. (author)

  12. Evolution of Mg-5Al-0.4Mn microstructure after rare earth elements addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Żydek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mg-5Al-0.4Mn-xRE (x = 0, 1, 2, 3 wt.% magnesium alloys were prepared successfully by casting method. The microstructure wasinvestigated by light microscopy. The influence of rare earth (RE elements on the area fraction of eutectic was analysed. The obtainedresults revealed that the as-cast Mg-5Al-0.4Mn alloy consist of α - Mg matrix and eutectic α + γ (where γ is Mg17Al12. However, whilerare earth elements were added to the Mg-Al type alloy, Al11RE3 precipitates were formed. The amount of the Al11RE3 precipitatesincreased with increasing addition of RE, but the amount of γ - Mg17Al12 decreased.

  13. Replacing critical rare earth materials in high energy density magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, R. William

    2012-02-01

    High energy density permanent magnets are crucial to the design of internal permanent magnet motors (IPM) for hybride and electric vehicles and direct drive wind generators. Current motor designs use rare earth permanent magnets which easily meet the performance goals, however, the rising concerns over cost and foreign control of the current supply of rare earth resources has motivated a search for non-rare earth based permanent magnets alloys with performance metrics which allow the design of permanent magnet motors and generators without rare earth magnets. This talk will discuss the state of non-rare-earth permanent magnets and efforts to both improve the current materials and find new materials. These efforts combine first principles calculations and meso-scale magnetic modeling with advance characterization and synthesis techniques in order to advance the state of the art in non rare earth permanent magnets. The use of genetic algorithms in first principle structural calculations, combinatorial synthesis in the experimental search for materials, atom probe microscopy to characterize grain boundaries on the atomic level, and other state of the art techniques will be discussed. In addition the possibility of replacing critical rare earth elements with the most abundant rare earth Ce will be discussed.

  14. Neutron scattering study of Ce3Au3Sb4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasaya, Mitsuo; Katoh, Kenichi; Kohgi, Masahumi; Osakabe, Toyotaka

    1993-01-01

    Rare-earth compounds with an Y 3 Au 3 Sb 4 -type crystal structure are semiconductors or semi-metals. Among them, Ce 3 Au 3 Sb 4 is a semiconductor with an activation energy of about 640 K and shows no magnetic order down to 1.5 K. The magnetic part of the specific heat for Ce 3 Au 3 Sb 4 obtained by subtracting the value for La 3 Au 3 Sb 4 from the total specific heat of Ce 3 Au 3 Sb 4 shows a broad peak at around 10 K, the origin of which is well explained by the crystalline-field splitting determined by neutron scattering. (author)

  15. ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF COMPOUNDS AND ALLOYS OF RARE-EARTH METALS WITH ELEMENTS OF GROUPS V AND VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, F. J.; Matson, L. K.; Miller, J. F.; Himes, R. C.

    1963-04-15

    The electric properties of rare earth compounds and alloys with As, Sb, Se, and Te are reported. Without exception, samples of Se and Te compounds with normally trivalent Nd, Gd, and Ce having synthetic compositions, MX and M/sub 3/X/ sub 4/, are n-type wrth free electron concentrations in the range 10/sup 20/ to 10 /sup 22//cm/sup 3/, and have very low electric resistivities. Room temperature electric properties and thermoelectric data are tabulated. (P.C H.)

  16. Microwave-assisted Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Petroleum Refining Catalysts and Ambient Fine Aerosols Prior to Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Kulkarni, Pranav; Chellam, Shankar

    2006-01-01

    In the absence of a certified reference material, a robust microwave-assisted acid digestion procedure followed by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed to quantify rare earth elements (REEs) in fluidized-bed catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts and atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5). High temperature (200 C), high pressure (200 psig), acid digestion (HNO3, HF, and H3BO3) with 20 minute dwell time effectively solubilized REEs from six fresh catalysts, a spent catalyst, and PM2.5. This method was also employed to measure 27 non-REEs including Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb, and U. Complete extraction of several REEs (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Tb, Dy, and Er) required HF indicating that they were closely associated with the aluminosilicate structure of the zeolite FCC catalysts. Internal standardization using 115In quantitatively corrected non-spectral interferences in the catalyst digestate matrix. Inter-laboratory comparison using ICP-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) demonstrated the applicability of the newly developed analytical method for accurate analysis of REEs in FCC catalysts. The method developed for FCC catalysts was also successfully implemented to measure trace to ultra-trace concentrations of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Eu, and Dy in ambient PM2.5 in an industrial area of Houston, TX.

  17. Microwave-assisted extraction of rare earth elements from petroleum refining catalysts and ambient fine aerosols prior to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, Pranav; Chellam, Shankararaman; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2007-01-01

    A robust microwave-assisted acid digestion procedure followed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed to quantify rare earth elements (REEs) in fluidized-bed catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts and atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ). High temperature (200 deg. C), high pressure (200 psig), acid digestion (HNO 3 , HF and H 3 BO 3 ) with 20 min dwell time effectively solubilized REEs from six fresh catalysts, a spent catalyst and PM 2.5 . This method was also employed to measure 27 non-REEs including Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb and U. Complete extraction of several REEs (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Tb, Dy and Er) required HF indicating that they were closely associated with the aluminosilicate structure of the zeolite FCC catalysts. Internal standardization using 115 In quantitatively corrected non-spectral interferences in the catalyst digestate matrix. Inter-laboratory comparison using ICP-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) demonstrated the applicability of the newly developed analytical method for accurate analysis of REEs in FCC catalysts. The method developed for FCC catalysts was also successfully implemented to measure trace to ultra-trace concentrations of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Eu and Dy in ambient PM 2.5 in an industrial area of Houston, TX

  18. Rare Earth Element Fluorocarbonate Minerals from the Olympic Dam Cu-U-Au-Ag Deposit, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S. Schmandt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Olympic Dam is a world-class breccia-hosted iron-oxide copper-gold-uranium ore deposit located in the Gawler Craton, South Australia. It contains elevated concentrations of rare earth elements (REE which occur as the REE minerals bastnäsite, synchysite, florencite, monazite, and xenotime. This is the first study to focus on the mineralogy and composition of the most abundant REE mineral at Olympic Dam, bastnäsite, and subordinate synchysite. The sample suite extends across the deposit and represents different sulfide mineralization styles (chalcopyrite-bornite and bornite-chalcocite and breccias of various types, ranging from those dominated by clasts of granite, dykes, and hematite. The REE-fluorocarbonates (bastnäsite and synchysite typically occur as fine-grained (<50 μm disseminations in Cu-Fe-sulfides and gangue minerals, and also within breccia matrix. They are also locally concentrated within macroscopic REE-mineral-rich pockets at various locations across the deposit. Such coarse-grained samples formed the primary target of this study. Three general textural groups of bastnäsite are recognized: matrix (further divided into disseminated, fine-grained, and stubby types, irregular (sulfide-associated, and clast replacement. Textures are largely driven by the specific location and prevailing mineral assemblage, with morphology and grain size often controlled by the associated minerals (hematite, sulfides. Major element concentration data reveal limited compositional variation among the REE-fluorocarbonates; all are Ce-dominant. Subtle compositional differences among REE-fluorocarbonates define a spectrum from relatively La-enriched to (Ce + Nd-enriched phases. Granite-derived hydrothermal fluids were the likely source of F in the REE-fluorocarbonates, as well as some of the CO2, which may also have been contributed by associated mafic-ultramafic magmatism. However, transport of REE by Cl-ligands is the most likely scenario. Stubby bastn

  19. Rare-earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Seal, Robert R.; Long, Keith R.; Gambogi, Joseph; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    The rare-earth elements (REEs) are 15 elements that range in atomic number from 57 (lanthanum) to 71 (lutetium); they are commonly referred to as the “lanthanides.” Yttrium (atomic number 39) is also commonly regarded as an REE because it shares chemical and physical similarities and has affinities with the lanthanides. Although REEs are not rare in terms of average crustal abundance, the concentrated deposits of REEs are limited in number.Because of their unusual physical and chemical properties, the REEs have diverse defense, energy, industrial, and military technology applications. The glass industry is the leading consumer of REE raw materials, which are used for glass polishing and as additives that provide color and special optical properties to the glass. Lanthanum-based catalysts are used in petroleum refining, and cerium-based catalysts are used in automotive catalytic converters. The use of REEs in magnets is a rapidly increasing application. Neodymium-iron-boron magnets, which are the strongest known type of magnets, are used when space and weight are restrictions. Nickel-metal hydride batteries use anodes made of a lanthanum-based alloys.China, which has led the world production of REEs for decades, accounted for more than 90 percent of global production and supply, on average, during the past decade. Citing a need to retain its limited REE resources to meet domestic requirements as well as concerns about the environmental effects of mining, China began placing restrictions on the supply of REEs in 2010 through the imposition of quotas, licenses, and taxes. As a result, the global rare-earth industry has increased its stockpiling of REEs; explored for deposits outside of China; and promoted new efforts to conserve, recycle, and substitute for REEs. New mine production began at Mount Weld in Western Australia, and numerous other exploration and development projects noted in this chapter are ongoing throughout the world.The REE-bearing minerals are

  20. Rare earth element behaviour and hydrothermal alteration, Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lottermoser, B.G.

    1990-01-01

    This contribution documents extreme rare earth elements (REE) mobility associated with a currently active subaerial hydrothermal system on Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea, which is host to a large epithermal gold deposit. Instrumental thermal activation analysis for selected REE and for other trace elements has been performed at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories in Sydney. Samples and standards were irradiated with thermal neutrons and subsequently counted on coaxial and planar detectors after several decay periods. The gamma-ray spectra were processed using FORTRAN data reduction program. The wide range of (La/Lu) c n, (La/Sm) c n and (Tb/Lu) c n ratios reflects a pronounced mobilisation and fractionation of REE during the hydrothermal process. It is estimated that the increasing fractionation of REE, and especially of 'light rare earth' (La to Sm), up the alteration sequence is the result of decreasing pH, temperature and alkalinity of the hydrothermal fluids with increasing alteration intensity. 15 refs., 2 figs

  1. The X-ray spectrometry Si(Li) system and it's application in quantitative analysis of rare-earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, J.B.S.

    1985-11-01

    The basic principles involved in Si(Li) system used in X-ray spectrometry is described. It also demonstrates its application in the energy range where the resolution is better than that characteristic of conventional spectrometers. The theoretical principles underlying the interaction between the electromagnetic radiation and matter, and a review on semiconductors are presented at first. It emphasizes the fluorescence phenomenon and the process of photon detection by semiconductor crystals whose properties and characteristics allow, in the specific case of Si-crystal, the confection of detectors with large sensitivity volume useful for X-ray spectrometry. In addition, the components of the Si(Li) system are described individually, with special attention to the operating aspects, and to the parameters affecting the quality of pulse height spectrum. Finally, the spectrometer performance is experimentally evaluated though the quantitative analyses of rare-earth element oxides (La, Ce, Pr, Nd). It should be stressed that this research indicates that the X-ray emission-transmission analysis is the most adequate method under the activation conditions provided by the spectrometer, where Am 241 emissor UPSILON of 60KeV is the photon source for the fluorescence. Therefore, the experimental work was extended in order to include all the necessary treatment. (Author) [pt

  2. Synthesis and investigation of some physicochemical properties of rare earth nitrobarbiturates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biryulina, V.N.; Chupakhina, R.A.; Serebrennikov, V.V.

    1984-01-01

    Crystal depositions of L 3 MnH 2 O composition where L is anion of nitrobarbituric acid C 4 H 2 N 3 O 5 - ; M is rare earth ion excluding Ce 3+ and Pm 3+ ; n=12 are extracted under dissolution of freshly prepared hydroxides of rare earth elements (REE) in ethanol aqueous solution of nitrobarbituric acid. The method of IR spectroscopy has been applied to disclose relation of rare earth ion with groups of C=0 acid. The method of derivatography has been used to study thermolysis of REE nitrobarbiturates; dehydration proceeds in two stages with decrease of temperature of the beginning of dehydration by 20 deg C in the La 3+ → Lu 3+ series. The curve of dependence of REE nitrobarbiturate solubility in water at 25 deg C on serial number of REE passes through the minimum accounted for Sm 3+

  3. Mineralogy and chemical composition and distribution of rare earth elements of clay-rich sediments, Central Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyakairu, G.W.A.

    2001-02-01

    In Uganda, Precambrian rocks are extensively weathered to sediments, which are locally altered to form considerable clay deposits. Clay-rich sediment samples were collected from the Kajjansi, Kitiko, Kitetika, and Ntawo valleys (central Uganda), all of which are currently used for traditional brick, tile, and pottery manufacture. The mineralogical and chemical characteristics, and source rocks of these clay-rich sediments is not well understood. A study using modern analytical techniques, such as XRD, to obtain the bulk mineralogical composition, and XRF and INAA analyses for whole rock major and trace element abundances was performed. The results show that the sediments are dominated by kaolinite and quartz, and minor phases include smectite, chlorite, and illite/muscovite. Whole rock chemistry shows that sediment samples rich in SiO2 have low Al, Fe, Sc and Cr contents. The high chemical index of alteration (CIA) values (87 to 96), chemical index of weathering (CIW) values around 98 and low contents of the alkali and alkali earth elements of the clay-rich sediments suggest a relatively more intense weathering source area. The clay-rich sediments as raw materials for industry were classified as silty clays from grain size analysis. The chemical and mineralogical composition results show that, taken as a whole, the clay-rich sediments possess characteristics satisfactory for brick production. The chondrite-normalized rare earth elements (REE) patterns of the clay-rich sediments show LREE enrichments and a negative Eu anomaly. The high chondrite-normalized La/Yb ratios, and Gd/Yb ratios lower than 2.0, confirm that the sediments are enriched in the LREEs. The mineralogical composition, REE contents, and elemental ratios in these sediments suggest a provenance from mainly felsic rocks, with only minor contributions from basic sources. The basic sediments were most likely derived from metasedimentary rocks, such as muscovite-biotite schists, which are characteristic

  4. Modeling the geochemical distribution of rare earth elements (REEs using multivariate statistics in the eastern part of Marvast placer, the Yazd province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Hossein Morshedy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nowadays, exploration of rare earth element (REE resources is considered as one of the strategic priorities, which has a special position in the advanced and intelligent industries (Castor and Hedrick, 2006. Significant resources of REEs are found in a wide range of geological settings, including primary deposits associated with igneous and hydrothermal processes (e.g. carbonatite, (per alkaline-igneous rocks, iron-oxide breccia complexes, scarns, fluorapatite veins and pegmatites, and secondary deposits concentrated by sedimentary processes and weathering (e.g. heavy-mineral sand deposits, fluviatile sandstones, unconformity-related uranium deposits, and lignites (Jaireth et al., 2014. Recent studies on various parts of Iran led to the identification of promising potential of these elements, including Central Iran, alkaline rocks in the Eslami Peninsula, iron and apatite in the Hormuz Island, Kahnouj titanium deposit, granitoid bodies in Yazd, Azerbaijan, and Mashhad and associated dikes, and finally placers related to the Shemshak formation in Marvast, Kharanagh, and Ardekan indicate high concentration of REE in magmatogenic iron–apatite deposits in Central Iran and placers in Marvast area in Yazd (Ghorbani, 2013. Materials and methods In the present study, the geochemical behavior of rare earth elements is modeled by using multivariate statistical methods in the eastern part of the Marvast placer. Marvast is located 185 km south of the city of Yazd in central Iran between Yazd and Mehriz. This area lies within the southeastern part of the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (Alipour-Asll et al., 2012. The samples of 53 wells were analyzed for Whole-rock trace-element concentrations (including REE by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS (GSI, 2004. The clustering techniques such as multivariate statistical analysis technique can be employed to find appropriate groups in data sets. One of the main objectives of data clustering

  5. Application of delayed X-ray spectrometry to the analysis of some rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, A.E.; Mboweni, R.C.M.

    1991-01-01

    The capabilities of delayed x-ray spectrometry preceded by isotope-source thermal neutron activation for the specific determination of some rare earth elements (Sm, Eu, Dy, Ho) in small powdered samples was evaluated. The feasibility study relied heavily on the low-energy sensitivity of the detector used. Detection of the delayed x-rays was achieved with a 100-mm 2 Ge detector with the ability to produce optimum photopeak-to-noise ratios. The rare earth elements were chosen on the basis of their inherent favourable nuclear properties for producing a practicable x-ray yield and on the demand for their analysis. Analytical results are presented over a range of concentrations for the elements of interest and the potential of the technique for application to their general routine analysis is discussed. Interferences from the sample matrix can be suppressed to an extent that makes the method almost independent of the matrix. This and other features make the technique a strong rival to conventional activation analysis. (author)

  6. A volatile topic: Parsing out the details of Earth's formation through experimental metal-silicate partitioning of volatile and moderately volatile elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, B. M.; Siebert, J.; Blanchard, I.; Badro, J.; Sossi, P.; Moynier, F.

    2017-12-01

    Volatile and moderately volatile elements display different volatilities and siderophilities, as well as varying sensitivity to thermodynamic controls (X, P, T, fO2) during metal-silicate differentiation. The experimental determination of the metal-silicate partitioning of these elements permits us to evaluate processes controlling the distribution of these elements in Earth. In this work, we have combined metal-silicate partitioning data and results for S, Sn, Zn and Cu, and input these characterizations into Earth formation models. Model parameters such as source material, timing of volatile delivery, fO2 path, and degree of impactor equilibration were varied to encompass an array of possible formation scenarios. These models were then assessed to discern plausible sets of conditions that can produce current observed element-to-element ratios (e.g. S/Zn) in the Earth's present-day mantle, while also satisfying current estimates on the S content of the core, at no more than 2 wt%. The results of our models indicate two modes of accretion that can maintain chondritic element-to-element ratios for the bulk Earth and can arrive at present-day mantle abundances of these elements. The first mode requires the late addition of Earth's entire inventory of these elements (assuming a CI-chondritic composition) and late-stage accretion that is marked by partial equilibration of large impactors. The second, possibly more intuitive mode, requires that Earth accreted - at least initially - from volatile poor material preferentially depleted in S relative to Sn, Zn, and Cu. From a chemical standpoint, this source material is most similar to type I chondrule rich (and S poor) materials (Hewins and Herzberg, 1996; Mahan et al., 2017; Amsellem et al., 2017), such as the metal-bearing carbonaceous chondrites.

  7. Determination of rare-earth elements in rocks by isotope-excited X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunzendorf, Helmar; Wollenberg, H.A.

    1970-01-01

    Isotope-excited X-ray fluorescence spectrometry furnishes a rapid determination of rare-earth elements in unprepared rock samples. The samples are excited by 241Am γ-rays, generating X-ray spectra on a multichannel pulse-height analyser. Gaussian peaks of the Kα and Kβ X-ray energies are treated......-ray spectrometric scan of a longitudinally sliced drill core showed a close correlation between rare-earth abundances and appropriate minerals....

  8. Hydrometallurgical separation of rare earth elements, cobalt and nickel from spent nickel-metal-hydride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira Carmo; Mansur, Marcelo Borges

    The separation of rare earth elements, cobalt and nickel from NiMH battery residues is evaluated in this paper. Analysis of the internal content of the NiMH batteries shows that nickel is the main metal present in the residue (around 50% in weight), as well as potassium (2.2-10.9%), cobalt (5.1-5.5%), rare earth elements (15.3-29.0%) and cadmium (2.8%). The presence of cadmium reveals that some Ni-Cd batteries are possibly labeled as NiMH ones. The leaching of nickel and cobalt from the NiMH battery powder with sulfuric acid is efficient; operating variables temperature and concentration of H 2O 2 has no significant effect for the conditions studied. A mixture of rare earth elements is separated by precipitation with NaOH. Finally, solvent extraction with D2EHPA (di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid) followed by Cyanex 272 (bis-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid) can separate cadmium, cobalt and nickel from the leach liquor. The effect of the main operating variables of both leaching and solvent extraction steps are discussed aiming to maximize metal separation for recycling purposes.

  9. Rare earths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranstone, D A

    1979-01-01

    Rare earth elements are commonly extracted from the minerals monazite, bastnaesite, and xenotine. New uses for these elements are constantly developing; they have found applications in glass polishing, television tube phosphors, high-strength low-alloy steels, magnets, catalysts, refractory ceramics, and hydrogen sponge alloys. In Canada, rare earths have been produced as byproducts of the uranium mining industry, but there was no production of rare earths in 1978 or 1979. The world sources of and markets for the rare earth elements are discussed.

  10. Microwave-induced combustion of crude oil for further rare earth elements determination by USN–ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, J.S.F. [Departamento de Química Inorgânica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 97105-900 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Pereira, L.S.F.; Mello, P.A. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Guimarães, R.C.L.; Guarnieri, R.A.; Fonseca, T.C.O. [CENPES/PETROBRAS, 21941-945 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Flores, E.M.M., E-mail: ericommf@gmail.com [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2014-09-24

    Highlights: • Microwave-induced combustion was applied for light and heavy crude oils digestion. • It was feasible to determine all the REEs in heavy crude oil by ICP-MS. • Only diluted acid solutions were used in agreement to green chemistry recommendations. - Abstract: A procedure for light and heavy crude oils digestion by microwave-induced combustion (MIC) is proposed for the first time for further rare earth elements (REE) determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipped with an ultrasonic nebulizer (USN). Samples of crude oil (API density of 10.8–23.5, up to 250 mg) were inserted in polycarbonate capsules and combusted using 20 bar of oxygen and 50 μL of 6 mol L{sup −1} ammonium nitrate as igniter. Nitric acid solutions (1–14.4 mol L{sup −1}) were evaluated for analyte absorption and a reflux step was applied after combustion (5 min of microwave irradiation at 1400 W) in order to achieve better analyte recoveries. Accuracy was evaluated using a spiked sample and also by comparison of results obtained by microwave-assisted digestion combined to ultraviolet radiation (MW–UV) and by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Using 3 mol L{sup −1} HNO{sub 3}, quantitative recoveries (better than 97%) were obtained for all analytes. Blank values were always negligible. Agreement was higher than 96% for La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu and Y by comparison of results with those obtained by MW–UV and by NAA (only for La, Ce, Nd, Sm, and Yb). Residual carbon content in digests using MIC was always below 1%. As an advantage over conventional procedures for crude oil digestion, using MIC, it was possible to use diluted acid as absorbing solution, obtaining better limits of detection and avoiding interferences in REE determination by USN–ICP-MS.

  11. Rare earth elements (REE) and yttrium in stream waters, stream sediments, and Fe Mn oxyhydroxides: Fractionation, speciation, and controls over REE + Y patterns in the surface environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leybourne, Matthew I.; Johannesson, Karen H.

    2008-12-01

    We have collected ˜500 stream waters and associated bed-load sediments over an ˜400 km 2 region of Eastern Canada and analyzed these samples for Fe, Mn, and the rare earth elements (REE + Y). In addition to analyzing the stream sediments by total digestion (multi-acid dissolution with metaborate fusion), we also leached the sediments with 0.25 M hydroxylamine hydrochloride (in 0.05 M HCl), to determine the REE + Y associated with amorphous Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxide phases. We are thus able to partition the REE into "dissolved" (primary sources, the host lithologies (i.e., mechanical dispersion) and hydromorphically transported (the labile fraction). Furthermore, Eu appears to be more mobile than the other REE, whereas Ce is preferentially removed from solution and accumulates in the stream sediments in a less labile form than the other REEs + Y. Despite poor statistical correlations between the REEs + Y and Mn in either the total sediment or partial extractions, based on apparent distribution coefficients and the pH of the stream waters, we suggest that either sediment organic matter and/or possibly δ-MnO 2/FeOOH are likely the predominant sinks for Ce, and to a lesser extent the other REE, in the stream sediments.

  12. Sustainability of rare earth elements chain: from production to food - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turra, Christian

    2018-02-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are a group of chemical elements that include lanthanoids (lanthanum to lutetium), scandium and yttrium. In the last decades, the REE demand in the industry and other areas has increased significantly. In general, REE have shown low concentrations in soils, plants, water and atmosphere, but they may accumulate in such environments due to anthropogenic inputs. In areas where there is REE contamination, the slow accumulation of these elements in the environment could become problematic. Many studies have shown environmental areas contaminated with REE and their toxic effects. Thus, it is important to review, in order to improve the current understanding of these elements in the environment, showing the effects of REE exposure in mining, soil, water, plants and food. Besides, there are few suppliers and a limited quantity of these elements in the world. This paper suggests options to improve the sustainability management of REE chain.

  13. An upwind space-time conservation element and solution element scheme for solving dusty gas flow model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Rehman

    Full Text Available An upwind space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE scheme is extended to numerically approximate the dusty gas flow model. Unlike central CE/SE schemes, the current method uses the upwind procedure to derive the numerical fluxes through the inner boundary of conservation elements. These upwind fluxes are utilized to calculate the gradients of flow variables. For comparison and validation, the central upwind scheme is also applied to solve the same dusty gas flow model. The suggested upwind CE/SE scheme resolves the contact discontinuities more effectively and preserves the positivity of flow variables in low density flows. Several case studies are considered and the results of upwind CE/SE are compared with the solutions of central upwind scheme. The numerical results show better performance of the upwind CE/SE method as compared to the central upwind scheme. Keywords: Dusty gas flow, Solid particles, Upwind schemes, Rarefaction wave, Shock wave, Contact discontinuity

  14. Determination of aluminium, scandium and rare earth elements by emission flame spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otruba, V.; Sommer, L.

    1989-01-01

    Emission spectrometry in nitrous oxide-acetylene flames in combination with a highly resolving double monochromator and sensitive detecting system enables simple, sensitive and selective determinations of aluminium, scandium and all rare earth elements with exception of cerium in complicated matrices. Calibration plots are linear for a large concentration interval (≤ 100 μgxml -1 ), detection limits are in ngxml -1 level and RSD does not exceed 3% on the optimal concentration level of the particular element. The determination of Al, Sc, Eu and Yb showed particular advantages as to methods using ICP-spectrometry. (orig.)

  15. Thin films nanostructured to multidetection catalytic from rare earth minerals: A) purification of perovskite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.G. da; Souza, C.P. de; Gomes, U.U.; Paskocimas, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    This project aims at the use of Brazilian mineral pretreated with high contents of rare earth (La, Ce) aiming at the elaboration of thin films which have physical properties (optical, electrical and catalytic) scalable. The property of greatest interest is the interaction in terms of selective catalytic gases methane, carbon monoxide and ammonia. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transition electron microscopy (TEM). Crystalline residue samples were subjected to a series of chemical treatments followed by alkaline fusion. From a first approach, it was possible to separate the phosphate and silicate mineral residue, separating the rare earth elements to then extract the oxide phases of these materials as complex mixtures. (author)

  16. Elucidating the formation of terra fuscas using Sr–Nd–Pb isotopes and rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hissler, Christophe; Stille, Peter; Juilleret, Jérôme; Iffly, Jean François; Perrone, Thierry; Morvan, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Geochemical evidences on stabile phase confirm Bajocian marl as terra fusca parent material. • Precipitation/Dissolution of secondary carbonates controls geochemistry of labile phases. • This terra fusca sequence record at least four geological and environmental events. - Abstract: Carbonate weathering mantles, like terra fusca, are common in Europe but their formation and evolution is still badly understood. We propose to combine geological, mineralogical and pedological knowledge with trace element and isotope data of a weathering mantle as a novel approach to understand the evolution of terra fuscas. Sr–Nd–Pb isotopes and rare earth element (REE) contents were analyzed in a cambisol developing on a typical terra fusca on top of a condensed Bajocian limestone-marl succession from the eastern side of the Paris Basin. The isotope data, REE distribution patterns and mass balance calculations suggest that the cambisol mirrors the trace element enrichments present in this carbonate lithology, which are exceptionally high compared to global average carbonate. The deeper soil horizons are strongly enriched not only in REE (ΣREE: 2640 ppm) but also in redox-sensitive elements such as Fe (44 wt.%), V (1000 ppm), Cr (700 ppm), Zn (550 ppm), As (260 ppm), Co (45 ppm) and Cd (2.4 ppm). The trace element distribution patterns of the carbonate bedrock are similar to those of the soil suggesting their close genetic relationships. Sr–Nd–Pb isotope data allow to identify four principal components in the soil: a silicate-rich pool close to the surface, a leachable REE enriched pool at the bottom of the soil profile, the limestone on which the weathering profile developed and an anthropogenic, atmosphere-derived component detected in the soil leachates of the uppermost soil horizon. The leachable phases are mainly secondary carbonate-bearing REE phases such as bastnaesite ((X) Ca(CO 3 ) 2 F) (for X: Ce, La and Nd). The isotope data and trace element

  17. Precious metals and rare earth elements in municipal solid waste – Sources and fate in a Swiss incineration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morf, Leo S., E-mail: leo.morf@bd.zh.ch [Baudirektion Kanton Zürich, Amt für Abfall, Wasser, Energie und Luft, Zurich (Switzerland); Gloor, Rolf; Haag, Olaf [Bachema AG, Schlieren (Switzerland); Haupt, Melanie [Zentrum für nachhaltige Abfall-und Ressourcennutzung ZAR, Hinwil (Switzerland); Skutan, Stefan [Bachema AG, Schlieren (Switzerland); Lorenzo, Fabian Di; Böni, Daniel [Zentrum für nachhaltige Abfall-und Ressourcennutzung ZAR, Hinwil (Switzerland)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► We carefully addressed all the very valuable comments and suggestions of the reviewers. ► We also have shortened the size of the paper and tried simplify it substantially, as requested by the reviewers (introduction 25% reduced!). ► We have decided to take the chance and have replaced the data for the “additional” elements (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Sn, Cr, Ni, Fe, Al) of the earlier MFA (Morf, 2011) with data that belong to the samples of this study. ► We are convinced that with the revision the paper has significantly improved in quality and attractiveness. - Abstract: In Switzerland many kinds of waste, e.g. paper, metals, electrical and electronic equipment are separately collected and recycled to a large extent. The residual amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) has to be thermally treated before final disposal. Efforts to recover valuable metals from incineration residues have recently increased. However, the resource potential of critical elements in the waste input (sources) and their partitioning into recyclable fractions and residues (fate) is unknown. Therefore, a substance flow analysis (SFA) for 31 elements including precious metals (Au, Ag), platinum metal group elements (Pt, Rh) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, etc.) has been conducted in a solid waste incinerator (SWI) with a state-of-the-art bottom ash treatment according to the Thermo-Re® concept. The SFA allowed the determination of the element partitioning in the SWI, as well as the elemental composition of the MSW by indirect analysis. The results show that the waste-input contains substantial quantities of precious metals, such as 0.4 ± 0.2 mg/kg Au and 5.3 ± 0.7 mg/kg Ag. Many of the valuable substances, such as Au and Ag are enriched in specific outputs (e.g. non-ferrous metal fractions) and are therefore recoverable. As the precious metal content in MSW is expected to rise due to its increasing application in complex consumer products, the results of this study are

  18. Precious metals and rare earth elements in municipal solid waste – Sources and fate in a Swiss incineration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morf, Leo S.; Gloor, Rolf; Haag, Olaf; Haupt, Melanie; Skutan, Stefan; Lorenzo, Fabian Di; Böni, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We carefully addressed all the very valuable comments and suggestions of the reviewers. ► We also have shortened the size of the paper and tried simplify it substantially, as requested by the reviewers (introduction 25% reduced!). ► We have decided to take the chance and have replaced the data for the “additional” elements (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Sn, Cr, Ni, Fe, Al) of the earlier MFA (Morf, 2011) with data that belong to the samples of this study. ► We are convinced that with the revision the paper has significantly improved in quality and attractiveness. - Abstract: In Switzerland many kinds of waste, e.g. paper, metals, electrical and electronic equipment are separately collected and recycled to a large extent. The residual amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) has to be thermally treated before final disposal. Efforts to recover valuable metals from incineration residues have recently increased. However, the resource potential of critical elements in the waste input (sources) and their partitioning into recyclable fractions and residues (fate) is unknown. Therefore, a substance flow analysis (SFA) for 31 elements including precious metals (Au, Ag), platinum metal group elements (Pt, Rh) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, etc.) has been conducted in a solid waste incinerator (SWI) with a state-of-the-art bottom ash treatment according to the Thermo-Re® concept. The SFA allowed the determination of the element partitioning in the SWI, as well as the elemental composition of the MSW by indirect analysis. The results show that the waste-input contains substantial quantities of precious metals, such as 0.4 ± 0.2 mg/kg Au and 5.3 ± 0.7 mg/kg Ag. Many of the valuable substances, such as Au and Ag are enriched in specific outputs (e.g. non-ferrous metal fractions) and are therefore recoverable. As the precious metal content in MSW is expected to rise due to its increasing application in complex consumer products, the results of this study are

  19. Electrodeposition Techniques for the Preparation of Beta-Sprectroscopy Sources of Rare-Earth Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P. Gregers; Høgh, J.; Nielsen, H. L.

    1964-01-01

    Thin, uniform radioactive deposits of rare earths and related elements can be prepared by cathodic electrodeposition of their hydroxides. The main theoretical and experimental features of this process are reviewed and plating cell design and the choice of conditions are described together...

  20. Synthesis, extraction and electronic structure of Ce@C2n

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing-Bing; Zou, Guang-Tian; Yang, Hai-Bin; Yu, San; Lu, Jin-Shan; Liu, Zi-Yang; Liu, Shu-Ying; Xu, Wen-Guo

    1997-11-01

    In view of the growing interest in endohedral lanthanide fullerenes, Ce, as a typical+ 4 oxidation state lanthanide element, has been systematically studied. The synthesis, extraction and electronic structure of Ce @ C2n are investigated. Soot containing Ce@C2n was synthesized in high yield by carbonizing CeO2-containing graphite rods and are back-burning the CeC2-enriched cathode deposit in a DC arc plasma apparatus. Ce@C2n dominated by Ce@C82, can be efficiently extracted from the insoluble part of the soot after toluene Soxhlet extraction by pyridine at high temperature and high pressure in a closed vessel. About 60% Ce@C2n(2n = 82, 80, 78, 76) and 35% Ce@C82 can be enriched in the pyridine extract. This fact is identified by desorption electron impact mass spectrometry (DEI MS). The electronic structure of Ce@C2n is analyzed by using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) of pyridine-free film. It is suggested that the encapsulated Ce atom is in a charge state close to+ 3 and was effectively protected from reaction with water and oxygen by the enclosing fullerene cage. Unlike theoretical expectation, the electronic state of Ce@C82 is formally described as Ce+3@C3-82.

  1. A political economy of China's export restrictions on rare earth elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pothen, Frank [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany); Fink, Kilian [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany)

    2015-04-20

    We investigate why governments restrict exports of exotic raw materials taking rare earth elements as a case study. Trade restrictions on exotic materials do not have immediate macroeconomic effects. Relocating rare earth intensive industries is found to be the main reason behind China's export barriers. They are part of a more extensive strategy aiming at creating comparative advantages in these sectors and at overcoming path dependencies. Moreover, export barriers serve as a second-best instrument to reduce pollution and to slow down the depletion of exhaustible resources. Growing domestic rare earth consumption renders those increasingly ineffective. Rising reliance on mine-site regulation indicates that this fact is taken into account. Rare earth extraction is dominated by a few large companies; the demand side is dispersed. That speaks against successful lobbying for export restrictions. It appears as if the export barriers are set up to compensate mining firms.

  2. Effects of rare earth elements La and Yb on the morphological and functional development of zebrafish embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun'an Cui; Zhiyong Zhang; Wei Bai; Ligang Zhang; Xiao He; Yuhui Ma; Yan Liu; Zhifang Chai

    2012-01-01

    In recent years,with the wide applications and mineral exploitation of rare earth elements,their potential environmental and health effects have caused increasing public concern.Effect of rare earth elements La and Yb on the morphological and functional development of zebrafish embryos were studied.The embryos were exposed to La3+ or Yb3+ at 0,0.01,0.1,0.3,0.5 and 1.0 mmol/L,respectively.Early life stage parameters such as egg and embryo mortality,gastrula development,tail detachment,eyes,somite formation,circulatory system,pigmentation,malformations,hatching rate,length of larvae and mortality were investigated.The results showed La3+ and Yb3+ delayed zebrafish embryo and larval development,decreased survival and hatching rates,and caused tail malformation in a concentration-dependent way.Moreover,heavy rare-earth ytterbium led to more severe acute toxicity of zebrafish embryo than light rare-earth lanthanum.

  3. Investigation of trace elements in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluskoter, H.J.; Cahil, R.A.; Miller, W.G.; Ruch, R.R.; Shimp, N.F.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of coal samples is currently being extensively analyzed for constituents, including many trace elements, at the Illinois State Geological Survey. The samples include whole coals, washed coals, and bench samples. Among the many determinations made on each sample are analyses for approximately 60 elements, almost twice the number of elements previously determined. The increase is in part the result of the addition of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) equipment to the laboratory. Twenty-five samples of Herrin (No. 6) Coal that had been analyzed previously were subjected to INAA analysis and were found to include Ba, Ce, Cs, Dy, Eu, Au, Hf, I, In, La, Lu, Rb, Sm, Sc, Ag, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, W, U, and Yb, none of which were reported by previous techniques. These elements generally are present in very small amounts and, with the exception of barium, exhibit no wide range in concentration. The rare earth elements are among those having the narrowest ranges. Wide variations in element content have been observed in bench sets of coals (samples of vertical segments of the coal seam). Many elements, notably germanium, are concentrated at the top and/or bottom of the seam, the high concentrations of Ge being found there in all four bench sets analyzed to date

  4. [Rare earth elements content in farmland soils and crops of the surrounding copper mining and smelting plant in Jiangxi province and evaluation of its ecological risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shu-Lan; Huang, Yi-Zong; Wang, Fei; Xu, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Gao, Zhu; Hu, Ying; Qiao Min; Li, Jin; Xiang, Meng

    2015-03-01

    Rare earth elements content in farmland soils and crops of the surrounding copper mining and smelting plant in Jiangxi province was studied. The results showed that copper mining and smelting could increase the content of rare earth elements in soils and crops. Rare earth elements content in farmland soils of the surrounding Yinshan Lead Zinc Copper Mine and Guixi Smelting Plant varied from 112.42 to 397.02 mg x kg(-1) and 48.81 to 250.06 mg x kg(-1), and the average content was 254.84 mg x kg(-1) and 144.21 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The average contents of rare earth elements in soils in these two areas were 1.21 times and 0.68 times of the background value in Jiangxi province, 1.36 times and 0.77 times of the domestic background value, 3.59 times and 2.03 times of the control samples, respectively. Rare earth elements content in 10 crops of the surrounding Guixi Smelting Plant varied from 0.35 to 2.87 mg x kg(-1). The contents of rare earth elements in the leaves of crops were higher than those in stem and root. The contents of rare earth elements in Tomato, lettuce leaves and radish leaves were respectively 2.87 mg x kg(-1), 1.58 mg x kg(-1) and 0.80 mg x kg(-1), which were well above the hygienic standard limit of rare earth elements in vegetables and fruits (0.70 mg x kg(-1)). According to the health risk assessment method recommended by America Environmental Protection Bureau (USEPA), we found that the residents' lifelong average daily intake of rare earth elements was 17.72 mg x (kg x d)(-1), lower than the critical value of rare earth elements damage to human health. The results suggested that people must pay attention to the impact of rare earth elements on the surrounding environment when they mine and smelt copper ore in Jiangxi.

  5. Neutron-activation determination of the rare earths in natural calcites using a semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaganov, N.A.; Bulnaev, A.I.; Mejer, V.A.; Ponomarev, V.S.

    1976-01-01

    The application of germanium semiconducting detector is described. The detector has an energy resolution about 1 KeV and makes it possible to determine the content of Ce, Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, and Yb in natural calcites with high sensitivity. The region of soft γ-radiation of activated calcites is more favourable for measurements to be performed than the region of hard γ-rays. Semiconducting detectors of radiation type are relatively cheap; they can be stored at room temperature. The limit of determining rare earth elements in calcites is (g): Eu-1.5.10 -9 ; Tb-4.0.10 -9 ; Yb-7.0.10 -9 ; Ce-1.0.10 -7 ; Nd-5.0.10 -7 ; Gd-1.0.10 -6 . A relative error of concentration determination is 10-20%

  6. Uranium, thorium and rare earth elements distribution from different iron quadrangle spring waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Cláudia A.; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Menezes, Maria A. de B.C.; Rodrigues, Paulo C.H., E-mail: cferreiraquimica@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: help@cdtn.br, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: pchr@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of thorium, uranium and the rare earth elements (REE) in 26 spring waters, as well as the patterns of the REE of the samples from the Cercadinho, Moeda and Caue aquifers in different municipalities of the Iron Quadrangle (Quadrilatero Ferrifero), located in the central-southeast of Minas Gerais state. The pH value of the ground waters ranged from 3.8 to 7.0, indicating an acid nature of most of the spring waters. The investigation of REE speciation showed that all the REEs exist in the free X{sup 3+} ionic forms, under the prevailing Eh and pH conditions. In the studied samples the uranium concentrations (<2.3-1176 ng L{sup -1}) were below the guideline level set by Brazilian legislation (Ministry of Health 518- 03/2004). Thorium concentrations ranged from <0.39-11.0 ng L{sup -1} and the sum of the REE ranged from 6.0 to 37657 ng L{sup -1}. As there are no permissible limits related for the REE and thorium for different water quality standards in Brazil, more attention must be paid to the local residents' health risk caused by spring waters (REEs were > 1000 ng L{sup -1}) originating from aquifers located in Sabara, Barao de Cocais, Santa Barbara, Mario Campos, Congonhas and Lavras Novas. The REEs patterns in the spring waters from the Cercadinho, Caue and Moeda aquifers are characterized by middle REE (MREE) enrichment compared to light REE (LREE) and heavy REEs (HREE), negative Ce anomalies (except for one sample) and positive Eu anomalies in all three aquifers studied. (author)

  7. Cerium concentrate and mixed rare earth chloride by the oxidative decomposition of bastnaesite in molten sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Toshio; Kato, Kazuhiro; Kuno, Toyohiko; Okuwaki, Akitsugu; Umetsu, Yoshiaki; Okabe, Taijiro

    1993-01-01

    Bastnaesite was treated in molten NaOH at 623-777 K for 10-60 min under atmosphere. Cerium-(III) in the ore was easily oxidized 95% or more within 30 min to give an oxidation product composed of solid solutions of CeO 2 -rich and CeO 2 -lean phases and Ce-free rare earth oxide phase. Simultaneously fluoride ion was removed 97% or more. Cerium concentrate was prepared from the oxidation product by leaching with 0.1-3 M HCl solution. The yield of cerium concentrate and the CeO 2 content reached 55-57% and 70-72%, respectively. Mixed rare earth chloride is composed of about 90% rare earth chloride and 10% alkaline earth chloride, and the contents of CeCl 3 , LaCl 3 , NdCl 3 , and PrCl 3 are 11.5, 58.5, 14.4, and 5.4%, respectively. The particle size of resulting cerium concentrate was fairly uniform and about 0.1 μm

  8. Quantifying and Comparing Effects of Climate Engineering Methods on the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Sebastian; Ferrer González, Miriam; Ilyina, Tatiana; Kracher, Daniela; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Niemeier, Ulrike; Pongratz, Julia; Reick, Christian H.; Schmidt, Hauke

    2018-02-01

    To contribute to a quantitative comparison of climate engineering (CE) methods, we assess atmosphere-, ocean-, and land-based CE measures with respect to Earth system effects consistently within one comprehensive model. We use the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) with prognostic carbon cycle to compare solar radiation management (SRM) by stratospheric sulfur injection and two carbon dioxide removal methods: afforestation and ocean alkalinization. The CE model experiments are designed to offset the effect of fossil-fuel burning on global mean surface air temperature under the RCP8.5 scenario to follow or get closer to the RCP4.5 scenario. Our results show the importance of feedbacks in the CE effects. For example, as a response to SRM the land carbon uptake is enhanced by 92 Gt by the year 2100 compared to the reference RCP8.5 scenario due to reduced soil respiration thus reducing atmospheric CO2. Furthermore, we show that normalizations allow for a better comparability of different CE methods. For example, we find that due to compensating processes such as biogeophysical effects of afforestation more carbon needs to be removed from the atmosphere by afforestation than by alkalinization to reach the same global warming reduction. Overall, we illustrate how different CE methods affect the components of the Earth system; we identify challenges arising in a CE comparison, and thereby contribute to developing a framework for a comparative assessment of CE.

  9. Study on speciation of rare earth elements in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuqi; Sun Jingxin; Chen Hongmin; Guo Fanqing; Wang Lijun; Zhang Shen

    1996-01-01

    The contents of rare earth elements (REE) in red soil, yellow brown soil and leached chernozem are studied. After extracted sequentially, REE in these soils are fractionated into seven forms, i.e., (I) water soluble, (II) exchangeable, (III) loosely bound to organic mater, (IV) bound to carbonate and specifically absorbed, (V) bound to Fe-Mn oxides, (VI) tightly bound to organic matter and (VII) residual forms. The contents of REE in every form are determined by NAA (neutron activation analysis). The results show that REE in soils mainly exist in residual form and REE in soluble forms are very limited (<7%)

  10. Marine geochemistry of the rare earth elements: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, H.; Elderfield, H.

    1984-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) form a coherent group because of their systematic decrease in atomic radii with increasing atomic number and predominant +3 oxidation state. This makes them particularly useful in the study of marine geochemistry. The fact that two members of the group are often found in anomalous oxidation states allows a study of the fractionation of these REE from their neighbours and provides an insight into the geochemical behaviour of the REE in the marine environment. Thus the chemistry and relative abundances of the REE can be used to assess the origin and depositional environments of modern sediments. (author)

  11. Mechanochemical synthesis of magnetically hard anisotropic RFe{sub 10}Si{sub 2} powders with R representing combinations of Sm, Ce and Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabay, A.M., E-mail: gabay@udel.edu; Hadjipanayis, G.C.

    2017-01-15

    Alloy synthesis consisting of mechanical activation followed by annealing was explored as a method of manufacturing medium-grade permanent magnet materials with a reduced content of the critical rare earth elements. Four R{sub x}Fe{sub 10}Si{sub 2} alloys with R=Sm, Sm{sub 0.7}Zr{sub 0.3}, Sm{sub 0.3}Ce{sub 0.3}Zr{sub 0.4} and Ce{sub 0.6}Zr{sub 0.4} (nominal compositions) were prepared from mixtures of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Si powders in the presence of a reducing agent Ca and a CaO dispersant. The collected alloy particles typically consisted of few joined submicron crystals. For R=Sm, X-ray diffraction analysis reveals a significant amount of the unwanted Th{sub 2}Zn{sub 17}-type compound forming alongside the desired ThMn{sub 12}-type 1:12 compound. A more pure 1:12 phase could be obtained for R=Ce{sub 0.6}Zr{sub 0.4}, but it exhibited a room-temperature coercivity of less than 1 kOe. The most pure 1:12 phase and the highest values of the coercivity (10.8 kOe) and calculated maximum energy product (13.8 MGOe) were obtained for R=Sm{sub 0.7}Zr{sub 0.3} processed at 1150 °C. The calculated maximum energy products of the Sm{sub 0.3}Ce{sub 0.3}Zr{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 10}Si{sub 2} particles, with half of their rare earths constituents represented by the relatively abundant Ce, was 10.1 MGOe. - Highlights: • 30% Zr substitution for Sm improves prospects of the alloys as permanent magnets. • Pure ThMn{sub 12}-type structure could only be obtained in the Zr-substituted alloys. • Obtained powders exhibit better properties than nanocrystalline Sm(Fe,M){sub 12} alloys. • If fully dense, alloy containing only 2.3 at% Sm would energy product of 10 MGOe.

  12. Sustainability evaluation of essential critical raw materials: cobalt, niobium, tungsten and rare earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkaczyk, A. H.; Bartl, A.; Amato, A.; Lapkovskis, V.; Petranikova, M.

    2018-05-01

    The criticality of raw materials has become an important issue in recent years. As the supply of certain raw materials is essential for technologically-advanced economies, the European Commission and other international counterparts have started several initiatives to secure reliable and unhindered access to raw materials. Such efforts include the EU Raw Materials Initiative, European Innovation Partnership on Raw Materials, US Critical Materials Institute, and others. In this paper, the authors present a multi-faceted and multi-national review of the essentials for the critical raw materials (CRMs) Co, Nb, W, and rare earth elements (REEs). The selected CRMs are of specific interest as they are considered relevant for emerging technologies and will thus continue to be of increasing major economic importance. This paper presents a ‘sustainability evaluation’ for each element, including essential data about markets, applications and recycling, and possibilities for substitution have been summarized and analysed. All the presented elements are vital for the advanced materials and processes upon which modern societies rely. These elements exhibit superior importance in ‘green’ applications and products subject to severe conditions. The annual production quantities are quite low compared to common industrial metals. Of the considered CRMs, only Co and REE gross production exceed 100 000 t. At the same time, the prices are quite high, with W and Nb being in the range of 60 USD kg‑1 and some rare earth compounds costing almost 4000 USD kg‑1. Despite valiant effort, in practice some of the considered elements are de facto irreplaceable for many specialized applications, at today’s technological level. Often, substitution causes a significant loss of quality and performance. Furthermore, possible candidates for substitution may be critical themselves or available in considerably low quantities. It can be concluded that one preferred approach for the

  13. A deposit model for carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits: Chapter J in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Seal, Robert R.; McCafferty, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Carbonatite and alkaline intrusive complexes, as well as their weathering products, are the primary sources of rare earth elements. A wide variety of other commodities have been exploited from carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks including niobium, phosphate, titanium, vermiculite, barite, fluorite, copper, calcite, and zirconium. Other elements enriched in these deposits include manganese, strontium, tantalum, thorium, vanadium, and uranium. Carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits are presented together in this report because of the spatial, and potentially genetic, association between carbonatite and alkaline rocks. Although these rock types occur together at many locations, carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits are not generally found together.

  14. Rare earth element patterns of the Central Indian Basin sediments related to their lithology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Roelandts, I.; Sudhakar, M.; Pluger, W.L.

    Rare earth element (REE) concentration have been determined in terrigenous, siliceous (nodule barren and nodule bearing), calcareous, and red clay from the Central Indian Basin. The bulk distribution of REE, and in particular the relative cerium...

  15. Recycling of Rare Earth Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Tom; Bertau, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Any development of an effective process for rare earth (RE) recycling has become more and more challenging, especially in recent years. Since 2011, when commodity prices of REs had met their all-time maximum, prices have dropped rapidly by more than 90 %. An economic process able to offset these fluctuations has to take unconventional methods into account beside well-known strategies like acid/basic leaching or solvent extraction. The solid-state chlorination provides such an unconventional method for mobilizing RE elements from waste streams. Instead of hydrochloric acid this kind of chlorination decomposes NH4Cl thermally to release up to 400 °C hot HCl gas. After cooling the resulting solid metal chlorides may be easily dissolved in pH-adjusted water. Without producing strongly acidic wastes and with NH4Cl as cheap source for hydrogen chloride, solid-state chlorination provides various advantages in terms of costs and disposal. In the course of the SepSELSA project this method was examined, adjusted and optimized for RE recycling from fluorescent lamp scraps as well as Fe14Nd2B magnets. Thereby many surprising influences and trends required various analytic methods to examine the reasons and special mechanisms behind them.

  16. Analysis of heavy alloying elements segregation in gravity cast experimental Mg-Al-Zn-RE alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Żydek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure of experimental AZ91 alloy with an addition of rare earth elements (RE at a level of 4 wt.% was examined by means of light microscopy. The investigated AZ91 + 4 wt.% RE alloy was fabricated by adding cerium rich mish metal to molten commercial AZ91 alloy. In the microstructure of the resulting alloy, besides α solid solution, α + γ eutectic and discontinuous precipitates of γ phase, also the Al11RE3 phase with needle-like morphology and the polygonal Al10RE2Mn7 phase were revealed. No segregation of rare earth elements was found in the investigated gravity cast alloy, which was confirmed by statistical analysis of cerium concentrations in selected parts of the cast. Similar results were obtained for manganese. Ce and Mn concentrations were determined by a spectrophotometric method.

  17. Rare earth elements determination in medicinal plants by Neutron Activation Analisys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R.; Francisconi, Lucilaine S.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da

    2013-01-01

    Rare Earth Elements (REEs) have been considered nontoxic for human health and for the environment; however, the use of REEs in the development of recent technologies has increased the interest un their biological effects. Some studies related to their concentration in foodstuffs were published but REEs levels in medicinal plants are still unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the Rees concentration in the set of 59 medicinal herbs commonly used by Brazilian folk. Results showed that plants can concentrate REEs in their aerial parts, but the amount transferred to the extract of these plants is relatively low, resulting in little ingestion of these elements by the population during the extract consumption. (author)

  18. Rare earth elements determination in medicinal plants by Neutron Activation Analisys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R.; Francisconi, Lucilaine S.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da, E-mail: rdmrg89@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Rare Earth Elements (REEs) have been considered nontoxic for human health and for the environment; however, the use of REEs in the development of recent technologies has increased the interest un their biological effects. Some studies related to their concentration in foodstuffs were published but REEs levels in medicinal plants are still unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the Rees concentration in the set of 59 medicinal herbs commonly used by Brazilian folk. Results showed that plants can concentrate REEs in their aerial parts, but the amount transferred to the extract of these plants is relatively low, resulting in little ingestion of these elements by the population during the extract consumption. (author)

  19. Rare earths as a future resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornell, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    The fourteen rare earth or lanthanide elements have recently emerged as an important natural resource because of the rapidly growing demand in the electronic, chemical and metallurgical industries. The Symposium on rare earth elements as a future resource presented a multidisciplinary review of rare earth chemistry, geology, beneficiation, industrial applications and marketing. Papers by experts in many fields were presented on the following topics: chemical properties of the rare earth elements; the analysis of rare earth elements and minerals; beneficiation and extraction of rare earth elements; economic geochemistry and mineralogy of rare earths; present industrial uses of rare earth elements; the role of rare earth elements in high-temperature superconductors; the technical application of high-temperature superconductors; supply and demand for rare earth products - now and in the future, and the geology of rare earth deposits

  20. Dispersion and concentration of elements in the Earth's crust an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iiyama, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    During the Earth's history of 4,500 x 10 6 years, the distribution of elements in its crust is strongly modified from the initial pattern. The paper overlooks at first how and to what extent this modification could be take place. It is emphasized that water in deep as well as in shallow parts of the crust plays an essential role in the transportation of elements. Whether a particular element thus transported by water are concentrated in particular places or diluted and dispersed in the crust or brought to the surface and join into the surface water depends on the geological and geochemical condition of the passages of these waters acting as transporter of the elements. If there was no preferential passages for water, these elements and water will diffuse into the surroundings and no particular concentration of elements will be resulted. On the contrary, the presence of preferential conduit (such as fissure or faults) will offer the places adequate for this concentration provided that a favorable physical and chemical conditions are present. The review thus intends to point out the importance of the tectono-geochemical conditions to be taken into consideration for the planning of the nuclear wastes disposal and of the environmental protection. (author)

  1. Wine Traceability with Rare Earth Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Aceto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The traceability of foodstuffs is now a relevant aspect of the food market. Scientific research has been devoted to addressing this issue by developing analytical protocols in order to find the link between soil and food items. In this view, chemical parameters that can act as soil markers are being sought. In this work, the role of rare earth elements (REEs as geochemical markers in the traceability of red wine is discussed. The REE distribution in samples from each step of the wine making process of Primitivo wine (produced in Southern Italy was determined using the highly sensitive inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS technique. Samples analyzed include grapes, must, and wine samples after every step in the vinification process. The resulting data were compared to the REE distribution in the soil, revealing that the soil fingerprint is maintained in the intermediate products up to and including grape must. Fractionation occurs thereafter as a consequence of further external interventions, which tends to modify the REE profile.

  2. Determination of rare earth contents in plant and soil by neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafka, B.; Lin, X.L.; Henkelmann, R.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The results presented are typical analytical results for Bavarian soils and plants. Plants and soils collected from identical sites are used to quantify the ratios of rare earth contents. This work has been in close cooperation with several governmental institutions, who are responsible for the protection and surveillance of agricultural sites and wooded areas. Routine sampling takes place on selected areas in the federal state of Bavaria, and the samples (soil and plants as wheat, corn or needles) are analysed with use of AAS, ICP-OES or ICP-MS techniques. INAA as an alternative method is in this context very interesting because it does not involve any sample pretreatment, prior to irradiation. It could be shown for chosen elements (K, Cr, Zn etc.), that incomplete digestion can lead to results which are remarkably lower than the total content in the sample. INAA also is an excellent technique to analyse rare earth elements. The advantage of analysing the original material, which only needs to be dried and homogenized, allows the determination of total values for most of the elements, independent of the chemical binding state of the atoms. Due to this reason, INAA is often called 'independent of matrix'. Only when the g-spectroscopy after activation is carried out, the main components may disturb the determination of trace elements. In soils, the matrix allows the pure instrumental determination of 9 rare earth elements (Ce, Dy, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb, Yb). In plant material, the rare earth concentrations are much lower, so a chemical separation is needed in order to remove or reduce the main interferences like Na, K, Br etc. This combination of NAA with radiochemical separation is called Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis (RNAA) and allows to determine the same elements as in soils, except Dy

  3. Assessment of Bioavailable Concentrations of Germanium and Rare Earth Elements in the Rhizosphere of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Fischer, Ronny; Moschner, Christin; Székely, Balázs

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of Germanium (Ge) and Rare Earth Elements in soils are estimated at 1.5 mg kg -1 (Ge), 25 mg kg -1 (La) and 20 mg kg -1 (Nd), which are only roughly smaller than concentrations of Pb and Zn. Germanium and rare earth elements are thus not rare but widely dispersed in soils and therefore up to date, only a few minable deposits are available. An environmental friendly and cost-effective way for Ge and rare earth element production could be phytomining. However, the most challenging part of a phytomining of these elements is to increase bioavailable concentrations of the elements in soils. Recent studies show, that mixed cultures with white lupine or other species with a high potential to mobilize trace metals in their rhizosphere due to an acidification of the soil and release of organic acids in the root zone could be a promising tool for phytomining. Complexation of Ge and rare earth elements by organic acids might play a key role in controlling bioavailability to plants as re-adsorption on soil particles and precipitation is prevented and thus, concentrations in the root zone of white lupine increase. This may also allow the complexes to diffuse along a concentration gradient to the roots of mixed culture growing species leading to enhanced plant uptake. However, to optimize mixed cultures it would be interesting to know to which extend mobilization of trace metals is dependent from chemical speciation of elements in soil due to the interspecific interaction of roots. A method for the identification of complexes of germanium and rare earth elements with organic acids, predominantly citric acid in the rhizosphere of white lupine was developed and successfully tested. The method is based on coupling of liquid chromatography with ICP-MS using a zic-philic column (SeQuant). As a preliminary result, we were able to show that complexes of germanium with citric acid exist in the rhizosphere of white lupin, what may contribute to the bioavailability of this

  4. [Effects of rare earth elements on soil fauna community structure and their ecotoxicity to Holotrichia parallela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiting; Jiang, Junqi; Chen, Jie; Zou, Yunding; Zhang, Xincai

    2006-01-01

    By the method of OECD filter paper contact, this paper studied the effects of applied rare earth elements on soil fauna community structure and their ecological toxicity to Holotrichia parallela in bean field. The results showed that there were no significant differences between the treatments and the control in soil fauna species, quantity of main species, and diversity index. Urgent and chronic toxic test showed that the differences between the treatments and the control were not significant. It was suggested that within the range of test dosages, rare earth elements had little ecological toxicity to Holotrichia parallela, and did not change the soil fauna community structure.

  5. Growth and characterization of ceria thin films and Ce-doped {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires using sol-gel techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravani, S; Polychronopoulou, K; Doumanidis, C C; Rebholz, C [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Department, Engineering School, University of Cyprus, 1678, Nicosia (Cyprus); Stolojan, V; Hinder, S J; Baker, M A [Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Cui, Q; Gu, Z [Department of Chemical Engineering and CHN/NCOE Nanomanufacturing Center, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Gibson, P N, E-mail: M.Baker@surrey.ac.uk [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, 21027 Ispra (Italy)

    2010-11-19

    {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is a well known catalyst support. The addition of Ce to {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is known to beneficially retard the phase transformation of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and stabilize the {gamma}-pore structure. In this work, Ce-doped {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires have been prepared by a novel method employing an anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) template in a 0.01 M cerium nitrate solution, assisted by urea hydrolysis. Calcination at 500 deg. C for 6 h resulted in the crystallization of the Ce-doped AlOOH gel to form Ce-doped {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires. Ce{sup 3+} ions within the nanowires were present at a concentration of < 1 at.%. On the template surface, a nanocrystalline CeO{sub 2} thin film was deposited with a cubic fluorite structure and a crystallite size of 6-7 nm. Characterization of the nanowires and thin films was performed using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The nanowire formation mechanism and urea hydrolysis kinetics are discussed in terms of the pH evolution during the reaction. The Ce-doped {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires are likely to find useful applications in catalysis and this novel method can be exploited further for doping alumina nanowires with other rare earth elements.

  6. Rare Earth Element Concentrations and Fractionation Patterns Along Groundwater Flow Paths in Two Different Aquifer Types (i.e., Sand vs. Carbonate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, K. H.; Tang, J.

    2003-12-01

    Groundwater samples were collected in two different types of aquifer (i.e., Carrizo Sand Aquifer, Texas and Upper Floridan carbonate Aquifer, west-central Florida) to study the concentrations, fractionation, and speciation of rare earth elements (REE) along groundwater flow paths in each aquifer. Major solutes and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were also measured in these groundwaters. The Carrizo Sand aquifer was sampled in October 2002 and June 2003, whereas, to date, we have only sampled the Floridan once (i.e., June 2003). The data reveal no significant seasonal differences in major solute and REE concentrations for the Carrizo. In Carrizo sand aquifer, groundwaters from relatively shallow wells (i.e., less than 167 m) in the recharge zone are chiefly Ca-Na-HCO3-Cl type waters. With flow down-gradient the groundwaters shift composition to the Na-HCO3 waters. pH and alkalinity initially decrease with flow away from the recharge zone before increasing again down-gradient. DOC is generally low (0.65 mg/L) along the flow path. REE concentrations are highest in groundwaters from the recharge zone (Nd 40.5 pmol/kg), and decrease substantially with flow down-gradient reaching relatively low and stable values (Nd 4.1-8.6 pmol/kg) roughly 10 km from the recharge zone. Generally, Carrizo groundwaters exhibit HREE-enriched shale-normalized patterns. The HREE enrichments are especially strong for waters from the recharge zone [(Yb/Nd)SN =1.7-5.6], whereas down-gradient (deep) groundwaters have flatter patterns [(Yb/Nd)SN =0.7-2.5]. All groundwaters have slightly positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* 0.09-0.14) and negative Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce* -0.85 - -0.07). In the Upper Floridan Aquifer, Ca, Mg, SO4, and Cl concentrations generally increase along groundwater flow path, whereas pH and alkalinity generally decrease. DOC is higher (0.64 - 2.29 mg/L) than in the Carrizo and initially increases along the flow path and then decreases down-gradient. LREE (Nd) concentrations generally

  7. Adding the s-Process Element Cerium to the APOGEE Survey: Identification and Characterization of Ce II Lines in the H-band Spectral Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; Hasselquist, Sten; Souto, Diogo; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Frinchaboy, Peter; García-Hernández, D. Anibal; Holtzman, Jon; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Jőnsson, Henrik; Majewski, Steven R.; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Nidever, David; Pinsonneault, Mark; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Sobeck, Jennifer; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Zamora, Olga; Zasowski, Gail; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.

    2017-08-01

    Nine Ce II lines have been identified and characterized within the spectral window observed by the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey (between λ1.51 and 1.69 μm). At solar metallicities, cerium is an element that is produced predominantly as a result of the slow capture of neutrons (the s-process) during asymptotic giant branch stellar evolution. The Ce II lines were identified using a combination of a high-resolution (R=λ /δ λ ={{100,000}}) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) spectrum of α Boo and an APOGEE spectrum (R = 22,400) of a metal-poor, but s-process enriched, red giant (2M16011638-1201525). Laboratory oscillator strengths are not available for these lines. Astrophysical gf-values were derived using α Boo as a standard star, with the absolute cerium abundance in α Boo set by using optical Ce II lines that have precise published laboratory gf-values. The near-infrared Ce II lines identified here are also analyzed, as consistency checks, in a small number of bright red giants using archival FTS spectra, as well as a small sample of APOGEE red giants, including two members of the open cluster NGC 6819, two field stars, and seven metal-poor N- and Al-rich stars. The conclusion is that this set of Ce II lines can be detected and analyzed in a large fraction of the APOGEE red giant sample and will be useful for probing chemical evolution of the s-process products in various populations of the Milky Way.

  8. Effect of rare earth Ce on the far infrared radiation property of iron ore tailings ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jie [Key Laboratory of Special Functional Materials for Ecological Environment and Information (Hebei University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300130 (China); Institute of Power Source and Ecomaterials Science, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Meng, Junping, E-mail: srlj158@sina.com [Key Laboratory of Special Functional Materials for Ecological Environment and Information (Hebei University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300130 (China); Institute of Power Source and Ecomaterials Science, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Liang, Jinsheng; Duan, Xinhui [Key Laboratory of Special Functional Materials for Ecological Environment and Information (Hebei University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300130 (China); Institute of Power Source and Ecomaterials Science, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Huo, Xiaoli [Institute of Power Source and Ecomaterials Science, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Tang, Qingguo [Key Laboratory of Special Functional Materials for Ecological Environment and Information (Hebei University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300130 (China); Institute of Power Source and Ecomaterials Science, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Detailed process proposed for preparation of iron ore tailings ceramics. • Replace natural minerals with iron ore tailings as raw materials for preparing functional ceramics. • Impact mechanism of Ce on far infrared ceramics, as well as its optimum addition amounts can be obtained. • Propose a new perspective on considering the mechanism of far infrared radiation. - Abstract: A kind of far infrared radiation ceramics was prepared by using iron ore tailings, CaCO{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} as main raw materials, and Ce as additive. The result of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the sample exhibits excellent radiation value of 0.914 when doping 7 wt.% Ce. Ce{sup 4+} dissolved into iron diopside and formed in