WorldWideScience

Sample records for earth current monitoring

  1. Earth current monitoring circuit for inductive loads

    CERN Document Server

    Montabonnet, V; Thurel, Y; Cussac, P

    2010-01-01

    The search for higher magnetic fields in particle accelerators increasingly demands the use of superconducting magnets. This magnet technology has a large amount of magnetic energy storage during operation at relatively high currents. As such, many monitoring and protection systems are required to safely operate the magnet, including the monitoring of any leakage of current to earth in the superconducting magnet that indicates a failure of the insulation to earth. At low amplitude, the earth leakage current affects the magnetic field precision. At a higher level, the earth leakage current can additionally generate local losses which may definitively damage the magnet or its instrumentation. This paper presents an active earth fault current monitoring circuit, widely deployed in the converters for the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) superconducting magnets. The circuit allows the detection of earth faults before energising the circuit as well as limiting any eventual earth fault current. The electrical stress...

  2. Moscow State University near-Earth radiation monitoring satellite system: current status and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasyuk, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    Radiation measurements using instruments have been designed and manufacturing in the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University and installed onboard different satellites,i.e. LEO -"Meteor", ISS, GPS - GLONASS, GEO - "Electro" are presented as a basis of radiation monitoring system for control of radiation condition with a goal for to decrease radiation risk of spacecraft's damage on different orbits. Development of this system including radiation measurements onboard "Lomonosov"(LEO) satellite will be presented as well together with future project of multispacecraft LEO system for radiation monitoring.

  3. Earth System Monitoring, Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, John

    This section provides sensing and data collection methodologies, as well as an understanding of Earth's climate parameters and natural and man-made phenomena, to support a scientific assessment of the Earth system as a whole, and its response to natural and human-induced changes. The coverage ranges from climate change factors and extreme weather and fires to oil spill tracking and volcanic eruptions. This serves as a basis to enable improved prediction and response to climate change, weather, and natural hazards as well as dissemination of the data and conclusions. The data collection systems include satellite remote sensing, aerial surveys, and land- and ocean-based monitoring stations. Our objective in this treatise is to provide a significant portion of the scientific and engineering basis of Earth system monitoring and to provide this in 17 detailed articles or chapters written at a level for use by university students through practicing professionals. The reader is also directed to the closely related sections on Ecological Systems, Introduction and also Climate Change Modeling Methodology, Introduction as well as Climate Change Remediation, Introduction to. For ease of use by students, each article begins with a glossary of terms, while at an average length of 25 print pages each, sufficient detail is presented for use by professionals in government, universities, and industries. The chapters are individually summarized below.

  4. Volcano Monitoring Using Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. E.; Dehn, J.; Webley, P.; Skoog, R.

    2006-12-01

    At the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Google Earth is being used as a visualization tool for operational satellite monitoring of the region's volcanoes. Through the abilities of the Keyhole Markup Language (KML) utilized by Google Earth, different datasets have been integrated into this virtual globe browser. Examples include the ability to browse thermal satellite image overlays with dynamic control, to look for signs of volcanic activity. Webcams can also be viewed interactively through the Google Earth interface to confirm current activity. Other applications include monitoring the location and status of instrumentation; near real-time plotting of earthquake hypocenters; mapping of new volcanic deposits; and animated models of ash plumes within Google Earth, created by a combination of ash dispersion modeling and 3D visualization packages. The globe also provides an ideal interface for displaying near real-time information on detected thermal anomalies or "hotspot"; pixels in satellite images with elevated brightness temperatures relative to the background temperature. The Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska collects AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) through its own receiving station. The automated processing that follows includes application of algorithms that search for hotspots close to volcano location, flagging those that meet certain criteria. Further automated routines generate folders of KML placemarkers, which are linked to Google Earth through the network link function. Downloadable KML files have been created to provide links to various data products for different volcanoes and past eruptions, and to demonstrate examples of the monitoring tools developed. These KML files will be made accessible through a new website that will become publicly available in December 2006.

  5. Landsat Earth Monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, James J.

    1979-01-01

    The uses of NASA's Landsat in the areas of cartography, flood control, agricultural inventory, land use mapping, water runoff, urban planning, erosion, geology, and water quality monitoring are illustrated. (BB)

  6. Earth observation for rangeland monitoring

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available for the methodology is presented in Figure 1. Figure 1: Conceptual framework for the development of grass nutrient estimation models, using remote sensing at various scales Earth Observation for Rangeland Monitoring DR A RAMOELO, DR M CHO AND DR R MATHIEU CSIR... and canopy N conforms to the underlying geology (Figure 2). ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to thank the Department of Science and Technology which contributed financially to this work through the grant ?Earth Observation Application Development...

  7. Earth Occultation Monitoring with the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Using the Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on-board Fermi, we are monitoring the hard X-ray/soft gamma ray sky using the Earth occultation technique (EOT). Each time a source in our catalog is occulted by (or exits occultation by) the Earth, we measure its flux using the change in count rates due to the occultation. Currently we are using CTIME data with 8 energy channels spanning 8 keV to 1 MeV for the GBM NaI detectors for daily monitoring. Light curves, updated daily, are available on our website http://heastro.phys.lsu.edu/gbm. Our software is also capable of performing the Earth occultation monitoring using up to 128 energy bands, or any combination of those bands, using our 128-channel, 4-s CSPEC data. The GBM BGO detectors, sensitive from about 200 keV to 40 keV, can also be used with this technique. In our standard application of the EOT, we use a catalog of sources to drive the measurements. To ensure that our catalog is complete, our team has developed an Earth occultation imaging method. In this talk, I will describe both techniques and the current data products available. I will highlight recent and important results from the GBM EOT, including the current status of our observations of hard X-ray variations in the Crab Nebula.

  8. Volcano Monitoring Using Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, W.; Dehn, J.; Bailey, J. E.; Webley, P.

    2009-12-01

    At the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), remote sensing is an important component of its daily monitoring of volcanoes. AVO’s remote sensing group (AVORS) primarily utilizes three satellite datasets; Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data, from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Polar Orbiting Satellites (POES), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Terra and Aqua satellites, and NOAA’s Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) data. AVHRR and MODIS data are collected by receiving stations operated by the Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) at the University of Alaska’s Geophysical Institute. An additional AVHRR data feed is supplied by NOAA’s Gilmore Creek satellite tracking station. GOES data are provided by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Monterey Bay. The ability to visualize these images and their derived products is critical for the timely analysis of the data. To this end, AVORS has developed javascript web interfaces that allow the user to view images and metadata. These work well for internal analysts to quickly access a given dataset, but they do not provide an integrated view of all the data. To do this AVORS has integrated its datasets with Keyhole Markup Language (KML) allowing them to be viewed by a number of virtual globes or other geobrowsers that support this code. Examples of AVORS’ use of KML include the ability to browse thermal satellite image overlays to look for signs of volcanic activity. Webcams can also be viewed interactively through KML to confirm current activity. Other applications include monitoring the location and status of instrumentation; near real-time plotting of earthquake hypocenters; mapping of new volcanic deposits using polygons; and animated models of ash plumes, created by a combination of ash dispersion modeling and 3D visualization packages.

  9. Magnetic monitoring of earth and space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    For centuries, navigators of the world’s oceans have been familiar with an effect of Earth’s magnetic field: It imparts a directional preference to the needle of a compass. Although in some settings magnetic orientation remains important, the modern science of geomagnetism has emerged from its romantic nautical origins and developed into a subject of great depth and diversity. The geomagnetic field is used to explore the dynamics of Earth’s interior and its surrounding space environment, and geomagnetic data are used for geophysical mapping, mineral exploration, risk mitigation, and other practical applications. A global distribution of ground-based magnetic observatories supports those pursuits by providing accurate records of the magnetic-field direction and intensity at fixed locations and over long periods of time.Magnetic observatories were first established in the early 19th century in response to the influence of Alexander von Humboldt and Carl Friedrich Gauss. Since then, magnetic measurement has advanced significantly, progressing from simple visual readings of magnetic survey instruments to include automatic photographic measurement and modern electronic acquisition. To satisfy the needs of the scientific community, observatories are being upgraded to collect data that meet ever more stringent standards, to achieve higher acquisition frequencies, and to disseminate data in real time.To appreciate why data from magnetic observatories can be used for so many purposes, one needs only to recall that the geomagnetic field is a continuum, connecting the different parts of Earth to each other and to nearby space. Beneath our feet and above our heads, electric currents generate magnetic fields that contribute to the totality of the geomagnetic field measured at an observatory on Earth’s surface. The many physical processes that operate in each geophysical domain give rise to a complicated field that exhibits a wide variety of time-dependent behavior.1 In

  10. Climate Engine - Monitoring Drought with Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegewisch, K.; Daudert, B.; Morton, C.; McEvoy, D.; Huntington, J. L.; Abatzoglou, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    Drought has adverse effects on society through reduced water availability and agricultural production and increased wildfire risk. An abundance of remotely sensed imagery and climate data are being collected in near-real time that can provide place-based monitoring and early warning of drought and related hazards. However, in an era of increasing wealth of earth observations, tools that quickly access, compute, and visualize archives, and provide answers at relevant scales to better inform decision-making are lacking. We have developed ClimateEngine.org, a web application that uses Google's Earth Engine platform to enable users to quickly compute and visualize real-time observations. A suite of drought indices allow us to monitor and track drought from local (30-meters) to regional scales and contextualize current droughts within the historical record. Climate Engine is currently being used by U.S. federal agencies and researchers to develop baseline conditions and impact assessments related to agricultural, ecological, and hydrological drought. Climate Engine is also working with the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) to expedite monitoring agricultural drought over broad areas at risk of food insecurity globally.

  11. Distributed Space Missions for Earth System Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    A key addition to Springer's Space Technology Library series, this edited volume features the work of dozens of authors and offers a wealth of perspectives on distributed Earth observation missions. In sum, it is an eloquent synthesis of the fullest possible range of current approaches to a fast-developing field characterized by growing membership of the 'space club' to include nations formerly regarded as part of the Third World. The volume's four discrete sections focus on the topic's various aspects, including the key theoretical and technical issues arising from the division of payloads onto different satellites. The first is devoted to analyzing distributed synthetic aperture radars, with bi- and multi-static radars receiving separate treatment. This is followed by a full discussion of relative dynamics, guidance, navigation and control. Here, the separate topics of design; establishment, maintenance and control; and measurements are developed with relative trajectory as a reference point, while the dis...

  12. Monitoring the Earth's Dynamic Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Applegate, David; Townshend, John B.

    2008-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey's Geomagnetism Program is to monitor the Earth's magnetic field. Using ground-based observatories, the Program provides continuous records of magnetic field variations covering long timescales; disseminates magnetic data to various governmental, academic, and private institutions; and conducts research into the nature of geomagnetic variations for purposes of scientific understanding and hazard mitigation. The program is an integral part of the U.S. Government's National Space Weather Program (NSWP), which also includes programs in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Department of Defense (DOD), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSWP works to provide timely, accurate, and reliable space weather warnings, observations, specifications, and forecasts, and its work is important for the U.S. economy and national security. Please visit the National Geomagnetism Program?s website, http://geomag.usgs.gov, where you can learn more about the Program and the science of geomagnetism. You can find additional related information at the Intermagnet website, http://www.intermagnet.org.

  13. An isolated current monitor for iontophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, S E; Cohen, S A

    1976-01-01

    An inexpensive isolated current monitor has been developed as an effort to minimize stimulus artifact in experimental systems which include iontophoresis as the source of stimulus. The monitor becomes an element of the iontophoresis circuit, but provides an output voltage isolated from the iontophoresis current. The voltage is proportional to the iontophoresis current and will represent currents of 1/2 nA to 5 muA. It is this ability to detect minute currents that is valuable in iontophoresis measurements.

  14. Monitoring Global Croplands with Coarse Resolution Earth Observations: The Global Agriculture Monitoring (GLAM Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inbal Becker-Reshef

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the demand for timely, comprehensive global agricultural intelligence. Timely information on global crop production is indispensable for combating the growing stress on the world’s crop production and for securing both short-term and long-term stable and reliable supply of food. Global agriculture monitoring systems are critical to providing this kind of intelligence and global earth observations are an essential component of an effective global agricultural monitoring system as they offer timely, objective, global information on croplands distribution, crop development and conditions as the growing season progresses. The Global Agriculture Monitoring Project (GLAM, a joint NASA, USDA, UMD and SDSU initiative, has built a global agricultural monitoring system that provides the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS with timely, easily accessible, scientifically-validated remotely-sensed data and derived products as well as data analysis tools, for crop-condition monitoring and production assessment. This system is an integral component of the USDA’s FAS Decision Support System (DSS for agriculture. It has significantly improved the FAS crop analysts’ ability to monitor crop conditions, and to quantitatively forecast crop yields through the provision of timely, high-quality global earth observations data in a format customized for FAS alongside a suite of data analysis tools. FAS crop analysts use these satellite data in a ‘convergence of evidence’ approach with meteorological data, field reports, crop models, attaché reports and local reports. The USDA FAS is currently the only operational provider of timely, objective crop production forecasts at the global scale. These forecasts are routinely used by the other US Federal government agencies as well as by commodity trading companies, farmers, relief agencies and foreign governments. This paper discusses the operational components

  15. Novel current monitoring techniques without shunt resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VODA Adriana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Current measurement for automotiveelectrical actuator applications (with motors or valvesis necessary for appropriate control in many cases anda safety requirement in all cases: the control algorithmmay be dependent on the data but safety relevantfunctions will use it to determine possible over-current,over-temperature or failure conditions. This paperproposes an alternative method of monitoring thecurrent, without using sensors or current shunts.Instead, measurements are made on the motor in thedevelopment stages and low/high frequency variationsin the supply line are monitored, through low/highpassfilters, by available AD channels in the system.This results in cost reduction for the final product, byreducing hardware complexity.

  16. The APWL Wideband Wall Current Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Bohl, T

    2009-01-01

    A wideband wall current monitor was designed for use in LHC. The pick-up, named APWL, is of the coaxial type. Its main mechanical and electrical parameters are described and evaluated. The measured pick-up response is used to calculate the expected bunch profile obtainable with a pick-up of this type.

  17. RESEARCH ON SEEPAGE MONITORING MODEL OF EARTH-ROCK DAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    With the characteristics of seepage flow in earth-rock dams, a seepage monitoring model was established based on the finite element method for 3-D seepage flow together with observed data and was used to analyze and monitor the seepage of dams. In order to find out and monitor the seepage status of the whole dam, the separation of seepage amount for dam body, dam foundation and side banks was made theoretically by using the model. Practical example shows that the accuracy of computed results is satisfactory and the separation results are more objective.

  18. Heliospheric current sheet inclinations at Venus and Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ma

    Full Text Available We investigate the inclinations of heliospheric current sheet at two sites in interplanetary space, which are generated from the same solar source. From the data of solar wind magnetic fields observed at Venus (0.72 AU and Earth (1 AU during December 1978-May 1982 including the solar maximum of 1981, 54 pairs of candidate sector boundary crossings are picked out, of which 16 pairs are identified as sector boundaries. Of the remainder, 12 pairs are transient structures both at Venus and Earth, and 14 pairs are sector boundaries at one site and have transient structures at the other site. It implies that transient structures were often ejected from the coronal streamer belt around the solar maximum. For the 16 pairs of selected sector boundaries, we determine their normals by using minimum variance analysis. It is found that most of the normal azimuthal angles are distributed between the radial direction and the direction perpendicular to the spiral direction both at Venus and Earth. The normal elevations tend to be smaller than ~ 45° with respect to the solar equatorial plane, indicating high inclinations of the heliospheric current sheet, in particular at Earth. The larger scatter in the azimuth and elevation of normals at Venus than at Earth suggests stronger effects of the small-scale structures on the current sheet at 0.72 AU than at 1 AU. When the longitude difference between Venus and Earth is small (<40° longitudinally, similar or the same inclinations are generally observed, especially for the sector boundaries without small-scale structures. This implies that the heliospheric current sheet inclination tends to be maintained during propagation of the solar wind from 0.72 AU to 1 AU. Detailed case studies reveal that the dynamic nature of helmet streamers causes variations of the sector boundary structure.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (interplanetary magnetic fields; sources of solar wind

  19. Current Status on Resource and Recycling Technology for Rare Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Osamu; Okabe, Toru H.

    2014-06-01

    The development of recycling technologies for rare earths is essential for resource security and supply stability because high-quality rare earth mines are concentrated in China and the demand for rare earth metals such as neodymium and dysprosium, used as raw materials in permanent magnets (neodymium magnet), is expected to increase rapidly in the near future. It is also important to establish a recycling-based society from the perspective of the conservation of finite and valuable mineral resources and the reduction of the environmental load associated with mining and smelting. In this article, the current status of rare earth resource as well as that of recycling technology for the magnets is reviewed. The importance of establishing an efficient recycling process for rare earths is discussed from the characteristics of supply chain of rare earths, and the technological bases of the recycling processes for the magnet are introduced. Further, some fundamental researches on the development of new recycling processes based on pyrometallurgical process are introduced, and the features of the recycling processes are evaluated.

  20. Earth Rotation Monitoring, UT1 Determinaiton and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    article. 2011 Metrologia 48 S165 (http://iopscience.iop.org/0026-1394/48/4/S06) Download details: IP Address: 138.162.8.57 The article was downloaded...unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Metrologia 48 (2011) S165?S170 14. ABSTRACT Monitoring the Earth?s rotation angle is essential in various domains...ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 IOP PUBLISHING METROLOGIA Metrologia 48

  1. Dynamics of the earth's ring current - Theory and observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The development of currents within an arbitrary distribution of particles trapped in the geomagnetic field is described. These currents combine to form the earth's ring current and thus are responsible for the worldwide depressions of surface magnetic field strength during periods of magnetic activity known as magnetic storms. Following a brief review of trapped particle motion in magnetic fields, ring current development is described and presented in terms of basic field and particle distribution parameters. Experimental observations then are presented and discussed within the theoretical framework developed earlier. New results are presented which, in the area of composition and charge state observations, hold high promise in solving many long standing ring current problems. Finally, available experimental results will be used to assess the present understanding as to ring current sources, generation, and dissipation.

  2. Continuous glucose monitoring: current clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hun-Sung; Shin, Jeong-Ah; Chang, Jin-Sun; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Son, Ho-Young; Yoon, Kun-Ho

    2012-12-01

    Four kinds of subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) machines have been currently introduced in clinical practice. These machines exhibit real-time glucose on the monitor every 5 minutes and have alarms to indicate hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia. However, thus far, there is no clear consensus about the clinical indications for CGM in actual clinical practice. CGM should be an ideal and powerful tool for monitoring glucose variability. Glycaemic variability has become a major concern over the years with growing evidence on its detrimental impact with respect to the risk of diabetic complications. Although the HbA1c level is ubiquitously measures in clinical practice, this level does not adequately represent glycaemic variability. Currently available evidence indicates that CGM aids in lowering the HbA1c level without increasing the incidence of severe hypoglycaemic episodes in patients with type 1 diabetes. Thus far, CGM has not been indicated for preventing severe hypoglycaemia or for treating type 2 diabetes because sufficient supporting evidence has not been obtained. Promising results have been obtained for the use of CGM for pregnant women with diabetes and for patients with hospital hyperglycaemia. Predictions regarding the feasibility of the closed-loop system have proven to be optimistic. CGM-integrated communication systems using information technology such as smart phone help controlling blood glucose more easily and effectively.

  3. Daily monitoring of the land surface of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, J.

    2016-12-01

    Planet is an integrated aerospace and data analytics company that operates the largest fleet of Earth-imaging satellites. With more than 140 cube-sats successfully launched to date, Planet is now collecting approximately 10 million square kilometers of imagery per day (3-5m per pixel, in red, green, blue and near infrared spectral bands). By early 2017, Planet's constellation will image the entire land surface of the Earth on a daily basis. Due to investments in cloud storage and computing, approximately 75% of imagery collected is available to Planet's partners within 24 hours of capture through an Application Program Interface. This unique dataset has enormous applications for monitoring the status of Earth's natural ecosystems, as well as human settlements and agricultural welfare. Through our Ambassadors Program, Planet has made data available for researchers in areas as disparate as human rights monitoring in refugee camps, to assessments of the impact of hydroelectric installations, to tracking illegal gold mining in Amazon forests, to assessing the status of the cryosphere. Here, we share early results from Planet's research partner network, including enhanced spatial and temporal resolution of NDVI data for agricultural health in Saudi Arabia, computation of rates of illegal deforestation in Southern Peru, estimates of tropical forest carbon stocks based on data integration with active sensors, and estimates of glacial flow rates. We synthesize the potentially enormous research and scientific value of Planet's persistent monitoring capability, and discuss methods by which the data will be disseminated into the scientific community.

  4. All-Sky Earth Occultation Observations with the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A; Bhat, P N; Briggs, M S; Chaplin, V; Connaughton, V; Camero-Arranz, A; Case, G; Cherry, M; Rodi, J; Finger, M H; Jenke, P; Haynes, R H

    2009-01-01

    Using the Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on-board Fermi, we are monitoring the hard X-ray/soft gamma ray sky using the Earth occultation technique. Each time a source in our catalog enters or exits occultation by the Earth, we measure its flux using the change in count rates due to the occultation. Currently we are using CTIME data with 8 energy channels spanning 8 keV to 1 MeV for the GBM NaI detectors and spanning 150 keV to 40 MeV for the GBM BGO detectors. Our preliminary catalog consists of galactic X-ray binaries, the Crab Nebula, and active galactic nuclei. In addition, to Earth occultations, we have observed numerous occultations with Fermi's solar panels. We will present early results. Regularly updated results can be found on our website http://gammaray.nsstc.nasa.gov/gbm/science/occultation

  5. All-Sky Earth Occultation Observations with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Beklen, E.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Case, G.; Jenke, P.; Chaplin, V.; Cherry, M.; Connaughton, V.; Finger, M.; Haynes, R. H.; Preece, R.; Rodi, J.

    2009-01-01

    Using the Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on-board Fermi, we are monitoring the hard X-ray/ soft gamma ray sky using the Earth occultation technique. Each time a source in our catalog is occulted by (or exits occultation by) the Earth, we measure its flux using the change in count rates due to the occultation. Currently we are using CTIME data with 8 energy channels spanning 8 keV to 1 MeV for the GBM NaI detectors and spanning 150 keV to 40 MeV for the GBM BGO detectors. Our preliminary catalog consists of galactic X-ray binaries, the Crab Nebula, and active galactic nuclei. In addition, to Earth occultations, we have observed numerous occultations with Fermi's solar panels.

  6. Earth System Monitoring Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Modern Earth System Monitoring represents a fundamental change in the way scientists study the Earth System.  In Oceanography, for the past two centuries, ships have provided the platforms for observing.  Expeditions on the continents and Earth’s poles are land-based analogues. Fundamental understanding of current systems, climate, natural hazards, and ecosystems has been greatly advanced. While these approaches have been remarkably successful, the need to establish measurements over time can only be made using Earth observations and observatories with exacting standards and continuous data.  The 19 peer-reviewed contributions in this volume provide early insights into this emerging view of Earth in both space and time in which change is a critical component of our growing understanding. Presents 19 authoritative, peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology Covers a wide range of data collection platforms, including satellite remote sensing, aerial surveys, and l...

  7. Current Trends in Continuous Glucose Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodwig, Volker; Kulzer, Bernhard; Schnell, Oliver; Heinemann, Lutz

    2014-03-01

    The market introduction of systems for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) some 15 years ago did not immediately revolutionize the treatment of diabetes; however, for a given group of patients, it would almost be inconceivable nowadays to imagine life without CGM. One day the development of insulin pumps together with CGM could culminate in an artificial pancreas system. The performance of the glucose sensors used for glucose measurement in the interstitial fluid in the subcutaneous tissue and the algorithms employed to analyze these data have improved so much over the past decade that current CGM systems by far outperform those of the first generations. This commentary discusses a number of aspects about what we have learned since CGM systems entered the market and what current trends exist in their usage. Some of these are major hurdles facing a more widespread usage of CGM.

  8. The LHC Fast Beam Current change Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Belohrad, D; Jensen, L; Krupa, M; Topaloudis, A

    2013-01-01

    The modularity of the Large Hadron Collider’s (LHC) machine protection system (MPS) allows for the integration of several beam diagnostic instruments. These instruments have not necessarily been designed to have protection functionality, but MPS can still use them to increase the redundancy and reliability of the machine. The LHC fast beam current change monitor (FBCCM) is an example. It is based on analogue signals from fast beam current transformers (FBCT) used nominally to measure the LHC bunch intensities. The FBCCM calculates the magnitude of the beam signal provided by the FBCT, looks for a change over specific time intervals, and triggers a beam dump interlock if losses exceed an energy-dependent threshold. The first prototype of the FBCCM was installed in the LHC during the 2012-2013 run. The aim of this article is to present the FBCCM system and the results obtained, analyse its current performance and provide an outlook for the final system which is expected to be operational after the long LHC sh...

  9. The Current Energetics of Earth's Interior: A Gravitational Energy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jason; Rüpke, Lars; White, William

    2016-05-01

    The Earth's mantle convects to lose heat (Holmes, 1931); doing so drives plate tectonics (Turcotte and Oxburgh, 1967). Significant gravitational energy is created by the cooling of oceanic lithosphere atop hotter, less dense mantle. When slabs subduct, this gravitational energy is mostly (~86% for whole mantle flow in a PREM-like mantle) transformed into heat by viscous dissipation. Using this perspective, we reassess the energetics of Earth's mantle. We also reconsider the terrestrial abundances of heat producing elements U, Th, and K, and argue they are lower than previously considered and that consequently the heat produced by radioactive decay within the mantle is comparable to the present-day potential gravitational energy release by subducting slabs — both are roughly ~10-12 TW. We reassess possible core heat flow into the base of the mantle, and determine that the core may be still losing a significant amount of heat from its original formation, potentially more than the radioactive heat generation within the mantle. These factors are all likely to be important for Earth's current energetics, and argue that strong plume-driven upwelling is likely to exist within the convecting mantle.

  10. Monitoring water quality in Lake Atitlan, Guatemala using Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Cordova, A. I.; Christopher, S. A.; Griffin, R.; Limaye, A. S.; Irwin, D.

    2014-12-01

    Frequent and spatially continuous water quality monitoring is either unattainable or challenging for developing nations if only standard methods are used. Such standard methods rely on in situ water sampling, which is expensive, time-consuming and point specific. Through the Regional Visualization and Monitoring System (SERVIR), Lake Atitlan's water quality was first monitored in 2009 using Earth observation satellites. Lake Atitlan is a source of drinking water for the towns located nearby and a major touristic attraction for the country. Several multispectral sensors were used to monitor the largest algal bloom known to date for the lake, which covered 40% of the lake's 137 square kilometer surface. Red and Near-Infrared bands were used to isolate superficial algae from clean water. Local authorities, media, universities and local communities, broadly used the information provided by SERVIR for this event. It allowed estimating the real extent of the algal bloom and prompted immediate response for the government to address the event. However, algal blooms have been very rare in this lake. The lake is considered oligotrophic given its relatively high transparency levels that can reach 15 m in the dry season. To continue the support provided by SERVIR in the algal bloom event, an algorithm to monitor chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration under normal conditions was developed with the support of local institutions. Hyperspectral data from Hyperion on board EO-1 and in situ water quality observations were used to develop a semi-empirical algorithm for the lake. A blue to green band ratio successfully modeled Chl a concentration in Lake Atitlan with a relative error of 33%. This presentation will explain the process involved from providing an emergency response to developing a tailored tool for monitoring water quality in Lake Atitlan, Guatemala.

  11. Near Earth space plasma monitoring under COST 296

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Bremer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This review paper presents the main achievements of the near Earth space plasma monitoring under COST 296

    Action. The outputs of the COST 296 community making data, historical and real-time, standardized and available to the ionospheric community for their research, applications and modeling purposes are presented. The contribution of COST 296 with the added value of the validated data made possible a trusted ionospheric monitoring for research and modeling purposes, and it served for testing and improving the algorithms producing real-time

    data and providing data users measurement uncertainties. These value added data also served for calibration and

    validation of space-borne sensors. New techniques and parameters have been developed for monitoring the near Earth space plasma, as time dependent 2D maps of vertical total electron content (vTEC, other key ionospheric parameters and activity indices for distinguishing disturbed ionospheric conditions, as well as a technique for improving the discrepancies of different mapping services. The dissemination of the above products has been developed by COST 296 participants throughout the websites making them available on-line for real-time applications.


  12. Current sheet flapping in the near-Earth magnetotail: peculiarities of propagation and parallel currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkov, Egor V.; Artemyev, Anton V.; Petrukovich, Anatoly A.; Nakamura, Rumi

    2016-09-01

    We consider series of tilted current sheet crossings, corresponding to flapping waves in the near-Earth magnetotail. We analyse Cluster observations from 2005 to 2009, when spacecraft visited the magnetotail neutral plane near X ∈ [ - 17, - 8], Y ∈ [ - 16, - 2] RE (in the GSM system). Large separation of spacecraft allows us to estimate both local and global properties of flapping current sheets. We find significant variation in flapping wave direction of propagation between the middle tail and flanks. Th series of tilted current sheets represent the system of periodic, almost parallel currents with typical thickness of current filaments about L = 0.4 RE. The earthward gradients of Bz magnetic field are reduced within this current system in comparison with the gradients in the quiet near-Earth magnetotail. The wavelength (i.e. a distance between two crossings of current sheets with the same orientations) of the flapping waves is larger than 2πL for most of observations. The velocity of flapping wave propagation is about ion bulk velocity and is significantly lower than the velocity of ion drift relative to electrons. We discuss possible drivers of flapping and estimate the amplitude of the total parallel current generated by flapping waves.

  13. Electron currents supporting the near-Earth magnetotail during current sheet thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Liu, J.; Runov, A.

    2017-01-01

    Formation of intense, thin current sheets (i.e., current sheet thinning) is a critical process for magnetospheric substorms, but the kinetic physics of this process remains poorly understood. Using a triangular configuration of the three Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft at the end of 2015 we investigate field-aligned and transverse currents in the magnetotail current sheet around 12 Earth radii downtail. Combining the curlometer technique with direct measurements of ion and electron velocities, we demonstrate that intense, thin current sheets supported by strong electron currents form in this region. Electron field-aligned currents maximize near the neutral plane Bx˜0, attaining magnitudes of ˜20 nA/m2. Carried by hot (>1 keV) electrons, they generate strong magnetic shear, which contributes up to 20% of the vertical (along the normal direction to the equatorial plane) pressure balance. Electron transverse currents, on the other hand, are carried by the curvature drift of anisotropic, colder (<1 keV) electrons and gradually increase during the current sheet thinning. In the events under consideration the thinning process was abruptly terminated by earthward reconnection fronts which have been previously associated with tail reconnection further downtail. It is likely that the thin current sheet properties described herein are similar to conditions further downtail and are linked to the loss of stability and onset of reconnection there. Our findings are likely applicable to thin current sheets in other geophysical and astrophysical settings.

  14. Monitoring Earth's reservoir and lake dynamics from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchyts, G.; Eilander, D.; Schellekens, J.; Winsemius, H.; Gorelick, N.; Erickson, T.; Van De Giesen, N.

    2016-12-01

    Reservoirs and lakes constitute about 90% of the Earth's fresh surface water. They play a major role in the water cycle and are critical for the ever increasing demands of the world's growing population. Water from reservoirs is used for agricultural, industrial, domestic, and other purposes. Current digital databases of lakes and reservoirs are scarce, mainly providing only descriptive and static properties of the reservoirs. The Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) database contains almost 7000 entries while OpenStreetMap counts more than 500 000 entries tagged as a reservoir. In the last decade several research efforts already focused on accurate estimates of surface water dynamics, mainly using satellite altimetry, However, currently they are limited only to less than 1000 (mostly large) water bodies. Our approach is based on three main components. Firstly, a novel method, allowing automated and accurate estimation of surface area from (partially) cloud-free optical multispectral or radar satellite imagery. The algorithm uses satellite imagery measured by Landsat, Sentinel and MODIS missions. Secondly, a database to store reservoir static and dynamic parameters. Thirdly, a web-based tool, built on top of Google Earth Engine infrastructure. The tool allows estimation of surface area for lakes and reservoirs at planetary-scale at high spatial and temporal resolution. A prototype version of the method, database, and tool will be presented as well as validation using in-situ measurements.

  15. Earth Occultation Monitoring of the Hard X-ray/Low-Energy Gamma Ray Sky with GBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Michael L.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Case, G. L.; Chaplin, V.; Finger, M. H.; Jenke, P. A.; Rodi, J. C.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; GBM Earth Occultation Team

    2012-01-01

    By utilizing the Earth occultation technique (EOT), the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) instrument aboard Fermi has been used to make nearly continuous full-sky observations in the 8-1000 keV energy range. The GBM EOT analysis program currently monitors an input catalog containing 235 sources. We will present the GBM catalog of sources observed in the first 3 years of the EOT monitoring program, with special emphasis on the high energy (>100 keV) and time-variable sources, in particular the Crab, Cyg X-1, and A0535+26. We will also describe the initial results of an all-sky imaging analysis of the EOT data, with comparisons to the Swift, INTEGRAL, and Fermi LAT catalogs. This work is supported by the NASA Fermi Guest Investigator program, NASA/Louisiana Board of Regents, and Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia de Innovacion.

  16. All-Sky Earth Occultation Observations with the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Beklen, E.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Case, G.; Chaplin, V.; Cherry, M.; Connaughton, V.; Finger, M.; Jenke, P.; Paciesas, W.; Preece, R.; Rodi, J.

    2010-01-01

    Using the Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on-board Fermi, we are monitoring the hard X-ray/soft gamma ray sky using the Earth occultation technique. Each time a source in our catalog is occulted by (or exits occultation by) the Earth, we measure its flux using the change in count rates due to the occultation. Currently we are using CTIME data with 8 energy channels spanning 8 keV to 1 MeV for the GBM NaI detectors and spanning 150 keV to 40 MeV for the GBM BGO detectors. Our preliminary catalog consists of galactic X-ray binaries, the Crab Nebula, and active galactic nuclei. New sources are added to our catalog as they become active or upon request. In addition to Earth occultations, we have observed numerous occultations with Fermi's solar panels. We will present early results. Regularly updated results will be found on our website http://gammaray.nsstc.nasa.gov/gbm/science/occultation.

  17. Shaft MisalignmentDetectionusing Stator Current Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper inspects the misaligned of shaft by usingdiagnostic medium such as current and vibration.Misalignments in machines can cause decrease inefficiency and in the long-run it may cause failurebecause of unnecessary vibration, stress on motor,bearings and short-circuiting in stator and rotorwindings.In this study, authors investigate the onsetof instability on a shaft mounted on journal bearings.Shaft displacement and stator current samples duringmachine run up under misaligned condition...

  18. Concept of a space optoelectronic system for environmental monitoring of the near-earth space, atmosphere, and earth surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltsov, Anatoli V.; Karasev, Vladimir I.; Kolotkov, Vjacheslav V.; Kondranin, Timothy V.

    1997-06-01

    how large the space (from several meters to hundreds of kilometers) and time (from an hour to several months) scales of the above monitoring might be there is a common dominating factor which could favor creation of a general- purpose observation and control system based on passive optoelectronic instrumentation of different levels of sophistication. This dominating factor refers to the possibility of obtaining information about the state of objects by way to recording parameters of radiation emitted by them in wavelengths of 250 nm to tens of microns. The fact that phenomena and processes occurring in the atmosphere are closely interrelated gives implications as to the structure of such a system which is supposed to be a common information network basically consisting of an orbiting constellation of a number of small-size spacecraft equipped with optoelectronic instrumentation of different complexity, and a ground segment to provide acquisition and processing of information about the status of every ecosphere shell including comprehensive thematic analysis. The existing domestic (based on the `Meteor', `Resurs-O', `Okean', etc. spacecraft) and foreign (NOAA, SPOT, LANDSAT, ERS, etc.) space systems are designed for solution of only a limited number of atmosphere monitoring issues, namely those related to meteorology and studies of natural resources. As for the near-Earth space there are at present only ground facilities whose monitoring capabilities are also limited. It should be noted that in recent years in the USA similar activities have been in full swing targeted at creation of a system like the one mentioned above (the Earth Observation System). A system comprising four spacecraft of the NOAA series and a distributed ground network for receiving analog (with 4 km spatial resolution) and digital (with 1 km spatial resolution) multispectral data pertaining to the status of the atmosphere and the underlying surface is currently operational. This system presents

  19. Shaft MisalignmentDetectionusing Stator Current Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar Verma, Somnath Sarangi and M.H. Kolekar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper inspects the misaligned of shaft by usingdiagnostic medium such as current and vibration.Misalignments in machines can cause decrease inefficiency and in the long-run it may cause failurebecause of unnecessary vibration, stress on motor,bearings and short-circuiting in stator and rotorwindings.In this study, authors investigate the onsetof instability on a shaft mounted on journal bearings.Shaft displacement and stator current samples duringmachine run up under misaligned condition aremeasured, analyzed and presented here. Verificationof shaft alignment is done by precision laseralignment kit. Result shows that misalignment is theparameter that is more responsible for the cause ofinstability.

  20. Monitoring Drought Conditions in the Navajo Nation Using NASA Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Vickie; Gao, Michael; Cary, Cheryl; Turnbull-Appell, Sophie; Surunis, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The Navajo Nation, a 65,700 sq km Native American territory located in the southwestern United States, has been increasingly impacted by severe drought events and changes in climate. These events are coupled with a lack of domestic water infrastructure and economic resources, leaving approximately one-third of the population without access to potable water in their homes. Current methods of monitoring drought are dependent on state-based monthly Standardized Precipitation Index value maps calculated by the Western Regional Climate Center. However, these maps do not provide the spatial resolution needed to illustrate differences in drought severity across the vast Nation. To better understand and monitor drought events and drought regime changes in the Navajo Nation, this project created a geodatabase of historical climate information specific to the area, and a decision support tool to calculate average Standardized Precipitation Index values for user-specified areas. The tool and geodatabase use Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM) and Global Precipitation Monitor (GPM) observed precipitation data and Parameter-elevation Relationships on Independent Slopes Model modeled historical precipitation data, as well as NASA's modeled Land Data Assimilation Systems deep soil moisture, evaporation, and transpiration data products. The geodatabase and decision support tool will allow resource managers in the Navajo Nation to utilize current and future NASA Earth observation data for increased decision-making capacity regarding future climate change impact on water resources.

  1. Distribution of zero sequence currents for earth faults occurring along a transmission line and proximity effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahman, J. (Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia). Elektrotehnicki Fakultet); Dordevic, V. (Energoprojekt, Belgrade (Yugoslavia))

    1993-09-01

    A relatively simple procedure is suggested for the evaluation of the distribution of zero sequence currents, within the earthing system of a substation, for earth faults occurred along a line coming from the substation. The earthing system model derived takes into account all relevant phenomena including the mutual influence among earth electrodes through the soil to cover the proximity effects which were shown to be significant in certain cases. The procedure suggested is applied to a practical case, for illustration. (author)

  2. Telluric currents have no significant effect on the Earth's core seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernogor, L. F.

    2017-01-01

    We show that telluric currents have no effect on the formation of macrofaults in the Earth's crust or on implementation of the intensification regime. This is mainly associated with the weakness of telluric currents and induction of the geomagnetic field.

  3. [Current state and prospects of military personnel health monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvantsev, M V; Kuznetsov, S M; Ivanov, V V; Zakurdaev, V V

    2014-01-01

    The current article is dedicated to some features of the Russian Federation Armed Forces military personnel health monitoring such as legal and informational provision, methodological basis of functioning, historical aspect of formation and development of the social and hygienic monitoring in the Russian Federation Armed Forces. The term "military personnel health monitoring" is defined as an analytical system of constant and long-term observation, analysis, assessment, studying of factors determined the military personnel health, these factors correlations, health risk factors management in order to minimize them. The current state of the military personnel health monitoring allows coming to the conclusion that the military health system does have forces and resources for state policy of establishing the population health monitoring system implementation. The following directions of the militarily personnel health monitoring improvement are proposed: the Russian Federation Armed Forces medical service record and report system reorganization bringing it closer to the civilian one, implementation of the integrated approach to the medical service informatisation, namely, military personnel health status and medical service resources monitoring. The leading means in this direction are development and introduction of a military serviceman individual health status monitoring system on the basis of a serviceman electronic medical record card. Also it is proposed the current Russian Federation Armed Forces social and hygienic monitoring improvement at the expense of informational interaction between the two subsystems on the basis of unified military medical service space.

  4. Monitoring the Earth System Grid Federation through the ESGF Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, S.; Bell, G. M.; Drach, B.; Williams, D.; Aloisio, G.

    2012-12-01

    The Climate Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 (CMIP5) is a global effort coordinated by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) involving tens of modeling groups spanning 19 countries. It is expected the CMIP5 distributed data archive will total upwards of 3.5 petabytes, stored across several ESGF Nodes on four continents (North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia). The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) provides the IT infrastructure to support the CMIP5. In this regard, the monitoring of the distributed ESGF infrastructure represents a crucial part carried out by the ESGF Dashboard. The ESGF Dashboard is a software component of the ESGF stack, responsible for collecting key information about the status of the federation in terms of: 1) Network topology (peer-groups composition), 2) Node type (host/services mapping), 3) Registered users (including their Identity Providers), 4) System metrics (e.g., round-trip time, service availability, CPU, memory, disk, processes, etc.), 5) Download metrics (both at the Node and federation level). The last class of information is very important since it provides a strong insight of the CMIP5 experiment: the data usage statistics. In this regard, CMCC and LLNL have developed a data analytics management system for the analysis of both node-level and federation-level data usage statistics. It provides data usage statistics aggregated by project, model, experiment, variable, realm, peer node, time, ensemble, datasetname (including version), etc. The back-end of the system is able to infer the data usage information of the entire federation, by carrying out: - at node level: a 18-step reconciliation process on the peer node databases (i.e. node manager and publisher DB) which provides a 15-dimension datawarehouse with local statistics and - at global level: an aggregation process which federates the data usage statistics into a 16-dimension datawarehouse with federation-level data usage statistics. The front-end of the

  5. Near real-time qualitative monitoring of lake water chlorophyll globally using GoogleEarth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlinszky, András; Supan, Peter; Koma, Zsófia

    2017-04-01

    Monitoring ocean chlorophyll and suspended sediment has been made possible using optical satellite imaging, and has contributed immensely to our understanding of the Earth and its climate. However, lake water quality monitoring has limitations due to the optical complexity of shallow, sediment- and organic matter-laden waters. Meanwhile, timely and detailed information on basic lake water quality parameters would be essential for sustainable management of inland waters. Satellite-based remote sensing can deliver area-covering, high resolution maps of basic lake water quality parameters, but scientific application of these datasets for lake monitoring has been hindered by limitations to calibration and accuracy evaluation, and therefore access to such data has been the privilege of scientific users. Nevertheless, since for many inland waters satellite imaging is the only source of monitoring data, we believe it is urgent to make map products of chlorophyll and suspended sediment concentrations available to a wide range of users. Even if absolute accuracy can not be validated, patterns, processes and qualitative information delivered by such datasets in near-real time can act as an early warning system, raise awareness to water quality processes and serve education, in addition to complementing local monitoring activities. By making these datasets openly available on the internet through an easy to use framework, dialogue between stakeholders, management and governance authorities can be facilitated. We use GoogleEarthEngine to access and process archive and current satellite data. GoogleEarth Engine is a development and visualization framework that provides access to satellite datasets and processing capacity for analysis at the Petabyte scale. Based on earlier investigations, we chose the fluorescence line height index to represent water chlorophyll concentration. This index relies on the chlorophyll fluorescence peak at 680 nm, and has been tested for open ocean

  6. Modeling Earth Albedo Currents on Sun Sensors for Improved Vector Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Earth albedo influences vector measurements of the solar line of sight vector, due to the induced current on in the photo voltaics of Sun sensors. Although advanced digital Sun sensors exist, these are typically expensive and may not be suited for satellites in the nano or pico-class. Previously...... data, showing significant improvement in the Earth albedo induced current estimates. Additionally an algorithm for utilizing the Earth albedo model in obtaining a vector observation pair which is superior to the solar line of sight vector pair. It is concluded that the Earth albedo model is valid...

  7. Monitoring of Global Climate Change in the Earth from the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozhenko, O. V.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Nevedovskiy, P. V.; Choliy, V. Ya.

    2017-08-01

    The most important experimental data that should be obtained for the monitoring of global climate change of Earth are: investigations of the stratospheric aerosol layer, which affects the stratospheric ozone layer, effective and real equilibrium temperature of Earth, content of greenhouse gases. Scientific equipment should be installed on an automatic (better habitable) base on the surface of the Moon, on the polar, constantly visible from the Earth artificial satellite of the Moon or on a satellite located at the lunar point of Lagrange.

  8. Near-Earth Magnetic Field Effects of Large-Scale Magnetospheric Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lühr, Hermann; Xiong, Chao; Olsen, Nils

    2017-01-01

    Magnetospheric currents play an important role in the electrodynamics of near-Earth space. This has been the topic of many space science studies. Here we focus on the magnetic fields they cause close to Earth. Their contribution to the geomagnetic field is the second largest after the core field...

  9. The current state of ototoxicity monitoring in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Lotte; Venter, Kinau; O'Beirne, Greg A; Kelly-Campbell, Rebecca; Gibbs, David; Bird, Philip

    2014-07-18

    To explore medical oncologists' and audiologists' knowledge and attitudes regarding ototoxicity monitoring, and to gain an understanding of monitoring currently being implemented at District Health Boards (DHBs) nationwide. We also aimed to identify ways in which audiological outcomes for patients receiving potentially ototoxic treatments could be improved, including examining whether the formulation and implementation of a national ototoxicity monitoring guideline is necessary. Complementary telephonic interviews were conducted with 16 senior or charge audiologists and seven senior medical oncologists from DHBs across New Zealand, and their responses analysed. Responses indicate a comprehensive understanding of ototoxicity across both disciplines; however there is limited familiarity with ototoxicity monitoring protocols. Patients across New Zealand undergo significantly variable ototoxicity monitoring; local practices range from no routine monitoring to audiological assessment prior to each cycle of chemotherapy. No routine audiological follow up is conducted post completion of treatment at any DHB, in contrast with international guidelines. Twenty-two of 23 participants were in favour of development of a national ototoxicity monitoring guideline. There is significant discrepancy in how ototoxicity monitoring is conducted across New Zealand, and implementation of a national ototoxicity monitoring protocol may improve audiological outcomes for patients receiving ototoxic chemotherapy.

  10. FBG-Based Monitoring of Geohazards: Current Status and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Hu; Shi, Bin; Zhang, Cheng-Cheng

    2017-02-24

    In recent years, natural and anthropogenic geohazards have occured frequently all over the world, and field monitoring is becoming an increasingly important task to mitigate these risks. However, conventional geotechnical instrumentations for monitoring geohazards have a number of weaknesses, such as low accuracy, poor durability, and high sensitivity to environmental interferences. In this aspect, fiber Bragg grating (FBG), as a popular fiber optic sensing technology, has gained an explosive amount of attention. Based on this technology, quasi-distributed sensing systems have been established to perform real-time monitoring and early warning of landslides, debris flows, land subsidence, earth fissures and so on. In this paper, the recent research and development activities of applying FBG systems to monitor different types of geohazards, especially those triggered by human activities, are critically reviewed. The working principles of newly developed FBG sensors are briefly introduced, and their features are summarized. This is followed by a discussion of recent case studies and lessons learned, and some critical problems associated with field implementation of FBG-based monitoring systems. Finally the challenges and future trends in this research area are presented.

  11. FBG-Based Monitoring of Geohazards: Current Status and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Hu Zhu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, natural and anthropogenic geohazards have occured frequently all over the world, and field monitoring is becoming an increasingly important task to mitigate these risks. However, conventional geotechnical instrumentations for monitoring geohazards have a number of weaknesses, such as low accuracy, poor durability, and high sensitivity to environmental interferences. In this aspect, fiber Bragg grating (FBG, as a popular fiber optic sensing technology, has gained an explosive amount of attention. Based on this technology, quasi-distributed sensing systems have been established to perform real-time monitoring and early warning of landslides, debris flows, land subsidence, earth fissures and so on. In this paper, the recent research and development activities of applying FBG systems to monitor different types of geohazards, especially those triggered by human activities, are critically reviewed. The working principles of newly developed FBG sensors are briefly introduced, and their features are summarized. This is followed by a discussion of recent case studies and lessons learned, and some critical problems associated with field implementation of FBG-based monitoring systems. Finally the challenges and future trends in this research area are presented.

  12. Sunlight effects on the 3D polar current system determined from low Earth orbit measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Laundal, Karl M; Olsen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere is associated with large-scale currents in the ionosphere at polar latitudes that flow along magnetic field lines (Birkeland currents) and horizontally. These current systems are tightly linked, but their global behaviors are rarely analyzed together. In this paper, we present estimates of the average global Birkeland currents and horizontal ionospheric currents from the same set of magnetic field measurements. The magnetic field measurements, from the low Earth orbiting $\\textit{Swarm}$ and CHAMP satellites, are used to co-estimate poloidal and toroidal parts of the magnetic disturbance field, represented in magnetic apex coordinates. The use of apex coordinates reduces effects of longitudinal and hemispheric variations in the Earth's main field. We present global currents from both hemispheres during different sunlight conditions. The results show that the Birkeland currents vary with the conductivity, which depends most strongly on solar EUV ...

  13. Design of BEPC Ⅱ bunch current monitor system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; MA Hui-Zhou; YUE Jun-Hui; LEI Ge; CAO Jian-She; MA Li

    2008-01-01

    BEPC Ⅱ is an electron-positron collider designed to run under multi-bunches and high beam current condition. The accelerator consists of an electron ring, a positron ring and a linear injector. In order to achieve the target luminosity and implement the equal bunch charge injection, the Bunch Current Monitor (BCM)system is built on BEPC Ⅱ. The BCM system consists of three parts: the front-end circuit, the bunch current acquisition system and the bucket selection system. The control software of BCM is based on VxWorks and EPICS. With the help of BCM system, the bunch current in each bucket can be monitored in the Central Control Room. The BEPC Ⅱ timing system can also use the bunch current database to decide which bucket needs to refill to implement "top-off" injection.

  14. Low-cost wireless voltage & current grid monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, Jacqueline [SenSanna Inc., Arnold, MD (United States)

    2016-12-31

    This report describes the development and demonstration of a novel low-cost wireless power distribution line monitoring system. This system measures voltage, current, and relative phase on power lines of up to 35 kV-class. The line units operate without any batteries, and without harvesting energy from the power line. Thus, data on grid condition is provided even in outage conditions, when line current is zero. This enhances worker safety by detecting the presence of voltage and current that may appear from stray sources on nominally isolated lines. Availability of low-cost power line monitoring systems will enable widespread monitoring of the distribution grid. Real-time data on local grid operating conditions will enable grid operators to optimize grid operation, implement grid automation, and understand the impact of solar and other distributed sources on grid stability. The latter will enable utilities to implement eneygy storage and control systems to enable greater penetration of solar into the grid.

  15. Dynamic Processes of Cross-Tail Current in the Near-Earth Magnetotail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xing-Qiang; MA Zhi-Wei

    2009-01-01

    Current dynamic processes in realistic magnetotail geometry are studied by Hall magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)simulations under various driven conditions and Hall effects. Associated with the external driving force, a thin current sheet with a broad extent is built up in the near-Earth magnetotail. The time evolution for the formation of the current sheet comprises two phases: slow growth and a fast impulsive phase before the near-Earth disruption of the current sheet resulting from the fast magnetic reconnection. The simulation results indicate that as the external driving force increases, the site and the tailward speed of the near-Earth current disruption region are closer to the Earth and faster, respectively. Whether the near-Earth disruption of the current sheet takes place or not is mainly controlled by Hall effects. It is found that there is no sudden disruption of the current sheet in the near-Earth region if the ion inertial length is below di = 0.04.

  16. Geostationary orbit Earth science platform concepts for global change monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jeffery T.; Campbell, Thomas G.; Davis, William T.; Garn, Paul A.; King, Charles B.; Jackson, Cheryl C.

    1991-01-01

    Functionality of a geostationary spacecraft to support Earth science regional process research is identified. Most regional process studies require high spatial and temporal resolution. These high temporal resolutions are on the order of 30 minutes and may be achievable with instruments positioned in a geostationary orbit. A complement of typical existing or near term instruments are identified to take advantage of this altitude. This set of instruments is listed, and the requirements these instruments impose on a spacecraft are discussed. A brief description of the geostationary spacecraft concepts which support these instruments is presented.

  17. Continuous Earth Rotation Monitoring with the large Ring Laser G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, K. U.; Klügel, T.; Wells, J. P.; Holdaway, J.; Gebauer, A.

    2010-12-01

    Over the last decade, ring lasers have found their way back into the research laboratories. By scaling them up in size, they have gained several orders of magnitude over their commercial counterparts, both in sensitivity and stability. Unlike the established space geodetic techniques SLR/LLR and VLBI, ring lasers can be operated autonomous and continuously. Furthermore laser gyros reach a resolution of 1 pico-rad/s already after an integration time of less than 2 hours. This opens the door for the research of high frequency variations in Earth rotation. Over the last year we have improved the sensor sensitivity by as much as a factor of 3 in order to reach the shot noise limit at 2.1x10-11 rad/s/sqrt(Hz). So the regime of ΔΩ/Ω ≈ 10-9 of Earth rotation becomes accessible to a local rotation sensor. Recent efforts concentrate on the reduction of scale factor instability by controlling the drift induced by atmospheric pressure variations and the corresponding temperature changes from adiabatic expansion and compression of the local air as well as a new approach to the modeling of the behavior of the sensor location. This talk outlines recent progress in Sagnac interferometry.

  18. Monitoring objects orbiting earth using satellite-based telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, Scot S.; Pertica, Alexander J.; Riot, Vincent J.; De Vries, Willem H.; Bauman, Brian J.; Nikolaev, Sergei; Henderson, John R.; Phillion, Donald W.

    2015-06-30

    An ephemeris refinement system includes satellites with imaging devices in earth orbit to make observations of space-based objects ("target objects") and a ground-based controller that controls the scheduling of the satellites to make the observations of the target objects and refines orbital models of the target objects. The ground-based controller determines when the target objects of interest will be near enough to a satellite for that satellite to collect an image of the target object based on an initial orbital model for the target objects. The ground-based controller directs the schedules to be uploaded to the satellites, and the satellites make observations as scheduled and download the observations to the ground-based controller. The ground-based controller then refines the initial orbital models of the target objects based on the locations of the target objects that are derived from the observations.

  19. A transmission-loss monitor using current transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, J.F.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Jason, A.J.

    1993-12-01

    A system for measuring the amount of beam-charge loss in a linear-accelerator structure has been developed that uses a pair of beam-current transformers, otherwise used to monitor the linac beam current. This system is necessary to enable the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) fast-protect system to shut off the accelerated beam in the event of a beam loss that would deposit sufficient energy to damage the accelerator structure. The present GTA accelerator consists of a 2.5-MeV, H{sup {minus}} RFQ, an intermediate matching section (IMS) and a single DTL cavity with an output energy of 3.2-MeV and transmitted current of 35 mA. Based on the RFQ output beam, melting of the copper structures will occur when about 40 nC of beam is deposited in a point loss. For a grazing angle of 30 mrad, up to 640 nC may be tolerated. The beam-current-transmission-loss monitor (BCTLM) system in conjunction with the fast-protect system measures the amount of beam loss between two toroidal beam-current monitors and automatically terminates the macropulse when the integrated loss reaches a predetermined set point. The design and operation of the BCTLM system used in the IMS and DTL section of the accelerator is described.

  20. REVIEW OF CURRENT PRACTICE IN CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A.Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Characterization and monitoring are important parts of environmental remediation of contaminated sites by the Department of Energy--Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). The actual remediation process often cannot begin or even be planned until characterization is complete. Monitoring is essential to verify the progress of remediation and of the waste stream. However, some contaminated sites are difficult, costly, or have a high exposure risk to personnel to characterize or monitor using the baseline technology or current practice. Therefore, development of new characterization and monitoring technologies is time-critical to remediate these sites. The main task of the Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Crosscutting Program (CMST-CP) is to develop and deploy innovative characterization and monitoring technologies that improve performance and reduce personnel exposure, cost, and detection limits. However, to evaluate different proposals for new technologies to decide which ones to develop or deploy, it is necessary to compare their cost and performance to the baseline technology. The goal of this project is to facilitate the direct comparison of new technologies to the baseline technology by documenting the current practices for site characterization and monitoring at DOE sites and by presenting the information in an easy-to-use, concise database. The database will assist the CMST-CP and others in evaluating or designing new technologies by identifying the baseline technologies and describing their performance and cost. The purpose of this document is to report on the completion of this project and to describe the database. Section 2.0 describes the data assessment methodology. Section 3.0 presents the database and serves as a user manual. Section 4.0 lists the references used for each baseline technology in the database. The full references can be found in the Appendix.

  1. New analysis and performance of a wall-current monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwada, T.; Urano, T.; Kobayashi, H. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tamiya, K.; Asami, A. [Naruto University of Education, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi 772 (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    A new wall-current monitor has been developed in order to reinforce the beam-monitoring system in the PF 2.5-GeV linac for the KEK B-Factory. A prototype monitor was tested for its performance and characteristics. The experimental results in terms of both bench tests and beam tests by single-bunch electron beams were analyzed on the basis of equivalent-circuit models. The frequency response of the monitor agreed well with a lumped equivalent-circuit model for both time- and frequency-domain measurements. The position dependence and its frequency characteristics of the monitor also agreed well with a distributed equivalent-circuit model for both time- and frequency-domain measurements. The rise time of the monitor was about 3 ns, which indicated a poor response for short-pulse beams (<1) ns. The reason could be attributed to the stray inductance of the ceramic solid resistor and not very good frequency response of the ferrite core. (orig.).

  2. Space in environmental diplomacy: Exploring the role of earth observing satellites for monitoring international environmental agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Shaida Sahami

    This research determines under what conditions, and for what types of environmental treaties, Earth observation (EO) is useful for monitoring international environmental agreements. The research extracts specific monitoring requirements from nine multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) and explores how satellite EO data can be used to support them. The technical characteristics of the sensor systems and science data products associated with current and planned EO satellites were analyzed and mapped to the MEA requirements, providing a significant step toward linking the EO community with the international treaty community implementing these environmental agreements. The research results include a listing and analysis of the positive and negative factors that influence whether EO data are useful for monitoring and verifying MEAs, analysis of existing international EO institutions, and a set of key findings describing the conditions under which EO data are most useful to the treaties. The use of EO data in various treaty phases is also analyzed, drawing the conclusion that EO data are most useful for monitoring and treaty refinement and not very useful for compliance verification or enforcement. MEAs manage compliance using governance structures that offer expertise and resources to assist states that are reported to be in non-compliance, rather than enforce compliance with sanctions or other punishments. In addition, the temporal and spatial resolution of the current and planned fleet of satellites does not provide the required detail needed for MEA verification. Identifying specific treaty implementation deficiencies requires additional information that cannot be gathered from EO data; on-site economic, social, and environmental conditions are critical elements in assessing compliance verification. But for environmental monitoring and assessments, MEA effectiveness reviews, and national reporting required for each MEA, EO data are very useful. They provide

  3. The Prospect of using Three-Dimensional Earth Models To Improve Nuclear Explosion Monitoring and Ground Motion Hazard Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoun, T; Harris, D; Lay, T; Myers, S C; Pasyanos, M E; Richards, P; Rodgers, A J; Walter, W R; Zucca, J J

    2008-02-11

    The last ten years have brought rapid growth in the development and use of three-dimensional (3D) seismic models of earth structure at crustal, regional and global scales. In order to explore the potential for 3D seismic models to contribute to important societal applications, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hosted a 'Workshop on Multi-Resolution 3D Earth Models to Predict Key Observables in Seismic Monitoring and Related Fields' on June 6 and 7, 2007 in Berkeley, California. The workshop brought together academic, government and industry leaders in the research programs developing 3D seismic models and methods for the nuclear explosion monitoring and seismic ground motion hazard communities. The workshop was designed to assess the current state of work in 3D seismology and to discuss a path forward for determining if and how 3D earth models and techniques can be used to achieve measurable increases in our capabilities for monitoring underground nuclear explosions and characterizing seismic ground motion hazards. This paper highlights some of the presentations, issues, and discussions at the workshop and proposes a path by which to begin quantifying the potential contribution of progressively refined 3D seismic models in critical applied arenas.

  4. A Survey of Current Rotorcraft Propulsion Health Monitoring Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Dempsey, Paula J.; Simon, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    A brief review is presented on the state-of-the-art in rotorcraft engine health monitoring technologies including summaries on current practices in the area of sensors, data acquisition, monitoring and analysis. Also, presented are guidelines for verification and validation of Health Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) and specifically for maintenance credits to extend part life. Finally, a number of new efforts in HUMS are summarized as well as lessons learned and future challenges. In particular, gaps are identified to supporting maintenance credits to extend rotorcraft engine part life. A number of data sources were consulted and include results from a survey from the HUMS community, Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) documents, American Helicopter Society (AHS) papers, as well as references from Defence Science & Technology Organization (DSTO), Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

  5. Current and Emerging Technology for Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has become a leading cause of death worldwide. Although there is no cure for diabetes, blood glucose monitoring combined with appropriate medication can enhance treatment efficiency, alleviate the symptoms, as well as diminish the complications. For point-of-care purposes, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM devices are considered to be the best candidates for diabetes therapy. This review focuses on current growth areas of CGM technologies, specifically focusing on subcutaneous implantable electrochemical glucose sensors. The superiority of CGM systems is introduced firstly, and then the strategies for fabrication of minimally-invasive and non-invasive CGM biosensors are discussed, respectively. Finally, we briefly outline the current status and future perspective for CGM systems.

  6. Methods for monitoring land subsidence and earth fissures in the Western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergason, K. C.; Rucker, M. L.; Panda, B. B.

    2015-11-01

    Depletion of groundwater resources in many deep alluvial basin aquifers in the Western USA is causing land subsidence, as it does in many regions worldwide. Land subsidence can severely and adversely impact infrastructure by changing the ground elevation, ground slope (grade) and through the development of ground cracks known as earth fissures that can erode into large gullies. Earth fissures have the potential to compromise the foundations of dams, levees, and other infrastructure and cause failure. Subsequent to an evaluation of the overall subsidence experienced in the vicinity of subsidence-impacted infrastructure, a detailed investigation to search for earth fissures, and design and/or mitigation of potentially effected infrastructure, a focused monitoring system should be designed and implemented. Its purpose is to provide data, and ultimately knowledge, to reduce the potential adverse impacts of land subsidence and earth fissure development to the pertinent infrastructure. This risk reduction is realized by quantifying the rate and distribution of ground deformation, and to detect ground rupture if it occurs, in the vicinity of the infrastructure. The authors have successfully designed and implemented monitoring systems capable of quantifying rates and distributions of ground subsidence and detection of ground rupture at multiple locations throughout the Western USA for several types of infrastructure including dams, levees, channels, basins, roadways, and mining facilities. Effective subsidence and earth fissure monitoring requires understanding and quantification of historic subsidence, estimation of potential future subsidence, delineation of the risk for earth fissures that could impact infrastructure, and motivation and resources to continue monitoring through time. A successful monitoring system provides the means to measure ground deformation, grade changes, displacement, and anticipate and assess the potential for earth fissuring. Employing multiple

  7. Responses of atmospheric electric field and air-earth current to variations of conductivity profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, M.; Ogawa, T.

    1984-05-01

    A global circuit model is constructed to study responses of air-earth current and electric field to a variation of atmospheric electrical conductivity profile. The model includes the orography and the global distribution of thunderstorm generators. The conductivity varies with latitude and exponentially with altitude. The thunderstorm cloud is assumed to be a current generator with a positive source at the top and a negative one at the bottom. The UT diurnal variations of the global current and the ionospheric potential are evaluated considering the local-time dependence of thunderstorm activity. The global distribution of the electric field and the air-earth current are affected by the orography and latitudinal effects. Assuming a variation of conductivity profile, responses of atmospheric electrical parameters are investigated. The nonuniform decrement of the conductivity with altitude increases both the electric field and the air-earth current. The result suggests a possibility that the increment of the electric field and the air-earth current after a solar flare may be caused by this scheme, due to Forbush decrease.

  8. Earth Observation for Ecosystems Monitoring in Space and Time: A Special Issue in Remote Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Duccio Rocchini

    2015-01-01

    This Editorial introduces the papers published in the special issue “Earth Observation for Ecosystems Monitoring in Space and Time” which includes the most important researchers in the field and the most challenging aspects of the application of remote sensing to study ecosystems.

  9. Thermal and orbital analysis of Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous space experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killough, Brian D.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamentals of an Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous orbit are presented. A Sun-synchronous Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) was developed to calculate orbital parameters for an entire year. The output from this program provides the required input data for the TRASYS thermal radiation computer code, which in turn computes the infrared, solar and Earth albedo heat fluxes incident on a space experiment. Direct incident heat fluxes can be used as input to a generalized thermal analyzer program to size radiators and predict instrument operating temperatures. The SOAP computer code and its application to the thermal analysis methodology presented, should prove useful to the thermal engineer during the design phases of Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous space experiments.

  10. Modeling Earth Albedo Currents on Sun Sensors for Improved Vector Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Earth albedo influences vector measurements of the solar line of sight vector, due to the induced current on in the photo voltaics of Sun sensors. Although advanced digital Sun sensors exist, these are typically expensive and may not be suited for satellites in the nano or pico-class. Previously...... for modeling Sun sensor output by incorporating the Earth albedo model is presented. This model utilizes the directional information of in the Earth albedo model, which is achieved by Earth surface partitioning. This allows accurate simulation of the Sun sensor output and the results are consistent with Ørsted...... and useful for space environment simulations, and may be utilized to improve attitude estimation algorithms applying Sun sensor vector observations....

  11. APPLICATIONS OF CURRENT TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF SPENT FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drayer, R.

    2013-06-09

    Advancements in technology have opened many opportunities to improve upon the current infrastructure surrounding the nuclear fuel cycle. Embedded devices, very small sensors, and wireless technology can be applied to Security, Safety, and Nonproliferation of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Security, separate of current video monitoring systems, can be improved by integrating current wireless technology with a variety of sensors including motion detection, altimeter, accelerometer, and a tagging system. By continually monitoring these sensors, thresholds can be set to sense deviations from nominal values. Then alarms or notifications can be activated as needed. Safety can be improved in several ways. First, human exposure to ionizing radiation can be reduced by using a wireless sensor package on each spent fuel cask to monitor radiation, temperature, humidity, etc. Since the sensor data is monitored remotely operator stay-time is decreased and distance from the spent fuel increased, so the overall radiation exposure is reduced as compared to visual inspections. The second improvement is the ability to monitor continuously rather than periodically. If changes occur to the material, alarm thresholds could be set and notifications made to provide advanced notice of negative data trends. These sensor packages could also record data to be used for scientific evaluation and studies to improve transportation and storage safety. Nonproliferation can be improved for spent fuel transportation and storage by designing an integrated tag that uses current infrastructure for reporting and in an event; tracking can be accomplished using the Iridium satellite system. This technology is similar to GPS but with higher signal strength and penetration power, but lower accuracy. A sensor package can integrate all or some of the above depending on the transportation and storage requirements and regulations. A sensor package can be developed using off the shelf technology and applying it to each

  12. Technology for monitoring global change. [NASA Technology Initiative for space based observations of Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.

    1989-01-01

    Multiinstrumented earth-science platforms currently being planned for both LEO and GEO positions will furnish data for the compilation of systematic and intercorrelated information that is suitable for the treatment of interdisciplinary questions concerning atmospheric, oceanic, hydrological, geological, and biological changes of an either natural or anthropogenic nature. Attention will be given in these observational campaigns to such essential earth variables as atmospheric pressure, rainfall/snowfall, vegetation cover, soil nutrient cycles, sea surface temperatures, ocean circulation, and ocean biological productivity.

  13. Sunlight effects on the 3D polar current system determined from low Earth orbit measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laundal, Karl M.; Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    analyzed together. In this paper, we present estimates of the average global Birkeland currents and horizontal ionospheric currents from the same set of magnetic field measurements. The magnetic field measurements, from the low Earth orbiting Swarm and CHAMP satellites, are used to co-estimate poloidal...... show that the Birkeland currents vary with the conductivity, which depends most strongly on solar EUV emissions on the dayside and on particle precipitation at pre-midnight magnetic local times. In sunlight, the horizontal equivalent current flows in two cells, resembling an opposite ionospheric...

  14. Fast Beam Current Change Monitor for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kral, Jan

    Stringent demands on the LHC safety and protection systems require improved methods of detecting fast beam losses. The Fast Beam Current Transformer (FBCT) is a measurement instrument, providing information about bunch-to-bunch intensity of the accelerated beam. This thesis describes the development of a new protection system based on the FBCT signal measurements. This system, the Fast Beam Current Change Monitor (FBCCM), measures the FBCT signal in a narrow frequency band and computes time derivation of the beam signal magnitude. This derivation is proportional to the beam losses. When the losses exceed a certain level, the FBCCM requests a beam dump in order to protect the LHC. The LHC protection will be ensured by four FBCCMs which will be installed into the LHC in July 2014. Six FBCCMs have been already constructed and their characteristics were measured with satisfactory results. The FBCCMs were tested by a laboratory simulation of the real LHC environment.

  15. The Prospect of using Three-Dimensional Earth Models To Improve Nuclear Explosion Monitoring and Ground Motion Hazard Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucca, J J; Walter, W R; Rodgers, A J; Richards, P; Pasyanos, M E; Myers, S C; Lay, T; Harris, D; Antoun, T

    2008-11-19

    The last ten years have brought rapid growth in the development and use of three-dimensional (3D) seismic models of Earth structure at crustal, regional and global scales. In order to explore the potential for 3D seismic models to contribute to important societal applications, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hosted a 'Workshop on Multi-Resolution 3D Earth Models to Predict Key Observables in Seismic Monitoring and Related Fields' on June 6 and 7, 2007 in Berkeley, California. The workshop brought together academic, government and industry leaders in the research programs developing 3D seismic models and methods for the nuclear explosion monitoring and seismic ground motion hazard communities. The workshop was designed to assess the current state of work in 3D seismology and to discuss a path forward for determining if and how 3D Earth models and techniques can be used to achieve measurable increases in our capabilities for monitoring underground nuclear explosions and characterizing seismic ground motion hazards. This paper highlights some of the presentations, issues, and discussions at the workshop and proposes two specific paths by which to begin quantifying the potential contribution of progressively refined 3D seismic models in critical applied arenas. Seismic monitoring agencies are tasked with detection, location, and characterization of seismic activity in near real time. In the case of nuclear explosion monitoring or seismic hazard, decisions to further investigate a suspect event or to launch disaster relief efforts may rely heavily on real-time analysis and results. Because these are weighty decisions, monitoring agencies are regularly called upon to meticulously document and justify every aspect of their monitoring system. In order to meet this level of scrutiny and maintain operational robustness requirements, only mature technologies are considered for operational monitoring systems, and operational technology necessarily lags

  16. CURRENT STATUS OF INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRIC MONITORING IN UKRAINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumak, V; Deniachenko, N; Makarovska, O; Mihailescu, L-C; Prykhodko, A; Voloskyi, V; Vanhavere, F

    2016-09-01

    About 50 000 workers are being occupationally exposed to radiation in Ukraine. Individual dosimetric monitoring (IDM) is provided by 77 dosimetry services and laboratories of very different scale with a number of monitored workers ranging from several persons to ∼9000. In the present work, the current status of personal dosimetry in Ukraine was studied. The First National Intercomparison (FNI) of the IDM labs was accompanied by a survey of the laboratory operation in terms of coverage, types of dosimetry provided, instrumentation and methodologies used, metrological support, data recording, etc. Totally, 34 laboratories responded to the FNI call, and 18 services with 19 different personal dosimetry systems took part in the intercomparison exercise providing 24 dosimeters each for blind irradiation to photons of 6 different qualities (ISO N-series X-rays, S-Cs and S-Co sources) in a dose range of 5-60 mSv. Performance of the dosimetry labs was evaluated according to ISO 14146 criteria of matching trumpet curves with H0 = 0.2 mSv. The test revealed that 8 of the 19 systems meet ISO 14146 criteria in full, 5 other labs show marginal performance and 6 laboratories demonstrated catastrophic quality of dosimetric results. Altogether, 18 participating labs provide dosimetric monitoring to 37 477 workers (about three-fourths of all occupationally exposed workers), usually on monthly (nuclear industry) or quarterly (rest of applications) basis. Of this number, 20 664 persons (55 %) receive completely adequate individual monitoring, and the number of personnel receiving IDM of inadequate quality counts 3054 persons.

  17. Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Capacity in Earth Observations for Agricultural Monitoring: The GEOGLAM Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcraft, A. K.; Di Bella, C. M.; Becker Reshef, I.; Deshayes, M.; Justice, C. O.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) Initiative has been working to strengthen the international community's capacity to use Earth observation (EO) data to derive timely, accurate, and transparent information on agriculture, with the goals of reducing market volatility and promoting food security. GEOGLAM aims to develop capacity for EO-based agricultural monitoring at multiple scales, from national to regional to global. This is accomplished through training workshops, developing and transferring of best-practices, establishing networks of broad and sustainable institutional support, and designing or adapting tools and methodologies to fit localized contexts. Over the past four years, capacity development activities in the context of GEOGLAM have spanned all agriculture-containing continents, with much more work to be done, particularly in the domains of promoting access to large, computationally-costly datasets. This talk will detail GEOGLAM's experiences, challenges, and opportunities surrounding building international collaboration, ensuring institutional buy-in, and developing sustainable programs.

  18. Using Copernicus earth observation services to monitor climate change impacts and adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel; Zebisch, Marc; Sonnenschein, Ruth; Schönthaler, Konstanze; von Andrian-Werburg, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In the last years, earth observation made a big leap towards an operational monitoring of the state of environment. Remote sensing provides for instance information on the dynamics, trends and anomalies of snow and glaciers, vegetation, soil moisture or water temperature. In particular, the European Copernicus initiative offers new opportunities through new satellites with a higher temporal and spatial resolution, operational services for environmental monitoring and an open data access policy. With the Copernicus climate change service and the ESA climate change initiative, specific earth observation programs are in place to address the impacts of climate change. However, such products and services are until now rarely picked up in the field of policy or decision making oriented climate impact or climate risk assessments. In this talk, we will present results of a study, which focus on the question, if and how remote sensing approaches could be integrated into operational monitoring activities of climate impacts and response measures on a national and subnational scale. We assessed all existing and planned Copernicus services regarding their relevance for climate impact monitoring by comparing them against the indication fields from an indicator system for climate impact and response monitoring in Germany, which has lately been developed in the framework of the German national adaptation strategy. For several climate impact or response indicators, an immediate integration of remote sensing data could be identified and been recommended. For these cases, we will show practical examples on the benefit of remote sensing data. For other indication fields, promising approaches were found, which need further development. We argue that remote sensing is a very valuable complement to the existing indicator schemes by contributing with spatial explicit, timely information but not always easy to integrate with classical approaches, which are oriented towards consistent long

  19. On identifying the specular reflection of sunlight in earth-monitoring satellite data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelsen, James M., Jr.; Hohlfelder, Robert James; Jackson, Dale Clayton; Longenbaugh, Randolph S.

    2009-03-01

    Among the background signals commonly seen by Earth-monitoring satellites is the specular reflection of sunlight off of Earth's surface, commonly referred to as a glint. This phenomenon, involving liquid or ice surfaces, can result in the brief, intense illumination of satellite sensors appearing from the satellite perspective to be of terrestrial origin. These glints are important background signals to be able to identify with confidence, particularly in the context of analyzing data from satellites monitoring for transient surface or atmospheric events. Here we describe methods for identifying glints based on the physical processes involved in their production, including spectral fitting and polarization measurements. We then describe a tool that, using the WGS84 spheroidal Earth model, finds the latitude and longitude on Earth where a reflection of this type could be produced, given input Sun and satellite coordinates. This tool enables the user to determine if the surface at the solution latitude and longitude is in fact reflective, thus identifying the sensor response as a true glint or an event requiring further analysis.

  20. Easy research data handling with an OpenEarth DataLab for geo-monitoring research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderfeesten, Maurice; van der Kuil, Annemiek; Prinčič, Alenka; den Heijer, Kees; Rombouts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    OpenEarth DataLab is an open source-based collaboration and processing platform to enable streamlined research data management from raw data ingest and transformation to interoperable distribution. It enables geo-scientists to easily synchronise, share, compute and visualise the dynamic and most up-to-date research data, scripts and models in multi-stakeholder geo-monitoring programs. This DataLab is developed by the Research Data Services team of TU Delft Library and 3TU.Datacentrum together with coastal engineers of Delft University of Technology and Deltares. Based on the OpenEarth software stack an environment has been developed to orchestrate numerous geo-related open source software components that can empower researchers and increase the overall research quality by managing research data; enabling automatic and interoperable data workflows between all the components with track & trace, hit & run data transformation processing in cloud infrastructure using MatLab and Python, synchronisation of data and scripts (SVN), and much more. Transformed interoperable data products (KML, NetCDF, PostGIS) can be used by ready-made OpenEarth tools for further analyses and visualisation, and can be distributed via interoperable channels such as THREDDS (OpenDAP) and GeoServer. An example of a successful application of OpenEarth DataLab is the Sand Motor, an innovative method for coastal protection in the Netherlands. The Sand Motor is a huge volume of sand that has been applied along the coast to be spread naturally by wind, waves and currents. Different research disciplines are involved concerned with: weather, waves and currents, sand distribution, water table and water quality, flora and fauna, recreation and management. Researchers share and transform their data in the OpenEarth DataLab, that makes it possible to combine their data and to see influence of different aspects of the coastal protection on their models. During the project the data are available only for the

  1. In situ observations of ion scale current sheet and associated electron heating in Earth's magnetosheath turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasapis, Alexandros; Retinò, Alessandro; Sahraoui, Fouad; Greco, Antonella; Vaivads, Andris; Sundkvist, David; Canu, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Magnetic reconnection occurs in thin current sheets that form in turbulent plasmas. Numerical simulations indicate that turbulent reconnection contributes to the dissipation of magnetic field energy and results in particle heating and non-thermal acceleration. Yet in situ measurements are required to determine its importance as a dissipation mechanism at those scales. The Earth's magnetosheath downstream of the quasi-parallel shock is a turbulent near-Earth environment that offers a privileged environment for such a study. Here we present a study of the properties of thin current sheets by using Cluster data. We studied the distribution of the current sheets as a function of their magnetic shear angle, the PVI index and the electron heating. The properties of the observed current sheets were different for high shear (θ > 90 degrees) and low shear current sheets (θ < 90 degrees). These high-shear current sheets account for about ˜ 20% of the total and have an average thickness comparable to the ion inertial length. Enhancement of electron temperature within these current sheets suggest that they are important for local electron heating and energy dissipation.

  2. Current practice of therapeutic drug monitoring of biopharmaceuticals in spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Frédéric; Placensia, Chamaida; Goupille, Philippe; Paintaud, Gilles; Balsa, Alejandro; Mulleman, Denis

    2017-04-04

    Treatment of spondyloarthritis (SpA) has greatly improved in the biopharmaceutical era. These compounds, primarily tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, are effective, but some patients may show poor response, sometimes due to the presence of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs). In some instances, clinicians may increase or taper the dose, depending on the clinical response. Besides the current clinical practice, a tailored strategy based on drug monitoring is emerging as a way to improve the use of these drugs. However, the relevance of this therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of biopharmaceuticals for SpA is still unknown. In this literature review, we examined the most relevant articles dealing with the concentration-response relation, ADA detection, and pharmacokinetics in SpA treated with biopharmaceuticals. ADAs were associated with low or undetectable concentration of monoclonal antibodies. The relation between drug concentration and clinical response in SpA is debated, some studies showing an association and others not. Therefore, TDM of biopharmaceuticals for SpA requires a better understanding of the association among the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and immunogenicity of these drugs.

  3. Therapeutic drug monitoring for imatinib: Current status and Indian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Brijesh; Gota, Vikram; Menon, Hari; Sengar, Manju; Nair, Reena; Patial, Pankaj; Banavali, S D

    2013-07-01

    Imatinib is the current gold standard for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Recent pharmacokinetic studies have shown considerable variability in trough concentrations of imatinib due to variations in its metabolism, poor compliance, or drug-drug interactions and highlighted its impact on clinical response. A trough level close to 1000 ng/mL, appears to be correlated with better cytogenetic and molecular responses. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) for imatinib may provide useful added information on efficacy, safety and compliance than clinical assessment alone and help in clinical decision making. It may be particularly helpful in patients with suboptimal response to treatment or treatment failure, severe or rare adverse events, possible drug interactions, or suspected nonadherence. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm relationship between imatinib plasma concentrations with response, and to define effective plasma concentrations in different patient populations.

  4. Spectrum Analyzer Application for the Proton Synchrotron Wall Current Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Limpens, Rik

    The Proton Synchrotron (PS) is a key component in CERN's accelerator complex, where it usually accelerates either protons or heavy ions. The new acquisition system for the PS ring wall current monitors has been installed to be able to perform higher frequency measurements of a beam bunch. This is an important improvement, since the oscillating signals are related to losses of a beam bunch. The main goal of this project is to develop a LabVIEW application running on a Real-Time target to perform continuous and triggered spectral acquisition of a PS beam bunch and to provide a data visualization and analysis tool for the operators and users of the machine.

  5. High current precision long pulse electron beam position monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, S D; Fessenden, T J; Holmes, C

    2000-01-01

    Precision high current long pulse electron beam position monitoring has typically experienced problems with high Q sensors, sensors damped to the point of lack of precision, or sensors that interact substantially with any beam halo thus obscuring the desired signal. As part of the effort to develop a multi-axis electron beam transport system using transverse electromagnetic stripline kicker technology, it is necessary to precisely determine the position and extent of long high energy beams for accurate beam position control (6 - 40 MeV, 1 - 4 kA, 2 μs beam pulse, sub millimeter beam position accuracy.) The kicker positioning system utilizes shot-to-shot adjustments for reduction of relatively slow (< 20 MHz) motion of the beam centroid. The electron beams passing through the diagnostic systems have the potential for large halo effects that tend to corrupt position measurements.

  6. Cryogenic Current Comparator as Low Intensity Beam Current Monitor in the CERN Antiproton Decelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, M; Soby, L; Welsch, CP

    2013-01-01

    In the low-energy Antiproton Decelerator (AD) and the future Extra Low ENergy Antiproton (ELENA) rings at CERN, an absolute measurement of the beam intensity is essential to monitor any losses during the deceleration and cooling phases. However, existing DC current transformers can hardly reach the μA level, while at the AD and ELENA currents can be as low as 100 nA. A Cryogenic Current Comparator (CCC) based on a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is currently being designed and shall be installed in the AD and ELENA machines. It should meet the following specifications: A current resolution smaller than 10 nA, a dynamic range covering currents between 100 nA and 1 mA, as well as a bandwidth from DC to 1 kHz. Different design options are being considered, including the use of low or high temperature superconductor materials, different CCC shapes and dimensions, different SQUID characteristics, as well as electromagnetic shielding requirements. In this contribution we present first results f...

  7. Earthward electric field and its reversal in the near-Earth current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.; Zelenyi, L. M.

    2016-11-01

    Using Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms observations (radial distance r from 9 to 35 Earth radii, RE), we investigate ion and electron contributions to the cross-tail current density in the magnetotail current sheet. We analyze plasma pressure measurements (including the contribution from high-energy particles) and estimate the magnitudes of ion and electron diamagnetic drifts. In the downtail, r > 15RE, region, ion (electron) diamagnetic drifts are shown to provide more than 50% (less than 25%) of the cross-tail current density at the neutral plane, Bx=0. Conversely, in the near-Earth region, r≤15RE, the ion (electron) diamagnetic drift contribution to the cross-tail current density is 20% (50%). The directly measured duskward (dawnward) component of the ion (electron) velocity, vyi (-vye), where y is the GSM direction, is very small (quite large) in the downtail region but large (small) in the near-Earth region. This systematic discrepancy between the expected values of vyi, -vye (based on estimates of diamagnetic drifts) and the direct measurements of the velocity, vyi, -vye, is consistent with a contribution to the total velocity by an E × B drift caused by an electric field oriented parallel to the x axis, Ex. To decrease the ion (increase the electron) total drift to agree with the measured flows in the downtail region and increase (decrease) this total drift to match the measurements in the near-Earth region, this Ex would need to be directed earthward at r > 15RE and tailward at r≤15RE. Such an Ex distribution is consistent with the equatorial projection of the Harang discontinuity.

  8. Near-Earth Magnetic Field Effects of Large-Scale Magnetospheric Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luehr, Hermann; Xiong, Chao; Olsen, Nils; Le, Guan

    2016-01-01

    Magnetospheric currents play an important role in the electrodynamics of near- Earth space. This has been the topic of many space science studies. Here we focus on the magnetic fields they cause close to Earth. Their contribution to the geomagnetic field is the second largest after the core field. Significant progress in interpreting the magnetic fields from the different sources has been achieved thanks to magnetic satellite missions like Ørsted, CHAMP and now Swarm. Of particular interest for this article is a proper representation of the magnetospheric ring current effect. Uncertainties in modelling its effect still produce the largest residuals between observations and present-day geomagnetic field models. A lot of progress has been achieved so far, but there are still open issues like the characteristics of the partial ring current. Other currents discussed are those flowing in the magnetospheric tail. Also their magnetic contribution at LEO orbits is non-negligible. Treating them as an independent source is a more recent development, which has cured some of the problems in geomagnetic field modelling. Unfortunately there is no index available for characterizing the tail current intensity. Here we propose an approach that may help to properly quantify the magnetic contribution from the tail current for geomagnetic field modelling. Some open questions that require further investigation are mentioned at the end.

  9. Effect of upward ion on field-aligned currents in the near-earth magnetotail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; LingQian; LIU; ZhenXing; MA; ZhiWei; SHEN; Chao; ZHOU; XuZhi; ZHANG; XianGuo

    2007-01-01

    A 3-dimensional resistive MHD simulation was carried out to study the effect of the upward ions on the field-aligned currents (FACs) in the near-earth magnetotail. The simulation results show that the up-flow ions originating from the nightside auroral oval would drift into the center plasma sheet along the magnetic field lines in the plasma sheet boundary, and have an important effect on the field-aligned currents. The main conclusions include that: 1) the upward-ions mainly affect the field- aligned currents in the near-earth magnetotail (inside 15 Re); 2) the generated FACs in the near-earth region have two types, i.e., Region 1 FAC in the high-latitude and Region 2 FAC in the low-latitude; 3) FACs increase with the enhancement of the upward ion flux; 4) with the same flux of the upward ions, FACs enhance with the increase of the velocity of the up-flow ions; 5) the intensification of FACs is also closely related with the latitude of the upward ions, and the ions from the closed field line region generate larger FACs; 6) the generation of FACs is closely related with By created by the upward ions.

  10. An Island Coalescence Scenario for Near-Earth Current Disruption in the Magnetotail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zhi-Wei; LU Xing-Qiang

    2009-01-01

    A current disruption and dipolarization scenario associated with island coalescences in the near-Earth region is proposed.The thin and elongated current-sheet built up during the growth phase is unstable due to a tearing mode instability that leads to formation of multiple magnetic islands (or magnetic flux ropes in the three dimensional case) in the near-Earth region.The growth rate of the tearing mode should be different in different locations because the rate is in general determined by the external driving force and the local plasma sheet properties.When the rate of the magnetic reconnection in the mid-tail region around 20 RE is much larger than that in other locations,the strong bulk earthward flows resulting from the fast reconnection in the mid-tail drive the earthward convection and the coalescence of the magnetic islands.Consequently,the cross-tail current in the near-Earth region is suddenly disrupted and the geometry of the magnetic field changes from tail-like to dipolar-like in the ideal time scale.This proposed scenario is tested by Hall MHD simulation and is compared with the observations.

  11. Brief Communication: A low-cost Arduino®-based wire extensometer for earth flow monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guerriero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Continuous monitoring of earth flow displacement is essential for the understanding of the dynamic of the process, its ongoing evolution and designing mitigation measures. Despite its importance, it is not always applied due to its expense and the need for integration with additional sensors to monitor factors controlling movement. To overcome these problems, we developed and tested a low-cost Arduino-based wire-rail extensometer integrating a data logger, a power system and multiple digital and analog inputs. The system is equipped with a high-precision position transducer that in the test configuration offers a measuring range of 1023 mm and an associated accuracy of ±1 mm, and integrates an operating temperature sensor that should allow potential thermal drift that typically affects this kind of systems to be identified and corrected. A field test, conducted at the Pietrafitta earth flow where additional monitoring systems had been installed, indicates a high reliability of the measurement and a high monitoring stability without visible thermal drift.

  12. Brief Communication: A low-cost Arduino®-based wire extensometer for earth flow monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Luigi; Guerriero, Giovanni; Grelle, Gerardo; Guadagno, Francesco M.; Revellino, Paola

    2017-06-01

    Continuous monitoring of earth flow displacement is essential for the understanding of the dynamic of the process, its ongoing evolution and designing mitigation measures. Despite its importance, it is not always applied due to its expense and the need for integration with additional sensors to monitor factors controlling movement. To overcome these problems, we developed and tested a low-cost Arduino-based wire-rail extensometer integrating a data logger, a power system and multiple digital and analog inputs. The system is equipped with a high-precision position transducer that in the test configuration offers a measuring range of 1023 mm and an associated accuracy of ±1 mm, and integrates an operating temperature sensor that should allow potential thermal drift that typically affects this kind of systems to be identified and corrected. A field test, conducted at the Pietrafitta earth flow where additional monitoring systems had been installed, indicates a high reliability of the measurement and a high monitoring stability without visible thermal drift.

  13. The Calibration and Characterization of Earth Remote Sensing and Environmental Monitoring Instruments. Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James J.; Johnson, B. Carol; Barnes, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    The use of remote sensing instruments on orbiting satellite platforms in the study of Earth Science and environmental monitoring was officially inaugurated with the April 1, 1960 launch of the Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) [1]. The first TIROS accommodated two television cameras and operated for only 78 days. However, the TIROS program, in providing in excess of 22,000 pictures of the Earth, achieved its primary goal of providing Earth images from a satellite platform to aid in identifying and monitoring meteorological processes. This marked the beginning of what is now over four decades of Earth observations from satellite platforms. reflected and emitted radiation from the Earth using instruments on satellite platforms. These measurements are input to climate models, and the model results are analyzed in an effort to detect short and long-term changes and trends in the Earth's climate and environment, to identify the cause of those changes, and to predict or influence future changes. Examples of short-term climate change events include the periodic appearance of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the tropical Pacific Ocean [2] and the spectacular eruption of Mount Pinatubo on the Philippine island of Luzon in 1991. Examples of long term climate change events, which are more subtle to detect, include the destruction of coral reefs, the disappearance of glaciers, and global warming. Climatic variability can be both large and small scale and can be caused by natural or anthropogenic processes. The periodic El Nino event is an example of a natural process which induces significant climatic variability over a wide range of the Earth. A classic example of a large scale anthropogenic influence on climate is the well-documented rapid increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide occurring since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution [3]. An example of the study of a small-scale anthropogenic influence in climate variability is the Atlanta Land

  14. Insights on How NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Monitors Our World Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael D.

    2000-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During this year, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (1) total solar irradiance, (2) Earth radiation budget, (3) land cover and land use change, (4) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (5) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (6) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using EOS data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean.

  15. Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This curriculum-based, easy-to-follow book teaches young readers about Earth as one of the eight planets in our solar system in astronomical terms. With accessible text, it provides the fundamental information any student needs to begin their studies in astronomy, such as how Earth spins and revolves around the Sun, why it's uniquely suitable for life, its physical features, atmosphere, biosphere, moon, its past, future, and more. To enhance the learning experience, many of the images come directly from NASA. This straightforward title offers the fundamental information any student needs to sp

  16. Field reversing magnetotail current sheets: earth, Venus, and Comet Giacobini-Zinner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McComas, D.J.

    1986-09-01

    This dissertation examines the field reversing magnetotail current sheets at the earth, Venus, and Comet Giacobini-Zinner. In the near earth study a new analysis technique is developed to calculate the detailed current density distributions within the cross tail current sheet for the first time. This technique removes the effects of a variable sheet velocity by inverting intersatellite timings between the co-orbiting satellites ISEE-1 and -2. Case studies of three relatively geomagnetically quiet crossings are made; sheet thicknesses and peak current densities are approx.1-5 x 10/sup 4/ km and approx.5-50 nA/m/sup 2/. Current density distributions reveal a high density central region, lower density shoulders, and considerable fine structure throughout. In the Venus study another new analysis technique is developed to reconstruct the average tail configuration from a correlation between field magnitude and draping angle in a large statistical data set. In the comet study, high resolution magnetic field and plasma electron data from the ICE traversal of Giacobini-Zinner are combined for the first time to determine the tail/current sheet geometry and calculate certain important but unmeasured local ion and upstream properties. Pressure balance across the tail gives ion temperatures and betas of approx.1.2 x 10/sup 5/ K and approx.40 in the center of the current sheet to approx.1 x 10/sup 6/ K and approx.3 in the outer lobes. Axial stress balance shows that the velocity shear upstream near the nucleus is >6 (approx.1 at ICE), and that a region of strongly enhanced mass loading (ion source rate approx.24 times that upstream from lobes) exists upstream from the current sheet. The integrated downtail mass flux is approx.2.6 x 10/sup 26/ H/sub 2/O+/sec, which is only approx.1% of the independently determined total cometary efflux. 79 refs., 37 figs.

  17. The role of high-resolution geomagnetic field models for investigating ionospheric currents at low Earth orbit satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, Claudia; Michaelis, Ingo; Rauberg, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Low Earth orbiting geomagnetic satellite missions, such as the Swarm satellite mission, are the only means to monitor and investigate ionospheric currents on a global scale and to make in situ measurements of F region currents. High-precision geomagnetic satellite missions are also able to detect ionospheric currents during quiet-time geomagnetic conditions that only have few nanotesla amplitudes in the magnetic field. An efficient method to isolate the ionospheric signals from satellite magnetic field measurements has been the use of residuals between the observations and predictions from empirical geomagnetic models for other geomagnetic sources, such as the core and lithospheric field or signals from the quiet-time magnetospheric currents. This study aims at highlighting the importance of high-resolution magnetic field models that are able to predict the lithospheric field and that consider the quiet-time magnetosphere for reliably isolating signatures from ionospheric currents during geomagnetically quiet times. The effects on the detection of ionospheric currents arising from neglecting the lithospheric and magnetospheric sources are discussed on the example of four Swarm orbits during very quiet times. The respective orbits show a broad range of typical scenarios, such as strong and weak ionospheric signal (during day- and nighttime, respectively) superimposed over strong and weak lithospheric signals. If predictions from the lithosphere or magnetosphere are not properly considered, the amplitude of the ionospheric currents, such as the midlatitude Sq currents or the equatorial electrojet (EEJ), is modulated by 10-15 % in the examples shown. An analysis from several orbits above the African sector, where the lithospheric field is significant, showed that the peak value of the signatures of the EEJ is in error by 5 % in average when lithospheric contributions are not considered, which is in the range of uncertainties of present empirical models of the EEJ.

  18. Mapping the earth's magnetic and gravity fields from space Current status and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settle, M.; Taranik, J. V.

    1983-01-01

    The principal magnetic fields encountered by earth orbiting spacecraft include the main (core) field, external fields produced by electrical currents within the ionosphere and magnetosphere, and the crustal (anomaly) field generated by variations in the magnetization of the outermost portions of the earth. The first orbital field measurements which proved to be of use for global studies of crustal magnetization were obtained by a series of three satellites launched and operated from 1965 to 1971. Each of the satellites, known as a Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO), carried a rubidium vapor magnetometer. Attention is also given to Magsat launched in 1979, the scalar anomaly field derived from the Magsat measurements, satellite tracking studies in connection with gravity field surveys, radar altimetry, the belt of positive free air gravity anomalies situated along the edge of the Pacific Ocean basin, future technological capabilities, and information concerning data availability.

  19. Current air quality analytics and monitoring: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marć, Mariusz; Tobiszewski, Marek; Zabiegała, Bożena; de la Guardia, Miguel; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the different tools and concepts that are commonly applied in air quality monitoring. The monitoring of atmosphere is extremely important as the air quality is an important problem for large communities. Main requirements for analytical devices used for monitoring include a long period of autonomic operation and portability. These instruments, however, are often characterized by poor analytical performance. Monitoring networks are the most common tools used for monitoring, so large-scale monitoring programmes are summarized here. Biomonitoring, as a cheap and convenient alternative to traditional sample collection, is becoming more and more popular, although its main drawback is the lack of standard procedures. Telemonitoring is another approach to air monitoring, which offers some interesting opportunities, such as ease of coverage of large or remote areas, constituting a complementary approach to traditional strategies; however, it requires huge costs.

  20. Technological advances in perioperative monitoring: Current concepts and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilkoti, Geetanjali; Wadhwa, Rachna; Saxena, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Minimal mandatory monitoring in the perioperative period recommended by Association of Anesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland and American Society of Anesthesiologists are universally acknowledged and has become an integral part of the anesthesia practice. The technologies in perioperative monitoring have advanced, and the availability and clinical applications have multiplied exponentially. Newer monitoring techniques include depth of anesthesia monitoring, goal-directed fluid therapy, transesophageal echocardiography, advanced neurological monitoring, improved alarm system and technological advancement in objective pain assessment. Various factors that need to be considered with the use of improved monitoring techniques are their validation data, patient outcome, safety profile, cost-effectiveness, awareness of the possible adverse events, knowledge of technical principle and ability of the convenient routine handling. In this review, we will discuss the new monitoring techniques in anesthesia, their advantages, deficiencies, limitations, their comparison to the conventional methods and their effect on patient outcome, if any.

  1. Current limitations and challenges in nanowaste detection, characterisation and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Part, Florian; Zecha, Gudrun [Department of Water-Atmosphere-Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Waste Management, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Causon, Tim [Department of Chemistry, Division of Analytical Chemistry, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Sinner, Eva-Kathrin [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute for Synthetic Bioarchitectures, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 11/II, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Huber-Humer, Marion, E-mail: marion.huber-humer@boku.ac.at [Department of Water-Atmosphere-Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Waste Management, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • First review on detection of nanomaterials in complex waste samples. • Focus on nanoparticles in solid, liquid and gaseous waste samples. • Summary of current applicable methods for nanowaste detection and characterisation. • Limitations and challenges of characterisation of nanoparticles in waste. - Abstract: Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are already extensively used in diverse consumer products. Along the life cycle of a nano-enabled product, ENMs can be released and subsequently accumulate in the environment. Material flow models also indicate that a variety of ENMs may accumulate in waste streams. Therefore, a new type of waste, so-called nanowaste, is generated when end-of-life ENMs and nano-enabled products are disposed of. In terms of the precautionary principle, environmental monitoring of end-of-life ENMs is crucial to allow assessment of the potential impact of nanowaste on our ecosystem. Trace analysis and quantification of nanoparticulate species is very challenging because of the variety of ENM types that are used in products and low concentrations of nanowaste expected in complex environmental media. In the framework of this paper, challenges in nanowaste characterisation and appropriate analytical techniques which can be applied to nanowaste analysis are summarised. Recent case studies focussing on the characterisation of ENMs in waste streams are discussed. Most studies aim to investigate the fate of nanowaste during incineration, particularly considering aerosol measurements; whereas, detailed studies focusing on the potential release of nanowaste during waste recycling processes are currently not available. In terms of suitable analytical methods, separation techniques coupled to spectrometry-based methods are promising tools to detect nanowaste and determine particle size distribution in liquid waste samples. Standardised leaching protocols can be applied to generate soluble fractions stemming from solid wastes, while

  2. Hyperresolution Global Land Surface Modeling: Meeting a Grand Challenge for Monitoring Earth's Terrestrial Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric F.; Roundy, Joshua K.; Troy, Tara J.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; 4 Blyth, Eleanor; de Roo, Ad; Doell. Petra; Ek, Mike; Famiglietti, James; Gochis, David; van de Giesen, Nick; Houser, Paul; Jaffe, Peter R.; Kollet, Stefan; Lehner, Bernhard; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Sivpalan, Murugesu; Sheffield, Justin; Wade, Andrew; Whitehead, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring Earth's terrestrial water conditions is critically important to many hydrological applications such as global food production; assessing water resources sustainability; and flood, drought, and climate change prediction. These needs have motivated the development of pilot monitoring and prediction systems for terrestrial hydrologic and vegetative states, but to date only at the rather coarse spatial resolutions (approx.10-100 km) over continental to global domains. Adequately addressing critical water cycle science questions and applications requires systems that are implemented globally at much higher resolutions, on the order of 1 km, resolutions referred to as hyperresolution in the context of global land surface models. This opinion paper sets forth the needs and benefits for a system that would monitor and predict the Earth's terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. We discuss six major challenges in developing a system: improved representation of surface-subsurface interactions due to fine-scale topography and vegetation; improved representation of land-atmospheric interactions and resulting spatial information on soil moisture and evapotranspiration; inclusion of water quality as part of the biogeochemical cycle; representation of human impacts from water management; utilizing massively parallel computer systems and recent computational advances in solving hyperresolution models that will have up to 10(exp 9) unknowns; and developing the required in situ and remote sensing global data sets. We deem the development of a global hyperresolution model for monitoring the terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles a grand challenge to the community, and we call upon the international hydrologic community and the hydrological science support infrastructure to endorse the effort.

  3. Operational Forest Monitoring in Siberia Using Multi-source Earth Observation Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hüttich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest cover disturbance rates are increasing in the forests of Siberia due to intensification of human activities and climate change. In this paper two satellite data sources were used for automated forest cover change detection. Annual ALOS PALSAR backscatter mosaics (2007–2010 were used for yearly forest loss monitoring. Time series of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, 2000–2014 from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS were integrated in a web-based data middleware system to assess the capabilities of a near-real time detection of forest disturbances using the break point detection by additive season and trends (Bfast method. The SAR-based average accuracy of the forest loss detection was 70 %, whereas the MODIS-based change assessment using breakpoint detection achieved average accuracies of 50 % for trend-based breakpoints and 43.4 % for season-based breakpoints. It was demonstrated that SAR remote sensing is a highly accurate tool for up-to-date forest monitoring. Web-based data middleware systems like the Earth Observation Monitor, linked with MODIS time series, provide access and easy-to-use tools for on demand change monitoring in remote Siberian forests.

  4. Monitoring of the Earth's surface deformation in the area of water dam Zarnowiec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojzes, Marcel; Wozniak, Marek; Habel, Branislav; Macak, Marek

    2017-04-01

    Mathematical and physical research directly motivates geodetic community which can provide very accurate measurements for testing of the proposed models Earth's surface motion near the water dams should be monitored due to the security of the area. This is a process which includes testing of existing models and their physical parameters. Change of the models can improve the practical results for analyzing the trends of motion in the area of upper reservoir of water dam Zarnowiec. Since 1998 Warsaw University of Technology realized a research focused on the horizontal displacements of the upper reservoir of water dam Zarnowiec. The 15 selected control points located on the upper reservoir crown of the water dam were monitored by classical distance measurements. It was found out that changes in the object's geometry occur due to the variation of the water level. The control measurements of the changes in the object's geometry occurring during the process of emptying and filling of the upper reservoir of water dam were compared with the deformations computed using improved Boussinesqués method programmed in the software MATLAB and ANSYS for elastic and isotropic half space as derivation of suitable potentials extended to the loaded region. The details and numerical results of this process are presented This presentation was prepared within the project "National Centre for Diagnostic of the Earth's Surface Deformations in the Area of Slovakia", ITMS code: 26220220108.

  5. Development of realtime monitoring technology for laser photoreaction product - Study on spectroscopy of rare earth elements by using diode laser and hollow cathode glow discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Chun [Kyungnam University, Masan (Korea); Lee, Gea Ho [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea); Lee, Yong Il [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea); Kim, Hyo Jin [Dongduk Women' s University, Seoul (Korea); Huh, Yong Dck [Dankook University, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-05-01

    Currently, fast and precise analysis of rare earth and actinide elements are much concerned and required for the safe treatments and storage of nuclear wastes generated by nuclear power plants. However, current technology is still far from the requirements for accurate realtime monitoring and measurement of radioactive elements. This project is of development of new technology of realtime monitoring and analysis of rare earth elements by using glow discharge and diode laser spectroscopy, and the study of spectroscopic characteristics of rare earth elements in glow discharge plasma. And, saturated absorption spectroscopy of rare earth elements was investigated with diode lasers. A see-through hollow cathode glow discharge (st-HCGD) cell was developed for the purpose of a portable atomizer and and its characteristics were investigated. High resolution spectroscopy was achieved with diode laser assisted saturated absorption spectroscopy. it is considered for major improvement of radioactive isotope detection technology. We expect a portable high resolution spectrometry with a see-through HCGD atomizer and diode lasers in near future. (Author). 63 refs., 39 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. South Africa's vital statistics are currently not suitable for monitoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10)[15] coding convention ... monitoring progress towards injury and violence Sustainable .... of death of children under five years in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

  7. Individual Monitoring and Occupational Dose Record Management in China: History, Current Status and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Bo; Yu, Hai-Tao; Sun, Quan-Fu

    2016-06-03

    This review paper presents an overview of individual monitoring, as well as the national dose register and dose record management of radiation workers in China. Progress has recently been made on the individual monitoring of radiation workers. A critical analysis of current status and problems in individual monitoring is also presented and necessary future research on individual monitoring, such as the monitoring technology in the form of the ring dosimeters and eye lens dosimeters, is suggested.

  8. Operational GPS Imaging System at Multiple Scales for Earth Science and Monitoring of Geohazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewitt, Geoffrey; Hammond, William; Kreemer, Corné

    2016-04-01

    ) anthropogenic lithospheric processes, and (3) dynamic solid Earth events. Our prototype images show that the striking, first-order signal in North America and Europe is large scale uplift and subsidence from mantle flow driven by Glacial Isostatic Adjustment. At regional scales, the images reveal that anthropogenic lithospheric processes can dominate vertical land motion in extended regions, such as the rapid subsidence of California's Central Valley (CV) exacerbated by drought. The Earth's crust is observed to rebound elastically as evidenced by uplift of surrounding mountain ranges. Images also reveal natural uplift of mountains, mantle relaxation associated with earthquakes over the last century, and uplift at plate boundaries driven by interseismic locking. Using the high-rate positions at low latency, earthquake events can be rapidly imaged, modeled, and monitored for afterslip, potential aftershocks, and subsequent deeper relaxation. Thus we are imaging deep Earth processes with unprecedented scope, resolution and accuracy. In addition to supporting these scientific focus areas, the data products are also being used to support the global reference frame (ITRF), and show potential to enhance missions such as GRACE and NISAR by providing complementary information on Earth processes.

  9. Research on Integrated Monitoring and Prevention System for Stray Current in Metro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李威; 严旭

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing the influencing factors and harmfulness of stray current, and discussing the existing problems of monitoring and prevention system for stray current, the integrated monitoring and prevention system for stray current in metro was developed. A net system of distributed computers for monitoring was set up. It can monitor the distribution of stray current in metro and the corrosion of the metal structure in the whole line. According to the situation of monitoring it can also control the drainage of its tank to reach the best effect and eliminate the negative effect of polarity drainage. By using the new type unilateral electric device, the problem of burning the rail by electric arc can be avoided. The unilateral electric device can be connected with the monitoring net system directly to realize the monitor in line and improve the reliability of the device.

  10. An evaluation of current Arapaho National Wildlife Refuge monitoring programs in regards to sample sizes and other monitoring issues

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an evaluation of data produced by current monitoring programs at Arapahoe National Wildlife Refuge. For all of these programs there is an interest...

  11. Current situation and outlook of China rare earth industry (continued)%Current situation and outlook of China rare earth industry (continued)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China exported totally 16,900 tons of rare earths (physical quantity) during 2011, equivalent to 15,700 tons of rare earth oxide. Export value was USD 2.667 billion, with average unit export price of USD 169.9 per kilo. Price changes of rare earth products since January 2011 are reflected in Figure 2, 3 and 4, which show that the price rose rapidly since February, increased markedly after May, peaked in July and started to decline since then. There was not much change to the price of La and Ce products, but the price of didymium and Eu, Tb and Dy products that are in large demand changed significantly. Price in August of 2012 was about 30-40% of the highest price in 2011. Considering large increase of resource cost and environment cost, the price had been in a rational range.

  12. Current Directions in Adding Value to Earth Observation Products for Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryker, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Natural resource managers and infrastructure planners face increasingly complex challenges, given competing demands for resources and changing conditions due to climate and land use change. These pressures create demand for high-quality, timely data; for both one-time decision support and long-term monitoring; and for techniques to articulate the value of resources in monetary and nonmonetary terms. To meet the need for data, the U.S. government invests several billion dollars per year in Earth observations collected from satellite, airborne, terrestrial, and ocean-based systems. Earth observation-based decision support is coming of age; user surveys show that these data are used in an increasing variety of analyses. For example, since the U.S. Department of the Interior/U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) 2008 free and open data policy for the Landsat satellites, downloads from the USGS archive have increased from 20,000 Landsat scenes per year to 10 million per year and climbing, with strong growth in both research and decision support fields. However, Earth observation-based decision support still poses users a number of challenges. Many of those Landsat downloads support a specialized community of remote sensing scientists, though new technologies promise to increase the usability of remotely sensed data for the larger GIS community supporting planning and resource management. Serving this larger community also requires supporting the development of increasingly interpretive products, and of new approaches to host and update products. For example, automating updates will add value to new essential climate variable products such as surface water extent and wildfire burned area extent. Projections of future urbanization in the southeastern U.S. are most useful when long-term land cover trends are integrated with street-level community data and planning tools. The USGS assessment of biological carbon sequestration in vegetation and shallow soils required a significant

  13. Neutral Current Coherent Cross Sections -- Implications on Gaseous Spherical TPC's for detecting SN and Earth neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Giomataris, Y

    2016-01-01

    The detection of galactic supernova (SN) neutrinos represents one of the future frontiers of low-energy neutrino physics and astrophysics. The neutron coherence of neutral currents (NC) allows quite large cross sections in the case of neutron rich targets, which can be exploited in detecting earth and sky neutrinos by measuring nuclear recoils. They are relatively cheap and easy to maintain. The relevant NC cross sections are not dependent on flavor conversions and, thus, their measurement will provide useful information about the neutrino source. In particular they will yield information about the primary neutrino fluxes and perhaps about the spectrum after flavor conversions in neutrino sphere.They might also provide some clues about the neutrino mass hierarchy. The advantages of large gaseous low threshold and high resolution detectors with time projection counters (TPC) are discussed.

  14. Earth Observation Tools for Risk Exposure Monitoring: Welcoming Sentinel-2 Data in Risk Assessment Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vecchi, Daniele; Dell'Acqua, Fabio

    2016-08-01

    In the framework of different FP7 projects, a set of open-source tools has been developed and refined with the aim to monitor the exposure component in risk assessment. The recent launch of Sentinels 1 and 2 with their open data license attracted a lot of attention in the remote sensing community stimulating new research and applications. To our tools, this meant Open Data feed into Open Source code. The similarity in both spectral and geometric resolutions between Landsat and Sentinel-2 satellites raises good hopes for reusability of the developed tools. In this paper, modifications to the original algorithms will be suggested according to the experiments outcome, in view of a new generation of Open Tools in line with the new Copernicus-aware Earth Observation scenario.

  15. Earth Observations, Models and Geo-Design in Support of SDG Implementation and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plag, H. P.; Jules-Plag, S.

    2016-12-01

    Implementation and Monitoring of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires support from Earth observation and scientific communities. Applying a goal-based approach to determine the data needs to the Targets and Indicators associated with the SDGs demonstrates that integration of environmental with socio-economic and statistical data is required. Large data gaps exist for the built environment. A Geo-Design platform can provide the infrastructure and conceptual model for the data integration. The development of policies and actions to foster the implementation of SDGs in many cases requires research and the development of tools to answer "what if" questions. Here, agent-based models and model webs combined with a Geo-Design platform are promising avenues. This advanced combined infrastructure can also play a crucial role in the necessary capacity building. We will use the example of SDG 5 (Gender equality) to illustrate these approaches. SDG 11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities) is used to underline the cross-goal linkages and the joint benefits of Earth observations, data integration, and modeling tools for multiple SDGs.

  16. Ion transport and loss in the earth's quiet ring current. I - Data and standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, R. B.; Hamilton, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the transport and loss of ions in the earth's quiet time ring current, in which the standard radial diffusion model developed for the high-energy radiation belt particles is compared with the measurements of the lower-energy ring current ions, is presented. The data set provides ionic composition information in an energy range that includes the bulk of the ring current energy density, 1-300 keV/e. Protons are found to dominate the quiet time energy density at all altitudes, peaking near L of about 4 at 60 keV/cu cm, with much smaller contributions from O(+) (1-10 percent), He(+) (1-5 percent), and He(2+) (less than 1 percent). A minimization procedure is used to fit the amplitudes of the standard electric radial diffusion coefficient, yielding 5.8 x 10 exp -11 R(E-squared)/s. Fluctuation ionospheric electric fields are suggested as the source of the additional diffusion detected.

  17. Ion transport and loss in the earth's quiet ring current. I - Data and standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, R. B.; Hamilton, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the transport and loss of ions in the earth's quiet time ring current, in which the standard radial diffusion model developed for the high-energy radiation belt particles is compared with the measurements of the lower-energy ring current ions, is presented. The data set provides ionic composition information in an energy range that includes the bulk of the ring current energy density, 1-300 keV/e. Protons are found to dominate the quiet time energy density at all altitudes, peaking near L of about 4 at 60 keV/cu cm, with much smaller contributions from O(+) (1-10 percent), He(+) (1-5 percent), and He(2+) (less than 1 percent). A minimization procedure is used to fit the amplitudes of the standard electric radial diffusion coefficient, yielding 5.8 x 10 exp -11 R(E-squared)/s. Fluctuation ionospheric electric fields are suggested as the source of the additional diffusion detected.

  18. Monitoring dc stray current corrosion at sheet pile structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, W.H.A.; Neeft, E.A.C.; Leegwater, G.; Kanten-Roos, W. van; Courage, W.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Steel is discarded by railway owners as a material for underground structures near railway lines, due to uncertainty over increased corrosion by DC stray currents stemming from the traction power system. This paper presents a large scale field test in which stray currents interference of a sheet pil

  19. US national breastfeeding monitoring and surveillance: current status and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Donna J; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2009-05-01

    Eleven federally funded datasets assessing breastfeeding behaviors in the United States (Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey, Infant Feeding Practices Survey II, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, National Immunization Survey, National Survey of Children's Health, National Survey of Early Childhood Health, National Survey of Family Growth, Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System, Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring Survey, and WIC Participant and Program Characteristics) were reviewed to evaluate breastfeeding variables (initiation, duration and exclusivity) and determine whether relevant breastfeeding determinants were collected to evaluate breastfeeding practices from a health disparities perspective. The datasets used inconsistent breastfeeding definitions, limited ethnic descriptors, and varied regarding availability of relevant determinants. Multiple datasets collect breastfeeding data, but a coordinated US breastfeeding monitoring and surveillance system does not exist. Suggestions to improve this system include: standardizing breastfeeding definitions, expanding ethnic/racial descriptors, collecting additional relevant variables, and reducing recall periods.

  20. Environmental networks for large-scale monitoring of Earth and atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurodimou, Olga; Kolios, Stavros; Konstantaras, Antonios; Georgoulas, George; Stylios, Chrysostomos

    2013-04-01

    Installation and operation of instrument/sensor networks are proven fundamental in the monitoring of the physical environment from local to global scale. The advances in electronics, wireless communications and informatics has led to the development of a huge number of networks at different spatial scales that measure, collect and store a wide range of environmental parameters. These networks have been gradually evolved into integrated information systems that provide real time monitoring, forecasts and different products from the initial collected datasets. Instrument/sensor networks have nowadays become important solutions for environmental monitoring, comprising a basic component of fully automated systems developing worldwide that contribute in the efforts for a sustainable Earth's environment (e.g. Hart et al., 2006, Othman et al., 2012). They are also used as a source of data for models parameterization and as verification tools for accuracy assessment techniques of the satellite imagery. Environmental networks can be incorporated into decision support systems (e.g Rizzi et al., 2012) providing informational background along with data from satellites for decision making, manage problems, suggest solutions and best practices for a sustainable management of the environment. This is a comparative study aiming to examine and highlight the significant role of existing instrument/sensor networks for large-scale monitoring of environmental issues, especially atmospheric and marine environment as well as weather and climate. We provide characteristic examples of integrated systems based on large scale instrument/sensor networks along with other sources of data (like satellite datasets) as informational background to measure, identify, monitor, analyze and forecast a vast series of atmospheric parameters (like CO2, O3, particle matter and solar irradiance), weather, climate and their impacts (e.g., cloud systems, lightnings, rainfall, air and surface temperature

  1. The Contribution of Earth Observation Technologies to Monitoring Strategies of Cultural Landscapes and Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, B.

    2017-08-01

    Coupling of Climate change effects with management and protection of cultural and natural heritage has been brought to the attention of policy makers since several years. On the worldwide level, UNESCO has identified several phenomena as the major geo-hazards possibly induced by climate change and their possible hazardous impact to natural and cultural heritage: Hurricane, storms; Sea-level rise; Erosion; Flooding; Rainfall increase; Drought; Desertification and Rise in temperature. The same document further referrers to satellite Remote Sensing (EO) as one of the valuable tools, useful for development of "professional monitoring strategies". More recently, other studies have highlighted on the impact of climate change effects on tourism, an economic sector related to build environment and traditionally linked to heritage. The results suggest that, in case of emergency the concrete threat could be given by the hazardous event itself; in case of ordinary administration, however, the threat seems to be a "hazardous attitude" towards cultural assets that could lead to inadequate maintenance and thus to a risk of an improper management of cultural heritage sites. This paper aims to illustrate potential benefits that advancements of Earth Observation technologies can bring to the domain of monitoring landscape heritage and to the management strategies, including practices of preventive maintenance. The attempt here is to raise awareness on the importance of integrating satellite remote sensing imagery and the deriving products with other geospatial information (even geo-referenced historic maps) for a more complete insight on the environmental dynamics of landscapes.

  2. A NEW NON-INVASIVE DEVICE TO MONITOR CORE TEMPERATURE ON EARTH AND IN SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanns-Christian Gunga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of the core body temperature (cbt is fundamental to the study of human temperature regulation. As standard sites for the placement of cbt measurement sensors have been used: the rectum, the bladder, the esophagus, the nasopharynx and the acoustic meatus. Nevertheless those measurement sites exhibit limited applicability under field conditions, in rescue operations or during peri- and postoperative long-term core temperature monitoring. There is, indeed, a high demand for a reliable, non-invasive, easy to handle telemetric device. But the ideal non-invasive measurement of core temperature has to meet requirements such as i a convenient measurement site, ii no bias through environmental conditions, and iii a high sensitivity of the sensor regarding time shift and absolute temperature value. Recently, together with the Draegerwerke AG we have developed a new heat flux measurement device (so-called "Double Sensor" as a non-invasive cbt sensor aiming to meet the requirements described above. Four recent studies in humans will be summarized and discussed to show the applicability of this new non-invasive method to monitor core temperature under different environmental and clinical settings on Earth and in space.

  3. Geoacoustic method for continuous monitoring of stressed-strained state of Earth's crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbitskiy, T. Z.

    1984-05-01

    Ceramic piezoelectric transducers with characteristic frequencies 10-15 KHz are used as sources and detectors of longitudinal waves in a geoacoustic measuring system. The source is excited by an alternating voltage of 150-300 V with a frequency of 1-10 KHz. The electric signals from the detectors are amplified and filtered for discriminating the frequency harmonics. The phase shift of the received signal of the fundamental frequency and the amplitude of oscillations of the fundamental and multiple frequencies are determined. The measured wave parameters are registered on punched tape, facilitating computer input. Measuring system stability is monitored. The supply voltage, as well as atmospheric pressure, humidity and temperature are continuously monitored. Measurements made in the Carpathian Geodynamic Polygon Carpathian reveal a substantial influence of tidal deformations of the Earth. It can be postulated that short anomalies are caused by the discharge of stresses in the investigated rock complex. More prolonged anomalies are caused by deformations of the crust accompanying preparation for tectonic earthquakes.

  4. Anomalous diurnal variation of atmospheric potential gradient and air-Earth current density observed at Maitri, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeeva, K.; Gurubaran, S.; Williams, E. R.; Kamra, A. K.; Sinha, A. K.; Guha, A.; Selvaraj, C.; Nair, K. U.; Dhar, Ajay

    2016-11-01

    The scope of this paper is to explore the mechanisms operating over Maitri (70.76°S, 11.74°E, 117 m above mean sea level), a coastal Antarctic station, that produce an anomalous fair-weather diurnal pattern of the atmospheric electric potential gradient (PG) and air-Earth current density (AEC). The anomaly in the diurnal variations of AEC and the PG is displaying an ostensible minimum at 10 UT and a diminished response to the thunderstorm over the African continent in the 14-16 UT time frame. The data sets (2005-2014, except 2012) of the PG, and to some extent, AEC, from Maitri, are used to explore this anomaly. It follows that the fair-weather electrical phenomena over Maitri can be ascribed to global electrified convection on the one hand and to regional phenomena like convection due to the replacement of warm air by katabatic winds on the other hand. The katabatic winds originate on the polar plateau and blow from 130° at Maitri which are likely to transport various elements from the mountain slopes, and space charge from the polar plateau is expected to produce various disturbances in the PG and AEC monitored over the coastal Antarctica. This mechanism may be responsible for peaks in the early UT hours and also for the anomalous behavior of atmospheric electrical parameters observed at Maitri. Maitri data are compared with that of Carnegie cruise and Vostok to explain the source of anomaly.

  5. Streaming sausage, kink and tearing instabilities in a current sheet with applications to the earth's magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L. C.; Wang, S.; Wei, C. Q.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates the growth rates and eigenmode structures of the streaming sausage, kink, and tearing instabilities in a current sheet with a super-Alfvenic flow. The growth rates and eigenmode structures are first considered in the ideal incompressible limit by using a four-layer model, as well as a more realistic case in which all plasma parameters and the magnetic field vary continuously along the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. An initial-value method is applied to obtain the growth rate and eigenmode profiles of the fastest growing mode, which is either the sausage mode or kink mode. It is shown that, in the earth's magnetotail, where super-Alfvenic plasma flows are observed in the plasma sheet and the ratio between the plasma and magnetic pressures far away from the current layer is about 0.1-0.3 in the lobes, the streaming sausage and streaming tearing instabilities, but not kink modes, are likely to occur.

  6. Streaming sausage, kink and tearing instabilities in a current sheet with applications to the earth's magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L. C.; Wang, S.; Wei, C. Q.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates the growth rates and eigenmode structures of the streaming sausage, kink, and tearing instabilities in a current sheet with a super-Alfvenic flow. The growth rates and eigenmode structures are first considered in the ideal incompressible limit by using a four-layer model, as well as a more realistic case in which all plasma parameters and the magnetic field vary continuously along the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. An initial-value method is applied to obtain the growth rate and eigenmode profiles of the fastest growing mode, which is either the sausage mode or kink mode. It is shown that, in the earth's magnetotail, where super-Alfvenic plasma flows are observed in the plasma sheet and the ratio between the plasma and magnetic pressures far away from the current layer is about 0.1-0.3 in the lobes, the streaming sausage and streaming tearing instabilities, but not kink modes, are likely to occur.

  7. Citizen Science for Earth Observation: Applications in Environmental Monitoring and Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovirta, V.; Toivanen, T.; Tergujeff, R.; Hame, T.; Molinier, M.

    2015-04-01

    Citizen science is a promising way to increase temporal and spatial coverages of in-situ data, and to aid in data processing and analysis. In this paper, we present how citizen science can be used together with Earth observation, and demonstrate its value through three pilot projects focusing on forest biomass analysis, data management in emergencies and water quality monitoring. We also provide recommendations and ideas for follow-up activities. In the forest biomass analysis pilot, in the state of Durango (Mexico), local volunteers make in-situ forest inventory measurements with mobile devices. The collected data is combined with Landsat-8 imagery to derive forest biomass map of the area. The study area includes over 390 permanent sampling plots that will provide reference data for concept validation and verification. The emergency data management pilot focuses in the Philippines, in the areas affected by the typhoons Haiyan in November 2013 and Hagupit in December 2014. Data collected by emergency workers and citizens are combined with satellite data (Landsat-8, VHR if available) to intensify the disaster recovery activities and the coordination efforts. Simple processes for citizens, nongovernmental organisations and volunteers are developed to find and utilize up to date and freely available satellite imagery for coordination purposes and for building new not-for-profit services in disaster situations. In the water quality monitoring pilot, citizens around the Baltic Sea area contribute to the algae situation awareness by collecting algae observations using a mobile application. In-situ observations are compared with surface algal bloom products based on the satellite imagery, e.g. Aqua MODIS images with 500 meter resolution. As an outcome, the usability of the citizen observations together with satellite data in the algae monitoring will be evaluated.

  8. California Current Monitoring Using the NPS Ocean Acoustic Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    acoustic measurements generated by this project can be used to validate and calibrate ocean forecast model for the region. The data can also be... Innovative Coastal Observing Network (ICON). ICON studies the ocean processes in the Monterey Bay area which is influenced by the California Current

  9. Safeguards Technology Factsheet - Unattended Dual Current Monitor (UDCM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-13

    The UDCM is a low-current measurement device designed to record sub-nano-amp to micro-amp currents from radiation detectors. The UDCM is a two-channel device that incorporates a Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) processor enabling both serial over USB as well as Ethernet communications. The instrument includes microSD and USB flash memory for data storage as well as a programmable High Voltage (HV) power supply for detector bias. The UDCM is packaged in the same enclosure, employs the same processor and has a similar user interface as the UMSR. A serial over USB communication line to the UDCM allows the use of existing versions of MIC software, while the Ethernet port is compatible with the new IAEA RAINSTORM communication protocol.

  10. Monitoring Tidal Currents with a Towed ADCP System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-22

    throughout the water column were corrected for boat motion, using both bottom-tracking and GPS coordinates available at 1-s resolution, and then...successful selection of technology and devices to be deployed. However, site selection is not simply a case of identifying areas with strong tidal currents... Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center, Bldg. 1009, Mississippi, MS 39529, USA Ocean Dynamics (2016) 66:119–132 DOI 10.1007/s10236-015-0913-z

  11. Radiation Environment at LEO in the frame of Space Monitoring Data Center at Moscow State University - recent, current and future missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myagkova, Irina; Kalegaev, Vladimir; Panasyuk, Mikhail; Svertilov, Sergey; Bogomolov, Vitaly; Bogomolov, Andrey; Barinova, Vera; Barinov, Oleg; Bobrovnikov, Sergey; Dolenko, Sergey; Mukhametdinova, Ludmila; Shiroky, Vladimir; Shugay, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Radiation Environment of Near-Earth space is one of the most important factors of space weather. Space Monitoring Data Center of Moscow State University provides operational control of radiation conditions at Low Earth's Orbits (LEO) of the near-Earth space using data of recent (Vernov, CORONAS series), current (Meteor-M, Electro-L series) and future (Lomonosov) space missions. Internet portal of Space Monitoring Data Center of Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University (SINP MSU) http://swx.sinp.msu.ru/ provides possibilities to control and analyze the space radiation conditions in the real time mode together with the geomagnetic and solar activity including hard X-ray and gamma- emission of solar flares. Operational data obtained from space missions at L1, GEO and LEO and from the Earth's magnetic stations are used to represent radiation and geomagnetic state of near-Earth environment. The models of space environment that use space measurements from different orbits were created. Interactive analysis and operational neural network forecast services are based on these models. These systems can automatically generate alerts on particle fluxes enhancements above the threshold values, both for SEP and relativistic electrons of outer Earth's radiation belt using data from GEO and LEO as input. As an example of LEO data we consider data from Vernov mission, which was launched into solar-synchronous orbit (altitude 640 - 83 0 km, inclination 98.4°, orbital period about 100 min) on July 8, 2014 and began to receive scientific information since July 20, 2014. Vernov mission have provided studies of the Earth's radiation belt relativistic electron precipitation and its possible connection with atmosphere transient luminous events, as well as the solar hard X-ray and gamma-emission measurements. Radiation and electromagnetic environment monitoring in the near-Earth Space, which is very important for space weather study, was also realised

  12. Measurements of the large-scale direct-current Earth potential and possible implications for the geomagnetic dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-05

    The magnitude of the large-scale direct-current earth potential was measured on a section of a recently laid transatlantic telecommunications cable. Analysis of the data acquired on the 4476-kilometer cable yielded a mean direct-current potential drop of less than about 0.072 +/- 0.050 millivolts per kilometer. Interpreted in terms of a generation of the potential by the earth's geodynamo, such a small value of the mean potential implies that the toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields of the dynamo are approximately equal at the core-mantle boundary.

  13. Sunsynchronous low Earth orbit spacecraft concepts and technology requirements for global change monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, L. Bernard; Butterfield, Ansel J.; Taback, Israel; Garn, Paul A.; Burrowbridge, Donald R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The Global Change Technology Initiative listing of instruments for operation in low Earth, sunsynchronous orbits contain 21 entries, of which 20 are carried aboard multi-instrument spacecraft. This list identifies the temporal requirements for repetition of measurements and also includes groups of instruments that make complementing measurements. Definitions for individual spacecraft follows the temporal and grouping requirements to establish constellations which will provide the measurement data. The definitions of constellations for multi-instrument spacecraft show two alternatives: a constellation of 10 spacecraft, each compatible with launch by a Delta booster; a constellation of 4 spacecraft, each requiring a Titan booster. Operating subsystems for the individual spacecraft can use modular concepts that are adaptations based upon current plans for improving the performance of the NASA-Goddard Multimission Modular units. The descriptions of the spacecraft and constellations begins with a compilation of instrument related requirements that define the principal system performance parameters and operating capabilities.

  14. MONITORING OF ENERGETIC PARTICLE ENVIRONMENT INSIDE THE CHINA-BRAZIL EARTH RESOURCE SATELLITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    On 14 October 1999, the Chinese-Brazil earth resource satellite (CBERS-1) was launched in China. On board of the satellite there was an instrument designed at Peking University to detect the energetic particle radiation inside the satellite so the radiation fluxes of energetic particles in the cabin can be monitored continuously. Inside a satellite cabin, radiation environment consists of ether penetrated energetic particles or secondary radiation from satellite materials due to the interactions with primary cosmic rays.Purpose of the detectors are twofold, to monitor the particle radiation in the cabin and also to study the space radiation environment The data can be used to study the radiation environment and their effects on the electronics inside the satelhte cabin. On the other hand, the data are useful in study of geo-space energetic particle events such as solar proton events, particle precipitation and variations of the radiation belt since there should be some correlation between the radiation situation inside and outside the satellite.The instrument consists of two semi-conductor detectors for protons and electrons respectively. Each detector has two channels of energy ranges. They are 0.5-2MeV and ≥2MeV for electrons and 5-30MeV and 30-60MeV for protons. Counting rate for all channels are up to 104/(cm2@s)and power consumption is about 2.5 W. There are also the additional functions of CMOS TID (total integrated dose) effect and direct SEU monitoring. The data of CBMC was first sent back on Oct. 17 1999 and it's almost three years from then on. The detector has been working normally and the quality of data is good.The preliminary results of data analysis of CBMC not only reveal the effects of polar particle precipitation and radiation belt on radiation environment inside a satellite, but also show some important features of the geo-space energetic particle radiation.As one of the most important parameters of space weather, the energetic charged

  15. Current Status of Neuromuscular Reversal and Monitoring: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brull, Sorin J; Kopman, Aaron F

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative residual neuromuscular block has been recognized as a potential problem for decades, and it remains so today. Traditional pharmacologic antagonists (anticholinesterases) are ineffective in reversing profound and deep levels of neuromuscular block; at the opposite end of the recovery curve close to full recovery, anticholinesterases may induce paradoxical muscle weakness. The new selective relaxant-binding agent sugammadex can reverse any depth of block from aminosteroid (but not benzylisoquinolinium) relaxants; however, the effective dose to be administered should be chosen based on objective monitoring of the depth of neuromuscular block.To guide appropriate perioperative management, neuromuscular function assessment with a peripheral nerve stimulator is mandatory. Although in many settings, subjective (visual and tactile) evaluation of muscle responses is used, such evaluation has had limited success in preventing the occurrence of residual paralysis. Clinical evaluations of return of muscle strength (head lift and grip strength) or respiratory parameters (tidal volume and vital capacity) are equally insensitive at detecting neuromuscular weakness. Objective measurement (a train-of-four ratio greater than 0.90) is the only method to determine appropriate timing of tracheal extubation and ensure normal muscle function and patient safety.

  16. Current situation of China rare earth industry and outlook for "2011-2015" period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hongfang

    2011-01-01

    State government intensified regulation on rare earth industry during the "Eleventh-Five year" period (2006- 2010) and had implemented series of control measures, which played an positive role in reversing low selling price of rare earths, prohibiting illegal mining, improving scattered operation and cracking down on smuggling. Through asset replacement,

  17. Operational monitoring and forecasting of bathing water quality through exploiting satellite Earth observation and models: The AlgaRisk demonstration service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutler, J. D.; Warren, M. A.; Miller, P. I.; Barciela, R.; Mahdon, R.; Land, P. E.; Edwards, K.; Wither, A.; Jonas, P.; Murdoch, N.; Roast, S. D.; Clements, O.; Kurekin, A.

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones and shelf-seas are important for tourism, commercial fishing and aquaculture. As a result the importance of good water quality within these regions to support life is recognised worldwide and a number of international directives for monitoring them now exist. This paper describes the AlgaRisk water quality monitoring demonstration service that was developed and operated for the UK Environment Agency in response to the microbiological monitoring needs within the revised European Union Bathing Waters Directive. The AlgaRisk approach used satellite Earth observation to provide a near-real time monitoring of microbiological water quality and a series of nested operational models (atmospheric and hydrodynamic-ecosystem) provided a forecast capability. For the period of the demonstration service (2008-2013) all monitoring and forecast datasets were processed in near-real time on a daily basis and disseminated through a dedicated web portal, with extracted data automatically emailed to agency staff. Near-real time data processing was achieved using a series of supercomputers and an Open Grid approach. The novel web portal and java-based viewer enabled users to visualise and interrogate current and historical data. The system description, the algorithms employed and example results focussing on a case study of an incidence of the harmful algal bloom Karenia mikimotoi are presented. Recommendations and the potential exploitation of web services for future water quality monitoring services are discussed.

  18. Earth Observation in Support of Sustainable Urban Planning: Results of the Dragon-3 Monitor Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartalis, C.; Polydoros, A.; Mavrakou, T.; Asimakopoulos, D. N.

    2016-08-01

    Sustainable urban planning increasingly demands innovative concepts and techniques to obtain up-to-date and area-wide information on the characteristics and development of the urban system. In this paper, a thorough and conclusive presentation is made in terms of the results of the DRAGON-3 MONITOR project as based on the use of Earth Observation. Results refer in particular to a set of EO based dynamic urban indicators (i.e. urban form and expansion, land use/land cover changes, land surface temperature distribution, the presence and strength of urban heat island) with the capacity to describe the state, dynamic changes and interaction of the land and thermal environment in urban areas. Furthermore results are assessed in terms of their potential to operationally support sustainable urban planning and bridge the gap between EO scientists and urban planners. Constraints related to the spatial resolution and revisit time of satellite sensors are discussed as they influence the accuracy and applicability of the indicators. Methodologies to improve the applicability of the indicators are also discussed along with the presentation of the respective results.

  19. The Cost of Jointness: Insights from Environmental Monitoring Systems in Low-Earth Orbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Morgan Maeve [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of doctoral research that explored the cost impact of acquiring complex government systems jointly. The report begins by reviewing recent evidence that suggests that joint programs experience greater cost growth than non-joint programs. It continues by proposing an alternative approach for studying cost growth on government acquisition programs and demonstrates the utility of this approach by applying it to study the cost of jointness on three past programs that developed environmental monitoring systems for low-Earth orbit. Ultimately, the report concludes that joint programs' costs grow when the collaborating government agencies take action to retain or regain their autonomy. The report provides detailed qualitative and quantitative data in support of this conclusion and generalizes its findings to other joint programs that were not explicitly studied here. Finally, it concludes by presenting a quantitative model that assesses the cost impacts of jointness and by demonstrating how government agencies can more effectively architect joint programs in the future.

  20. On-line tool breakage monitoring of vibration tapping using spindle motor current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangjun; Lu, Huimin; Liu, Gang

    2008-10-01

    Input current of driving motor has been employed successfully as monitoring the cutting state in manufacturing processes for more than a decade. In vibration tapping, however, the method of on-line monitoring motor electric current has not been reported. In this paper, a tap failure prediction method is proposed to monitor the vibration tapping process using the electrical current signal of the spindle motor. The process of vibration tapping is firstly described. Then the relationship between the torque of vibration tapping and the electric current of motor is investigated by theoretic deducing and experimental measurement. According to those results, a monitoring method of tool's breakage is proposed through monitoring the ratio of the current amplitudes during adjacent vibration tapping periods. Finally, a low frequency vibration tapping system with motor current monitoring is built up using a servo motor B-106B and its driver CR06. The proposed method has been demonstrated with experiment data of vibration tapping in titanic alloys. The result of experiments shows that the method, which can avoid the tool breakage and giving a few error alarms when the threshold of amplitude ratio is 1.2 and there is at least 2 times overrun among 50 adjacent periods, is feasible for tool breakage monitoring in the process of vibration tapping small thread holes.

  1. Electromagnetic monitoring of the Earth's interior in the frame of the MEM Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Santarelli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The MEM Project (Magnetic and Electric fields Monitoring was activated in the INGV Observatory of L’Aquila since 2004. The principal purpose of the project is to create in Central Italy a network of observatories to monitoring the electromagnetic signals in the frequency band [0.001 Hz - 100 kHz]. This band includes natural signals (magnetic pulsations of magnetospheric origin, Earth-ionosphere resonance mode signals, atmospheric noise, and so on and artificial signals (power line emissions, VLF radio transmissions, and so on. The innovative characteristic of the project is the approach chosen to study the complex problem concerning the representation of the spatial and temporal distributions of the electromagnetic fields in the band of interest. Both the distributions can be represented by some parameters containing the locations and the characteristics of the sources of the electromagnetic signals. When all the stations will be in operation the wide-band interferometry will be applied. Combining the simultaneous observations of the electromagnetic field measured in the stations of the network, we will be able to obtain detailed information about the investigated electromagnetic sources. A new measurement system has been developed to fulfil these requirements focusing on the automation of the measurements. The system is designed for long term recording of the electromagnetic fields in a wide frequency band. In the frequency band [1Hz - 100 kHz] the three components of the magnetic field and the three components of atmospheric electric field are processed in real time using DSP (Digital Signal Processing techniques. In the frequency band [0.001 - 25]Hz the two components of the telluric field and the three components of the magnetic field are recorded as sampled (100Hz. One of the main scientific objectives of the MEM project is the long term monitoring of the geodynamical processes, such as the earthquakes, by the calculation of the Poynting

  2. The ESA earth observation polar platform programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, M.; Readings, C. J.

    1991-08-01

    The overall scenario of ESA earth observation polar platform program is reviewed with particular attention given to instruments currently being considered for flight on the first European polar platforms. The major objectives of the mission include monitoring the earth's environment on various scales; management and monitoring of the earth's resources; improvement of the service provided to the worldwide operational meteorological community, investigation of the structure and dynamics of the earth's crust and interior. The program encompasses four main elements: an ERS-1 follow-on mission (ERS-2), a solid earth gravity mission (Aristoteles), a Meteosat Second Generation, and a series of polar orbit earth observation missions.

  3. An Approach to Model Earth Conductivity Structures with Lateral Changes for Calculating Induced Currents and Geoelectric Fields during Geomagnetic Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During geomagnetic disturbances, the telluric currents which are driven by the induced electric fields will flow in conductive Earth. An approach to model the Earth conductivity structures with lateral conductivity changes for calculating geoelectric fields is presented in this paper. Numerical results, which are obtained by the Finite Element Method (FEM with a planar grid in two-dimensional modelling and a solid grid in three-dimensional modelling, are compared, and the flow of induced telluric currents in different conductivity regions is demonstrated. Then a three-dimensional conductivity structure is modelled and the induced currents in different depths and the geoelectric field at the Earth’s surface are shown. The geovoltages by integrating the geoelectric field along specific paths can be obtained, which are very important regarding calculations of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC in ground-based technical networks, such as power systems.

  4. Monitoring tidal currents with a towed ADCP system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentchev, Alexei; Yaremchuk, Max

    2016-01-01

    The tidal circulation in the semi-enclosed Boulogne harbour (eastern English Channel) is measured during the various stages of the tidal cycle with a low-cost towed Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) system for the first time. The system is equipped with an interpolation algorithm which allows reconstructing space-time evolution of the velocity field for surveys whose duration is comparable or larger than the typical time of tidal variation (1-2 h). The method employs space-time velocity covariances derived from a numerical simulation of the surveyed area by a high-resolution relocatable model "Model for Applications on Regional Scale" (MARS). The covariances are utilized by the optimal interpolation algorithm to obtain the most likely evolution of the velocity field under the constraints provided by the ADCP observations and their error statistics. Technically, the MARS model run provides the first guess (background) evolution of the velocity field in the surveyed area which is then corrected by the data in a statistically consistent manner as it explicitly takes into the account both observational and modeling errors. The quality of the velocity reconstruction was validated against independent bottom-mounted ADCP data, the background model evolution, and against the results of spatial interpolation by Kriging technique. All tests demonstrated significant (30 to 60 %) reduction of the model-data misfit for the velocity field obtained as a result of space-time optimal interpolation. Although the method was applied to recover surface circulation, it can be extended for assessment of the full 4D tidal flow dynamics using the data recorded throughout the entire water column.

  5. Using Acoustic Tomography to Monitor Deep Ocean Currents in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Toward the improved prediction and monitoring of deep-water currents and eddies in the Gulf of Mexico , the Gulf Eddy Monitoring System group (GEMS...proposes that a network of acoustic transmitter receiver pairs be deployed in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico . Acoustic travel times are inverted to

  6. Job monitoring on the WLCG scope: Current status and new strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Andreeva, J; Belov, S; Casey, J; Dvorak, F; Gaidioz, B; Karavakis, E; Kodolova, O; Kokoszkiewicz, L; Krenek, A; Lanciotti, E; Maier, J; Mulac, M; Rocha Da Cunha Rodrigues, D F; Rocha, R; Saiz, P; Sidorova, I; Sitera, J; Tikhonenko, E; Vaibhav, K; Vocu, M

    2010-01-01

    Job processing and data transfer are the main computing activities on the WLCG infrastructure. Reliable monitoring of the job processing on the WLCG scope is a complicated task due to the complexity of the infrastructure itself and the diversity of the currently used job submission methods. The paper will describe current status and the new strategy for the job monitoring on the WLCG scope, covering primary information sources, job status changes publishing, transport mechanism and visualization.

  7. A modified beam-to-earth transformation to measure short-wavelength internal waves with an acoustic Doppler current profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, A.; Butman, B.; Beardsley, R.C.; Alexander, P.S.; Anderson, S.

    2005-01-01

    The algorithm used to transform velocity signals from beam coordinates to earth coordinates in an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) relies on the assumption that the currents are uniform over the horizontal distance separating the beams. This condition may be violated by (nonlinear) internal waves, which can have wavelengths as small as 100-200 m. In this case, the standard algorithm combines velocities measured at different phases of a wave and produces horizontal velocities that increasingly differ from true velocities with distance from the ADCP. Observations made in Massachusetts Bay show that currents measured with a bottom-mounted upward-looking ADCP during periods when short-wavelength internal waves are present differ significantly from currents measured by point current meters, except very close to the instrument. These periods are flagged with high error velocities by the standard ADCP algorithm. In this paper measurements from the four spatially diverging beams and the backscatter intensity signal are used to calculate the propagation direction and celerity of the internal waves. Once this information is known, a modified beam-to-earth transformation that combines appropriately lagged beam measurements can be used to obtain current estimates in earth coordinates that compare well with pointwise measurements. ?? 2005 American Meteorological Society.

  8. Boosting Scientific Exploitation of Sentinel Data: The Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Fröhlich, Johannes; Stowasser, Rainer; Wotawa, Gerhard; Hoffmann, Christian; Federspiel, Christian; Nortarnicola, Claudia; Zebisch, Marc; Boresch, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    an increasing trend towards more specialisation and cooperation. Also this strategy has already led to remarkable advances in the provision of high-quality scientific EO data sets. Nonetheless, many of these collaborative developments stand on shaky grounds given that the scientific and technical know-how and the data processing capabilities remain largely fragmented. This is because the cooperation between different EO teams is typically project-based and can end abruptly after the end of a project. In other words, few EO teams cooperate on a more strategic level that involves e.g. the sharing of software code or the joint use of common IT resources. In recognition of the problems discussed above, and with a view on the high potential of the upcoming Sentinel satellites for monitoring of global water resources (Wagner et al. 2011, Hornáček et al. 2012), we are proposing the foundation of an Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring (EODC-Water). The EODC-Water will be a collaborative undertaking of research organisations, public agencies and private industry with the goal to foster the use of EO data for monitoring of global water resources. It will do so by proving a collaborative computer cloud that connects several data centres throughout Europe, thereby enabling the archiving, distributing, and processing of large EO data sets. The basic idea is to move the processing to the data instead of moving the data to where the software is. This sounds simple, but its realisation will overhaul the way of how EO data processing and distribution are organised. Another important element of EODC-Water will be its partner organisations which have agreed to participate in a collaborative software development process for establishing end-to-end EO data processing chains. EODC-Water will boost the scientific exploitation of EO data by allowing its scientific users to focus their efforts on scientific problems rather than having to deal with standard

  9. Earth Observation in aid of surge monitoring and forecasting: ESA's eSurge Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Phillip; Cipollini, Paolo; Snaith, Helen; Høyer, Jacob; Dwyer, Ned; Dunne, Declan; Stoffelen, Ad; Donlon, Craig

    2013-04-01

    The understanding and realistic modelling of surges supports both preparation and mitigation activities and should eventually bring enormous societal benefits, especially to some of the world's poorest countries. Earth Observation data from satellites have an important role to play in storm surge monitoring and forecasting, but the full uptake of these data by the users (such as environmental agencies and tidal prediction centres) must be first encouraged by showcasing their usefulness, and then supported by providing easy access. The European Space Agency has recognized the above needs and, through its Data User Element (DUE) programme, has initiated in 2011 the eSurge project, whose aims are: a) to contribute through Earth Observation to an integrated approach to storm surge, wave, sea-level and flood forecasting as part of a wider optimal strategy for building an improved forecast and warning capability for coastal inundation; and b) to increase the use of the advanced capabilities of ESA and other satellite data for storm surge applications. The project is led by Logica UK, with NOC (UK), DMI (Denmark), CMRC (Ireland) and KNMI (Netherlands) as scientific partners. eSurge aims to provide easy access to a wide range of relevant data for a range of historical surge events, as well as performing a series of experiments to demonstrate the value of this data, and running workshops and training courses to help users make use of the available data. The eSurge database of Earth Observation and in situ measurements for past surge events is now publicly available. In 2013 the project moves into its service demonstration phase, adding more data and events, including a demonstration near real time service. The project works closely with its users in order to meet their needs and to maximise the return of this data. A novel dataset provided by eSurge is coastal altimetry. Coastal altimetry has a prominent role to play as it measures directly the total water level envelope

  10. A Four Channel Beam Current Monitor Data Acquisition System Using Embedded Processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheat, Jr., Robert Mitchell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalmas, Dale A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-11

    Data acquisition from multiple beam current monitors is required for electron accelerator production of Mo-99. A two channel system capable of recording data from two beam current monitors has been developed, is currently in use, and is discussed below. The development of a cost-effective method of extending this system to more than two channels and integrating of these measurements into an accelerator control system is the main focus of this report. Data from these current monitors is digitized, processed, and stored by a digital data acquisition system. Limitations and drawbacks with the currently deployed digital data acquisition system have been identified as have been potential solutions, or at least improvements, to these problems. This report will discuss and document the efforts we've made in improving the flexibility and lowering the cost of the data acquisition system while maintaining the minimum requirements.

  11. A new model for turbidity current behavior based on integration of flow monitoring and precision coring in a submarine canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, William O.; Sumner, Esther J.; Paull, Charles K.; Cartigny, Matthieu J.B.; Xu, Jingping; Maier, Katherine L.; Lorenson, Thomas; Talling, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Submarine turbidity currents create some of the largest sediment accumulations on Earth, yet there are few direct measurements of these flows. Instead, most of our understanding of turbidity currents results from analyzing their deposits in the sedimentary record. However, the lack of direct flow measurements means that there is considerable debate regarding how to interpret flow properties from ancient deposits. This novel study combines detailed flow monitoring with unusually precisely located cores at different heights, and multiple locations, within the Monterey submarine canyon, offshore California, USA. Dating demonstrates that the cores include the time interval that flows were monitored in the canyon, albeit individual layers cannot be tied to specific flows. There is good correlation between grain sizes collected by traps within the flow and grain sizes measured in cores from similar heights on the canyon walls. Synthesis of flow and deposit data suggests that turbidity currents sourced from the upper reaches of Monterey Canyon comprise three flow phases. Initially, a thin (38–50 m) powerful flow in the upper canyon can transport, tilt, and break the most proximal moorings and deposit chaotic sands and gravel on the canyon floor. The initially thin flow front then thickens and deposits interbedded sands and silty muds on the canyon walls as much as 62 m above the canyon floor. Finally, the flow thickens along its length, thus lofting silty mud and depositing it at greater altitudes than the previous deposits and in excess of 70 m altitude.

  12. Monitoring perturbations of earth surface process after the 2015 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andermann, Christoff; Hovius, Niels; Cook, Kristen; Turowski, Jens; Illien, Luc; Sense-Schönfelder, Christoph; Rössner, Sigrid; Parajuli, Binod; Bajracharya, Krishna; Adi=hikari, Basanta

    2017-04-01

    Large earthquakes can substantially perturb a wide range of Earth surface processes. The strong shaking caused by large earthquakes weakens rockmass, causes extensive landsliding, and alter the hydrological conductivity of the near surface. This leads to subsequent responses that include sediment loading of rivers and changes in subsurface water flow paths. The long term perturbation often last several years and even might outstrip the immediate co-seismic impact in their magnitude. Over time the system restores to background conditions, and the recovery process and transient timescales of different systems provide particularly valuable insights for predicting natural risks associated with the aftermath of earthquakes. Here we will present results of the first 2 years of monitoring surface processes in the epicentral area of the 2015 Gorkha earthquake. The observations started immediately after the event and are planned to continue for a total of four monsoon seasons, in order to capture the full recovery process of the system until pre-earthquake conditions have been reached. We have installed a comprehensive network of twelve river sampling stations for daily water and sediment sampling, covering all major rivers draining the earthquake-affected areas. Nested within this regional network, we have installed an array of 16 seismometers and 6 weather stations in the upper Bhotekoshi catchment. The field measurements are accompanied by repeated mapping of landslide activities using satellite imagery. Our results show pronounced changes of the hydrological regime, underpinned by a marked change of seismic noise velocities, both indications of significant changes of the subsurface rock properties. Alongside, our landslide mapping documents about ten times greater landslide activity during the 2015 monsoon season than typically expected for this monsoon season. Very preliminary estimates for the exceptionally strong 2016 monsoon season are also elevated. This

  13. Earth observation in support of malaria control and epidemiology: MALAREO monitoring approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Franke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria affects about half of the world’s population, with the vast majority of cases occuring in Africa. National malaria control programmes aim to reduce the burden of malaria and its negative, socioeconomic effects by using various control strategies (e.g. vector control, environmental management and case tracking. Vector control is the most effective transmission prevention strategy, while environmental factors are the key parameters affecting transmission. Geographic information systems (GIS, earth observation (EO and spatial modelling are increasingly being recognised as valuable tools for effective management and malaria vector control. Issues previously inhibiting the use of EO in epidemiology and malaria control such as poor satellite sensor performance, high costs and long turnaround times, have since been resolved through modern technology. The core goal of this study was to develop and implement the capabilities of EO data for national malaria control programmes in South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique. High- and very high resolution (HR and VHR land cover and wetland maps were generated for the identification of potential vector habitats and human activities, as well as geoinformation on distance to wetlands for malaria risk modelling, population density maps, habitat foci maps and VHR household maps. These products were further used for modelling malaria incidence and the analysis of environmental factors that favour vector breeding. Geoproducts were also transferred to the staff of national malaria control programmes in seven African countries to demonstrate how EO data and GIS can support vector control strategy planning and monitoring. The transferred EO products support better epidemiological understanding of environmental factors related to malaria transmission, and allow for spatio-temporal targeting of malaria control interventions, thereby improving the cost-effectiveness of interventions.

  14. A compact x-ray beam intensity monitor using gas amplified sample current measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Shinjiro; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Gohshi, Yohichi

    2000-01-01

    Development of a compact beam intensity monitor using gas amplified sample current measurement is described. The monitor can be a powerful tool for x-ray spectroscopy and microscopy when the beam is defined by a small pinhole or slits and when the workspace around the sample is limited. The thickness of the monitor is as small as approximately 3 mm, and the dimension is 10 mm square. The photon flux is monitored by measuring x-ray excited current from an Al foil under atmospheric conditions. Emitted electrons from the Al foil can ionize surrounding air molecules, and the gas amplified current can be measured with the use of a biased grid that prevents created ion pairs from recombination.

  15. From One Pixel to One Earth: Building a Living Atlas in the Cloud to Analyze and Monitor Global Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, D.; Brumby, S. P.; Chartrand, R.; Franco, E.; Keisler, R.; Kelton, T.; Kontgis, C.; Mathis, M.; Raleigh, D.; Rudelis, X.; Skillman, S.; Warren, M. S.; Longbotham, N.

    2016-12-01

    The recent computing performance revolution has driven improvements in sensor, communication, and storage technology. Historical, multi-decadal remote sensing datasets at the petabyte scale are now available in commercial clouds, with new satellite constellations generating petabytes per year of high-resolution imagery with daily global coverage. Cloud computing and storage, combined with recent advances in machine learning and open software, are enabling understanding of the world at an unprecedented scale and detail. We have assembled all available satellite imagery from the USGS Landsat, NASA MODIS, and ESA Sentinel programs, as well as commercial PlanetScope and RapidEye imagery, and have analyzed over 2.8 quadrillion multispectral pixels. We leveraged the commercial cloud to generate a tiled, spatio-temporal mosaic of the Earth for fast iteration and development of new algorithms combining analysis techniques from remote sensing, machine learning, and scalable compute infrastructure. Our data platform enables processing at petabytes per day rates using multi-source data to produce calibrated, georeferenced imagery stacks at desired points in time and space that can be used for pixel level or global scale analysis. We demonstrate our data platform capability by using the European Space Agency's (ESA) published 2006 and 2009 GlobCover 20+ category label maps to train and test a Land Cover Land Use (LCLU) classifier, and generate current self-consistent LCLU maps in Brazil. We train a standard classifier on 2006 GlobCover categories using temporal imagery stacks, and we validate our results on co-registered 2009 Globcover LCLU maps and 2009 imagery. We then extend the derived LCLU model to current imagery stacks to generate an updated, in-season label map. Changes in LCLU labels can now be seamlessly monitored for a given location across the years in order to track, for example, cropland expansion, forest growth, and urban developments. An example of change

  16. A new on-line leakage current monitoring system of ZnO surge arresters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bok-Hee [Research Center for Next-Generation High Voltage and Power Technology, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-ku, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: bhlee@inha.ac.kr; Kang, Sung-Man [Research Center for Next-Generation High Voltage and Power Technology, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-ku, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-05-15

    This paper presents a new on-line leakage current monitoring system of zinc oxide (ZnO) surge arresters. To effectively diagnose the deterioration of ZnO surge arresters, a new algorithm and on-line leakage current detection device, which uses the time-delay addition method, for discriminating the resistive and capacitive currents was developed to use in the aging test and durability evaluation for ZnO arrester blocks. A computer-based measurement system of the resistive leakage current, the on-line monitoring device can detect accurately the leakage currents flowing through ZnO surge arresters for power frequency ac applied voltages. The proposed on-line leakage current monitoring device of ZnO surge arresters is more highly sensitive and gives more linear response than the existing devices using the detection method of the third harmonic leakage currents. Therefore, the proposed leakage current monitoring device can be useful for predicting the defects and performance deterioration of ZnO surge arresters in power system applications.

  17. Automatic classification of Google Earth images for a larger scale monitoring of bush encroachment in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Annika; Meyer, Hanna; Nauss, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Bush encroachment of savannas and grasslands is a common form of land degradation in the rangelands of South Africa. To assess the carrying capacity of the land and to understand underlaying processes of bush encroachment, continuous monitoring of this phenomenon is needed. The aim of this study is to provide training sites for satellite-based monitoring of bush encroachment in South Africa on a medium spatial resolution satellite sensor (e.g. MODIS or Landsat) scale. Since field surveys are time consuming and of limited spatial extent, the satellite based creation of training sites using Google Earth images is intended. Training pixels for woody vegetation and non-woody land cover were manually digitized from 50 sample Google Earth images. A Random Forests model was trained to delineate woody from non-woody pixels. The results indicate a high performance of the model (AUC = 0.97). The model was applied to a further 500 Google Earth images with a spatial extent of 250 m × 250 m. The classified images form the database of training sites which can be used for larger scale monitoring of bush encroachment in South Africa.

  18. Rice Crop Monitoring by Earth Observation Data in the Asian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyoshi, K.; Sobue, S.; Tomiyama, N.; Okumura, T.; Rakwatin, P.

    2012-12-01

    Food security is a critical issue for the international community. In June 2011, the meeting of G20 agriculture ministers was held to discuss global food security and they agreed on an "Action Plan on Food Price Volatility and Agriculture". This plan includes a GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEO-GLAM) initiative which utilizes remote sensing to improve projections of crop production and weather forecasting. Hence, satellite remote sensing is expected to contribute national, regional and global food security through the systematic and efficient collection of food security related information such as agro-meteorological condition, crop growth or yield estimation. Food security related information is utilized to take mitigation strategies or policies to manage food shortages or trading, and ensure food security. Especially in Asia, rice is the most important cereal crop because Asian countries are responsible for approximately 90% of the world rice productions and consumptions. There- fore, Asian countries are expected to contribute GLAM through the construction of rice crop monitoring system. We demonstrated the estimation of rice production, the crop phenology monitoring by Earth Observation (EO) data. The aim of this study is to establish a prototype system designed to provide paddy rice area and yield estimation. Generally, crop yield estimation is consist of two components, cultivated area and yield per area. The cultivated areas of paddy field are detected by the seasonal pattern of SAR data over paddy field. This means paddy field is filled with water just before planting rice, then covered by dense vegetation in growing season. The paddy filed map was derived from the seasonal Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data with a simple threshold method. Then, to estimate rice productivity, we applied a simple rice crop model. The input data to the model are physical and chemical properties of

  19. HV substation earth grid commissioning using current injection test (CIT method: Worst case scenario determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nassereddine, J. Rizk, M. Nagrial, A. Hellany

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing of the High Voltage (HV infrastructure creates a unique set of safety circumstances. The earthing system is one of the main elements to mitigate any unsafe conditions. Commissioning the earth grid certifies that the implemented system fulfills to the pertinent necessities. This paper endeavors to present vital information on how to perform the earth grid commissioning of an HV infrastructure. This paper will minutiae the minimum needs to guarantee the test will symbolize the actual fault case that the design was based on. A flow chart diagram is established and presented in this paper, which allows the determination of the most suitable injection route. The results of the case study are discussed, and the results are shown in this paper.

  20. Penetration of ELF Currents and Electromagnetic Fields into the Off-Equatorial E-Region of the Earth's Ionosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Neeraj; Sharma, A S; Papadopoulos, K

    2012-01-01

    The generation of ELF (of the order of 10 Hz) currents and electromagnetic fields in the off-equatorial E-region (90-120 km) of the Earth's ionosphere and their subsequent penetration into the deeper ionospheric layers is studied theoretically and numerically. These ELF currents and fields are generated by the interaction of an electromagnetic pulse with the E-region at its lower boundary located at 90 km above the Earth's surface. The wave penetration (with a typical wavelength of the order of 10 km) of the generated ELF currents and fields into the deeper ionospheric layers up to 120 km takes place due to the dominance of the Hall conductivity over the Pederson conductivity in the region between 90-120 km and penetration becomes diffusive above 120 km. During night time, the increase in the wave speed due to the reduced conductivities leads to the deeper penetration. As the angle between Earth's magnetic field and horizontal is increased (going away from the equator), the currents and fields penetrate deepe...

  1. Transient Fault Locating Method Based on Line Voltage and Zero-mode Current in Non-solidly Earthed Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Linli; XU Bingyin; XUE Yongduan; GAO Houlei

    2012-01-01

    Non-solidly earthed systems are widely used for middle voltage distribution network at home and abroad. Fault point location especially the single phase-to-earth fault is very difficult because the fault current is very weak and the fault arc is intermittent. Although several methods have been developed, the problem of fault location has not yet been resolved very well. A new fault location method based on transient component of line voltage and 0-mode current is presented in this paper, which can realize fault section location by the feeder automation (FA) system. Line voltage signal can be obtained conveniently without requiring any additional equipment. This method is based on transient information, not affected by arc suppression coil.

  2. EarthWorm at INGV: monitoring the Italian seismicity and some more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, M.

    2006-12-01

    Since March 2005 we started testing EarthWorm as an auxiliar acquisition system at INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Roma). This was mainly dedicated to the acquisition of real-time seismic signal, to the data processing with a primary objective to locate earthquakes in the Italian Region. We also explored the capability of EarthWorm to be a robust and reliable system for automatically dissiminate parametric information and seismic data to the other routine activities of the network as magnitude estimation, moment tensor and Shakemap computation. We will present some preliminar results together with the technical improvements set up to integrate EarthWorm in the existing system.

  3. Impact of the Diamond Light Source on research in Earth and environmental sciences: current work and future perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, IT; Mosselmans, FW; S. Shaw; Peacock, CL; Benning, LG; Coker, VS

    2015-01-01

    Diamond Light Source Ltd celebrated its 10th anniversary as a company in December 2012 and has now accepted user experiments for over 5 years. This paper describes the current facilities available at Diamond and future developments that enhance its capacities with respect to the Earth and environmental sciences. A review of relevant research conducted at Diamond thus far is provided. This highlights how synchrotron-based studies have brought about important advances in our understanding of th...

  4. Hyperresolution global land surface modeling: Meeting a grand challenge for monitoring Earth's terrestrial water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, E.F.; Roundy, J.K.; Troy, T.J.; Beek, L.P.H. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Blyth, E.; Roo, A.A. de; Doll, P.; Ek, M.; Famiglietti, J.; Gochis, D.; Giesen, N. van de; Houser, P.; Jaffe, P.R.; Kollet, S.; Lehner, B.; Lettenmaier, D.P.; Peters-Liedard, C.; Sivapalan, M.; Sheffield, J.; Wade, A.; Whitehead, P.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring Earth’s terrestrial water conditions is critically important to many hydrological applications such as global food production; assessing water resources sustainability; and flood, drought, and climate change prediction. These needs have motivated the development of pilot monitoring and

  5. Gear wear monitoring by modulation signal bispectrum based on motor current signal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiliang; Gu, Fengshou; Mansaf, Haram; Wang, Tie; Ball, Andrew D.

    2017-09-01

    Gears are important mechanical components for power transmissions. Tooth wear is one of the most common failure modes, which can present throughout a gear's lifetime. It is significant to accurately monitor gear wear progression in order to take timely predictive maintenances. Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) is an effective and non-intrusive approach which is able to monitor faults from both electrical and mechanical systems. However, little research has been reported in monitoring the gear wear and estimating its severity based on MCSA. This paper presents a novel gear wear monitoring method through a modulation signal bispectrum based motor current signal analysis (MSB-MCSA). For a steady gear transmission, it is inevitable to exist load and speed oscillations due to various errors including wears. These oscillations can induce small modulations in the current signals of the driving motor. MSB is particularly effective in characterising such small modulation signals. Based on these understandings, the monitoring process was implemented based on the current signals from a run-to-failure test of an industrial two stages helical gearbox under a moderate accelerated fatigue process. At the initial operation of the test, MSB analysis results showed that the peak values at the bifrequencies of gear rotations and the power supply can be effective monitoring features for identifying faulty gears and wear severity as they exhibit agreeable changes with gear loads. A monotonically increasing trend established by these features allows a clear indication of the gear wear progression. The dismantle inspection at 477 h of operation, made when one of the monitored features is about 123% higher than its baseline, has found that there are severe scuffing wear marks on a number of tooth surfaces on the driving gear, showing that the gear endures a gradual wear process during its long test operation. Therefore, it is affirmed that the MSB-MSCA approach proposed is reliable

  6. Landslide monitoring and early warning systems in Lower Austria - current situation and new developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebes, Benni; Glade, Thomas; Schweigl, Joachim; Jäger, Stefan; Canli, Ekrem

    2014-05-01

    Landslides represent significant hazards in the mountainous areas of Austria. The Regional Geological Surveys are responsible to inform and protect the population, and to mitigate damage to infrastructure. Efforts of the Regional Geological Survey of Lower Austria include detailed site investigations, the planning and installation of protective structures (e.g. rock fall nets) as well as preventive measures such as regional scale landslide susceptibility assessments. For potentially endangered areas, where protection works are not feasible or would simply be too costly, monitoring systems have been installed. However, these systems are dominantly not automatic and require regular field visits to take measurements. Therefore, it is difficult to establish any relation between initiating and controlling factors, thus to fully understand the underlying process mechanism which is essential for any early warning system. Consequently, the implementation of new state-of-the-art monitoring and early warning systems has been started. In this presentation, the design of four landslide monitoring and early warning systems is introduced. The investigated landslide process types include a deep-seated landslide, a rock fall site, a complex earth flow, and a debris flow catchment. The monitoring equipment was chosen depending on the landslide processes and their activity. It aims to allow for a detailed investigation of process mechanisms in relation to its triggers and for reliable prediction of future landslide activities. The deep-seated landslide will be investigated by manual and automatic inclinometers to get detailed insights into subsurface displacements. In addition, TDR sensors and a weather station will be employed to get a better understanding on the influence of rainfall on sub-surface hydrology. For the rockfall site, a wireless sensor network will be installed to get real-time information on acceleration and inclination of potentially unstable blocks. The movement

  7. A Smart Voltage and Current Monitoring System for Three Phase Inverters Using an Android Smartphone Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnati, Mohannad Jabbar; Van den Bossche, Alex; Chisab, Raad Farhood

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new smart voltage and current monitoring system (SVCMS) technique is proposed. It monitors a three phase electrical system using an Arduino platform as a microcontroller to read the voltage and current from sensors and then wirelessly send the measured data to monitor the results using a new Android application. The integrated SVCMS design uses an Arduino Nano V3.0 as the microcontroller to measure the results from three voltage and three current sensors and then send this data, after calculation, to the Android smartphone device of an end user using Bluetooth HC-05. The Arduino Nano V3.0 controller and Bluetooth HC-05 are a cheap microcontroller and wireless device, respectively. The new Android smartphone application that monitors the voltage and current measurements uses the open source MIT App Inventor 2 software. It allows for monitoring some elementary fundamental voltage power quality properties. An effort has been made to investigate what is possible using available off-the-shelf components and open source software. PMID:28420132

  8. A Smart Voltage and Current Monitoring System for Three Phase Inverters Using an Android Smartphone Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnati, Mohannad Jabbar; Van den Bossche, Alex; Chisab, Raad Farhood

    2017-04-15

    In this paper, a new smart voltage and current monitoring system (SVCMS) technique is proposed. It monitors a three phase electrical system using an Arduino platform as a microcontroller to read the voltage and current from sensors and then wirelessly send the measured data to monitor the results using a new Android application. The integrated SVCMS design uses an Arduino Nano V3.0 as the microcontroller to measure the results from three voltage and three current sensors and then send this data, after calculation, to the Android smartphone device of an end user using Bluetooth HC-05. The Arduino Nano V3.0 controller and Bluetooth HC-05 are a cheap microcontroller and wireless device, respectively. The new Android smartphone application that monitors the voltage and current measurements uses the open source MIT App Inventor 2 software. It allows for monitoring some elementary fundamental voltage power quality properties. An effort has been made to investigate what is possible using available off-the-shelf components and open source software.

  9. Compact High Current Rare-Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode for Hall Effect Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Richard R. (Inventor); Goebel, Dan M. (Inventor); Watkins, Ronnie M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An apparatus and method for achieving an efficient central cathode in a Hall effect thruster is disclosed. A hollow insert disposed inside the end of a hollow conductive cathode comprises a rare-earth element and energized to emit electrons from an inner surface. The cathode employs an end opening having an area at least as large as the internal cross sectional area of the rare earth insert to enhance throughput from the cathode end. In addition, the cathode employs a high aspect ratio geometry based on the cathode length to width which mitigates heat transfer from the end. A gas flow through the cathode and insert may be impinged by the emitted electrons to yield a plasma. One or more optional auxiliary gas feeds may also be employed between the cathode and keeper wall and external to the keeper near the outlet.

  10. Detection of thin current sheets and associated reconnection in the Earth's turbulent magnetosheath using cluster multi-point measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasapis, Alexandros; Retino, Alessandro; Sahraoui, Fouad; Greco, Antonella; Vaivads, Andris; Sundkvist, David; Canu, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic reconnection occurs in turbulent plasma within a large number of volume-filling thin current sheets and is one major candidate for energy dissipation of turbulent plasma. Such dissipation results in particle heating and non-thermal particle acceleration. In situ observations are needed to study the detailed properties of thin current sheets and associated reconnection, in order to determine its importance as a dissipation mechanism at small scales. In particular, multi-point measurements are crucial to unambiguously identify spatial scales (e.g current sheet thickness) and estimate key quantities such as E*J. Here we present a study of the properties of thin current sheets detected in the Earths magnetosheath downstream of the quasi-parallel shock by using Cluster spacecraft data. The current sheets were detected by the rotation of the magnetic field as computed by four-point measurements. We study the distribution of current sheets as a function of the magnetic shear angle θ, their duration and the waiting time between consecutive current sheets. We found that high shear (θ > 90 degrees) current sheets show different properties with respect to low shear current sheets (θ < 90 degrees). These high-shear current sheets account for about ˜ 20% of the total and have an average thickness comparable to the ion inertial length. We also compare our four-point detection method with other single-point methods (e.g. Partial Variance of Increments - PVI) and we discuss the results of such comparison.

  11. Monitoring of current assets of enterprises in increasing level of economic security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Ruzhytskyi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is reasonably argued that complex of theoretical and methodological principles for approaches to management of current assets with regard to their influence on the current and future state of the economic security of enterprises and monitoring scheme is proposed as a way of organizing management activities. As part of this goal, solved the following research objectives: monitoring scheme is proposed as a way of organizing management activities; methodical approaches to formation control system of current assets with regard to its effect on the current and future state of economic security; have been proposed a scientific approach to select management alternatives that can simultaneously takes account the status of current assets and changing economic security for different time horizons. Have been generalized a role in enterprise management of current assets the economic security mechanism. Have been proposed a matrix of management alternatives depending on the matrix and current assets use of forms and types of calculations depending on the type of policy, management of current assets. The result of the comprehensive study have been proposed a matrix of management alternatives depending on the status of current assets and the use of matrix forms and types of calculations depending on the type of policy management of current assets.

  12. Assessment of flow and cure monitoring using direct current and alternating current sensing in vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Uday K.; Jadhav, Nitesh C.; Hosur, Mahesh V.; Gillespie, John W., Jr.; Fink, Bruce K.

    2000-12-01

    Vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) is an emerging manufacturing technique that holds promise as an affordable alternative to traditional autoclave molding and automated fiber placement for producing large-scale structural parts. In VARTM, the fibrous preform is laid on a single-sided tool, which is then bagged along with the infusion and vacuum lines. The resin is then infused through the preform, which causes simultaneous wetting in its in-plane and transverse directions. An effective sensing technique is essential so that comprehensive information pertaining to the wetting of the preform, arrival of resin at various locations, cure gradients associated with thickness and presence of dry spots may be monitored. In the current work, direct current (dc) and alternating current sensing/monitoring techniques were adopted for developing a systematic understanding of the resin position and cure on plain weave S2-glass preforms with Dow Derakane vinyl ester VE 411-350, Shell EPON RSL 2704/2705 and Si-AN epoxy as the matrix systems. A SMARTweave dc sensing system was utilized to conduct parametric studies: (a) to compare the flow and cure of resin through the stitched and non-stitched preforms; (b) to investigate the influence of sensor positioning, i.e. top, middle and bottom layers; and (c) to investigate the influence of positioning of the process accessories, i.e. resin infusion point and vacuum point on the composite panel. The SMARTweave system was found to be sensitive to all the parametric variations introduced in the study. Furthermore, the results obtained from the SMARTweave system were compared to the cure monitoring studies conducted by using embedded interdigitated (IDEX) dielectric sensors. The results indicate that SMARTweave sensing was a viable alternative to obtaining resin position and cure, and was more superior in terms of obtaining global information, in contrast to the localized dielectric sensing approach.

  13. Ionosphere Plasma State Determination in Low Earth Orbit from International Space Station Plasma Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    A plasma diagnostic package is deployed on the International Space Station (ISS). The system - a Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) - is used by NASA to monitor the electrical floating potential of the vehicle to assure astronaut safety during extravehicular activity. However, data from the unit also reflects the ionosphere state and seems to represent an unutilized scientific resource in the form of an archive of scientific plasma state data. The unit comprises a Floating Potential probe and two Langmuir probes. There is also an unused but active plasma impedance probe. The data, at one second cadence, are collected, typically for a two week period surrounding extravehicular activity events. Data is also collected any time a visiting vehicle docks with ISS and also when any large solar events occur. The telemetry system is unusual because the package is mounted on a television camera stanchion and its data is impressed on a video signal that is transmitted to the ground and streamed by internet to two off center laboratory locations. The data quality has in the past been challenged by weaknesses in the integrated ground station and distribution systems. These issues, since mid-2010, have been largely resolved and the ground stations have been upgraded. Downstream data reduction has been developed using physics based modeling of the electron and ion collecting character in the plasma. Recursive algorithms determine plasma density and temperature from the raw Langmuir probe current voltage sweeps and this is made available in real time for situational awareness. The purpose of this paper is to describe and record the algorithm for data reduction and to show that the Floating probe and Langmuir probes are capable of providing long term plasma state measurement in the ionosphere. Geophysical features such as the Appleton anomaly and high latitude modulation at the edge of the Auroral zones are regularly observed in the nearly circular, 51 deg inclined, 400 km

  14. ZnO varistors with high voltage gradient and low leakage current by doping rare-earth oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The surge arrester of 1000 kV gas-insulated substation (GIS) needs ZnO varistor with high voltage gradient to effectively improve the potential distribution along ZnO varistor column inside the metal-oxide surge arresters. In this paper, the elec-trical and structural parameters of ZnO varistors are changed by doping with some rare-earth oxides, and the mechanism which leads these changes is discussed. When rare-earth oxide additives are added into ZnO varistors, the growing speed is slowed down due to the stabilization of the new spinel phases formed in the grain-boundary by rare-earth oxide additives, then the size of ZnO grains is smaller, and the voltage gradient of varistor increases obviously. By adding suitable amount of oxides of metal Co and Mn, the leakage current can be effectively decreased and the nonlinearity coefficient increased. The novel ZnO varistor samples sintered with the optimal additives have a voltage gradient of 492 V/mm, and the nonlinearity coefficient of 76, but their leakage currents are only 1 μA.

  15. Challenges of agricultural monitoring: integration of the Open Farm Management Information System into GEOSS and Digital Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řezník, T.; Kepka, M.; Charvát, K.; Charvát, K., Jr.; Horáková, S.; Lukas, V.

    2016-04-01

    From a global perspective, agriculture is the single largest user of freshwater resources, each country using an average of 70% of all its surface water supplies. An essential proportion of agricultural water is recycled back to surface water and/or groundwater. Agriculture and water pollution is therefore the subject of (inter)national legislation, such as the Clean Water Act in the United States of America, the European Water Framework Directive, and the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution. Regular monitoring by means of sensor networks is needed in order to provide evidence of water pollution in agriculture. This paper describes the benefits of, and open issues stemming from, regular sensor monitoring provided by an Open Farm Management Information System. Emphasis is placed on descriptions of the processes and functionalities available to users, the underlying open data model, and definitions of open and lightweight application programming interfaces for the efficient management of collected (spatial) data. The presented Open Farm Management Information System has already been successfully registered under Phase 8 of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Architecture Implementation Pilot in order to support the wide variety of demands that are primarily aimed at agriculture pollution monitoring. The final part of the paper deals with the integration of the Open Farm Management Information System into the Digital Earth framework.

  16. Landsat-based Earth Observations and Crowd-sourced Data Provide Near Real-time Monitoring of Chimpanzee Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackoney, J.; Pintea, L.; Jantz, S.; Hansen, M.

    2015-12-01

    The endangered chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is threatened by habitat loss from resource extraction and land conversion, as well as hunting, disease and the illegal pet trade. It has been estimated that more than 70% of chimpanzee's tropical forest habitats in Africa are now threatened by land use change. Recent developments in remote sensing and cloud computing enable the use of satellite observations to provide a synoptic view of chimpanzee habitats at finer spatial and temporal resolutions that are locally relevant and consistent across the entire species' range. We present a practical Decision Support System to be used by the Jane Goodall Institute and partners to annually monitor and forecast chimpanzee habitat health in Africa. The system integrates Earth observations from 30-meter resolution Landsat data with a species-specific habitat model and a model forecasting future land use change, enhanced by crowd-sourced field data collected by local communities and rangers using the Open Data Kit app and Android mobile smartphones and tablets. While coarser-scale and static chimpanzee habitat models have been previously developed, this project is the first to develop a dynamic monitoring system updated annually via Earth observations data that will systematically monitor threats and changes in habitat over time. Since the chimpanzee is an important keystone, flagship and umbrella species, an annual chimpanzee habitat health index would support conservation goals of other species within its large 2.5 million sq. km range and could be an important indicator of overall ecosystem health of tropical forests in Africa.

  17. A DSP-Based Beam Current Monitoring System for Machine Protection Using Adaptive Filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Musson; H. Dong; R. Flood; C. Hovater; J. Hereford

    2001-06-01

    The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson Lab is currently using an analog beam current monitoring (BCM) system for its machine protection system (MPS), which has a loss accuracy of 2 micro-amps. Recent burn-through simulations predict catastrophic beam line component failures below 1 micro-amp of loss, resulting in a blind spot for the MPS. Revised MPS requirements target an ultimate beam loss accuracy of 250 nA. A new beam current monitoring system has been developed which utilizes modern digital receiver technology and digital signal processing concepts. The receiver employs a direct-digital down converter integrated circuit, mated with a Jefferson Lab digital signal processor VME card. Adaptive filtering is used to take advantage of current-dependent burn-through rates. Benefits of such a system include elimination of DC offsets, generic algorithm development, extensive filter options, and interfaces to UNIX-based control systems.

  18. Human Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids: An Update on NASA's Current Status and Proposed Activities for Small Body Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; Larman, K. T.; Drake, B. G.; Friedensen, V. P.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on the human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs, and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010.

  19. Smart Technique for Induction Motors Diagnosis by Monitoring the Power Factor Using Only the Measured Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnibha, R. A.; Albarabar, A. S.

    2012-05-01

    This paper is concerned with accurate, early and reliable induction motor IM fault detection and diagnosis using an enhanced power parameter measurement technique. IM protection devices typically monitor the motor current and/or voltage to provide the motor protection from e.g. current overload, over/under voltage, etc. One of the interesting parameters to monitor is the operating power factor (PF) of the IM which provides better under-load protection compared to the motor current based approaches. The PF of the motor is determined by the level of the current and voltage that are drawn, and offers non-intrusive monitoring. Traditionally, PF estimation would require both voltage and the current measurements to apply the displacement method. This paper will use a method of determining the operating PF of the IM using only the measured current and the manufacturer data that are typically available from the nameplate and/or datasheet for IM monitoring. The novelty of this work lies in detecting very low phase imbalance related faults and misalignment. Much of the previous work has dealt with detecting phase imbalance faults at higher degrees of severity, i.e. voltage drops of 10% or more. The technique was tested by empirical measurements on test rig comprised a 1.1 kW variable speed three phase induction motor with varying output load (No load, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% load). One common faults was introduced; imbalance in one phase as the electrical fault The experimental results demonstrate that the PF can be successfully applied for IM fault diagnosis and the present study shows that severity fault detection using PF is promising. The proposed method offers a potentially reliable, non-intrusive, and inexpensive CM tool which can be implemented with real-time monitoring systems

  20. Current status and challenges in optical turbulence simulations in various layers of the Earth's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Nunalee, Christopher G.; Basu, Sukanta; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.; Fiorino, Steven T.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we present a brief review on the existing approaches for optical turbulence estimation in various layers of the Earth's atmosphere. The advantages and disadvantages of these approaches are also discussed. An alternative approach, based on mesoscale modeling with parameterized turbulence, is proposed and tested for the simulation of refractive index structure parameter (C2n ) in the atmospheric boundary layer. The impacts of a few atmospheric flow phenomena (e.g., low-level jets, island wake vortices, gravity waves) on optical turbulence are discussed. Consideration of diverse geographic settings (e.g., flat terrain, coastal region, ocean islands) makes this study distinct.

  1. Microbial monitoring of crewed habitats in space-current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Roberts, Michael; Castro, Sarah; Oubre, Cherie; Makimura, Koichi; Leys, Natalie; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Sugita, Takashi; Ichijo, Tomoaki; Nasu, Masao

    2014-09-17

    Previous space research conducted during short-term flight experiments and long-term environmental monitoring on board orbiting space stations suggests that the relationship between humans and microbes is altered in the crewed habitat in space. Both human physiology and microbial communities adapt to spaceflight. Microbial monitoring is critical to crew safety in long-duration space habitation and the sustained operation of life support systems on space transit vehicles, space stations, and surface habitats. To address this critical need, space agencies including NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), ESA (European Space Agency), and JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) are working together to develop and implement specific measures to monitor, control, and counteract biological contamination in closed-environment systems. In this review, the current status of microbial monitoring conducted in the International Space Station (ISS) as well as the results of recent microbial spaceflight experiments have been summarized and future perspectives are discussed.

  2. Online Chip Temperature Monitoring Using υce-Load Current and IR Thermography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup; Trintis, Ionut

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents on-state collector-emitter voltage (υce, on)-load current (Ic) method to monitor chip temperature on power insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules in converter operation. The measurement method is also evaluated using infrared (IR) thermography. Temperature dependencies...

  3. European Communication Monitor: Current developments, issues and tendencies of the professional practice of public relations in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, A.; Zerfass, A.; Tench, R.; Verčič, D.; Verhoeven, P.

    2009-01-01

    The European Communication Monitor (ECM) research explores the current developments for communications disciplines, practices and instruments. It is an extensive research project to monitor trends in communication management, analyse the changing framework for the profession driven by European integ

  4. European Communication Monitor: Current developments, issues and tendencies of the professional practice of public relations in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, A.; Zerfass, A.; Tench, R.; Verčič, D.; Verhoeven, P.

    2009-01-01

    The European Communication Monitor (ECM) research explores the current developments for communications disciplines, practices and instruments. It is an extensive research project to monitor trends in communication management, analyse the changing framework for the profession driven by European

  5. A Fast Non Intercepting Linac Electron Beam Position and Current Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen-Walther; Wille, Mads

    1982-01-01

    A non-intercepting beam monitor consisting of four detecting loops is used to determine the spatial postion and current of a pulsed beam from an electron linear accelerator. The monitor detects the magnetic field radiated by the substructure of the electron bunches created by the accelerating...... microwave. The detecting loops are interconnected two by two, by means of two coaxial hybrid junctions, the two sets positioned perpendicular to each other. By means of the two signals from the diametrically positioned detecting loops, a good spatial displacement and current monitoring sensitivity...... are achieved by subtracting one signal from the other and adding the two signals, respectively. For displacements below 2 mm from the center axis an average sensitivity of 0.5 mV/mm·mA is measured, whereas displacements more than 2 mm yields 1.3 mV / mm·mA. A sensitivity of 0.2 mV / mA in current monitoring...

  6. Eddy current sensor for in-situ monitoring of swelling of Li-ion prismatic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Yuri; Karp, Jason; Knobloch, Aaron; Kapusta, Chris; Lin, David

    2015-03-01

    In-situ monitoring an on-board rechargeable battery in hybrid cars can be used to ensure a long operating life of the battery and safe operation of the vehicle. Intercalations of ions in the electrode material during charge and discharge of a Lithium Ion battery cause periodic stress and strain of the electrode materials that can ultimately lead to fatigue resulting in capacity loss and potential battery failure. Currently this process is not monitored directly on the cells. This work is focused on development technologies that would quantify battery swelling and provide in-situ monitoring for onboard vehicle applications. Several rounds of tests have been performed to spatially characterize cell expansion of a 5 Ah cell with a nickel/manganese/cobalt-oxide cathode (Sanyo, Japan) used by Ford in their Fusion HEV battery pack. A collaborative team of researchers from GE and the University of Michigan has characterized the free expansion of these cells to be in the range of 100×125 microns (1% of total cell thickness) at the center point of the cell. GE proposed to use a thin eddy current (EC) coil to monitor these expansions on the cells while inside the package. The photolithography manufacturing process previously developed for EC arrays for detecting cracks in aircraft engine components was used to build test coils for gap monitoring. These sensors are thin enough to be placed safely between neighboring cells and capable of monitoring small variations in the gap between the cells. Preliminary investigations showed that these coils can be less than 100 micron thick and have sufficient sensitivity in a range from 0 to 2 mm. Laboratory tests revealed good correlation between EC and optical gap measurements in the desired range. Further technology development could lead to establishing a sensor network for a low cost solution for the in-situ monitoring of cell swelling during battery operation.

  7. Eddy current sensor for in-situ monitoring of swelling of Li-ion prismatic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotnikov, Yuri, E-mail: plotnikov@ge.com; Karp, Jason, E-mail: plotnikov@ge.com; Knobloch, Aaron, E-mail: plotnikov@ge.com; Kapusta, Chris, E-mail: plotnikov@ge.com; Lin, David, E-mail: plotnikov@ge.com [GE Global Research, One Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2015-03-31

    In-situ monitoring an on-board rechargeable battery in hybrid cars can be used to ensure a long operating life of the battery and safe operation of the vehicle. Intercalations of ions in the electrode material during charge and discharge of a Lithium Ion battery cause periodic stress and strain of the electrode materials that can ultimately lead to fatigue resulting in capacity loss and potential battery failure. Currently this process is not monitored directly on the cells. This work is focused on development technologies that would quantify battery swelling and provide in-situ monitoring for onboard vehicle applications. Several rounds of tests have been performed to spatially characterize cell expansion of a 5 Ah cell with a nickel/manganese/cobalt-oxide cathode (Sanyo, Japan) used by Ford in their Fusion HEV battery pack. A collaborative team of researchers from GE and the University of Michigan has characterized the free expansion of these cells to be in the range of 100×125 microns (1% of total cell thickness) at the center point of the cell. GE proposed to use a thin eddy current (EC) coil to monitor these expansions on the cells while inside the package. The photolithography manufacturing process previously developed for EC arrays for detecting cracks in aircraft engine components was used to build test coils for gap monitoring. These sensors are thin enough to be placed safely between neighboring cells and capable of monitoring small variations in the gap between the cells. Preliminary investigations showed that these coils can be less than 100 micron thick and have sufficient sensitivity in a range from 0 to 2 mm. Laboratory tests revealed good correlation between EC and optical gap measurements in the desired range. Further technology development could lead to establishing a sensor network for a low cost solution for the in-situ monitoring of cell swelling during battery operation.

  8. Current Trends in Neuromuscular Blockade, Management, and Monitoring amongst Singaporean Anaesthetists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy H. Teoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This survey aimed to investigate the attitudes/practice pertaining the use, management, and monitoring of neuromuscular blockade amongst Singaporean anaesthetists. Methods. All specialist accredited anaesthetists registered with the Singapore Medical Council were invited to complete an anonymous online survey. Results. The response rate was 39.5%. Neuromuscular monitoring (NM was used routinely by only 13.1% despite the widespread availability of monitors. 82% stated residual NMB (RNMB was a significant risk factor for patient outcome, but only 24% believed NMB monitoring should be compulsory in all paralyzed patients. 63.6% of anaesthetists estimated the risk of RNMB in their own institutions to be 50% said such benefits may be able to offset the associated costs. Conclusions. There is a significant need for reeducation about RNMB, studies on local RNMB incidences, and strengthening of current monitoring practices and guidelines. Strategies are discussed. As NM monitors appear widely available and reversal of NMB standard practice, it is hopeful that Singaporean anaesthetists will change and strive for evidence-based best clinical practice to enhance patient safety.

  9. THREE YEARS OF FERMI GBM EARTH OCCULTATION MONITORING: OBSERVATIONS OF HARD X-RAY/SOFT GAMMA-RAY SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Jenke, Peter [ZP 12 Astrophysics Office, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Case, Gary L.; Cherry, Michael L.; Rodi, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Camero-Arranz, Ascension [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Torre C5, 2a planta, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Chaplin, Vandiver; Bhat, Narayan; Briggs, Michael S.; Connaughton, Valerie; Preece, Robert [Physics Department, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Beklen, Elif [Physics Department, Suleyman Demirel University, 32260 Isparta (Turkey); Finger, Mark; Paciesas, William S. [Universities Space Research Association, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Greiner, Jochen; Meegan, Charles A.; Von Kienlin, Andreas [Max-Planck Institut fuer Extraterrestische Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kippen, R. Marc [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board Fermi has been providing continuous data to the astronomical community since 2008 August 12. In this paper, we present the results of the analysis of the first three years of these continuous data using the Earth occultation technique to monitor a catalog of 209 sources. From this catalog, we detect 99 sources, including 40 low-mass X-ray binary/neutron star systems, 31 high-mass X-ray binary/neutron star systems, 12 black hole binaries, 12 active galaxies, and 2 other sources, plus the Crab Nebula, and the Sun. Nine of these sources are detected in the 100-300 keV band, including seven black hole binaries, the active galaxy Cen A, and the Crab. The Crab and Cyg X-1 are also detected in the 300-500 keV band. GBM provides complementary data to other sky-monitors below 100 keV and is the only all-sky monitor above 100 keV. Up-to-date light curves for all of the catalog sources can be found online.

  10. Three years of Fermi GBM Earth Occultation Monitoring: Observations of Hard X-ray/Soft Gamma-Ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A; Cherry, Michael L; Rodi, James; Camero-Arranz, Ascension; Jenke, Peter; Chaplin, Vandiver; Beklen, Elif; Finger, Mark; Bhat, Narayan; Briggs, Michael S; Connaughton, Valerie; Greiner, Jochen; Kippen, R Marc; Meegan, Charles A; Paciesas, William S; Preece, Robert; von Kienlin, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The Gamma ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board Fermi has been providing continuous data to the astronomical community since 2008 August 12. In this paper we present the results of the analysis of the first three years of these continuous data using the Earth occultation technique to monitor a catalog of 209 sources. From this catalog, we detect 102 sources, including 41 low-mass X-ray binary/neutron star systems, 33 high-mass X-ray binary neutron star systems, 12 black hole binaries, 12 active galaxies, 2 other sources, plus the Crab Nebula, and the Sun. Nine of these sources are detected in the 100-300 keV band, including seven black-hole binaries, the active galaxy Cen A, and the Crab. The Crab and Cyg X-1 are also detected in the 300-500 keV band. GBM provides complementary data to other sky-monitors below 100 keV and is the only all-sky monitor above 100 keV. Up-to-date light curves for all of the catalog sources can be found at http://heastro.phys.lsu.edu/gbm/.

  11. Three years of Fermi GBM Earth Occultation Monitoring: Observations of Hard X-ray/Soft Gamma-Ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Jenke, P; Case, Gary L; Cherry, Michael L; Rodi, James; Camero-Arranz, Ascension; Chaplin, Vandiver; Beklen, Elif; Finger, Mark H; Bhat, Narayana; Briggs, Michael S; Connaughto, Valerie; Greiner, Jochen; Kippen, R Marc; Meegan, Charles A; Paciesas, William S; Preece, Robert; von Kienlin, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The Gamma ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been providing continuous data to the astronomical community since 2008 August 12. We will present the results of the analysis of the first three years of these continuous data using the Earth occultation technique to monitor a catalog of 209 sources. Although the occultation technique is in principle quite simple, in practice there are many complications including the dynamic instrument response, source confusion, and scattering in the Earth's atmosphere, which will be described. We detect 99 sources, including 40 low-mass X-ray binary/neutron star systems, 31 high-mass X-ray binary/neutron star systems, 12 black hole binaries, 12 active galaxies, 2 other sources, plus the Crab Nebula and the Sun. Nine of these sources are detected in the 100-300 keV band, including seven black-hole binaries, the active galaxy Cen A, and the Crab. The Crab and Cyg X-1 are also detected in the 300-500 keV band. GBM provides complementary data to ot...

  12. Near-Earth Magnetic Field Effects of Large-Scale Magnetospheric Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lühr, Hermann; Xiong, Chao; Olsen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    . Significant progress in interpreting the magnetic fields from the different sources has been achieved thanks to magnetic satellite missions like Ørsted, CHAMP and now Swarm. Of particular interest for this article is a proper representation of the magnetospheric ring current effect. Uncertainties in modelling...... in the magnetospheric tail. Also their magnetic contribution at LEO orbits is non-negligible. Treating them as an independent source is a more recent development, which has cured some of the problems in geomagnetic field modelling. Unfortunately there is no index available for characterising the tail current intensity...

  13. Putting Ug99 on the map: An update on current and future monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodson, D P; Nazari, K; Park, R F

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring System (GCRMS) is described. The current situation regarding the Ug99 lineage of races is outlined and the potential for expansion into important wheat areas is considered. The GCRMS has successfully tracked the spread and changes that are occurring within the Ug99 lineage and is now well......Detection of stem rust race TTKSK (Ug99) from Uganda in 1998/99 highlighted not only the extremely high vulnerability of the global wheat crop to stem rust but also a lack of adequate global systems to monitor such a threat. Progress in the development and expansion of the Global Cereal Rust...... positioned to detect and monitor future changes. The distribution of Ug99 variants possessing combined virulence to Sr31 and Sr24 is expanding rapidly and future spread outside of Africa is highly likely. Efficient and effective data management is now being achieved via the Wheat Rust Toolbox platform...

  14. Current sedation and monitoring practice for colonoscopy: an International Observational Study (EPAGE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froehlich, F; Harris, JK; Wietlisbach, V;

    2006-01-01

    in endoscopy centers internationally. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This observational study included consecutive patients referred for colonoscopy at 21 centers in 11 countries. Endoscopists reported sedation and monitoring practice, using a standard questionnaire for each patient. RESULTS: 6004 patients were......BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Sedation and monitoring practice during colonoscopy varies between centers and over time. Knowledge of current practice is needed to ensure quality of care and help focus future research. The objective of this study was to examine sedation and monitoring practice...... included in this study, of whom 53 % received conscious/moderate sedation during colonoscopy, 30 % received deep sedation, and 17 % received no sedation. Sedation agents most commonly used were midazolam (47 %) and opioids (33 %). Pulse oximetry was done during colonoscopy in 77 % of patients, blood...

  15. Distortions of the magnetic field by storm-time current systems in Earth's magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Ganushkina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic field and current system changes in Earth's inner magnetosphere during storm times are studied using two principally different modeling approaches: on one hand, the event-oriented empirical magnetic field model, and, on the other, the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF built around a global MHD simulation. Two storm events, one moderate storm on 6–7 November 1997 with Dst minimum about −120 nT and one intense storm on 21–23 October 1999 with Dst minimum about −250 nT were modeled. Both modeling approaches predicted a large ring current (first partial, later symmetric contribution to the magnetic field perturbation for the intense storm. For the moderate storm, the tail current plays a dominant role in the event-oriented model results, while the SWMF results showed no strong tail current in the main phase, which resulted in a poorly timed storm peak relative to the observations. These results imply that the the development of a ring current depends on a strong force to inject the particles deep into the inner magnetosphere, and that the tail current is an important external source for the distortions of the inner magnetospheric magnetic field for both storms. Neither modeling approach was able to reproduce all the variations in the Bx and By components observed at geostationary orbit by GOES satellites during these two storms: the magnetopause current intensifications are inadequate, and the field-aligned currents are not sufficiently represented. While the event-oriented model reproduces rather well the Bz component at geostationary orbit, including the substorm-associated changes, the SWMF field is too dipolar at these locations. The empirical model is a useful tool for validation of the first-principle based models such as the SWMF.

  16. Guard Earth, but Monitor the Universe: ATLAS and the Variable Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Aren; Tonry, John; Denneau, Larry; Stalder, Brian; Sherstyuk, Andrei; Rest, Armin; Smith, Ken; Smartt, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The Asteroid Terrestrial-Impact Last Alert Survey uses custom-built 0.5 meter telescopes to scan the whole accessible sky with a cadence optimized to detect small asteroids on their 'final plunge' toward impact with Earth. In the process, ATLAS produces calibrated images and photometry of two hundred million point source detections per night to 19th magnitude -- a rich data set for analysis of variable stars and transients with a huge range of timescales. We report our early results, including the discoveries of several hundred supernovae and several new variables stars, and we explore the potential of ATLAS data to contribute to the science of astronomical transients and variables.

  17. On Line Current Monitoring and Application of a Residual Method for Eccentricity Fault Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    METATLA, A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns the monitoring and diagnosis of faults in induction motors. We develop an approach based on residual analysis of stator currents to detect and diagnose faults eccentricity static, dynamic and mixed in three phase induction motor. To simulate the behavior of motor failure, a model is proposed based on the approach of magnetically coupled coils. The simulation results show the importance of the approach applied for the detection and diagnosis of fault in three phase induction motor.

  18. MIDOT: A novel probe for monitoring high-current flat transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, K.; Novac, B. M.; Graneau, N.; Senior, P.; Smith, I. R.; Sinclair, M.

    2016-12-01

    A novel inductive probe, termed MIDOT, was developed for monitoring high-current flat transmission lines. While being inexpensive the probe does not require calibration, is resistant to both shock waves and temperature variations, and it is easy to manufacture and mount. It generates strong output signals that are relatively easy to interpret and has a detection region limited to a pre-defined part of the transmission line. The theoretical background related to the MIDOT probes, together with their practical implementation in both preliminary experimentation and high-current tests, is also presented in the paper. The novel probe can be used to benchmark existing 2D numerical codes used in calculating the current distribution inside the conductors of a transmission line but can also easily detect an early movement of a transmission line component. The probe can also find other applications, such as locating the position of a pulsed current flowing through a thin wire.

  19. A detector based on silica fibers for ion beam monitoring in a wide current range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, M.; Braccini, S.; Carzaniga, T. S.; Ereditato, A.; Nesteruk, K. P.; Scampoli, P.

    2016-03-01

    A detector based on doped silica and optical fibers was developed to monitor the profile of particle accelerator beams of intensity ranging from 1 pA to tens of μA. Scintillation light produced in a fiber moving across the beam is measured, giving information on its position, shape and intensity. The detector was tested with a continuous proton beam at the 18 MeV Bern medical cyclotron used for radioisotope production and multi-disciplinary research. For currents from 1 pA to 20 μA, Ce3+ and Sb3+ doped silica fibers were used as sensors. Read-out systems based on photodiodes, photomultipliers and solid state photomultipliers were employed. Profiles down to the pA range were measured with this method for the first time. For currents ranging from 1 pA to 3 μA, the integral of the profile was found to be linear with respect to the beam current, which can be measured by this detector with an accuracy of ~1%. The profile was determined with a spatial resolution of 0.25 mm. For currents ranging from 5 μA to 20 μA, thermal effects affect light yield and transmission, causing distortions of the profile and limitations in monitoring capabilities. For currents higher than ~1 μA, non-doped optical fibers for both producing and transporting scintillation light were also successfully employed.

  20. Contribution from the Earth's Bow Shock to Region 1 Current under Low Alfvén Mach Numbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Zhong; HU You-Qiu

    2009-01-01

    @@ Using global MHD simulations of the solar wind-magnetosphere--ionosphere system, we investigate the depen-dence of the contribution from the Earth's bow shock (I1bs) to ionospheric region I field aligned current (FAC) (I1). It is found that I1bs increases with increasing southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) strength Bs, if the Alfven Mach number MA of the solar wind exceeds 2, a similar result as obtained by previous authors. However, if MA becomes close to or falls below 2, I1bs will decrease with B8 in both magnitude and percentage (i.e., I1bs/I1) because of the resultant reduction of the bow shock strength. Both the surface current density Jbs at the nose of the bow shock and the total bow shock current lb, share nearly the same relationship with MA, and vary non-monotonically with MA or Bs. The maximum point is found to be located at MA = 2.7. Three conclusions are then made as follows: (1) The surface current density at the nose, which is much easier to be evaluated, may be used to largely describe the behaviour of the bow shock instead of the total bow shock current. (2) The peak of the total bow shock current is reached at about MA = 2.7 when only Bs is adjusted. (3) The non-monotonic variation of the bow shock current with MA causes a similar variation of its contribution to region 1 FAC. The turning point for such contribution is found to be nearly MA= 2. The implication of these conclusions to the saturation of the ionospheric transpolar potential is briefly discussed.

  1. GlobWetland Africa: Implementing Sustainable Earth Observation Based Wetland Monitoring Capacity in Africa and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tottrup, Christian; Riffler, Michael; Wang, Tiejun

    to as the GW-A Toolbox, will be developed, implemented and validated for a series of geo-information products over a number of representative pilot sites in North, West, Central and East Africa. The GW-A toolbox unifies proven and stable open source software into a single graphical user interface......Lack of data, appropriate information and challenges in human and institutional capacity put a serious constraint on effective monitoring and management of wetlands in Africa. Conventional data are often lacking in time or space, of poor quality or available at locations that are not necessarily...... actors involved in the implementation of the Ramsar Convention of Wetlands in Africa with EO methods and tools to better assess the conditions of wetlands under their areas of jurisdiction/study, and to better monitor their trends over time. To this end, an open source wetland observing system, referred...

  2. 16 CFR Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 - Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility 1 Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility EC03OC91.008...

  3. Scheduler for monitoring objects orbiting earth using satellite-based telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, Scot S; Pertica, Alexander J; Riot, Vincent J; De Vries, Willem H; Bauman, Brian J; Nikolaev, Sergei; Henderson, John R; Phillion, Donald W

    2015-04-28

    An ephemeris refinement system includes satellites with imaging devices in earth orbit to make observations of space-based objects ("target objects") and a ground-based controller that controls the scheduling of the satellites to make the observations of the target objects and refines orbital models of the target objects. The ground-based controller determines when the target objects of interest will be near enough to a satellite for that satellite to collect an image of the target object based on an initial orbital model for the target objects. The ground-based controller directs the schedules to be uploaded to the satellites, and the satellites make observations as scheduled and download the observations to the ground-based controller. The ground-based controller then refines the initial orbital models of the target objects based on the locations of the target objects that are derived from the observations.

  4. Current driven domain wall motion in rare-earth transition metal alloys with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songtian; Liu, Xiaoxi; Morisako, Akimistu

    2012-09-01

    The domain wall movement behaviors under current combining with magnetic field in perpendicularly magnetized TbFeCo wire were studied by a polar magneto-optical Kerr effect microscope. The velocity for domain wall creeping along electrons flowing direction was found to be apparently higher than that of domain wall creeping against electrons flowing, which is the signature of the spin transfer torque effect. By employing the modified field-driven creep motion law, a spin transfer efficiency of 2.7 Oe cm2/10(6) A was determined for TbFeCo wire by treating the spin transfer torque as an effective field adding to the external field. The high spin transfer efficiency suggests that perpendicularly magnetized system with sharp domain walls in TbFeCo film shows high superiorities for applications in spin transfer torque based devices compared with in-plane magnetized systems.

  5. Earth Observation as a Support to Marine Aquaculture (Sites Optimization and Monitoring)- The DUE-SMART Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, Antoine; Bryere, Philippe; Pastres, Roberto; Loisel, Hubert; Vincent, Chloe; Palazzo, Dalila; Brigolin, Daniele; Hembise, Odile; Arino, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    The SMART project (Sustainable Management of Aquaculture through Remote sensing Technology, www.smart-eo.eu), supported by ESA DUE-Innovator program, aims to use the most advanced of Earth Observation (EO) to develop coastal aquaculture services. We present here the results concerning the monitoring of natural marine conditions for operational aquaculture, the optimization of locations for farming and the mapping of potential in terms of carrying capacity for shellfish. In this context EO derived information like Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and Suspended Matters (SPM), has been validated and used as input for a growth model of mussels. Moreover, a fish cage detection methodology based on Sentinel-1 and 2 images has been developed to map out cages number and location in the western Mediterranean Sea.

  6. Description and primary results of Total Solar Irradiance Monitor, a solar-pointing instrument on an Earth observing satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongrui; Fang, Wei; Li, Huiduan

    2015-04-01

    Solar driving mechanism for Earth climate has been a controversial problem for centuries. Long-time data of solar activity is required by the investigations of the solar driving mechanism, such as Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) record. Three Total Solar Irradiance Monitors (TSIM) have been developed by Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics for China Meteorological Administration to maintain continuities of TSI data series which lasted for nearly 4 decades.The newest TSIM has recorded TSI daily with accurate solar pointing on the FY-3C meteorological satellite since Oct 2013. TSIM/FY-3C has a pointing system for automatic solar tracking, onboard the satellite designed mainly for Earth observing. Most payloads of FY-3C are developed for observation of land, ocean and atmosphere. Consequently, the FY-3C satellite is a nadir-pointing spacecraft with its z axis to be pointed at the center of the Earth. Previous TSIMs onboard the FY-3A and FY-3B satellites had no pointing system, solar observations were only performed when the sun swept through field-of-view of the instruments. And TSI measurements are influenced inevitably by the solar pointing errors. Corrections of the solar pointing errors were complex. The problem is now removed by TSIM/FY-3C.TSIM/FY-3C follows the sun accurately by itself using its pointing system based on scheme of visual servo control. The pointing system is consisted of a radiometer package, two motors for solar tracking, a sun sensor and etc. TSIM/FY-3C has made daily observations of TSI for more than one year, with nearly zero solar pointing errors. Short time-scale variations in TSI detected by TSIM/FY-3C are nearly the same with VIRGO/SOHO and TIM/SORCE.Instrument details, primary results of solar pointing control, solar observations and etc will be given in the presentation.

  7. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Monitor Land Management Practices and the Development of Marshlands to Rice Fields in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusabimana, M. R.; Blach, D.; Mwiza, F.; Muzungu, E.; Swaminathan, R.; Tate, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Rwanda, a small country with the highest population density in Sub-Saharan Africa, is one of the world's poorest countries. Although agriculture is the backbone of Rwandan economy, agricultural productivity is extremely low. Over 90 % of the population is engaged in subsistence farming and only 52 % of the total land surface area is arable. Of this land, approximately 165,000 hectares are marshlands, of which only 57 % has been cultivated. Rwandan government has invested in the advancement of agriculture with activities such as irrigation, marshland reclamation, and crop regionalization. In 2001, Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources (MINAGRI) released the Rural Sector Support Program (RSSP), which aimed at converting marshlands into rice fields at various development sites across the country. The focus of this project was to monitor rice fields in Rwanda utilizing NASA Earth observations such as Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager. Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) was used to depict the progress of marshland to rice field conversion as it highlights the presence of irrigated rice fields from the surrounding area. Additionally, Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) was used to estimate rice yield at RSSP sites. Various simulations were run to find perfect conditions for cultivating the highest yield for a given farm. Furthermore, soil erosion susceptibility masks were created by combining factors derived from ASTER, MERRA, and ground truth data using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). The end results, maps, and tutorials were delivered to the partners and policy makers in Rwanda to help make informed decisions. It can be clearly seen that Earth observations can be successfully used to monitor agricultural and land management practices as a cost effective method that will enable farmers to improve crop yield production and food security.

  8. Impact of the Diamond Light Source on research in Earth and environmental sciences: current work and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ian T.; Mosselmans, J. Frederick W.; Shaw, Samuel; Peacock, Caroline L.; Benning, Liane G.; Coker, Victoria S.

    2015-01-01

    Diamond Light Source Ltd celebrated its 10th anniversary as a company in December 2012 and has now accepted user experiments for over 5 years. This paper describes the current facilities available at Diamond and future developments that enhance its capacities with respect to the Earth and environmental sciences. A review of relevant research conducted at Diamond thus far is provided. This highlights how synchrotron-based studies have brought about important advances in our understanding of the fundamental parameters controlling highly complex mineral–fluid–microbe interface reactions in the natural environment. This new knowledge not only enhances our understanding of global biogeochemical processes, but also provides the opportunity for interventions to be designed for environmental remediation and beneficial use. PMID:25624516

  9. Impact of the Diamond Light Source on research in Earth and environmental sciences: current work and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ian T; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Shaw, Samuel; Peacock, Caroline L; Benning, Liane G; Coker, Victoria S

    2015-03-06

    Diamond Light Source Ltd celebrated its 10th anniversary as a company in December 2012 and has now accepted user experiments for over 5 years. This paper describes the current facilities available at Diamond and future developments that enhance its capacities with respect to the Earth and environmental sciences. A review of relevant research conducted at Diamond thus far is provided. This highlights how synchrotron-based studies have brought about important advances in our understanding of the fundamental parameters controlling highly complex mineral-fluid-microbe interface reactions in the natural environment. This new knowledge not only enhances our understanding of global biogeochemical processes, but also provides the opportunity for interventions to be designed for environmental remediation and beneficial use.

  10. Field-aligned currents observed by MMS in the near-Earth plasma sheet during large-scale substorm dipolarizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Rumi; Nagai, Tsugunobu; Giles, Barbara; Le Contel, Olivier; Stawarz, Julia; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Artemyev, Anton

    2017-04-01

    During substorms significant energy conversion has been reported to take place at the sharp dipolarization front in the flow braking region where the probability of observing bursty bulk flows (BBFs) significantly drops. On 10 August 2016, MMS traversed the pre-midnight near-Earth plasma sheet when dipolarization disturbances were detected in an extended nightside local time region by Cluster, Geotail, GOES 13, 14 and 15, and the Van Allen Probes. In an expanding plasma sheet during the dipolarization, MMS detected sub-ion scale field-aligned current layers that are propagating both Earthward (equatorward) as well as tailward (outward). These multi-scale multi-point observations enable a unique investigation of both the meso-scale evolution of the disturbances and the detailed kinetic structures of the fronts and boundaries relevant to the dipolarizations.

  11. Understanding the Dynamical Evolution of the Earth Radiation Belt and Ring Current Coupled System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shprits, Yuri; Usanova, Maria; Kellerman, Adam; Drozdov, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Modeling and understanding the ring current and radiation belt-coupled system has been a grand challenge since the beginning of the space age. In this study we show long-term simulations with a 3D Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code of modeling the radiation belts with boundary conditions derived from observations around geosynchronous orbit. Simulations can reproduce long term variations of the electron radiation belt fluxes and show the importance of local acceleration, radial diffusion, loss to the atmosphere and loss to the magnetopause. We also present 4D VERB simulations that include convective transport, radial diffusion, pitch angle scattering and local acceleration. VERB simulations show that the lower energy inward transport is dominated by the convection and higher energy transport is dominated by the diffusive radial transport. We also show that at energies of 100s of keV, a number of processes work simultaneously, including convective transport, radial diffusion, local acceleration, loss to the loss cone and loss to the magnetopause. The results of the simulation of the March 2013 storm are compared with Van Allen Probes observations.

  12. Visualizing Earth Science Data for Environmental Monitoring and Decision Support in Mesoamerica: The SERVIR Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, D.; Graves, S.; Sever, T.; Irwin, D.

    2005-05-01

    In 2002 and 2003 NASA, the World Bank and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) joined with the Central American Commission for Environment and Development (CCAD) to develop an advanced decision support system for Mesoamerica (named SERVIR). Mesoamerica - composed of the seven Central American countries and the five southernmost states of Mexico - makes up only a small fraction of the world's land surface. However, the region is home to approximately eight percent of the planet's biodiversity (14 biosphere reserves, 31 Ramsar sites, 8 world heritage sites, 589 protected areas) and 45 million people including more than 50 different ethnic groups. Mesoamerica's biological and cultural diversity are severely threatened by human impact and natural disasters including extensive deforestation, illegal logging, water pollution, slash and burn agriculture, earthquakes, hurricanes, drought, and volcanic eruption. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC), together with the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) and the SERVIR partners are developing state-of-the-art decision support tools for environmental monitoring as well as disaster prevention and mitigation in Mesoamerica. These partners are contributing expertise in space-based observation with information management technologies and intimate knowledge of local ecosystems to create a system that is being used by scientists, educators, and policy makers to monitor and forecast ecological changes, respond to natural disasters, and better understand both natural and human induced effects. The decision support and environmental monitoring data products are typically formatted as conventional two-dimensional, static and animated imagery. However, in addition to conventional data products and as a major portion of our research, we are employing commercial applications that generate three-dimensional interactive visualizations that allow data products to be viewed from multiple angles and at

  13. Evaluating Current and Future Rangeland Health in the Great Basin Ecoregion Using NASA Earth Observing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essoudry, E.; Wilson, K.; Ely, J.; Patadia, N.; Zajic, B.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Schmidt, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Great Basin ecoregion in the western United States represents one of the last large expanses of wild lands in the nation and is currently facing significant challenges due to human impacts, drought, invasive species encroachment such as cheatgrass, and climate change. Rangelands in the Great Basin are of important ecological and economic significance for the United States; however, 40% of public rangelands fail to meet required health standards set by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). This project provided a set of assessment tools for researchers and land managers that integrate remotely-sensed and in situ datasets to quantify and mitigate threats to public lands in the Great Basin ecoregion. The study area, which accounts for 20% of the total Great Basin ecoregion, was analyzed using 30 m resolution data from Landsat 8. Present conditions were evaluated from vegetation indices, landscape features, hydrological processes, and atmospheric conditions derived from the remotely-sensed data and validated with available in situ ground survey data, provided by the BLM. Rangeland health metrics were developed and landscape change drivers were identified. Subsequently, projected climate conditions derived from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) were used to forecast the impact of changing climatic conditions within the study area according to the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 projections. These forecasted conditions were used in the Maximum Entropy Model (MaxEnt) to predict areas at risk for rangeland degradation on 30 year intervals for 2040, 2070, and 2100. Finally, vegetation health risk maps were provided to the project partners to aid in future land management decisions in the Great Basin ecoregion. These tools provide a low cost solution to assess landscape conditions, provide partners with a metric to identify potential problematic areas, and mitigate serious threats to the ecosystems.

  14. The Current Situation and the Utilization Technique of Rare Earth in China%我国稀土废料回收利用技术与现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚卫星; 李艳荣

    2013-01-01

    论述了我国稀土资源的回收利用现状,从磁性材料、发光材料及催化剂等可回收的稀土废料方面,说明我国回收稀土废料的利用技术仍处于攻坚阶段。如何回收稀土废料中有用的稀土元素,有待进一步研究。%This paper describes the current situation of recycling the rare earth in China. It proves that the utilization technique of rare earth in China is still in the crucial stage based on the recycling situation of rare earth from magnetic materials, luminescence materials and catalyst, etc,. It needs to be further studied on how to recycle the valuable rare earth elements from the rare earth waste.

  15. Hoop column soil moisture spacecraft in low Earth orbit for global change monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferebee, Melvin J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A subset of the total Global Change Technology Initiative instruments are required to be in low Earth, sunsynchronous orbits. There is one instrument, however, that requires its own specialized spacecraft; the Soil Moisture Microwave Radiometer (SMMR). The characteristic structure of the instrument is the 118 m hoop column support structure. The hoop is supported by an axially placed column. Tension cables support and shape an electromagnetically reflective mesh surface. The instrument is capable of detecting frequencies in the 1.4 GHz range (Soil Moisture and Sea Salinity). Three apertures are used to reduce the degree of paraboloid offset and improve the beam quality. The spacecraft configuration is determined by the instrument support requirements and the requirement that it can fit into the Titan IV cargo bay. The configuration is derived by cross referencing the instrument performance requirements with the performance of the spacecraft. The spacecraft design is similar with the Multi-mission Modular Spacecraft in terms of size and packaging. A description of the spacecraft's features will yield a summary of the technologies needed for the SMMR spacecraft.

  16. Development of micro-flow hydrothermal monitoring systems and their applications to the origin of life study on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kunio

    2011-01-01

    Continuous extensive studies on thermophilic organisms have suggested that life emerged on hydrothermal systems on primitive Earth. Thus, it is well known that hydrothermal reactions are, therefore, very important to study fields deeply related to the origin-of-life study. Furthermore, the importance of hydrothermal and solvothermal systems is now realized in both fundamental and practical areas. Here, our recent investigations are described for the development of real-time and in situ monitoring systems for hydrothermal reactions. The systems were primarily developed for the origin-of-life study, but it was also applicable to fundamental and practical areas. The present techniques are based on the concept that a sample solution is injected to a narrow tubing flow reactor at high temperatures, where the sample is rapidly heated up in a very short time by exposure at to a high-temperature narrow tubing flow reactor with a very short time scale. This enables millisecond to second time-scale monitoring in real time and/or in situ at temperatures of up to 400°C. By using these techniques, a series of studies on the hydrothermal origin-of-life have been successfully carried out.

  17. First Results from Fermi GBM Earth Occultation Monitoring: Observations of Soft Gamma-Ray Sources Above 100 keV

    CERN Document Server

    Case, Gary L; Rodi, James C; Jenke, Peter; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A; Finger, Mark H; Meegan, Charles A; Camero-Arranz, Ascencion; Beklen, Elif; Bhat, P Narayan; Briggs, Michael S; Chaplin, Vandiver; Connaughton, Valerie; Paciesas, William S; Preece, Robert; Kippen, R Marc; von Kienlin, Andreas; Griener, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    The NaI and BGO detectors on the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on Fermi are now being used for long-term monitoring of the hard X-ray/low energy gamma-ray sky. Using the Earth occultation technique as demonstrated previously by the BATSE instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, GBM can be used to produce multiband light curves and spectra for known sources and transient outbursts in the 8 keV to 1 MeV energy range with its NaI detectors and up to 40 MeV with its BGO detectors. Over 85% of the sky is viewed every orbit, and the precession of the Fermi orbit allows the entire sky to be viewed every ~26 days with sensitivity exceeding that of BATSE at energies below ~25 keV and above ~1.5 MeV. We briefly describe the technique and present preliminary results using the NaI detectors after the first two years of observations at energies above 100 keV. Eight sources are detected with a significance greater than 7 sigma: the Crab, Cyg X-1, SWIFT J1753.5-0127, 1E 1740-29, Cen A, GRS 1915+105, and the transien...

  18. Design and simulation of a beam position monitor for the high current proton linac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Yu-Fang; XU Tao-Guang; FU Shi-Nian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the 2-D electrostatic field software, POISSON, is used to calculate the characteristic impedance of a BPM (beam position monitor) for a high current proton linac. Furthermore, the time-domain 3-D module of MAFIA with a beam microbunch at a varying offset from the axis is used to compute the induced voltage on the electrodes as a function of time. Finally, the effect of low 13 beams on the induced voltage, the sensitivity and the signal dynamic range of the BPM are discussed.

  19. Surface mass variation monitoring from orbit information of GPS-tracked low-Earth orbiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, O.; Weigelt, M. L. B.; Zehentner, N.; Mayer-Gürr, T.; van Dam, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    In the last decade, temporal variations of the gravity field from GRACE inter-satellite observations have become one of the most ubiquitous and valuable sources of information for environmental studies. In order to bridge the likely gap between the present GRACE and the upcoming GRACE follow-on projects, we investigate the potential of gravity field information derived from orbit analysis for surface mass variation detection. The Swarm mission - launched on November 22, 2013 - is the most promising candidate to directly acquire large-scale mass variation information on the Earth's surface in the absence of GRACE. Although the magnetometry mission Swarm has not been designed for gravity field purposes, its three satellites have the appropriate orbit characteristics for such an endeavour. Hence, from an orbit analysis point of view the Swarm satellites are comparable to the CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE spacecraft. In a first study, we assess the stand-alone capability of the Swarm mission for mass variation detection in a real-case environment. For this purpose, we ''approximate'' the Swarm scenario by the GRACE+CHAMP constellation. In a second study, we incorporate tracking observations from a series of additional satellites (e.g., GOCE, MetOp, TanDEM-X, Swarm) and extend the length of the time series according to data availability. We will demonstrate to what extent these measures improve the inference of time-variable features from orbit information. For both studies, in the first step, kinematic orbits of the individual satellites are derived from GPS observations. From these orbits, we compute monthly combined time-variable gravity fields. Finally, we infer mass variation in selected areas from the gravity signal. These results are compared to the findings obtained from mass variation detection exploiting CSR-RL05 gravity fields (the latter serve as ''benchmark solutions'').

  20. Immobilization and surface functionalization of gold nanoparticles monitored via streaming current/potential measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greben, Kyrylo; Li, Pinggui; Mayer, Dirk; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Wördenweber, Roger

    2015-05-14

    A streaming current/potential method is optimized and used for the analysis of the variation of the surface potential upon chemical modifications of a complex interface consisting of different organic molecules and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The surfaces of Si/SiO2 substrates modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), AuNPs, and 11-amino-1-undecanethiol (aminothiols) are analyzed via pH and time dependent ζ potential measurements that reveal the stability and modification of the surface and identify crucial parameters for each individual preparation step. For instance, surface activation and especially molecular adsorbate layers tend not to be stable in time, whereas the substrate and the AuNPs provide a stable surface potential as long as impurities are avoided. It is shown that the streaming potential/current technique represents an ideal tool to analyze and monitor the complex surfaces and their modification.

  1. An integrated, open-source set of tools for urban vulnerability monitoring from Earth observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vecchi, Daniele; Harb, Mostapha; Dell'Acqua, Fabio; Aurelio Galeazzo, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Aim: The paper introduces an integrated set of open-source tools designed to process medium and high-resolution imagery with the aim to extract vulnerability indicators [1]. Problem: In the context of risk monitoring [2], a series of vulnerability proxies can be defined, such as the extension of a built-up area or buildings regularity [3]. Different open-source C and Python libraries are already available for image processing and geospatial information (e.g. OrfeoToolbox, OpenCV and GDAL). They include basic processing tools but not vulnerability-oriented workflows. Therefore, it is of significant importance to provide end-users with a set of tools capable to return information at a higher level. Solution: The proposed set of python algorithms is a combination of low-level image processing and geospatial information handling tools along with high-level workflows. In particular, two main products are released under the GPL license: source code, developers-oriented, and a QGIS plugin. These tools were produced within the SENSUM project framework (ended December 2014) where the main focus was on earthquake and landslide risk. Further development and maintenance is guaranteed by the decision to include them in the platform designed within the FP 7 RASOR project . Conclusion: With the lack of a unified software suite for vulnerability indicators extraction, the proposed solution can provide inputs for already available models like the Global Earthquake Model. The inclusion of the proposed set of algorithms within the RASOR platforms can guarantee support and enlarge the community of end-users. Keywords: Vulnerability monitoring, remote sensing, optical imagery, open-source software tools References [1] M. Harb, D. De Vecchi, F. Dell'Acqua, "Remote sensing-based vulnerability proxies in the EU FP7 project SENSUM", Symposium on earthquake and landslide risk in Central Asia and Caucasus: exploiting remote sensing and geo-spatial information management, 29-30th January 2014

  2. VAMOS: The verification and monitoring options study: Current research options for in-situ monitoring and verification of contaminant remediation and containment within the vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betsill, J.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruebel, R.D. [Tech Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Verification and Monitoring Options Study Project (VAMOS) was established to identify high-priority options for future vadose-zone environmental research in the areas of in-situ remediation monitoring, post-closure monitoring, and containment emplacement and verification monitoring. VAMOS examined projected needs not currently being met with applied technology in order to develop viable monitoring and verification research options. The study emphasized a compatible systems approach to reinforce the need for utilizing compatible components to provide user friendly site monitoring systems. To identify the needs and research options related to vadose-zone environmental monitoring and verification, a literature search and expert panel forums were conducted. The search included present drivers for environmental monitoring technology, technology applications, and research efforts. The forums included scientific, academic, industry, and regulatory environmental professionals as well as end users of environmental technology. The experts evaluated current and future monitoring and verification needs, methods for meeting these needs, and viable research options and directions. A variety of high-priority technology development, user facility, and technology guidance research options were developed and presented as an outcome of the literature search and expert panel forums.

  3. Growth monitoring: a survey of current practices of primary care paediatricians in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Scherdel

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study current practices in growth monitoring by European primary care paediatricians and to explore their perceived needs in this field. METHODS: We developed a cross-sectional, anonymous on-line survey and contacted primary care paediatricians listed in national directories in the 18 European countries with a confederation of primary care paediatricians. Paediatricians participated in the survey between April and September 2011. RESULTS: Of the 1,198 paediatricians from 11 European countries (response rate 13% who participated, 29% used the 2006 World Health Organization Multicentre Growth Reference Study growth charts, 69% used national growth charts; 61% used software to draw growth charts and 79% did not use a formal algorithm to detect abnormal growth on growth charts. Among the 21% of paediatricians who used algorithms, many used non-algorithmic simple thresholds for height and weight and none used the algorithms published in the international literature. In all, 69% of paediatricians declared that a validated algorithm to monitor growth would be useful in daily practice. We found important between-country variations. CONCLUSION: The varied growth-monitoring practices declared by primary care paediatricians reveals the need for standardization and evidence-based algorithms to define abnormal growth and the development of software that would use such algorithms.

  4. Short-term and long-term Vadose zone monitoring: Current technologies, development, and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, Boris

    1999-05-01

    At Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and other DOE sites, field vadose zone observations have shown complex water seepage and mass transport behavior in a highly heterogeneous, thick vadose zone on a variety of scales. Recent investigation showed that severe contamination of soils and groundwater by organic contaminant and nuclear waste occurred because of water seepage and contaminant transport along localized, preferential, fast flow within the heterogeneous vadose zone. However, most of the existing characterization and monitoring methods are not able to locate these localized and persistent preferential pathways associated with specific heterogeneous geologic features, such as clastic dikes, caliche layers, or fractures. In addition, changes in the chemical composition of moving and indigenous solutes, particularly sodium concentration, redox conditions, biological transformation of organic materials, and high temperature, may significantly alter water, chemicals, and bio-transformation exchange between the zones of fast flow and the rest of the media. In this paper, using the data from Hanford and INEEL sites, we will (1) present evidence that central problems of the vadose zone investigations are associated with preferential, fast flow phenomena and accelerated migration of organic and radioactive elements, (2) identify gaps in current characterization and monitoring technologies, and (3) recommend actions for the development of advanced vadose zone characterization and monitoring methods using a combination of hydrologic, geochemical, and geophysical techniques.

  5. Smart monitoring system based on adaptive current control for superconducting cable test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arpaia, Pasquale [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, University of Naples Federico II, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Technology Department, European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), 1217 Geneva (Switzerland); Ballarino, Amalia; Montenero, Giuseppe [Technology Department, European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), 1217 Geneva (Switzerland); Daponte, Vincenzo [Technology Department, European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), 1217 Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Electronics, Information, and Bioengineering, Polytechnic of Milan, 20133 Milano (Italy); Svelto, Cesare [Department of Electronics, Information, and Bioengineering, Polytechnic of Milan, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    A smart monitoring system for superconducting cable test is proposed with an adaptive current control of a superconducting transformer secondary. The design, based on Fuzzy Gain Scheduling, allows the controller parameters to adapt continuously, and finely, to the working variations arising from transformer nonlinear dynamics. The control system is integrated in a fully digital control loop, with all the related benefits, i.e., high noise rejection, ease of implementation/modification, and so on. In particular, an accurate model of the system, controlled by a Fuzzy Gain Scheduler of the superconducting transformer, was achieved by an experimental campaign through the working domain at several current ramp rates. The model performance was characterized by simulation, under all the main operating conditions, in order to guide the controller design. Finally, the proposed monitoring system was experimentally validated at European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in comparison to the state-of-the-art control system [P. Arpaia, L. Bottura, G. Montenero, and S. Le Naour, “Performance improvement of a measurement station for superconducting cable test,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 095111 (2012)] of the Facility for the Research on Superconducting Cables, achieving a significant performance improvement: a reduction in the system overshoot by 50%, with a related attenuation of the corresponding dynamic residual error (both absolute and RMS) up to 52%.

  6. Smart monitoring system based on adaptive current control for superconducting cable test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpaia, Pasquale; Ballarino, Amalia; Daponte, Vincenzo; Montenero, Giuseppe; Svelto, Cesare

    2014-12-01

    A smart monitoring system for superconducting cable test is proposed with an adaptive current control of a superconducting transformer secondary. The design, based on Fuzzy Gain Scheduling, allows the controller parameters to adapt continuously, and finely, to the working variations arising from transformer nonlinear dynamics. The control system is integrated in a fully digital control loop, with all the related benefits, i.e., high noise rejection, ease of implementation/modification, and so on. In particular, an accurate model of the system, controlled by a Fuzzy Gain Scheduler of the superconducting transformer, was achieved by an experimental campaign through the working domain at several current ramp rates. The model performance was characterized by simulation, under all the main operating conditions, in order to guide the controller design. Finally, the proposed monitoring system was experimentally validated at European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in comparison to the state-of-the-art control system [P. Arpaia, L. Bottura, G. Montenero, and S. Le Naour, "Performance improvement of a measurement station for superconducting cable test," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 095111 (2012)] of the Facility for the Research on Superconducting Cables, achieving a significant performance improvement: a reduction in the system overshoot by 50%, with a related attenuation of the corresponding dynamic residual error (both absolute and RMS) up to 52%.

  7. HIGH-RESOLUTION MONITORING OF CURRENT RAPID TRANSFORMATIONS ON GLACIAL AND PERIGLACIAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Carturan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glacial and periglacial environments are highly sensitive to climatic changes. Processes of cryosphere degradation may strongly impact human activities and infrastructures, and need to be monitored for improved understanding and for mitigation/adaptation. Studying glacial and periglacial environments using traditional techniques may be difficult or not feasible, but new remote sensing techniques like terrestrial and aerial laser scanner opened new possibilities for cryospheric studies. This work presents an application of the terrestrial laser scanner (TLS for monitoring the current rapid changes occurring on the Montasio Occidentale glacier (Eastern Italian alps, which is representative of low-altitude, avalanche-fed and debris-cover glaciers. These glaciers are quite common in the Alps but their reaction to climate changes is still poorly known. The mass balance, surface velocity fields, debris cover dynamics and effects of meteorological extremes were investigated by repeat high-resolution TLS scanning from September 2010 to October 2012. The results were encouraging and shed light on the peculiar response of this glacier to climatic changes, on its current dynamics and on the feedback played by the debris cover, which is critical for its preservation. The rapid transformations in act, combined with the unstable ice mass, large amount of loose debris and channeled runoff during intense rainfalls, constitute a potential area for the formation of large debris flows, as shown by field evidences and documented by the recent literature.

  8. Google Earth Visualizations of the Marine Automatic Identification System (AIS): Monitoring Ship Traffic in National Marine Sanctuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwehr, K.; Hatch, L.; Thompson, M.; Wiley, D.

    2007-12-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a new technology that provides ship position reports with location, time, and identity information without human intervention from ships carrying the transponders to any receiver listening to the broadcasts. In collaboration with the USCG's Research and Development Center, NOAA's Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (SBNMS) has installed 3 AIS receivers around Massachusetts Bay to monitor ship traffic transiting the sanctuary and surrounding waters. The SBNMS and the USCG also worked together propose the shifting the shipping lanes (termed the traffic separation scheme; TSS) that transit the sanctuary slightly to the north to reduce the probability of ship strikes of whales that frequent the sanctuary. Following approval by the United Nation's International Maritime Organization, AIS provided a means for NOAA to assess changes in the distribution of shipping traffic caused by formal change in the TSS effective July 1, 2007. However, there was no easy way to visualize this type of time series data. We have created a software package called noaadata-py to process the AIS ship reports and produce KML files for viewing in Google Earth. Ship tracks can be shown changing over time to allow the viewer to feel the motion of traffic through the sanctuary. The ship tracks can also be gridded to create ship traffic density reports for specified periods of time. The density is displayed as map draped on the sea surface or as vertical histogram columns. Additional visualizations such as bathymetry images, S57 nautical charts, and USCG Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement (MISLE) can be combined with the ship traffic visualizations to give a more complete picture of the maritime environment. AIS traffic analyses have the potential to give managers throughout NOAA's National Marine Sanctuaries an improved ability to assess the impacts of ship traffic on the marine resources they seek to protect. Viewing ship traffic

  9. Building a Dashboard for Natural Event Monitoring: NASA's Global Imagery Browse Services + Earth Observatory Natural Event Tracker + Worldview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, K.; Boller, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    The quantity of remotely-sensed Earth science data is vast and encompasses such breadth of topic that it is impossible for any one person, or even a team, to grasp the meaning of those data as a whole. In order to derive meaning from data, it is important that we explore context-specific approaches to its investigation. Collating and curating data for specific, interdisciplinary audiences is one such approach. Scientific disciplines have their own ways of grouping data sets for interdisciplinary analysis, bringing a specific context to the examination of data. The studies of sea level rise (involving sea surface temperature + sea ice and glaciers + wind, for example) and vegetation productivity (precipitation + land cover + surface temperature + groundwater) are just a couple of ways that data are grouped in an effort to bring focus and understanding to a specific topic. Natural events (hurricanes, fires, dust and haze, etc.) is another context where data from disparate disciplines and sensors can be brought together to tell a single story from multiple perspectives. In this presentation we will show how we have taken a broad selection of science data made available as imagery through NASA's Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) and then mapped those data sets to types of natural events in order to create virtual collections of imagery. We will then demonstrate how we combine those virtual collections with curated natural event metadata from the Earth Observatory Natural Event Tracker (EONET) using the browser-based Worldview map client to provide a dashboard that can be used by many different audiences as a portal to monitor and understand these natural events.

  10. On-line monitoring of base current and forward emitter current gain of the voltage regulator's serial pnp transistor in a radiation environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukić Vladimir Đ.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of on-line monitoring of the low-dropout voltage regulator's operation in a radiation environment is developed in this paper. The method had to enable detection of the circuit's degradation during exploitation, without terminating its operation in an ionizing radiation field. Moreover, it had to enable automatic measurement and data collection, as well as the detection of any considerable degradation, well before the monitored voltage regulator's malfunction. The principal parameters of the voltage regulator's operation that were monitored were the serial pnp transistor's base current and the forward emitter current gain. These parameters were procured indirectly, from the data on the voltage regulator's load and quiescent currents. Since the internal consumption current in moderately and heavily loaded devices was used, the quiescent current of a negligibly loaded voltage regulator of the same type served as a reference. Results acquired by on-line monitoring demonstrated marked agreement with the results acquired from examinations of the voltage regulator's maximum output current and minimum dropout voltage in a radiation environment. The results were particularly consistent in tests with heavily loaded devices. Results obtained for moderately loaded voltage regulators and the risks accompanying the application of the presented method, were also analyzed.

  11. Monitoring intakes of Pu/Am by external counting. Current status in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, R.C.; Surendran, T.; Haridasan, T.K. [Internal Dosimetry Division, Bhabha Atomic Reserch Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes the current status of the direct methods of monitoring intakes of actinides, Pu/Am, by external counting techniques in India. It begins with the brief descriptions of the in vivo monitoring facilities established and a variety of optimised radiation detectors being operated inside the graded lined steel room chamber. Two types of phoswich detectors (200 mm dia) differing in the thicknesses of their primary detectors, are operated with pulse shape discrimination electronics based on pulse shape analyser (ORTEC model 458). The other detection systems are : 51 mm dia coaxial HPGe low energy photon spectrometer, a miniature CdTe and a twin thin NaI(Tl). Over the past several years, these facilities have been rationally utilized for conducting various types of internal monitoring programmes for workers handing Pu/Am. Due emphasis has been given to the Quality Assurance (QA) programmes and thus the accuracy of internal exposure evaluations has been ensured by participating in the international intercomparison studies. These included: a) In vivo calibration experiments based on inhalation of mock Pu i.e. polystyrene particles labelled with {sup 103}Pd - {sup 51}Cr, by human volunteers; b) Calibration measurements on Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) realistic thorax phantom representing a Caucasian man, under an IAEA-CRP and c) By participating in yet another IAEA-CRP on the calibration of in vivo counting systems for actinides (Pu, Am, U, Th) using a Reference Asian phantom whose physique represented an Asian man of Japanese origin. As both, ICRP and BSS of IAEA recommend the use of latest dose coefficients, the current methodology of evaluating internal exposures to actinides (Pu/Am) is based on the new (ICRP-66) model of the human respiratory tract. For this purpose, the software package LUDEP 2.05 (Lung Dose Evaluation Program) has been standardised for routine use. The use of LUDEP 2.05 for calculating intakes and committed

  12. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Monitor Sinkhole Development and Identify Risk Areas in Dougherty County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalan, M. D.; Berry, K.; Amin, M.; Xu, W.; Hu, T.; Milewski, A.

    2015-12-01

    Located in southwest Georgia, Dougherty County has a growing populace in an agricultural region that relies heavily on groundwater resources. Partly due to escalated groundwater extraction, this area has experienced an increase in sinkhole development over the last decade. Sinkholes pose a threat to infrastructure development, groundwater pollution, and land use operations. The NASA DEVELOP Georgia Disasters and Water Resources team partnered with the City of Albany and Dougherty County Planning and Development Services (PDS) and the Southwest Georgia Water Resources Task Force (SGWRTF) to assess past sinkhole development and identify areas susceptible to future sinkhole formation. Sinkhole mapping was completed utilizing a time-series of elevation data (1999 - 2011) from NASA's SRTM and ASTER missions, as well as European Remote-Sensing (ERS-1 and 2) satellite-derived elevation data. The sinkhole inventory maps and spatial statistical techniques (i.e., geographically-weighted regression) were employed to quantify the factors most influential in sinkhole development. With those results, the susceptibility of every area within Dougherty County to future sinkhole formation was identified. The results of this applied science project will enable the PDS and SGWRTF to make informed decisions on current and future land use, safe infrastructure development, and sustainable water resource management.

  13. Monitoring of Anticoagulant Therapy in Heart Disease: Considerations for the Current Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Goodarzynejad

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinicians should be aware of new developments to familiarize themselves with pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of new anticoagulant agents to appropriately and safely use them. For the moment, cardiologists and other clinicians also require to master currently available drugs, realizing the mechanism of action, side effects, and laboratory monitoring to measure their anticoagulant effects. Warfarin and heparin have narrow therapeutic window with high inter- and intra-patient variability, thereby the use of either drug needs careful laboratory monitoring and dose adjustment to ensure proper antithrombotic protection while minimizing the bleeding risk. The prothrombin time (PT and the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT are laboratory tests commonly used to monitor warfarin and heparin, respectively. These two tests depend highly on the combination of reagent and instrument utilized. Results for a single specimen tested in different laboratories are variable; this is mostly attributable to the specific reagents and to a much lesser degree to the instrument used. The PT stands alone as the single coagulation test that has undergone the most extensive attempt at assay standardization. The international normalized ratio (INR was introduced to ‘‘normalize’’ all PT reagents to a World Health Organization (WHO reference thromboplastin preparation standard, such that a PT measured anywhere in the world would result in an INR value similar to that which would have been achieved had the WHO reference thromboplastin been utilized. However, INRs are reproducible between laboratories for only those patients who are stably anticoagulated with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs (i.e., at least 6 weeks of VKA therapy, and are not reliable or reproducible between laboratories for patients for whom VKA therapy has recently been started or any other clinical conditions associated with a prolonged PT such as liver disease, disseminated

  14. Monitoring of coalbed water retention ponds in the Powder River Basin using Google Earth images and an Unmanned Aircraft System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Zhou, Z.; Apple, M. E.; Spangler, L.

    2016-12-01

    To extract methane from unminable seams of coal in the Powder River Basin of Montana and Wyoming, coalbed methane (CBM) water has to be pumped and kept in retention ponds rather than discharged to the vadose zone to mix with the ground water. The water areal coverage of these ponds changes due to evaporation and repetitive refilling. The water quality also changes due to growing of microalgae (unicellular or filamentous including green algae and diatoms), evaporation, and refilling. To estimate the water coverage changes and monitor water quality becomes important for monitoring the CBM water retention ponds to provide timely management plan for the newly pumped CBM water. Conventional methods such as various water indices based on multi-spectral satellite data such as Landsat because of the small pond size ( 100mx100m scale) and low spatial resolution ( 30m scale) of the satellite data. In this study we will present new methods to estimate water coverage and water quality changes using Google Earth images and images collected from an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) (Phantom 2 plus). Because these images have only visible bands (red, green, and blue bands), the conventional water index methods that involve near-infrared bands do not work. We design a new method just based on the visible bands to automatically extract water pixels and the intensity of the water pixel as a proxy for water quality after a series of image processing such as georeferencing, resampling, filtering, etc. Differential GPS positions along the water edges were collected the same day as the images collected from the UAS. Area of the water area was calculated from the GPS positions and used for the validation of the method. Because of the very high resolution ( 10-30 cm scale), the water areal coverage and water quality distribution can be accurately estimated. Since the UAS can be flied any time, water area and quality information can be collected timely.

  15. Rotor speed estimation of induction machines by monitoring the stator voltages and currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, S.Y.S.; Langman, R.A. [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    Accurate measurement of induction motor speed is routinely obtained by using a transducer coupled on the shaft. In many industrial situations, this is not acceptable as there may be no room for a suitable transducer, or else the motor environment may be too unpleasant. It is in theory possible to calculate the speed by monitoring the terminal voltages and currents (plus knowing the angular synchronous speed) and then applying these to the differential equations of motor. Two rotor speed algorithms were investigated. Unsatisfactory results were obtained with an algorithm based on the machine equations in a stationary reference frame because at some stage the algorithm divides zero by zero. To avoid these problems the time varying stator voltages and currents were further transformed into the synchronous reference frame so that they end up with dc electrical quantities. This algorithm of obtaining the tangent of the phase angle, for the determination of the rotor speed, was discussed and tested. The analysis presented in this paper points out that the speed of induction motor may be estimated at about +- 0.1 percent uncertainty from measurement of the stator voltage and current. (author). 5 figs., 5 refs.

  16. Photochemical studies in low Earth orbit for organic compounds related to small bodies, Titan and Mars. Current and future facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, H.; Saiagh, K.; Nguyen, D.; Grand, N.; Bénilan, Y.; Cloix, M.; Coll, P.; Gazaux, M.-C.; Fray, N.; Khalaf, D.; Raulin, F.; Stalort, F.; Carrasco, N.; Szopa, C.; Chaput, D.; Bertrand, M.; Westall, F.; Mattioda, A.; Quinn, R.; Ricco, A.; Santos, O.; Baratta, G. A.; Strazzulla, G.; Palumbo, M. E.; Le Postollec, A.; Dobrijevic, M.; Coussot, G.; Vigier, F.; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, O.; Incerti, S.; Berger, T.

    2015-01-01

    The study of the evolution of organic matter subjected to space conditions, and more specifically to solar photons in the vacuum ultraviolet range (120-200 nm) has been undertaken in low Earth Orbit since the 90's, and implemented on various space platforms. The most recent exposure facilities are BIOPAN outside the Russian automatic capsules FOTON, and EXPOSE-E & -R (1&2) outside the International Space Station. They allow the photolysis of many different samples simultaneously, and provide us with valuable data about the formation and evolution of organic matter in the Solar System (meteorites, comets, Titan's atmosphere, the Martian surface...) and in the Interstellar Medium. They have been used by European teams in the recent past(ORGANIC on BIOPAN V-FOTON M2 and UVolution on BIOPAN VI-FOTON M3, PROCESS on EXPOSE-E, AMINO and ORGANICS on EXPOSE-R), and a new EXPOSE set is currently exposed outside the ISS (PSS on EXPOSE-R2). These existing tools are very valuable; however, they have significant limitations that limit their capabilities and scientific return. One of the most critical issues for current studies is the lack of any in-situ analysis of the evolution of the samples as a function of time. Only two measurements are available for the experiment: one before and one after the exposure. A significant step forward has been achieved with the O/OREOS NASA nanosatellite and the OREOcube ESA project with onboard UV-visible measurements. However, for organic samples, following the evolution of the samples would be more informative and provide greater insight with infrared measurements, which display specific patterns characteristic of major organic functionalities in the mid-infrared range (4000-1000 cm-1).

  17. Monitoring urban impervious surface area change using China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellites and HJ-1 remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Peijun; Xia, Junshi; Feng, Li

    2015-01-01

    Impervious surface area (ISA) plays an important role in monitoring urbanization and related environmental changes, and has become a hotspot in urban and environmental studies. Xuzhou City, located in northwest Jiangsu Province, China, is chosen as the study area, and two scenes of China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellites images and one scene of HJ-1 image are employed to estimate ISA percentage and analyze the change trend from 2001 to 2009. Using a linear spectral mixture model (LSMM) and nonlinear backpropagation neural network (BPNN) method, all pixels are decomposed to derive four fraction images representing the abundance of four endmembers: vegetation, high-albedo objects, low-albedo objects, and soil. The ISA percentage is then derived by the combination of high- and low-albedo fraction images after removing the influence of water. Some high spatial resolution images are selected to validate the ISA estimation results, and the experimental results indicate that the accuracy of BPNN is higher than LSMM. By comparing the urban ISA abundances derived by BPNN from three dates, it is found that the ISA of Xuzhou City has increased rapidly from 2001 to 2009, especially in the northeast and southeast regions, corresponding to the urban planning scheme and fast urbanization. Compared to other medium remote sensing images, the revisit cycle of HJ-1 multispectral image is only two days, demonstrating the potential of such data for ISA extraction in urbanization, disaster, and other related applications.

  18. Measuring and monitoring linear woody features in agricultural landscapes through earth observation data as an indicator of habitat availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasher, J.; McGovern, M.; Putinski, V.

    2016-02-01

    The loss of natural habitats and the loss of biological diversity is a global problem affecting all ecosystems including agricultural landscapes. Indicators of biodiversity can provide standardized measures that make it easier to compare and communicate changes to an ecosystem. In agricultural landscapes the amount and variety of available habitat is directly correlated with biodiversity levels. Linear woody features (LWF), including hedgerows, windbreaks, shelterbelts as well as woody shrubs along fields, roads and watercourses, play a vital role in supporting biodiversity as well as serving a wide variety of other purposes in the ecosystem. Earth observation can be used to quantify and monitor LWF across the landscape. While individual features can be manually mapped, this research focused on the development of methods using line intersect sampling (LIS) for estimating LWF as an indicator of habitat availability in agricultural landscapes. The methods are accurate, efficient, repeatable and provide robust results. Methods were tested over 9.5 Mha of agricultural landscape in the Canadian Mixedwood Plains ecozone. Approximately 97,000 km of LWF were estimated across this landscape with results useable both at a regional reporting scale, as well as mapped across space for use in wildlife habitat modelling or other landscape management research. The LIS approach developed here could be employed at a variety of scales in particular for large regions and could be adapted for use as a national scale indicator of habitat availability in heavily disturbed agricultural landscape.

  19. Monitoring dental-unit-water-line output water by current in-office test kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Sham; Singhrao, Sim K; Bricknell, Matt; Pearce, Mark; Morton, L H Glyn; Ahmed, Waqar; Crean, St John

    2014-08-01

    The importance of monitoring contamination levels in the output water of dental-unit-water-lines (DUWLs) is essential as they are prone to developing biofilms that may contaminate water that is used to treat patients, with opportunistic pathogens such as species of Legionella, Pseudomonas and others. Dentists and practice staff are also at risk of being infected by means of cross-infection due to aerosols generated from DUWL water. The unit of measurement for the microbial contamination of water by aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria is the colony-forming unit per millilitre (cfu/ml) of water. The UK has its own guidelines set by the Department of Health for water discharged from DUWL to be between 100 and 200 cfu/ml of water. The benchmark or accepted standard laboratory test is by microbiological culture on R2A agar plates. However, this is costly and not convenient for routine testing in dental practices. A number of commercial indicator tests are used in dental surgeries, but they were not developed for the dental market and serve only to indicate gross levels of contamination when used outside of the manufacturer's recommended incubation period. The aim of this article is to briefly review the universal problem of DUWL contamination with microbial biofilms and to update dental professionals on the availability of currently available commercial in-office monitoring systems for aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria and to discuss their limitations for testing water samples in assuring compliance with recommended guidelines.

  20. Coliform Bacteria Monitoring in Fish Systems: Current Practices in Public Aquaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, Erin E; Clayton, Leigh A; Hadfield, Catherine A; Arnold, Jill E; Bourbon, Holly M

    2016-06-01

    Public aquaria evaluate coliform indicator bacteria levels in fish systems, but the purpose of testing, testing methods, and management responses are not standardized, unlike with the coliform bacteria testing for marine mammal enclosures required by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. An online survey was sent to selected aquaria to document current testing and management practices in fish systems without marine mammals. The information collected included indicator bacteria species, the size and type of systems monitored, the primary purpose of testing, sampling frequency, test methods, the criteria for interpreting results, corrective actions, and management changes to limit human exposure. Of the 25 institutions to which surveys were sent, 19 (76%) responded. Fourteen reported testing for fecal indicator bacteria in fish systems. The most commonly tested indicator species were total (86%) and fecal (79%) coliform bacteria, which were detected by means of the membrane filtration method (64%). Multiple types and sizes of systems were tested, and the guidelines for testing and corrective actions were highly variable. Only three institutions performed additional tests to confirm the identification of indicator organisms. The results from this study can be used to compare bacterial monitoring practices and protocols in fish systems, as an aid to discussions relating to the accuracy and reliability of test results, and to help implement appropriate management responses. Received August 23, 2015; accepted December 29, 2015.

  1. Current techniques in acid-chloride corrosion control and monitoring at The Geysers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirtz, Paul; Buck, Cliff; Kunzman, Russell

    1991-01-01

    Acid chloride corrosion of geothermal well casings, production piping and power plant equipment has resulted in costly corrosion damage, frequent curtailments of power plants and the permanent shut-in of wells in certain areas of The Geysers. Techniques have been developed to mitigate these corrosion problems, allowing continued production of steam from high chloride wells with minimal impact on production and power generation facilities.The optimization of water and caustic steam scrubbing, steam/liquid separation and process fluid chemistry has led to effective and reliable corrosion mitigation systems currently in routine use at The Geysers. When properly operated, these systems can yield steam purities equal to or greater than those encountered in areas of The Geysers where chloride corrosion is not a problem. Developments in corrosion monitoring techniques, steam sampling and analytical methodologies for trace impurities, and computer modeling of the fluid chemistry has been instrumental in the success of this technology.

  2. Measuring microchannel electroosmotic mobility and zeta potential by the current monitoring method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chenren; Devoe, Don L

    2013-01-01

    Electroosmotic flow (EOF) is an electrokinetic flow control technique widely used in microfluidic systems for applications including direct electrokinetic pumping, hydrodynamic pressure generation, and counterflow for microfluidic separations. During EOF, an electric field is applied along the length of a microchannel containing an electrolyte, with mobile ions near the charged microchannel walls experiencing a Coulomb force due to electrostatic interactions with the applied electric field that leads to bulk solution movement. The goal of this laboratory is to experimentally determine the fixed channel surface charge (zeta potential) and electroosmotic mobility associated with a given microchannel substrate material and buffer solution, using a simple current monitoring method to measure the average flow velocity within the microchannel. It is a straightforward experiment designed to help students understand EOF physics while gaining hands-on experience with basic world-to-chip interfacing. It is well suited to a 90-min laboratory session for up to 12 students with minimal infrastructure requirements.

  3. Monitoring And Recording Data For Solar Radiation Temperature And Charging Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung Bhone Myint

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A data logger based on 8051 microcontroller has been implemented in this project to measure the solar radiation temperature and charging current. Development of a low-cost data logger can easily be made and easily be used to convert the analog signal of physical parameters of various test or other purposes of engineering. By using a suitable program code it can be used to read the value digitally with a PC. Our aim is to provide with a module and a software package when installed in a computer one can remotely acquire and monitor several numbers of the same or different types of signals sequentially at a time. Signals obtained from various sensors have been effectively conditioned. Now interfacing these signals using ADC with the Bluetooth module port of a computer satisfies the very goal of data acquisition. Proposed system provides better performance and has low cost versatile portable.

  4. New turbidity current model based on high-resolution monitoring of the longest flow ever measured

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpiroz, Maria; Cartigny, Matthieu; Talling, Peter; Parsons, Daniel; Simmons, Steve; Clare, Michael; Sumner, Esther; Pope, Ed

    2016-04-01

    Turbidity currents transport large amounts of sediment from shallow waters towards deep ocean basins. Little is known about these flows, despite their potential hazard for damaging expensive and strategically important seafloor infrastructure. So far turbidity currents have been profiled in only 6 deep ocean locations worldwide. Our current knowledge of these flows is therefore mainly based on scaled-down experimental and computationally-limited numerical modelling. Here we present results from the monitoring of a one-week long turbidity current in the Congo Canyon that had a discharge close to that of the Mississippi River. Measurements taken every 5 seconds give the most detailed image yet of a turbidity current deep-water over an unprecedented duration. Our analysis reveals a different flow structure than that presented in previous models. Classical models display a thick front of the flow followed by a thinner and faster flow, which gives way to a short and quasi-steady body. Instead, we observe a thin frontal cell that outruns a thicker (~80 m), long and slower quasi-steady flow. In contrast to the previous model, where the thinner faster flow feeds sediment into the head, the Congo Canyon turbidity current shows a frontal cell that feeds sediment into, and at the same time outruns, the succeeding quasi-steady flow. As a result of the faster moving frontal cell, the flow should continuously stretch and grow in length while propagating down the system. Within the quasi-steady body, the flow switches between what appears to be two stable flow modes. One mode exhibits a fast and thin velocity profile whose maximum is a low distance from the seabed and resembles Froude-supercritical flow conditions, while the other mode is similar to Froude-subcritical flow conditions as the flow is thicker and slower. These first observations provide new insights into the behaviour of deep water long duration flows that differ from traditional models and provide an exciting

  5. An Inquiry Approach to Fostering Stronger Earth Science Backgrounds in Current and Future Middle and High School Science Teachers: Research Techniques as Mechanisms of Teaching Time Scales and Systems Interactions in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, J. G.; Finkel, E.; Froburg, E.; Graham, K.; Hale, S.; Johnson, J. E.; Varner, R. K.; von Damm, K. L.; Fellows, T.

    2008-12-01

    Earth science provides an ideal opportunity to integrate authentic research into middle and high school curricula by providing a context for teaching scientific content, promoting a sense of intrigue through the inquiry process, and sharpening skills needed for future scientific endeavors. The University of New Hampshire's offerings as part of the Transforming Earth System Science Education (TESSE) project provide for the professional development of in-service and pre-service middle and high school science teachers. A centerpiece of the TESSE program is an entry-level accelerated course in Earth Systems Science (Earth System Science for Teachers, ESST-1). Participants in the ESST-1 course include current and prospective teachers wishing to improve their Earth science content background or those interested in updating their traditional content background to include a systems approach. Time scale and system interactions significant in the Earth System are introduced through authentic research conducted during field trips, research experiences and working with long-term datasets. Teachers are trained in keeping a field notebook, making field observations, and drawing conclusions based on this evidence. Combining these techniques with digital photography, teachers document evidence of Earth system processes and their associated timescales, presenting their findings in a peer-group poster session. Teachers also participate in research-based field trips to the local estuary and a wetland research site. During the following school year, the teachers are paired with science graduate fellows to integrate inquiry- based research with existing curricula. These classroom collaborations include measurement techniques, process skills and methods of communicating evidence learned during the summer institute that are then incorporated into the classroom activities. In addition to effecting change at the curriculum-development level, the graduate fellows paired with the first

  6. Eddy current monitoring of fatigue crack growth in Zr-2.5% Nb pressure tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, T. W.; Martin, A. E.; Sheppard, R. R.; Schankula, J. J.

    2000-05-01

    Zr-2.5% wt. Nb pressure tubes (PTs) form the core of the heat transport system in CANDU nuclear reactors. These 6 m long, 100 mm diameter tubes are operated at elevated temperatures (nominally 300 °C) and at pressures that produce hoop stresses that are 25% of the ultimate tensile strength of the PT (120 Mpa). Therefore, detection and characterization of flaws in these components becomes crucial for their continued pressure retaining integrity. If a flaw is detected, however, the cost of PT replacement is expensive. Periodic in-service inspection of a flaw that demonstrates no change in flaw characteristics can be used to allow a pressure tube to remain in-service. This requires confidence in the accuracy and reliability of methods used to inter flaw characteristics. Such confidence can only be developed by comparing nondestructive predictions with results from destructive examinations. In this work, eddy current testing was used to monitor the progressive stages of a fatigue crack, grown through pressure cycling from a notch on the inner surface of a PT. Results from a differential lift-off compensated eddy current probe were used to produce sizing estimates of the crack grown between 35% (base of notch) and 74% of the PT wall. A comparison with a destructive examination of the crack demonstrated sensitivity too changes in crack depth accurate to 5% of the tube wall thickness. Such results, combined with similar information obtained from ultrasonics will increase confidence in interpretation of PT inspection data.

  7. Hydrology of and Current Monitoring Issues for the Chicago Area Waterway System, Northeastern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, James J.; Johnson, Kevin K.

    2015-10-28

    The Chicago Area Waterway System (CAWS) consists of a combination of natural and manmade channels that form an interconnected navigable waterway of approximately 90-plus miles in the metropolitan Chicago area of northeastern Illinois. The CAWS serves the area as the primary drainage feature, a waterway transportation corridor, and recreational waterbody. The CAWS was constructed by the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC). Completion of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (initial portion of the CAWS) in 1900 breached a low drainage divide and resulted in a diversion of water from the Lake Michigan Basin. A U.S. Supreme Court decree (Consent Decree 388 U.S. 426 [1967] Modified 449 U.S. 48 [1980]) limits the annual diversion from Lake Michigan. While the State of Illinois is responsible for the diversion, the MWRDGC regulates and maintains water level and water quality within the CAWS by using several waterway control structures. The operation and control of water levels in the CAWS results in a very complex hydraulic setting characterized by highly unsteady flows. The complexity leads to unique gaging requirements and monitoring issues. This report provides a general discussion of the complex hydraulic setting within the CAWS and quantifies this information with examples of data collected at a range of flow conditions from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gaging stations and other locations within the CAWS. Monitoring to address longstanding issues of waterway operation, as well as current (2014) emerging issues such as wastewater disinfection and the threat from aquatic invasive species, is included in the discussion.

  8. Monitoring suspended sediment transport in an ice-affected river using acoustic Doppler current profilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S. A.; Ghareh Aghaji Zare, S.; Rennie, C. D.; Ahmari, H.; Seidou, O.

    2013-12-01

    Quantifying sediment budgets and understanding the processes which control fluvial sediment transport is paramount to monitoring river geomorphology and ecological habitat. In regions that are subject to freezing there is the added complexity of ice. River ice processes impact flow distribution, water stage and sediment transport. Ice processes typically have the largest impact on sediment transport and channel morphodynamics when ice jams occur during ice cover formation and breakup. Ice jams may restrict flow and cause local acceleration when released. Additionally, ice can mechanically scour river bed and banks. Under-ice sediment transport measurements are lacking due to obvious safety and logistical reasons, in addition to a lack of adequate measurement techniques. Since some rivers can be covered in ice during six months of the year, the lack of data in winter months leads to large uncertainty in annual sediment load calculations. To address this problem, acoustic profilers are being used to monitor flow velocity, suspended sediment and ice processes in the Lower Nelson River, Manitoba, Canada. Acoustic profilers are ideal for under-ice sediment flux measurements since they can be operated autonomously and continuously, they do not disturb the flow in the zone of measurement and acoustic backscatter can be related to sediment size and concentration. In March 2012 two upward-facing profilers (1200 kHz acoustic Doppler current profiler, 546 KHz acoustic backscatter profiler) were installed through a hole in the ice on the Nelson River, 50 km downstream of the Limestone Generating Station. Data were recorded for four months, including both stable cover and breakup periods. This paper presents suspended sediment fluxes calculated from the acoustic measurements. Velocity data were used to infer the vertical distribution of sediment sizes and concentrations; this information was then used in the interpretation of the backscattered intensity data. It was found that

  9. Research and Technology Development to Advance Environmental Monitoring, Food Systems, and Habitat Design for Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.; Perchonek, M. H.; Ott, C. M.; Kaiser, M. K.

    2011-01-01

    Exploration missions will carry crews far beyond the relatively safe environs of cis-lunar space. Such trips will have little or no opportunity for resupply or rapid aborts and will be of a duration that far exceeds our experience to date. The challenges this imposes on the requirements of systems that monitor the life support and provide food and shelter for the crew are the focus of much research within the Human Research Program. Making all of these technologies robust and reliable enough for multi-year missions with little or no ability to run for home calls for a thorough understanding of the risks and impacts of failure. The way we currently monitor for microbial contamination of water, air, and surfaces, by sampling and growing cultures on nutrient media, must be reconsidered for exploration missions which have limited capacity for consumables. Likewise, the shelf life of food must be increased so that the nutrients required to keep the crewmembers healthy do not degrade over the life of the mission. Improved formulations, preservation, packaging, and storage technologies are all being investigated for ways slow this process or replace stowed food with key food items grown fresh in situ. Ensuring that the mass and volume of a spacecraft are used to maximum efficiency calls for infusing human factors into the design from its inception to increase efficiency, improve performance, and retain robustness toward operational realities. Integrating the human system with the spacecraft systems is the focus of many lines of investigation.

  10. Requirements for an Advanced Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Sounder (ALS) for Improved Regional Weather Prediction and Monitoring of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; Susskind, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Hyperspectral infrared atmospheric sounders (e.g., the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on Aqua and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on Met Op) provide highly accurate temperature and water vapor profiles in the lower to upper troposphere. These systems are vital operational components of our National Weather Prediction system and the AIRS has demonstrated over 6 hrs of forecast improvement on the 5 day operational forecast. Despite the success in the mid troposphere to lower stratosphere, a reduction in sensitivity and accuracy has been seen in these systems in the boundary layer over land. In this paper we demonstrate the potential improvement associated with higher spatial resolution (1 km vs currently 13.5 km) on the accuracy of boundary layer products with an added consequence of higher yield of cloud free scenes. This latter feature is related to the number of samples that can be assimilated and has also shown to have a significant impact on improving forecast accuracy. We also present a set of frequencies and resolutions that will improve vertical resolution of temperature and water vapor and trace gas species throughout the atmosphere. Development of an Advanced Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Sounder (ALS) with these improvements will improve weather forecast at the regional scale and of tropical storms and hurricanes. Improvements are also expected in the accuracy of the water vapor and cloud properties products, enhancing process studies and providing a better match to the resolution of future climate models. The improvements of technology required for the ALS are consistent with the current state of technology as demonstrated in NASA Instrument Incubator Program and NOAA's Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) formulation phase development programs.

  11. Requirements for an Advanced Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Sounder (ALS) for improved regional weather prediction and monitoring of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; Susskind, Joel

    2008-12-01

    Hyperspectral infrared atmospheric sounders (e.g. the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on Aqua and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on MetOp) provide highly accurate temperature and water vapor profiles in the lower to upper troposphere. These systems are vital operational components of our National Weather Prediction system and the AIRS has demonstrated over 6 hrs of forecast improvement on the 5 day operational forecast1. Despite the success in the mid troposphere to lower stratosphere, a reduction in sensitivity and accuracy has been seen in these systems in the boundary layer over land. In this paper we demonstrate the potential improvement associated with higher spatial resolution (1km vs currently 13.5 km) on the accuracy of boundary layer products with an added consequence of higher yield of cloud free scenes. This latter feature is related to the number of samples that can be assimilated and has also shown to have a significant impact on improving forecast accuracy. We also present a set of frequencies and resolutions that will improve vertical resolution of temperature and water vapor and trace gas species throughout the atmosphere. Development of an Advanced Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Sounder (ALS) with these improvements will improve weather forecast at the regional scale and of tropical storms and hurricanes. Improvements are also expected in the accuracy of the water vapor and cloud properties products, enhancing process studies and providing a better match to the resolution of future climate models. The improvements of technology required for the ALS are consistent with the current state of technology as demonstrated in NASA Instrument Incubator Program and NOAA's Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) formulation phase development programs.

  12. Detecting and monitoring of water inrush in tunnels and coal mines using direct current resistivity method: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Shucai Li; Bin Liu; Lichao Nie; Zhengyu Liu; Mingzhen Tian; Shirui Wang; Maoxin Su; Qian Guo

    2015-01-01

    Detecting, real-time monitoring and early warning of underground water-bearing structures are critically important issues in prevention and mitigation of water inrush hazards in underground engineering. Direct current (DC) resistivity method is a widely used method for routine detection, advanced detection and real-time monitoring of water-bearing structures, due to its high sensitivity to groundwater. In this study, the DC resistivity method applied to underground engineering is reviewed and...

  13. Preconditioning and triggering of offshore slope failures and turbidity currents revealed by most detailed monitoring yet at a fjord-head delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, M. A.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.; Talling, P. J.; Cartigny, M. J. B.; Pratomo, D. G.

    2016-09-01

    Rivers and turbidity currents are the two most important sediment transport processes by volume on Earth. Various hypotheses have been proposed for triggering of turbidity currents offshore from river mouths, including direct plunging of river discharge, delta mouth bar flushing or slope failure caused by low tides and gas expansion, earthquakes and rapid sedimentation. During 2011, 106 turbidity currents were monitored at Squamish Delta, British Columbia. This enables statistical analysis of timing, frequency and triggers. The largest peaks in river discharge did not create hyperpycnal flows. Instead, delayed delta-lip failures occurred 8-11 h after flood peaks, due to cumulative delta top sedimentation and tidally-induced pore pressure changes. Elevated river discharge is thus a significant control on the timing and rate of turbidity currents but not directly due to plunging river water. Elevated river discharge and focusing of river discharge at low tides cause increased sediment transport across the delta-lip, which is the most significant of all controls on flow timing in this setting.

  14. Monitoring transcranial direct current stimulation induced changes in cortical excitability during the serial reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, Géza Gergely; Chaieb, Leila; Stilling, Roman; Rothkegel, Holger; Antal, Andrea; Paulus, Walter

    2016-03-11

    The measurement of the motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes using single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a common method to observe changes in motor cortical excitability. The level of cortical excitability has been shown to change during motor learning. Conversely, motor learning can be improved by using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). In the present study, we aimed to monitor cortical excitability changes during an implicit motor learning paradigm, a version of the serial reaction time task (SRTT). Responses from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and forearm flexor (FLEX) muscles were recorded before, during and after the performance of the SRTT. Online measurements were combined with anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS for the duration of the SRTT. Negative correlations between the amplitude of online FDI MEPs and SRTT reaction times (RTs) were observed across the learning blocks in the cathodal condition (higher average MEP amplitudes associated with lower RTs) but no significant differences in the anodal and sham conditions. tDCS did not have an impact on SRTT performance, as would be predicted based on previous studies. The offline before-after SRTT MEP amplitudes showed an increase after anodal and a tendency to decrease after cathodal stimulation, but these changes were not significant. The combination of different interventions during tDCS might result in reduced efficacy of the stimulation that in future studies need further attention.

  15. Current status of radon and radium monitoring at the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR), PR, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Schelin, Hugo R.; Denyak, Valeriy; Barbosa, Laercio; Perna, Allan F.N. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Numerous and systematic studies performed in different countries for many decades resulted in the explicit conclusion that radon exposure, as well as its progeny, is the main cause of lung cancer among non-smokers. All three natural radon isotopes ({sup 222}Rn, {sup 220}Rn and {sup 219}Rn) are produced in the three principal natural radioactive decay chains. Specifically, the {sup 222}Rn is produced by the decay series of {sup 238}U and proceeded from {alpha}-decay of {sup 226}Ra. Current work describes the present status and obtained results concerning indoor radon survey in dwellings, radon in water supply and soil gas tests performed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR) within Curitiba urban area. For radon in air activity measurements, it was used polycarbonate etched track detectors such as LEXAN (GE) and CR-39, mounted in diffusion chambers. For soil gas measurements, the experimental setup was based on the Professional Radon Monitor (AlphaGUARD, Genitron/SAPHYMO) connected to the air pump with filter vessels and to specially developed in our Laboratory the Soil Gas Probe. In the case of radon tests in drinking water, the experimental setup was based on the AlphaGUARD Radon monitor and Electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.) connected to special kit of glass vessels through the air pump. Obtained results permitted to identify few dwellings where radon concentration in air was found bigger than 600 Bq/m{sup 3} which is considered as the action level by most of the European Community and the World Health Organization (WHO). In the case of studied artesian wells, collected samples of water presented the average {sup 222}Rn activity about 60 Bq/L which is 6 times bigger than maximum level recommended by USEPA. Some artesian wells presented the radon activity of almost 200 Bq/L. More over, it was identified the radioactivity of radium ({sup 226}Ra) salts which are soluble in water and almost

  16. Inventory of current environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C.S.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Chapman, E.G.

    1986-05-01

    This document presents the results of a study commissioned to survey and summarize major environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region. Projects with field sites located within 400 km (250 mi) of the border and active after 1980 were reviewed. The types of projects included: ambient air-quality monitoring, ambient water-quality monitoring, deposition monitoring, forest/vegetation monitoring and research, soil studies, and ecosystem studies. Ecosystem studies included projects involving the measurement of parameters from more than one monitoring category (e.g., studies that measured both water and soil chemistry). Individual descriptions were formulated for 184 projects meeting the spatial and temporal criteria. Descriptions included the official title for the project, its common abbreviation, program emphasis, monitoring site locations, time period conducted, parameters measured, protocols employed, frequency of sample collection, data storage information, and the principal contact for the project. A summary inventory subdivided according to the six monitoring categories was prepared using a computerized data management system. Information on major centralized data bases in the field of environmental monitoring was also obtained, and summary descriptions were prepared. The inventory and data base descriptions are presented in appendices to this document.

  17. Development of online instructional resources for Earth system science education: An example of current practice from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shaochun; Xu, Shijin; Lu, Xiancai

    2009-06-01

    Educators around the world are striving to make science more accessible and relevant to students. Online instructional resources have become an integral component of tertiary science education and will continue to grow in influence and importance over the coming decades. A case study in the iterative improvement of the online instructional resources provided for first-year undergraduates taking " Introductory Earth System Science" at Nanjing University in China is presented in this paper. Online instructional resources are used to conduct a student-centered learning model in the domain of Earth system science, resulting in a sustainable online instructional framework for students and instructors. The purpose of our practice is to make Earth system science education more accessible and exciting to students, changing instruction from a largely textbook-based teacher-centered approach to a more interactive and student-centered approach, and promoting the integration of knowledge and development of deep understanding by students. Evaluation on learning performance and learning satisfaction is conducted to identify helpful components and perception based on students' learning activities. The feedbacks indicate that the use of online instructional resources has positive impacts on mitigating Earth system science education challenges, and has the potential to promote deep learning.

  18. Monitoring and adaptive resistance management in Australia for Bt-cotton: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Sharon; Mahon, Rod; Olsen, Karen

    2007-07-01

    In the mid-1990 s the Australian Cotton industry adopted an insect-resistant variety of cotton (Ingard) which expresses the Bt toxin Cry1Ac that is specific to a group of insects including the target Helicoverpa armigera. A conservative resistance management plan (RMP), that restricted the area planted to Ingard, was implemented to preserve the efficacy of Cry1Ac until two-gene transgenic cotton was available. In 2004/05 Bollgard II replaced Ingard as the transgenic cotton available in Australia. It improves on Ingard by incorporating an additional insecticidal protein (Cry2Ab). If an appropriate refuge is grown, there is no restriction on the area planted to Bollgard II. In 2004/05 and 2005/06 the Bollgard II acreage represented approximately 80 of the total area planted to cotton in Australia. The sensitivity of field-collected populations of H. armigera to Bt products was assayed before and subsequent to the widespread deployment of Ingard cotton. In 2002 screens against Cry2Ab were developed in preparation for replacement of Ingard with Bollgard II. There have been no reported field failures of Bollgard II due to resistance. However, while alleles that confer resistance to H. armigera in the field are rare for Cry1Ac, they are surprisingly common for Cry2Ab. We present an overview of the current approach adopted in Australia to monitor and adaptively manage resistance to Bt-cotton in field populations of H. armigera and discuss the implications of our findings to date. We also highlight future challenges for resistance management in Australia, many of which extend to other Bt-crop and pest systems.

  19. Current long-term negative average annual energy balance of the earth leads to the new little ice age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdussamatov Habibullo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The average annual decreasing rate of the total solar irradiance (TSI is increasing from the 22-nd to the 23-rd and 24-th cycles, because the Sun since the 1990 is in the phase decline of quasi-bicentennial variation. The portion of the solar energy absorbed by the Earth is decreasing. Decrease in the portion of TSI absorbed by the Earth since 1990 remains uncompensated by the Earth's radiation into space at the previous high level over a time interval determined by the thermal inertia of the Ocean. A long-term negative deviation of the Earth’s average annual energy balance from the equilibrium state is dictating corresponding variations in it’s the energy state. As a result, the Earth will have a negative average annual energy balance also in the future. This will lead to the beginning of the decreasing in the Earth's temperature and of the epoch of the Little Ice Age after the maximum phase of the 24-th solar cycle approximately since the end of 2014. The influence of the consecutive chain of the secondary feedback effects (the increase in the Bond albedo and the decrease in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere due to cooling will lead to an additional reduction of the absorbed solar energy and reduce the greenhouse effect. The start of the TSI’s Grand Minimum is anticipated in the solar cycle 27±1 in 2043±11 and the beginning of the phase of deep cooling of the 19th Little Ice Age for the past 7,500 years around 2060±11.

  20. 太湖流域水资源保护天地一体化监测体系构想%An Idea of An Integrated Sky-earth Monitoring System for Water Resources Protection in Taihu Lake Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左一鸣; 李健; 林荷娟

    2013-01-01

    According to current status and existing problems of monitoring for water resources protection in the Taihu lake valley, the essay provides an idea of an integrated sky-earth monitoring system for water resources protection in the Taihu lake valley based on the application of remote sensing at water environment monitoring. The system consists of network guarantee system, standard system, satellite-earth monitoring system, analysis and evaluation system, and early-warning system. The satellite-earth monitoring system offers monitoring measures of satellite remote-sensing imagery monitoring, automatic water quantity and quality station monitoring, conventional tour gauging and additional mobile gauging. Through a comparison between tour gauging data, automatic monitoring station data and analytic data from satellite remote-sensing images, water environment status distribution of the valley can be analogized. By using standard system to ensure data consistency, network guarantee system to ensure data integration, analysis and evaluation system to describe data utility, and early-warning system to predict and prevent future events based on monitoring data, an overall integrated monitoring is realized.%  针对太湖流域原有水资源保护监测的现状和存在问题,结合遥感技术在水环境监测中的应用,提出太湖流域水资源保护天地一体化监测体系的构想。一体化监测体系包括网络保障、标准、星地监测、分析评价和预警等系统,其中星地监测体系包括遥感卫片监测、水量水质自动站监测、常规巡测和移动加测,这4种监测手段各有优缺点,具体监测时以常规巡测和自动站监测数据为基础,通过与遥感卫片解析数据进行比对,建立相关关系,类推出全流域水环境现状分布情况;标准体系建设保障监测数据的一致性;网络保障体系建设保障数据的完整性;分析评价系统是对监测数据的实用性

  1. The Sea Monitoring Virtual Research Community (VRC) in the EVER-EST Project (a virtual research environment for the Earth Sciences).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglini, Federica; Boero, Ferdinando; Guarino, Raffaele

    2016-04-01

    The EU's H2020 EVER-EST Project is dedicated to the realization of a Virtual Research Environment (VRE) for Earth Science researchers during 2015-2018. In this framework the Sea monitoring represents one of the four use case VRCs chosen to validate the EVER-EST e-infrastructure, which is aimed at representing a wide and multidisciplinary Earth Science domain. The objective of the Sea Monitoring Virtual Research Community (VRC) is to provide useful and applicable contributions to the identification and definition of variables indicated by the European Commission in the Marine Directive under the framework for Good Environment Status (GES). The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, http://ec.europa.eu/environment/marine/index_en.htm) has defined the descriptors for Good Environmental Status in marine waters. The first descriptor is biodiversity; the second one is the presence of non-indigenous species while the remaining nine (even when they consider physical, chemical or geological variables) require proper functioning of the ecosystem, linked to a good state of biodiversity. The Sea Monitoring VRC is direct to provide practical methods, procedures and protocols to support coherent and widely accepted interpretation of the Descriptors 1(Biodiversity), 2 (non- indigenous species), 4 (food webs) and 6 (seafloor integrity) identified in GES. In that context, the criteria and methodological standards already identified by the European Commission, and at same time considering the activities and projects in progress in the marine framework, will be taken into account. This research of practical methods to estimate and measure GES parameters requires a close cooperation among different disciplines including: biologists, geologists, geophysics, oceanographers, Earth observation experts and others. It will also require a number of different types of scientific data and observations (e.g. biology related, chemico-physical, etc.) from different inputs and sensors

  2. Seismicity observed, at Methoni seismogenic area, Greece, after the analysis of the recorded Earth_s electric field of 21/2/2008_ 22/2/2008, at PYR, ATH and HIO monitoring sites, Greece

    CERN Document Server

    Thanassoulas, Constantine

    2008-01-01

    The seismicity, which took place at the Methoni seismogenic area, in the time period of 20/2/2008 - 10/4/2008, is analyzed in terms of its location, time of occurrence and magnitude. Furthermore, it is compared to the tidal (T=14 days, T=1 day) lithospheric oscillation and to the epicentral area suggested by the analysis of the Earth_s electric field registered on 21-22/2/2008 by PYR, ATH and HIO monitoring sites. Moreover, a comparison is made between the actual seismic energy released, during the same time period (20/2/2008 - 10/4/2008) in this specific seismogenic region and the suggested one by the probabilistic single seismic event suggested that could occur in the time period of 28/2_ 1/3/2008. The overall analysis of the Methoni seismic event reveals the validity of the used physical models: of the lithospheric oscillation, of the lithospheric seismic energy release and the one of the homogeneous Earth used for the azimuthal intensity vector analysis of the preseismic electric signals (Thanassoulas, 20...

  3. The Diagnosis and Hemodynamic Monitoring of Circulatory Shock: Current and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendy Adham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Circulatory shock is a complex clinical syndrome encompassing a group of conditions that can arise from different etiologies and presented by several different hemodynamic patterns. If not corrected, cell dysfunction, irreversible multiple organ insufficiency, and death may occur. The four basic types of shock, hypovolemic, cardiogenic, obstructive and distributive, have features similar to that of hemodynamic shock. It is therefore essential, when monitoring hemodynamic shock, to making accurate clinical assessments which will guide and dictate appropriate management therapy. The European Society of Intensive Care has recently made recommendations for monitoring hemodynamic shock. The present paper discusses the issues raised in the new statements, including individualization of blood pressure targets, prediction of fluid responsiveness, and the use of echocardiography as the first means during the initial evaluation of circulatory shock. Also, the place of more invasive hemodynamic monitoring techniques and future trends in hemodynamic and metabolic monitoring in circulatory shock, will be debated.

  4. Electrocardiographic practices: the current report of monitoring and education in Veterans Affairs facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaremba, Jennifer L; Carroll, Karen; Manley, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, practice standards for electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring were published to address the need for an expanded use of ECG monitoring beyond heart rate and basic rhythm determination. This article reports the data collected from a survey distributed throughout the Veterans Healthcare Administration hospitals to determine the extent to which practice standards have been adopted. Survey data were used to identify the differences between actual practice and evidence-based standards. The results were divided into ECG electrode application, lead selection, alarm limits, monitoring capabilities, monitoring during patient transport, and education and competencies. The results confirm the need for improvement, including a thorough evaluation of facility practices and education. The data demonstrate the differences among actual practice and evidence-based recommendations.

  5. Application of structural health monitoring technologies to bio-systems: current status and path forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Suresh; Srivastava, Shashank; Suresh, Rupali; Moharana, Sumedha; Kaur, Naveet; Gupta, Ashok

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a case for extension of structural health monitoring (SHM) technologies to offer solutions for biomedical problems. SHM research has made remarkable progress during the last two/ three decades. These technologies are now being extended for possible applications in the bio-medical field. Especially, smart materials, such as piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) patches and fibre-Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, offer a new set of possibilities to the bio-medical community to augment their conventional set of sensors, tools and equipment. The paper presents some of the recent extensions of SHM, such as condition monitoring of bones, monitoring of dental implant post surgery and foot pressure measurement. Latest developments, such as non-bonded configuration of PZT patches for monitoring bones and possible applications in osteoporosis detection, are also discussed. In essence, there is a whole new gamut of new possibilities for SHM technologies making their foray into the bi-medical sector.

  6. Mobile health in cardiology: a review of currently available medical apps and equipment for remote monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treskes, Roderick Willem; van der Velde, Enno Tjeerd; Barendse, Rogier; Bruining, Nico

    2016-09-01

    Recent developments in implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) and smartphone technology have increased the possibilities for remote monitoring. It is the purpose of this review to give an overview of these new possibilities. Remote monitoring in ICD allows for early detection of lead fractures and remote follow-up of patients. Possible limitations are the lack of standardization and the possible unsafety of the data stored on the ICD. Secondly, remote monitoring of health parameters using smartphone compatible wearables and smartphone medical apps is addressed. Possible limitations include the fact that the majority of smartphone apps are unregulated by the regulatory authorities and privacy issues such as selling of app-generated data to third parties. Lastly, clinical studies with smartphone apps are discussed. Expert commentary: New technologies in ICDs and smartphones have the potential to be used for remote monitoring. However, unreliability of smartphone technology, inadequate legislation and lack of reimbursement impede implementation.

  7. Upgrading the Digital Electronics of the PEP-II Bunch Current Monitors at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Josh; /SLAC

    2006-08-28

    The testing of the upgrade prototype for the bunch current monitors (BCMs) in the PEP-II storage rings at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is the topic of this paper. Bunch current monitors are used to measure the charge in the electron/positron bunches traveling in particle storage rings. The BCMs in the PEP-II storage rings need to be upgraded because components of the current system have failed and are known to be failure prone with age, and several of the integrated chips are no longer produced making repairs difficult if not impossible. The main upgrade is replacing twelve old (1995) field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) with a single Virtex II FPGA. The prototype was tested using computer synthesis tools, a commercial signal generator, and a fast pulse generator.

  8. Monitoring tooth profile faults in epicyclic gearboxes using synchronously averaged motor currents: Mathematical modeling and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottewill, J. R.; Ruszczyk, A.; Broda, D.

    2017-02-01

    Time-varying transmission paths and inaccessibility can increase the difficulty in both acquiring and processing vibration signals for the purpose of monitoring epicyclic gearboxes. Recent work has shown that the synchronous signal averaging approach may be applied to measured motor currents in order to diagnose tooth faults in parallel shaft gearboxes. In this paper we further develop the approach, so that it may also be applied to monitor tooth faults in epicyclic gearboxes. A low-degree-of-freedom model of an epicyclic gearbox which incorporates the possibility of simulating tooth faults, as well as any subsequent tooth contact loss due to these faults, is introduced. By combining this model with a simple space-phasor model of an induction motor it is possible to show that, in theory, tooth faults in epicyclic gearboxes may be identified from motor currents. Applying the synchronous averaging approach to experimentally recorded motor currents and angular displacements recorded from a shaft mounted encoder, validate this finding. Comparison between experiments and theory highlight the influence of operating conditions, backlash and shaft couplings on the transient response excited in the currents by the tooth fault. The results obtained suggest that the method may be a viable alternative or complement to more traditional methods for monitoring gearboxes. However, general observations also indicate that further investigations into the sensitivity and robustness of the method would be beneficial.

  9. Review of current activities to model and measure the orbital debris environment in low-earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R. C.

    A very active orbital debris program is currently being pursued at the NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC), with projects designed to better define the current environment, to project future environments, to model the processes contributing to or constraining the growth of debris in the environment, and to gather supporting data needed to improve the understanding of the orbital debris problem and the hazard it presents to spacecraft. This paper is a review of the activity being conducted at JSC, by NASA, Lockheed Engineering and Sciences Company, and other support contractors, and presents a review of current activity, results of current research, and a discussion of directions for future development.

  10. Indonesia municiple solid waste life cycle and environmental monitoring: current situation, before and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmono

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia is a big country with circa 250 million population, with more than 500 Local Governments and they are going to improve their municiple solid waste dumping method from Open Dumping to Sanitary Landfill (SLF) and to promote Reduce-Reuse-Recycling (3R) since many years ago, and it is strengthened by issuing of Solid Waste Management Act No.18/2008, MSW Government Regulation No.12/2012 and other regulations which are issued by Central Government and Local Governments. During “Water and Sanitation Decade 1980-1990” through “Integrated Urban Infrastructures Development Program” some pilot project such as 30 units of 3R station were developed in the urban areas, and modified or simplification of SLF call Controlled Landfill (CLF) were implemented. In the year of 2002 about 45 units of composting pilot projects were developed under “Western Java Environmental Management Project”, and the result was notified that some of them are not sustain because many aspects. At the beginning of 2007 until now, some pilot projects of 3R were continued in some cities and since 2011 some Waste Banks are growing fast. In the year of 2014 was recorded that of 70 % of 3Rs in Java Island well developed (2014, Directorate of Environment Sanitation Report), and in the year of 2012 was recorded that development of Communal Waste Banks were growing fast during two months from 400 units to 800 units (2012, Ministry of Environment report), now more Communal Waste Banks all ready exist. After the last overview monitoring activity by Ministry of Environment and JICA (2008), because of lack of data is very difficult to give current accurate information of Municiple Solid Waste Handling in Indonesia. Nevertheless some innovation are developed because of impact of many pilot projects, Adipura City Cleanest Competition among Local Governments and growing of the spirit of autonomous policy of Local Governments, but some Local Governments still dependence on Central Government support

  11. National inventory of selected biological monitoring programs. Summary report of current or recently completed projects, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, H. T.

    1976-10-01

    The Inventory has resulted in establishment of a series of data bases containing biological monitoring information of varying types, namely, directory of investigators, record of projects received from mail questionnaire, detailed description of selected biomonitoring projects, and bibliographic citations supporting the projects received. This report contains detailed descriptions of selected biomonitoring projects organized on a state-by-state basis and with appropriate indices.

  12. High-current CW beam profile monitors using transition radiation at CEBAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piot, P.; Denard, J.-C.; Adderley, P.; Capek, K.; Feldl, E.

    1997-01-01

    One way of measuring the profile of CEBAF's low-emittance, high-power beam is to use the optical transition radiation (OTR) emitted from a thin foil surface when the electron beam passes through it. We present the design of a monitor using the forward OTR emitted from a 0.25-μm carbon foil. We believe that the monitor will resolve three main issues: i) whether the maximum temperature of the foil stays below the melting point, ii) whether the beam loss remains below 0.5%, in order not to trigger the machine protection system, and iii) whether the monitor resolution (unlike that of synchrotron radiation monitors) is better than the product λγ. It seems that the most serious limitation for CEBAF is the beam loss due to beam scattering. We present results from Keil's theory and simulations from the computer code GEANT as well as measurements with aluminum foils with a 45-MeV electron beam. We also present a measurement of a 3.2-GeV beam profile that is much smaller than λγ, supporting Rule and Fiorito's calculations of the OTR resolution limit due to diffraction.

  13. Current status and opportunities for therapeutic drug monitoring in the treatment of tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuur, Marlanka A.; Bolhuis, Mathieu S.; Anthony, Richard; den Hertog, Alice; van der Laan, Tridia; Wilffert, Bob; Lange, de Wiel; van Soolingen, Dick; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.

    Introduction: Tuberculosis remains a global health problem and pharmacokinetic variability has been postulated as one of the causes of treatment failure and acquired drug resistance. New developments enable implementation of therapeutic drug monitoring, a strategy to evaluate drug exposure in order

  14. Earth materials and earth dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, K; Shankland, T. [and others

    2000-11-01

    In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  15. Automatic Condition Monitoring of Industrial Rolling-Element Bearings Using Motor’s Vibration and Current Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    An automatic condition monitoring for a class of industrial rolling-element bearings is developed based on the vibration as well as stator current analysis. The considered fault scenarios include a single-point defect, multiple-point defects, and a type of distributed defect. Motivated...... is extensively studied under diverse operating conditions: different sensor locations, motor speeds, loading conditions, and data samples from different time segments. The experimental results showed the powerful capability of vibration analysis in the bearing point defect fault diagnosis. The current analysis...... by the potential commercialization, the developed system is promoted mainly using off-the-shelf techniques, that is, the high-frequency resonance technique with envelope detection and the average of short-time Fourier transform. In order to test the flexibility and robustness, the monitoring performance...

  16. Inflight Microbial Monitoring - An Alternative Method to Culture Based Detection Currently Used on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadad, Christina L.; Birmele, Michele N.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Roman, Monsi; Smith, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms including potential human pathogens have been detected on the International Space Station (ISS). The potential to introduce new microorganisms occurs with every exchange of crew or addition of equipment or supplies. Current microbial monitoring methods require enrichment of microorganisms and a 48-hour incubation time resulting in an increase in microbial load, detecting a limited number of unidentified microorganisms. An expedient, low-cost, in-flight method of microbial detection, identification, and enumeration is warranted.

  17. CURRENT SITUATION AND PROSPECTS OF PRODUCTION AND RESERVES OF PERMANENT MAGNETS OF RARE EARTHS: BRAZIL × WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Weschenfelder

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Generating energy from renewable sources is not an easy task since it requires different types of technologies, which can add much cost to the system. For this reason, investment in research in this area can be an alternative for economic feasibility of wind power plants, for example. One line of research in this area is the study of new materials such as permanent magnets, with even better properties. These magnets, when used in wind generators add many advantages in the operation there of, and a high torque/volume. For this application it is necessary that these magnets have high coercive field (Hc and high remanent induction (Br. Brazil still has no competition in the industry of permanent magnets, so many studies by government and private enterprise are under development in the country. There is a special focus to the Rare Earths Magnets, the primary raw material for production of permanent magnets.

  18. Reduction in Current Consumption of Small DC Motor with Rare-Earth Flexible Bonded Magnets Prepared by Powder Compacting Press and Hot Rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Fumitoshi; Watanabe, Akihiko; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi

    The usage of high-performance rare-earth magnets is one of the key technologies in the development of efficient small motors. Ring-shaped melt-spun Nd-Fe-B bonded magnets, prepared using a powder compacting press and/or injection molding, are generally used in typical applications to small efficient motors. For exploiting the maximum characteristics according to the variety of magnetic powder, however, the preparation method of the magnet, the magnet form, and the motor design needs to be changed for high-productivity as well as for improving total performance, including the magnetic properties of bonded magnets. This paper reports recent achievements in new preparation processes for rare-earth bonded magnets and small motors using new materials other than Nd-Fe-B melt-spun powder. This paper especially focuses on the method for maximally exploiting certain rare-earth magnetic powders . Furthermore, reduction in the current consumption of the small DC motor using the developed technique is reported.

  19. Century-Long Monitoring of Solar Irradiance and Earth's Albedo Using a Stable Scattering Target in Space

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Philip G

    2015-01-01

    An inert sphere of a few meters diameter, placed in a special stable geosynchronous orbit in perpetuo, can be used for a variety of scientific experiments. Ground-based observations of such a sphere, "GeoSphere", can resolve very difficult problems in measuring the long-term solar irradiance. GeoSphere measurements will also help us understand the evolution of Earth's albedo and climate over at least the next century.

  20. 稀土催化材料的应用及研究进展%Current status and perspectives of rare earth catalytic materials and catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹望成; 郭耘; 龚学庆; 郭杨龙; 王艳芹; 卢冠忠

    2014-01-01

    Rare earth elements possess 4f orbitals without full electron occupancy and lanthanide contraction. This characteristic results in their unique catalytic performance when they are used as active com-ponents or as catalyst supports. Research into and the development of rare earth catalytic materials will significantly promote the high-efficiency utilization of abundant rare earth elements, such as lanthanum and cerium. Currently, rare earth catalytic materials play an important role in such areas as the petroleum chemical industry, the catalytic combustion of fossil fuels, automotive emissions control, the purification of industrial waste air, and solid solution fuel cells. In this paper, we review the application of and recent research progress that has been made on rare earth catalytic materials, including relative theoretical research. The effects of rare earth elements on the structure, activity, and stability of the catalysts of interest are described.%稀土元素具有未充满电子的4f轨道和镧系收缩等特征,当用作催化剂的活性组分或载体时常常表现出独特的催化性能。稀土催化材料的研究和发展为La和Ce等高丰度轻稀土元素的高质、高效利用提供了有效的途径。目前稀土催化材料在石油化工、化石燃料的催化燃烧、机动车尾气净化、工业废气治理和固体氧化物燃料电池等领域发挥着重要的作用。本文综述了稀土催化材料的应用以及理论研究进展,重点讨论了稀土元素对所涉及催化剂的结构、活性和稳定性等的影响。

  1. Development of Multi-Sensor Global Cloud and Radiance Composites for Earth Radiation Budget Monitoring from DSCOVR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlopenkov, Konstantin; Duda, David; Thieman, Mandana; Minnis, Patrick; Su, Wenying; Bedka, Kristopher

    2017-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) enables analysis of the daytime Earth radiation budget via the onboard Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) and National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR). Radiance observations and cloud property retrievals from low earth orbit and geostationary satellite imagers have to be co-located with EPIC pixels to provide scene identification in order to select anisotropic directional models needed to calculate shortwave and longwave fluxes. A new algorithm is proposed for optimal merging of selected radiances and cloud properties derived from multiple satellite imagers to obtain seamless global hourly composites at 5-kilometer resolution. An aggregated rating is employed to incorporate several factors and to select the best observation at the time nearest to the EPIC measurement. Spatial accuracy is improved using inverse mapping with gradient search during reprojection and bicubic interpolation for pixel resampling. The composite data are subsequently remapped into EPIC-view domain by convolving composite pixels with the EPIC point spread function (PSF) defined with a half-pixel accuracy. PSF-weighted average radiances and cloud properties are computed separately for each cloud phase. The algorithm has demonstrated contiguous global coverage for any requested time of day with a temporal lag of under 2 hours in over 95 percent of the globe.

  2. Non-Invasive Glucose Monitoring Techniques: A review and current trends

    CERN Document Server

    Poddar, Raju; Shukla, Pratyoosh; Sen, Pratima

    2008-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex group of syndromes that have in common a disturbance in the body's use of glucose, resulting in an elevated blood sugar. Once detected, sugar diabetes can be controlled by an appropriate regimen that should include diet therapy, a weight reduction program for those persons who are overweight, a program of exercise and insulin injections or oral drugs to lower blood glucose. Blood glucose monitoring by the patient and the physician is an important aspect in the control of the devastating complications (heart disease, blindness, kidney failure or amputations) due to the disease. Intensive therapy and frequent glucose testing has numerous benefits. With ever improving advances in diagnostic technology, the race for the next generation of bloodless, painless, accurate glucose instruments has begun. In this paper, we reviewed various methods, techniques and approaches successfully demonstrated for measuring or monitoring blood glucose. Invasive, minimally invasive and noninvasive tec...

  3. Current Biochemical Monitoring and Risk Management of Immunosuppressive Therapy after Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catić-Đorđević Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunosuppressive drugs play a crucial role in the inhibition of immune reaction and prevention of graft rejection as well as in the pharmacotherapy of autoimmune disorders. Effective immunosuppression should provide an adequate safety profile and improve treatment outcomes and the patients’ quality of life. High-risk transplant recipients may be identified, but a definitive prediction model has still not been recognized. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM for immunosuppressive drugs is an essential, but at the same time insufficient tool due to low predictability of drug exposition and marked pharmacokinetic variability. Parallel therapeutic, biochemical and clinical monitoring may successfully optimize and individualize therapy for transplanted recipients, providing optimal medical outcomes. Modern pharmacotherapy management should include new biomarkers with better sensitivity and specificity that can identify early cell damage. The aim of this study was to point out the importance of finding new biomarkers that would enable early detection of adverse drug events and cell damage in organ transplant recipients. We wanted to confirm the importance of routine biochemical monitoring in improving the safety of immunosuppressive treatment.

  4. ESPERIA: an Equatorial Magnetic, Plasma and Particle Mission for Monitoring Perturbations in the Topside Ionosphere and for Defining the Near-Earth Magnetic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgrigna, V.; Console, R.; Buzzi, A.; Conti, L.; Galper, A. M.; Malvezzi, V.; Parrot, M.; Picozza, P.; Scrimaglio, R.; Spillantini, P.; Zilpimiani, D.

    2004-05-01

    ESPERIA is an equatorial space mission planned with a LEO small-satellite and a multi-instrument payload. The project has been ideally conceived to define the near-Earth electromagnetic, plasma, and particle environment, both in steady-state and perturbed-state conditions. In recent times has been observed that either Earth's interior processes or near-Earth space phenomena have a privileged and sensitive zone of investigation constituted by the ionosphere-magnetosphere transition region, at altitudes ranging around 500 / 1000 km. In fact, sun and cosmic rays as well as, seismic, anthropogenic and thunderstorm activities, influence the structure and dynamics of the zone. These external and internal contributions play an important role in defining the particle and electromagnetic field character of the region, both in steady-state and perturbed-state conditions. So, a suitable monitoring of the topside ionosphere may give an help in studying many important physical phenomena as pre-earthquake and anthropogenic electromagnetic emissions, solar wind and flares, as well as in mapping the geomagnetic field. Concerning the Earth's magnetic field mapping, ESPERIA can be seen as an equatorial coordinated and simultaneous complement to polar missions, like SWARM. The first step in realizing the project was an opportunity given by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) for a Phase A Study, concerned with detecting any tectonic and preseismic related signals, and studying seismo-associated perturbations and instabilities in the topside ionosphere. The study has been performed by an International Consortium lead by the University Roma Tre, and the ESPERIA Phase A report is now available. The ASI constrains restricted the scientific objectives of the above-mentioned ideally conceived project, but recent contacts with other missions and science teams give indications to reconcile the project to its original aims.

  5. Current status of the Essential Variables as an instrument to assess the Earth Observation Networks in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonda, Palma; Maso, Joan; Bombelli, Antonio; Plag, Hans Peter; McCallum, Ian; Serral, Ivette; Nativi, Stefano Stefano

    2016-04-01

    ConnectinGEO (Coordinating an Observation Network of Networks EnCompassing saTellite and IN-situ to fill the Gaps in European Observations" is an H2020 Coordination and Support Action with the primary goal of linking existing Earth Observation networks with science and technology (S&T) communities, the industry sector, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), and Copernicus. The project will end in February 2017. Essential Variables (EVs) are defined by ConnectinGEO as "a minimal set of variables that determine the system's state and developments, are crucial for predicting system developments, and allow us to define metrics that measure the trajectory of the system". . Specific application-dependent characteristics, such as spatial and temporal resolution of observations and data quality thresholds, are not generally included in the EV definition. This definition and the present status of EV developments in different societal benefit areas was elaborated at the ConnectinGEO workshop "Towards a sustainability process for GEOSS Essential Variables (EVs)," which was held in Bari on June 11-12, 2015 (http://www.gstss.org/2015_Bari/). Presentations and reports contributed by a wide range of communities provided important inputs from different sectors for assessing the status of the EV development. In most thematic areas, the development of sets of EVs is a community process leading to an agreement on what is essential for the goals of the community. While there are many differences across the communities in the details of the criteria, methodologies and processes used to develop sets of EVs, there is also a considerable common core across the communities, particularly those with a more advanced discussion. In particular, there is some level of overlap in different topics (e.g., Climate and Water), and there is a potential to develop an integrated set of EVs common to several thematic areas as well as specific ones that satisfy only one community. The thematic areas with

  6. An “Off-the-Shelf” System for Intraprocedural Electrical Current Evaluation and Monitoring of Irreversible Electroporation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, Robert E., E-mail: Robert.Neal@alfred.org.au; Kavnoudias, Helen; Thomson, Kenneth R. [The Alfred Hospital, Radiology Research Unit, Department of Radiology (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    IntroductionIrreversible electroporation (IRE) ablation uses a series of brief electric pulses to create nanoscale defects in cell membranes, killing the cells. It has shown promise in numerous soft-tissue tumor applications. Larger voltages between electrodes will increase ablation volume, but exceeding electrical limits may risk damage to the patient, cause ineffective therapy delivery, or require generator restart. Monitoring electrical current for these conditions in real-time enables managing these risks. This capacity is not presently available in clinical IRE generators.MethodsWe describe a system using a Tektronix TCP305 AC/DC Current Probe connected to a TCPA300 AC/DC Current Probe Amplifier, which is read on a computer using a Protek DSO-2090 USB computer-interfacing oscilloscope. Accuracy of the system was tested with a resistor circuit and by comparing measured currents with final outputs from the NanoKnife clinical electroporation pulse generator.ResultsAccuracy of measured currents was 1.64 ± 2.4 % relative to calculations for the resistor circuit and averaged 0.371 ± 0.977 % deviation from the NanoKnife. During clinical pulse delivery, the system offers real-time evaluation of IRE procedure progress and enables a number of methods for identifying approaching issues from electrical behavior of therapy delivery, facilitating protocol changes before encountering therapy delivery issues.ConclusionsThis system can monitor electrical currents in real-time without altering the electric pulses or modifying the pulse generator. This facilitates delivering electric pulse protocols that remain within the optimal range of electrical currents—sufficient strength for clinically relevant ablation volumes, without the risk of exceeding safe electric currents or causing inadequate ablation.

  7. Detecting and monitoring of water inrush in tunnels and coal mines using direct current resistivity method:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shucai Li; Bin Liu; Lichao Nie; Zhengyu Liu; Mingzhen Tian; Shirui Wang; Maoxin Su; Qian Guo

    2015-01-01

    Detecting, real-time monitoring and early warning of underground water-bearing structures are critically important issues in prevention and mitigation of water inrush hazards in underground engineering. Direct current (DC) resistivity method is a widely used method for routine detection, advanced detection and real-time monitoring of water-bearing structures, due to its high sensitivity to groundwater. In this study, the DC resistivity method applied to underground engineering is reviewed and discussed, including the observation mode, multiple inversions, and real-time monitoring. It is shown that a priori information constrained inversion is desirable to reduce the non-uniqueness of inversion, with which the accuracy of detection can be significantly improved. The focused resistivity method is prospective for advanced detection;with this method, the flanking interference can be reduced and the detection dis-tance is increased subsequently. The time-lapse resistivity inversion method is suitable for the regions with continuous conductivity changes, and it can be used to monitor water inrush in those regions. Based on above-mentioned features of various methods in terms of benefits and limitations, we propose a three-dimensional (3D) induced polarization method characterized with multi-electrode array, and introduce it into tunnels and mines combining with real-time monitoring with time-lapse inversion and cross-hole resistivity method. At last, the prospective applications of DC resistivity method are discussed as follows: (1) available advanced detection technology and instrument in tunnel excavated by tunnel boring machine (TBM), (2) high-resolution detection method in holes, (3) four-dimensional (4D) monitoring technology for water inrush sources, and (4) estimation of water volume in water-bearing structures.

  8. Detecting and monitoring of water inrush in tunnels and coal mines using direct current resistivity method: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shucai Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Detecting, real-time monitoring and early warning of underground water-bearing structures are critically important issues in prevention and mitigation of water inrush hazards in underground engineering. Direct current (DC resistivity method is a widely used method for routine detection, advanced detection and real-time monitoring of water-bearing structures, due to its high sensitivity to groundwater. In this study, the DC resistivity method applied to underground engineering is reviewed and discussed, including the observation mode, multiple inversions, and real-time monitoring. It is shown that a priori information constrained inversion is desirable to reduce the non-uniqueness of inversion, with which the accuracy of detection can be significantly improved. The focused resistivity method is prospective for advanced detection; with this method, the flanking interference can be reduced and the detection distance is increased subsequently. The time-lapse resistivity inversion method is suitable for the regions with continuous conductivity changes, and it can be used to monitor water inrush in those regions. Based on above-mentioned features of various methods in terms of benefits and limitations, we propose a three-dimensional (3D induced polarization method characterized with multi-electrode array, and introduce it into tunnels and mines combining with real-time monitoring with time-lapse inversion and cross-hole resistivity method. At last, the prospective applications of DC resistivity method are discussed as follows: (1 available advanced detection technology and instrument in tunnel excavated by tunnel boring machine (TBM, (2 high-resolution detection method in holes, (3 four-dimensional (4D monitoring technology for water inrush sources, and (4 estimation of water volume in water-bearing structures.

  9. Current development of radon and radium monitoring at the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Claro, Flavia Del; Perna, Allan F.N.; Reque, Marilson; Levchuk, Leonid, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com, E-mail: flavia_delclaro@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal Tecnologica do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy; Schelin, Hugo R. [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The present work describes the principal results concerning the radon and radium measurements at Curitiba (PR) urban area during the last decade. The monitoring was performed in cooperation with the Center of Nuclear Technology Development (CDTN/CNEN). For radon in air activity measurements, it was used polycarbonate etched track detectors such as LEXAN and CR-39, mounted in diffusion chambers. For soil gas measurements, the experimental setup was based on the Professional AlphaGUARD Radon Monitor connected to the Soil Gas Probe, filter vessels and air pump (AlphaPUMP), following the recommended protocols elaborated in the Soil-Gas Radon Intercomparison Measurements performed at different Countries of the world. In the case of radon tests in drinking water, the experimental setup was based on the AlphaGUARD Radon monitor and Electronic Radon Detector RAD7 connected to a special kit of glass vessels through the air pump. The obtained results permitted to identify few dwellings where radon concentration in air was found bigger than 600 Bq/m{sup 3}, that is considered as the action level by most of the European Community and the World Health Organization (WHO). In the case of well water, collected samples presented the average Rn-222 activity of about 60 Bq/L, that is 6 times bigger than the maximum level recommended by USEPA. Some artesian wells presented radon activity of almost 200 Bq/L. More over, almost all water samples presented the radioactivity of radium (Ra-226) salts bigger than the upper limit for global alpha radioactivity of potable water established by the Norms and Regulation of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. (author)

  10. Monitoring Building Energy Systems at NASA Centers Using NASA Earth Science data, CMIP5 climate data products and RETScreen Expert Clean Energy Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Ganoe, R. E.; Westberg, D. J.; Leng, G. J.; Teets, E.; Hughes, J. M.; De Young, R.; Carroll, M.; Liou, L. C.; Iraci, L. T.; Podolske, J. R.; Stefanov, W. L.; Chandler, W.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA Climate Adaptation Science Investigator team is devoted to building linkages between NASA Earth Science and those within NASA responsible for infrastructure assessment, upgrades and planning. One of the focus areas is assessing NASA center infrastructure for energy efficiency, planning to meet new energy portfolio standards, and assessing future energy needs. These topics intersect at the provision of current and predicted future weather and climate data. This presentation provides an overview of the multi-center effort to access current building energy usage using Earth science observations, including those from in situ measurements, satellite measurement analysis, and global model data products as inputs to the RETScreen Expert, a clean energy decision support tool. RETScreen® Expert, sponsored by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), is a tool dedicated to developing and providing clean energy project analysis software for the feasibility design and assessment of a wide range of building projects that incorporate renewable energy technologies. RETScreen Expert requires daily average meteorological and solar parameters that are available within less than a month of real-time. A special temporal collection of meteorological parameters was compiled from near-by surface in situ measurements. These together with NASA data from the NASA CERES (Clouds and Earth's Radiance Energy System)/FLASHFlux (Fast Longwave and SHortwave radiative Fluxes) provides solar fluxes and the NASA GMAO (Global Modeling and Assimilation Office) GEOS (Goddard Earth Observing System) operational meteorological analysis are directly used for meteorological input parameters. Examples of energy analysis for a few select buildings at various NASA centers are presented in terms of the energy usage relationship that these buildings have with changes in their meteorological environment. The energy requirements of potential future climates are then surveyed for a range of changes using the most

  11. SUMO: solar ultraviolet monitor and ozone nanosatellite for spectral irradiance, ozone and Earth radiative budget simultaneous evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damé, Luc

    SUMO is an innovative proof-of-concept nano-satellite which aims to measure on the same platform the different components of the Earth radiation budget, the solar energy input and the energy reemitted at the top of the Earth atmosphere, with a particular focus on the UV part of the spectrum and on the ozone layer, which are the most sensitive to the solar variability. The far UV (FUV) is the only wavelength band with energy absorbed in the high atmosphere (stratosphere), in the ozone (Herzberg continuum, 200-220 nm) and oxygen bands, and its high variability is most probably at the origin of a climate influence (UV affects stratospheric dynamics and temperatures, altering interplanetary waves and weather patterns both poleward and downward to the lower stratosphere and tropopause regions). Recent measurements at the time of the last solar minimum suggest that variations in the UV may be larger than previously assumed what implies a very different response in both stratospheric ozone and temperature. A simultaneous observation of the incoming FUV and of the ozone (O _{3}) production, would bring an invaluable information on this process of solar-climat forcing. Space instruments have already measured the different components of the Earth radiative budget but this is, to our knowledge, the first time that all instruments are operated on the same platform. This characteristic guarantees by itself obtaining original scientific results. SUMO is a 10x10x30 cm (3) nanosatellite (``3U"), the payload occupying ``1U", i.e. a cube of 10x10x10 cm (3) for 1 kg and 1 W of power. Orbit is polar since a further challenge in understanding the relation between solar UV variability and stratospheric ozone on arctic and antarctic regions. SUMO definition has been completed (platform and payload assembly integration and tests are possible in 24 months) and it is now intended to be proposed to CNES for a flight in 2017. Mission is expected to last up to 1 year. Follow-up is 2 fold: on

  12. North American Land Change Monitoring System: Current Status and Future Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, D.; Homer, C.; Ressl, R.; Takaki, F.; Meneses, C.; Latifovic, R.; Giri, C.; Colditz, R.; Jimenez, F.; Orozco, R.; Hossain, N.; Lopez, G.; Palafox, R.; Díaz, P.

    2009-05-01

    At the Land Cover Summit meeting held in Washington, DC in September 2006 the North American Land Change Monitoring System (NLCMS) project was initiated between representatives from the US Geological Survey (USGS), the National Institute of Geographic Statistics and Information of Mexico (INEGI) and the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS). The objective of the NALCMS is a joint effort to create a harmonized system for multi-scale and multi-temporal monitoring and reporting of North American land cover change. The proposed system couples 250m and 30m resolutions, offering products relevant at both spatial scales. The two spatial resolutions will provide users with investigation, confirmation, calibration, and assessment of 250m change products with 30m product support. This combination of spatial resolutions offers a valuable increase in temporal frequency, context, and strategic prioritization for 30m products. In due course these land change products can provide continental, national, and regional consistency to land cover and land cover change analysis.

  13. FerryBox-assisted monitoring of mixed layer pH in the Norwegian Coastal Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggiani, Emanuele R.; King, Andrew L.; Norli, Marit; Jaccard, Pierre; Sørensen, Kai; Bellerby, Richard G. J.

    2016-10-01

    The evaluation of marine carbonate system variability and the impacts of ocean acidification (OA) on coastal marine ecosystems increasingly rely on monitoring platforms capable of delivering near real-time in situ carbonate system observations. These observations are also used for developing models and scenarios of OA, including potential impacts on marine ecosystem structure and function. An embedded flow-through spectrophotometric pH detection system has been developed alongside an underway seawater sampling system - termed a FerryBox - operating on ships of opportunity (SOOP), and can deliver a continuous data stream of mixed layer seawater pH with an in situ uncertainty of summer periods of 2015. Spring and summertime pH was generally 0.1 higher, and up to 0.255 higher, in comparison to winter pH observations. Here we show the necessity for a regular, high density monitoring approach, and the suitability of this pH detection technique for unmanned observational platforms.

  14. Current status and opportunities for therapeutic drug monitoring in the treatment of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuur, Marlanka A; Bolhuis, Mathieu S; Anthony, Richard; den Hertog, Alice; van der Laan, Tridia; Wilffert, Bob; de Lange, Wiel; van Soolingen, Dick; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C

    2016-05-01

    Tuberculosis remains a global health problem and pharmacokinetic variability has been postulated as one of the causes of treatment failure and acquired drug resistance. New developments enable implementation of therapeutic drug monitoring, a strategy to evaluate drug exposure in order to tailor the dose to the individual patient, in tuberculosis treatment. Literature on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anti-tuberculosis drugs was explored to evaluate the effect of drug exposure in relation to drug susceptibility, toxicity and efficacy. New, down-sized strategies, like dried blood spot analysis and limited sampling strategies are reviewed. In addition, molecular resistance testing of Mycobacteria tuberculosis, combining a short turn-around time with relevant information on drug susceptibility of the causative pathogen was explored. Newly emerging host biomarkers provide information on the response to treatment. Therapeutic drug monitoring can minimize toxicity and increase efficacy of tuberculosis treatment and prevent the development of resistance. Dried blood spot analysis and limited sampling strategies, can be combined to provide us with a more patient friendly approach. Furthermore, rapid information on drug susceptibility by molecular testing, and information from host biomarkers on the bacteriological response, can be used to further optimize tuberculosis treatment.

  15. On-chip temperature monitoring of a SiC current limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tournier, D.; Godignon, P.; Millan, J. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (CNM), Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Planson, D.; Chante, J.P. [Centre de Genie Electrique de Lyon (CEGELY) INSA-LYON, UMR 5005 CNRS, Villeurbanne (France); Sarrus, F.; Palma, J.F. de [Ferraz Shawmut, Bonnet de Mure (France)

    2004-07-01

    High voltage and high current potentiality of SiC based devices has been proved, and various devices able to work at high temperature have been reported as well. Nevertheless, packaging is one of the main constrains for high temperature operation of these devices. Up to date, no specific power package has been reported for high temperature operation. Moreover, it is desirable to predict the SiC die temperature to avoid any related failure in order to improve the efficiency of the packaged SiC device. This paper deals with an integrated temperature sensor for SiC current limiting devices. The current limiter is based on a VJFET structure, which capability for dissipating high power density (140 kW/cm{sup 2}), in the limiting state, has been previously demonstrated. Carrier mobility dependence with temperature was extracted from cryogenic measurements. The temperature estimation is based on the measurement of the variation of the electrical resistance (caused by mobility variation) of the sensing device integrated with the current limiter. In this paper we first describe the temperature estimation methodology using various technological solution (from metallic resistor solution to the SiC integrated sensor). Then experimental temperature measurements using an integrated SiC sensor within a packaged current limiting devices will be presented. Electro-thermal measurements on the fabricated devices show that the current limiter is able to work at 205 C under steady state conditions (320 V), without degrading their electrical performances. Finally, perspectives in terms of integration and reliability will be proposed. (orig.)

  16. Detection of stator winding faults in induction motors using three-phase current monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Rasool; Ebrahimi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose a new method for the detection of inter-turn short circuits in the stator windings of induction motors. In the previous reported methods, the supply voltage unbalance was the major difficulty, and this was solved mostly based on the sequence component impedance or current which are difficult to implement. Some other methods essentially are included in the offline methods. The proposed method is based on the motor current signature analysis and utilizes three phase current spectra to overcome the mentioned problem. Simulation results indicate that under healthy conditions, the rotor slot harmonics have the same magnitude in three phase currents, while under even 1 turn (0.3%) short circuit condition they differ from each other. Although the magnitude of these harmonics depends on the level of unbalanced voltage, they have the same magnitude in three phases in these conditions. Experiments performed under various load, fault, and supply voltage conditions validate the simulation results and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. It is shown that the detection of resistive slight short circuits, without sensitivity to supply voltage unbalance is possible.

  17. Non-Destructive Current Sensing for Energy Efficiency Monitoring in Buildings with Environmental Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Lia Toledo Moreira; Mota, Alexandre de Assis; Coiado, Lorenzo Campos

    2015-07-10

    Nowadays, buildings environmental certifications encourage the implementation of initiatives aiming to increase energy efficiency in buildings. In these certification systems, increased energy efficiency arising from such initiatives must be demonstrated. Thus, a challenge to be faced is how to check the increase in energy efficiency related to each of the employed initiatives without a considerable building retrofit. In this context, this work presents a non-destructive method for electric current sensing to assess implemented initiatives to increase energy efficiency in buildings with environmental certification. This method proposes the use of a sensor that can be installed directly in the low voltage electrical circuit conductors that are powering the initiative under evaluation, without the need for reforms that result in significant costs, repair, and maintenance. The proposed sensor consists of three elements: an air-core transformer current sensor, an amplifying/filtering stage, and a microprocessor. A prototype of the proposed sensor was developed and tests were performed to validate this sensor. Based on laboratory tests, it was possible to characterize the proposed current sensor with respect to the number of turns and cross-sectional area of the primary and secondary coils. Furthermore, using the Least Squares Method, it was possible to determine the efficiency of the air core transformer current sensor (the best efficiency found, considering different test conditions, was 2%), which leads to a linear output response.

  18. Method and apparatus for monitoring armature position in direct-current solenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, John C.; Haynes, Howard D.

    1996-12-10

    A method for determining the position of an armature of a dc-powered solenoid. Electrical circuitry is provided to introduce a small alternating current flow through the coil. As a result, the impedance and resistance of the solenoid coil can be measured to provide information indicative of the armature's position.

  19. Method and apparatus for monitoring armature position in direct-current solenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, J.C.; Haynes, H.D.

    1996-12-10

    A method for determining the position of an armature of a dc-powered solenoid is disclosed. Electrical circuitry is provided to introduce a small alternating current flow through the coil. As a result, the impedance and resistance of the solenoid coil can be measured to provide information indicative of the armature`s position. 5 figs.

  20. Monitoring DC stray current interference of steel sheet pile structures in railway environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, W.H.A.; Neeft, E.A.C.; Leegwater, G.; Kanten-Roos, W. van; Courage, W.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Steel structures near DC powered railways are expected to be affected by stray current interference. This causes accelerated corrosion rates. Therefore steel is often not used as a building material in these cases, although certain advantages over the alternative material concrete exist. These

  1. Operation of the DC current transformer intensity monitors at FNAL during run II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M.A.; Meyer, T.; Vogel, G.; /Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    Circulating beam intensity measurements at FNAL are provided by five DC current transformers (DCCT), one per machine. With the exception of the DCCT in the Recycler, all DCCT systems were designed and built at FNAL. This paper presents an overview of both DCCT systems, including the sensor, the electronics, and the front-end instrumentation software, as well as their performance during Run II.

  2. Method and apparatus for monitoring armature position in direct-current solenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyers, J.C.; Haynes, H.D.

    1996-12-10

    A method for determining the position of an armature of a dc-powered solenoid is disclosed. Electrical circuitry is provided to introduce a small alternating current flow through the coil. As a result, the impedance and resistance of the solenoid coil can be measured to provide information indicative of the armature`s position. 5 figs.

  3. Method and apparatus for monitoring armature position in direct-current solenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyers, John C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Haynes, Howard D. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-12-10

    A method for determining the position of an armature of a dc-powered solenoid. Electrical circuitry is provided to introduce a small alternating current flow through the coil. As a result, the impedance and resistance of the solenoid coil can be measured to provide information indicative of the armature's position.

  4. Monitoring DC stray current interference of steel sheet pile structures in railway environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, W.H.A.; Neeft, E.A.C.; Leegwater, G.; Kanten-Roos, W. van; Courage, W.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Steel structures near DC powered railways are expected to be affected by stray current interference. This causes accelerated corrosion rates. Therefore steel is often not used as a building material in these cases, although certain advantages over the alternative material concrete exist. These advan

  5. Non-Destructive Current Sensing for Energy Efficiency Monitoring in Buildings with Environmental Certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Toledo Moreira Mota

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, buildings environmental certifications encourage the implementation of initiatives aiming to increase energy efficiency in buildings. In these certification systems, increased energy efficiency arising from such initiatives must be demonstrated. Thus, a challenge to be faced is how to check the increase in energy efficiency related to each of the employed initiatives without a considerable building retrofit. In this context, this work presents a non-destructive method for electric current sensing to assess implemented initiatives to increase energy efficiency in buildings with environmental certification. This method proposes the use of a sensor that can be installed directly in the low voltage electrical circuit conductors that are powering the initiative under evaluation, without the need for reforms that result in significant costs, repair, and maintenance. The proposed sensor consists of three elements: an air-core transformer current sensor, an amplifying/filtering stage, and a microprocessor. A prototype of the proposed sensor was developed and tests were performed to validate this sensor. Based on laboratory tests, it was possible to characterize the proposed current sensor with respect to the number of turns and cross-sectional area of the primary and secondary coils. Furthermore, using the Least Squares Method, it was possible to determine the efficiency of the air core transformer current sensor (the best efficiency found, considering different test conditions, was 2%, which leads to a linear output response.

  6. Direct current (DC) resistivity and induced polarization (IP) monitoring of active layer dynamics at high temporal resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doetsch, Joseph; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Christiansen, Anders V.

    2015-01-01

    With permafrost thawing and changes in active layer dynamics induced by climate change, interactions between biogeochemical and thermal processes in the ground are of great importance. Here, active layer dynamics have been monitored using direct current (DC) resistivity and induced polarization (IP...... and subsurface temperatures supplemented the DC-IP measurements. A time-lapse DC-IP monitoring system has been acquiring at least six datasets per day on a 42-electrode profile with 0.5. m electrode spacing since July 2013. Remote control of the data acquisition system enables interactive adaptation...... of the measurement schedule, which is critically important to acquire data in the winter months, where extremely high contact resistances increase the demands on the resistivity meter. Data acquired during the freezing period of October 2013 to February 2014 clearly image the soil freezing as a strong increase...

  7. Aristoteles - An ESA mission to study the earth's gravity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeck, K.

    In preparing for its first Solid-Earth Program, ESA has studied a satellite concept for a mission dedicated to the precise determination of the earth's geopotential (gravitational and magnetic) fields. Data from such a mission are expected to make substantial contributions to a number of research and applications fields in solid-earth geophysics, oceanography and global-change monitoring. The impact of a high-resolution gravity-field mission on studies of the various earth-science problems is assessed. The current state of our knowledge in this area is discussed and the ability of low-orbit satellite gradiometry to contribute to their solution is demonstrated.

  8. A niche-based framework to assess current monitoring of European forest birds and guide indicator species' selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Amy S I; Barov, Boris; Burfield, Ian J; Gregory, Richard D; Norris, Ken; Vorisek, Petr; Wu, Taoyang; Butler, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    Concern that European forest biodiversity is depleted and declining has provoked widespread efforts to improve management practices. To gauge the success of these actions, appropriate monitoring of forest ecosystems is paramount. Multi-species indicators are frequently used to assess the state of biodiversity and its response to implemented management, but generally applicable and objective methodologies for species' selection are lacking. Here we use a niche-based approach, underpinned by coarse quantification of species' resource use, to objectively select species for inclusion in a pan-European forest bird indicator. We identify both the minimum number of species required to deliver full resource coverage and the most sensitive species' combination, and explore the trade-off between two key characteristics, sensitivity and redundancy, associated with indicators comprising different numbers of species. We compare our indicator to an existing forest bird indicator selected on the basis of expert opinion and show it is more representative of the wider community. We also present alternative indicators for regional and forest type specific monitoring and show that species' choice can have a significant impact on the indicator and consequent projections about the state of the biodiversity it represents. Furthermore, by comparing indicator sets drawn from currently monitored species and the full forest bird community, we identify gaps in the coverage of the current monitoring scheme. We believe that adopting this niche-based framework for species' selection supports the objective development of multi-species indicators and that it has good potential to be extended to a range of habitats and taxa.

  9. Biomarkers to Improve Diagnosis and Monitoring of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Archontogeorgis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is characterized by recurrent episodes of upper airway collapse associated with oxygen desaturation and sleep disruption. It is proposed that these periodic changes lead to molecular variations that can be detected by assessing serum biomarkers. Studies have identified inflammatory, oxidative, and metabolic perturbations attributable to sleep-disordered breathing. Given that OSAS is associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity, the ideal biomarker should enable timely recognition with the possibility of intervention. There is accumulating data on the utility of serum biomarkers for the evaluation of disease severity, prognosis, and response to treatment. However, current knowledge is limited by data collection techniques, disease complexity, and potential confounding factors. The current paper reviews the literature on the use of serum biomarkers in OSAS. It is concluded that the ideal serum biomarker still needs to be discovered, while caution is needed in the interpretation of hitherto available results.

  10. Monitoring Current Status of and Trends in Boreal Forest Land Use in Russian Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkki Tomppo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Some of the last remaining near-natural boreal forest landscapes in northern Europe can be found in the Russian Karelia near its border with Finland. Currently, these forests are facing strong exploitation pressure in the form of extensive clearcuts. Demand for conservation is also high. We characterize the boreal forest landscape in the region and assess the impacts of past and potential management actions through a mapping and modeling study that synthesizes methods from landscape ecology, remote sensing, and simulation modeling. The forests of the study area were mapped using techniques for interpreting multitemporal satellite images and detecting changes. The species composition and structure of the forests were estimated using the multisource k-nearest neighbors (k-nn method. Forest harvesting rates and current landscape patterns were used to parameterize models built with a cell-based Spatially Explicit Landscape Event Simulator (SELES modeling tool, and alternative land-use policy strategies were simulated with and without natural fire. Based on 10 Monte Carlo runs for each scenario, we can predict dramatic changes in the forest landscape structure after 30–70 yr. The current, complexly structured, near-natural forest assemblage will rapidly be converted into its transpose: an expanse of young regeneration stands, with blocks of near-natural forest extant only as islands within mires and in the reserve areas. The prompt establishment of the proposed Kalevala National Park is regionally important for these reasons: (1 to increase the types of near-natural forest conserved, (2 to provide a second large biodiversity source adjacent to the heavily fragmented Finnish forests, and (3 to reduce the currently inflated rate of harvesting.

  11. Plasma Charge Current for Controlling and Monitoring Electron Beam Welding with Beam Oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Shchavlev

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Electron beam welding (EBW shows certain problems with the control of focus regime. The electron beam focus can be controlled in electron-beam welding based on the parameters of a secondary signal. In this case, the parameters like secondary emissions and focus coil current have extreme relationships. There are two values of focus coil current which provide equal value signal parameters. Therefore, adaptive systems of electron beam focus control use low-frequency scanning of focus, which substantially limits the operation speed of these systems and has a negative effect on weld joint quality. The purpose of this study is to develop a method for operational control of the electron beam focus during welding in the deep penetration mode. The method uses the plasma charge current signal as an additional informational parameter. This parameter allows identification of the electron beam focus regime in electron-beam welding without application of additional low-frequency scanning of focus. It can be used for working out operational electron beam control methods focusing exactly on the welding. In addition, use of this parameter allows one to observe the shape of the keyhole during the welding process.

  12. Plasma charge current for controlling and monitoring electron beam welding with beam oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushnikov, Dmitriy; Belenkiy, Vladimir; Shchavlev, Valeriy; Piskunov, Anatoliy; Abdullin, Aleksandr; Mladenov, Georgy

    2012-12-14

    Electron beam welding (EBW) shows certain problems with the control of focus regime. The electron beam focus can be controlled in electron-beam welding based on the parameters of a secondary signal. In this case, the parameters like secondary emissions and focus coil current have extreme relationships. There are two values of focus coil current which provide equal value signal parameters. Therefore, adaptive systems of electron beam focus control use low-frequency scanning of focus, which substantially limits the operation speed of these systems and has a negative effect on weld joint quality. The purpose of this study is to develop a method for operational control of the electron beam focus during welding in the deep penetration mode. The method uses the plasma charge current signal as an additional informational parameter. This parameter allows identification of the electron beam focus regime in electron-beam welding without application of additional low-frequency scanning of focus. It can be used for working out operational electron beam control methods focusing exactly on the welding. In addition, use of this parameter allows one to observe the shape of the keyhole during the welding process.

  13. First-principles modeling of geomagnetically induced electromagnetic fields and currents from upstream solar wind to the surface of the Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pulkkinen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Our capability to model the near-space physical phenomena has gradually reached a level enabling module-based first-principles modeling of geomagnetically induced electromagnetic fields and currents from upstream solar wind to the surface of the Earth. As geomagnetically induced currents (GIC pose a real threat to the normal operation of long conductor systems on the ground, such as high-voltage power transmission systems, it is quite obvious that success in accurate predictive modeling of the phenomenon would open entirely new windows for operational space weather products.

    Here we introduce a process for obtaining geomagnetically induced electromagnetic fields and currents from the output of global magnetospheric MHD codes. We also present metrics that take into account both the complex nature of the signal and possible forecasting applications of the modeling process. The modeling process and the metrics are presented with the help of an actual example space weather event of 24–29 October 2003. Analysis of the event demonstrates that, despite some significant shortcomings, some central features of the overall ionospheric current fluctuations associated with GIC can be captured by the modeling process. More specifically, the basic spatiotemporal morphology of the modeled and "measured" GIC is quite similar. Furthermore, the presented user-relevant utility metrics demonstrate that MHD-based modeling can outperform simple GIC persistence models.

  14. Direct current (DC) resistivity and Induced Polarization (IP) monitoring of active layer dynamics at high temporal resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doetsch, J.; Fiandaca, G.; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    With permafrost thawing and changes in active layer dynamics induced by climate change, interactions between biogeochemical and thermal processes in the ground are of great importance. Here, active layer dynamics have been monitored using direct current (DC) resistivity and induced polarization (IP...... the soil freezing as a strong increase in resistivity. While the freezing horizon generally moves deeper with time, some variations in the freezing depth are observed along the profile. Comparison with depth-specific soil temperature indicates an exponential relationship between resistivity and below...

  15. Study of rare earth separation by counter current electromigration; Estudo da separacao de terras raras por eletromigracao em contra corrente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Sergio Machado

    1995-08-01

    The counter current electromigration (CCEM) is an electrophoretic technique where the charged species migrate on an electrical field toward an electrolytic flux. Usually this electrolyte is a complexing agent and is necessary to increase the small differences between the species mobilities. A new column was developed, all made of acrylic, in a cylindrical shape. A set of experiments was carried out with the species Na{sup +}/K{sup +}, K{sup +}/Sm{sup +3}, K{sup +}/Eu{sup +3} and K{sup +}/Sm{sup +3}/Eu{sup +3} using the {alpha}-hydrox i-isobutyric acid o,01 M as the counter current electrolytic flux. From a synthetic mixture of 90% of samarium and 10% of europium was obtained the samarium ion in a purity better than 99,9% where the concentration of Eu was determined by the polarography technique. The potassium ion was used as a leading electrolyte. It was also measured the mobilities of the involved species in the {alpha}-HIBA medium. Two models are proposed, a stationary model and a dynamic one. A simulator of a simplified stationary model, prepared in FORTRAN language, was developed and tested toward experimental results. (author)

  16. Excitation of earth-ionosphere waveguide in the ELF and lower VLF bands by modulated ionospheric current. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, E.C.; Bloom, R.M.

    1993-05-21

    In this report the authors use the principal of reciprocity in conjunction with a full-wave propagation code to calculate ground-level fields excited by ionospheric currents modulated at frequencies between 50 and 100 Hz with HF heaters. Their results show the dependence on source orientation, altitude, and dimension and therefore pertain to experiments using the HIPAS or HAARP ionospheric heaters. In the end-fire mode, the waveguide excitation efficiency of an ELF HED in the ionosphere is up to 20 dB greater than for a ground-based antenna, provided its altitude does not exceed 80-to-90 km. The highest efficiency occurs for a source altitude of around 70 km; if that altitude is raised to 100 km, the efficiency drops by about 20 dB in the day and 10 dB at night. That efficiency does not account for the greater conductivity modulation that might be achieved at altitudes greater than 70 km, however. The trade-off between the altitude dependencies of the excitation efficiency and maximum achievable modulation depends on the ERP of the HF heater, the optimum altitude increasing with increasing ERP. For HIPAS the best modulation altitude is around 70 km, whereas for HAARP there might be marginal value in modulating at attitudes as high as 100 Km. Ionospheric modification, Ionospheric currents, Ionospheric heating.

  17. Assessment and monitoring of treatment response in adult ADHD patients: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, J Russell

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental syndrome that emerges in childhood or early adolescence and persists into adulthood for a majority of individuals. There are many other adults with ADHD who may not seek out evaluation and treatment until adulthood, having been able to “get by” before struggling with inattention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity in adulthood, in addition to facing the associated features of disorganization, poor time management, and procrastination among many others. A lifetime diagnosis of ADHD is associated with a wide range of life impairments, which makes a comprehensive and accurate diagnostic assessment essential in order to obtain appropriate treatment. Moreover, while there are effective medical and psychosocial treatments for ADHD, it is important to be able to track treatment response in order to evaluate whether adjustments in specific interventions are needed or referrals for adjunctive treatments and supports are indicated to facilitate optimal therapeutic outcomes. The goal of this article is to provide a clinically useful review of the various measures that practicing clinicians can use to aid in the diagnostic assessment and monitoring of psychosocial and medical treatment of ADHD in adult patients. This review includes various structured interviews, screening scales, adult ADHD symptom inventories, measures of associated features of ADHD, as well as ratings of impairment and functioning which can be adapted to clinicians’ practice needs in order to track treatment progress and optimize treatments for adults with ADHD. PMID:28184164

  18. Current signature analysis for condition monitoring of cage induction motors industrial application and case histories

    CERN Document Server

    Thomson, William T

    2017-01-01

    This book has 13 chapters and contains a unique database of 50 industrial case histories on theapplication of MCSA to diagnose broken rotor bars or unacceptable levels of airgap eccentricity in cage induction motors with ratings from 127 kW (170 H.P.) to 10,160 kW (13,620 H.P.). There are also unsuccessful case histories which is another unique feature of the book. The case studies also illustrate the effects of mechanical load dynamics downstream of the motor on the interpretation of current signatures. A number of cases are presented where abnormal operation of the driven loadwas diagnosed.

  19. The Earth's magnetosphere is 165 R(sub E) long: Self-consistent currents, convection, magnetospheric structure, and processes for northward interplanetary magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedder, J. A.; Lyon, J. G.

    1995-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a self-consistent, magnetohydrodynamic numerical realization for the Earth's magnetosphere which is in a quasi-steady dynamic equilibrium for a due northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Although a few hours of steady northward IMF are required for this asymptotic state to be set up, it should still be of considerable theoretical interest because it constitutes a 'ground state' for the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction. Moreover, particular features of this ground state magnetosphere should be observable even under less extreme solar wind conditions. Certain characteristics of this magnetosphere, namely, NBZ Birkeland currents, four-cell ionospheric convection, a relatively weak cross-polar potential, and a prominent flow boundary layer, are widely expected. Other characteristics, such as no open tail lobes, no Earth-connected magnetic flux beyond 155 R(sub E) downstream, magnetic merging in a closed topology at the cusps, and a 'tadpole' shaped magnetospheric boundary, might not be expected. In this paper, we will present the evidence for this unusual but interesting magnetospheric equilibrium. We will also discuss our present understanding of this singular state.

  20. Assessment and monitoring of treatment response in adult ADHD patients: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramsay JR

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available J Russell Ramsay Adult ADHD Treatment & Research Program, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental syndrome that emerges in childhood or early adolescence and persists into adulthood for a majority of individuals. There are many other adults with ADHD who may not seek out evaluation and treatment until adulthood, having been able to “get by” before struggling with inattention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity in adulthood, in addition to facing the associated features of disorganization, poor time management, and procrastination among many others. A lifetime diagnosis of ADHD is associated with a wide range of life impairments, which makes a comprehensive and accurate diagnostic assessment essential in order to obtain appropriate treatment. Moreover, while there are effective medical and psychosocial treatments for ADHD, it is important to be able to track treatment response in order to evaluate whether adjustments in specific interventions are needed or referrals for adjunctive treatments and supports are indicated to facilitate optimal therapeutic outcomes. The goal of this article is to provide a clinically useful review of the various measures that practicing clinicians can use to aid in the diagnostic assessment and monitoring of psychosocial and medical treatment of ADHD in adult patients. This review includes various structured interviews, screening scales, adult ADHD symptom inventories, measures of associated features of ADHD, as well as ratings of impairment and functioning which can be adapted to clinicians’ practice needs in order to track treatment progress and optimize treatments for adults with ADHD. Keywords: adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, adult ADHD, pharmacotherapy, psychosocial treatment, symptoms, functional impairments, executive functions

  1. The ISMAR high frequency coastal radar network: Monitoring surface currents for management of marine resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Daniel Frazier

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR) of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) established a High Frequency (HF) Coastal Radar Network for the measurement of the velocity of surface currents in coastal seas. The network consists of four HF radar systems located on the coast of the Gargano...... of geospatial data, a netCDF architecture has been defined on the basis of the Radiowave Operators Working Group (US ROWG) recommendations and compliant to the Climate and Forecast (CF) Metadata Conventions CF-1.6. The hourly netCDF files are automatically attached to a Thematic Real-time Environmental...... by the ISMAR HF radar network are presently used in a number of applications, ranging from oil spill and SAR to fishery and coastal management applications....

  2. Continuous river discharge monitoring with bottom-mounted current profilers at narrow tidal estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garel, E.; D'Alimonte, D.

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study is to verify whether accurate and continuous estimates of freshwater discharge at the mouth of a narrow estuary with a single channel can be obtained from a bottom-mounted current profiler (ADCP). The focus is on moderate- to high-discharge events that significantly affect the water circulation corresponding to low river flow conditions. Observations at the Guadiana Estuary (southern Iberia) indicate lateral subtidal flow variability, constant cross-channel area, and quasi-steady response of the axial velocity to discharge events. Based on the concept of maximum entropy, the mean and maximum channel velocities were related by a constant ratio, Ω, using data from three cross-channel surveys. This relationship was then used to estimate the freshwater discharge at the mouth based on the maximum velocity obtained from the detided ADCP velocity profiles. This approach was possible because the ADCP was deployed near the position of maximum current velocity, that is, over the deepest part of the channel. The results show good correspondence with observations, indicating that the entropy model can complete or substitute the records from upstream gauged stations that do not include the contribution from downstream tributaries. A Multilayer Perceptron neural net (MLP) based on the entropy approach was then implemented with the purpose of estimating the discharge when Ω is unknown. This latter analysis showsthat the relationship between maximum velocity and discharge is quasi-stationary. Consequently, the MLP can successfully estimate freshwater runoff if the training data represent all statistical properties of the river discharge dynamics. The results also indicate that Ω may vary not only with concomitant hydrographic conditions, but also with the recent (i.e., several days prior) discharge magnitude.

  3. Automatic Condition Monitoring of Industrial Rolling-Element Bearings Using Motor’s Vibration and Current Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An automatic condition monitoring for a class of industrial rolling-element bearings is developed based on the vibration as well as stator current analysis. The considered fault scenarios include a single-point defect, multiple-point defects, and a type of distributed defect. Motivated by the potential commercialization, the developed system is promoted mainly using off-the-shelf techniques, that is, the high-frequency resonance technique with envelope detection and the average of short-time Fourier transform. In order to test the flexibility and robustness, the monitoring performance is extensively studied under diverse operating conditions: different sensor locations, motor speeds, loading conditions, and data samples from different time segments. The experimental results showed the powerful capability of vibration analysis in the bearing point defect fault diagnosis. The current analysis also showed a moderate capability in diagnosis of point defect faults depending on the type of fault, severity of the fault, and the operational condition. The temporal feature indicated a feasibility to detect generalized roughness fault. The practical issues, such as deviations of predicted characteristic frequencies, sideband effects, time-average of spectra, and selection of fault index and thresholds, are also discussed. The experimental work shows a huge potential to use some simple methods for successful diagnosis of industrial bearing systems.

  4. Monitoring and Correcting Autonomic Function Aboard Mir: NASA Technology Used in Space and on Earth to Facilitate Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, P.; Toscano, W.; Taylor, B.; DeRoshia, C.; Kornilova, L.; Koslovskaya, I.; Miller, N.

    1999-01-01

    The broad objective of the research was to study individual characteristics of human adaptation to long duration spaceflight and possibilities of their correction using autonomic conditioning. The changes in autonomic state during adaptation to microgravity can have profound effects on the operational efficiency of crewmembers and may result in debilitating biomedical symptoms. Ground-based and inflight experiment results showed that certain responses of autonomic nervous system were correlated with, or consistently preceded, reports of performance decrements or the symptoms. Autogenic-Feedback-Training Exercise (AFTE) is a physiological conditioning method that has been used to train people to voluntary control several of their own physiological responses. The specific objectives were: 1) To study human autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to sustained exposure to microgravity; 2) To study human behavior/performance changes related to physiology; 3) To evaluate the effectiveness of preflight autonomic conditioning (AFTE) for facilitating adaptation to space and readaptation to Earth; and 4) To archive these data for the NASA Life Sciences Data Archive and thereby make this information available to the international scientific community.

  5. CURRENT STATE ANALYSIS OF AUTOMATIC BLOCK SYSTEM DEVICES, METHODS OF ITS SERVICE AND MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Beznarytnyy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of formalized description of automatic block system of numerical code based on the analysis of characteristic failures of automatic block system and procedure of its maintenance. Methodology. For this research a theoretical and analytical methods have been used. Findings. Typical failures of the automatic block systems were analyzed, as well as basic reasons of failure occur were found out. It was determined that majority of failures occurs due to defects of the maintenance system. Advantages and disadvantages of the current service technology of automatic block system were analyzed. Works that can be automatized by means of technical diagnostics were found out. Formal description of the numerical code of automatic block system as a graph in the state space of the system was carried out. Originality. The state graph of the numerical code of automatic block system that takes into account gradual transition from the serviceable condition to the loss of efficiency was offered. That allows selecting diagnostic information according to attributes and increasing the effectiveness of recovery operations in the case of a malfunction. Practical value. The obtained results of analysis and proposed the state graph can be used as the basis for the development of new means of diagnosing devices for automatic block system, which in turn will improve the efficiency and service of automatic block system devices in general.

  6. Complex Demodulation in Monitoring Earth Rotation by VLBI: Testing the Algorithm by Analysis of Long Periodic EOP Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielgosz, A.; Brzeziński, A.; Böhm, S.

    2016-12-01

    The complex demodulation (CD) algorithm is an efficient tool for extracting the diurnal and subdiurnal components of Earth rotation from the routine VLBI observations (Brzeziński, 2012). This algorithm was implemented by Böhm et al (2012b) into a dedicated version of the VLBI analysis software VieVs. The authors processed around 3700 geodetic 24-hour observing sessions in 1984.0-2010.5 and estimated simultaneously the time series of the long period components as well as diurnal, semidiurnal, terdiurnal and quarterdiurnal components of polar motion (PM) and universal time UT1. This paper describes the tests of the CD algorithm by checking consistency of the low frequency components of PM and UT1 estimated by VieVS CD and those from the IERS and IVS combined solutions. Moreover, the retrograde diurnal component of PM demodulated from VLBI observations has been compared to the celestial pole offsets series included in the IERS and IVS solutions. We found for all three components a good agreement of the results based on the CD approach and those based on the standard parameterization recommended by the IERS Conventions (IERS, 2010) and applied by the IERS and IVS. We conclude that an application of the CD parameterization in VLBI data analysis does not change those components of EOP which are included in the standard adjustment, while enabling simultaneous estimation of the high frequency components from the routine VLBI observations. Moreover, we deem that the CD algorithm can also be implemented in analysis of other space geodetic observations, like GNSS or SLR, enabling retrieval of subdiurnal signals in EOP from the past data.

  7. An automated processing chains for surface temperature monitoring on Earth's most active volcanoes by optical data from multiple satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Malvina; Musacchio, Massimo; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria

    2017-04-01

    The Geohazards Exploitation Platform, or GEP is one of six Thematic Exploitation Platforms developed by ESA to serve data user communities. As a new element of the ground segment delivering satellite results to users, these cloud-based platforms provide an online environment to access information, processing tools, computing resources for community collaboration. The aim is to enable the easy extraction of valuable knowledge from vast quantities of satellite-sensed data now being produced by Europe's Copernicus programme and other Earth observation satellites. In this context, the estimation of surface temperature on active volcanoes around the world is considered. E2E processing chains have been developed for different satellite data (ASTER, Landsat8 and Sentinel 3 missions) using thermal infrared (TIR) channels by applying specific algorithms. These chains have been implemented on the GEP platform enabling the use of EO missions and the generation of added value product such as surface temperature map, from not skilled users. This solution will enhance the use of satellite data and improve the dissemination of the results saving valuable time (no manual browsing, downloading or processing is needed) and producing time series data that can be speedily extracted from a single co-registered pixel, to highlight gradual trends within a narrow area. Moreover, thanks to the high-resolution optical imagery of Sentinel 2 (MSI), the detection of lava maps during an eruption can be automatically obtained. The proposed lava detection method is based on a contextual algorithm applied to Sentinel-2 NIR (band 8 - 0.8 micron) and SWIR (band 12 - 2.25 micron) data. Examples derived by last eruptions on active volcanoes are showed.

  8. Assessment of Current Inservice Inspection and Leak Monitoring Practices for Detecting Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Michael T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Simonen, Fredric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Muscara, Joseph [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Rockville, MD (United States); Doctor, Steven R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kupperman, David S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    An assessment was performed to determine the effectiveness of existing inservice inspection (ISI) and leak monitoring techniques, and recommend improvements, as necessary, to the programs as currently performed for light water reactor (LWR) components. Information from nuclear power plant (NPP) aging studies and from the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) report (NUREG-1801) was used to identify components that have already experienced, or are expected to experience, degradation. This report provides a discussion of the key aspects and parameters that constitute an effective ISI program and a discussion of the basis and background against which the effectiveness of the ISI and leak monitoring programs for timely detection of degradation was evaluated. Tables based on the GALL components were used to systematically guide the process, and table columns were included that contained the ISI requirements and effectiveness assessment. The information in the tables was analyzed using histograms to reduce the data and help identify any trends. The analysis shows that the overall effectiveness of the ISI programs is very similar for both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The evaluations conducted as part of this research showed that many ISI programs are not effective at detecting degradation before its extent reached 75% of the component wall thickness. This work should be considered as an assessment of NDE practices at this time; however, industry and regulatory activities are currently underway that will impact future effectiveness assessments. A number of actions have been identified to improve the current ISI programs so that degradation can be more reliably detected.

  9. Differential-output B-dot and D-dot monitors for current and voltage measurements on a 20-MA, 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Wagoner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a system of differential-output monitors that diagnose current and voltage in the vacuum section of a 20-MA 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator. The system includes 62 gauges: 3 current and 6 voltage monitors that are fielded on each of the accelerator’s 4 vacuum-insulator stacks, 6 current monitors on each of the accelerator’s 4 outer magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs, and 2 current monitors on the accelerator’s inner MITL. The inner-MITL monitors are located 6 cm from the axis of the load. Each of the stack and outer-MITL current monitors comprises two separate B-dot sensors, each of which consists of four 3-mm-diameter wire loops wound in series. The two sensors are separately located within adjacent cavities machined out of a single piece of copper. The high electrical conductivity of copper minimizes penetration of magnetic flux into the cavity walls, which minimizes changes in the sensitivity of the sensors on the 100-ns time scale of the accelerator’s power pulse. A model of flux penetration has been developed and is used to correct (to first order the B-dot signals for the penetration that does occur. The two sensors are designed to produce signals with opposite polarities; hence, each current monitor may be regarded as a single detector with differential outputs. Common-mode-noise rejection is achieved by combining these signals in a 50-Ω balun. The signal cables that connect the B-dot monitors to the balun are chosen to provide reasonable bandwidth and acceptable levels of Compton drive in the bremsstrahlung field of the accelerator. A single 50-Ω cable transmits the output signal of each balun to a double-wall screen room, where the signals are attenuated, digitized (0.5-ns/sample, numerically compensated for cable losses, and numerically integrated. By contrast, each inner-MITL current monitor contains only a single B-dot sensor. These monitors are fielded in opposite-polarity pairs. The two

  10. Differential B-dot and D-dot monitors for current and voltage measurements on a 20-MA 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoup, Roy Willlam (ITT Industries, Albuquerque, NM); Gilliland, Terrance Leo (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Lee, James R.; Speas, Christopher Shane; Kim, Alexandre A. (High Current Electronic Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia); Struve, Kenneth William; York, Mathew William; Leifeste, Gordon T.; Rochau, Gregory Alan; Sharpe, Arthur William; Stygar, William A.; Porter, John Larry Jr.; Wagoner, Tim C. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Reynolds, Paul Gerard (Team Specialty Products Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Slopek, Jeffrey Scott (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Moore, William B. S.; Dinwoodie, Thomas Albert (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Woodring, R. M. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Broyles, Robin Scott (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Mills, Jerry Alan; Melville, J. A. (Prodyn Technologies Incorporated, Albuquerque, NM); Dudley, M. E. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Androlewicz, K. E. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Mourning, R. W. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Moore, J. K. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Serrano, Jason Dimitri (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Ives, H. C. (EG& G, Albuquerque, NM); Johnson, M. F. (Team Specialty Products Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Peyton, B. P. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Leeper, Ramon Joe; Savage, Mark Edward; Donovan, Guy Louis; Spielman, R. B. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Seamen, Johann F.

    2007-12-01

    We have developed a system of differential-output monitors that diagnose current and voltage in the vacuum section of a 20-MA 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator. The system includes 62 gauges: 3 current and 6 voltage monitors that are fielded on each of the accelerator's 4 vacuum-insulator stacks, 6 current monitors on each of the accelerator's 4 outer magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs), and 2 current monitors on the accelerator's inner MITL. The inner-MITL monitors are located 6 cm from the axis of the load. Each of the stack and outer-MITL current monitors comprises two separate B-dot sensors, each of which consists of four 3-mm-diameter wire loops wound in series. The two sensors are separately located within adjacent cavities machined out of a single piece of copper. The high electrical conductivity of copper minimizes penetration of magnetic flux into the cavity walls, which minimizes changes in the sensitivity of the sensors on the 100-ns time scale of the accelerator's power pulse. A model of flux penetration has been developed and is used to correct (to first order) the B-dot signals for the penetration that does occur. The two sensors are designed to produce signals with opposite polarities; hence, each current monitor may be regarded as a single detector with differential outputs. Common-mode-noise rejection is achieved by combining these signals in a 50-{Omega} balun. The signal cables that connect the B-dot monitors to the balun are chosen to provide reasonable bandwidth and acceptable levels of Compton drive in the bremsstrahlung field of the accelerator. A single 50-{omega} cable transmits the output signal of each balun to a double-wall screen room, where the signals are attenuated, digitized (0.5-ns/sample), numerically compensated for cable losses, and numerically integrated. By contrast, each inner-MITL current monitor contains only a single B-dot sensor. These monitors are fielded in opposite-polarity pairs. The two

  11. Monitoring Watershed Water Quality Impacts on Near-Shore Coral Reef Ecosystems in American Samoa using NASA Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaby, A.; Price, J.; Minovitz, D.; Makely, L.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Schmidt, C.; Guild, L. S.; Palacios, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Land use changes can greatly increase erosion and sediment loads reaching watersheds and downstream coastal waters. In coastal environments with steep terrain and small drainage basins, sedimentation directly influences water quality in near-shore marine environments. Poor water quality indicators (i.e., dissolved nutrients and high particulates) affect coral calcification, photosynthesis, and coral cover. The abundance, recruitment, and biodiversity of American Samoa's coral reefs have been heavily affected by population growth, land cover change, pollution, and sediment influx. Monitoring, managing, and protecting these fragile ecosystems remains difficult due to limited resource availability, steep terrain, and local land ownership. Despite extensive field hours, traditional field and lab-based water quality research produces temporally and spatially limited datasets. Using a 'ridge to reef' effort, this project built a management tool to assess coral reef vulnerability using land use, hydrology, water quality, and coral reef cover in American Samoa to provide local agencies and partners with spatial representation of water quality parameters and site-specific implications for coral reef vulnerability. This project used land cover classified from Landsat 7 and 8 images, precipitation data from NOAA, and physical ocean factors from Terra MODIS. Changes in land cover from 2000 to 2014 were also estimated using Landsat imagery. Final products were distributed to partners to enhance water quality management, community outreach, and coral reef conservation.

  12. Leveraging Current Initiatives to Bring Earth and Space Science into Elementary and Early Childhood Classrooms: NGSS in the Context of the Classroom Technology Push

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Guffrey, H. A.

    2016-12-01

    Classroom teachers face many challenges today such as new standards, the moving targets of high stakes tests and teacher evaluations, inconsistent/insufficient access to resources and evolving education policies. Science education in the K-5 context is even more complex. NGSS can be intimidating, especially to K-5 educators with little science background. High stakes science tests are slow to catch up with newly drafted state level science standards, leaving teachers unsure about what to change and when to implement updated standards. Amid all this change, many schools are also piloting new technology programs. Though exciting, tech initiatives can also be overwhelming to teachers who are already overburdened. A practical way to support teachers in science while remaining mindful of these stressors is to design and share resources that leverage other K-5 school initiatives. This is often done by integrating writing or math into science learning to meet Common Core requirements. This presentation will suggest a method for bringing Earth and space science learning into elementary / early childhood classrooms by utilizing the current push for tablet technology. The goal is to make science integration reasonable by linking it to technology programs that are in their early stages. The roles and uses of K-5 Earth and space science apps will be examined in this presentation. These apps will be linked to NGSS standards as well as to the science and engineering practices. To complement the app resources, two support frameworks will also be shared. They are designed to help educators consider new technologies in the context of their own classrooms and lessons. The SAMR Model (Puentadura, 2012) is a conceptual framework that helps teachers think critically about the means and purposes of integrating technology into existing lessons. A practical framework created by the author will also be shared. It is designed to help teachers identify and address the important logistical

  13. A web-based Italian survey of current trends, habits and beliefs in hemodynamic monitoring and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancofiore, Gianni; Cecconi, Maurizio; Rocca, Giorgio Della

    2015-10-01

    Significant evidence outlines that the management of the high-risk surgical patient with perioperative hemodynamic optimization leads to significant benefits. This study aimed at studying the current practice of hemodynamic monitoring and management of Italian anesthesiologists. An invitation to participate in a web-based survey was published on the web site of the Società Italiana di Anestesia Analgesia Rianimazione Terapia Intensiva. Overall, 478 questionnaires were completed. The most frequently used monitoring techniques was invasive blood pressure (94.1 %). Cardiac output was used in 41.3% of the cases mainly throughout less-invasive methods. When cardiac output was not monitored, the main reason given was that other surrogate techniques, mainly central venous oxygen saturation (40.5%). Written protocols concerning hemodynamic management in high-risk surgical patients were used by the 29.1% of the respondents. 6.3% of the respondents reported not to be aware if such document was available at their institution. 86.3% of the respondents reported that they usually optimize high risk patients but to use blood flow assessment rarely (39.7%). The most used parameter in clinical practice to assess the effects of volume loading were an increase in urine output and arterial blood pressure together with a decrease in heart rate and blood lactates. The 45.1% or the respondents outlined that hemodynamic optimization in the high risk patients is of major clinical value. Our study outlines an important gap between available evidence and clinical practice emphasizing the need for a better awareness, more information and knowledge on the specific topic.

  14. Health Monitoring of Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) Using Meandering Winding Magnetometer ((MWM(Registered Trademark)) Eddy Current Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Rick; Grundy, David; Jablonski, David; Martin, Christopher; Washabaugh, Andrew; Goldfine, Neil

    2011-01-01

    There are 3 mechanisms that affect the life of a COPV are: a) The age life of the overwrap; b) Cyclic fatigue of the metallic liner; c) Stress Rupture life. The first two mechanisms are understood through test and analysis. A COPV Stress Rupture is a sudden and catastrophic failure of the overwrap while holding at a stress level below the ultimate strength for an extended time. Currently there is no simple, deterministic method of determining the stress rupture life of a COPV, nor a screening technique to determine if a particular COPV is close to the time of a stress rupture failure. Conclusions: Demonstrated a correlation between MWM response and pressure or strain. Demonstrated the ability to monitor stress in COPV at different orientations and depths. FA41 provides best correlation with bottle pressure or stress.

  15. Wall-Current-Monitor based Ghost and Satellite Bunch Detection in the CERN PS and the LHC Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhagen, R J; Belleman, J; Bohl, T; Damerau, H

    2012-01-01

    While most LHC detectors and instrumentation systems are optimised for a nominal bunch spacing of 25 ns, the LHC RF cavities themselves operate at the 10th harmonic of the maximum bunch frequency. Due to the beam production scheme and transfers in the injector chain, part of the nominally ‘empty’ RF buckets may contain particles, referred to as ghost or satellite bunches. These populations must be accurately quantified for high-precision experiments, luminosity calibration and control of parasitic particle encounters at the four LHC interaction points. This contribution summarises the wall-current-monitor based ghost and satellite bunch measurements in CERN’s PS and LHC accelerators. Instrumentation set-up, post-processing and achieved performance are discussed.

  16. COMS normal operation for Earth Observation mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Min

    2012-09-01

    Communication Ocean Meteorological Satellite (COMS) for the hybrid mission of meteorological observation, ocean monitoring, and telecommunication service was launched onto Geostationary Earth Orbit on June 27, 2010 and it is currently under normal operation service since April 2011. The COMS is located on 128.2° East of the geostationary orbit. In order to perform the three missions, the COMS has 3 separate payloads, the meteorological imager (MI), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), and the Ka-band antenna. Each payload is dedicated to one of the three missions, respectively. The MI and GOCI perform the Earth observation mission of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively. For this Earth observation mission the COMS requires daily mission commands from the satellite control ground station and daily mission is affected by the satellite control activities. For this reason daily mission planning is required. The Earth observation mission operation of COMS is described in aspects of mission operation characteristics and mission planning for the normal operation services of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring. And the first year normal operation results after the In-Orbit-Test (IOT) are investigated through statistical approach to provide the achieved COMS normal operation status for the Earth observation mission.

  17. Inflight Microbial Monitoring- An Alternative Method to Culture Based Detection Currently Used on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadad, Christina L.; Birmele, Michele N.; Roman, Monsi; Hummerick, Mary E.; Smith, David J.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that potentially destructive microorganisms and human pathogens have been detected on the International Space Station (ISS). The likelihood of introducing new microorganisms occurs with every exchange of crew or addition of equipment or supplies. Microorganisms introduced to the ISS are readily transferred between crew and subsystems (i.e. ECLSS, environmental control and life support systems). Current microbial characterization methods require enrichment of microorganisms and at least a 48-hour incubation time. This increases the microbial load while detecting only a limited number of the total microorganisms. The culture based method detects approximately 1-10% of the total organisms present and provides no identification. To identify and enumerate ISS microbes requires that samples be returned to Earth for complete analysis. Therefore, a more expedient, low-cost, in-flight method of microbial detection, identification, and enumeration is warranted. The RAZOR EX, a ruggedized, commercial off the shelf, real-time PCR field instrument was tested for its ability to detect microorganisms at low concentrations within one hour. Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were detected at low levels using real-time DNA amplification. Total heterotrophic counts could also be detected using a 16S gene marker that can identify up to 98% of all bacteria. To reflect viable cells found in the samples, RNA was also detectable using a modified, single-step reverse transcription reaction.

  18. Inflight Microbial Monitoring-An Alternative Method to Culture Based Detection Currently Used on International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadad, Christina L.; Birmele, Michele N.; Roman, Monsi; Hummerick, Mary E.; Smith, David J.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that microorganisms and potential human pathogens have been detected on the International Space Station (ISS). The potential to introduce new microorganisms occurs with every exchange of crew or addition of equipment or supplies. Previous research has shown that microorganisms introduced to the ISS are readily transferred between crew and subsystems and back (i.e. ECLSS, environmental control and life support systems). Current microbial characterization methods require enrichment of microorganisms and a 48-hour incubation time. This increases the microbial load while detecting a limited number of microorganisms. The culture based method detects approximately 1-10% of the total organisms present and provides no identification, To identify and enumerate ISS samples requires that samples to be returned to Earth for complete analysis. Therefore, a more expedient, low-cost, in-flight method of microbial detection, identification, and enumeration is warranted. The RAZOR EX, a ruggedized, commercial off the shelf, real-time PCR field instrument was tested for its ability to detect microorganism at low concentrations within one hour. Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were detected at low levels using real-time DNA amplification. Total heterotrophic counts could also be detected using a 16S gene marker that can identify up to 98% of all bacteria. To reflect viable cells found in the samples, RNA was also detectable using a modified, single-step reverse transcription reaction.

  19. CALYPSO: a new HF RADAR network to monitor sea surface currents in the Malta-Sicily channel (Mediterranean sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosoli, S.; Ciraolo, G.; Drago, A.; Capodici, F.; Maltese, A.; Gauci, A.; Galea, A.; Azzopardi, J.; Buscaino, G.; Raffa, F.; Mazzola, S.; Sinatra, R.

    2016-12-01

    Located in one of the main shipping lanes in the Mediterranean Sea, and in a strategic region for oil extraction platforms, the Malta-Sicily channel is exposed to significant oil spill risks. Shipping and extraction activities constitute a major threat for marine areas of relevant ecological value in the area, and impacts of oil spills on the local ecosystems and the economic activities, including tourism and fisheries, can be dramatic. Damages would be even more devastating for the Maltese archipelago, where marine resources represent important economic assets. Additionally, North Africa coastal areas are also under threat, due to their proximity to the Malta-Sicily Channel. Prevention and mitigation measures, together with rapid-response and decision-making in case of emergency situations, are fundamental steps that help accomplishing the tasks of minimizing risks and reducing impacts to the various compartments. Thanks to state-of-art technology for the monitoring of sea-surface currents in real-time under all sea-state conditions, the CALYPSO network of High-Frequency Radars represents an essential and invaluable tool for the specific purpose. HF radars technology provide a unique tool to track surface currents in near-real time, and as such the dispersion of pollutants can be monitored and forecasted and their origin backtracked, for instance through data assimilation into ocean circulation models or through short-term data-driven statistical forecasts of ocean currents. The network is constituted of four SeaSonde systems that work in the 13.5MHz frequency band. The network is operative since August 2012 and has been extensively validated using a variety of independent platforms and devices, including current meter data and drifting buoys. The latter provided clear evidences of the reliability of the collected data as for tracking the drifting objects. Additionally, data have provided a new insight into the oceanographic characteristics of the region

  20. Evaluating the Consistency of Current Mainstream Wearable Devices in Health Monitoring: A Comparison Under Free-Living Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dong; Zhang, Xingting; Liu, Xingyu

    2017-01-01

    Background Wearable devices are gaining increasing market attention; however, the monitoring accuracy and consistency of the devices remains unknown. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the consistency of the monitoring measurements of the latest wearable devices in the state of normal activities to provide advice to the industry and support to consumers in making purchasing choices. Methods Ten pieces of representative wearable devices (2 smart watches, 4 smart bracelets of Chinese brands or foreign brands, and 4 mobile phone apps) were selected, and 5 subjects were employed to simultaneously use all the devices and the apps. From these devices, intact health monitoring data were acquired for 5 consecutive days and analyzed on the degree of differences and the relationships of the monitoring measurements ​​by the different devices. Results The daily measurements by the different devices fluctuated greatly, and the coefficient of variation (CV) fluctuated in the range of 2-38% for the number of steps, 5-30% for distance, 19-112% for activity duration, .1-17% for total energy expenditure (EE), 22-100% for activity EE, 2-44% for sleep duration, and 35-117% for deep sleep duration. After integrating the measurement data of 25 days among the devices, the measurements of the number of steps (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC=.89) and distance (ICC=.84) displayed excellent consistencies, followed by those of activity duration (ICC=.59) and the total EE (ICC=.59) and activity EE (ICC=.57). However, the measurements for sleep duration (ICC=.30) and deep sleep duration (ICC=.27) were poor. For most devices, there was a strong correlation between the number of steps and distance measurements (R2>.95), and for some devices, there was a strong correlation between activity duration measurements and EE measurements (R2>.7). A strong correlation was observed in the measurements of steps, distance and EE from smart watches and mobile phones of the same

  1. 土石坝安全监测与有限元模拟%Safety Monitoring for Earth Rock Dam and Finite Element Method Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王其勇; 王义重; 潘孝城; 傅旭东

    2011-01-01

    The safety monitoring for earth rock dam consists of two parts. One is the monitoring of stress which is mainly about pore water pressure monitoring. The other is about deformation monitoring including observation of surface subsidence, deep layer ground subsidence and horizontal displacement on the abutment of the dam. The actual project shows that the water pressure and the horizontal displacement on the abutment of the dam will be significantly larger than normal status before the dam is in danger. It can give early warning with combination of the results of surface subsidence and deep displacement monitoring. In order to research the whole deformation of the dam and settlement of the soft foundation, the parameters of Duncan-Chang model for undisturbed soil are gained by using triaxial compression test, and the subroutine of the Duncan-Chang nonlinear constitutive model is embedded into the ABAQUS based on the secondary development platform of ABAQUS effectively. Using the ABAQUS finite element software the stress-deformation and the construction areas of the dam in each grading loading are simulated. The comparison between monitoring and simulating results shows that the model can present the trends of the dam deformation well. Calibrating model parameters with the parameters of observation, the trend of dam deformation could be reflected more accurately and give real-time monitoring.%土石坝的安全监测包括两个部分,一是关于应力的监测,主要是孔隙水压力的监测;二是变形的监测,包括地表沉降、地基深层分层沉降、坝肩水平位移等.实际工程表明,土石坝在填筑施工中出现安全问题时,超孔隙水压力与坝肩水平位移会明显偏大,结合地表沉降与坝基深层位移监测结果能够对坝体施工安全有效预警.为研究土石坝坝体与软弱地基的沉降、变形规律,取现场原状土样进行室内三轴压缩试验,得到了原状土样的Duncan-Chang模型参数;基

  2. Design and array signal suggestion of array type pulsed eddy current probe for health monitoring of metal tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Kil [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    An array type probe for monitoring metal tubes is proposed in this paper which utilizes peak value and peak time of a pulsed eddy current(PEC) signal. The probe consists of an array of encircling coils along a tube and the outside of coils is shielded by ferrite to prevent source magnetic fields from directly affecting sensor signals since it is the magnetic fields produced by eddy currents that reflect the condition of metal tubes. The positions of both exciter and sensor coils are consecutively moved automatically so that manual scanning is not necessary. At one position of send-receive coils, peak value and peak time are extracted from a sensor PEC signal and these data are accumulated for all positions to form an array type peak value signal and an array type peak time signal. Numerical simulation was performed using the backward difference method in time and the finite element method for spatial analysis. Simulation results showed that peak value increases and the peak appears earlier as the defect depth or length increases. The proposed array signals are shown to be excellent in reflecting the defect location as well as variations of defect depth and length within the array probe.

  3. The sea surface currents as a potential factor in the estimation and monitoring of wave energy potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodiatis, George; Galanis, George; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Stylianoy, Stavros; Liakatas, Aristotelis

    2015-04-01

    The use of wave energy as an alternative renewable is receiving attention the last years under the shadow of the economic crisis in Europe and in the light of the promising corresponding potential especially for countries with extended coastline. Monitoring and studying the corresponding resources is further supported by a number of critical advantages of wave energy compared to other renewable forms, like the reduced variability and the easier adaptation to the general grid, especially when is jointly approached with wind power. Within the framework, a number of countries worldwide have launched research and development projects and a significant number of corresponding studies have been presented the last decades. However, in most of them the impact of wave-sea surface currents interaction on the wave energy potential has not been taken into account neglecting in this way a factor of potential importance. The present work aims at filling this gap for a sea area with increased scientific and economic interest, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Based on a combination of high resolution numerical modeling approach with advanced statistical tools, a detailed analysis is proposed for the quantification of the impact of sea surface currents, which produced from downscaling the MyOcean-FO regional data, to wave energy potential. The results although spatially sensitive, as expected, prove beyond any doubt that the wave- sea surface currents interaction should be taken into account for similar resource analysis and site selection approaches since the percentage of impact to the available wave power may reach or even exceed 20% at selected areas.

  4. Simultaneous observation of the poleward expansion of substorm electrojet activity and the tailward expansion of current sheet disruption in the near-earth magnetotail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, R.E. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)); Koskinen, H.E.J.; Pulkkinen, T.I. (Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)); Boesinger, T. (Univ. of Oulu (Finland)); McEntire, R.W.; Potemra, T.A. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (United States))

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports on observations of a magnetospheric substorm on June 7, 1985. This event was observed simultaneously by a number of different systems. Particle and magnetic field data were collected by AMPTE/CCE, located near the neutral sheet; magnetic field data was monitored by the EISCAT magnetometer cross; STARE radar data was also collected; and Pi 1 data from Sodankyla. The ground based systems observed the poleward and westward expansion of electrojet activity at the start of the storm. The satellite was able to see the storms onset, and record perturbations in the current sheet at the onset of the substorm, in addition to later perturbations, which the authors argue originates tailward of the satellite. Satellite measurements are shown to occur in conjunction with ground events.

  5. [High current microsecond pulsed hollow cathode lamp excited ionic fluorescence spectrometry of alkaline earth elements in inductively coupled plasma with a Fassel-torch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Yu; Gong, Zhen-Bin; Huang, Ben-Li

    2006-02-01

    High current microsecond pulsed hollow cathode lamp (HCMP-HCL) excited ionic fluorescence spectrometry (IFS) of alkaline earth elements in inductively coupled plasma (ICP) with a Fassel-torch has been investigated. In wide condition ranges only IFS was observed, whilst atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) was not detectable. More intense ionic fluorescence signal was observed at lower observation heights and at lower incident RF powers. Without introduction of any reduction organic gases into the ICP, the limit of detection (LOD, 3sigma) of Ba was improved by 50-fold over that of a conventional pulsed (CP) HCL with the Baird sleeve-extended torch. For Ca and Sr, the LODs by HCMP-HCL-ICP-IFS and CP-HCL-ICP-AFS show no significant difference. Relative standard deviations were 0.6%-1.4% (0.1-0.2 microg x mL(-1), n = 10) for 5 ionic fluorescence lines. Preliminary studies showed that the intensity of ionic fluorescence could be depressed in the presence of K, Al and P.

  6. Current and Future Applications of 3-D Global Earth-Ionosphere Models Based on the Full-Vector Maxwell's Equations FDTD Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jamesina J.

    2009-04-01

    Advances in computing technologies in recent decades have provided a means of generating and performing highly sophisticated computational simulations of electromagnetic phenomena. In particular, just after the turn of the twenty-first century, improvements to computing infrastructures provided for the first time the opportunity to conduct advanced, high-resolution three-dimensional full-vector Maxwell’s equations investigations of electromagnetic propagation throughout the global Earth-ionosphere spherical volume. These models, based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, are capable of including such details as the Earth’s topography and bathymetry, as well as arbitrary horizontal/vertical geometrical and electrical inhomogeneities and anisotropies of the ionosphere, lithosphere, and oceans. Studies at this level of detail simply are not achievable using analytical methods. The goal of this paper is to provide an historical overview and future prospectus of global FDTD computational research for both natural and man-made electromagnetic phenomena around the world. Current and future applications of global FDTD models relating to lightning sources and radiation, Schumann resonances, hypothesized earthquake precursors, remote sensing, and space weather are discussed.

  7. CO2, CO, and CH4 measurements from tall towers in the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network: instrumentation, uncertainty analysis, and recommendations for future high-accuracy greenhouse gas monitoring efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, A. E.; Kofler, J. D.; Trudeau, M. E.; Williams, J. C.; Neff, D. H.; Masarie, K. A.; Chao, D. Y.; Kitzis, D. R.; Novelli, P. C.; Zhao, C. L.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Lang, P. M.; Crotwell, M. J.; Fischer, M. L.; Parker, M. J.; Lee, J. T.; Baumann, D. D.; Desai, A. R.; Stanier, C. O.; De Wekker, S. F. J.; Wolfe, D. E.; Munger, J. W.; Tans, P. P.

    2014-02-01

    A reliable and precise in situ CO2 and CO analysis system has been developed and deployed at eight sites in the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's (ESRL) Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network. The network uses very tall (> 300 m) television and radio transmitter towers that provide a convenient platform for mid-boundary-layer trace-gas sampling. Each analyzer has three sample inlets for profile sampling, and a complete vertical profile is obtained every 15 min. The instrument suite at one site has been augmented with a cavity ring-down spectrometer for measuring CO2 and CH4. The long-term stability of the systems in the field is typically better than 0.1 ppm for CO2, 6 ppb for CO, and 0.5 ppb for CH4, as determined from repeated standard gas measurements. The instrumentation is fully automated and includes sensors for measuring a variety of status parameters, such as temperatures, pressures, and flow rates, that are inputs for automated alerts and quality control algorithms. Detailed and time-dependent uncertainty estimates have been constructed for all of the gases, and the uncertainty framework could be readily adapted to other species or analysis systems. The design emphasizes use of off-the-shelf parts and modularity to facilitate network operations and ease of maintenance. The systems report high-quality data with > 93% uptime. Recurrent problems and limitations of the current system are discussed along with general recommendations for high-accuracy trace-gas monitoring. The network is a key component of the North American Carbon Program and a useful model for future research-grade operational greenhouse gas monitoring efforts.

  8. CO2, CO and CH4 measurements from the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's Tall Tower Greenhouse Gas Observing Network: instrumentation, uncertainty analysis and recommendations for future high-accuracy greenhouse gas monitoring efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, A. E.; Kofler, J. D.; Trudeau, M. E.; Williams, J. C.; Neff, D. H.; Masarie, K. A.; Chao, D. Y.; Kitzis, D. R.; Novelli, P. C.; Zhao, C. L.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Lang, P. M.; Crotwell, M. J.; Fischer, M. L.; Parker, M. J.; Lee, J. T.; Baumann, D. D.; Desai, A. R.; Stanier, C. O.; de Wekker, S. F. J.; Wolfe, D. E.; Munger, J. W.; Tans, P. P.

    2013-02-01

    A robust in situ CO2 and CO analysis system has been developed and deployed at eight sites in the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's (ESRL) Tall Tower Greenhouse Gas Observing Network. The network uses very tall (> 300 m) television and radio transmitter towers that provide a convenient platform for mid-boundary layer trace gas sampling. Each analyzer has three sample inlets for profile sampling, and a complete vertical profile is obtained every 15 min. The instrument suite at one site has been augmented with a cavity ring-down spectrometer for measuring CO2 and CH4. The long-term stability of the systems in the field is typically better than 0.1 ppm for CO2, 6 ppb for CO, and 0.5 ppb for CH4, as determined from repeated standard gas measurements. The instrumentation is fully automated and includes sensors for measuring a variety of status parameters, such as temperatures, pressures and flow rates that are inputs for automated alerts and quality control algorithms. These algorithms provide detailed and time-dependent uncertainty estimates for all of the gases and could be adapted to other species or analysis systems. The design emphasizes use of off the shelf parts and modularity to facilitate network operations and ease of maintenance. The systems report high-quality data with > 93% uptime. Recurrent problems and limitations of the current system are discussed along with general recommendations for high accuracy trace-gas monitoring. The network is a key component of the North American Carbon Program and a useful model for future research-grade operational greenhouse gas monitoring efforts.

  9. Current challenges for high-resolution monitoring of deep geological repository boreholes using terrestrial laser scanner and photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrea, Dario; Savunen, Johanna; Abellan, Antonio; Derron, Marc-Henri; Mattila, Jussi; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2015-04-01

    The Onkalo site has been selected as final deep geological repository for the disposal of nuclear waste in Finland. Several exploratory boreholes, similar to those that will host the nuclear waste, are currently under construction in order to analyse various technical aspects of the disposal. Among them, an accurate monitoring of the deformation of each borehole is required. The present study aims at finding the most suitable technique for measuring and monitoring small scale (below mm) deformations of these boreholes with high confidence and accuracy. Two different close-range monitoring techniques are compared here: a phase-shift terrestrial laser scanning (Z+F 5006i) and photogrammetry (Canon EOS 6D&EF20mm + Adamtech 3DM Mine Mapping Suite 2.5). Both techniques are applied using multi temporal acquisitions. As for the data acquired by the terrestrial laser scanner, our study has revealed that parts of the 3D datasets are affected by an artificial distortion, with a maximum shift up to 6 mm, which is clearly below the required accuracy. The origin of this artifact is related with the data acquisition strategy: since the accuracy of the laser measurement is affected by the incidence angle, we observed that when the incidence angle is higher than 45°, the range is unsatisfactorily underestimated. Furthermore, we found another issue in the influence of the surface condition on range measurement, such as wet versus dry, or dark versus light colored rock surface. As for the photogrammetric data, we observed that, when compared to a theoretical cylinder, the 3D point cloud was affected by a sub-millimetric distortion. This distortion is due to the construction and georeferencing of the final 3D model. The error can reach up to +/- 0.8 mm in the border areas of the picture, which is significant value as a millimetric deformation should be detected. Up to now, the photogrammetric acquisitions have provided more accurate results than the laser scanning, but there is a

  10. TERSSE: Definition of the Total Earth Resources System for the Shuttle Era. Volume 2: An Assessment of the Current State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Results of a state-of-the-art assessment of technology areas which affect the Earth Resources Program are presented along with a functional description of the basic earth resources system. Major areas discussed include: spacecraft flight hardware, remote sensors, data processing techniques and hardware, user models, user interfaces, and operations technology.

  11. Review of current research and application of ductile cast iron quality monitoring technologies in Chinese foundry industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-yong Li; Zhen-yu Xu; Xu-liang Ma; De-quan Shi

    2015-01-01

    There is a long history of studying and making use of ductile cast iron in China. Over the years, the foundrymen in China have carried out a lot of valuable research and development work for measuring parameters and control ing the quality in ductile cast iron production. Many methods, such as rapid metal ographic phase, thermal analysis, eutectic expansion ratio, surface tension measurement, melt electrical resistivity, oxygen and sulfur activity measurement, ultrasonic measurement and sound frequency measurement, have been used and have played important roles in Chinese casting production in the past. These methods can be general y classiifed as liquid testing and solid testing according to the sample state. Based on the analysis of the present situation of these methods applied in the Chinese metal casting industry, the authors consider that there are two dififcult technical problems to be currently solved in monitoring ductile iron quality. One is to seek an effective method for quickly evaluating the nodularizing result through on-the-spot sample analysis before the liquid iron is poured into the mould. The other is to ifnd a nondestructive method for accurately identifying casting quality before castings are delivered.

  12. Review of current research and application of ductile cast iron quality monitoring technologies in Chinese foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-yong Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a long history of studying and making use of ductile cast iron in China. Over the years, the foundrymen in China have carried out a lot of valuable research and development work for measuring parameters and controlling the quality in ductile cast iron production. Many methods, such as rapid metallographic phase, thermal analysis, eutectic expansion ratio, surface tension measurement, melt electrical resistivity, oxygen and sulfur activity measurement, ultrasonic measurement and sound frequency measurement, have been used and have played important roles in Chinese casting production in the past. These methods can be generally classified as liquid testing and solid testing according to the sample state. Based on the analysis of the present situation of these methods applied in the Chinese metal casting industry, the authors consider that there are two difficult technical problems to be currently solved in monitoring ductile iron quality. One is to seek an effective method for quickly evaluating the nodularizing result through on-the-spot sample analysis before the liquid iron is poured into the mould. The other is to find a nondestructive method for accurately identifying casting quality before castings are delivered.

  13. Monitoring the Rapid-Moving Reactivation of Earth Flows by Means of GB-InSAR: The April 2013 Capriglio Landslide (Northern Appennines, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Bardi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main results of the GB-InSAR (ground based interferometric synthetic aperture radar monitoring of the Capriglio landslide (Northern Apennines, Emilia Romagna Region, Italy, activated on 6 April 2013. The landslide, triggered by prolonged rainfall, is constituted by two main adjacent enlarging bodies with a roto-translational kinematics. They activated in sequence and subsequently joined into a large earth flow, channelizing downstream of the Bardea Creek, for a total length of about 3600 m. The displacement rate of this combined mass was quite high, so that the landslide toe evolved with velocities of several tens of meters per day (with peaks of 70–80 m/day in the first month, and of several meters per day (with peaks of 13–14 m/day from early May to mid-July 2013. In the crown area, the landslide completely destroyed a 450 m sector of provincial roadway S.P. 101, and its retrogression tendency exposed the villages of Capriglio and Pianestolla, located in the upper watershed area of the Bardea Creek, to great danger. Furthermore, the advancing toe seriously threatened the Antria bridge, representing the “Massese” provincial roadway S.P. 665R transect over the Bardea Creek, the only strategic roadway left able to connect the above-mentioned villages. With the final aim of supporting local authorities in the hazard assessment and risk management during the emergency phase, on 4 May 2013 aerial optical surveys were conducted to accurately map the landslide extension and evolution. Moreover, a GB-InSAR monitoring campaign was started in order to assess displacements of the whole landslide area. The versatility and flexibility of the GB-InSAR sensors allowed acquiring data with two different configurations, designed and set up to continuously retrieve information on the landslide movement rates (both in its upper slow-moving sectors and in its fast-moving toe. The first acquisition mode revealed that the Capriglio and

  14. Earth-Observation based mapping and monitoring of exposure change in the megacity of Istanbul: open-source tools from the MARSITE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vecchi, Daniele; Dell'Acqua, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    The EU FP7 MARSITE project aims at assessing the "state of the art" of seismic risk evaluation and management at European level, as a starting point to move a "step forward" towards new concepts of risk mitigation and management by long-term monitoring activities carried out both on land and at sea. Spaceborne Earth Observation (EO) is one of the means through which MARSITE is accomplishing this commitment, whose importance is growing as a consequence of the operational unfolding of the Copernicus initiative. Sentinel-2 data, with its open-data policy, represents an unprecedented opportunity to access global spaceborne multispectral data for various purposes including risk monitoring. In the framework of EU FP7 projects MARSITE, RASOR and SENSUM, our group has developed a suite of geospatial software tools to automatically extract risk-related features from EO data, especially on the exposure and vulnerability side of the "risk equation" [1]. These are for example the extension of a built-up area or the distribution of building density. These tools are available open-source as QGIS plug-ins [2] and their source code can be freely downloaded from GitHub [3]. A test case on the risk-prone mega city of Istanbul has been set up, and preliminary results will be presented in this paper. The output of the algorithms can be incorporated into a risk modeling process, whose output is very useful to stakeholders and decision makers who intend to assess and mitigate the risk level across the giant urban agglomerate. Keywords - Remote Sensing, Copernicus, Istanbul megacity, seismic risk, multi-risk, exposure, open-source References [1] Harb, M.M.; De Vecchi, D.; Dell'Acqua, F., "Physical Vulnerability Proxies from Remotes Sensing: Reviewing, Implementing and Disseminating Selected Techniques," Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine, IEEE , vol.3, no.1, pp.20,33, March 2015. doi: 10.1109/MGRS.2015.2398672 [2] SENSUM QGIS plugin, 2016, available online at: https

  15. Using NASA Earth Observing Satellites and Statistical Model Analysis to Monitor Vegetation and Habitat Rehabilitation in Southwest Virginia's Reclaimed Mine Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Z.; Dusenge, D.; Elliot, T. S.; Hafashimana, P.; Medley, S.; Porter, R. P.; Rajappan, R.; Rodriguez, P.; Spangler, J.; Swaminathan, R. S.; VanGundy, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    The majority of the population in southwest Virginia depends economically on coal mining. In 2011, coal mining generated $2,000,000 in tax revenue to Wise County alone. However, surface mining completely removes land cover and leaves the land exposed to erosion. The destruction of the forest cover directly impacts local species, as some are displaced and others perish in the mining process. Even though surface mining has a negative impact on the environment, land reclamation efforts are in place to either restore mined areas to their natural vegetated state or to transform these areas for economic purposes. This project aimed to monitor the progress of land reclamation and the effect on the return of local species. By incorporating NASA Earth observations, such as Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM), re-vegetation process in reclamation sites was estimated through a Time series analysis using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). A continuous source of cloud free images was accomplished by utilizing the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STAR-FM). This model developed synthetic Landsat imagery by integrating the high-frequency temporal information from Terra/Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and high-resolution spatial information from Landsat sensors In addition, the Maximum Entropy Modeling (MaxENT), an eco-niche model was used to estimate the adaptation of animal species to the newly formed habitats. By combining factors such as land type, precipitation from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), and slope from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), the MaxENT model produced a statistical analysis on the probability of species habitat. Altogether, the project compiled the ecological information which can be used to identify suitable habitats for local species in reclaimed mined areas.

  16. A review on emerging contaminants in wastewaters and the environment: current knowledge, understudied areas and recommendations for future monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Bruce; Barden, Ruth; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    This review identifies understudied areas of emerging contaminant (EC) research in wastewaters and the environment, and recommends direction for future monitoring. Non-regulated trace organic ECs including pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and personal care products are focused on due to ongoing policy initiatives and the expectant broadening of environmental legislation. These ECs are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, mainly derived from the discharge of municipal wastewater effluents. Their presence is of concern due to the possible ecological impact (e.g., endocrine disruption) to biota within the environment. To better understand their fate in wastewaters and in the environment, a standardised approach to sampling is needed. This ensures representative data is attained and facilitates a better understanding of spatial and temporal trends of EC occurrence. During wastewater treatment, there is a lack of suspended particulate matter analysis due to further preparation requirements and a lack of good analytical approaches. This results in the under-reporting of several ECs entering wastewater treatment works (WwTWs) and the aquatic environment. Also, sludge can act as a concentrating medium for some chemicals during wastewater treatment. The majority of treated sludge is applied directly to agricultural land without analysis for ECs. As a result there is a paucity of information on the fate of ECs in soils and consequently, there has been no driver to investigate the toxicity to exposed terrestrial organisms. Therefore a more holistic approach to environmental monitoring is required, such that the fate and impact of ECs in all exposed environmental compartments are studied. The traditional analytical approach of applying targeted screening with low resolution mass spectrometry (e.g., triple quadrupoles) results in numerous chemicals such as transformation products going undetected. These can exhibit similar toxicity to the parent EC, demonstrating the necessity

  17. Earth rotation and geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusz, Janusz; Brzezinski, Aleksander; Kosek, Wieslaw; Nastula, Jolanta

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the summary of research activities carried out in Poland in 2011-2014 in the field of Earth rotation and geodynamics by several Polish research institutions. It contains a summary of works on Earth rotation, including evaluation and prediction of its parameters and analysis of the related excitation data as well as research on associated geodynamic phenomena such as geocentre motion, global sea level change and hydrological processes. The second part of the paper deals with monitoring of geodynamic phenomena. It contains analysis of geodynamic networks of local, and regional scale using space (GNSS and SLR) techniques, Earth tides monitoring with gravimeters and water-tube hydrostatic clinometer, and the determination of secular variation of the Earth' magnetic field.

  18. Using EarthScope magnetotelluric data to improve the resilience of the US power grid: rapid predictions of geomagnetically induced currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, A.; Bonner, L. R., IV

    2016-12-01

    Existing methods to predict Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs) in power grids, such as the North American Electric Reliability Corporation standard adopted by the power industry, require explicit knowledge of the electrical resistivity structure of the crust and mantle to solve for ground level electric fields along transmission lines. The current standard is to apply regional 1-D resistivity models to this problem, which facilitates rapid solution of the governing equations. The systematic mapping of continental resistivity structure from projects such as EarthScope reveals several orders of magnitude of lateral variations in resistivity on local, regional and continental scales, resulting in electric field intensifications relative to existing 1-D solutions that can impact GICs to first order. The computational burden on the ground resistivity/GIC problem of coupled 3-D solutions inhibits the prediction of GICs in a timeframe useful to protecting power grids. In this work we reduce the problem to applying a set of filters, recognizing that the magnetotelluric impedance tensors implicitly contain all known information about the resistivity structure beneath a given site, and thus provides the required relationship between electric and magnetic fields at each site. We project real-time magnetic field data from distant magnetic observatories through a robustly calculated multivariate transfer function to locations where magnetotelluric impedance tensors had previously been obtained. This provides a real-time prediction of the magnetic field at each of those points. We then project the predicted magnetic fields through the impedance tensors to obtain predictions of electric fields induced at ground level. Thus, electric field predictions can be generated in real-time for an entire array from real-time observatory data, then interpolated onto points representing a power transmission line contained within the array to produce a combined electric field prediction

  19. A spatial framework for assessing current conditions and monitoring future change in the chemistry of the Antarctic atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Dixon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study to measure more than 25 chemical constituents in the surface snow and firn across extensive regions of Antarctica. It is also the first to report total-Cs concentrations. We present major ion, trace element, heavy metal, rare earth element and oxygen isotope data from a series of surface snow samples and shallow firn sections collected along four US ITASE traverses across East and West Antarctica. In each sample we measure dissolved concentrations of Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl, NO3, SO42−, and MS using ion chromatography and total concentrations of Sr, Cd, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Pb, Bi, U, As, Al, S, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Na, Mg, Li, and K using inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry. We also measure δ18O by isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    The 2002/2003 traverse began at Byrd Surface Camp, West Antarctica, and ended close to South Pole, East Antarctica. The 2003/2004 traverse began at South Pole, passed through AGO4 in central East Antarctica before turning north and finishing at Taylor Dome. The combined 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 traverses started out at Taylor Dome and headed south, passing through the Byrd Glacier drainage basin and ending at South Pole.

    In this study, we utilize satellite remote sensing measurements of microwave backscatter and grain size to assist in the identification of glaze/dune areas across Antarctica and show how chemical concentrations are higher in these areas, precluding them from containing useful high-resolution chemical climate records.

    The majority of the non-glaze/dune samples in this study exhibit similar, or lower, concentrations to those from previous studies. Consequently, the results presented here comprise a conservative baseline for Antarctic surface snow chemical concentrations.

    The elements Cd

  20. Financing and current capacity for REDD+ readiness and monitoring, measurement, reporting and verification in the Congo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniatis, Danae; Gaugris, Jérôme; Mollicone, Danilo; Scriven, Joel; Corblin, Alexis; Ndikumagenge, Cleto; Aquino, André; Crete, Philippe; Sanz-Sanchez, Maria-José

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides the first critical analysis of the financing and current capacity for REDD+ readiness in the Congo Basin, with a particular focus on the REDD+ component of national forest monitoring and measurement, reporting and verification (M&MRV). We focus on three areas of analysis: (i) general financing for REDD+ readiness especially M&MRV; (ii) capacity and information for REDD+ implementation and M&MRV; (iii) prospects and challenges for REDD+ and M&MRV readiness in terms of financing and capacity. For the first area of analysis, a REDD+ and M&MRV readiness financing database was created based on the information from the REDD+ voluntary database and Internet searches. For the second area of analysis, a qualitative approach to data collection was adopted (semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders, surveys and observations). All 10 countries were visited between 2010 and 2012. We find that: (i) a significant amount of REDD+ financing flows into the Congo Basin (±US$550 million or almost half of the REDD+ financing for the African continent); (ii) across countries, there is an important disequilibrium in terms of REDD+ and M&MRV readiness financing, political engagement, comprehension and capacity, which also appears to be a key barrier to countries receiving equal resources; (iii) most financing appears to go to smaller scale (subnational) REDD+ projects; (iv) four distinct country groups in terms of REDD+ readiness and M&MRV status are identified; and (v) the Congo Basin has a distinct opportunity to have a specific REDD+ financing window for large-scale and more targeted national REDD+ programmes through a specific fund for the region. PMID:23878337

  1. Financing and current capacity for REDD+ readiness and monitoring, measurement, reporting and verification in the Congo Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniatis, Danae; Gaugris, Jérôme; Mollicone, Danilo; Scriven, Joel; Corblin, Alexis; Ndikumagenge, Cleto; Aquino, André; Crete, Philippe; Sanz-Sanchez, Maria-José

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides the first critical analysis of the financing and current capacity for REDD+ readiness in the Congo Basin, with a particular focus on the REDD+ component of national forest monitoring and measurement, reporting and verification (M&MRV). We focus on three areas of analysis: (i) general financing for REDD+ readiness especially M&MRV; (ii) capacity and information for REDD+ implementation and M&MRV; (iii) prospects and challenges for REDD+ and M&MRV readiness in terms of financing and capacity. For the first area of analysis, a REDD+ and M&MRV readiness financing database was created based on the information from the REDD+ voluntary database and Internet searches. For the second area of analysis, a qualitative approach to data collection was adopted (semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders, surveys and observations). All 10 countries were visited between 2010 and 2012. We find that: (i) a significant amount of REDD+ financing flows into the Congo Basin (±US$550 million or almost half of the REDD+ financing for the African continent); (ii) across countries, there is an important disequilibrium in terms of REDD+ and M&MRV readiness financing, political engagement, comprehension and capacity, which also appears to be a key barrier to countries receiving equal resources; (iii) most financing appears to go to smaller scale (subnational) REDD+ projects; (iv) four distinct country groups in terms of REDD+ readiness and M&MRV status are identified; and (v) the Congo Basin has a distinct opportunity to have a specific REDD+ financing window for large-scale and more targeted national REDD+ programmes through a specific fund for the region.

  2. Mitigation potential of horizontal ground coupled heat pumps for current and future climatic conditions: UK environmental modelling and monitoring studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García González, Raquel; Verhoef, Anne; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Gan, Guohui; Wu, Yupeng; Hughes, Andrew; Mansour, Majdi; Blyth, Eleanor; Finch, Jon; Main, Bruce

    2010-05-01

    An increased uptake of alternative low or non-CO2 emitting energy sources is one of the key priorities for policy makers to mitigate the effects of environmental change. Relatively little work has been undertaken on the mitigation potential of Ground Coupled Heat Pumps (GCHPs) despite the fact that a GCHP could significantly reduce CO2 emissions from heating systems. It is predicted that under climate change the most probable scenario is for UK temperatures to increase and for winter rainfall to become more abundant; the latter is likely to cause a general rise in groundwater levels. Summer rainfall may reduce considerably, while vegetation type and density may change. Furthermore, recent studies underline the likelihood of an increase in the number of heat waves. Under such a scenario, GCHPs will increasingly be used for cooling as well as heating. These factors will affect long-term performance of horizontal GCHP systems and hence their economic viability and mitigation potential during their life span ( 50 years). The seasonal temperature differences encountered in soil are harnessed by GCHPs to provide heating in the winter and cooling in the summer. The performance of a GCHP system will depend on technical factors (heat exchanger (HE) type, length, depth, and spacing of pipes), but also it will be determined to a large extent by interactions between the below-ground parts of the system and the environment (atmospheric conditions, vegetation and soil characteristics). Depending on the balance between extraction and rejection of heat from and to the ground, the soil temperature in the neighbourhood of the HE may fall or rise. The GROMIT project (GROund coupled heat pumps MITigation potential), funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (UK), is a multi-disciplinary research project, in collaboration with EarthEnergy Ltd., which aims to quantify the CO2 mitigation potential of horizontal GCHPs. It considers changing environmental conditions and combines

  3. Solid Earth: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, R.

    1991-10-01

    The principles of the solid Earth program are introduced. When considering the study of solid Earth from space, satellites are used as beacons, inertial references, free fall probes and carrying platforms. The phenomenon measured by these satellites and the processes which can be studied as a result of these measurements are tabulated. The NASA solid Earth program focusses on research into surface kinematics, Earth rotation, land, ice, and ocean monitoring. The ESA solid Earth program identifies as its priority the Aristoteles mission for determining the gravity and magnetic field globally, with high spatial resolution and high accuracy. The Aristoteles mission characteristics and goals are listed. The benefits of the improved gravity information that will be provided by this mission are highlighted. This information will help in the following research: geodesy, orbit mechanics, geodynamics, oceanography, climate sea level, and the atmosphere.

  4. Expanding earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    Arguments in favor of an expanding earth are presented. The author believes that the theory of plate tectonics is a classic error in the history of geology. The case for the expanding earth is organized in the following way: introductory review - face of the earth, development of expanding earth concept, necessity for expansion, the subduction myth, and definitions; some principles - scale of tectonic phenomena, non-uniformitarianism, tectonic profile, paleomagnetism, asymmetry of the earth, rotation of the earth, and modes of crustal extension; regional studies - western North America, Central America, South-East Asia, and the rift oceans; tests and cause of expansion. 824 references, 197 figures, 11 tables. (RWR)

  5. Three Conservation Applications of Astronaut Photographs of Earth: Tidal Flat Loss (Japan), Elephant Impacts on Vegetation (Botswana), and Seagrass and Mangrove Monitoring (Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Robinson, Julie A.; Minorukashiwagi; Maggiesuzuki; Duanenellis, M.; Bussing, Charles E.; Leelong, W. J.; McKenzie, Andlen J.

    2000-01-01

    NASA photographs taken from low Earth orbit can provide information relevant to conservation biology. This data source is now more accessible due to improvements in digitizing technology, Internet file transfer, and availability of image processing software. We present three examples of conservation-related projects that benefited from using orbital photographs. (1) A time series of photographs from the Space Shuttle showing wetland conversion in Japan was used as a tool for communicating about the impacts of tidal flat loss. Real-time communication with astronauts about a newsworthy event resulted in acquiring current imagery. These images and the availability of other high resolution digital images from NASA provided timely public information on the observed changes. (2) A Space Shuttle photograph of Chobe National Park in Botswana was digitally classified and analyzed to identify the locations of elephant-impacted woodland. Field validation later confirmed that areas identified on the image showed evidence of elephant impacts. (3) A summary map from intensive field surveys of seagrasses in Shoalwater Bay, Australia was used as reference data for a supervised classification of a digitized photograph taken from orbit. The classification was able to distinguish seagrasses, sediments and mangroves with accuracy approximating that in studies using other satellite remote sensing data. Orbital photographs are in the public domain and the database of nearly 400,000 photographs from the late 1960s to the present is available at a single searchable location on the Internet. These photographs can be used by conservation biologists for general information about the landscape and in quantitative applications.

  6. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetic patients in China:current status and influential factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Li; Guo Xiaohui; Xiong Zhenzhen; Lou Qingqing; Shen Li; Zhao Fang; Sun Zilin

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) by individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is crucial for long-term health,yet numerous cultural,economic and health factors can reduce SMBG.Most studies on SMBG adherence have come out of the US and Europe,and their relevance to Asia is unclear.The aims of the present study were to assess the current state of SMBG in China and analyze demographic and diabetes-related characteristics that may influence it.Methods In this multi-center,cross-sectional study,5 953 individuals with T2D from 50 medical centers in 29 provinces across China filled out a standardized questionnaire that requested information on demographic characteristics,education level,occupation,income,lifestyle risk factors,duration of diabetes,chronic complications,and frequency of SMBG.Respondents were also asked whether their glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) had been checked in the past 6 months.The most recent values for fasting plasma glucose,2-hour postprandial blood glucose and HbA1c were recovered from medical records.Results Only 1 130 respondents (18.98%) performed SMBG with the recommended frequency,while 4 823 (81.02%) did not.In fact,nearly 2 105 (35.36%) reported never performing SMBG.In the subset of 3 661 individuals on insulin therapy,only 266 (7.27%) performed SMBG at least once a day,while 1 210 (33.05%) never performed it.In contrast,895 of 2 292 individuals (39.05%) on diet/exercise therapy or oral hypoglycemic therapy never performed it.Multivariate Logistic regression identified several factors associated with SMBG adherence:female gender,higher education level,higher income,longer T2D duration and education about SMBG.Conclusions SMBG adherence in our Chinese population with T2D was less frequent than that in developed countries.Several factors influence SMBG adherence:gender,education level,income,T2D duration,therapy regimen and exposure to education about SMBG.

  7. Motor current signature analysis for gearbox condition monitoring under transient speeds using wavelet analysis and dual-level time synchronous averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Imaz, Inaki; Davari Ardakani, Hossein; Liu, Zongchang; García-Arribas, Alfredo; Arnaiz, Aitor; Lee, Jay

    2017-09-01

    This paper focuses on analyzing motor current signature for fault diagnosis of gearboxes operating under transient speed regimes. Two different strategies are evaluated, extensively tested and compared to analyze the motor current signature in order to implement a condition monitoring system for gearboxes in industrial machinery. A specially designed test bench is used, thoroughly monitored to fully characterize the experiments, in which gears in different health status are tested. The measured signals are analyzed using discrete wavelet decomposition, in different decomposition levels using a range of mother wavelets. Moreover, a dual-level time synchronous averaging analysis is performed on the same signal to compare the performance of the two methods. From both analyses, the relevant features of the signals are extracted and cataloged using a self-organizing map, which allows for an easy detection and classification of the diverse health states of the gears. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of both methods for diagnosing gearbox faults. A slightly better performance was observed for dual-level time synchronous averaging method. Based on the obtained results, the proposed methods can used as effective and reliable condition monitoring procedures for gearbox condition monitoring using only motor current signature.

  8. Uderstanding Snowball Earth Deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbot, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Earth, a normally clement planet comfortably in its star's habitable zone, suffered global or nearly global glaciation at least twice during the Neoproterozoic era (at about 635 and 710 million years ago). Viewed in the context of planetary evolution, these pan-global glaciations (Snowball Earth events) were extremely rapid, lasting only a few million years. The dramatic effect of the Snowball Earth events on the development of the planet can be seen through their link to rises in atmospheric oxygen and evolutionary innovations. These potential catastrophes on an otherwise clement planet can be used to gain insight into planetary habitability more generally. Since Earth is not currently a Snowball, a sound deglaciation mechanism is crucial for the viability of the Snowball Earth hypothesis. The traditional deglaciation mechanism is a massive build up of CO2 due to reduced weathering during Snowball Earth events until tropical surface temperatures reach the melting point. Once initiated, such a deglaciation might happen on a timescale of only dozens of thousands of years and would thrust Earth from the coldest climate in its history to the warmest. Therefore embedded in Snowball Earth events is an even more rapid and dramatic environmental change. Early global climate model simulations raised doubt about whether Snowball Earth deglaciation could be achieved at a CO2 concentration low enough to be consistent with geochemical data, which represented a potential challenge to the Snowball Earth hypothesis. Over the past few years dust and clouds have emerged as the essential missing additional processes that would allow Snowball Earth deglaciation at a low enough CO2 concentration. I will discuss the dust and cloud mechanisms and the modeling behind these ideas. This effort is critical for the broader implications of Snowball Earth events because understanding the specific deglaciation mechanism determines whether similar processes could happen on other planets.

  9. Accretion of the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canup, Robin M

    2008-11-28

    The origin of the Earth and its Moon has been the focus of an enormous body of research. In this paper I review some of the current models of terrestrial planet accretion, and discuss assumptions common to most works that may require re-examination. Density-wave interactions between growing planets and the gas nebula may help to explain the current near-circular orbits of the Earth and Venus, and may result in large-scale radial migration of proto-planetary embryos. Migration would weaken the link between the present locations of the planets and the original provenance of the material that formed them. Fragmentation can potentially lead to faster accretion and could also damp final planet orbital eccentricities. The Moon-forming impact is believed to be the final major event in the Earth's accretion. Successful simulations of lunar-forming impacts involve a differentiated impactor containing between 0.1 and 0.2 Earth masses, an impact angle near 45 degrees and an impact speed within 10 per cent of the Earth's escape velocity. All successful impacts-with or without pre-impact rotation-imply that the Moon formed primarily from material originating from the impactor rather than from the proto-Earth. This must ultimately be reconciled with compositional similarities between the Earth and the Moon.

  10. 蓄电池恒流放电容量监测仪的电路设计%Circuit Design of Constant Current Discharge Capacity Monitor for Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付晓伟; 普仕凡

    2013-01-01

    蓄电池恒流放电容量监测仪以单片机为核心,以PTC热敏电阻为放电负载;采用PWM技术控制电流恒定,实时监测放电电池的电流电压;采用大电流恒流放电方法,对蓄电池进行活化处理延长寿命.由ATmega128单片机、电源、存储器及时间芯片组成基础电路,由触摸屏、LCD显示模块、数据采集电路、PWM信号驱动电路组成显控驱动电路,监测仪则由二者共同构成.介绍了硬件构成与电路设计的思路.%In the constant current discharge capacity monitor for battery, microcontroller is taken as core and PTC thermistor is taken as discharge load, PWM technique is used to control current constant, the current and voltage of discharge battery is real-time monitored, the discharge means of heavy current constant current is a dopted to activate the battery and lengthen the life of it. The basic circuit consists of ATmegal28, power, memo ry and time chips, the display control drive circuit is composed of the touch screen, LCD display module, data acquisition circuit and PWM signal driving circuit, and the monitor is constituted together by the two circuits. The design idea of the hardware structure and circuit is introduced.

  11. 广东省稀土矿违法开采遥感动态监测研究%Remote sensing investigation and monitoring of illegal exploitation of rare earth in Guangdong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊凤; 王耿明; 李文胜

    2015-01-01

    The ilegal exploitation of rare earth has brought a series of problems. Remote sensing technology has been used to dynamicaly monitor the ilegal exploitation of rare earth minerals in Guangdong Province in recent years. A remote sensing investigation method for rare earth ilegal mining and its characteristics and change trend in Guangdong Province are discussed based on mineral satelite images acquired in 2010–2014, and the existing problems are summarized and analyzed. The results show that rare earth illegal mining in Guangdong Province generally increased, decreased, and then rebounded. The suspected illegal mining patterns show a wide distribution, but less continuous illegal mining. The exploitation locations have become more hidden in the past two years. Thus, the dififculty of remote sensing monitoring has increased. In view of the short and rapid characteristics of the rare earth mining cycle, the use of various types of domestic satelite images for dynamic monitoring was recommended. In addition, because rare earth mining locations are remote and hidden, the use of low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicles for the remote sensing monitoring of concentrated areas of rare earth mining was recommended.%稀土矿的违法开采带来一系列问题。为摸清近年来广东省稀土矿违法开采状况,以遥感为主要技术手段对此开展了动态监测研究。以广东省2010~2014年矿产卫片成果为基础,论述了稀土矿违法开采遥感调查技术路线和技术方法,重点分析了广东省2010~2014年稀土矿的违法开采特征与变化趋势,并对存在问题进行了总结与分析。结果表明:广东省稀土矿违法开采总体呈加剧、减弱、反弹趋势,疑似违法开采图斑点多、分布广,但持续违法少,近两年稀土矿开采方式和地点更为隐蔽,遥感监测难度加大。针对稀土矿开采周期短、速度快的特点,建议使用多种类型国产卫星数据开展多次数

  12. The Camino intracranial pressure sensor: is it optimal technology? An internal audit with a review of current intracranial pressure monitoring technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, I; Barnes, A; Smith, D; Dunn, L

    2001-11-01

    To audit the reliability of the Camino intracranial pressure (ICP) sensor (Camino Laboratories, San Diego, CA) in our clinical practice as part of a continuing quality assurance program, and to assess its relative usefulness as compared with currently available ICP monitoring technologies that we reviewed. Prospective audit of ICP device reliability and function in 50 patients with head injuries. Zero drift was recorded immediately after the ICP device was removed from the patient. Dynamic frequency response bench testing of each functioning catheter from 0 to 30 Hz and static calibration testing from 0 to 100 mmHg during environmental temperature variation from 22 to 40 degrees C were carried out. Zero drift (range, -13 to 22 mmHg; median, -1 mmHg) was recorded immediately after the devices were removed from patients. Seventeen (50%) of the devices tested for zero drift had absolute drifts of at least 3 mmHg. There was no correlation between recorded zero drift and duration of monitoring (r = 0.154, P = 0.207). Five sensors (10% of those tested) failed during patient monitoring and were replaced. Static and dynamic calibration tests of the functioning sensors were within the manufacturer's specifications. However, the sensitivity of the devices to environmental temperature remains a problem. The Camino ICP sensor remains one of the most popular ICP monitoring devices for use in patients with traumatic brain injuries. However, our recent in-house assessment demonstrated the robustness of the device to be less than adequate during routine practice. In this study, more than 50% exhibited zero drift greater than 3 mmHg, which is unacceptable in a catheter tip ICP monitoring device in which zero drift and calibration cannot be checked in vivo. A review of the literature revealed that other available ICP monitoring devices may prove to be more reliable and thus more appropriate for routine clinical measurement of ICP.

  13. Earth\\'s Mass Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Mawad, Ramy

    2014-01-01

    The perturbation of the Earth caused by variability of mass of Earth as additional reason with gravity of celestial bodies and shape of the Earth. The Earth eating and collecting matters from space and loss or eject matters to space through its flying in the space around the Sun. The source of the rising in the global sea level is not closed in global warming and icebergs, but the outer space is the additional important source for this rising. The Earth eats waters from space in unknown mechanism. The mass of the Earth become greater in November i.e. before transit apoapsis two months, and become latter in February i.e. after transit apoapsis to two months.

  14. EMIC-wave-moderated flux limitations of ring current energetic ion intensities in the multi-species plasmas of Earth's inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, B.

    2013-12-01

    One of the early sophisticated integrations of theory and observations of the space age was the development in 1966 of the integral Kennel-Petschek flux limit for trapped energetic electrons and ions within Earth's inner magnetosphere. Specifically, it was proposed that: 1) trapped particle distributions in the magnetic bottle configuration of the inner magnetosphere are intrinsically unstable to the generation various plasma waves and 2) ionospheric reflection of some waves back into the trapped populations leads to runaway growth of the waves and dramatic loss of particles for particle integral intensities that rise above a fairly rigidly specified upper limit. While there has been a long hiatus in utilization of the KP limit in inner magnetospheric research, there have been recent highly successful reconsiderations of more general forms of the KP limit for understanding radiation belt electron intensities and spectral shapes, resulting from improvements in theoretical tools. Such a reconsideration has not happened for energetic trapped ions, perhaps due to the perceived immense complexity of the generation of the Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves, that scatter the energetic ions, for plasmas containing multiple ionic species (H, He, O). Here, a differential Kennel-Petschek (KP) flux limit for magnetospheric energetic ions is devised taking into account multiple ion species effects on the EMIC waves. This new theoretical approach is applied to measured Earth magnetosphere energetic ion spectra (~ keV to ~ 1 MeV) for radial positions (L) 3 to 6.7 RE. The flatness of the most intense spectral shapes for mechanism, but modifications of traditional KP parameters are needed to account for maximum intensities up to 5 times greater than expected. Future work using the Van Allen Probes mission will likely resolve outstanding uncertainties.

  15. Integrated Voltage—Current Monitoring and Control of Gas Metal Arc Weld Magnetic Ball-Jointed Open Source 3-D Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuenyong Nilsiam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To provide process optimization of metal fabricating self-replicating rapid prototyper (RepRap 3-D printers requires a low-cost sensor and data logger system to measure current (I and voltage (V of the gas metal arc welders (GMAW. This paper builds on previous open-source hardware development to provide a real-time measurement of welder I-V where the measuring circuit is connected to two analog inputs of the Arduino that is used to control the 3-D printer itself. Franklin firmware accessed through a web interface that is used to control the printer allows storing the measured values and downloading those stored readings to the user’s computer. To test this custom current and voltage monitoring device this study reports on its use on an upgraded all metal RepRap during the printing of aluminum alloy (ER1100, ER4043, ER4943, ER4047, and ER5356. The voltage and current data were analyzed on a per alloy basis and also layer-by-layer in order to evaluate the device’s efficacy as a monitoring device for 3-D printing and the results of the integrated design are discussed.

  16. Collect Earth: Land Use and Land Cover Assessment through Augmented Visual Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adia Bey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Collect Earth is a free and open source software for land monitoring developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO. Built on Google desktop and cloud computing technologies, Collect Earth facilitates access to multiple freely available archives of satellite imagery, including archives with very high spatial resolution imagery (Google Earth, Bing Maps and those with very high temporal resolution imagery (e.g., Google Earth Engine, Google Earth Engine Code Editor. Collectively, these archives offer free access to an unparalleled amount of information on current and past land dynamics for any location in the world. Collect Earth draws upon these archives and the synergies of imagery of multiple resolutions to enable an innovative method for land monitoring that we present here: augmented visual interpretation. In this study, we provide a full overview of Collect Earth’s structure and functionality, and we present the methodology used to undertake land monitoring through augmented visual interpretation. To illustrate the application of the tool and its customization potential, an example of land monitoring in Papua New Guinea (PNG is presented. The PNG example demonstrates that Collect Earth is a comprehensive and user-friendly tool for land monitoring and that it has the potential to be used to assess land use, land use change, natural disasters, sustainable management of scarce resources and ecosystem functioning. By enabling non-remote sensing experts to assess more than 100 sites per day, we believe that Collect Earth can be used to rapidly and sustainably build capacity for land monitoring and to substantively improve our collective understanding of the world’s land use and land cover.

  17. Toward other Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzes, Artie P.

    2016-04-01

    How common are habitable Earth-like planets? This is a key question that drives much of current research in exoplanets. To date, we have discovered over one thousand exoplanets, mostly through the transit method. Among these are Earth-size planets, but these orbit very close to the star (semi-major axis approximately 0.01 Astronomical Units). Potentially rocky planets have also been discovered in a star's habitable zone, but these have approximately twice the radius of the Earth. These certainly do not qualify as Earth "twins". Several hundreds of multi-planet systems have also been discovered, but these are mostly ultra-compact systems with up to seven planets all with orbital distances less than that of Mercury in our solar system. The detection of a planetary system that is the direct analog of our solar system still eludes us. After an overview of the current status of exoplanet discoveries I will discuss the prospects and challenges of finding such Earth analogs from the ground and from future space missions like PLATO. After over two decades of searching, we may well be on the brink of finding other Earths.

  18. Multicenter intestinal current measurements in rectal biopsies from CF and non-CF subjects to monitor CFTR function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Clancy

    Full Text Available Intestinal current measurements (ICM from rectal biopsies are a sensitive means to detect cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR function, but have not been optimized for multicenter use. We piloted multicenter standard operating procedures (SOPs to detect CFTR activity by ICM and examined key questions for use in clinical trials. SOPs for ICM using human rectal biopsies were developed across three centers and used to characterize ion transport from non-CF and CF subjects (two severe CFTR mutations. All data were centrally evaluated by a blinded interpreter. SOPs were then used across four centers to examine the effect of cold storage on CFTR currents and compare CFTR currents in biopsies from one subject studied simultaneously either at two sites (24 hours post-biopsy or when biopsies were obtained by either forceps or suction. Rectal biopsies from 44 non-CF and 17 CF subjects were analyzed. Mean differences (µA/cm(2; 95% confidence intervals between CF and non-CF were forskolin/IBMX=102.6(128.0 to 81.1, carbachol=96.3(118.7 to 73.9, forskolin/IBMX+carbachol=200.9(243.1 to 158.6, and bumetanide=-44.6 (-33.7 to -55.6 (P<0.005, CF vs non-CF for all parameters. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves indicated that each parameter discriminated CF from non-CF subjects (area under the curve of 0.94-0.98. CFTR dependent currents following 18-24 hours of cold storage for forskolin/IBMX, carbachol, and forskolin/IBMX+carbachol stimulation (n=17 non-CF subjects were 44%, 47.5%, and 47.3%, respectively of those in fresh biopsies. CFTR-dependent currents from biopsies studied after cold storage at two sites simultaneously demonstrated moderate correlation (n=14 non-CF subjects, Pearson correlation coefficients 0.389, 0.484, and 0.533. Similar CFTR dependent currents were detected from fresh biopsies obtained by either forceps or suction (within-subject comparisons, n=22 biopsies from three non-CF subjects. Multicenter ICM is a

  19. Integrated Monitoring of the Soya Warm Current Using HF Ocean Radars, Satellite Altimeters, Coastal Tide Gauges, and a Bottom-Mounted ADCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuchi, N.; Fukamachi, Y.; Ohshima, K. I.; Wakatsuchi, M.

    2007-12-01

    The Soya Warm Current (SWC) is a coastal boundary current, which flows along the coast of Hokkaido in the Sea of Okhotsk. The SWC flows into the Sea of Okhotsk from the Sea of Japan through the Soya/La Perouse Strait, which is located between Hokkaido, Japan, and Sakhalin, Russia. It supplies warm, saline water in the Sea of Japan to the Sea of Okhotsk and largely affects the ocean circulation and water mass formation in the Sea of Okhotsk, and local climate, environment and fishery in the region. However, the SWC has never been continuously monitored due to the difficulties involved in field observations related to, for example, severe weather conditions in the winter, political issues at the border strait, and conflicts with fishing activities in the strait. Detailed features of the SWC and its variations have not yet been clarified. In order to monitor variations in the SWC, three HF ocean radar stations were installed around the strait. The radar covers a range of approximately 70 km from the coast. It is shown that the HF radars clearly capture seasonal and subinertial variations of the SWC. The velocity of the SWC reaches its maximum, approximately 1 m/s, in summer, and weakens in winter. The velocity core is located 20 to 30 km from the coast, and its width is approximately 50 km. The surface transport by the Soya Warm Current shows a significant correlation with the sea level difference along the strait, as derived from coastal tide gauge records. The cross-current sea level difference, which is estimated from the sea level anomalies observed by the Jason-1 altimeter and a coastal tide gauge, also exhibits variation in concert with the surface transport and along-current sea level difference.

  20. Low-Cost Open-Source Voltage and Current Monitor for Gas Metal Arc Weld 3D Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pinar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arduino open-source microcontrollers are well known in sensor applications for scientific equipment and for controlling RepRap 3D printers. Recently low-cost open-source gas metal arc weld (GMAW RepRap 3D printers have been developed. The entry-level welders used have minimal controls and therefore lack any real-time measurement of welder voltage or current. The preliminary work on process optimization of GMAW 3D printers requires a low-cost sensor and data logger system to measure welder current and voltage. This paper reports on the development of a low-cost open-source power measurement sensor system based on Arduino architecture. The sensor system was designed, built, and tested with two entry-level MIG welders. The full bill of materials and open source designs are provided. Voltage and current were measured while making stepwise adjustments to the manual voltage setting on the welder. Three conditions were tested while welding with steel and aluminum wire on steel substrates to assess the role of electrode material, shield gas, and welding velocity. The results showed that the open source sensor circuit performed as designed and could be constructed for <$100 in components representing a significant potential value through lateral scaling and replication in the 3D printing community.

  1. Low voltage substrate current: a monitor for interface states generation in ultra-thin oxide n-MOSFETs under constant voltage stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yan-Gang; Xu Ming-Zhen; Tan Chang-Hua

    2007-01-01

    The low voltage substrate current (Ib) has been studied based on generation kinetics and used as a monitor of interface states (Nit) generation for ultra-thin oxide n-MOSFETs under constant voltage stress. It is found that the low voltage Ib is formed by electrons tunnelling through interface states, and the variations of Ib(△Ib) are proportional to variations of Nit (△Nit). The Nit energy distributions were determined by differentiating Nit(Vg). The results have been compared with that measured by using gate diode technique.

  2. Interface potential sensing from adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) on carbon nanotube (CNT) monitored by zero current potentiometry for HSA determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Wu, Yi; Song, Jun-Feng

    2015-10-15

    In this work, the adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) on the bare multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT) was investigated by a new electrochemical method, termed as zero current potentiometry. For this, a MWNT strip was prepared by directly adhering MWNTs on the transparent adhesive tape surface. Moreover, when HSA adsorbed onto MWNT at the MWNT/solution interface, an interface potential Ψ yielded. The interface potential Ψ as the zero current potential Ezcp simply related to it was monitored by zero current potentiometry. The relationship between the zero current potential Ezcp, the HSA concentration and others was established in simple stoichiometric relation. Based on this, both the adsorption of HSA on MWNT and the HSA determination can be studied. For the HSA determination, the theoretic conclusion consisted with experimental results. The zero current potential Ezcp was proportional to the HSA concentration in the range of 2.8 × 10(-8) - 3.4 × 10(-7)M with the limit of detection 2 × 10(-8)M. The linear regression equation was Ezcp/V (vs, SCE) = (0.159 ± 0.01) + (0.358 ± 0.02) × 10(6)CHSA (µM). This determination was fast, high sensitive and good selective.

  3. Uncertainty analysis of practical structural health monitoring systems currently employed for tall buildings consisting of small number of sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Kenta; Mita, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Because of social background, such as repeated large earthquakes and cheating in design and construction, structural health monitoring (SHM) systems are getting strong attention. The SHM systems are in a practical phase. An SHM system consisting of small number of sensors has been introduced to 6 tall buildings in Shinjuku area. Including them, there are 2 major issues in the SHM systems consisting of small number of sensors. First, optimal system number of sensors and the location are not well-defined. In the practice, system placement is determined based on rough prediction and experience. Second, there are some uncertainties in estimation results by the SHM systems. Thus, the purpose of this research is to provide useful information for increasing reliability of SHM system and to improve estimation results based on uncertainty analysis of the SHM systems. The important damage index used here is the inter-story drift angle. The uncertainty considered here are number of sensors, earthquake motion characteristics, noise in data, error between numerical model and real building, nonlinearity of parameter. Then I have analyzed influence of each factor to estimation accuracy. The analysis conducted here will help to decide sensor system design considering valance of cost and accuracy. Because of constraint on the number of sensors, estimation results by the SHM system has tendency to provide smaller values. To overcome this problem, a compensation algorithm was discussed and presented. The usefulness of this compensation method was demonstrated for 40 story S and RC building models with nonlinear response.

  4. [Brescia Local Health Autority Population Database: a method based on current data for monitoring chronic diseases and management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonati, Fulvio; Scarcella, Carmelo; Indelicato, Annamaria; Brioschi, Alessia; Magoni, Michele; Medea, Gerardo; Saleri, Nada; Orizio, Grazia; Donato, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    The Local Health Autority (ASL) of Brescia has activated an innovative method of surveillance, based on the integration ofcurrent databases in a single database, Population Database (BDA), for monitoring the prevalence of chronic diseases in the area. The BDA has been set up using automatic record-linkages of databases regarding disease exemptions, drug treatments, hospital admissions and outpatient specialist visits. This enabled us to calculate the prevalence of various chronic diseases (single or grouped) and the gross average expenditure per person for each disease group. Out of the 1,092,201 people in the Brescia ASL, 275,601 had at least one chronic disease (prevalence 252.3/1,000). Diseases ofthe circulatory system were the most frequent (169.1/1,000), followed by diabetes mellitus (36 6/1,000). Having had an organ transplant was the condition with the highest per-person expenditure (Euro 16,170/year). The highest total expenditure was associated with circulatory diseases, because of the high prevalence (Euro 470,377,413). A single computerised data base is capable of achieving epidemiological aims (assessing population health status) as well as managerial and health care aims (resources management, control of the appropriateness of services, adaptation of diagnostic-therapeutic methods to international guidelines and standards).

  5. Initial operation and current status of the Fermilab DZero VMEbus-based hardware control and monitor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, R.; Florian, R.; Johnson, M.; Jones, A.; Shea, M.

    1989-11-01

    DZero is a large colliding beams detector at Fermilab. The control system for this detector includes twenty-five VMEbus-based 68020 computers interconnected using the IEEE-802.5 Token Ring local area network. In operation, the system will monitor about fifteen thousand analog channels and several thousand digital status bits, interfaced to the 68020 computers by the MIL-1553 multiplexed data bus. In addition, the VMEbus control system uses a memory-mapped multi-VMEbus interconnect to download parameters to more than one hundred VMEbus data crates in the experiment. Remote host computers can then read and set memory in the detector crates over the network by accessing memory in the control crates. This is an extremely useful feature during the construction phase, because low level diagnostics and testing of all the detector electronics can be done over the Token Ring network using either IBM-PC compatible computers or the laboratory-wide VAX system. The VMEbus control system hardware is now being installed in the DZero movable counting house. Installation is expected to be complete later this year. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Study on Developing Safety Infrastructure for Mineral Processing Waste (NORM Waste) and Contamination Monitoring at the TINT Rare Earth Research & Development Center, Khlong 5, Pathumthani, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaanant, N.; Kasemtanasak, V.; Pattanasub, A.; O-manee, A.; Khaweerat, S.; Pruantonsai, P.; Akharawutchayanon, T.; Nuanjan, P.; Punbut, S.; Srimork, P.; Prasertchiewchan, N.

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to prepare all technical and administrative actions leading to the release of the disused radiological facilities from regulatory control and safe management of radioactive waste. In the first phase, the study covers: the preliminary site characterization, waste characterization, the preparation for authorization of the foreseen strategy and activities. The first phase study shows that several areas of the TINT’s Rare Earth Research & Development Center are contaminated, such as the U/Th extraction, monazite processing and NORM residues storage.

  7. Earth Science Informatics - Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes over 180 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies.The talk will present an overview of current efforts in ESI, the role members of IEEE GRSS play, and discuss

  8. Monitoring the onset, propagation, associated bedform migration, and wake of active turbidity currents on the Squamish prodelta slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes Clarke, J. E.; Pratomo, D. G.; Videira Marques, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    . Multibeam water column imagery is used to view the onset, development and decay of turbidity currents in channels on the Squamish prodelta slope. The 2011 program consisted of daily resurveys for a period of 120 days during the freshet period. The initial focus was on resolving bathymetric surface change. Typical morphologic change indicated intermittent upslope migration of in-channel bedforms, sometimes, but not always, associated with an upper slope discrete slide scar. As a serendipitous byproduct, it was found that the deep scattering layer in the fjord was occasionally perturbed by what appeared to be bottom-following intrusive flows. A distally-located, seabed-mounted ADCP confirmed 20 discrete turbidity current events. Surface lowered, optical backscatter profiles indicated that these intrusions were correlated with near-seabed turbidity peaks. In 2012, a week-long program was implemented using hourly resurveys of the channels around the low water spring tide periods. Repetitive underway optical backscatter and CTD profiles were collected extending along the active channels from the delta lip to 1000m offshore. These established the sediment load and relative buoyancy of the surface plume and the fact that the enhanced acoustic volume scattering below represented a descending rain of suspended sediments into the higher density saline lower layers. For several of the events, that descending plume was seen to markedly increase in turbidity close to the seabed, indicating a transition to hyperpycnal conditions. A drop of salinity was also associated with those near seabed high turbidity layers. Those events were followed by the onset of a turbidity current as interpreted from the acoustic volume scattering. The period of upslope bedform migration was restricted to the onset of basal turbidity and first appearance of the flow in the acoustic volume scattering. In the wake of the active flow, an anomalously low acoustic scattering cloud would appear above the

  9. A method for f0F2 monitoring over Spain using the El Arenosillo digisonde current observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Miro

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Ionosphere monitoring implies: observations, prediction and mapping of ionospheric parameters. A case with one available (El Arenosillo ionosonde is considered. Some statistical methods for f0F2 short-term (1-24 h in advance prediction are compared. The analysis of multi-dimensional regression for Df0F2 (relative deviation from running median with Ap, F10.7 and previous Df0F2 observations has shown that inclusion of additional terms with Ap and F10.7 improves the prediction accuracy for lead time more than 15 h. For lead time 1-6 h a linear regression with earlier observed Df0F2 provides the f0F2 forecast with Relative Mean Deviation (RMD 6-11%. This is acceptable from a practical point of view. A 24-h forecast can be done with RMD 10-11%. Multi-regressional methods provide better prediction accuracy than the usual 10-day running median or quasi-inertial method based on such median. Hourly f0F2 values may be used to calculate the effective index R12eff used as input to the ITU-R monthly median model. This allows the ITU-R model to "breathe" following hour-to-hour f0F2 variations. Then standard surfering methods may be applied for f0F2 mapping over the whole area. The f0F2 mapping accuracy based on the hourly R12eff index is shown to be 9-11% depending on solar activity level.

  10. Current International Flow Cytometric Practices for the Detection and Monitoring of Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria (PNH) clones: A UK NEQAS Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Matthew; Whitby, Liam; Whitby, Alison; Barnett, David

    2016-03-02

    Background Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare acquired genetic disorder, with an incidence of approximately 1.3 new cases per million population per year. Evidence from the UK National External Quality Assessment Service for Leucocyte Immunophenotyping (UK NEQAS LI) programme suggested major discrepancies on how PNH testing is undertaken. To investigate this we surveyed laboratories in the UK NEQAS LI PNH programme and report here the findings. Method A questionnaire was distributed to all centres registered in UK NEQAS LI flow cytometry programmes (n=1587). Comprising several subsections, it covered the majority of clinical flow cytometric practices. Participants completed a general section and then the subsections relevant to their laboratory repertoire. One subsection contained 34 questions regarding practices in PNH clone detection. Results A total of 105 laboratories returned results for the PNH section; the results demonstrated lack of consensus in all areas of PNH testing. Variation was seen in gating and testing strategies, sensitivity levels and final reporting of test results. Several incorrect practices were highlighted such as inappropriate antibody selection and failure to wash the red blood cells (RBCs) prior to analysis. Conclusion Despite the availability of consensus guidelines there appears to be no agreement in the detection and monitoring of PNH. We found only fourteen centres using methods compatible with the International Clinical Cytometry Society guidelines. Of specific note we found that no two laboratories used the same method. This technical variation could lead to incorrect diagnoses, highlighting the need for better adoption and understanding of consensus practices. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. [Current status of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and continuous glucose monitoring systems in the Community of Madrid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz Martín, Alfonso; Calle Pascual, Alfonso; Del Cañizo Gómez, Francisco Javier; González Albarrán, Olga; Lisbona Gil, Arturo; Botella Serrano, Marta; Pallardo Sánchez, Luis Felipe

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the available information about continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems in the public health care system of the Community of Madrid. A survey consisting of 31 items was sent to the 28 endocrinology department of the Madrid public hospitals. Items focused on CSII and CGM and included patients' registrations, as well as data regarding healthcare, administrative, and logistic aspects. Responses from a total of 20 hospitals where these procedures are used were received from March 2013 to May 2014. Data about pediatric patients were obtained from adult endocrinology departments, except for two hospitals which directly reported the information. A total of 1256 CSII pumps were recorded in the Madrid region, of which 1089 were used by adults, and the remaining 167 by pediatric patients. During 2013, 151 new CSII systems were implanted (12% of the total), while 14 pumps were withdrawn. Availability of human resources (medical assistance) and the number of staff practitioners experienced in management of these systems widely varied between hospitals. Eighty-five percent of hospitals used retrospective CGM systems, and 40% routinely placed them before starting an insulin pump. Thirteen hospitals (65%) used long-term, real-time CGM systems in selected cases (a total of 67 patients). Use of these technologies in diabetes is unequal between public health care hospitals in Madrid, and is still significantly lower as compared to other countries with similar incomes. However, there appears to be a trend to an increase in their use. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Photo-degradation and stabilization effects in operating organic photovoltaic devices by joint photo-current and morphological monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paci, B.; Generosi, A.; Rossi Albertini, V.; Perfetti, P. [ISM-C.N.R., Area di Ricerca di Tor Vergata, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy); de Bettignies, R. [Laboratoire Composants Solaires, CEA INES-RDI, Savoie Technolac, BP 332, 50 avenue du lac Leman, 73377 Le Bourget du Lac (France); Sentein, C. [CEA Saclay, DRT-LITEN-DSEN-GENEC-L2C, F91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2008-07-15

    We report on a joint morphological/photoelectrical study of polymer-based photovoltaic (PV) cells in working conditions. The bulk heterojunction devices investigated are based on an active layer of poly(3-hexyl thiophene) blended with methano-fullerene, combining good PV performances with promising stability. The set-up adopted allowed the electrical properties of the device to be directly correlated to the modification of the electrode morphological parameters (thickness and roughness), which were obtained by in situ energy dispersive X-ray reflectometry (EDXR). The results of this joint time-dependent characterization demonstrated how the observed photo-induced oxidation process, limited to the buried electrode interface, is responsible for a fast decrease in the photo-current. The time-resolved measurements allowed to rule out the dynamics of the morphological changes and showed that the interface morphology may be stabilized by annealing treatments, with a significant improvement of the cell efficiency. (author)

  13. Case studies of high-sensitivity monitoring of natural and engineered slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Lienhart

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available High-sensitivity monitoring solutions are crucial for early warning systems of earth structures. In this paper, we discuss the design and implementation of such systems for natural and engineered slopes using two case studies. At the Gradenbach Observatory, one key element of the monitoring system is a large fiber optic strain rosette embedded in the slope. We demonstrate that the strain rosette can depict landslide deformations much earlier than geodetic sensors like GPS or total stations and is therefore well suitable for an early warning system. In a second application we report the construction of a reinforced earth structure using geogrids. A distributed fiber optic measurement system was installed to measure the current operating grade of the geogrids within the earth structure. About 2 km of Brillouin sensing cables were installed in the project area. It is demonstrated that the developed monitoring system is well suited for assessing the current state of health of reinforced earth structures.

  14. Case studies of high-sensitivity monitoring of natural and engineered slopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Werner Lienhart

    2015-01-01

    High-sensitivity monitoring solutions are crucial for early warning systems of earth structures. In this paper, we discuss the design and implementation of such systems for natural and engineered slopes using two case studies. At the Gradenbach Observatory, one key element of the monitoring system is a large fiber optic strain rosette embedded in the slope. We demonstrate that the strain rosette can depict landslide deformations much earlier than geodetic sensors like GPS or total stations and is therefore well suitable for an early warning system. In a second application we report the construction of a reinforced earth structure using geogrids. A distributed fiber optic measurement system was installed to measure the current operating grade of the geogrids within the earth structure. About 2 km of Brillouin sensing cables were installed in the project area. It is demonstrated that the developed monitoring system is well suited for assessing the current state of health of reinforced earth structures.

  15. Review of Current Student-Monitoring Techniques used in eLearning-Focused recommender Systems and Learning analytics. The Experience API & LIME model Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Corbi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems require input information in order to properly operate and deliver content or behaviour suggestions to end users. eLearning scenarios are no exception. Users are current students and recommendations can be built upon paths (both formal and informal, relationships, behaviours, friends, followers, actions, grades, tutor interaction, etc. A recommender system must somehow retrieve, categorize and work with all these details. There are several ways to do so: from raw and inelegant database access to more curated web APIs or even via HTML scrapping. New server-centric user-action logging and monitoring standard technologies have been presented in past years by several groups, organizations and standard bodies. The Experience API (xAPI, detailed in this article, is one of these. In the first part of this paper we analyse current learner-monitoring techniques as an initialization phase for eLearning recommender systems. We next review standardization efforts in this area; finally, we focus on xAPI and the potential interaction with the LIME model, which will be also summarized below.

  16. Strategy for earth explorers in global earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the current NASA Earth System Science initiative is to obtain a comprehensive scientific understanding of the Earth as an integrated, dynamic system. The centerpiece of the Earth System Science initiative will be a set of instruments carried on polar orbiting platforms under the Earth Observing System program. An Earth Explorer program can open new vistas in the earth sciences, encourage innovation, and solve critical scientific problems. Specific missions must be rigorously shaped by the demands and opportunities of high quality science and must complement the Earth Observing System and the Mission to Planet Earth. The committee believes that the proposed Earth Explorer program provides a substantial opportunity for progress in the earth sciences, both through independent missions and through missions designed to complement the large scale platforms and international research programs that represent important national commitments. The strategy presented is intended to help ensure the success of the Earth Explorer program as a vital stimulant to the study of the planet.

  17. Development of Meandering Winding Magnetometer (MWM (Register Trademark)) Eddy Current Sensors for the Health Monitoring, Modeling and Damage Detection of High Temperature Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard; Washabaugh, Andy; Sheiretov, Yanko; Martin, Christopher; Goldfine, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The increased use of high-temperature composite materials in modern and next generation aircraft and spacecraft have led to the need for improved nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring techniques. Such technologies are desirable to improve quality control, damage detection, stress evaluation and temperature measurement capabilities. Novel eddy current sensors and sensor arrays, such as Meandering Winding Magnetometers (MWMs) have provided alternate or complimentary techniques to ultrasound and thermography for both nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM). This includes imaging of composite material quality, damage detection and .the monitoring of fiber temperatures and multidirectional stresses. Historically, implementation of MWM technology for the inspection of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Composite (RCC) leading edge panels was developed by JENTEK Sensors and was subsequently transitioned by NASA as an operational pre and post flight in-situ inspection at the Kennedy Space Center. A manual scanner, which conformed'automatically to the curvature of the RCC panels was developed and used as a secondary technique if a defect was found during an infrared thermography screening, During a recent proof of concept study on composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPV's), three different MWM sensors were tested at three orientations to demonstrate the ability of the technology to measure stresses at various fiber orientations and depths. These results showed excellent correlation with actual surface strain gage measurements. Recent advancements of this technology have been made applying MWM sensor technology for scanning COPVs for mechanical damage. This presentation will outline the recent advance in the MWM.technology and the development of MWM techniques for NDE and SHM of carbon wraped composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) including the measurement of internal stresses via a surface mounted sensor

  18. Comparative investigation of vibration and current monitoring for prediction of mechanical and electrical faults in induction motor based on multiclass-support vector machine algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangsar, Purushottam; Tiwari, Rajiv

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an investigation of vibration and current monitoring for effective fault prediction in induction motor (IM) by using multiclass support vector machine (MSVM) algorithms. Failures of IM may occur due to propagation of a mechanical or electrical fault. Hence, for timely detection of these faults, the vibration as well as current signals was acquired after multiple experiments of varying speeds and external torques from an experimental test rig. Here, total ten different fault conditions that frequently encountered in IM (four mechanical fault, five electrical fault conditions and one no defect condition) have been considered. In the case of stator winding fault, and phase unbalance and single phasing fault, different level of severity were also considered for the prediction. In this study, the identification has been performed of the mechanical and electrical faults, individually and collectively. Fault predictions have been performed using vibration signal alone, current signal alone and vibration-current signal concurrently. The one-versus-one MSVM has been trained at various operating conditions of IM using the radial basis function (RBF) kernel and tested for same conditions, which gives the result in the form of percentage fault prediction. The prediction performance is investigated for the wide range of RBF kernel parameter, i.e. gamma, and selected the best result for one optimal value of gamma for each case. Fault predictions has been performed and investigated for the wide range of operational speeds of the IM as well as external torques on the IM.

  19. A Galvanic Sensor for Monitoring the Corrosion Condition of the Concrete Reinforcing Steel: Relationship Between the Galvanic and the Corrosion Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Vaz Pereira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a study carried out on the design and performance of galvanic and polarization resistance sensors to be embedded in concrete systems for permanent monitoring of the corrosion condition of reinforcing steel, aiming to establish a correlation between the galvanic currents, Igal, and the corrosion currents, Icorr, estimated from the polarization resistance, Rp. Sensors have been tested in saturated Ca(OH2 aqueous solutions, under a variety of conditions, simulating the most important parameters that can accelerate the corrosion of concrete reinforcing steel, such as carbonation, ingress of chloride ions, presence or absence of O2. For all the conditions, the influence of temperature (20 to 55 ºC has also been considered. From this study, it could be concluded that the galvanic currents are sensitive to the various parameters following a trend similar to that of the Rp values. A relationship between the galvanic and the corrosion current densities was obtained and the limiting values of the Igal, indicative of the state condition of the reinforcing steel for the designed sensor, were established.

  20. A galvanic sensor for monitoring the corrosion condition of the concrete reinforcing steel: relationship between the galvanic and the corrosion currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elsa Vaz; Figueira, Rita Bacelar; Salta, Maria Manuela Lemos; da Fonseca, Inês Teodora Elias

    2009-01-01

    This work reports a study carried out on the design and performance of galvanic and polarization resistance sensors to be embedded in concrete systems for permanent monitoring of the corrosion condition of reinforcing steel, aiming to establish a correlation between the galvanic currents, I(gal), and the corrosion currents, I(corr), estimated from the polarization resistance, R(p). Sensors have been tested in saturated Ca(OH)(2) aqueous solutions, under a variety of conditions, simulating the most important parameters that can accelerate the corrosion of concrete reinforcing steel, such as carbonation, ingress of chloride ions, presence or absence of O(2). For all the conditions, the influence of temperature (20 to 55 °C) has also been considered. From this study, it could be concluded that the galvanic currents are sensitive to the various parameters following a trend similar to that of the R(p) values. A relationship between the galvanic and the corrosion current densities was obtained and the limiting values of the I(gal), indicative of the state condition of the reinforcing steel for the designed sensor, were established.

  1. Rare Earth Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Rare earth market continued drop tendency.There was not much transaction of didymium oxide and the alloy. Affected by reduced order of NdFeB magnetic materials and inactive dealings of didymium mischmetal,price of didymium mischmetal had dropped from RMB ¥95,000~98,000/ton to RMBY 93,000~95,000/ton currently.

  2. Monitoring and remediation of on-farm and off-farm ground current measured as step potential on a Wisconsin dairy farm: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetzer, Dave; Leavitt, Adam M; Goeke, Charles L; Havas, Magda

    2016-01-01

    Ground current commonly referred to as "stray voltage" has been an issue on dairy farms since electricity was first brought to rural America. Equipment that generates high-frequency voltage transients on electrical wires combined with a multigrounded (electrical distribution) system and inadequate neutral returns all contribute to ground current. Despite decades of problems, we are no closer to resolving this issue, in part, due to three misconceptions that are addressed in this study. Misconception 1. The current standard of 1 V at cow contact is adequate to protect dairy cows; Misconception 2. Frequencies higher than 60 Hz do not need to be considered; and Misconception 3. All sources of ground current originate on the farm that has a ground current problem. This case study of a Wisconsin dairy farm documents, 1. how to establish permanent monitoring of ground current (step potential) on a dairy farm; 2. how to determine and remediate both on-farm and off-farm sources contributing to step potential; 3. which step-potential metrics relate to cow comfort and milk production; and 4. how these metrics relate to established standards. On-farm sources include lighting, variable speed frequency drives on motors, radio frequency identification system and off-farm sources are due to a poor primary neutral return on the utility side of the distribution system. A step-potential threshold of 1 V root mean square (RMS) at 60 Hz is inadequate to protect dairy cows as decreases of a few mV peak-peak at higher frequencies increases milk production, reduces milking time and improves cow comfort.

  3. Earth observation Water Cycle Multi-Mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Su

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Observing and monitoring the different components of the global water cycle and their dynamics are essential steps to understand the climate of the Earth, forecast the weather, predict natural disasters like floods and droughts, and improve water resources management. Earth observation technology is a unique tool to provide a global understanding of many of the essential variables governing the water cycle and monitor their evolution over time from global to basin scales. In the coming years an increasing number of Earth observation missions will provide an unprecedented capacity to quantify several of these variables on a routine basis. In this context, the European Space Agency (ESA, in collaboration with the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP, launched the Water Cycle Multi-Mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS project in 2009. The project aims at developing and validating a novel set of geo-information products relevant to the water cycle covering the following thematic areas: evapotranspiration, soil moisture, cloud characterization and water vapour. The generation of these products is based on a number of innovative techniques and methods aiming at exploiting the synergies of different types of Earth observation data available today to the science community. This paper provides an overview of the major findings of the project with the ultimate goal of demonstrating the potential of innovative multi-mission based strategies to improve current observations by maximizing the synergistic use of the different types of information provided by the currently available observation systems.

  4. The Earth's Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In the last five years, scientists have been able to monitor our changing planet in ways never before possible. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, has given researchers an unprecedented view of the biological engine that drives life on Earth-the countless forms of plants that cover the land and fill the oceans. 'There is no question the Earth is changing. SeaWiFS has enabled us, for the first time, to monitor the biological consequences of that change-to see how the things we do, as well as natural variability, affect the Earth's ability to support life,' said Gene Carl Feldman, SeaWiFS project manager at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. SeaWiFS data, based on continuous daily global observations, have helped scientists make a more accurate assessment of the oceans' role in the global carbon cycle. The data provide a key parameter in a number of ecological and environmental studies as well as global climate-change modeling. The images of the Earth's changing land, ocean and atmosphere from SeaWiFS have documented many previously unrecognized phenomena. The image above shows the global biosphere from June 2002 measured by SeaWiFS. Data in the oceans is chlorophyll concentration, a measure of the amount of phytoplankton (microscopic plants) living in the ocean. On land SeaWiFS measures Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, an indication of the density of plant growth. For more information and images, read: SeaWiFS Sensor Marks Five Years Documenting Earth'S Dynamic Biosphere Image courtesy SeaWiFS project and copyright Orbimage.

  5. Snowball Earth

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In the ongoing quest to better understand where life may exist elsewhere in the Universe, important lessons may be gained from our own planet. In particular, much can be learned from planetary glaciation events that Earth suffered ∼600 million years ago, so-called `Snowball Earth' episodes. I begin with an overview of how the climate works. This helps to explain how the ice-albedo feedback effect can destabilise a planet's climate. The process relies on lower temperatures causing more ice to ...

  6. The Group on Earth Observations and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achache, J.

    2006-05-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is leading a worldwide effort to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) over the next 10 years. The GEOSS vision, articulated in its 10-Year Implementation Plan, represents the consolidation of a global scientific and political consensus: the assessment of the state of the Earth requires continuous and coordinated observation of our planet at all scales. GEOSS aims to achieve comprehensive, coordinated and sustained observations of the Earth system in order to improve monitoring of the state of the Earth; increase understanding of Earth processes; and enhance prediction of the behaviour of the Earth system. After the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 highlighted the urgent need for coordinated observations relating to the state of the Earth, GEO was established at the Third Earth Observation Summit in February 2005 and the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan was endorsed. GEO currently involves 60 countries; the European Commission; and 43 international organizations and has begun implementation of the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan. GEO programme activities cover nine societal benefit areas (Disasters; Health; Energy; Climate; Water; Weather; Ecosystems; Agriculture; Biodiversity) and five transverse or crosscutting elements (User Engagement; Architecture; Data Management; Capacity Building; Outreach). All these activities have as their final goal the establishment of the "system of systems" which will yield a broad range of basic societal benefits, including the reduction of loss of life and property from tsunamis, hurricanes, and other natural disasters; improved water resource and energy management; and improved understanding of environmental factors significant to public health. As a "system of systems", GEOSS will work with and build upon existing national, regional, and international systems to provide comprehensive, coordinated Earth observations from thousands of instruments worldwide

  7. Monitoring of the current profile by using cyclotronic electron waves in tokamaks; Controle du profil de courant par ondes cyclotroniques electroniques dans les tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, R

    2001-08-01

    The subject of this thesis is the study of the cyclotronic electron wave as a monitoring tool of the current profile. The first chapter is dedicated to basic notions concerning tokamak plasmas and current generation. The second chapter is centered on the use of fast electrons to generate current and on its modelling. The propagation and absorption of the cyclotronic electron wave require a specific polarization state whose characteristics must be carefully chosen according to some parameters of the discharge, the chapter 3 deals with this topic. The absorption of a wave in a plasma depends greatly on the velocity distribution of the particles that make up the plasma and this distribution is constantly modified by the energy of the wave, so this phenomenon is non-linear and its physical description is difficult. In a case of a fusion plasma, a sophisticated approximation called quasi-linear theory can be applied with some restrictions that are presented in chapter 4. Chapters 5 and 6 are dedicated to kinetics scenarios involving the low hybrid wave and the cyclotronic electron wave inside the plasma. Some experiments dedicated to the study of the cyclotronic electron wave have been performed in Tore-supra (France) and FTU (Italy) tokamaks, they are presented in the last chapter. (A.C.)

  8. The Double Sensor-A non-invasive device to continuously monitor core temperature in humans on earth and in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunga, H-C; Werner, A; Stahn, A; Steinach, M; Schlabs, T; Koralewski, E; Kunz, D; Belavý, D L; Felsenberg, D; Sattler, F; Koch, J

    2009-10-01

    The objective of our study was to establish whether rectal temperature recordings in humans could be replaced by a non-invasive skin temperature sensor combined with a heat flux sensor (Double Sensor) located at the forehead to monitor core body temperature changes due to circadian rhythms. Rectal and Double Sensor data were collected continuously for 24h in seven men undertaking strict head-down tilt bed-rest. Individual differences between the two techniques varied between -0.72 and +0.55 degrees C. Nonetheless, when temperature data were approximated by cosinor analysis in order to compare circadian rhythm profiles between methods, it was observed that there were no significant differences between mesor, amplitude, and acrophase (P>0.310). It was therefore concluded that the Double Sensor technology is presently not accurate enough for performing single individual core body temperature measurements under resting conditions at normal ambient room temperature. Yet, it seems to be a valid, non-invasive alternative for monitoring circadian rhythm profiles.

  9. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahavir

    2014-02-01

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  10. A real-time platform for monitoring schistosomiasis transmission supported by Google Earth and a web-based geographical information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Sun, Le-Ping; Huang, Yi-Xin; Yang, Guo-Jing; Wu, Feng; Hang, De-Rong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Jian-Feng; Liang, Yong-Sheng; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2012-05-01

    A basic framework for the rapid assessment of the risk for schistosomiasis was developed by combining spatial data from Google Earth® with a geographical information system (GIS) package, bundling the modules together with an Internet connection into a WebGIS platform. It operates through functions such as "search", "evaluation", "risk analysis" and "prediction" and is primarily aimed to be a dynamic, early-warning system (EWS) providing user-friendly, evidence-based, near real-time awareness of the status of an important endemic disease. It contributes to rapid information-sharing at all levels of decision-making, facilitating "point-of-care" response, i.e. treatment provided at newly discovered transmission sites. The experience using the platform is encouraging and it has the potential to improve support systems and strengthen schistosomiasis control activities, in particular with regard to surveillance and EWS. It can quickly and intuitively locate early, high-risk areas, retrieve all important data needed as well as provide detailed, up-to-date information on the performance of the control programme. This WebGIS, the first of its kind in the People's Republic of China, is not only applicable for schistosomiasis but can easily be adapted for improving control of any endemic disease in any geographical area.

  11. Core Angular Momentum and the IERS Sub-Centers Activity for Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids. Part 1; Core Angular Momentum and Earth Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xia-Dong; Chao, Benjamin (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The part of the grant was to use recordings of seismic waves travelling through the earth's core (PKP waves) to study the inner core rotation and constraints on possible density anomalies in the fluid core. The shapes and relative arrival times of such waves associated with a common source were used to reduce the uncertainties in source location and excitation and the effect of unknown mantle structure. The major effort of the project is to assemble historical seismograms with long observing base lines. We have found original paper records of SSI earthquakes at COL between 1951 and 1966 in a warehouse of the U.S. Geological Survey office in Golden, Colorado, extending the previous measurements at COL by Song and Richards [1996] further back 15 years. Also in Alaska, the University of Alaska, Fairbanks Geophysical Institute (UAFGI) has been operating the Alaskan Seismic Network with over 100 stations since the late 1960s. Virtually complete archives of seismograms are still available at UAFGI. Unfortunately, most of the archives are in microchip form (develocorders), for which the use of waveforms is impossible. Paper seismograms (helicorders) are available for a limited number of stations, and digital recordings of analog signals started around 1989. Of the paper records obtained, stations at Gilmore Dome (GLM, very close to COL), Yukon (FYU), McKinley (MCK), and Sheep Creek Mountain (SCM) have the most complete continuous recordings.

  12. Development of response models for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) sensors. Part 1: Dynamic models and computer simulations for the ERBE nonscanner, scanner and solar monitor sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo, Nesim; Choi, Sang H.; Chrisman, Dan A., Jr.; Samms, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    Dynamic models and computer simulations were developed for the radiometric sensors utilized in the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The models were developed to understand performance, improve measurement accuracy by updating model parameters and provide the constants needed for the count conversion algorithms. Model simulations were compared with the sensor's actual responses demonstrated in the ground and inflight calibrations. The models consider thermal and radiative exchange effects, surface specularity, spectral dependence of a filter, radiative interactions among an enclosure's nodes, partial specular and diffuse enclosure surface characteristics and steady-state and transient sensor responses. Relatively few sensor nodes were chosen for the models since there is an accuracy tradeoff between increasing the number of nodes and approximating parameters such as the sensor's size, material properties, geometry, and enclosure surface characteristics. Given that the temperature gradients within a node and between nodes are small enough, approximating with only a few nodes does not jeopardize the accuracy required to perform the parameter estimates and error analyses.

  13. On-line Monitoring System of Circulating Current of XLPE Cables%XLPE电缆金属护套环流在线监测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻世根; 张亮; 李锰; 吴畏

    2011-01-01

    XLPE cable has been widely applied in the grid because of its good electrical properties. Its insulation state directly relates to the safe and reliable operation of power system, how to effectively monitor the insulation state of XLPE cables is very important for power system. In order to meet the needs of power system, XLPE cables metal sheath circulation current on-line monitoring system is designed based on LabVIEW and described the hardware and software designed methods in this paper.%XLPE电缆由于其良好的电气性能在电网中得到了广泛地应用,XLPE电缆的绝缘状况直接影响到电力系统的安全和稳定,如何有效地监测XLPE电缆的绝缘状态对电力系统的安全稳定运行意义重大.为了满足电力系统的需要,有效地监测电缆绝缘状况,以LabVIEW图形可视化编程软件作为开发工具,设计了XLPE电缆金属护套环流在线监测系统,以此监测电缆的绝缘状况,文中阐述了监测系统的硬件组成和软件设计方法.

  14. Amoeba-related health risk in drinking water systems: could monitoring of amoebae be a complementary approach to current quality control strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codony, Francesc; Pérez, Leonardo Martín; Adrados, Bárbara; Agustí, Gemma; Fittipaldi, Mariana; Morató, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Culture-based methods for fecal indicator microorganisms are the standard protocol to assess potential health risk from drinking water systems. However, these traditional fecal indicators are inappropriate surrogates for disinfection-resistant fecal pathogens and the indigenous pathogens that grow in drinking water systems. There is now a range of molecular-based methods, such as quantitative PCR, which allow detection of a variety of pathogens and alternative indicators. Hence, in addition to targeting total Escherichia coli (i.e., dead and alive) for the detection of fecal pollution, various amoebae may be suitable to indicate the potential presence of pathogenic amoeba-resisting microorganisms, such as Legionellae. Therefore, monitoring amoeba levels by quantitative PCR could be a useful tool for directly and indirectly evaluating health risk and could also be a complementary approach to current microbial quality control strategies for drinking water systems.

  15. Scheme of Testing Unit for Earth-Point Searching Device in Small-Current Electric Power System%“小电流接地选检装置”的试验装置的设想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董建民

    2000-01-01

    In the light of elctric power system model,this paper introduces a set of simple available testing unit for searching earthpoint in small-current electric opwwer system and check its operating reliability and accuracy,gives out a basic viewpoint for choosing a a set of earth-point searching device.%从模拟电力系统的角度出发,提出建立一套简单易行的小电流接地选线装置的测试装置,以对选线装置动作的准确性进行校验,为选线装置的选型奠定基础

  16. Inversion of X-band nautical radar data for sea-state monitoring: a new technique to estimate the surface currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafino, F.; Lugni, C.; Raffa, F.; Soldovieri, F.

    2009-04-01

    ones achieved by the standard classical approach based on a least square fitting. The method is based on the maximization of the scalar product between the spectrum of the received signal and a model generated by mean of the dispersion relation considering different surface current values [4]. This allows to enlarge the applicative arena of the sea state monitoring from radar images to the radar platforms on moving ships. The full procedure for the estimation of the sea state parameters has been applied on real data acquired by an X-band marine radar mounted onboard a vessel travelling on the strait of Messina by using this area has been selected due to its strategic location for the navigation and because it is periodically characterized by high currents values. REFERENCES [1] J.C. Nieto Borge, R. G.Rodriguez, K. Hessner, I. P.Gonzales, "Inversion of marine radar images for surface wave analysis". J. of Atmospheric and Oceanic technology, 21, pp. 1291-1300, 2004. [2] R. Young, W. Rosenthal and F. Ziemer, "Three-dimensional analysis of marine radar images for the determination of ocean wave directionality and surface currents". J. Geophys. Res., 90, 1985, pp. 1049-1059, 1985. [3] J.C. Nieto Borge, "Analisis de Campos de Oleaje Mediante Radar de Navegacion en Banda X-", Ph.D. Thesis, University of Madrid, 1997. [4] F. Serafino, C. Lugni, and F. Soldovieri, "Sea surface topography reconstruction from X-band radar images", Advances in Geosciences Geophysical monitoring of the near-surface by electromagnetic and other geophysical methods, vol. 19, pp. 83-86 , Nov. 2008

  17. Robust Satellite Techniques for monitoring earth emitted radiation in the Japanese seismic area by using MTSAT observations in the TIR spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzano, Nicola; Filizzola, Carolina; Hattori, Katsumi; Lisi, Mariano; Paciello, Rossana; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2016-04-01

    Since eighties, the fluctuations of Earth's thermally emitted radiation, measured by satellite sensors operating in the thermal infrared (TIR) spectral range, have been associated with the complex process of preparation for major earthquakes. But, like other claimed earthquake precursors (seismological, physical, chemical, biological, etc.) they have been for long-time considered with some caution by scientific community. The lack of a rigorous definition of anomalous TIR signal fluctuations and the scarce attention paid to the possibility that other causes (e.g. meteorological) different from seismic activity could be responsible for the observed TIR variations were the main causes of such skepticism. Compared with previously proposed approaches the general change detection approach, named Robust Satellite Techniques (RST), showed good ability to discriminate anomalous TIR signals possibly associated to seismic activity, from the normal variability of TIR signal due to other causes. Thanks to its full exportability on different satellite packages, since 2001 RST has been implemented on TIR images acquired by polar (e.g. NOAA-AVHRR, EOS -MODIS) and geostationary (e.g. MSG-SEVIRI, NOAA-GOES/W, GMS-5/VISSR) satellite sensors, in order to verify the presence (or absence) of TIR anomalies in presence (absence) of earthquakes (with M>4) in different seismogenic areas around the world (e.g. Italy, Greece, Turkey, India, Taiwan, etc.). In this paper, the RST data analysis approach has been implemented on TIR satellite records collected over Japan by the geostationary satellite sensor MTSAT (Multifunctional Transport SATellites) and RETIRA (Robust Estimator of TIR Anomalies) index was used to identify Significant Sequences of TIR Anomalies (SSTAs) in a possible space-time relations with seismic events. Achieved results will be discussed in the perspective of a multi-parametric approach for a time-Dependent Assessment of Seismic Hazard (t-DASH).

  18. The current California drought through EDDI's eyes: early warning and monitoring of agricultural and hydrologic drought with the new Evaporative Demand Drought Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbins, M.; McEvoy, D.; Huntington, J. L.; Wood, A. W.; Morton, C.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a physically based, multi-scalar drought index—the Evaporative Demand Drought Index (EDDI)—to improve treatment of evaporative dynamics in drought monitoring. Existing popular drought indices—such as the Palmer Drought Severity Index that informs much of the US Drought Monitor (USDM)—have primarily relyied on precipitation and temperature (T) to represent hydroclimatic anomalies, leaving evaporative demand (E0) most often derived from poorly performing T-based parameterizations then used to derive actual evapotranspiration (ET) from LSMs. Instead, EDDI leverages the inter-relations of E0 and ET, measuring E0's physical response to surface drying anomalies due to two distinct land surface/atmosphere interactions: (i) in sustained drought, limited moisture availability forces E0 and ET into a complementary relation, whereby ET declines as E0 increases; and (ii) in "flash" droughts, E0 increases due to increasing advection or radiation. E0's rise in response to both drought types suggests EDDI's robustness as a monitor and leading indicator of drought. To drive EDDI, we use for E0 daily reference ET from the ASCE Standardized Reference ET equation forced by North American Land Data Assimilation System drivers. EDDI is derived by aggregating E0 anomalies from its long-term mean across a period of interest and normalizing them to a Z-score. Positive EDDI indicates drier than normal conditions (and so drought). We use the current historic California drought as a test-case in which to examine EDDI's performance in monitoring agricultural and hydrologic drought. We observe drought development and decompose the behavior of drought's evaporative drivers during in-drought intensification periods and wetting events. EDDI's performance as a drought leading indicator with respect to the USDM is tested in important agricultural regions. Comparing streamflow from several USGS gauges in the Sierra Nevada to EDDI, we find that EDDI tracks most major

  19. Earth observation mission operation of COMS during in-orbit test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Min

    2011-11-01

    Communication Ocean Meteorological Satellite (COMS) for the hybrid mission of meteorological observation, ocean monitoring, and telecommunication service was launched onto Geostationary Earth Orbit on June 27, 2010 and it is currently under normal operation service after the In-Orbit Test (IOT) phase. The COMS is located on 128.2° East of the geostationary orbit. In order to perform the three missions, the COMS has 3 separate payloads, the meteorological imager (MI), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), and the Ka-band antenna. Each payload is dedicated to one of the three missions, respectively. The MI and GOCI perform the Earth observation mission of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively. During the IOT phase the functionality and the performance of many aspects of the COMS satellite and ground station have been checked through the Earth observation mission operation for the observation of the meteorological phenomenon over several areas of the Earth and the monitoring of marine environments around the Korean peninsula. The Earth observation mission operation of COMS during the IOT phase is introduced in terms of mission operation characteristics, mission planning, and mission operation results for the missions of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively.

  20. Copernicus Earth observation programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žlebir, Silvo

    European Earth observation program Copernicus is an EU-wide programme that integrates satellite data, in-situ data and modeling to provide user-focused information services to support policymakers, researchers, businesses and citizens. Land monitoring service and Emergency service are fully operational already, Atmosphere monitoring service and Marine environment monitoring service are preoperational and will become fully operational in the following year, while Climate change service and Security service are in an earlier development phase. New series of a number of dedicated satellite missions will be launched in the following years, operated by the European Space Agency and EUMETSAT, starting with Sentinel 1A satellite early this year. Ground based, air-borne and sea-borne in-situ data are provided by different international networks and organizations, EU member states networks etc. European Union is devoting a particular attention to secure a sustainable long-term operational provision of the services. Copernicus is also stated as a European Union’s most important contribution to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The status and the recent development of the Copernicus programme will be presented, together with its future perspective. As Copernicus services have already demonstrated their usability and effectiveness, some interesting cases of their deployment will be presented. Copernicus free and open data policy, supported by a recently adopted EU legislative act, will also be presented.

  1. Climatology of Ultra Violet(UV) Irradiance at the Surface of the Earth as Measured by the Belgian UV Radiation Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Praveen; Gillotay, Didier; Depiesse, Cedric

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we describe the network of ground-based ultraviolet (UV) radiation monitoring stations in Belgium. The evolution of the entire network, together with the details of measuring instruments is given. The observed cumulative irradiations -UVB, UVA and total solar irradiation (TSI)- over the course of measurement for three stations -a northern (Ostende), central (Uccle) and a southern (Redu)- are shown. The longest series of measurement shown in this study is at Uccle, Brussels, from 1995 till 2014. Thus, the variation of the UV index, together with the variation of irradiations during summer and winter months at Uccle are shown as a part of this climatological study. The trend of UVB irradiance over the above mentioned three stations is shown. This UVB trend is studied in conjunction with the long-term satellite-based total column ozone value over Belgium, which shows two distinct trends marked by a change point. The total column ozone trend following the change point is positive. It is also seen that the UVB trend is positive for the urban/sub-urban sites: Uccle and Redu. Whereas the UVB trend at Ostende, which is a coastal site, is not positive. A possible explanation of this relation between total column ozone and UVB trend could be associated with aerosols, which is shown in this paper by means of a radiative transfer model based study -as a part of a preliminary investigation. It is seen that the UVI is influenced by the type of aerosols.

  2. Lidar instruments for ESA Earth observation missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hélière, Arnaud; Armandillo, Errico; Durand, Yannig; Culoma, Alain; Meynart, Roland

    2004-06-01

    The idea of deploying a lidar system on an Earth-orbiting satellite stems from the need for continuously providing profiles of our atmospheric structure with high accuracy and resolution and global coverage. Interest in this information for climatology, meteorology and the atmospheric sciences in general is huge. Areas of application range from the determination of global warming and greenhouse effects, to monitoring the transport and accumulation of pollutants in the different atmospheric regions (such as the recent fires in Southeast Asia), to the assessment of the largely unknown microphysical properties and the structural dynamics of the atmosphere itself. Spaceborne lidar systems have been the subject of extensive investigations by the European Space Agency since mid 1970's, resulting in mission and instrument concepts, such as ATLID, the cloud backscatter lidar payload of the EarthCARE mission, ALADIN, the Doppler wind lidar of the Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM) and more recently a water vapour Differential Absorption Lidar considered for the WALES mission. These studies have shown the basic scientific and technical feasibility of spaceborne lidars, but they have also demonstrated their complexity from the instrument viewpoint. As a result, the Agency undertook technology development in order to strengthen the instrument maturity. This is the case for ATLID, which benefited from a decade of technology development and supporting studies and is now studied in the frame of the EarthCARE mission. ALADIN, a Direct Detection Doppler Wind Lidar operating in the Ultra-Violet, will be the 1st European lidar to fly in 2007 as payload of the Earth Explorer Core Mission ADM. WALES currently studied at the level of a phase A, is based upon a lidar operating at 4 wavelengths in near infrared and aims to profile the water vapour in the lower part of the atmosphere with high accuracy and low bias. Lastly, the European Space Agency is extending the lidar instrument field

  3. Aggregating Hydrometeorological Data from International Monitoring Networks Across Earth's Largest Lake System to Quantify Uncertainty in Historical Water Budget Records, Improve Regional Water Budget Projections, and Differentiate Drivers Behind a Recent Record-Setting Surge in Water Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, A.; Bruxer, J.; Smith, J.; Hunter, T.; Fortin, V.; Clites, A. H.; Durnford, D.; Qian, S.; Seglenieks, F.

    2015-12-01

    Resolving and projecting the water budget of the North American Great Lakes basin (Earth's largest lake system) requires aggregation of data from a complex array of in situ monitoring and remote sensing products that cross an international border (leading to potential sources of bias and other inconsistencies), and are relatively sparse over the surfaces of the lakes themselves. Data scarcity over the surfaces of the lakes is a particularly significant problem because, unlike Earth's other large freshwater basins, the Great Lakes basin water budget is (on annual scales) comprised of relatively equal contributions from runoff, over-lake precipitation, and over-lake evaporation. Consequently, understanding drivers behind changes in regional water storage and water levels requires a data management framework that can reconcile uncertainties associated with data scarcity and bias, and propagate those uncertainties into regional water budget projections and historical records. Here, we assess the development of a historical hydrometeorological database for the entire Great Lakes basin with records dating back to the late 1800s, and describe improvements that are specifically intended to differentiate hydrological, climatological, and anthropogenic drivers behind recent extreme changes in Great Lakes water levels. Our assessment includes a detailed analysis of the extent to which extreme cold winters in central North America in 2013-2014 (caused by the anomalous meridional upper air flow - commonly referred to in the public media as the "polar vortex" phenomenon) altered the thermal and hydrologic regimes of the Great Lakes and led to a record setting surge in water levels between January 2014 and December 2015.

  4. Air quality monitoring with current (IASI) and future (IASI-NG/MetOp-SG, IRS/MTG) space-borne thermal infrared sounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynard, Anne; Clerbaux, Cathy; Bauduin, Sophie; Prunet, Pascal; Tournier, Bernard; Hadji-Lazaro, Juliette; Hurtmans, Daniel; Coheur, Pierre-François

    2017-04-01

    Current nadir-looking thermal infrared (TIR) sounders, such as the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) launched onboard the MetOp polar-orbiting platforms, are now playing an important role for probing pollutants in the troposphere and in the boundary layer (e.g., carbon monoxide - CO, ozone - O3, ammonia, sulfur dioxide). Vertical profiles can be obtained for the main absorbers, with varying vertical resolution and accuracy, depending on geophysical parameters and instrumental specifications. Two future missions using TIR instruments (IRS on Sentinel 4/MTG geostationary-orbiting platform and IASI-NG on Sentinel 5/MetOp-SG polar-orbiting platform) are planned to be launched by EUMETSAT within 5 years. Both instruments are nadir looking Fourier transform spectrometers like IASI but with different radiometric and spectral characteristics. In this study, we illustrate the ability of IASI to monitor CO and O3 in the lowermost troposphere. We assess more specifically the performances of the different satellite instrument concepts in terms of vertical resolution and sensitivity at the surface for CO and O3, using representative cases at local, continental and global scales.

  5. Effect of photoperiod on the levels of endogenous gibberellins in spinach as measured by combined gas chromatography-selected ion current monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, J.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1980-11-01

    The changes in the levels of five endogenous gibberellins (GAs) in spinach in relation to photoperiodic treatment have been examined by combined gas chromatography-selected ion current monitoring. Long-day treatment caused a 5-fold decline in the level of GA/sub 19/ while the levels of GA/sub 20/ and GA/sub 29/ increased dramatically during the same period. In absolute terms, the level of GA/sub 20/ increased from 0.8 microgram per 100 grams dry weight in short days to 5.5 micrograms per 100 grams dry weight after 14 long days. The levels of GA/sub 17/ and GA/sub 44/ did not change significantly with long-day treatment. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that GA/sub 19/ is converted to GA/sub 20/ and that this conversion is under photoperiodic control. Since stem growth in spinach is correlated with an increase in the level of GA/sub 20/, one major aspect of photoperiodic control of stem growth might be the availability of GA/sub 20/ through regulation of the conversion of GA/sub 19/ to GA/sub 20/.

  6. The autonomous Simpatico system for real-time continuous water-quality and current velocity monitoring: examples of application in three Portuguese estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garel, Erwan; Nunes, Susana; Neto, João Magalhães; Fernandes, Rodrigo; Neves, Ramiro; Marques, João Carlos; Ferreira, Óscar

    2009-10-01

    This technical paper describes an autonomous recording system with remote data access for the continuous, long-term in situ monitoring of water quality and discharge, as well as current velocity. The Simpatico system has been recently deployed in three estuaries in Portugal (Mondego and Tagus in July 2007; Guadiana in March 2008), highly suitable to illustrate its multifaceted potential applications: surveillance of the effects of mitigation measures to combat eutrophication (lower Mondego Estuary); real-time implementation of boundary conditions for a water modelling system (upper Tagus Estuary); study of dam-induced impacts in terms of water quality, water discharge and sediment budgets (mouth of the Guadiana Estuary). An extract of recorded data serves as an example to discuss data reliability, as well as field maintenance of the system, with implications for labour and operational costs. The use of a new generation of copper-based anti-biofouling kits significantly reduced the need for field maintenance operations. Other examples of possible application of the system include the assessment of gas accumulation in coastal waters.

  7. Magnetic field of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Aleksey

    2013-04-01

    The magnetic field of the Earth has global meaning for a life on the Earth. The world geophysical science explains: - occurrence of a magnetic field of the Earth it is transformation of kinetic energy of movements of the fused iron in the liquid core of Earth - into the magnetic energy; - the warming up of a kernel of the Earth occurs due to radioactive disintegration of elements, with excretion of thermal energy. The world science does not define the reasons: - drift of a magnetic dipole on 0,2 a year to the West; - drift of lithospheric slabs and continents. The author offers: an alternative variant existing in a world science the theories "Geodynamo" - it is the theory « the Magnetic field of the Earth », created on the basis of physical laws. Education of a magnetic field of the Earth occurs at moving the electric charge located in a liquid kernel, at rotation of the Earth. At calculation of a magnetic field is used law the Bio Savara for a ring electric current: dB = . Magnetic induction in a kernel of the Earth: B = 2,58 Gs. According to the law of electromagnetic induction the Faradey, rotation of a iron kernel of the Earth in magnetic field causes occurrence of an electric field Emf which moves electrons from the center of a kernel towards the mantle. So of arise the radial electric currents. The magnetic field amplifies the iron of mantle and a kernel of the Earth. As a result of action of a radial electric field the electrons will flow from the center of a kernel in a layer of an electric charge. The central part of a kernel represents the field with a positive electric charge, which creates inverse magnetic field Binv and Emfinv When ?mfinv = ?mf ; ?inv = B, there will be an inversion a magnetic field of the Earth. It is a fact: drift of a magnetic dipole of the Earth in the western direction approximately 0,2 longitude, into a year. Radial electric currents a actions with the basic magnetic field of a Earth - it turn a kernel. It coincides with laws

  8. Earth Observation Research for GMES Initial Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beijma, Sybrand; Balzter, Heiko; Nicolas-Perea, Virginia

    2013-04-01

    well as receiving the best technical training and scientific education. This training is currently being delivered through individually supervised research, international summer schools and local training. GIONET will develop better methods for monitoring climate change, environmental disasters and land cover change. It will also lead to the development of new methods using satellite monitoring for disaster relief after landslides and floods, controlling deforestation and overseeing the protection of tropical rainforests, as well as for climate change monitoring, lake water quality measurement and coastal erosion assessment. The training program through supervised research focuses on 14 research topics (each carried out by an Early Stage Researchers based in one of the partner organization) divided in 5 main areas: * Forest monitoring: o Global biomass information systems o Forest monitoring of the Congo Basin using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) o Multi-concept Earth Observation capabilities for biomass mapping and change detection: synergy of multi-temporal and multi-frequency interferometric radar and optical satellite data * Land cover and change: o Multi-scale remote sensing synergy for land process studies: from field spectrometry to airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR campaigns to radar-optical satellite data o Multi-temporal, multi-frequency SAR for landscape dynamics * Coastal zone and freshwater monitoring: o SAR-based Earth Observation in support of management of intertidal salt marsh habitats o Dynamics and conservation ecology of emergent and submerged macrophytes in Lake Balaton using airborne remote sensing o Satellite remote sensing of water quality (chlorophyll and suspended sediment) using MODIS and ship-mounted LIDAR * Geohazards and emergency response: o Methods for detection and monitoring of small scale land surface feature changes in complex crisis situations o Monitoring landslide displacements with Radar Interferometry o DINSAR/PSI hybrid

  9. The use of Full Earth Rotation Vector Derived from Ring Laser Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugentobler, Urs; Schreiber, Ulrich; Panafidina, Natascha; Gebauer, André

    2017-04-01

    Current active ring laser technology demonstrates the capability to measure variations of the rotation of the Earth. The large ring laser gyroscope "G" at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany, shows a stability which allows the measurement of the wobble of the Earth axis. Earth rotation currently is determined routinely in the framework of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) using space geodetic techniques such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). These techniques measure the rotation of the Earth kinematically by determining the motion of ground stations with respect to space objects, i.e., based on a technique also called "stellar compass". Ring laser gyroscopes on the other hand measure Earth rotation locally based on the observation of inertial accelerations, i.e., based on a technique also called "inertial compass". The fundamentally different measurement principles complement each other. It is, e.g., well known that forced polar motion, the so called Oppolzer terms, are not observable by space geodetic techniques due to strong correlation with the motion of the Earth axis in space. For the same reason the determination of subdaily Earth rotation parameters with space geodetic techniques is prone to strong systematic errors while exact knowledge of such terms is relevant, e.g., to determine high quality orbits of GNSS satellites. This presentation shall highlight the potential of the ring laser technology as additional sensor for monitoring Earth rotation, in particular with the upcoming capability to measure the full Earth rotation vector.

  10. Monitoring Seasons Through Global Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Robin, J. H.; Jeffries, M. O.; Gordon, L. S.; Verbyla, D. L.; Levine, E. R.

    2006-12-01

    Monitoring Seasons through Global Learning Communities (MSTGLC) is an inquiry- and project-based project that monitors seasons, specifically their interannual variability, in order to increase K-12 students' understanding of the Earth system by providing teacher professional development in Earth system science and inquiry, and engaging K-12 students in Earth system science research relevant to their local communities that connect globally. MSTGLC connects GLOBE students, teachers, and communities, with educators and scientists from three integrated Earth systems science programs: the International Arctic Research Center, and NASA Landsat Data Continuity and Terra Satellite Missions. The project organizes GLOBE schools by biomes into eight Global Learning Communities (GLCs) and students monitor their seasons through regional based field campaigns. The project expands the current GLOBE phenology network by adapting current protocols and making them biome-specific. In addition, ice and mosquito phenology protocols will be developed for Arctic and Tropical regions, respectively. Initially the project will focus on Tundra and Taiga biomes as phenological changes are so pronounced in these regions. However, our long-term goal is to determine similar changes in other biomes (Deciduous Forest, Desert, Grasslands, Rain Forest, Savannah and Shrubland) based upon what we learn from these two biomes. This project will also contribute to critically needed Earth system science data such as in situ ice, mosquito, and vegetation phenology measurements for ground validations of remotely sensed data, which are essential for regional climate change impact assessments. Additionally it will contribute environmental data critical to prevention and management of diseases such as malaria in Asian, African, and other countries. Furthermore, this project will enable students to participate in the International Polar Year (IPY) (2007-2009) through field campaigns conducted by students in

  11. Sulfur Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, B. H.

    2007-12-01

    Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to

  12. Use of Current 2010 Forest Disturbance Monitoring Products for the Conterminous United States in Aiding a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation discusses contributions of near real time (NRT) MODIS forest disturbance detection products for the conterminous United States to an emerging national forest threat early warning system (EWS). The latter is being developed by the USDA Forest Service s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Building off work done in 2009, this national and regional forest disturbance detection and viewing capability of the EWS employs NRT MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS group and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. Disturbance detection products are being computed for 24 day composites that are refreshed every 8 days. Products for 2010 include 42 dates of the 24 day composites. For each compositing date, we computed % change in forest maximum NDVI products for 2010 with respect to each of three historical baselines of 2009, 2007-2009, and 2003-2009,. The three baselines enable one to view potential current, recent, and longer term forest disturbances. A rainbow color table was applied to each forest change product so that potential disturbances (NDVI drops) were identified in hot color tones and growth (NDVI gains) in cold color tones. Example products were provided to end-users responsible for forest health monitoring at the Federal and State levels. Large patches of potential forest disturbances were validated based on comparisons with available reference data, including Landsat and field survey data. Products were posted on two internet mapping systems for US Forest Service internal and collaborator use. MODIS forest disturbance detection products were computed and posted for use in as little as 1 day after the last input date of the compositing period. Such products were useful for aiding aerial disturbance detection surveys and for assessing disturbance persistence on both inter- and intra-annual scales. Multiple 2010 forest disturbance events were

  13. The Development of Automated Detection Techniques for Passive Acoustic Monitoring as a Tool for Studying Beaked Whale Distribution and Habitat Preferences in the California Current Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yack, Tina M.

    The objectives of this research were to test available automated detection methods for passive acoustic monitoring and integrate the best available method into standard marine mammal monitoring protocols for ship based surveys. The goal of the first chapter was to evaluate the performance and utility of PAMGUARD 1.0 Core software for use in automated detection of marine mammal acoustic signals during towed array surveys. Three different detector configurations of PAMGUARD were compared. These automated detection algorithms were evaluated by comparing them to the results of manual detections made by an experienced bio-acoustician (author TMY). This study provides the first detailed comparisons of PAMGUARD automated detection algorithms to manual detection methods. The results of these comparisons clearly illustrate the utility of automated detection methods for odontocete species. Results of this work showed that the majority of whistles and click events can be reliably detected using PAMGUARD software. The second chapter moves beyond automated detection to examine and test automated classification algorithms for beaked whale species. Beaked whales are notoriously elusive and difficult to study, especially using visual survey methods. The purpose of the second chapter was to test, validate, and compare algorithms for detection of beaked whales in acoustic line-transect survey data. Using data collected at sea from the PAMGUARD classifier developed in Chapter 2 it was possible to measure the clicks from visually verified Baird's beaked whale encounters and use this data to develop classifiers that could discriminate Baird's beaked whales from other beaked whale species in future work. Echolocation clicks from Baird's beaked whales, Berardius bairdii, were recorded during combined visual and acoustic shipboard surveys of cetacean populations in the California Current Ecosystem (CCE) and with autonomous, long-term recorders at four different sites in the Southern

  14. Heat-pipe Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G

    2013-09-26

    The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics.

  15. Satellite laser ranging measurements in South Africa: Contributions to earth system sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Botai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reassesses progress in the development of satellite laser ranging (SLR technology and its scientific and societal applications in South Africa. We first highlight the current global SLR tracking stations within the framework of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS and the artificial satellites currently being tracked by these stations. In particular, the present work focuses on analysing SLR measurements at Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO, South Africa, based on the MOBLAS-6 SLR configuration. Generally, there is a weak geometry of ILRS stations in the southern hemisphere and the SLR tracking station at HartRAO is the only active ILRS station operating on the African continent. The SLR-derived products such as station positions and velocities, satellite orbits, components of earth's gravity field and their temporal variations, earth orientation parameters are collected, merged, achieved and distributed by the ILRS under the Crustal Dynamic Data Information System. These products are used in various research fields such as detection and monitoring of tectonic plate motion, crustal deformation, earth rotation, polar motion, and the establishment and monitoring of International Terrestrial Reference Frames, as well as modelling of the spatio-temporal variations of the earth's gravity field. The MOBLAS-6 tracking station is collocated with other geodetic techniques such as very long baseline interferometry and Global Navigation Satellite Systems, thus making this observatory a fiducial geodetic location. Some applications of the SLR data products are described within the context of earth system science.

  16. Mathematical models and methods for planet Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Locatelli, Ugo; Ruggeri, Tommaso; Strickland, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In 2013 several scientific activities have been devoted to mathematical researches for the study of planet Earth. The current volume presents a selection of the highly topical issues presented at the workshop “Mathematical Models and Methods for Planet Earth”, held in Roma (Italy), in May 2013. The fields of interest span from impacts of dangerous asteroids to the safeguard from space debris, from climatic changes to monitoring geological events, from the study of tumor growth to sociological problems. In all these fields the mathematical studies play a relevant role as a tool for the analysis of specific topics and as an ingredient of multidisciplinary problems. To investigate these problems we will see many different mathematical tools at work: just to mention some, stochastic processes, PDE, normal forms, chaos theory.

  17. Continued Development of Meandering Winding Magnetometer (MWM (Register Trademark)) Eddy Current Sensors for the Health Monitoring, Modeling and Damage Detection of Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard; Wincheski, Russell; Jablonski, David; Washabaugh, Andy; Sheiretov, Yanko; Martin, Christopher; Goldfine, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are used in essentially all NASA spacecraft, launch. vehicles and payloads to contain high-pressure fluids for propulsion, life support systems and science experiments. Failure of any COPV either in flight or during ground processing would result in catastrophic damage to the spacecraft or payload, and could lead to loss of life. Therefore, NASA continues to investigate new methods to non-destructively inspect (NDE) COPVs for structural anomalies and to provide a means for in-situ structural health monitoring (SHM) during operational service. Partnering with JENTEK Sensors, engineers at NASA, Kennedy Space Center have successfully conducted a proof-of-concept study to develop Meandering Winding Magnetometer (MWM) eddy current sensors designed to make direct measurements of the stresses of the internal layers of a carbon fiber composite wrapped COPV. During this study three different MWM sensors were tested at three orientations to demonstrate the ability of the technology to measure stresses at various fiber orientations and depths. These results showed good correlation with actual surface strain gage measurements. MWM-Array technology for scanning COPVs can reliably be used to image and detect mechanical damage. To validate this conclusion, several COPVs were scanned to obtain a baseline, and then each COPV was impacted at varying energy levels and then rescanned. The baseline subtracted images were used to demonstrate damage detection. These scans were performed with two different MWM-Arrays. with different geometries for near-surface and deeper penetration imaging at multiple frequencies and in multiple orientations of the linear MWM drive. This presentation will include a review of micromechanical models that relate measured sensor responses to composite material constituent properties, validated by the proof of concept study, as the basis for SHM and NDE data analysis as well as potential improvements including

  18. Positioning and applications for planet earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, S.; Retscher, G.; Santos, M.C.; Ding, X.L.; Gao, Y.; Jin, S.G.

    2009-01-01

    GNSS, InSAR and LIDAR are identified as important techniques when it comes to monitoring and remote sensing of our planet Earth and its atmosphere. In fact, these techniques can be considered as key elements of the Global Geodetic Observing System. Examples of applications are: environmental monitor

  19. Rigidly framed earth retaining structures thermal soil structure interaction of buildings supporting unbalanced lateral earth pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Aboumoussa, Walid

    2014-01-01

    Structures placed on hillsides often present a number of challenges and a limited number of economical choices for site design. An option sometimes employed is to use the building frame as a retaining element, comprising a Rigidly Framed Earth Retaining Structure (RFERS). The relationship between temperature and earth pressure acting on RFERS, is explored in this monograph through a 4.5 year monitoring program of a heavily instrumented in service structure. The data indicated that the coefficient of earth pressure behind the monitored RFERS had a strong linear correlation with temperature. The study also revealed that thermal cycles, rather than lateral earth pressure, were the cause of failure in many structural elements. The book demonstrates that depending on the relative stiffness of the retained soil mass and that of the structural frame, the developed lateral earth pressure, during thermal expansion, can reach magnitudes several times larger than those determined using classical earth pressure theories....

  20. Current practices in long-term video-EEG monitoring services : A survey among partners of the E-PILEPSY pilot network of reference for refractory epilepsy and epilepsy surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobulashvili, Teia; Höfler, Julia; Dobesberger, Judith; Ernst, Florian; Ryvlin, Philippe; Cross, J. Helen; Braun, Kees; Dimova, Petia; Francione, Stefano; Hecimovic, Hrvoje; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Kimiskidis, Vasilios K.; Lossius, Morten Ingvar; Malmgren, Kristina; Marusic, Petr; Steinhoff, Bernhard J.; Boon, Paul; Craiu, Dana; Delanty, Norman; Fabo, Daniel; Gil-Nagel, Antonio; Guekht, Alla; Hirsch, Edouard; Kalviainen, Reetta; Mameniskiené, Ruta; Özkara, Çiǧdem; Seeck, Margitta; Rubboli, Guido; Krsek, Pavel; Rheims, Sylvain; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The European Union-funded E-PILEPSY network aims to improve awareness of, and accessibility to, epilepsy surgery across Europe. In this study we assessed current clinical practices in epilepsy monitoring units (EMUs) in the participating centers. Method A 60-item web-based survey was distrib

  1. Mechanisms, Monitoring and Modeling Earth Fissure generation and Fault activation due to subsurface Fluid exploitation (M3EF3): A UNESCO-IGCP project in partnership with the UNESCO-IHP Working Group on Land Subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teatini, P.; Carreon-Freyre, D.; Galloway, D. L.; Ye, S.

    2015-12-01

    Land subsidence due to groundwater extraction was recently mentioned as one of the most urgent threats to sustainable development in the latest UNESCO IHP-VIII (2014-2020) strategic plan. Although advances have been made in understanding, monitoring, and predicting subsidence, the influence of differential vertical compaction, horizontal displacements, and hydrostratigraphic and structural features in groundwater systems on localized near-surface ground ruptures is still poorly understood. The nature of ground failure may range from fissuring, i.e., formation of an open crack, to faulting, i.e., differential offset of the opposite sides of the failure plane. Ground ruptures associated with differential subsidence have been reported from many alluvial basins in semiarid and arid regions, e.g. China, India, Iran, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Spain, and the United States. These ground ruptures strongly impact urban, industrial, and agricultural infrastructures, and affect socio-economic and cultural development. Leveraging previous collaborations, this year the UNESCO Working Group on Land Subsidence began the scientific cooperative project M3EF3 in collaboration with the UNESCO International Geosciences Programme (IGCP n.641; www.igcp641.org) to improve understanding of the processes involved in ground rupturing associated with the exploitation of subsurface fluids, and to facilitate the transfer of knowledge regarding sustainable groundwater management practices in vulnerable aquifer systems. The project is developing effective tools to help manage geologic risks associated with these types of hazards, and formulating recommendations pertaining to the sustainable use of subsurface fluid resources for urban and agricultural development in susceptible areas. The partnership between the UNESCO IHP and IGCP is ensuring that multiple scientific competencies required to optimally investigate earth fissuring and faulting caused by groundwater withdrawals are being employed.

  2. Two cases of burns caused by misuse of coagulation unit and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolly, G

    1978-01-01

    Two cases of severe burns with monitoring apparatus are described. In a female patient of 45 years, a severe third degree burn occurred by misuse of coagulation apparatus (inversion of the poles of an older Bovie apparatus), in the presence of a non-floating ECG monitoring device. A high intensity current was established from the coagulation unit, via the earth plate under the buttocks, to the indifferent electrode placed on the chest, where burns occurred. In an 8 month female baby, having laparotomy for a neuroblastoma, a third degree burn of 5 cm diameter occurred with a non-floating ECG monitor. A twin-wired disposable earth plate was placed just beneath the indifferent ECG electrode on the leg. A burning current was established between the Bovie coagulation unit and the monitor.

  3. Evaluating segregation in granular filters for earth dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Grabinsky, M. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presented some case studies to illustrate the relationship between seepage problems encountered with earth dams and segregation of the dams' granular filters during construction. A literature review of segregation mechanisms was presented along with a laboratory investigation. The case studies showed that the current understanding of the impact of a given degree of segregation is relatively poor. The literature reveals that although segregation mechanisms are identified and analyzed, very few are likely to be predominant during earth dam construction. Laboratory studies show that a mathematical relationship can be established between the filter's grain size distribution curve and the potential degree of segregation. Therefore, a mathematical relationship can also be established with the potential for adverse dam performance. The authors proposed a field procedure which allows for the monitoring of segregation during construction by contractors and engineers. It also helps in deciding whether any segregated zones require replacement. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Eyes on Planet Earth! Exploring Your Local Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J.; Southard, John B.

    2003-01-01

    The American Geological Institute is helping teachers and geoscientists to emphasize the importance of inquiry and active investigation of the world around by selecting "Eyes on Planet Earth: Monitoring Our Changing World" as the theme of this year's Earth Science Week. The activity on the back of this month's poster insert, "Monitoring the…

  5. Distant Retrograde Orbits for space-based Near Earth Objects detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramacchia, Michele; Colombo, Camilla; Bernelli-Zazzera, Franco

    2016-09-01

    We analyse a concept for the detection of Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) from a space-based network of telescopes on retrograde Distant Periodic Orbits. Planar periodic orbits are designed in the Sun-Earth circular restricted three-body problem, starting from initial conditions in the Hill's problem available from the literature. A family of retrograde orbits centred at the Earth is selected as baseline, based on their maximum distance from Earth, larger than the Earth-L2 distance. Indeed, spacecraft on such orbits can detect PHAs incoming from the Sun direction, which could not otherwise be monitored from current Earth-based systems. A trade-off on the orbit amplitude, asteroid diameter to be detected, and the constellation size is performed considering current visible sensor telescope technology. The Chelyabinsk meteor scenario is studied and the potential warning time that could be gained with a space-based survey system with respect to an Earth based-survey system is shown.

  6. All-Sky Monitoring with the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2010-01-01

    We are currently monitoring the transient hard X-ray/soft gamma ray sky using the Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on-board Fermi. The twelve GBM NaI detectors span 8 keV to 1MeV, while the two GBM BGO detectors span about 150 keV to 40 MeV. With GBM, we detect transient events on multiple timescales. Brief events, such as Gamma Ray Bursts, Solar flares, and magnetar bursts are detected with on-board triggers. On longer timescales, we use the Earth occultation technique to monitor a number of sources, including X-ray binaries, AGN, and solar flaring activity. To date we have detected 7 sources above 100 keV. Transient activity from accretion-powered pulsars is monitored using epoch-folding techniques. With GBM we track the pulsed flux and frequency for a number of pulsars. We will present highlights of GBM observations on various timescales.

  7. Results of long-term field tests of protective earthing device for vessel electric systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaginin V.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of prolonged natural tests of protective neutral earthing device for controlling the fire and electrical safety of vessel electric systems have been shown. The use of such devices provides safe single-phase fault currents and reducing arc overvoltage during the long-term operation of a ship. The results of long-term monitoring of the device operation as part of the existing vessel electric power system have confirmed its effectiveness

  8. Results of long-term field tests of protective earthing device for vessel electric systems

    OpenAIRE

    Blaginin V.A.; Kazhekin I.E.; Yusyp V.M.; Moskalyuk A.M.; Syrenko D.P.

    2015-01-01

    The results of prolonged natural tests of protective neutral earthing device for controlling the fire and electrical safety of vessel electric systems have been shown. The use of such devices provides safe single-phase fault currents and reducing arc overvoltage during the long-term operation of a ship. The results of long-term monitoring of the device operation as part of the existing vessel electric power system have confirmed its effectiveness

  9. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Program has evolved over the last two decades, and currently has several core and community components. Core components provide the basic operational capabilities to process, archive, manage and distribute data from NASA missions. Community components provide a path for peer-reviewed research in Earth Science Informatics to feed into the evolution of the core components. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a core component consisting of twelve Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and eight Science Investigator-led Processing Systems spread across the U.S. The presentation covers how the ESDS Program continues to evolve and benefits from as well as contributes to advances in Earth Science Informatics.

  10. Solid Earth: The priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, P.

    1991-10-01

    The European Space Agency's strategy concerning the solid Earth program is reviewed. Improvement of current knowledge of the global geopotential fields, both gravity and magnetic, was stressed as the highest priority. It was agreed that the objectives and goals of the planned Aristoteles mission correspond to this priority, and the need to realize this part of the program was stated. The interdisciplinary links of the program were identified, and it was decided that this program could make substantial contributions to research of oceans, climate and global change, atmosphere, ice and land surfaces.

  11. Rare Earth Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Oversupply of rare earths led to the significant price drop of rare earth mineral products and separated products in Chinese domestic market. To stabilize the price, prevent waste of resources, further improve regulation capability on domestic rare earth market and rare earth price and maintain sustaining and healthy development of rare earth industry, partial rare earth producers in Baotou and Jiangxi province projected to cease the production for one month.

  12. Progress in Research on Diurnal and Semidiurnal Earth Rotation Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xueqing

    2015-08-01

    We mainly focus on the progress of research on high frequency changes in the earth rotation. Firstly, we review the development course and main motivating factors of the diurnal and semidiurnal earth rotation change. In recent decades, earth orientation has been monitored with increasing accuracy by advanced space-geodetic techniques, including lunar and satellite laser ranging, very long baseline interferometry and the global positioning system. We are able to obtain the Earth Rotation Parameters (ERP, polar motion and rotation rate changes) by even 1 to 2 hours observation data, form which obvious diurnal and semidiurnal signals can be detected, and compare them with the predicted results by the ocean model. Both the amplitude and phase are in good agreement in the main diurnal and semidiurnal wave frequency, especially for the UT1, whose compliance is 90%, and 60% for polar motion, there are 30% motivating factor of the diurnal and semidiurnal polar motion have not been identified. Then we comprehensively review the different types of global ocean tidal correction models since the last eighties century, as well as the application research on diurnal and semidiurnal polar motion and UT1, the current ocean tidal correction models have 10% to 20% uncertainty, and need for further refinement.

  13. Magnetic Storms at Mars and Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup

    In analogy with magnetic storms at the Earth, periods of significantly enhanced global magnetic activity also exist at Mars. The extensive database of magnetic measurements from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), covering almost an entire solar cycle, is used in combination with geomagnetic activity...... indices at Earth to compare the occurrence of magnetic storms at Mars and Earth. Based on superposed epochs analysis the time-development of typical magnetic storms at Mars and Earth is described. In contradiction to storms at Earth, most magnetic storms at Mars are found to be associated...... with heliospheric current sheet crossings, where the IMF changes polarity. While most storms at the Earth occur due to significant southward excursions of the IMF associated with CMEs, at Mars most storms seem to be associated with the density enhancement of the heliospheric current sheet. Density enhancements...

  14. Magnetic Storms at Mars and Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup

    In analogy with magnetic storms at the Earth, periods of significantly enhanced global magnetic activity also exist at Mars. The extensive database of magnetic measurements from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), covering almost an entire solar cycle, is used in combination with geomagnetic activity...... indices at Earth to compare the occurrence of magnetic storms at Mars and Earth. Based on superposed epochs analysis the time-development of typical magnetic storms at Mars and Earth is described. In contradiction to storms at Earth, most magnetic storms at Mars are found to be associated...... with heliospheric current sheet crossings, where the IMF changes polarity. While most storms at the Earth occur due to significant southward excursions of the IMF associated with CMEs, at Mars most storms seem to be associated with the density enhancement of the heliospheric current sheet. Density enhancements...

  15. The global Earth observation system of systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achache, José

    2010-05-01

    Recognizing the growing need for improved Earth observations, 140 governments and leading international organizations have established the Group on Earth Observations, or GEO, to collaborate and implement a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) by the year 2015. Countries and organizations are contributing their respective Earth monitoring systems, from satellites in space and in situ instruments on land, in the oceans and in the atmosphere. They are interlinking these systems so that, together, they provide a more complete picture of Earth's systems dynamics. GEO is developing common technical standards to pool observations and ensure their cross calibration and validation. It is building a web-based infrastructure to ensure easy access to the wealth of data and services contributed to, or generated by, GEOSS. GEO has been promoting the free and open sharing and dissemination of Earth observation data which has already driven significant changes in data distribution policies of several key Earth observing satellites: Landsat, Cbers and the future Sentinels of GMES. GEO is also reflecting on solutions to transition research systems into operational observing systems and ensure their long-term sustainability. First, the current status of GEOSS implementation and these core activities of GEO will be presented. Then, examples of global data sets and information systems or services developed through GEOSS will be presented: - a high-resolution global digital elevation model (DEM) based on Aster data was released by Japan and the USA. In situ measurements are now being used to improve the model as well as the stacking procedure used to develop it; - the Supersites initiative ensures coordinated access to data and information on natural hazards in geologically active regions. In light of the recent tragedy in Haiti, this project created a dedicated web site regularly updated with maps of seismicity, tectonics, Coulomb stress changes, topography, real and

  16. The NASA Earth Science Flight Program: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeck, Steven P.

    2015-10-01

    Earth's changing environment impacts every aspect of life on our planet and climate change has profound implications on society. Studying Earth as a single complex system is essential to understanding the causes and consequences of climate change and other global environmental concerns. NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) shapes an interdisciplinary view of Earth, exploring interactions among the atmosphere, oceans, ice sheets, land surface interior, and life itself. This enables scientists to measure global and climate changes and to inform decisions by government, other organizations, and people in the United States and around the world. The data collected and results generated are accessible to other agencies and organizations to improve the products and services they provide, including air quality indices, disaster prediction and response, agricultural yield projections, and aviation safety. ESD's Flight Program provides the space based observing systems and infrastructure for mission operations and scientific data processing and distribution that support NASA's Earth science research and modeling activities. The Flight Program currently has 21 operating Earth observing space missions, including the recently launched Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2), the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, and the International Space Station (ISS) RapidSCAT and Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) instruments. The ESD has 22 more missions and instruments planned for launch over the next decade. These include first and second tier missions from the 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey, Climate Continuity missions and selected instruments to assure availability of key climate data sets, operational missions to ensure sustained land imaging provided by the Landsat system, and small-sized competitively selected orbital missions and instrument missions of opportunity belonging to the Earth Venture (EV) Program. Some

  17. Global Earthing Systems: Characterization of Buried Metallic Parts

    OpenAIRE

    Tommasini, Riccardo; Colella, Pietro; Pons, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    International Standards IEC 61936-1 and EN 50522 define a Global Earthing System (GES) as the earthing network, created by the interconnection of local earthing systems, that should guarantee the absence of dangerous touch voltages. This is achieved through two effects: the division of the earth fault current between many earthing systems and the creation of a quasi equipotential surface. The second effect can be enhanced by the presence of buried metallic parts, such as light poles and water...

  18. From Discovery to Impact - Near Earth Asteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Tichý

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Near-Earth Objects (NEOs are the most important of the small bodies of the solar system, having the capability of close approaches to the Earth and the chance to collide with the Earth.  We present here the current system of discovery of these dangerous objects, standards for selecting useful and important targets for NEO follow-up astrometry, system of impact probabilities calculations, and also determination of impact site and evacuation area.

  19. Monitoring Telluric Water Absorption with CAMAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ashley; Blake, Cullen; Sliski, David

    2017-01-01

    Ground-based observations are severely limited by telluric water vapor absorption features, which are highly variable in time and significantly complicate both spectroscopy and photometry in the near-infrared (NIR). To achieve the stability required to study Earth-sized exoplanets, monitoring the precipitable water vapor (PWV) becomes necessary to mitigate the impact of telluric lines on radial velocity measurements and transit light curves. To address this issue, we present the Camera for the Automatic Monitoring of Atmospheric Lines (CAMAL), a stand-alone, inexpensive 6-inch aperture telescope dedicated to measuring PWV at the Whipple Observatory. CAMAL utilizes three NIR narrowband filters to trace the amount of atmospheric water vapor affecting simultaneous observations with the MINiature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array (MINERVA) and MINERVA-Red telescopes. We present the current design of CAMAL, discuss our calibration methods, and show PWV measurements taken with CAMAL compared to those of a nearby GPS water vapor monitor.

  20. The Contribution of GGOS to Understanding Dynamic Earth Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Richard

    2017-04-01

    of continental and basin-scale water masses; loading and unloading of the land surface due to seasonal changes of groundwater; measurement of water level of major lakes and rivers by satellite altimetry; and improved digital terrain models as basis for flux modeling of surface water and flood modeling. Geodesy is crucial for cryospheric studies because of its ability to measure the motions of ice masses and changes in their volumes. Ice sheets, glaciers, and sea ice are intricately linked to the Earth's climate system. They store a record of past climate; they strongly affect surface energy budget, global water cycle, and sea-level change; and they are sensitive indicators of climate change. Geodesy is at the heart of all present-day ocean studies. Geodetic observations uniquely produce accurate, quantitative, and integrated observations of gravity, ocean circulation, sea surface height, ocean bottom pressure, and mass exchanges among the ocean, cryosphere, and land. Geodetic observations have made fundamental contributions to monitoring and understanding physical ocean processes. In particular, geodesy is the basic technique used to determine an accurate geoid model, allowing for the determination of absolute surface geostrophic currents, which are necessary to quantify heat transport of the ocean. Geodesy also provides the absolute reference for tide gauge measurements, allowing those measurements to be merged with satellite altimetric measurements to provide a coherent worldwide monitoring system for sea level change. In this presentation, selected examples of the contribution of geodetic observations to understanding the dynamic Earth system will be presented.

  1. TOWARD END-TO-END MODELING FOR NUCLEAR EXPLOSION MONITORING: SIMULATION OF UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND EARTHQUAKES USING HYDRODYNAMIC AND ANELASTIC SIMULATIONS, HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL EARTH MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A; Vorobiev, O; Petersson, A; Sjogreen, B

    2009-07-06

    This paper describes new research being performed to improve understanding of seismic waves generated by underground nuclear explosions (UNE) by using full waveform simulation, high-performance computing and three-dimensional (3D) earth models. The goal of this effort is to develop an end-to-end modeling capability to cover the range of wave propagation required for nuclear explosion monitoring (NEM) from the buried nuclear device to the seismic sensor. The goal of this work is to improve understanding of the physical basis and prediction capabilities of seismic observables for NEM including source and path-propagation effects. We are pursuing research along three main thrusts. Firstly, we are modeling the non-linear hydrodynamic response of geologic materials to underground explosions in order to better understand how source emplacement conditions impact the seismic waves that emerge from the source region and are ultimately observed hundreds or thousands of kilometers away. Empirical evidence shows that the amplitudes and frequency content of seismic waves at all distances are strongly impacted by the physical properties of the source region (e.g. density, strength, porosity). To model the near-source shock-wave motions of an UNE, we use GEODYN, an Eulerian Godunov (finite volume) code incorporating thermodynamically consistent non-linear constitutive relations, including cavity formation, yielding, porous compaction, tensile failure, bulking and damage. In order to propagate motions to seismic distances we are developing a one-way coupling method to pass motions to WPP (a Cartesian anelastic finite difference code). Preliminary investigations of UNE's in canonical materials (granite, tuff and alluvium) confirm that emplacement conditions have a strong effect on seismic amplitudes and the generation of shear waves. Specifically, we find that motions from an explosion in high-strength, low-porosity granite have high compressional wave amplitudes and weak

  2. Fourteen Times the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    measurements, assuming the existence of two planets. The data were obtained over a time span of 80 days and the first points shown are the data from the 8 nights in June. Note that the full span of the vertical axis is only 40 m/s! Error bars indicate the accuracy of the measurements. The lower part of the diagram displays the deviation of the measurements from the best fit. ESO PR Photo 25d/04 ESO PR Photo 25d/04 Observed Velocity Variation of mu Arae [Preview - JPEG: 440 x 400 pix - 78k] [Normal - JPEG: 879 x 800 pix - 171k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 25d/04 displays the HARPS radial velocity measurements phase-folded with the orbital period of the newly found exoplanet (9.5 days). The measurements have been corrected from the effect of the two longer period companions. The semi-amplitude of the curve is less than 5 m/s! Coupled with the 9.5 days orbital period, this implies a minimum mass for the newly discovered planet of 14 times the mass of the Earth. During 8 nights in June 2004, mu Arae was repeatedly observed and its radial velocity measured by HARPS to obtain information on the interior of the star. This so-called astero-seismology technique (see ESO PR 15/01) studies the small acoustic waves which make the surface of the star periodically pulsate in and out. By knowing the internal structure of the star, the astronomers aimed at understanding the origin of the unusual amount of heavy elements observed in its stellar atmosphere. This unusual chemical composition could provide unique information to the planet formation history. Says Nuno Santos, another member of the team: "To our surprise, the analysis of the new measurements revealed a radial velocity variation with a period of 9.5 days on top of the acoustic oscillation signal!" This discovery has been made possible thanks to the large number of measurements obtained during the astero-seimology campaign. From this date, the star, that was also part of the HARPS consortium survey programme, was regularly monitored with a

  3. Exploring Earth Systems Through STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Loris; Salmon, Jennifer; Burns, Courtney

    2015-04-01

    During the 2010 school year, grade 8 science teachers at Dwight D. Eisenhower Middle School in Wyckoff, New Jersey, began using the draft of A Framework for K-12 Science Education to transition to the Next Generation Science Standards. In an evolutionary process of testing and revising, teachers work collaboratively to develop problem-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) units that integrate earth science, physical science, and life science topics. Students explore the interconnections of Earth's atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere through problem-based learning. Problem-based learning engages students in (1) direct observations in the field and classroom, (2) collection and analysis of data from remote sensors and hand-held sensors, and (3) analysis of physical, mathematical, and virtual models. Students use a variety of technologies and applications in their investigations, for example iPad apps, Google Classroom, and Vernier sensors. Data from NASA, NOAA, non-government organizations, and scientific research papers inspire student questions and spark investigations. Teachers create materials and websites to support student learning. Teachers curate reading, video, simulations, and other Internet resources for students. Because curriculum is standards-based as opposed to textbook-based, teacher participation in workshops and institutes frequently translates into new or improved study units. Recent programs include Toyota International Teacher Program to Costa Rica, Japan Society Going Global, Siemens STEM Academy, U.S. Naval Academy SET Sail, and NJSTA Maitland P. Simmons Memorial Award Summer Institute. Unit themes include weather and climate, introduction to general chemistry and biochemistry, and cells and heredity. Each if the three 12-week units has embedded engineering challenges inspired by current events, community needs, and/or the work of scientists. The unit segments begin with a problem, progress to

  4. Earth from Above

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahley, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Google Earth is a free online software that provides a virtual view of Earth. Using Google Earth, students can view Earth by hovering over features and locations they preselect or by serendipitously exploring locations that catch their fascination. Going beyond hovering, they can swoop forward and even tilt images to make more detailed…

  5. Integrating research infrastructures for solid Earth science in Europe: the European Plate Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, M.; Giardini, D.; EPOS-PP Consortium

    2011-12-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) coordinates and integrates the research infrastructures in the European-Mediterranean region, to promote innovative approaches for a better understanding of the physical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis as well as those driving tectonics and Earth surface dynamics. The EPOS 30-year plan aims at integrating the currently scattered, but highly advanced European facilities into one distributed, coherent multidisciplinary Research Infrastructure allowing sustainable long-term Earth science research strategies and an effective coordinated European-scale monitoring facility for solid Earth dynamics taking full advantage of new e-science opportunities. EPOS has been approved by ESFRI (the European Scientific Forum for Research Infrastructures) as one of the critical European Research Infrastructures, and the EPOS Preparatory Phase is supported by the European Commission FP7 program. The cooperation between EPOS and similar US infrastructures (i.e. Earthscope) will be ensured by dedicated NSF-EC funding. EPOS is integrating data from permanent national and regional geophysical monitoring networks (seismological, GPS), with the observations from "in-situ" observatories (volcano observatories, in-situ fault zone test sites) and temporary-monitoring and laboratory experiments through a cyber-infrastructure for data mining and processing, and facilities for data integration, archiving and exchange. The vision is to integrate these existing research infrastructures in order to increase the accessibility and usability of multidisciplinary data from monitoring networks, laboratory experiments and computational simulations enhancing worldwide interoperability in Earth Science by establishing a leading integrated European infrastructure and services. More recently the EPOS and the satellite Earth Observation communities are collaborating in order to promote the integration of data from in-situ monitoring

  6. Rare Earth Resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    BEFORE the early 1970s, China had no rare earth exports, and the world rare earth market was dominated by the United States, Europe and Japan. In the 1970s, China began to enter the world rare earth market and its share has picked up sharply in the following decades. Today, having the monopoly over global rare earth production, China must improve the benefits from rare earth production, not only from producing individual rare earth products, but also from mastering the intensive processing of rare earth products.

  7. Retrieving hydrological signals from current and future gravity field missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pail, Roland; Horvath, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    The Global Geodetic Observing System is formed by three pillars: Changes in Earth's shape, gravity field and rotation. Dedicated satellite missions are crucial in the determination and monitoring of the Earth's gravity field. Monitoring the gravity field and studying mass transport phenomena, responsible for the temporal variability of the gravity field, are of high interest. Especially the hydrology is of importance since the mechanisms of water redistribution and unexpected events like floods and droughts can have significant socio-economic impact. The presented study investigates in the possibilities and limits of current space geodetic missions like GRACE to observe such effects. The main target of the study is to determine the potential gain in accuracy as well as spatial and temporal resolution of target signals like hydrological events, whilst operating future mission scenarios. The results from a series of comprehensive simulation runs are presented to demonstrate the benefits to society operating dedicated future space geodetic gravity field missions.

  8. Building a Dashboard of the Planet with Google Earth and Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. T.; Hancher, M.

    2016-12-01

    In 2005 Google Earth, a popular 3-D virtual globe, was first released. Scientists immediately recognized how it could be used to tell stories about the Earth. From 2006 to 2009, the "Virtual Globes" sessions of AGU included innovative examples of scientists and educators using Google Earth, and since that time it has become a commonplace tool for communicating scientific results. In 2009 Google Earth Engine, a cloud-based platform for planetary-scale geospatial analysis, was first announced. Earth Engine was initially used to extract information about the world's forests from raw Landsat data. Since then, the platform has proven highly effective for general analysis of georeferenced data, and users have expanded the list of use cases to include high-impact societal issues such as conservation, drought, disease, food security, water management, climate change and environmental monitoring. To support these use cases, the platform has continuously evolved with new datasets, analysis functions, and user interface tools. This talk will give an overview of the latest Google Earth and Earth Engine functionality that allow partners to understand, monitor and tell stories about of our living, breathing Earth. https://earth.google.com https://earthengine.google.com

  9. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  10. Business earth stations for telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Walter L.; Rouffet, Denis

    The current status of technology for small commercial satellite-communication earth stations is reviewed on the basis of an application study undertaken in the U.S. and Europe. Chapters are devoted to an overview of satellite communication networks, microterminal design and hardware implementation, microterminal applications, the advantages of microterminals, typical users, services provided, the U.S. market for small earth stations, network operators, and the economics of satellite and terrestrial communication services. Consideration is given to the operation of a microterminal network, standards and regulations, technological factors, space-segment requirements, and insurance aspects. Diagrams, graphs, tables of numerical data, and a glossary of terms are provided.

  11. The Denali EarthScope Education Partnership: Creating Opportunities for Learning About Solid Earth Processes in Alaska and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, J. J.; Hansen, R. A.

    2003-12-01

    The Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, in partnership with Denali National Park and Preserve, has begun an education outreach program that will create learning opportunities in solid earth geophysics for a wide sector of the public. We will capitalize upon a unique coincidence of heightened public interest in earthquakes (due to the M 7.9 Denali Fault event of Nov. 3rd, 2002), the startup of the EarthScope experiment, and the construction of the Denali Science & Learning Center, a premiere facility for science education located just 43 miles from the epicenter of the Denali Fault earthquake. Real-time data and current research results from EarthScope installations and science projects in Alaska will be used to engage students and teachers, national park visitors, and the general public in a discovery process that will enhance public understanding of tectonics, seismicity and volcanism along the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. Activities will take place in five program areas, which are: 1) museum displays and exhibits, 2) outreach via print publications and electronic media, 3) curriculum development to enhance K-12 earth science education, 4) teacher training to develop earth science expertise among K-12 educators, and 5) interaction between scientists and the public. In order to engage the over 1 million annual visitors to Denali, as well as people throughout Alaska, project activities will correspond with the opening of the Denali Science and Learning Center in 2004. An electronic interactive kiosk is being constructed to provide public access to real-time data from seismic and geodetic monitoring networks in Alaska, as well as cutting edge visualizations of solid earth processes. A series of print publications and a website providing access to real-time seismic and geodetic data will be developed for park visitors and the general public, highlighting EarthScope science in Alaska. A suite of curriculum modules

  12. 可穿戴健康监测设备现状和技术分析%Current Status of Wearable Health Monitoring Equipment and Technical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雨晨; 金心宇; 沈剑峰

    2015-01-01

    概述可穿戴健康监控设备的已有产品和研发中产品,比较其功能,介绍应用技术、试用技术、研究技术现状,指出现阶段可穿戴健康监测设备存在的问题并对发展进行展望。%〔Abstract〕 The paper describes existing products of wearable health monitoring equipment and products in research and development , compares their functions and introduces the s