WorldWideScience

Sample records for earth current monitoring

  1. Earth current monitoring circuit for inductive loads

    CERN Document Server

    Montabonnet, V; Thurel, Y; Cussac, P

    2010-01-01

    The search for higher magnetic fields in particle accelerators increasingly demands the use of superconducting magnets. This magnet technology has a large amount of magnetic energy storage during operation at relatively high currents. As such, many monitoring and protection systems are required to safely operate the magnet, including the monitoring of any leakage of current to earth in the superconducting magnet that indicates a failure of the insulation to earth. At low amplitude, the earth leakage current affects the magnetic field precision. At a higher level, the earth leakage current can additionally generate local losses which may definitively damage the magnet or its instrumentation. This paper presents an active earth fault current monitoring circuit, widely deployed in the converters for the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) superconducting magnets. The circuit allows the detection of earth faults before energising the circuit as well as limiting any eventual earth fault current. The electrical stress...

  2. Climate Engine - Monitoring Drought with Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegewisch, K.; Daudert, B.; Morton, C.; McEvoy, D.; Huntington, J. L.; Abatzoglou, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    Drought has adverse effects on society through reduced water availability and agricultural production and increased wildfire risk. An abundance of remotely sensed imagery and climate data are being collected in near-real time that can provide place-based monitoring and early warning of drought and related hazards. However, in an era of increasing wealth of earth observations, tools that quickly access, compute, and visualize archives, and provide answers at relevant scales to better inform decision-making are lacking. We have developed ClimateEngine.org, a web application that uses Google's Earth Engine platform to enable users to quickly compute and visualize real-time observations. A suite of drought indices allow us to monitor and track drought from local (30-meters) to regional scales and contextualize current droughts within the historical record. Climate Engine is currently being used by U.S. federal agencies and researchers to develop baseline conditions and impact assessments related to agricultural, ecological, and hydrological drought. Climate Engine is also working with the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) to expedite monitoring agricultural drought over broad areas at risk of food insecurity globally.

  3. Monitoring of Earth Rotation by VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma., Chopo; Macmillan, D. S.

    2000-01-01

    Monitoring Earth rotation with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) has unique potential because of direct access to the Celestial Reference System (CRF and Terrestrial Reference System (TRF) and the feasibility of re-analyzing the entire data set. While formal precision of better than 0.045 mas for pole and 0.002 ms for UT 1 has been seen in the best 24-hr data, the accuracy of the Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) time series as a whole is subject to logistical, operational, analytical and conceptual constraints. The current issues related to the VLBI data set and the CORE program for greater time resolution such as analysis consistency, network jitter and reference frame stability will be discussed.

  4. Stray current monitoring at Nuremberg subway; Streustromueberwachung bei der U-Bahn Nuernberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmann, M.; Halfmann, U.; Schneider, E. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). TS EL EN 2; Roesch, N. [VAG Verkehrs-AG Nuernberg, FA/SA - Starkstromanlagen, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2004-05-01

    Operating DC traction systems requires protective measures against the effects of stray currents. Damage by corrosion could occur both at railway and third party installations. The continuous effectiveness of protective measures needs to be monitored and recorded during revenue operation, and shall be capable to be demonstrated to supervising authorities. Measuring the rail-to-earth potential within the traction network under operational conditions, combined with centralized analysis, visualization, signaling and archiving is a straightforward and efficient method of stray current monitoring. For more than one year, the stray current monitoring system SITRAS SMS {sup registered} has been undergoing successful field application at the Nuremberg Subway. (orig.)

  5. Improving sensitivity of residual current transformers to high frequency earth fault currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czapp Stanislaw

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For protection against electric shock in low voltage systems residual current devices are commonly used. However, their proper operation can be interfered when high frequency earth fault current occurs. Serious hazard of electrocution exists then. In order to detect such a current, it is necessary to modify parameters of residual current devices, especially the operating point of their current transformer. The authors proposed the modification in the structure of residual current devices. This modification improves sensitivity of residual current devices when high frequency earth fault current occurs. The test of the modified residual current device proved that the authors’ proposition is appropriate.

  6. Current Status and Perspectives for the Estimation of Crop Water Requirements from Earth Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido D’Urso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of current techniques and recent developments in the application of Earth Observationdata for assessing crop water requirements. During recent years there has been much progress in understandingland surface-atmosphere processes and their parameterisation in the management of land and water resources.This knowledge can be combined with the potentiality of Earth Observation techniques from space, whichare able to provide detailed information for monitoring agricultural systems.As today, two main developments in the field of Earth Observation data acquisition and analysis have occurred:a availability of new generations of sensors, with enhanced spectral and spatial resolution;b detailed knowledge of the processes that determine the response of land surface as detected from remote sensorsin different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.These advancements have made possible a “quantitative” approach in the interpretation of Earth Observation data,ready for being transferred to operative applications i.e. for irrigation scheduling and water management. Thispaper presents a review of current applications of optical data in the visible and near infrared spectral regions, withparticular emphasis to the experiences developed by the author within AQUATER and other research projectsproject.

  7. Dynamic Processes of Cross-Tail Current in the Near-Earth Magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing-Qiang, Lu; Zhi-Wei, Ma

    2009-01-01

    Current dynamic processes in realistic magnetotail geometry are studied by Hall magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations under various driven conditions and Hall effects. Associated with the external driving force, a thin current sheet with a broad extent is built up in the near-Earth magnetotail. The time evolution for the formation of the current sheet comprises two phases: slow growth and a fast impulsive phase before the near-Earth disruption of the current sheet resulting from the fast magnetic reconnection. The simulation results indicate that as the external driving force increases, the site and the tailward speed of the near-Earth current disruption region are closer to the Earth and faster, respectively. Whether the near-Earth disruption of the current sheet takes place or not is mainly controlled by Hall effects. It is found that there is no sudden disruption of the current sheet in the near-Earth region if the ion inertial length is below d i = 0.04. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  8. Priorities to Advance Monitoring of Ecosystem Services Using Earth Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cord, Anna F; Brauman, Kate A; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Huth, Andreas; Ziv, Guy; Seppelt, Ralf

    2017-06-01

    Managing ecosystem services in the context of global sustainability policies requires reliable monitoring mechanisms. While satellite Earth observation offers great promise to support this need, significant challenges remain in quantifying connections between ecosystem functions, ecosystem services, and human well-being benefits. Here, we provide a framework showing how Earth observation together with socioeconomic information and model-based analysis can support assessments of ecosystem service supply, demand, and benefit, and illustrate this for three services. We argue that the full potential of Earth observation is not yet realized in ecosystem service studies. To provide guidance for priority setting and to spur research in this area, we propose five priorities to advance the capabilities of Earth observation-based monitoring of ecosystem services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Earth System Monitoring Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Modern Earth System Monitoring represents a fundamental change in the way scientists study the Earth System.  In Oceanography, for the past two centuries, ships have provided the platforms for observing.  Expeditions on the continents and Earth’s poles are land-based analogues. Fundamental understanding of current systems, climate, natural hazards, and ecosystems has been greatly advanced. While these approaches have been remarkably successful, the need to establish measurements over time can only be made using Earth observations and observatories with exacting standards and continuous data.  The 19 peer-reviewed contributions in this volume provide early insights into this emerging view of Earth in both space and time in which change is a critical component of our growing understanding. Presents 19 authoritative, peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology Covers a wide range of data collection platforms, including satellite remote sensing, aerial surveys, and l...

  10. Promise and Capability of NASA's Earth Observing System to Monitor Human-Induced Climate Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M. D.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), developed as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) and launched on Terra in December 1999 and Aqua in May 2002, is designed to meet the scientific needs for satellite remote sensing of clouds, aerosols, water vapor, and land and ocean surface properties. This sensor and multi-platform observing system is especially well suited to observing detailed interdisciplinary components of the Earth s surface and atmosphere in and around urban environments, including aerosol optical properties, cloud optical and microphysical properties of both liquid water and ice clouds, land surface reflectance, fire occurrence, and many other properties that influence the urban environment and are influenced by them. In this presentation I will summarize the current capabilities of MODIS and other EOS sensors currently in orbit to study human-induced climate variations.

  11. Methods for monitoring land subsidence and earth fissures in the Western USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Fergason

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Depletion of groundwater resources in many deep alluvial basin aquifers in the Western USA is causing land subsidence, as it does in many regions worldwide. Land subsidence can severely and adversely impact infrastructure by changing the ground elevation, ground slope (grade and through the development of ground cracks known as earth fissures that can erode into large gullies. Earth fissures have the potential to compromise the foundations of dams, levees, and other infrastructure and cause failure. Subsequent to an evaluation of the overall subsidence experienced in the vicinity of subsidence-impacted infrastructure, a detailed investigation to search for earth fissures, and design and/or mitigation of potentially effected infrastructure, a focused monitoring system should be designed and implemented. Its purpose is to provide data, and ultimately knowledge, to reduce the potential adverse impacts of land subsidence and earth fissure development to the pertinent infrastructure. This risk reduction is realized by quantifying the rate and distribution of ground deformation, and to detect ground rupture if it occurs, in the vicinity of the infrastructure. The authors have successfully designed and implemented monitoring systems capable of quantifying rates and distributions of ground subsidence and detection of ground rupture at multiple locations throughout the Western USA for several types of infrastructure including dams, levees, channels, basins, roadways, and mining facilities. Effective subsidence and earth fissure monitoring requires understanding and quantification of historic subsidence, estimation of potential future subsidence, delineation of the risk for earth fissures that could impact infrastructure, and motivation and resources to continue monitoring through time. A successful monitoring system provides the means to measure ground deformation, grade changes, displacement, and anticipate and assess the potential for earth fissuring

  12. Thermal and orbital analysis of Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous space experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killough, Brian D.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamentals of an Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous orbit are presented. A Sun-synchronous Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) was developed to calculate orbital parameters for an entire year. The output from this program provides the required input data for the TRASYS thermal radiation computer code, which in turn computes the infrared, solar and Earth albedo heat fluxes incident on a space experiment. Direct incident heat fluxes can be used as input to a generalized thermal analyzer program to size radiators and predict instrument operating temperatures. The SOAP computer code and its application to the thermal analysis methodology presented, should prove useful to the thermal engineer during the design phases of Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous space experiments.

  13. Turbulent current layer equilibrium and current layer of the Earth magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, E.E.; Ovchinnikov, I.L.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of distribution of plasma and magnetic field concentration in the unidimensional current layer under the condition of equality of the current inflowing into the layer and the counter diffusion current by various dependences of the regular velocity and the turbulent diffusion coefficient on the magnetic field. Corresponding two-dimensional solutions are obtained in the tail approximation. Comparison of the model turbulent current layer with characteristics of the plasma layer of the Earth magnetosphere tail is carried out. 16 refs., 3 figs

  14. The Prospect of using Three-Dimensional Earth Models To Improve Nuclear Explosion Monitoring and Ground Motion Hazard Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucca, J J; Walter, W R; Rodgers, A J; Richards, P; Pasyanos, M E; Myers, S C; Lay, T; Harris, D; Antoun, T

    2008-11-19

    The last ten years have brought rapid growth in the development and use of three-dimensional (3D) seismic models of Earth structure at crustal, regional and global scales. In order to explore the potential for 3D seismic models to contribute to important societal applications, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hosted a 'Workshop on Multi-Resolution 3D Earth Models to Predict Key Observables in Seismic Monitoring and Related Fields' on June 6 and 7, 2007 in Berkeley, California. The workshop brought together academic, government and industry leaders in the research programs developing 3D seismic models and methods for the nuclear explosion monitoring and seismic ground motion hazard communities. The workshop was designed to assess the current state of work in 3D seismology and to discuss a path forward for determining if and how 3D Earth models and techniques can be used to achieve measurable increases in our capabilities for monitoring underground nuclear explosions and characterizing seismic ground motion hazards. This paper highlights some of the presentations, issues, and discussions at the workshop and proposes two specific paths by which to begin quantifying the potential contribution of progressively refined 3D seismic models in critical applied arenas. Seismic monitoring agencies are tasked with detection, location, and characterization of seismic activity in near real time. In the case of nuclear explosion monitoring or seismic hazard, decisions to further investigate a suspect event or to launch disaster relief efforts may rely heavily on real-time analysis and results. Because these are weighty decisions, monitoring agencies are regularly called upon to meticulously document and justify every aspect of their monitoring system. In order to meet this level of scrutiny and maintain operational robustness requirements, only mature technologies are considered for operational monitoring systems, and operational technology necessarily lags

  15. Absolute beam current monitoring in endstation c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochna, C.

    1995-01-01

    The first few experiments at CEBAF require approximately 1% absolute measurements of beam currents expected to range from 10-25μA. This represents errors of 100-250 nA. The initial complement of beam current monitors are of the non intercepting type. CEBAF accelerator division has provided a stripline monitor and a cavity monitor, and the authors have installed an Unser monitor (parametric current transformer or PCT). After calibrating the Unser monitor with a precision current reference, the authors plan to transfer this calibration using CW beam to the stripline monitors and cavity monitors. It is important that this be done fairly rapidly because while the gain of the Unser monitor is quite stable, the offset may drift on the order of .5μA per hour. A summary of what the authors have learned about the linearity, zero drift, and gain drift of each type of current monitor will be presented

  16. The Earth Observation Data for Habitat Monitoring (EODHaM) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Richard; Blonda, Palma; Bunting, Peter; Jones, Gwawr; Inglada, Jordi; Arias, Marcela; Kosmidou, Vasiliki; Petrou, Zisis I.; Manakos, Ioannis; Adamo, Maria; Charnock, Rebecca; Tarantino, Cristina; Mücher, Caspar A.; Jongman, Rob H. G.; Kramer, Henk; Arvor, Damien; Honrado, Joāo Pradinho; Mairota, Paola

    2015-05-01

    To support decisions relating to the use and conservation of protected areas and surrounds, the EU-funded BIOdiversity multi-SOurce monitoring System: from Space TO Species (BIO_SOS) project has developed the Earth Observation Data for HAbitat Monitoring (EODHaM) system for consistent mapping and monitoring of biodiversity. The EODHaM approach has adopted the Food and Agriculture Organization Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) taxonomy and translates mapped classes to General Habitat Categories (GHCs) from which Annex I habitats (EU Habitats Directive) can be defined. The EODHaM system uses a combination of pixel and object-based procedures. The 1st and 2nd stages use earth observation (EO) data alone with expert knowledge to generate classes according to the LCCS taxonomy (Levels 1 to 3 and beyond). The 3rd stage translates the final LCCS classes into GHCs from which Annex I habitat type maps are derived. An additional module quantifies changes in the LCCS classes and their components, indices derived from earth observation, object sizes and dimensions and the translated habitat maps (i.e., GHCs or Annex I). Examples are provided of the application of EODHaM system elements to protected sites and their surrounds in Italy, Wales (UK), the Netherlands, Greece, Portugal and India.

  17. Meeting Earth Observation Requirements for Global Agricultural Monitoring: An Evaluation of the Revisit Capabilities of Current and Planned Moderate Resolution Optical Earth Observing Missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa K. Whitcraft

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a highly dynamic process in space and time, with many applications requiring data with both a relatively high temporal resolution (at least every 8 days and fine-to-moderate (FTM < 100 m spatial resolution. The relatively infrequent revisit of FTM optical satellite observatories coupled with the impacts of cloud occultation have translated into a barrier for the derivation of agricultural information at the regional-to-global scale. Drawing upon the Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM Initiative’s general satellite Earth observation (EO requirements for monitoring of major production areas, Whitcraft et al. (this issue have described where, when, and how frequently satellite data acquisitions are required throughout the agricultural growing season at 0.05°, globally. The majority of areas and times of year require multiple revisits to probabilistically yield a view at least 70%, 80%, 90%, or 95% clear within eight days, something that no present single FTM optical observatory is capable of delivering. As such, there is a great potential to meet these moderate spatial resolution optical data requirements through a multi-space agency/multi-mission constellation approach. This research models the combined revisit capabilities of seven hypothetical constellations made from five satellite sensors—Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (Landsat 7 ETM+, Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager and Thermal Infrared Sensor (Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS, Resourcesat-2 Advanced Wide Field Sensor (Resourcesat-2 AWiFS, Sentinel-2A Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI, and Sentinel-2B MSI—and compares these capabilities with the revisit frequency requirements for a reasonably cloud-free clear view within eight days throughout the agricultural growing season. Supplementing Landsat 7 and 8 with missions from different space agencies leads to an improved capacity to meet requirements, with Resourcesat-2 providing the largest

  18. Active current sheets near the earth's bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, S.J.; Kessel, R.L.; Brown, C.C.; Woolliscroft, L.J.C.; Dunlop, M.W.; Farrugia, C.J.; Hall, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present here an investigation of active current sheets observed by the AMPTE UK spacecraft near the Earth's bow shock, concentrating on their macroscopic features and geometry. Events selected primarily by flow directions which deviate substantially from the Sun-Earth line show similar characteristics, including their association with an underlying macroscopic current sheet and a hot central region whose flow direction is organized, at least in part, by location relative to the inferred initial intersection point between the current sheet and the bow shock. This region is flanked by edges which, according to a Rankine-Hugoniot analysis, are often fast shocks whose orientation is consistent with that expected if a bulge on the bow shock convected past the spacecraft. They have found the magnetosheath manifestations of these events which they study in detail. They suggest that these events are the direct result of the disruption and reformation of the bow shock by the passage of an interplanetary current sheet, most probably a tangential discontinuity

  19. Tutorial on beam current monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is a tutorial level review covering a wide range of aspects related to charged particle beam current measurement. The tutorial begins with a look at the characteristics of the beam as a signal source, the associated electromagnetic fields, the influence of the typical accelerator environment on those fields, and the usual means of modifying and controlling that environment to facilitate beam current measurement. Short descriptions of three quite different types of current monitors are presented and a quantitative review of the classical transformer circuit is given. Recognizing that environmental noise pick-up may present a large source of error in quantitative measurements, signal handling considerations are given considerable attention using real-life examples. An example of a successful transport line beam current monitor implementation is presented and the tutorial concludes with a few comments about signal processing and current monitor calibration issues

  20. Daily monitoring of the land surface of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, J.

    2016-12-01

    Planet is an integrated aerospace and data analytics company that operates the largest fleet of Earth-imaging satellites. With more than 140 cube-sats successfully launched to date, Planet is now collecting approximately 10 million square kilometers of imagery per day (3-5m per pixel, in red, green, blue and near infrared spectral bands). By early 2017, Planet's constellation will image the entire land surface of the Earth on a daily basis. Due to investments in cloud storage and computing, approximately 75% of imagery collected is available to Planet's partners within 24 hours of capture through an Application Program Interface. This unique dataset has enormous applications for monitoring the status of Earth's natural ecosystems, as well as human settlements and agricultural welfare. Through our Ambassadors Program, Planet has made data available for researchers in areas as disparate as human rights monitoring in refugee camps, to assessments of the impact of hydroelectric installations, to tracking illegal gold mining in Amazon forests, to assessing the status of the cryosphere. Here, we share early results from Planet's research partner network, including enhanced spatial and temporal resolution of NDVI data for agricultural health in Saudi Arabia, computation of rates of illegal deforestation in Southern Peru, estimates of tropical forest carbon stocks based on data integration with active sensors, and estimates of glacial flow rates. We synthesize the potentially enormous research and scientific value of Planet's persistent monitoring capability, and discuss methods by which the data will be disseminated into the scientific community.

  1. The Prospect of using Three-Dimensional Earth Models To Improve Nuclear Explosion Monitoring and Ground Motion Hazard Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoun, T; Harris, D; Lay, T; Myers, S C; Pasyanos, M E; Richards, P; Rodgers, A J; Walter, W R; Zucca, J J

    2008-02-11

    The last ten years have brought rapid growth in the development and use of three-dimensional (3D) seismic models of earth structure at crustal, regional and global scales. In order to explore the potential for 3D seismic models to contribute to important societal applications, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hosted a 'Workshop on Multi-Resolution 3D Earth Models to Predict Key Observables in Seismic Monitoring and Related Fields' on June 6 and 7, 2007 in Berkeley, California. The workshop brought together academic, government and industry leaders in the research programs developing 3D seismic models and methods for the nuclear explosion monitoring and seismic ground motion hazard communities. The workshop was designed to assess the current state of work in 3D seismology and to discuss a path forward for determining if and how 3D earth models and techniques can be used to achieve measurable increases in our capabilities for monitoring underground nuclear explosions and characterizing seismic ground motion hazards. This paper highlights some of the presentations, issues, and discussions at the workshop and proposes a path by which to begin quantifying the potential contribution of progressively refined 3D seismic models in critical applied arenas.

  2. SEL monitoring of the earth's energetic particle radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Environment Laboratory (SEL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) maintains instruments on board the GOES series of geostationary satellites, and aboard the NOAA/TIROS series of low-altitude, polar-orbiting satellites, which provide monitoring of the energetic particle radiation environment as well as monitoring the geostationary magnetic field and the solar x-ray flux. The data are used by the SEL Space Environment Services Center (SESC) to help provide real-time monitoring and forecasting of the state of the near earth environment and its disturbances, and to maintain a source of reliable information to research and operational activities of a variety of users

  3. Precision intercomparison of beam current monitors at CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimi, R.; Dunham, B.; Krafft, G.A.; Legg, R.; Liang, C.; Sinclair, C.; Mamosser, J.

    1995-01-01

    The CEBAF accelerator delivers a CW electron beam at fundamental 1497 MHz, with average beam current up to 200 μA. Accurate, stable nonintercepting beam current monitors are required for: setup/control, monitoring of beam current and beam losses for machine protection and personnel safety, and providing beam current information to experimental users. Fundamental frequency stainless steel RF cavities have been chosen for these beam current monitors. This paper reports on precision intercomparison between two such RF cavities, an Unser monitor, and two Faraday cups, all located in the injector area. At the low beam energy in the injector, it is straightforward to verify the high efficiency of the Faraday cups, and the Unser monitor included a wire through it to permit an absolute calibration. The cavity intensity monitors have proven capable of stable, high precision monitoring of the beam current

  4. Earth as an Exoplanet: Spectral Monitoring of an Inhabited Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, D. A.; Marchis, F.; Batalha, N. M.; Cabrol, N. A.; Smith, J. C.

    2018-02-01

    We propose a spectrometer for the Deep Space Gateway to monitor Earth as an exoplanet. We will measure the variability with illumination phase, rotation, clouds, and season. Results will inform future searches for biomarkers on distant exoplanets.

  5. Google Earth Engine: a new cloud-computing platform for global-scale earth observation data and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. T.; Hansen, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    Google Earth Engine is a new technology platform that enables monitoring and measurement of changes in the earth's environment, at planetary scale, on a large catalog of earth observation data. The platform offers intrinsically-parallel computational access to thousands of computers in Google's data centers. Initial efforts have focused primarily on global forest monitoring and measurement, in support of REDD+ activities in the developing world. The intent is to put this platform into the hands of scientists and developing world nations, in order to advance the broader operational deployment of existing scientific methods, and strengthen the ability for public institutions and civil society to better understand, manage and report on the state of their natural resources. Earth Engine currently hosts online nearly the complete historical Landsat archive of L5 and L7 data collected over more than twenty-five years. Newly-collected Landsat imagery is downloaded from USGS EROS Center into Earth Engine on a daily basis. Earth Engine also includes a set of historical and current MODIS data products. The platform supports generation, on-demand, of spatial and temporal mosaics, "best-pixel" composites (for example to remove clouds and gaps in satellite imagery), as well as a variety of spectral indices. Supervised learning methods are available over the Landsat data catalog. The platform also includes a new application programming framework, or "API", that allows scientists access to these computational and data resources, to scale their current algorithms or develop new ones. Under the covers of the Google Earth Engine API is an intrinsically-parallel image-processing system. Several forest monitoring applications powered by this API are currently in development and expected to be operational in 2011. Combining science with massive data and technology resources in a cloud-computing framework can offer advantages of computational speed, ease-of-use and collaboration, as

  6. Near-Earth Magnetic Field Effects of Large-Scale Magnetospheric Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lühr, Hermann; Xiong, Chao; Olsen, Nils

    2017-01-01

    . Significant progress in interpreting the magnetic fields from the different sources has been achieved thanks to magnetic satellite missions like Ørsted, CHAMP and now Swarm. Of particular interest for this article is a proper representation of the magnetospheric ring current effect. Uncertainties in modelling...... its effect still produce the largest residuals between observations and present-day geomagnetic field models. A lot of progress has been achieved so far, but there are still open issues like the characteristics of the partial ring current. Other currents discussed are those flowing......Magnetospheric currents play an important role in the electrodynamics of near-Earth space. This has been the topic of many space science studies. Here we focus on the magnetic fields they cause close to Earth. Their contribution to the geomagnetic field is the second largest after the core field...

  7. High bandwidth beam current monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltrusaitis, R.M.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Cooper, R.G.; Peterson, E.; Warn, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    A stripline directional coupler beam current monitor capable of measuring the time structure of a 30-ps electron beam bunch has been developed. The time response performance of the monitor compares very well with Cherenkov light produced in quartz by the electron beam. The four-pickup monitor is now used on a routine basis for measuring the beam duration, tuning for optimized beam bunching, and centering the bunch in the beam pipe

  8. Birkeland currents in the earth's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potemra, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    As a result of his polar expeditions at the beginning of this century, Kristian Birkeland determined that intense ionspheric currents were associated with the aurora. Birkeland suggested that these currents originated far from the Earth and that they flowed into and away from the polar atmosphere along the geomagnetic field lines. The existence of such field-aligned or Birkeland currents was disputed because it was not possible to unambiguously identify current systems that are field-aligned and those which are completely contained in the ionosphere with surface magnetic field observations. The presence of Birkeland currents has been absolutely confirmed with satellite-borne particle and magnetic field experiments conducted over the past two decades. These satellite observations have determined the large-scale patterns, flow directions, and intensities of Birkeland currents in the auroral and polar regions, and their relationship to the orientation and magnitude of the interplanetary magnetic field. The Birkeland currents are directly associated with visible and UV auroral forms observed with satellites. The results obtained from a variety of recently launched satellites are discussed here. These include Sweden's first satellite, VIKING, which has provided evidence for resonant Alfven waves on the same geomagnetic field lines that guide stationary Birkeland currents. These observations demonstrate the important role that these currents play in the coupling of energy between the interplanetary medium and the lower ionosphere and atmosphere

  9. The Deep Space Gateway Lightning Mapper (DLM) — Monitoring Global Change and Thunderstorm Processes through Observations of Earth's High-Latitude Lightning from Cis-Lunar Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Cecil, D. J.; Christian, H. J.; Gatlin, P. N.; Goodman, S. J.; Koshak, W. J.; Petersen, W. A.; Quick, M.; Schultz, C. J.; Tatum, P. F.

    2018-02-01

    We propose the Deep Space Gateway Lightning Mapper (DLM) instrument. The primary goal of the DLM is to optically monitor Earth's high-latitude (50° and poleward) total lightning not observed by current and planned spaceborne lightning mappers.

  10. Current Status of Groundwater Monitoring Networks in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Yong Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Korea has been operating groundwater monitoring systems since 1996 as the Groundwater Act enacted in 1994 enforces nationwide monitoring. Currently, there are six main groundwater monitoring networks operated by different government ministries with different purposes: National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN, Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network (GQMN, Seawater Intrusion Monitoring Network (SIMN, Rural Groundwater Monitoring Network (RGMN, Subsidiary Groundwater Monitoring Network (SGMN, and Drinking Water Monitoring Network (DWMN. The Networks have a total of over 3500 monitoring wells and the majority of them are now equipped with automatic data loggers and remote terminal units. Most of the monitoring data are available to the public through internet websites. These Networks have provided scientific data for designing groundwater management plans and contributed to securing the groundwater resource particularly for recent prolonged drought seasons. Each Network, however, utilizes its own well-specifications, probes, and telecommunication protocols with minimal communication with other Networks, and thus duplicate installations of monitoring wells are not uncommon among different Networks. This mini-review introduces the current regulations and the Groundwater Monitoring Networks operated in Korea and provides some suggestions to improve the sustainability of the current groundwater monitoring system in Korea.

  11. Near-earth Thin Current Sheets and Birkeland Currents during Substorm Growth Phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorin Zaharia; Cheng, C.Z.

    2003-01-01

    Two important phenomena observed during the magnetospheric substorm growth phase are modeled: the formation of a near-Earth (|X| ∼ 9 R E ) thin cross-tail current sheet, as well as the equatorward shift of the ionospheric Birkeland currents. Our study is performed by solving the 3-D force-balance equation with realistic boundary conditions and pressure distributions. The results show a cross-tail current sheet with large current (J φ ∼ 10 nA/m 2 ) and very high plasma β (β ∼ 40) between 7 and 10 R E . The obtained region-1 and region-2 Birkeland currents, formed on closed field lines due to pressure gradients, move equatorward and become more intense (J parallel max ∼ 3 (micro)A/m 2 ) compared to quiet times. Both results are in agreement with substorm growth phase observations. Our results also predict that the cross-tail current sheet maps into the ionosphere in the transition region between the region-1 and region-2 currents

  12. Current NASA Earth Remote Sensing Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Sprigg, William A.; Huete, Alfredo; Pejanovic, Goran; Nickovic, Slobodan; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo; Krapfl, Heide; Budge, Amy; Zelicoff, Alan; Myers, Orrin; hide

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews current NASA Earth Remote Sensing observations in specific reference to improving public health information in view of pollen sensing. While pollen sampling has instrumentation, there are limitations, such as lack of stations, and reporting lag time. Therefore it is desirable use remote sensing to act as early warning system for public health reasons. The use of Juniper Pollen was chosen to test the possibility of using MODIS data and a dust transport model, Dust REgional Atmospheric Model (DREAM) to act as an early warning system.

  13. rf beam-current, -phase, and -position monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, L.

    1984-01-01

    A prototype rf beam monitor has been tested on the Racetrack Microtron's (RTM) 100 kV injector beam line at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). This beam monitor is capable of measuring the current, the relative phase, and the position of the beam. The beam is bunched at 2380 MHz for acceleration by the linac in the injector beam line. This train of beam bunches passing through the beam monitor cavities excites the cavities at this resonance frequency of 2380 MHz. Probes in the cavities couple some of the beam-excited rf power out of the cavities. This rf power can be amplified if necessary and then analyzed by a double balanced mixer (DBM). The DBM can also be used as a phase detector. The effective shunt impedance of the cavities was measured with the CW beam. For the position monitor cavity, the shunt impedance is proportional to the displacement from the axis. The measured response of the prototype rf beam current monitor setup is a linear function of beam current. Response of the rf beam-position monitor is also shown

  14. Easy research data handling with an OpenEarth DataLab for geo-monitoring research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderfeesten, Maurice; van der Kuil, Annemiek; Prinčič, Alenka; den Heijer, Kees; Rombouts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    OpenEarth DataLab is an open source-based collaboration and processing platform to enable streamlined research data management from raw data ingest and transformation to interoperable distribution. It enables geo-scientists to easily synchronise, share, compute and visualise the dynamic and most up-to-date research data, scripts and models in multi-stakeholder geo-monitoring programs. This DataLab is developed by the Research Data Services team of TU Delft Library and 3TU.Datacentrum together with coastal engineers of Delft University of Technology and Deltares. Based on the OpenEarth software stack an environment has been developed to orchestrate numerous geo-related open source software components that can empower researchers and increase the overall research quality by managing research data; enabling automatic and interoperable data workflows between all the components with track & trace, hit & run data transformation processing in cloud infrastructure using MatLab and Python, synchronisation of data and scripts (SVN), and much more. Transformed interoperable data products (KML, NetCDF, PostGIS) can be used by ready-made OpenEarth tools for further analyses and visualisation, and can be distributed via interoperable channels such as THREDDS (OpenDAP) and GeoServer. An example of a successful application of OpenEarth DataLab is the Sand Motor, an innovative method for coastal protection in the Netherlands. The Sand Motor is a huge volume of sand that has been applied along the coast to be spread naturally by wind, waves and currents. Different research disciplines are involved concerned with: weather, waves and currents, sand distribution, water table and water quality, flora and fauna, recreation and management. Researchers share and transform their data in the OpenEarth DataLab, that makes it possible to combine their data and to see influence of different aspects of the coastal protection on their models. During the project the data are available only for the

  15. Radiation Environment at LEO in the frame of Space Monitoring Data Center at Moscow State University - recent, current and future missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myagkova, Irina; Kalegaev, Vladimir; Panasyuk, Mikhail; Svertilov, Sergey; Bogomolov, Vitaly; Bogomolov, Andrey; Barinova, Vera; Barinov, Oleg; Bobrovnikov, Sergey; Dolenko, Sergey; Mukhametdinova, Ludmila; Shiroky, Vladimir; Shugay, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Radiation Environment of Near-Earth space is one of the most important factors of space weather. Space Monitoring Data Center of Moscow State University provides operational control of radiation conditions at Low Earth's Orbits (LEO) of the near-Earth space using data of recent (Vernov, CORONAS series), current (Meteor-M, Electro-L series) and future (Lomonosov) space missions. Internet portal of Space Monitoring Data Center of Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University (SINP MSU) http://swx.sinp.msu.ru/ provides possibilities to control and analyze the space radiation conditions in the real time mode together with the geomagnetic and solar activity including hard X-ray and gamma- emission of solar flares. Operational data obtained from space missions at L1, GEO and LEO and from the Earth's magnetic stations are used to represent radiation and geomagnetic state of near-Earth environment. The models of space environment that use space measurements from different orbits were created. Interactive analysis and operational neural network forecast services are based on these models. These systems can automatically generate alerts on particle fluxes enhancements above the threshold values, both for SEP and relativistic electrons of outer Earth's radiation belt using data from GEO and LEO as input. As an example of LEO data we consider data from Vernov mission, which was launched into solar-synchronous orbit (altitude 640 - 83 0 km, inclination 98.4°, orbital period about 100 min) on July 8, 2014 and began to receive scientific information since July 20, 2014. Vernov mission have provided studies of the Earth's radiation belt relativistic electron precipitation and its possible connection with atmosphere transient luminous events, as well as the solar hard X-ray and gamma-emission measurements. Radiation and electromagnetic environment monitoring in the near-Earth Space, which is very important for space weather study, was also realised

  16. Noise reduction in the beam current monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Shigeaki.

    1982-02-01

    A simple noise reduction system using a pulse transformer and a pair of L C low pass filters has been introduced to the beam current monitor of a current transformer type at the INS electron linac. With this system, the pick-up noise has been reduced to be 1% of the noise without noise reduction. Signal deformation caused by this system is relatively small and the beam current pulse down to 20 mA is successfully monitored in the actual accelerator operation. (author)

  17. Current Status of Groundwater Monitoring Networks in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Yong Lee; Kideok D. Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Korea has been operating groundwater monitoring systems since 1996 as the Groundwater Act enacted in 1994 enforces nationwide monitoring. Currently, there are six main groundwater monitoring networks operated by different government ministries with different purposes: National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN), Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network (GQMN), Seawater Intrusion Monitoring Network (SIMN), Rural Groundwater Monitoring Network (RGMN), Subsidiary Groundwater Monitoring Network ...

  18. Modelling earth current precursors in earthquake prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Di Maio

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the theory of earth current precursors of earthquake. A dilatancy-diffusion-polarization model is proposed to explain the anomalies of the electric potential, which are observed on the ground surface prior to some earthquakes. The electric polarization is believed to be the electrokinetic effect due to the invasion of fluids into new pores, which are opened inside a stressed-dilated rock body. The time and space variation of the distribution of the electric potential in a layered earth as well as in a faulted half-space is studied in detail. It results that the surface response depends on the underground conductivity distribution and on the relative disposition of the measuring dipole with respect to the buried bipole source. A field procedure based on the use of an areal layout of the recording sites is proposed, in order to obtain the most complete information on the time and space evolution of the precursory phenomena in any given seismic region.

  19. Sources and sinks of Earth's ring current populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, B.

    2017-12-01

    Processes that modify and transport current-carrying particles into and out of Earth's ring current regions are overviewed and discussed here with a focus on outstanding mysteries and uncertainties. Examples of such mysteries include the following. Some modeling and observational approaches point to a need for storm-time enhancements in the global electric field configuration to help bring magnetotail populations into the inner magnetosphere. And yet, electric field measurements from several missions, most recently the Van Allen Probes, suggest that only highly transient enhancements occur in critical regions that connect the outer and inner regions. Global enhancements appear to be internally generated rather than necessarily being driven from the outside. Another sample mystery involves the processes that give rise to the sometimes initial prompt recovery of the magnetic storm indice DST, given that loss processes traditionally invoked are likely too slow. Wave losses, such as those engendered by Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves, may be responsible, but observational support for such a solution is lacking. These and other uncertainties are discussed with a goal of addressing how they might be addressed with the present great constellation of Earth-orbiting spacecraft, most recently joined by MMS and Arase (ERG).

  20. The earth's ring current - Present situation and future thrusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Particle distributions, currents, and the ring current situation prior to the August 1984 launch of the AMPTE Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) are discussed. CCE results which demonstrate the capability of these new measurements to pursue questions of ring current sources, energization, and transport are presented. Consideration is given to various ring current generation mechanisms which have been discussed in the literature, and a two-step generation process which to a certain extent unifies the previous mechanisms is presented. The first in-situ global observations of ring current decay as obtained through the detection of energetic neutral atoms generated by charge exchange interactions between the ring current and hydrogen geocorona are discussed, as well as the possibility of using the detection of energetic neutral atoms to obtain global images of the earth's ring current.

  1. Modeling Earth Albedo Currents on Sun Sensors for Improved Vector Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Earth albedo influences vector measurements of the solar line of sight vector, due to the induced current on in the photo voltaics of Sun sensors. Although advanced digital Sun sensors exist, these are typically expensive and may not be suited for satellites in the nano or pico-class. Previously...... an Earth albedo model, based on reflectivity data from NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer project, has been published. In this paper the proposed model is presented, and the model is sought validated by comparing simulated data with telemetry from the Danish Ørsted satellite. A novel method...... for modeling Sun sensor output by incorporating the Earth albedo model is presented. This model utilizes the directional information of in the Earth albedo model, which is achieved by Earth surface partitioning. This allows accurate simulation of the Sun sensor output and the results are consistent with Ørsted...

  2. Near-Earth Magnetic Field Effects of Large-Scale Magnetospheric Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luehr, Hermann; Xiong, Chao; Olsen, Nils; Le, Guan

    2016-01-01

    Magnetospheric currents play an important role in the electrodynamics of near- Earth space. This has been the topic of many space science studies. Here we focus on the magnetic fields they cause close to Earth. Their contribution to the geomagnetic field is the second largest after the core field. Significant progress in interpreting the magnetic fields from the different sources has been achieved thanks to magnetic satellite missions like Ørsted, CHAMP and now Swarm. Of particular interest for this article is a proper representation of the magnetospheric ring current effect. Uncertainties in modelling its effect still produce the largest residuals between observations and present-day geomagnetic field models. A lot of progress has been achieved so far, but there are still open issues like the characteristics of the partial ring current. Other currents discussed are those flowing in the magnetospheric tail. Also their magnetic contribution at LEO orbits is non-negligible. Treating them as an independent source is a more recent development, which has cured some of the problems in geomagnetic field modelling. Unfortunately there is no index available for characterizing the tail current intensity. Here we propose an approach that may help to properly quantify the magnetic contribution from the tail current for geomagnetic field modelling. Some open questions that require further investigation are mentioned at the end.

  3. Brief Communication: A low-cost Arduino®-based wire extensometer for earth flow monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guerriero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Continuous monitoring of earth flow displacement is essential for the understanding of the dynamic of the process, its ongoing evolution and designing mitigation measures. Despite its importance, it is not always applied due to its expense and the need for integration with additional sensors to monitor factors controlling movement. To overcome these problems, we developed and tested a low-cost Arduino-based wire-rail extensometer integrating a data logger, a power system and multiple digital and analog inputs. The system is equipped with a high-precision position transducer that in the test configuration offers a measuring range of 1023 mm and an associated accuracy of ±1 mm, and integrates an operating temperature sensor that should allow potential thermal drift that typically affects this kind of systems to be identified and corrected. A field test, conducted at the Pietrafitta earth flow where additional monitoring systems had been installed, indicates a high reliability of the measurement and a high monitoring stability without visible thermal drift.

  4. Earth Observation Data Quality Monitoring and Control: A Case Study of STAR Central Data Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, W.; Jochum, M.

    2017-12-01

    Earth observation data quality is very important for researchers and decision makers involved in weather forecasting, severe weather warning, disaster and emergency response, environmental monitoring, etc. Monitoring and control earth observation data quality, especially accuracy, completeness, and timeliness, is very useful in data management and governance to optimize data flow, discover potential transmission issues, and better connect data providers and users. Taking a centralized near real-time satellite data repository, STAR (Center for Satellite Applications and Research of NOAA) Central Data Repository (SCDR), as an example, this paper describes how to develop new mechanism to verify data integrity, check data completeness, and monitor data latency in an operational data management system. Such quality monitoring and control of large volume satellite data help data providers and managers improve data transmission of near real-time satellite data, enhance its acquisition and management, and overcome performance and management issues to better serve research and development activities.

  5. Design of BEPCII bunch current monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Ma Huizhou; Yue Junhui; Lei Ge; Cao Jianshe; Ma Li

    2008-01-01

    BEPC II is an electron-positron collider designed to run under multi-bunches and high beam current condition. The accelerator consists of an electron ring, a positron ring and a linear injector. In order to achieve the target luminosity and implement the equal bunch charge injection, the Bunch Current Monitor (BCM) system is built on BEPC II. The BCM system consists of three parts: the front-end circuit, the bunch current acquisition system and the bucket selection system. The control software of BCM is based on VxWorks and EPICS. With the help of BCM system, the bunch current in each bucket can be monitored in the Central Control Room. The BEPC II timing system can also use the bunch current database to decide which bucket needs to refill to implement 'top-off' injection. (authors)

  6. The Earth Observation Monitor - Automated monitoring and alerting for spatial time-series data based on OGC web services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, J.; Hüttich, C.; Schmullius, C.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial time series data are freely available around the globe from earth observation satellites and meteorological stations for many years until now. They provide useful and important information to detect ongoing changes of the environment; but for end-users it is often too complex to extract this information out of the original time series datasets. This issue led to the development of the Earth Observation Monitor (EOM), an operational framework and research project to provide simple access, analysis and monitoring tools for global spatial time series data. A multi-source data processing middleware in the backend is linked to MODIS data from Land Processes Distributed Archive Center (LP DAAC) and Google Earth Engine as well as daily climate station data from NOAA National Climatic Data Center. OGC Web Processing Services are used to integrate datasets from linked data providers or external OGC-compliant interfaces to the EOM. Users can either use the web portal (webEOM) or the mobile application (mobileEOM) to execute these processing services and to retrieve the requested data for a given point or polygon in userfriendly file formats (CSV, GeoTiff). Beside providing just data access tools, users can also do further time series analyses like trend calculations, breakpoint detections or the derivation of phenological parameters from vegetation time series data. Furthermore data from climate stations can be aggregated over a given time interval. Calculated results can be visualized in the client and downloaded for offline usage. Automated monitoring and alerting of the time series data integrated by the user is provided by an OGC Sensor Observation Service with a coupled OGC Web Notification Service. Users can decide which datasets and parameters are monitored with a given filter expression (e.g., precipitation value higher than x millimeter per day, occurrence of a MODIS Fire point, detection of a time series anomaly). Datasets integrated in the SOS service are

  7. Using Copernicus earth observation services to monitor climate change impacts and adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel; Zebisch, Marc; Sonnenschein, Ruth; Schönthaler, Konstanze; von Andrian-Werburg, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In the last years, earth observation made a big leap towards an operational monitoring of the state of environment. Remote sensing provides for instance information on the dynamics, trends and anomalies of snow and glaciers, vegetation, soil moisture or water temperature. In particular, the European Copernicus initiative offers new opportunities through new satellites with a higher temporal and spatial resolution, operational services for environmental monitoring and an open data access policy. With the Copernicus climate change service and the ESA climate change initiative, specific earth observation programs are in place to address the impacts of climate change. However, such products and services are until now rarely picked up in the field of policy or decision making oriented climate impact or climate risk assessments. In this talk, we will present results of a study, which focus on the question, if and how remote sensing approaches could be integrated into operational monitoring activities of climate impacts and response measures on a national and subnational scale. We assessed all existing and planned Copernicus services regarding their relevance for climate impact monitoring by comparing them against the indication fields from an indicator system for climate impact and response monitoring in Germany, which has lately been developed in the framework of the German national adaptation strategy. For several climate impact or response indicators, an immediate integration of remote sensing data could be identified and been recommended. For these cases, we will show practical examples on the benefit of remote sensing data. For other indication fields, promising approaches were found, which need further development. We argue that remote sensing is a very valuable complement to the existing indicator schemes by contributing with spatial explicit, timely information but not always easy to integrate with classical approaches, which are oriented towards consistent long

  8. An Island Coalescence Scenario for Near-Earth Current Disruption in the Magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi-Wei, Ma; Xing-Qiang, Lu

    2009-01-01

    A current disruption and dipolarization scenario associated with island coalescences in the near-Earth region is proposed. The thin and elongated current-sheet built up during the growth phase is unstable due to a tearing mode instability that leads to formation of multiple magnetic islands (or magnetic flux ropes in the three dimensional case) in the near-Earth region. The growth rate of the tearing mode should be different in different locations because the rate is in general determined by the external driving force and the local plasma sheet properties. When the rate of the magnetic reconnection in the mid-tail region around 20R E is much larger than that in other locations, the strong bulk earthward flows resulting from the fast reconnection in the mid-tail drive the earthward convection and the coalescence of the magnetic islands. Consequently, the cross-tail current in the near-Earth region is suddenly disrupted and the geometry of the magnetic field changes from tail-like to dipolar-like in the ideal time scale. This proposed scenario is tested by Hall MHD simulation and is compared with the observations. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  9. Low-cost wireless voltage & current grid monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, Jacqueline [SenSanna Inc., Arnold, MD (United States)

    2016-12-31

    This report describes the development and demonstration of a novel low-cost wireless power distribution line monitoring system. This system measures voltage, current, and relative phase on power lines of up to 35 kV-class. The line units operate without any batteries, and without harvesting energy from the power line. Thus, data on grid condition is provided even in outage conditions, when line current is zero. This enhances worker safety by detecting the presence of voltage and current that may appear from stray sources on nominally isolated lines. Availability of low-cost power line monitoring systems will enable widespread monitoring of the distribution grid. Real-time data on local grid operating conditions will enable grid operators to optimize grid operation, implement grid automation, and understand the impact of solar and other distributed sources on grid stability. The latter will enable utilities to implement eneygy storage and control systems to enable greater penetration of solar into the grid.

  10. Beam current monitors at the UNILAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, N.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most basic linac operation tools is a beam current transformer. Using outstanding materials, the latest low-noise amplifiers, and some good ideas, a universal current monitoring system has been developed and installed at the UNILAC at GSI. With a dynamic range of 112 dB, covering the low-current range down to 100 nA peak to peak at S/N=1, as well as 25 mA pulses, provided for high-current injection to the SIS synchrotron, a well-accepted diagnostic instrument could be placed at the disposal of the operaters

  11. SNS project-wide beam current monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesselman, M.; Witkover, R.; Doolittle, L.; Power, J.

    2000-01-01

    A consortium of national laboratories is constructing the Spallation Neutron Source [1] (SNS) to be installed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. There are signal similarities that exist in the beam diagnostic instrumentation that could permit common designs. This paper will focus on the beam current monitoring requirements, and the methods under consideration to measure beam current in various locations throughout the SNS facility

  12. FBG-Based Monitoring of Geohazards: Current Status and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Hu Zhu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, natural and anthropogenic geohazards have occured frequently all over the world, and field monitoring is becoming an increasingly important task to mitigate these risks. However, conventional geotechnical instrumentations for monitoring geohazards have a number of weaknesses, such as low accuracy, poor durability, and high sensitivity to environmental interferences. In this aspect, fiber Bragg grating (FBG, as a popular fiber optic sensing technology, has gained an explosive amount of attention. Based on this technology, quasi-distributed sensing systems have been established to perform real-time monitoring and early warning of landslides, debris flows, land subsidence, earth fissures and so on. In this paper, the recent research and development activities of applying FBG systems to monitor different types of geohazards, especially those triggered by human activities, are critically reviewed. The working principles of newly developed FBG sensors are briefly introduced, and their features are summarized. This is followed by a discussion of recent case studies and lessons learned, and some critical problems associated with field implementation of FBG-based monitoring systems. Finally the challenges and future trends in this research area are presented.

  13. FBG-Based Monitoring of Geohazards: Current Status and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Hu; Shi, Bin; Zhang, Cheng-Cheng

    2017-02-24

    In recent years, natural and anthropogenic geohazards have occured frequently all over the world, and field monitoring is becoming an increasingly important task to mitigate these risks. However, conventional geotechnical instrumentations for monitoring geohazards have a number of weaknesses, such as low accuracy, poor durability, and high sensitivity to environmental interferences. In this aspect, fiber Bragg grating (FBG), as a popular fiber optic sensing technology, has gained an explosive amount of attention. Based on this technology, quasi-distributed sensing systems have been established to perform real-time monitoring and early warning of landslides, debris flows, land subsidence, earth fissures and so on. In this paper, the recent research and development activities of applying FBG systems to monitor different types of geohazards, especially those triggered by human activities, are critically reviewed. The working principles of newly developed FBG sensors are briefly introduced, and their features are summarized. This is followed by a discussion of recent case studies and lessons learned, and some critical problems associated with field implementation of FBG-based monitoring systems. Finally the challenges and future trends in this research area are presented.

  14. The development of beam current monitors in the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Lenkszus, F.; Rotela, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation 7-GeV synchrotron radiation source. The precision measurement of beam current is a challenging task in high energy accelerators, such as the APS, with a wide range of beam parameters and complicated noise, radiation, and thermal environments. The beam pulses in the APS injector and storage ring have charge ranging from 50pC to 25nC with pulse durations varying from 30ps to 30ns. A total of nine non- intercepting beam current monitors have been installed in the APS facility (excluding those in the linac) for general current measurement. In addition, several independent current monitors with specially designed redundant interlock electronics are installed for personnel safety and machine protection. This paper documents the design and development of current monitors in the APS,. discusses the commissioning experience in the past year, and presents the results of recent operations

  15. Monitoring the Earth's Dynamic Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Applegate, David; Townshend, John B.

    2008-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey's Geomagnetism Program is to monitor the Earth's magnetic field. Using ground-based observatories, the Program provides continuous records of magnetic field variations covering long timescales; disseminates magnetic data to various governmental, academic, and private institutions; and conducts research into the nature of geomagnetic variations for purposes of scientific understanding and hazard mitigation. The program is an integral part of the U.S. Government's National Space Weather Program (NSWP), which also includes programs in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Department of Defense (DOD), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSWP works to provide timely, accurate, and reliable space weather warnings, observations, specifications, and forecasts, and its work is important for the U.S. economy and national security. Please visit the National Geomagnetism Program?s website, http://geomag.usgs.gov, where you can learn more about the Program and the science of geomagnetism. You can find additional related information at the Intermagnet website, http://www.intermagnet.org.

  16. Machine monitoring via current signature analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.F.; Castleberry, K.N.; Nowlin, C.H.

    1992-01-01

    A significant need in the effort to provide increased production quality is to provide improved plant equipment monitoring capabilities. Unfortunately, in today's tight economy, even such monitoring instrumentation must be implemented in a recognizably cost effective manner. By analyzing the electric current drawn by motors, actuator, and other line-powered industrial equipment, significant insights into the operations of the movers, driven equipment, and even the power source can be obtained. The generic term 'current signature analysis' (CSA) has been coined to describe several techniques for extracting useful equipment or process monitoring information from the electrical power feed system. A patented method developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is described which recognizes the presence of line-current modulation produced by motors and actuators driving varying loads. The in-situ application of applicable linear demodulation techniques to the analysis of numerous motor-driven systems is also discussed. The use of high-quality amplitude and angle-demodulation circuitry has permitted remote status monitoring of several types of medium and high-power gas compressors in (US DOE facilities) driven by 3-phase induction motors rated from 100 to 3,500 hp, both with and without intervening speed increasers. Flow characteristics of the compressors, including various forms of abnormal behavior such as surging and rotating stall, produce at the output of the specialized detectors specific time and frequency signatures which can be easily identified for monitoring, control, and fault-prevention purposes. The resultant data are similar in form to information obtained via standard vibration-sensing techniques and can be analyzed using essentially identical methods. In addition, other machinery such as refrigeration compressors, brine pumps, vacuum pumps, fans, and electric motors have been characterized

  17. Beam current monitors in the NLCTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nantista, C.; Adolphsen, C.

    1997-05-01

    The current profile along the 126 ns, multi-bunch beam pulse in the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) is monitored with fast toroids (rise time ∼ 1 ns). Inserted at several positions along the beam line, they allow one to track current transmission as a function of position along the bunch train. Various measurements, such as rise time, current, width, and slope, are made on the digitized signals, which can be corrected in software by means of stored frequency response files. The design and implementation of these devices is described

  18. A global change data base using Thematic Mapper data - Earth Monitoring Educational System (EMES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antoni, Hector L.; Peterson, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Some of the main directions in creating an education program in earth system science aimed at combining top science and technology with high academic performance are presented. The creation of an Earth Monitoring Educational System (EMES) integrated with the research interests of the NASA Ames Research Center and one or more universities is proposed. Based on the integration of a global network of cooperators to build a global data base for assessments of global change, EMES would promote degrees at all levels in global ecology at associated universities and colleges, and extracurricular courses for multilevel audiences. EMES objectives are to: train specialists; establish a tradition of solving regional problems concerning global change in a systemic manner, using remote sensing technology as the monitoring tool; and transfer knowledge on global change to the national and world communities. South America is proposed as the pilot continent for the project.

  19. Wall current monitor for SPring-8 linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Kenichi; Yamada, Kouji; Yokoyama, Minoru

    1994-06-01

    A fast rise time, broad band width and wide dynamic range wall current monitor was developed for SPring-8 linac. The performances are a rise time of ∼250ps, an effective impedance of 1.4Ω (output of ∼1.4V/A) and a bandwidth of 18kHz-2GHz. From a result of examination using 40ns electron beam, a significant change of effective impedance was not observed when a peak current was changed up to 12A or when a beam was moved by 8mm in a vacuum pipe. A circuit model that includes a core inductor loop was constructed. Using this model effective impedance and band width were calculated and compared to measured ones. They agreed very well except one part. In consequence the mechanism of wall current monitor can be explained by means of this model. (author)

  20. Operational Forest Monitoring in Siberia Using Multi-source Earth Observation Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hüttich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest cover disturbance rates are increasing in the forests of Siberia due to intensification of human activities and climate change. In this paper two satellite data sources were used for automated forest cover change detection. Annual ALOS PALSAR backscatter mosaics (2007–2010 were used for yearly forest loss monitoring. Time series of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, 2000–2014 from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS were integrated in a web-based data middleware system to assess the capabilities of a near-real time detection of forest disturbances using the break point detection by additive season and trends (Bfast method. The SAR-based average accuracy of the forest loss detection was 70 %, whereas the MODIS-based change assessment using breakpoint detection achieved average accuracies of 50 % for trend-based breakpoints and 43.4 % for season-based breakpoints. It was demonstrated that SAR remote sensing is a highly accurate tool for up-to-date forest monitoring. Web-based data middleware systems like the Earth Observation Monitor, linked with MODIS time series, provide access and easy-to-use tools for on demand change monitoring in remote Siberian forests.

  1. Statistical analysis of storm-time near-Earth current systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Liemohn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currents from the Hot Electron and Ion Drift Integrator (HEIDI inner magnetospheric model results for all of the 90 intense storms (disturbance storm-time (Dst minimum < −100 nT from solar cycle 23 (1996–2005 are calculated, presented, and analyzed. We have categorized these currents into the various systems that exist in near-Earth space, specifically the eastward and westward symmetric ring current, the partial ring current, the banana current, and the tail current. The current results from each run set are combined by a normalized superposed epoch analysis technique that scales the timeline of each phase of each storm before summing the results. It is found that there is a systematic ordering to the current systems, with the asymmetric current systems peaking during storm main phase (tail current rising first, then the banana current, followed by the partial ring current and the symmetric current systems peaking during the early recovery phase (westward and eastward symmetric ring current having simultaneous maxima. The median and mean peak amplitudes for the current systems ranged from 1 to 3 MA, depending on the setup configuration used in HEIDI, except for the eastward symmetric ring current, for which the mean never exceeded 0.3 MA for any HEIDI setup. The self-consistent electric field description in HEIDI yielded larger tail and banana currents than the Volland–Stern electric field, while the partial and symmetric ring currents had similar peak values between the two applied electric field models.

  2. Field reversing magnetotail current sheets: earth, Venus, and Comet Giacobini-Zinner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D.J.

    1986-09-01

    This dissertation examines the field reversing magnetotail current sheets at the earth, Venus, and Comet Giacobini-Zinner. In the near earth study a new analysis technique is developed to calculate the detailed current density distributions within the cross tail current sheet for the first time. This technique removes the effects of a variable sheet velocity by inverting intersatellite timings between the co-orbiting satellites ISEE-1 and -2. Case studies of three relatively geomagnetically quiet crossings are made; sheet thicknesses and peak current densities are ∼1-5 x 10 4 km and ∼5-50 nA/m 2 . Current density distributions reveal a high density central region, lower density shoulders, and considerable fine structure throughout. In the Venus study another new analysis technique is developed to reconstruct the average tail configuration from a correlation between field magnitude and draping angle in a large statistical data set. In the comet study, high resolution magnetic field and plasma electron data from the ICE traversal of Giacobini-Zinner are combined for the first time to determine the tail/current sheet geometry and calculate certain important but unmeasured local ion and upstream properties. Pressure balance across the tail gives ion temperatures and betas of ∼1.2 x 10 5 K and ∼40 in the center of the current sheet to ∼1 x 10 6 K and ∼3 in the outer lobes. Axial stress balance shows that the velocity shear upstream near the nucleus is >6 (∼1 at ICE), and that a region of strongly enhanced mass loading (ion source rate ∼24 times that upstream from lobes) exists upstream from the current sheet. The integrated downtail mass flux is ∼2.6 x 10 26 H 2 O+/sec, which is only ∼1% of the independently determined total cometary efflux. 79 refs., 37 figs

  3. FMIT direct-current beam monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brousseau, A.T.; Chamberlin, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    The prototype injector section for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility being developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory requires that beam parameters be noninterceptively monitored. This report describes the application of a single toroidal core, coupled with very simple circuitry, that results in the production of a simple instrument, and eliminates the problems inherent in the Faraday cup technique for the current measurements of the FMIT injector beam

  4. A squid-based beam current monitor for FAIR/CRYRING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geithner, Rene; Stöhlker, Thomas; Kurian, Febin; Reeg, Hansjörg; Schwickert, Marcus; Neubert, Ralf; Seidel, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A SQUID-based beam current monitor was developed for the upcoming FAIR-Project, providing a non-destructive online monitoring of the beam currents in the nA-range. The cryogenic current comparator (CCC) was optimized for lowest possible noise-limited current resolution together with a high system bandwidth. This CCC is foreseen to be installed in the CRYRING facility (CRYRING@ESR: A study group report www.gsi.de/fileadmin/SPARC/documents/Cryring/ReportCryring-40ESR.PDF), working as a test bench for FAIR. In this contribution we present results of the completed CCC for FAIR/CRYRING and also arrangements that have been done for the installation of the CCC at CRYRING, regarding the cryostat design. (paper)

  5. Penetration of ELF currents and electromagnetic fields into the Earth's equatorial ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, B.; Papadopoulos, K.

    2009-10-01

    The penetration of extremely low frequency (ELF) transient electromagnetic fields and associated currents in the Earth's equatorial E-region plasma is studied theoretically and numerically. In the low-frequency regime, the plasma dynamics of the E-region is characterized by helicon waves since the ions are viscously coupled to neutrals while the electrons remain mobile. For typical equatorial E-region parameters, the plasma is magnetically insulated from penetration of very long timescale magnetic fields by a thin diffusive sheath. Wave penetration driven by a vertically incident pulse localized in space and time leads to both vertical penetration and the triggering of ELF helicon/whistler waves that carry currents obliquely to the magnetic field lines. The study presented here may have relevance for ELF wave generation by lightning discharges and seismic activity and can lead to new concepts in ELF/ULF injection in the earth-ionosphere waveguide.

  6. Fault Current Distribution and Pole Earth Potential Rise (EPR) Under Substation Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnassereddine, M.; Rizk, J.; Hellany, A.; Nagrial, M.

    2013-09-01

    New high-voltage (HV) substations are fed by transmission lines. The position of these lines necessitates earthing design to ensure safety compliance of the system. Conductive structures such as steel or concrete poles are widely used in HV transmission mains. The earth potential rise (EPR) generated by a fault at the substation could result in an unsafe condition. This article discusses EPR based on substation fault. The pole EPR assessment under substation fault is assessed with and without mutual impedance consideration. Split factor determination with and without the mutual impedance of the line is also discussed. Furthermore, a simplified formula to compute the pole grid current under substation fault is included. Also, it includes the introduction of the n factor which determines the number of poles that required earthing assessments under substation fault. A case study is shown.

  7. A fast non-intercepting linac beam position and current monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.W.; Wille, M.

    1982-01-01

    A non-intercepting beam monitor consisting of four detecting loops is used to determine the spatial postion and current of a pulsed beam from an electron linear accelerator. The monitor detects the magnetic field radiated by the substructure of the electron bunches created by the accelerating microwave. The detecting loops are interconnected two by two, by means of two coaxial hybrid junctions, the two sets positioned perpendicular to each other. By means of the two signals from the diametrically positioned detecting loops, a good spatial displacement and current monitoring sensitivity are achieved by subtracting one signal from the other and adding the two signals, respectively. For displacements below 2 mm from the center axis an average sensitivity of 0.5 mV/mm x mA is measured, whereas displacements more than 2 mm yields 1.3 mV/mm x mA. A sensitivity of 0.2 mV/mA in current monitoring is measured, and the rise time of the monitored pulse signal is better than 5 ns measured from 10 to 90% of the pulse height. Design strategy and performance of the monitor are described. (orig.)

  8. On the feasibility of studying the exospheres of Earth-like exoplanets by Lyman- α monitoring. Detectability constraints for nearby M stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ana I. Gómez de; Beitia-Antero, Leire; Ustamujic, Sabina

    2018-04-01

    Observations of the Earth's exosphere have unveiled an extended envelope of hydrogen reaching further than 10 Earth radii composed of atoms orbiting around the Earth. This large envelope increases significantly the opacity of the Earth to Lyman α (Ly α) photons coming from the Sun, to the point of making feasible the detection of the Earth's transit signature from 1.35 pc if pointing with an 8 meter primary mirror space telescope through a clean line of sight ( N H flux variability. We show that, in spite of the interstellar, heliospheric and astrospheric absorption, the transit signature in M5 V type stars would be detectable with a dedicated Ly α flux monitor implemented in a 4-8 m class space telescope. Such monitoring programs would enable measuring the robustness of planetary atmospheres under heavy space weather conditions like those produced by M-type stars. A 2-m class telescope, such as the World Space Observatory, would suffice to detect an Earth-like planet orbiting around Proxima Centauri, if there was such a planet or nearby M5 type stars.

  9. Prospect of Continuous VLBI Measurement of Earth Rotation in Monitoring Geophysical Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Ma, Chopo; Clark, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Large-scale mass transports in the geophysical fluids of the Earth system excite Earth's rotational variations in both length-of-day and polar motion. The excitation process is via the conservation of angular momentum. Therefore Earth rotation observations contain information about the integrated angular momentum (consisting of both the mass term and the motion term) of the geophysical fluids, which include atmosphere, hydrosphere, mantle, and the outer and inner cores. Such global information is often important and otherwise unattainable depending on the nature of the mass transport, its magnitude and time scale. The last few years have seen great advances in VLBI measurement of Earth rotation in precision and temporal resolution. These advances have opened new. areas in geophysical fluid studies, such as oceanic tidal angular momentum, atmospheric tides, Earth librations, and rapid atmospheric angular momentum fluctuations. Precision of 10 microseconds in UTI and 200 microarcseconds in polar motion can now be achieved on hourly basis. Building upon this heritage, the multi-network geodetic VLBI project, Continuous Observation of the Rotation of the Earth (CORE), promises to further these studies and to make possible studies on elusive but tell-tale geophysical processes such as oscillatory modes in the core and in the atmosphere. Currently the early phase of CORE is underway. Within a few years into the new mellinnium, the upcoming space gravity missions (such as GRACE) will measure the temporal variations in Earth's gravitational field, thus providing complementary information to that from Earth rotation study for a better understanding of global geophysical fluid processes.

  10. Current status of technology development on remote monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Wan Ki; Lee, Y. K.; Lee, Y. D.; Na, W. W.

    1997-03-01

    IAEA is planning to perform the remote monitoring system in nuclear facility in order to reinforce the economical and efficient inspection. National lab. in U.S. is developing the corresponding core technology and field trial will be done to test the remote monitoring system by considering the case that it replace the current safeguards system. U.S. setup the International Remote Monitoring Project to develop the technology. IAEA makes up remote monitoring team and setup the detail facility to apply remote monitoring system. Therefore, early participation in remote monitoring technology development will make contribution in international remote monitoring system and increase the transparency and confidence in domestic nuclear activities. (author). 12 refs., 20 figs

  11. Monitoring current rates of salt dome movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoms, R.L.; Manning, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    The tectonic stability of salt domes is a major concern for long-term domal storage of noxious wastes. A necessary phase of the many faceted dome storage study includes obtaining a measure of current vertical movement of any potential storage dome. This information then can be combined with data obtained from studies involving geologic time scales so as to provide a history of dome movement that includes present time. A system of instrumentation for monitoring current rates of dome movement is described. Complimentary finite element modelling of plausible dome movement also is presented. The proposed instrumentation system includes tiltmeters, precise levelling, laser ranging, and monitoring of microseisms. Thus, components of rotation and vertical and horizontal movements at the ground surface over a dome can be monitored. In addition, a measure of dome movement also may be obtained acoustically. The finite element modelling furnishes an aid for: (1) locating instrument sites over a dome so as to maximize instrument sensitivity, and (2) interpreting data obtained from the instrumentation system. An example of tiltmeter installation and operation over a dome in northwest Louisiana is included. Typical tiltmeter output is presented and discussed

  12. Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Capacity in Earth Observations for Agricultural Monitoring: The GEOGLAM Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcraft, A. K.; Di Bella, C. M.; Becker Reshef, I.; Deshayes, M.; Justice, C. O.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) Initiative has been working to strengthen the international community's capacity to use Earth observation (EO) data to derive timely, accurate, and transparent information on agriculture, with the goals of reducing market volatility and promoting food security. GEOGLAM aims to develop capacity for EO-based agricultural monitoring at multiple scales, from national to regional to global. This is accomplished through training workshops, developing and transferring of best-practices, establishing networks of broad and sustainable institutional support, and designing or adapting tools and methodologies to fit localized contexts. Over the past four years, capacity development activities in the context of GEOGLAM have spanned all agriculture-containing continents, with much more work to be done, particularly in the domains of promoting access to large, computationally-costly datasets. This talk will detail GEOGLAM's experiences, challenges, and opportunities surrounding building international collaboration, ensuring institutional buy-in, and developing sustainable programs.

  13. Superconducting quantum interference monitor of charged particle beam current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertsev, K.F.; Mikheev, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Description and test results of the monitor of charged particle beam current on the base of the high-frequency superconducting quantum interference detector with lead slotted shield are presented. The toroidal superconducting coil, which covers the measured beam has 16 turns wound by the lead belt of 7 mm width with 0.5 mm gaps between the turns. A superconducting low-coupling monitor having two holes and point oxidated niobium contact has been used in the mode of quanta counting of magnetic flux. The lead point shield was 2 mm thick and it had 30 mm aperture. The coefficient of background shielding within 0-200 Hz frequency range constituted more than 10 8 . The threshold current resolution of the monitor had the value less than 01 μA √Hz. The suggested monitor requires helium cooling. The proposed design of the monitor is applicable for mounting on the vacuum chamber when it is surrounded by helium conductor. In other cases mounting of low-powerful autonomic system or cryostat of helium storage up to several weeks is possible [ru

  14. Hyperresolution global land surface modeling: Meeting a grand challenge for monitoring Earth's terrestrial water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric F.; Roundy, Joshua K.; Troy, Tara J.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; Blyth, Eleanor; de Roo, Ad; DöLl, Petra; Ek, Mike; Famiglietti, James; Gochis, David; van de Giesen, Nick; Houser, Paul; Jaffé, Peter R.; Kollet, Stefan; Lehner, Bernhard; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Sheffield, Justin; Wade, Andrew; Whitehead, Paul

    2011-05-01

    Monitoring Earth's terrestrial water conditions is critically important to many hydrological applications such as global food production; assessing water resources sustainability; and flood, drought, and climate change prediction. These needs have motivated the development of pilot monitoring and prediction systems for terrestrial hydrologic and vegetative states, but to date only at the rather coarse spatial resolutions (˜10-100 km) over continental to global domains. Adequately addressing critical water cycle science questions and applications requires systems that are implemented globally at much higher resolutions, on the order of 1 km, resolutions referred to as hyperresolution in the context of global land surface models. This opinion paper sets forth the needs and benefits for a system that would monitor and predict the Earth's terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. We discuss six major challenges in developing a system: improved representation of surface-subsurface interactions due to fine-scale topography and vegetation; improved representation of land-atmospheric interactions and resulting spatial information on soil moisture and evapotranspiration; inclusion of water quality as part of the biogeochemical cycle; representation of human impacts from water management; utilizing massively parallel computer systems and recent computational advances in solving hyperresolution models that will have up to 109 unknowns; and developing the required in situ and remote sensing global data sets. We deem the development of a global hyperresolution model for monitoring the terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles a "grand challenge" to the community, and we call upon the international hydrologic community and the hydrological science support infrastructure to endorse the effort.

  15. Hyperresolution Global Land Surface Modeling: Meeting a Grand Challenge for Monitoring Earth's Terrestrial Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric F.; Roundy, Joshua K.; Troy, Tara J.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; 4 Blyth, Eleanor; de Roo, Ad; Doell. Petra; Ek, Mike; Famiglietti, James; hide

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring Earth's terrestrial water conditions is critically important to many hydrological applications such as global food production; assessing water resources sustainability; and flood, drought, and climate change prediction. These needs have motivated the development of pilot monitoring and prediction systems for terrestrial hydrologic and vegetative states, but to date only at the rather coarse spatial resolutions (approx.10-100 km) over continental to global domains. Adequately addressing critical water cycle science questions and applications requires systems that are implemented globally at much higher resolutions, on the order of 1 km, resolutions referred to as hyperresolution in the context of global land surface models. This opinion paper sets forth the needs and benefits for a system that would monitor and predict the Earth's terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. We discuss six major challenges in developing a system: improved representation of surface-subsurface interactions due to fine-scale topography and vegetation; improved representation of land-atmospheric interactions and resulting spatial information on soil moisture and evapotranspiration; inclusion of water quality as part of the biogeochemical cycle; representation of human impacts from water management; utilizing massively parallel computer systems and recent computational advances in solving hyperresolution models that will have up to 10(exp 9) unknowns; and developing the required in situ and remote sensing global data sets. We deem the development of a global hyperresolution model for monitoring the terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles a grand challenge to the community, and we call upon the international hydrologic community and the hydrological science support infrastructure to endorse the effort.

  16. Operational monitoring and forecasting of bathing water quality through exploiting satellite Earth observation and models: The AlgaRisk demonstration service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutler, J. D.; Warren, M. A.; Miller, P. I.; Barciela, R.; Mahdon, R.; Land, P. E.; Edwards, K.; Wither, A.; Jonas, P.; Murdoch, N.; Roast, S. D.; Clements, O.; Kurekin, A.

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones and shelf-seas are important for tourism, commercial fishing and aquaculture. As a result the importance of good water quality within these regions to support life is recognised worldwide and a number of international directives for monitoring them now exist. This paper describes the AlgaRisk water quality monitoring demonstration service that was developed and operated for the UK Environment Agency in response to the microbiological monitoring needs within the revised European Union Bathing Waters Directive. The AlgaRisk approach used satellite Earth observation to provide a near-real time monitoring of microbiological water quality and a series of nested operational models (atmospheric and hydrodynamic-ecosystem) provided a forecast capability. For the period of the demonstration service (2008-2013) all monitoring and forecast datasets were processed in near-real time on a daily basis and disseminated through a dedicated web portal, with extracted data automatically emailed to agency staff. Near-real time data processing was achieved using a series of supercomputers and an Open Grid approach. The novel web portal and java-based viewer enabled users to visualise and interrogate current and historical data. The system description, the algorithms employed and example results focussing on a case study of an incidence of the harmful algal bloom Karenia mikimotoi are presented. Recommendations and the potential exploitation of web services for future water quality monitoring services are discussed.

  17. Current deflection NDE for pipeline inspection and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Rollo; Cawley, Peter; Nagy, Peter B.

    2016-02-01

    Failure of oil and gas pipelines can often be catastrophic, therefore routine inspection for time dependent degradation is essential. In-line inspection is the most common method used; however, this requires the insertion and retrieval of an inspection tool that is propelled by the fluid in the pipe and risks becoming stuck, so alternative methods must often be employed. This work investigates the applicability of a non-destructive evaluation technique for both the detection and growth monitoring of defects, particularly corrosion under insulation. This relies on injecting an electric current along the pipe and indirectly measuring the deflection of current around defects from perturbations in the orthogonal components of the induced magnetic flux density. An array of three orthogonally oriented anisotropic magnetoresistive sensors has been used to measure the magnetic flux density surrounding a 6'' schedule-40 steel pipe carrying 2 A quasi-DC axial current. A finite element model has been developed that predicts the perturbations in magnetic flux density caused by current deflection which has been validated by experimental results. Measurements of the magnetic flux density at 50 mm lift-off from the pipe surface are stable and repeatable to the order of 100 pT which suggests that defect detection or monitoring growth of corrosion-type defects may be possible with a feasible magnitude of injected current. Magnetic signals are additionally incurred by changes in the wall thickness of the pipe due to manufacturing tolerances, and material property variations. If a monitoring scheme using baseline subtraction is employed then the sensitivity to defects can be improved while avoiding false calls.

  18. Gap assessment in current soil monitoring networks across Europe for measuring soil functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, J. P.; Saby, N. P. A.; Jones, A.; Louwagie, G.; Micheli, E.; Rutgers, M.; Schulte, R. P. O.; Spiegel, H.; Toth, G.; Creamer, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    Soil is the most important natural resource for life on Earth after water. Given its fundamental role in sustaining the human population, both the availability and quality of soil must be managed sustainably and protected. To ensure sustainable management we need to understand the intrinsic functional capacity of different soils across Europe and how it changes over time. Soil monitoring is needed to support evidence-based policies to incentivise sustainable soil management. To this aim, we assessed which soil attributes can be used as potential indicators of five soil functions; (1) primary production, (2) water purification and regulation, (3) carbon sequestration and climate regulation, (4) soil biodiversity and habitat provisioning and (5) recycling of nutrients. We compared this list of attributes to existing national (regional) and EU-wide soil monitoring networks. The overall picture highlighted a clearly unbalanced dataset, in which predominantly chemical soil parameters were included, and soil biological and physical attributes were severely under represented. Methods applied across countries for indicators also varied. At a European scale, the LUCAS-soil survey was evaluated and again confirmed a lack of important soil biological parameters, such as C mineralisation rate, microbial biomass and earthworm community, and soil physical measures such as bulk density. In summary, no current national or European monitoring system exists which has the capacity to quantify the five soil functions and therefore evaluate multi-functional capacity of a soil and in many countries no data exists at all. This paper calls for the addition of soil biological and some physical parameters within the LUCAS-soil survey at European scale and for further development of national soil monitoring schemes.

  19. Measurements of the large-scale direct-current Earth potential and possible implications for the geomagnetic dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-05

    The magnitude of the large-scale direct-current earth potential was measured on a section of a recently laid transatlantic telecommunications cable. Analysis of the data acquired on the 4476-kilometer cable yielded a mean direct-current potential drop of less than about 0.072 +/- 0.050 millivolts per kilometer. Interpreted in terms of a generation of the potential by the earth's geodynamo, such a small value of the mean potential implies that the toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields of the dynamo are approximately equal at the core-mantle boundary.

  20. REVIEW OF CURRENT PRACTICE IN CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A.Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Characterization and monitoring are important parts of environmental remediation of contaminated sites by the Department of Energy--Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). The actual remediation process often cannot begin or even be planned until characterization is complete. Monitoring is essential to verify the progress of remediation and of the waste stream. However, some contaminated sites are difficult, costly, or have a high exposure risk to personnel to characterize or monitor using the baseline technology or current practice. Therefore, development of new characterization and monitoring technologies is time-critical to remediate these sites. The main task of the Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Crosscutting Program (CMST-CP) is to develop and deploy innovative characterization and monitoring technologies that improve performance and reduce personnel exposure, cost, and detection limits. However, to evaluate different proposals for new technologies to decide which ones to develop or deploy, it is necessary to compare their cost and performance to the baseline technology. The goal of this project is to facilitate the direct comparison of new technologies to the baseline technology by documenting the current practices for site characterization and monitoring at DOE sites and by presenting the information in an easy-to-use, concise database. The database will assist the CMST-CP and others in evaluating or designing new technologies by identifying the baseline technologies and describing their performance and cost. The purpose of this document is to report on the completion of this project and to describe the database. Section 2.0 describes the data assessment methodology. Section 3.0 presents the database and serves as a user manual. Section 4.0 lists the references used for each baseline technology in the database. The full references can be found in the Appendix.

  1. REVIEW OF CURRENT PRACTICE IN CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Characterization and monitoring are important parts of environmental remediation of contaminated sites by the Department of Energy--Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). The actual remediation process often cannot begin or even be planned until characterization is complete. Monitoring is essential to verify the progress of remediation and of the waste stream. However, some contaminated sites are difficult, costly, or have a high exposure risk to personnel to characterize or monitor using the baseline technology or current practice. Therefore, development of new characterization and monitoring technologies is time-critical to remediate these sites. The main task of the Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Crosscutting Program (CMST-CP) is to develop and deploy innovative characterization and monitoring technologies that improve performance and reduce personnel exposure, cost, and detection limits. However, to evaluate different proposals for new technologies to decide which ones to develop or deploy, it is necessary to compare their cost and performance to the baseline technology. The goal of this project is to facilitate the direct comparison of new technologies to the baseline technology by documenting the current practices for site characterization and monitoring at DOE sites and by presenting the information in an easy-to-use, concise database. The database will assist the CMST-CP and others in evaluating or designing new technologies by identifying the baseline technologies and describing their performance and cost. The purpose of this document is to report on the completion of this project and to describe the database. Section 2.0 describes the data assessment methodology. Section 3.0 presents the database and serves as a user manual. Section 4.0 lists the references used for each baseline technology in the database. The full references can be found in the Appendix

  2. A new on-line leakage current monitoring system of ZnO surge arresters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bok-Hee; Kang, Sung-Man

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new on-line leakage current monitoring system of zinc oxide (ZnO) surge arresters. To effectively diagnose the deterioration of ZnO surge arresters, a new algorithm and on-line leakage current detection device, which uses the time-delay addition method, for discriminating the resistive and capacitive currents was developed to use in the aging test and durability evaluation for ZnO arrester blocks. A computer-based measurement system of the resistive leakage current, the on-line monitoring device can detect accurately the leakage currents flowing through ZnO surge arresters for power frequency ac applied voltages. The proposed on-line leakage current monitoring device of ZnO surge arresters is more highly sensitive and gives more linear response than the existing devices using the detection method of the third harmonic leakage currents. Therefore, the proposed leakage current monitoring device can be useful for predicting the defects and performance deterioration of ZnO surge arresters in power system applications

  3. Building a Dashboard of the Planet with Google Earth and Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. T.; Hancher, M.

    2016-12-01

    In 2005 Google Earth, a popular 3-D virtual globe, was first released. Scientists immediately recognized how it could be used to tell stories about the Earth. From 2006 to 2009, the "Virtual Globes" sessions of AGU included innovative examples of scientists and educators using Google Earth, and since that time it has become a commonplace tool for communicating scientific results. In 2009 Google Earth Engine, a cloud-based platform for planetary-scale geospatial analysis, was first announced. Earth Engine was initially used to extract information about the world's forests from raw Landsat data. Since then, the platform has proven highly effective for general analysis of georeferenced data, and users have expanded the list of use cases to include high-impact societal issues such as conservation, drought, disease, food security, water management, climate change and environmental monitoring. To support these use cases, the platform has continuously evolved with new datasets, analysis functions, and user interface tools. This talk will give an overview of the latest Google Earth and Earth Engine functionality that allow partners to understand, monitor and tell stories about of our living, breathing Earth. https://earth.google.com https://earthengine.google.com

  4. Multigigahertz beam-current and position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.L.; Stout, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    A self-integrating magnetic-loop device having a risetime of less than 175 ps has been developed to monitor the temporal behavior of the electron beam current and position within each 3.3-ns micropulse generated by the PHERMEX rf linear accelerator. Beam current is measured with a 2-GHz bandwidth by combining these loops in a four-port hybrid summer. Another application of these loops uses two 180 0 hybrids to give 2-GHz time-resolved beam position to an accuracy of 1 mm. These sensors are nonintrusive to the propagating beam and allow ultrafast beam measurements previously restricted to the technique of recording the Cerenkov-light emission from an intercepting Kapton foil using a streak camera

  5. Optical fiber Cherenkov detector for beam current monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pishchulin, I.V.; Solov'ev, N.G.; Romashkin, O.B.

    1991-01-01

    The results obtained in calculation of an optical fiber Cherenkov detector for accelerated beam current monitoring are presented. The technique of beam parameters monitoring is based on Cherenkov radiation excitation by accelerated electrons in the optical fiber. The formulas for calculations of optical power and time dependence of Cherenkov radiation pulse are given. The detector sensitivity and time resolution dependence on the fiber material characteristics are investigated. Parameters of a 10μm one-mode quartz optical fiber detector for the free electron laser photoinjector are calculated. The structure of a monitoring system with the optical fiber Cherenkov detector is considered. Possible applications of this technique are discussed and some recommendations are given

  6. Macroscopic ion acceleration associated with the formation of the ring current in the earth's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauk, B.H.; Meng, C.I.

    1986-01-01

    As an illustration of the operation of macroscopic ion acceleration processes within the earth's magnetosphere, the paper reviews processes thought to be associated with the formation of the earth's ring-current populations. Arguing that the process of global, quasi-curl-free convection cannot explain particle characteristics observed in the middle (geosynchronous) to outer regions, it is concluded that the transport and energization of the seed populations that give rise to the ring-current populations come about in two distinct stages involving distinct processes. Near and outside the geostationary region, the energization and transport are always associated with highly impulsive and relatively localized processes driven by inductive electric fields. The subsequent adiabatic earthward transport is driven principally by enhanced, curl-free global convection fields. 58 references

  7. Current extraction and separation of uranium, thorium and rare earths elements from monazite leach solution using organophosphorous extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Sujoy; Rupawate, V.H.; Hareendran, K.N.; Roy, S.B.

    2014-01-01

    A new process based on solvent extraction has been developed for separation of uranium, thorium and rare earths from monazite leach solution using organophosphorous extractants. The Thorium cake coming from monazite source was dissolved in HNO 3 medium in presence of trace amount of HF for feed preparation. The separation of U(VI) was carried out by liquid-liquid extraction using tris-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid (TEHP) in dodecane leaving thorium and rare earths elements in the raffinate. The thorium from raffinate was selectively extracted using 1M tri iso amyl phosphate (TiAP) in dodecane in organic phase leaving all rare earths elements in aqueous solution. The uranium and thorium from organic medium was quantitatively stripped using 0.05 M HNO 3 counter current mode. Results indicate the quantitative separation of uranium, thorium and rare earths from thorium cake (monazite source) using organophosphorous extractant in counter current mode

  8. A Four Channel Beam Current Monitor Data Acquisition System Using Embedded Processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheat, Jr., Robert Mitchell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalmas, Dale A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-11

    Data acquisition from multiple beam current monitors is required for electron accelerator production of Mo-99. A two channel system capable of recording data from two beam current monitors has been developed, is currently in use, and is discussed below. The development of a cost-effective method of extending this system to more than two channels and integrating of these measurements into an accelerator control system is the main focus of this report. Data from these current monitors is digitized, processed, and stored by a digital data acquisition system. Limitations and drawbacks with the currently deployed digital data acquisition system have been identified as have been potential solutions, or at least improvements, to these problems. This report will discuss and document the efforts we've made in improving the flexibility and lowering the cost of the data acquisition system while maintaining the minimum requirements.

  9. New analysis and performance of a wall-current monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwada, T.; Urano, T.; Kobayashi, H. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tamiya, K.; Asami, A. [Naruto University of Education, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi 772 (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    A new wall-current monitor has been developed in order to reinforce the beam-monitoring system in the PF 2.5-GeV linac for the KEK B-Factory. A prototype monitor was tested for its performance and characteristics. The experimental results in terms of both bench tests and beam tests by single-bunch electron beams were analyzed on the basis of equivalent-circuit models. The frequency response of the monitor agreed well with a lumped equivalent-circuit model for both time- and frequency-domain measurements. The position dependence and its frequency characteristics of the monitor also agreed well with a distributed equivalent-circuit model for both time- and frequency-domain measurements. The rise time of the monitor was about 3 ns, which indicated a poor response for short-pulse beams (<1) ns. The reason could be attributed to the stray inductance of the ceramic solid resistor and not very good frequency response of the ferrite core. (orig.).

  10. New analysis and performance of a wall-current monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwada, T.; Urano, T.; Kobayashi, H.; Tamiya, K.; Asami, A.

    1997-01-01

    A new wall-current monitor has been developed in order to reinforce the beam-monitoring system in the PF 2.5-GeV linac for the KEK B-Factory. A prototype monitor was tested for its performance and characteristics. The experimental results in terms of both bench tests and beam tests by single-bunch electron beams were analyzed on the basis of equivalent-circuit models. The frequency response of the monitor agreed well with a lumped equivalent-circuit model for both time- and frequency-domain measurements. The position dependence and its frequency characteristics of the monitor also agreed well with a distributed equivalent-circuit model for both time- and frequency-domain measurements. The rise time of the monitor was about 3 ns, which indicated a poor response for short-pulse beams (<1) ns. The reason could be attributed to the stray inductance of the ceramic solid resistor and not very good frequency response of the ferrite core. (orig.)

  11. 10^{7}-A load-current B-dot monitor: Simulations, design, and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Rose

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A B-dot monitor that measures the current 6 cm from the axis of dynamic loads fielded on 10^{7}-A multiterawatt pulsed-power accelerators has been developed. The monitor improves upon the multimegampere load-current gauge described in Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11, 100401 (2008PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.11.100401. The design of the improved monitor was developed using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations that model vacuum electron flow in the transmission line near the monitor. The simulations include important geometric features of the B-dot probe and model the deposition of electron energy within the probe. The simulations show that the improved design reduces by as much as a factor of 5 the electron energy deposition to the interior of the monitor. Data taken on accelerator shots demonstrate that the improved monitor works as well as the original monitor on shots with low-impedance loads, and delivers superior performance on higher-impedance-load shots.

  12. An accurate low current measurement circuit for heavy iron beam current monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chaoyang; Su Hong; Mao Ruishi; Dong Chengfu; Qian Yi; Kong Jie

    2012-01-01

    Heavy-ion beams at 10 6 particles per second have been applied to the treatment of deep-seated inoperable tumors in the therapy terminal of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) which is located at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IMP, CAS). An accurate low current measurement circuit following a Faraday cup was developed to monitor the beam current at pA range. The circuit consisted of a picoammeter with a bandwidth of 1 kHz and a gated integrator (GI). A low input bias current precision amplifier and new guarding and shielding techniques were used in the picoammeter circuit which allowed as to measure current less than 1 pA with a current gain of 0.22 V/pA and noise less than 10 fA. This paper will also describe a novel compensation approach which reduced the charge injection from switches in the GI to 10 −18 C, and a T-switch configuration which was used to eliminate leakage current in the reset switch.

  13. Distributed Space Missions for Earth System Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    A key addition to Springer's Space Technology Library series, this edited volume features the work of dozens of authors and offers a wealth of perspectives on distributed Earth observation missions. In sum, it is an eloquent synthesis of the fullest possible range of current approaches to a fast-developing field characterized by growing membership of the 'space club' to include nations formerly regarded as part of the Third World. The volume's four discrete sections focus on the topic's various aspects, including the key theoretical and technical issues arising from the division of payloads onto different satellites. The first is devoted to analyzing distributed synthetic aperture radars, with bi- and multi-static radars receiving separate treatment. This is followed by a full discussion of relative dynamics, guidance, navigation and control. Here, the separate topics of design; establishment, maintenance and control; and measurements are developed with relative trajectory as a reference point, while the dis...

  14. The current status of radioactive monitoring gauges in UIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong

    1993-01-01

    The author introduces the characteristics of representative products for current environment radiation monitoring and measurement instruments of radiation nuclide content in UIC including aerosol detection equipment and multi function radiation dosemeters

  15. Job monitoring on the WLCG scope: Current status and new strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, Julia; Casey, James; Gaidioz, Benjamin; Karavakis, Edward; Kokoszkiewicz, Lukasz; Lanciotti, Elisa; Maier, Gerhild; Rodrigues, Daniele Filipe Rocha Da Cuhna; Rocha, Ricardo; Saiz, Pablo; Sidorova, Irina; Boehm, Max; Belov, Sergey; Tikhonenko, Elena; Dvorak, Frantisek; Krenek, Ales; Mulac, Milas; Sitera, Jiri; Kodolova, Olga; Vaibhav, Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Job processing and data transfer are the main computing activities on the WLCG infrastructure. Reliable monitoring of the job processing on the WLCG scope is a complicated task due to the complexity of the infrastructure itself and the diversity of the currently used job submission methods. The paper will describe current status and the new strategy for the job monitoring on the WLCG scope, covering primary information sources, job status changes publishing, transport mechanism and visualization.

  16. PSInSAR technology and its use for monitoring of the Earth's surface deformation; Technologia PSInSAR a jej vyuzitie na monitorovanie deformacii zemskeho povrchu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batorova, K [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra inzinierskej geologie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-04-25

    Method of permanent reflex points (PSInSAR) allows to monitor the time evolution of deformations of the Earth's surface with a millimeter precision. For deformation size determination there are used the maps of movement speed or time delay of line set of data that are obtained by evaluating of SAR images. SAR files must be processed using the basic mathematical calculation presented in the work, with an emphasis on the parameters used in geology. Extensive processing of multiple SAR imagery showed that they can be used during monitoring of the field with an accurate identification of the objects on the Earth's surface, which provide a stable reflection of radar rays transmitted from the satellite. These objects are known as permanent reflection points (PS). PS can be geo-referenced, allowing accurate determination of the movement size of the Earth's surface deformation. In this paper an example of using of PSInSAR technology for monitoring of slope movements on the territory of Slovakia is presented. (authors)

  17. Use of Earth Observation Data for Environmental Monitoring in the Horn of Africa within the Framework of MESA IGAD THEMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atheru, Zachary; Fortunate, Muyambi

    2015-12-01

    The achievements and challenges on the implementation of activities of IGAD Climate Prediction and Applications Centre (ICPAC) regarding the use of Earth Observation data for environmental monitoring in the Horn of Africa within the framework of MESA IGAD THEMA. Examples of the outputs from the Land Degradation Assessment, Natural Habitat Conservation and Forest Monitoring are provided and explained. The difficulties faced in communicating and disseminating information particularly to decision makers are highlighted. Also outlined is the scope and expected results from the Monitoring for Environment and Security in Africa (MESA) IGAD Thematic action and emphasis placed on lessons learnt on (i) developing services from products (ii) strengthening national networks (III) disseminating and communicating information to decision and policy makers, and (iv) capacity building. The overall objective of the MESA programme in the IGAD region is to enhance land degradation mitigation, natural habitats assessment and Forest Monitoring for sustainable management of environmental resources through the use of Earth Observation data. This is done by strengthening the Earth Observation information management capacity of regional and national institutions in order to support decision and policy making processes. The services produce and distribute regularly land degradation index maps, land cover change indicators on IGAD selected Natural Habitats areas, Forest degradation, deforestation extent, vulnerability index map. It also develops the political and policy frameworks that are strengthened to ensure an active and sustainable participation of IGAD member states in global environmental surveillance initiatives and finally give adequate technical capacity of MESA IGAD stakeholders.

  18. APPLICATIONS OF CURRENT TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF SPENT FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drayer, R.

    2013-06-09

    Advancements in technology have opened many opportunities to improve upon the current infrastructure surrounding the nuclear fuel cycle. Embedded devices, very small sensors, and wireless technology can be applied to Security, Safety, and Nonproliferation of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Security, separate of current video monitoring systems, can be improved by integrating current wireless technology with a variety of sensors including motion detection, altimeter, accelerometer, and a tagging system. By continually monitoring these sensors, thresholds can be set to sense deviations from nominal values. Then alarms or notifications can be activated as needed. Safety can be improved in several ways. First, human exposure to ionizing radiation can be reduced by using a wireless sensor package on each spent fuel cask to monitor radiation, temperature, humidity, etc. Since the sensor data is monitored remotely operator stay-time is decreased and distance from the spent fuel increased, so the overall radiation exposure is reduced as compared to visual inspections. The second improvement is the ability to monitor continuously rather than periodically. If changes occur to the material, alarm thresholds could be set and notifications made to provide advanced notice of negative data trends. These sensor packages could also record data to be used for scientific evaluation and studies to improve transportation and storage safety. Nonproliferation can be improved for spent fuel transportation and storage by designing an integrated tag that uses current infrastructure for reporting and in an event; tracking can be accomplished using the Iridium satellite system. This technology is similar to GPS but with higher signal strength and penetration power, but lower accuracy. A sensor package can integrate all or some of the above depending on the transportation and storage requirements and regulations. A sensor package can be developed using off the shelf technology and applying it to each

  19. Applications of current technology for continuous monitoring of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drayer, R.

    2013-01-01

    Advancements in technology have opened many opportunities to improve upon the current infrastructure surrounding the nuclear fuel cycle. Embedded devices, very small sensors, and wireless technology can be applied to Security, Safety, and Nonproliferation of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Security, separate of current video monitoring systems, can be improved by integrating current wireless technology with a variety of sensors including motion detection, altimeter, accelerometer, and a tagging system. By continually monitoring these sensors, thresholds can be set to sense deviations from nominal values. Then alarms or notifications can be activated as needed. Safety can be improved in several ways. First, human exposure to ionizing radiation can be reduced by using a wireless sensor package on each spent fuel cask to monitor radiation, temperature, humidity, etc. Since the sensor data is monitored remotely operator stay-time is decreased and distance from the spent fuel increased, so the overall radiation exposure is reduced as compared to visual inspections. The second improvement is the ability to monitor continuously rather than periodically. If changes occur to the material, alarm thresholds could be set and notifications made to provide advanced notice of negative data trends. These sensor packages could also record data to be used for scientific evaluation and studies to improve transportation and storage safety. Nonproliferation can be improved for spent fuel transportation and storage by designing an integrated tag that uses current infrastructure for reporting and in an event; tracking can be accomplished using the Iridium satellite system. This technology is similar to GPS but with higher signal strength and penetration power, but lower accuracy. A sensor package can integrate all or some of the above depending on the transportation and storage requirements and regulations. A sensor package can be developed using off the shelf technology and applying it to each

  20. Landslide monitoring and early warning systems in Lower Austria - current situation and new developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebes, Benni; Glade, Thomas; Schweigl, Joachim; Jäger, Stefan; Canli, Ekrem

    2014-05-01

    Landslides represent significant hazards in the mountainous areas of Austria. The Regional Geological Surveys are responsible to inform and protect the population, and to mitigate damage to infrastructure. Efforts of the Regional Geological Survey of Lower Austria include detailed site investigations, the planning and installation of protective structures (e.g. rock fall nets) as well as preventive measures such as regional scale landslide susceptibility assessments. For potentially endangered areas, where protection works are not feasible or would simply be too costly, monitoring systems have been installed. However, these systems are dominantly not automatic and require regular field visits to take measurements. Therefore, it is difficult to establish any relation between initiating and controlling factors, thus to fully understand the underlying process mechanism which is essential for any early warning system. Consequently, the implementation of new state-of-the-art monitoring and early warning systems has been started. In this presentation, the design of four landslide monitoring and early warning systems is introduced. The investigated landslide process types include a deep-seated landslide, a rock fall site, a complex earth flow, and a debris flow catchment. The monitoring equipment was chosen depending on the landslide processes and their activity. It aims to allow for a detailed investigation of process mechanisms in relation to its triggers and for reliable prediction of future landslide activities. The deep-seated landslide will be investigated by manual and automatic inclinometers to get detailed insights into subsurface displacements. In addition, TDR sensors and a weather station will be employed to get a better understanding on the influence of rainfall on sub-surface hydrology. For the rockfall site, a wireless sensor network will be installed to get real-time information on acceleration and inclination of potentially unstable blocks. The movement

  1. Design and commissioning of the APS beam charge and current monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Lenkszus, F.; Rotela, E.

    1994-01-01

    The non-intercepting charge and current monitors suitable for a wide range of beam parameters have been developed and installed in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) low energy transport lines, positron accumulator ring (PAR), and injector synchrotron. The positron or electron beam pulse in the APS has charge ranging from 100pC to l0nC with pulse width varying from 30ps to 30ns. The beam charge and current are measured with a current transformer and subsequent current monitoring electronics based on an ultrafast, high precision gated integrator. The signal processing electronics, data acquisition, and communication with the control system are managed by a VME-based system. This paper summarizes the hardware and software features of the systems. The results of recent operations are presented

  2. Design and commissioning of the APS beam charge and current monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Lenkszus, F.; Rotela, E.

    1995-01-01

    The non-intercepting charge and current monitors suitable for a wide range of beam parameters have been developed and installed in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) low energy transport lines, positron accumulator ring (PAR), and injector synchrotron. The positron or electron beam pulse in the APS has charge ranging from 100 pC to 10 nC with pulse width varying from 30 ps to 30 ns. The beam charge and current are measured with a current transformer and subsequent current monitoring electronics based on an ultrafast, high precision gated integrator. The signal processing electronics, data acquisition, and communication with the control system are managed by a VME-based system. This paper summarizes the hardware and software features of the systems. The results of recent operations are presented. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  3. An automatic monitoring system of leak current for testing TGC detectors based on LabVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Cunfeng; Lu Taiguo; Yan Zhen; Wang Suojie; Zhu Chengguang; Sun Yansheng; He Mao

    2005-01-01

    An automatic monitoring system of leak current for testing TGC detectors with high voltage was set up by using the graphic LabVIEW platform and NI 4351 data acquisition card. The leak current was automatically monitored and recorded with this system, the time and the value of the leak current were showed instantly. Good efficiency and precision of monitoring were obtained. (authors)

  4. A Fast Non Intercepting Linac Electron Beam Position and Current Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen-Walther; Wille, Mads

    1982-01-01

    A non-intercepting beam monitor consisting of four detecting loops is used to determine the spatial postion and current of a pulsed beam from an electron linear accelerator. The monitor detects the magnetic field radiated by the substructure of the electron bunches created by the accelerating...

  5. High Temporal and Spatial Resolution Coverage of Earth from Commercial AVSTAR Systems in Geostationary Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, M. A.; Heaps, J. F.; Williams, F. H.

    Imaging the earth from Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) allows frequent updates of environmental conditions within an observable hemisphere at time and spatial scales appropriate to the most transient observable terrestrial phenomena. Coverage provided by current GEO Meteorological Satellites (METSATS) fails to fully exploit this advantage due primarily to obsolescent technology and also institutional inertia. With the full benefit of GEO based imaging unrealized, rapidly evolving phenomena, occurring at the smallest spatial and temporal scales that frequently have significant environmental impact remain unobserved. These phenomena may be precursors for the most destructive natural processes that adversely effect society. Timely distribution of information derived from "real-time" observations thus may provide opportunities to mitigate much of the damage to life and property that would otherwise occur. AstroVision International's AVStar Earth monitoring system is designed to overcome the current limitations if GEO Earth coverage and to provide real time monitoring of changes to the Earth's complete atmospheric, land and marine surface environments including fires, volcanic events, lightning and meteoritic events on a "live," true color, and multispectral basis. The understanding of severe storm dynamics and its coupling to the earth's electro-sphere will be greatly enhanced by observations at unprecedented sampling frequencies and spatial resolution. Better understanding of these natural phenomena and AVStar operational real-time coverage may also benefit society through improvements in severe weather prediction and warning. AstroVision's AVStar system, designed to provide this capability with the first of a constellation of GEO- based commercial environmental monitoring satellites to be launched in late 2003 will be discussed, including spatial and temporal resolution, spectral coverage with applications and an inventory of the potential benefits to society

  6. Earth Observations, Models and Geo-Design in Support of SDG Implementation and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plag, H. P.; Jules-Plag, S.

    2016-12-01

    Implementation and Monitoring of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires support from Earth observation and scientific communities. Applying a goal-based approach to determine the data needs to the Targets and Indicators associated with the SDGs demonstrates that integration of environmental with socio-economic and statistical data is required. Large data gaps exist for the built environment. A Geo-Design platform can provide the infrastructure and conceptual model for the data integration. The development of policies and actions to foster the implementation of SDGs in many cases requires research and the development of tools to answer "what if" questions. Here, agent-based models and model webs combined with a Geo-Design platform are promising avenues. This advanced combined infrastructure can also play a crucial role in the necessary capacity building. We will use the example of SDG 5 (Gender equality) to illustrate these approaches. SDG 11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities) is used to underline the cross-goal linkages and the joint benefits of Earth observations, data integration, and modeling tools for multiple SDGs.

  7. The CTBT Verification Regime: Monitoring the Earth for nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    The Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) bans all nuclear weapon tests. Its unique verification regime is designed to detect nuclear explosions anywhere on the planet - in the oceans, underground and in the atmosphere. once complete, the international Monitoring system (iMs) will consist of 337 facilities located in 89 countries around the globe. The iMs is currently operating in test mode so that data are already transmitted for analysis from monitoring facilities to the international Data Centre (iDC) at the headquarters of the preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) in Vienna. Data and analysis results are shared with Member states.

  8. Measuring Earth: Current status of the GRACE Follow-On Laser Ranging Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütze, Daniel; LRI Team

    2016-05-01

    The GRACE mission that was launched in 2002 has impressively proven the feasibility of low-orbit satellite-to-satellite tracking for Earth gravity observations. Especially mass transport related to Earth's hydrological system could be well resolved both spatially and temporally. This allows to study processes such as polar ice sheet decline and ground water depletion in great detail. Owing to GRACE's success, NASA and GFZ will launch the successor mission GRACE Follow-On in 2017. In addition to the microwave ranging system, GRACE Follow-On will be the first mission to use a Laser Ranging Interferometer as technology demonstrator to track intersatellite distance changes with unprecedented precision. This new ranging device inherits some of the technologies which have been developed for the future spaceborne gravitational wave detector LISA. I will present the architecture of the Laser Ranging Interferometer, point out similarities and differences to LISA, and conclude with the current status of the flight hardware production.

  9. Condition monitoring of machinery using motor current signature analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryter, R.C.; Haynes, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) is a powerful monitoring tool for motor-driven equipment that provides a nonintrusive means for detecting the presence of mechanical and electrical abnormalities in the motor and the driven equipment, including altered conditions in the process ''downstream'' of the motor-driven equipment. It was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a means for determining the effects of aging and service wear systems, but it is applicable to a broad range of machinery. MCSA is based on the recognition that an electric motor (ac or dc) driving a mechanical load acts as an efficient and permanently available transducer by sensing mechanical load variations, large and small, long-term and rapid, and converting them into variations in the induced current generated in the motor windings. These motor current variations are carried by the electrical cables processes as desired. Motor current signatures, obtained in both time and over time to provide early indication of degradation. Successful applications of MCSA technology (patent applied for) include not only motor-operated valves but also pumps of various designs, blowers, and air conditioning systems. Examples are presented briefly, and speculation regarding the applicability of MCSA to a broader range of equipment monitoring and production line testing is also given. 1 ref., 13 figs

  10. Challenges of agricultural monitoring: integration of the Open Farm Management Information System into GEOSS and Digital Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řezník, T.; Kepka, M.; Charvát, K.; Charvát, K., Jr.; Horáková, S.; Lukas, V.

    2016-04-01

    From a global perspective, agriculture is the single largest user of freshwater resources, each country using an average of 70% of all its surface water supplies. An essential proportion of agricultural water is recycled back to surface water and/or groundwater. Agriculture and water pollution is therefore the subject of (inter)national legislation, such as the Clean Water Act in the United States of America, the European Water Framework Directive, and the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution. Regular monitoring by means of sensor networks is needed in order to provide evidence of water pollution in agriculture. This paper describes the benefits of, and open issues stemming from, regular sensor monitoring provided by an Open Farm Management Information System. Emphasis is placed on descriptions of the processes and functionalities available to users, the underlying open data model, and definitions of open and lightweight application programming interfaces for the efficient management of collected (spatial) data. The presented Open Farm Management Information System has already been successfully registered under Phase 8 of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Architecture Implementation Pilot in order to support the wide variety of demands that are primarily aimed at agriculture pollution monitoring. The final part of the paper deals with the integration of the Open Farm Management Information System into the Digital Earth framework.

  11. Numerical simulation of the subsolar magnetopause current layer in the sun-earth meridian plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, H.

    1993-01-01

    The formation and stability of the magnetopause current layer near the subsolar point in the sun-earth meridian plane are examined using a 2D electromagnetic particle simulation. For the case of zero IMF, the simulation results show that the current layer remains stable and is essentially the same as in the 1D simulation. The width of the current layer is given by the electron-ion hybrid gyroradius which is much smaller than the ion gyroradius. The current layer is found to remain stable for the northward IMF as well. As in the 1D simulation, the jump of the magnetic field at the current layer for the northward IMF remains small. For the southward IMF, collisionless magnetic reconnection is found to develop, leading to the formation of magnetic islands and density peaking within the current layer.

  12. Current Monitoring System for ITER Like ICRH Antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argouarch, A.

    2006-01-01

    On TS antennas, the power transfer optimization from ICRH antenna to Plasma load is performed using feedback internal matching system. Experimental handling is required to mach the reactive impedance accordingly to the fluctuant plasma loading. As part of the development of the new ICRH prototype antenna, an additional measurement system based on Rogowski coils was developed to monitor the current distribution in antenna straps. The objective is to control module and phase of the antenna current straps with measurement provided by the coil system. Matching capacitors values, generators power and phase can also be controlled using the output of the devices, improving the real time matching control of the array. This paper details the new measurement layout, the Rogowski coil, and the whole system connected on each strap design for RF currents measurement between 40 MHz - 60 MHz for maximum amplitude of 1 kA. On the new ICRH prototype antenna, the measurement coils are coupled to the point where the strap currents are short circuited to the frame. The module and phase measurements are performed with the coils by direct magnetic induction in a vacuum and high temperature environment. Also, the Rogowski coils were characterized at low level power with vector network analyzer and the design adapted in order to obtain a controlled and reproducible gain in the desire bandwidth. The transconductive function is established with an experimental gain near -80 dB between primary circuit and inductive signal generated by the Rogowski coil. In a second step, the system with its associated electronic was qualified under high RF power. First results with high RF current (closed to 500 A at 57 MHz) match the desire Rogowski coil response. Compromises with electrical response at low power level and the coil under thermal/RF stresses were the most challenging part of the development. The overall response of the system and the current module/phase measurements are promising. A proper

  13. On current fluctuations in near-earth space plasma with lower-hybrid-drift turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, C.V.

    1993-01-01

    Electron and ion current fluctuations caused by lower-hybrid-drift turbulence are estimated within nonlinear theory for the plasma of the ionospheric F-layer, as well as for the plasma mantle and the plasma sheet boundary layer of the tail of the earth's magnetosphere. They are found to be of the order of 10 -14 - 10 -11 A/m 2 and 10 -13 - 10 -9 A/m 2 , respectively. (orig.)

  14. Rigidly framed earth retaining structures thermal soil structure interaction of buildings supporting unbalanced lateral earth pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Aboumoussa, Walid

    2014-01-01

    Structures placed on hillsides often present a number of challenges and a limited number of economical choices for site design. An option sometimes employed is to use the building frame as a retaining element, comprising a Rigidly Framed Earth Retaining Structure (RFERS). The relationship between temperature and earth pressure acting on RFERS, is explored in this monograph through a 4.5 year monitoring program of a heavily instrumented in service structure. The data indicated that the coefficient of earth pressure behind the monitored RFERS had a strong linear correlation with temperature. The study also revealed that thermal cycles, rather than lateral earth pressure, were the cause of failure in many structural elements. The book demonstrates that depending on the relative stiffness of the retained soil mass and that of the structural frame, the developed lateral earth pressure, during thermal expansion, can reach magnitudes several times larger than those determined using classical earth pressure theories....

  15. LAMPF experimental-area beam current monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallerico, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    This paper summarizes the design and operational performance of a wide- range current monitor system used to measure charged-particle currents in the experimental areas of the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF), a proton accelerator. The major features of the system are high sensitivity, wide dynamic range, and the ability to withstand high levels of radiation. The current pulses detected are from 50 μs to 1 ms in duration at repetition rates of from 1 to 120 Hz. The pulse amplitude varies from 1 μA to 17 mA of protons or H - ions. Both real-time and integrated outputs are available, and the minimum detectable currents are 1 μA at the video output and 50 nA at the integrated output. The basic system is comprised of toroids, preamplifiers, signal conditioners, voltage-to-frequency converters, and digital accumulators. The entire system is spread out over 1 km of beam pipe. Provision is made for calibration and for sending the outputs to remote users. The system is normally controlled by a small digital computer, which allows the system to be quite flexible in operation. The design features of the toroids and the associated electronics are discussed in detail, with emphasis on the steps taken to reduce noise and make the toroids temperature and radiation resistant

  16. Photographic coronagraph, Skylab particulate experiment T025. [earth atmospheric pollution and Kohoutek Comet monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovane, F.; Schuerman, D. W.; Greenberg, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A photographic coronagraph, built to monitor Skylab's extravehicular contamination, is described. This versatile instrument was used to observe the earth's vertical aerosol distribution and Comet Kohoutek (1973f) near perihelion. Although originally designed for deployment from the solar airlock, the instrument was modified for EVA operation when the airlock was rendered unusable. The results of the observations made in four EVA's were almost completely ruined by the failure of a Skylab operational camera used with the coronagraph. Nevertheless, an aerosol layer at 48 km was discovered in the southern hemisphere from the few useful photographs.

  17. A beam position monitor for low current dc beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adderley, P.; Barry, W.; Heefner, J.; Kloeppel, P.; Rossmanith, R.; Wise, M.; Jachim, S.

    1989-01-01

    The 4 GeV recirculating linac, CEBAF, if presently under construction and will produce a CW beam with average current between.1 and 200 μA. In order to measure beam position, the beam current will be amplitude modulated at a frequency of 10 MHz. The modulation is detected by an inductive loop type monitor with electronics sensitive only to the modulation frequency. The first test with beam from the CEBAF injector indicate that beam position can be measured with an accuracy of .1 mm at a modulated beam current of 1 μA. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab

  18. Study of an ILC Main Linac that Follows the Earth Curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Eliasson, P; Poirier, F; Schulte, Daniel; Walker, N

    2006-01-01

    In the base line configuration, the tunnel of the ILC will follow the earth curvature. The emittance growth in a curved main linac has been studied including static and dynamic imperfections. These include effects due to current ripples in the power supplies of the steering coils and the impact of the beam position monitors scale errors.

  19. Comparison of dayside current layers in Venus' ionosphere and earth's equatorial electrojet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Keith D.

    1993-01-01

    The major physical aspects of the equatorial electrojet of Earth and the dayside ionospheric current layers of Venus are compared, viz., the electric current intensity and total current, roles of electric field, pressure and gravity, diffusion time scales, and the Bernouille effect. The largest potential differences, of the order of 10 volts, horizontally across the dayside ionosphere of Venus, have important implications for possible dynamo action in the Venus ionosphere and the application of an electric field from the lower atmosphere or from the solar wind. An upper limit to the horizontal scale of vertical magnetic fields in the Venus ionosphere is estimated thereby for the first time. New upper limits on the velocity in, and thickness of, a possible S layer at Venus are presented. If an S layer exists, it is only for extreme conditions of the solar wind. A mechanism for formation of magnetic ropes in the Venus ionosphere is also proposed.

  20. A new model for turbidity current behavior based on integration of flow monitoring and precision coring in a submarine canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, William O.; Sumner, Esther J.; Paull, Charles K.; Cartigny, Matthieu J.B.; Xu, Jingping; Maier, Katherine L.; Lorenson, Thomas; Talling, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Submarine turbidity currents create some of the largest sediment accumulations on Earth, yet there are few direct measurements of these flows. Instead, most of our understanding of turbidity currents results from analyzing their deposits in the sedimentary record. However, the lack of direct flow measurements means that there is considerable debate regarding how to interpret flow properties from ancient deposits. This novel study combines detailed flow monitoring with unusually precisely located cores at different heights, and multiple locations, within the Monterey submarine canyon, offshore California, USA. Dating demonstrates that the cores include the time interval that flows were monitored in the canyon, albeit individual layers cannot be tied to specific flows. There is good correlation between grain sizes collected by traps within the flow and grain sizes measured in cores from similar heights on the canyon walls. Synthesis of flow and deposit data suggests that turbidity currents sourced from the upper reaches of Monterey Canyon comprise three flow phases. Initially, a thin (38–50 m) powerful flow in the upper canyon can transport, tilt, and break the most proximal moorings and deposit chaotic sands and gravel on the canyon floor. The initially thin flow front then thickens and deposits interbedded sands and silty muds on the canyon walls as much as 62 m above the canyon floor. Finally, the flow thickens along its length, thus lofting silty mud and depositing it at greater altitudes than the previous deposits and in excess of 70 m altitude.

  1. High-stable secondary-emission monitor for accelerated electron beam current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudnikov, I.A.; Saksaganskij, G.L.; Bazhanov, E.B.; Zabrodin, B.V.

    1977-01-01

    A secondary-emission monitor for a 10 to 30 MeV electron beam (beam current is 10 -4 to 10 -2 A) is described. The monitor comprises a measuring electrode unit, titanium discharge-type pump, getter made of porous titanium, all enclosed in a metal casing. The measuring unit comprises three electrodes made of 20 μm aluminium foil. The secondary emission coefficient (5.19%+-0.06% for the electron energy of 20 MeV) is maintained stable for a long time. The monitor detects pulses of up to some nanoseconds duration. It is reliable in operation, and is recommended for a wide practical application

  2. Sunlight effects on the 3D polar current system determined from low Earth orbit measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laundal, Karl M.; Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between the solar wind and the Earth’s magnetosphere is associated with large-scale currents in the ionosphere at polar latitudes that flow along magnetic field lines (Birkeland currents) and horizontally. These current systems are tightly linked, but their global behaviors are rarely...... analyzed together. In this paper, we present estimates of the average global Birkeland currents and horizontal ionospheric currents from the same set of magnetic field measurements. The magnetic field measurements, from the low Earth orbiting Swarm and CHAMP satellites, are used to co-estimate poloidal...... and toroidal parts of the magnetic disturbance field, represented in magnetic apex coordinates. The use of apex coordinates reduces effects of longitudinal and hemispheric variations in the Earth’s main field. We present global currents from both hemispheres during different sunlight conditions. The results...

  3. High Accuracy Beam Current Monitor System for CEBAF'S Experimental Hall A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Denard; A. Saha; G. Lavessiere

    2001-01-01

    CEBAF accelerator delivers continuous wave (CW) electron beams to three experimental Halls. In Hall A, all experiments require continuous, non-invasive current measurements and a few experiments require an absolute accuracy of 0.2 % in the current range from 1 to 180 (micro)A. A Parametric Current Transformer (PCT), manufactured by Bergoz, has an accurate and stable sensitivity of 4 (micro)A/V but its offset drifts at the muA level over time preclude its direct use for continuous measurements. Two cavity monitors are calibrated against the PCT with at least 50 (micro)A of beam current. The calibration procedure suppresses the error due to PCT's offset drifts by turning the beam on and off, which is invasive to the experiment. One of the goals of the system is to minimize the calibration time without compromising the measurement's accuracy. The linearity of the cavity monitors is a critical parameter for transferring the accurate calibration done at high currents over the whole dynamic range. The method for measuring accurately the linearity is described

  4. On-line monitoring of base current and forward emitter current gain of the voltage regulator's serial pnp transistor in a radiation environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukić Vladimir Đ.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of on-line monitoring of the low-dropout voltage regulator's operation in a radiation environment is developed in this paper. The method had to enable detection of the circuit's degradation during exploitation, without terminating its operation in an ionizing radiation field. Moreover, it had to enable automatic measurement and data collection, as well as the detection of any considerable degradation, well before the monitored voltage regulator's malfunction. The principal parameters of the voltage regulator's operation that were monitored were the serial pnp transistor's base current and the forward emitter current gain. These parameters were procured indirectly, from the data on the voltage regulator's load and quiescent currents. Since the internal consumption current in moderately and heavily loaded devices was used, the quiescent current of a negligibly loaded voltage regulator of the same type served as a reference. Results acquired by on-line monitoring demonstrated marked agreement with the results acquired from examinations of the voltage regulator's maximum output current and minimum dropout voltage in a radiation environment. The results were particularly consistent in tests with heavily loaded devices. Results obtained for moderately loaded voltage regulators and the risks accompanying the application of the presented method, were also analyzed.

  5. Direct current electroluminescence in rare-earth-doped zinc sulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, F.J.; Krier, A.

    1984-01-01

    Some of the properties and characteristics of rare-earth-doped zinc sulphide DCEL devices are reported. Two types of devices are discussed, co-evaporated ZnS:RE thin films and ion implanted ZnS:RE single crystal diodes. The thin film devices exhibit bright DCEL of various colours at low applied voltages (typically approximately 12 V). A study of the spectral intensities and lifetimes of the Er 3+ ion in ZnS:Er 3+ thin films is consistent with a Boltzmann energy distribution amongst the conduction electrons present in these devices. The ZnS:RE single crystal diodes fabricated in this laboratory by ion implantation are also capable of various colour DCEL. By comparing the EL emission obtained from the different rare earth dopants, erbium and neodymium are identified as the most efficient luminescence centres. Further consideration of the EL emission spectra gives evidence for the presence of inter-conduction band hot electron transitions in those devices containing rare earth dopants which are inefficent electroluminescence centres. These findings can be explained in terms of Auger processes occurring in rare earth complexes. (author)

  6. Gear wear monitoring by modulation signal bispectrum based on motor current signal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiliang; Gu, Fengshou; Mansaf, Haram; Wang, Tie; Ball, Andrew D.

    2017-09-01

    Gears are important mechanical components for power transmissions. Tooth wear is one of the most common failure modes, which can present throughout a gear's lifetime. It is significant to accurately monitor gear wear progression in order to take timely predictive maintenances. Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) is an effective and non-intrusive approach which is able to monitor faults from both electrical and mechanical systems. However, little research has been reported in monitoring the gear wear and estimating its severity based on MCSA. This paper presents a novel gear wear monitoring method through a modulation signal bispectrum based motor current signal analysis (MSB-MCSA). For a steady gear transmission, it is inevitable to exist load and speed oscillations due to various errors including wears. These oscillations can induce small modulations in the current signals of the driving motor. MSB is particularly effective in characterising such small modulation signals. Based on these understandings, the monitoring process was implemented based on the current signals from a run-to-failure test of an industrial two stages helical gearbox under a moderate accelerated fatigue process. At the initial operation of the test, MSB analysis results showed that the peak values at the bifrequencies of gear rotations and the power supply can be effective monitoring features for identifying faulty gears and wear severity as they exhibit agreeable changes with gear loads. A monotonically increasing trend established by these features allows a clear indication of the gear wear progression. The dismantle inspection at 477 h of operation, made when one of the monitored features is about 123% higher than its baseline, has found that there are severe scuffing wear marks on a number of tooth surfaces on the driving gear, showing that the gear endures a gradual wear process during its long test operation. Therefore, it is affirmed that the MSB-MSCA approach proposed is reliable

  7. Circuitry for monitoring a high direct current voltage supply for an ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An arrangement to measure the voltage of the supply and a switching means controlled by this is described. The voltage measurer consists of first and second signal coupling means, the input of the second (connected to the voltage supply) is connected in series with the output of the first. An ionization chamber with this circuitry may be used to monitor the radiation output of a particle accelerator more accurately. Faulty measurements of the dose output, caused by voltages in the earth circuit, are avoided. (U.K.)

  8. LIMNOLOGICAL OPTOMETRY: EXAMINING EARTH'S EYE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Thoreau's Walden, a lake is described as the landscape's most expressive feature and the earth's eye. Collectively, scientists are charged by society to assess, monitor, and remedy maladies of earth's eye in the same way optometrists maintain the health of the human eye. This ...

  9. New insights from direct monitoring of turbidity currents; and a proposal for co-ordinating international efforts at a series of global "turbidity current test sites"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talling, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Turbidity currents, and other types of submarine sediment density flow, arguably redistribute more sediment across the surface of the Earth than any other flow process. It is now over 60 years since the seminal publication of Kuenen and Migliorini (1950) in which they made the link between sequences of graded bedding and turbidity currents. The deposits of submarine sediment density flows have been described in numerous locations worldwide, and this might lead to the view that these flows are well understood. However, it is sobering to note quite how few direct measurements we have from these submarine flows in action. Sediment concentration is the critical parameter controlling such flows, yet it has never been measured directly for flows that reach and build submarine fans. How then do we know what type of flow to model in flume tanks, or which assumptions to use to formulate numerical simulations or analytical models? It is proposed here that international efforts are needed for an initiative to monitor active turbidity currents at a series of 'test sites' where flows occur frequently. The flows evolve significantly, such that source to sink data are needed. We also need to directly monitor flows in different settings with variable triggering factors and flow path morphologies because their character can vary significantly. Such work should integrate numerical and physical modelling with the collection of field observations in order to understand the significance of field observations. Such an international initiative also needs to include coring of deposits to link flow processes to deposit character, because in most global locations flow behaviour must be inferred from deposits alone. Collection of seismic datasets is also crucial for understanding the larger-scale evolution and resulting architecture of these systems, and to link with studies of subsurface reservoirs. Test site datasets should thus include a wide range of data types, not just from direct flow

  10. How to address a global problem with Earth Observations? Developing best practices to monitor forests around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Cordova, A. I.; Cherrington, E. A.; Vadrevu, K.; Thapa, R. B.; Oduor, P.; Mehmood, H.; Quyen, N. H.; Saah, D. S.; Yero, K.; Mamane, B.; Bartel, P.; Limaye, A. S.; French, R.; Irwin, D.; Wilson, S.; Gottielb, S.; Notman, E.

    2017-12-01

    Forests represent a key natural resource, for which degradation or disturbance is directly associated to economic implications, particularly in the context of the United Nations program REDD+ in supporting national policies to fight illegal deforestation. SERVIR, a joint NASA-USAID initiative that brings Earth observations (EO) for improved environmental decision making in developing countries, works with established institutions, called SERVIR hubs, in four regions around the world. SERVIR is partnering with global programs with great experience in providing best practices in forest monitoring systems, such as SilvaCarbon and the Global Forest Observation Initiative (GFOI), to develop a capacity building plan that prioritizes user needs. Representatives from the SERVIR global network met in February 2017 with experts in the field of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for forest applications to envisage this capacity building plan that aims to leverage the state-of-the-art knowledge on remote sensing to enhance forest monitoring for user agencies in SERVIR regions. SERVIR Hubs in West Africa, Eastern and Southern Africa, Hindu Kush-Himalaya and Lower Mekong, have long-lasting relations with local, national and regional initiatives, and there is a strong understanding of needs, concerns and best practices when addressing forest monitoring and capacity building. SERVIR Hubs also have a wealth of experience in building capacity on the use of EO to monitor forests, mostly using optical imagery. Most of the forest cover maps generated with SERVIR support have been used as the official national forest cover dataset for international reporting commitments. However, as new EO datasets become available, and in view of the inherent limitations of optical imagery, there is a strong need to use all freely available EO datasets, including SAR, to improve Monitoring & Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) systems and provide more frequent and accurate information. SERVIR

  11. Continuous Glucose Monitoring in the Cardiac ICU: Current Use and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimgeour, Laura A; Potz, Brittany A; Sellke, Frank W; Abid, M Ruhul

    2017-11-01

    Perioperative glucose control is highly important, particularly for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Variable glucose levels before, during and after cardiac surgery lead to increased post-operative complications and patient mortality. [1] Current methods for intensive monitoring and treating hyperglycemia in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) usually involve hourly glucose monitoring and continuous intravenous insulin infusions. With the advent of more accurate subcutaneous glucose monitoring systems, the role of improved glucose control with newer systems deserves consideration for widespread adoption.

  12. Current concepts in blood glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Kranti Shreesh; Bandgar, Tushar; Shivane, Vyankatesh; Lila, Anurag; Shah, Nalini

    2013-12-01

    Blood glucose monitoring has evolved over the last century. The concept of adequate glycemic control and minimum glycemic variability requires an ideal, accurate and reliable glucose monitoring system. The search for an ideal blood glucose monitoring system still continues. This review explains the various blood glucose monitoring systems with special focus on the monitoring systems like self- monitored blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). It also focuses on the newer concepts of blood glucose monitoring and their incorporation in routine clinical management of diabetes mellitus.

  13. Current concepts in blood glucose monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Kranti Shreesh; Bandgar, Tushar; Shivane, Vyankatesh; Lila, Anurag; Shah, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    Blood glucose monitoring has evolved over the last century. The concept of adequate glycemic control and minimum glycemic variability requires an ideal, accurate and reliable glucose monitoring system. The search for an ideal blood glucose monitoring system still continues. This review explains the various blood glucose monitoring systems with special focus on the monitoring systems like self- monitored blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). It also focuses on the newer concepts of blood glucose monitoring and their incorporation in routine clinical management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:24910827

  14. Current concepts in blood glucose monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranti Shreesh Khadilkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood glucose monitoring has evolved over the last century. The concept of adequate glycemic control and minimum glycemic variability requires an ideal, accurate and reliable glucose monitoring system. The search for an ideal blood glucose monitoring system still continues. This review explains the various blood glucose monitoring systems with special focus on the monitoring systems like self- monitored blood glucose (SMBG and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS. It also focuses on the newer concepts of blood glucose monitoring and their incorporation in routine clinical management of diabetes mellitus.

  15. Current concepts in blood glucose monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Khadilkar, Kranti Shreesh; Bandgar, Tushar; Shivane, Vyankatesh; Lila, Anurag; Shah, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    Blood glucose monitoring has evolved over the last century. The concept of adequate glycemic control and minimum glycemic variability requires an ideal, accurate and reliable glucose monitoring system. The search for an ideal blood glucose monitoring system still continues. This review explains the various blood glucose monitoring systems with special focus on the monitoring systems like self- monitored blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). It also focuses on t...

  16. Mapping the earth's magnetic and gravity fields from space Current status and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settle, M.; Taranik, J. V.

    1983-01-01

    The principal magnetic fields encountered by earth orbiting spacecraft include the main (core) field, external fields produced by electrical currents within the ionosphere and magnetosphere, and the crustal (anomaly) field generated by variations in the magnetization of the outermost portions of the earth. The first orbital field measurements which proved to be of use for global studies of crustal magnetization were obtained by a series of three satellites launched and operated from 1965 to 1971. Each of the satellites, known as a Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO), carried a rubidium vapor magnetometer. Attention is also given to Magsat launched in 1979, the scalar anomaly field derived from the Magsat measurements, satellite tracking studies in connection with gravity field surveys, radar altimetry, the belt of positive free air gravity anomalies situated along the edge of the Pacific Ocean basin, future technological capabilities, and information concerning data availability.

  17. An Approach to Model Earth Conductivity Structures with Lateral Changes for Calculating Induced Currents and Geoelectric Fields during Geomagnetic Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During geomagnetic disturbances, the telluric currents which are driven by the induced electric fields will flow in conductive Earth. An approach to model the Earth conductivity structures with lateral conductivity changes for calculating geoelectric fields is presented in this paper. Numerical results, which are obtained by the Finite Element Method (FEM with a planar grid in two-dimensional modelling and a solid grid in three-dimensional modelling, are compared, and the flow of induced telluric currents in different conductivity regions is demonstrated. Then a three-dimensional conductivity structure is modelled and the induced currents in different depths and the geoelectric field at the Earth’s surface are shown. The geovoltages by integrating the geoelectric field along specific paths can be obtained, which are very important regarding calculations of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC in ground-based technical networks, such as power systems.

  18. Small-sized monitor of beam current and profile for the proton pulse electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getmanov, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    Design and principle of operation of current monitor and beam profile of range-coordinate type are described. Monitor operation peculiarities are discussed using diagnostics of a beam of 330-420 keV electrostatic pulse proton accelerator with a beam current of up to 20 mA, at a current density of up to 23 mA x cm -2 and wth pulse duraton of about 20 μs. The monitor consists of a vacuum-dense foil of 3.0+-0.1 μm in thickness (or 0.81+-0.0x- mg x cm -2 ) two grid electrodes, each containing 12 wires, and as solid copper bottom. Foil serves for chopping off background particles with a path lesser 3.0 μm and stands thermal pulse load up to 0.5 J/cm -2 . Grid electrode wires are oriented perpendicularly to lach other and form a two-coordinate secondary-emisson roughness indicator. The bothhom is used for measuring an absolute value of beam current

  19. Atomic structures of the rare-earths and actinides via relativistic current- and spin-density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, M.; Onuki, Y.; Osaka Univ., Toyonaka; Hasegawa, A.

    1998-01-01

    A new single-particle equation of the Kohn-Sham-Dirac type is derived from a relativistic current- and spin-density functional theory (RCSDFT), and is here applied to the calculations of the atomic structures of the rare-earth elements. Both the relativistic effects and the magnetic effects are taken into account on an equal footing, and the numerical calculation is carried out by modifying the method of Cortona et al. Because of the presence of the effective magnetic field, the degeneracies in all orbits are completely resolved like the Zeeman splittings. Total spin and orbital angular momenta over all the occupied states are shown to agree reasonably well with the Hund's rules for the rare-earth ions. (orig.)

  20. Earth Observation Research for GMES Initial Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beijma, Sybrand; Balzter, Heiko; Nicolas-Perea, Virginia

    2013-04-01

    well as receiving the best technical training and scientific education. This training is currently being delivered through individually supervised research, international summer schools and local training. GIONET will develop better methods for monitoring climate change, environmental disasters and land cover change. It will also lead to the development of new methods using satellite monitoring for disaster relief after landslides and floods, controlling deforestation and overseeing the protection of tropical rainforests, as well as for climate change monitoring, lake water quality measurement and coastal erosion assessment. The training program through supervised research focuses on 14 research topics (each carried out by an Early Stage Researchers based in one of the partner organization) divided in 5 main areas: * Forest monitoring: o Global biomass information systems o Forest monitoring of the Congo Basin using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) o Multi-concept Earth Observation capabilities for biomass mapping and change detection: synergy of multi-temporal and multi-frequency interferometric radar and optical satellite data * Land cover and change: o Multi-scale remote sensing synergy for land process studies: from field spectrometry to airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR campaigns to radar-optical satellite data o Multi-temporal, multi-frequency SAR for landscape dynamics * Coastal zone and freshwater monitoring: o SAR-based Earth Observation in support of management of intertidal salt marsh habitats o Dynamics and conservation ecology of emergent and submerged macrophytes in Lake Balaton using airborne remote sensing o Satellite remote sensing of water quality (chlorophyll and suspended sediment) using MODIS and ship-mounted LIDAR * Geohazards and emergency response: o Methods for detection and monitoring of small scale land surface feature changes in complex crisis situations o Monitoring landslide displacements with Radar Interferometry o DINSAR/PSI hybrid

  1. Current Trends in Neuromuscular Blockade, Management, and Monitoring amongst Singaporean Anaesthetists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy H. Teoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This survey aimed to investigate the attitudes/practice pertaining the use, management, and monitoring of neuromuscular blockade amongst Singaporean anaesthetists. Methods. All specialist accredited anaesthetists registered with the Singapore Medical Council were invited to complete an anonymous online survey. Results. The response rate was 39.5%. Neuromuscular monitoring (NM was used routinely by only 13.1% despite the widespread availability of monitors. 82% stated residual NMB (RNMB was a significant risk factor for patient outcome, but only 24% believed NMB monitoring should be compulsory in all paralyzed patients. 63.6% of anaesthetists estimated the risk of RNMB in their own institutions to be 50% said such benefits may be able to offset the associated costs. Conclusions. There is a significant need for reeducation about RNMB, studies on local RNMB incidences, and strengthening of current monitoring practices and guidelines. Strategies are discussed. As NM monitors appear widely available and reversal of NMB standard practice, it is hopeful that Singaporean anaesthetists will change and strive for evidence-based best clinical practice to enhance patient safety.

  2. Rip current monitoring using GPS buoy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, DongSeob; Kim, InHo; Kang, DongSoo

    2014-05-01

    The occurrence of rip current in the Haeundae beach, which is one of the most famous beaches in South Korea, has been threatening beach-goers security in summer season annually. Many coastal scientists have been investigating rip currents by using field observations and measurements, laboratory measurements and wave tank experiments, and computer and numerical modeling. Rip current velocity is intermittent and may rapidly increase within minutes due to larger incoming wave groups or nearshore circulation instabilities. It is important to understand that changes in rip current velocity occur in response to changes in incoming wave height and period as well as changes in water level. GPS buoys have been used to acquire sea level change data, atmospheric parameters and other oceanic variables in sea for the purposes of vertical datum determination, tide correction, radar altimeter calibration, ocean environment and marine pollution monitoring. Therefore, we adopted GPS buoy system for an experiment which is to investigate rip current velocity; it is sporadic and may quickly upsurge within minutes due to larger arriving wave groups or nearshore flow uncertainties. In this study, for high accurate positioning of buy equipment, a Satellite Based Argumentation System DGPS data logger was deployed to investigate within floating object, and it can be acquired three-dimensional coordinate or geodetic position of buoy with continuous NMEA-0183 protocol during 24 hours. The wave height measured by in-situ hydrometer in a cross-shore array clearly increased before and after occurrence of rip current, and wave period also was lengthened around an event. These results show that wave height and period correlate reasonably well with long-shore current interaction in the Haeundae beach. Additionally, current meter data and GPS buoy data showed that rip current velocities, about 0.2 m/s, may become dangerously strong under specific conditions. Acknowledgement This research was

  3. A Smart Voltage and Current Monitoring System for Three Phase Inverters Using an Android Smartphone Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnati, Mohannad Jabbar; Van den Bossche, Alex; Chisab, Raad Farhood

    2017-04-15

    In this paper, a new smart voltage and current monitoring system (SVCMS) technique is proposed. It monitors a three phase electrical system using an Arduino platform as a microcontroller to read the voltage and current from sensors and then wirelessly send the measured data to monitor the results using a new Android application. The integrated SVCMS design uses an Arduino Nano V3.0 as the microcontroller to measure the results from three voltage and three current sensors and then send this data, after calculation, to the Android smartphone device of an end user using Bluetooth HC-05. The Arduino Nano V3.0 controller and Bluetooth HC-05 are a cheap microcontroller and wireless device, respectively. The new Android smartphone application that monitors the voltage and current measurements uses the open source MIT App Inventor 2 software. It allows for monitoring some elementary fundamental voltage power quality properties. An effort has been made to investigate what is possible using available off-the-shelf components and open source software.

  4. Lidar instruments for ESA Earth observation missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hélière, Arnaud; Armandillo, Errico; Durand, Yannig; Culoma, Alain; Meynart, Roland

    2017-11-01

    The idea of deploying a lidar system on an Earthorbiting satellite stems from the need for continuously providing profiles of our atmospheric structure with high accuracy and resolution and global coverage. Interest in this information for climatology, meteorology and the atmospheric sciences in general is huge. Areas of application range from the determination of global warming and greenhouse effects, to monitoring the transport and accumulation of pollutants in the different atmospheric regions (such as the recent fires in Southeast Asia), to the assessment of the largely unknown microphysical properties and the structural dynamics of the atmosphere itself. Spaceborne lidar systems have been the subject of extensive investigations by the European Space Agency since mid 1970's, resulting in mission and instrument concepts, such as ATLID, the cloud backscatter lidar payload of the EarthCARE mission, ALADIN, the Doppler wind lidar of the Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM) and more recently a water vapour Differential Absorption Lidar considered for the WALES mission. These studies have shown the basic scientific and technical feasibility of spaceborne lidars, but they have also demonstrated their complexity from the instrument viewpoint. As a result, the Agency undertook technology development in order to strengthen the instrument maturity. This is the case for ATLID, which benefited from a decade of technology development and supporting studies and is now studied in the frame of the EarthCARE mission. ALADIN, a Direct Detection Doppler Wind Lidar operating in the Ultra -Violet, will be the 1st European lidar to fly in 2007 as payload of the Earth Explorer Core Mission ADM. WALES currently studied at the level of a phase A, is based upon a lidar operating at 4 wavelengths in near infrared and aims to profile the water vapour in the lower part of the atmosphere with high accuracy and low bias. Lastly, the European Space Agency is extending the lidar instrument field

  5. Personal dosimetric monitoring in Ukraine: current status and further development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, V. V.; Musijachenkom, A. V.; Boguslavskaya, A. I.

    2003-01-01

    Presently Ukraine has mixed system for dosimetric monitoring. Nuclear power plants and some major nuclear facilities have their own dosimetry services, which are responsible for regular dosimetric monitoring of workers. Rest of occupationally exposed persons is monitored by dosimetry laboratories affiliated to the territorial authorities for sanitary and epidemiology supervision. In 2002-2003 Ukrainian Ministry of Health performed survey of the status of dosimetric monitoring and inventory of critical groups requiring such monitoring. Dosimetry services in Ukraine cover about 38,000 occupationally exposed workers, including 9,100 medical professionals, 16,400 employees of 5 nuclear power plants and ca.12,400 workers dealing with other sources of occupational exposure (industry, research). Territorial dosimetry services operate in 13 of 24 regions of Ukraine, using DTU-01 manual TLD readers produced with one exception in 1988-1990. The coverage of critical groups by dosimetric monitoring is variable and ranges from 38% to 100% depending on the region. Personnel of nuclear power plants (about 16,400 workers) is monitored by their own dosimetry services achieving absolute coverage of the main staff and temporary workers. Current inadequate status of dosimetric monitoring infrastructure in Ukraine demands an urgent elaboration of the united state system for monitoring and recording of individual doses. The proposed plan would allows to bring dosimetry infrastructure in Ukraine to the modern state which would be compatible with existing and future European and international radiation protection networks. Unitary structure of Ukraine, strong administrative command and good communications between regions of the country are positive factors in favour of efficient implementation of the proposed plan. Deficiencies are associated with limited funding of this effort. (authors)

  6. Wearable activity monitors in oncology trials: Current use of an emerging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresham, Gillian; Schrack, Jennifer; Gresham, Louise M; Shinde, Arvind M; Hendifar, Andrew E; Tuli, Richard; Rimel, B J; Figlin, Robert; Meinert, Curtis L; Piantadosi, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Physical activity is an important outcome in oncology trials. Physical activity is commonly assessed using self-reported questionnaires, which are limited by recall and response biases. Recent advancements in wearable technology have provided oncologists with new opportunities to obtain real-time, objective physical activity data. The purpose of this review was to describe current uses of wearable activity monitors in oncology trials. We searched Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for oncology trials involving wearable activity monitors published between 2005 and 2016. We extracted details on study design, types of activity monitors used, and purpose for their use. We summarized activity monitor metrics including step counts, sleep and sedentary time, and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity. We identified 41 trials of which 26 (63%) involved cancer survivors (post-treatment) and 15 trials (37%) involved patients with active cancer. Most trials (65%) involved breast cancer patients. Wearable activity monitors were commonly used in exercise (54%) or behavioral (29%) trials. Cancer survivors take between 4660 and 11,000 steps/day and those undergoing treatment take 2885 to 8300steps/day. Wearable activity monitors are increasingly being used to obtain objective measures of physical activity in oncology trials. There is potential for their use to expand to evaluate and predict clinical outcomes such as survival, quality of life, and treatment tolerance in future studies. Currently, there remains a lack of standardization in the types of monitors being used and how their data are being collected, analyzed, and interpreted. Recent advancements in wearable activity monitor technology have provided oncologists with new opportunities to monitor their patients' daily activity in real-world settings. The integration of wearable activity monitors into cancer care will help increase our understanding of the associations between

  7. Earth mortars and earth-lime renders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth surface coatings play a decorative architectural role, apart from their function as wall protection. In Portuguese vernacular architecture, earth mortars were usually applied on stone masonry, while earth renders and plasters were used on indoors surface coatings. Limestone exists only in certain areas of the country and consequently lime was not easily available everywhere, especially on granite and schist regions where stone masonry was a current building technique. In the central west coast of Portugal, the lime slaking procedure entailed slaking the quicklime mixed with earth (sandy soil, in a pit; the resulting mixture would then be combined in a mortar or plaster. This was also the procedure for manufactured adobes stabilized with lime. Adobe buildings with earth-lime renderings and plasters were also traditional in the same region, using lime putty and lime wash for final coat and decoration. Classic decoration on earth architecture from the 18th-19th century was in many countries a consequence of the François Cointeraux (1740-1830 manuals - Les Cahiers d'Architecture Rurale" (1793 - a French guide for earth architecture and building construction. This manual arrived to Portugal in the beginning of XIX century, but was never translated to Portuguese. References about decoration for earth houses were explained on this manual, as well as procedures about earth-lime renders and ornamentation of earth walls; in fact, these procedures are exactly the same as the ones used in adobe buildings in this Portuguese region. The specific purpose of the present paper is to show some cases of earth mortars, renders and plasters on stone buildings in Portugal and to explain the methods of producing earth-lime renders, and also to show some examples of rendering and coating with earth-lime in Portuguese adobe vernacular architecture.

  8. Analysis of Critical Earth Observation Priorities for Societal Benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, E. R.; Huff, A. K.; Carpenter, A. T.; Friedl, L.

    2011-12-01

    moisture content, burn scars, and meteorological parameters. Impacts to public health and livelihoods due to food insecurity, algal blooms, and air pollution can be addressed through NRT monitoring of specific events utilizing land cover, atmospheric composition, water quality, and meteorological observations. More broadly, the assessment of water availability for drinking and agriculture and the development of floods and storms rely on continuous feeds of NRT meteorological and atmospheric composition observations. Overall, this multi-disciplinary study of user needs for NRT data and products can inform the design and operation of NRT data systems. Follow-on work for this study will also be presented, focusing on the availability of current and future satellite measurements (including NRT) of the 30 most critical Earth observation priorities, as well as a detailed analysis of users' needs for precipitation data. The results of this study summarize the priorities for critical Earth observations utilized globally for societal benefit.

  9. Beam position dependence of a wall-current monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamiya, K.; Asami, A.; Suwada, T.; Urano, T.; Kobayashi, H.

    1995-01-01

    It was pointed out recently that there exists an appreciable beam position dependence in the wall-current monitor widely used in electron accelerators. Detailed study of this dependence is performed on a test bench varying the pulse width and the frequency of the input signal simulating the beam. The results of experiments show that when the pulse width becomes shorter more appreciable becomes the dependence, and it approaches to that of calculated from the method of images. A unified analysis is under way. (author)

  10. Solar causes of the excitation of earth electric currents and of geomagnetic field disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivsky, L.

    1977-01-01

    A survey is given of the effects of solar activity on geomagnetic and geoelectric disturbances. Indexes are given showing changes in the magnetic field, the occurrence of calm geomagnetic days related to solar activity, proton solar flares and electrical currents in the high layers of the atmosphere in the polar region, powerfull solar activity and electric currents in the polar region, the time rise of shock waves in the development of proton flares and the boundaries of sector structures of the interplanetary magnetic field and its effect on the Earth. It is stated that the geoelectric and geomagnetic fields are affected by the discrete phenomena of solar activity and by the transition of the quasimagnetic sectors of interplanetary fields. (J.P.)

  11. Development of a beam current monitor by using an amorphous magnetic core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Ueda, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Miya, K.; Tagawa, S.; Kobayashi, H.

    1993-01-01

    The high performance amorphous magnetic core monitor (ACM) for the measurement of electron beam currents has been developed. This monitor is composed of an amorphous magnetic core, radiation shields, a winding, magnetic absorbers, a ceramic vacuum duct and a SMA connecter. The ACM showed the very fast rise and fall times (< 1 ns), the high sensitivity (5 V/A at 50 Ω load), the good linearity, and good S/N ratio due to the high permeability of the amorphous magnetic core. The monitor works as a primary transformer. The time-response was simulated by an electric circuit analysis code. (orig.)

  12. A DSP-Based Beam Current Monitoring System for Machine Protection Using Adaptive Filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Musson; H. Dong; R. Flood; C. Hovater; J. Hereford

    2001-01-01

    The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson Lab is currently using an analog beam current monitoring (BCM) system for its machine protection system (MPS), which has a loss accuracy of 2 micro-amps. Recent burn-through simulations predict catastrophic beam line component failures below 1 micro-amp of loss, resulting in a blind spot for the MPS. Revised MPS requirements target an ultimate beam loss accuracy of 250 nA. A new beam current monitoring system has been developed which utilizes modern digital receiver technology and digital signal processing concepts. The receiver employs a direct-digital down converter integrated circuit, mated with a Jefferson Lab digital signal processor VME card. Adaptive filtering is used to take advantage of current-dependent burn-through rates. Benefits of such a system include elimination of DC offsets, generic algorithm development, extensive filter options, and interfaces to UNIX-based control systems

  13. The Earth's Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In the last five years, scientists have been able to monitor our changing planet in ways never before possible. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, has given researchers an unprecedented view of the biological engine that drives life on Earth-the countless forms of plants that cover the land and fill the oceans. 'There is no question the Earth is changing. SeaWiFS has enabled us, for the first time, to monitor the biological consequences of that change-to see how the things we do, as well as natural variability, affect the Earth's ability to support life,' said Gene Carl Feldman, SeaWiFS project manager at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. SeaWiFS data, based on continuous daily global observations, have helped scientists make a more accurate assessment of the oceans' role in the global carbon cycle. The data provide a key parameter in a number of ecological and environmental studies as well as global climate-change modeling. The images of the Earth's changing land, ocean and atmosphere from SeaWiFS have documented many previously unrecognized phenomena. The image above shows the global biosphere from June 2002 measured by SeaWiFS. Data in the oceans is chlorophyll concentration, a measure of the amount of phytoplankton (microscopic plants) living in the ocean. On land SeaWiFS measures Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, an indication of the density of plant growth. For more information and images, read: SeaWiFS Sensor Marks Five Years Documenting Earth'S Dynamic Biosphere Image courtesy SeaWiFS project and copyright Orbimage.

  14. Citizen Science for Earth Observation: Applications in Environmental Monitoring and Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovirta, V.; Toivanen, T.; Tergujeff, R.; Hame, T.; Molinier, M.

    2015-04-01

    Citizen science is a promising way to increase temporal and spatial coverages of in-situ data, and to aid in data processing and analysis. In this paper, we present how citizen science can be used together with Earth observation, and demonstrate its value through three pilot projects focusing on forest biomass analysis, data management in emergencies and water quality monitoring. We also provide recommendations and ideas for follow-up activities. In the forest biomass analysis pilot, in the state of Durango (Mexico), local volunteers make in-situ forest inventory measurements with mobile devices. The collected data is combined with Landsat-8 imagery to derive forest biomass map of the area. The study area includes over 390 permanent sampling plots that will provide reference data for concept validation and verification. The emergency data management pilot focuses in the Philippines, in the areas affected by the typhoons Haiyan in November 2013 and Hagupit in December 2014. Data collected by emergency workers and citizens are combined with satellite data (Landsat-8, VHR if available) to intensify the disaster recovery activities and the coordination efforts. Simple processes for citizens, nongovernmental organisations and volunteers are developed to find and utilize up to date and freely available satellite imagery for coordination purposes and for building new not-for-profit services in disaster situations. In the water quality monitoring pilot, citizens around the Baltic Sea area contribute to the algae situation awareness by collecting algae observations using a mobile application. In-situ observations are compared with surface algal bloom products based on the satellite imagery, e.g. Aqua MODIS images with 500 meter resolution. As an outcome, the usability of the citizen observations together with satellite data in the algae monitoring will be evaluated.

  15. Eddy current monitoring of spacers in coolant channel assemblies of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhole, V.M.; Rastogi, P.K.; Kulkarni, P.G.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    1993-01-01

    An eddy current testing method has been standardised for monitoring spacer springs which are used in coolant channel assemblies of pressurised heavy water nuclear reactors (PHWRs). The standard bobbin coil probe used for monitoring the spacer spring detects only the location but does not monitor the tilt orientation and tilt angle of a tilted spacer spring. The knowledge of location along with the tilt orientation of the spacer spring greatly improves the performance of repositioning methods. A modified probe with angular windings has been developed in laboratory tests for monitoring the location as well as the tilt orientation of the spacer springs. Experimental results are presented showing excellent performance of the modified probe in monitoring the exact location as well as tilt orientation of a spacer spring. The modified probe has also been used successfully in the field during repositioning of spacer springs in PHWRs before commissioning. (Author)

  16. Putting Ug99 on the map: An update on current and future monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodson, D P; Nazari, K; Park, R F

    2011-01-01

    Detection of stem rust race TTKSK (Ug99) from Uganda in 1998/99 highlighted not only the extremely high vulnerability of the global wheat crop to stem rust but also a lack of adequate global systems to monitor such a threat. Progress in the development and expansion of the Global Cereal Rust...... Monitoring System (GCRMS) is described. The current situation regarding the Ug99 lineage of races is outlined and the potential for expansion into important wheat areas is considered. The GCRMS has successfully tracked the spread and changes that are occurring within the Ug99 lineage and is now well...... capacity for race analysis is seen to be critical and integration of the Global Rust Reference Centre into the stem rust monitoring network is seen as a positive development. The current acute situation with severe epidemics of stripe rust in many countries indicates a clear need for more effective global...

  17. The dependence of magnetosphere-ionosphere system on the Earth's magnetic dipole moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwira, C. M.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Sibeck, D. G.; Rastaetter, L.

    2017-12-01

    Space weather is increasingly recognized as an international problem affecting several different man-made technologies. The ability to understand, monitor and forecast Earth-directed space weather is of paramount importance for our highly technology-dependent society and for the current rapid developments in awareness and exploration within the heliosphere. It is well known that the strength of the Earth's magnetic field changes over long time scales. We use physics-based simulations with the University of Michigan Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) to examine how the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and ground geomagnetic field perturbations respond as the geomagnetic dipole moment changes. We discuss the implication of these results for our community and the end-users of space weather information.

  18. A Labview Based Leakage Current Monitoring System For HV Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mavrikakis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Labview based leakage current monitoring system for High Voltage insulators is described. The system uses a general purpose DAQ system with the addition of different current sensors. The DAQ system consists of a chassis and hot-swappable modules. Through the proper design of current sensors, low cost modules operating with a suitable input range can be employed. Fully customizable software can be developed using Labview, allowing on-demand changes and incorporation of upgrades. Such a system provides a low cost alternative to specially designed equipment with the added advantage of maximum flexibility. Further, it can be modified to satisfy the specifications (technical and economical set under different scenarios. In fact, the system described in this paper has already been installed in the HV Lab of the TEI of Crete whereas a variation of it is currently in use in TALOS High Voltage Test Station.

  19. Is the Near-Earth Current Sheet Prior to Reconnection Unstable to Tearing Mode?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin-Hua, Wei; Jin-Bin, Cao; Guo-Cheng, Zhou; Hui-Shan, Fu

    2010-01-01

    The tearing mode instability plays a key role in the triggering process of reconnection. The triggering collisionless tearing mode instability has been theoretically and numerically analyzed by many researchers. However, due to the difficulty in obtaining the observational wave number, it is still unknown whether the tearing mode instability can be excited in an actual plasma sheet prior to reconnection onset. Using the data from four Cluster satellites prior to a magnetospheric reconnection event on 13 September 2002, we utilized the wave telescope technique to obtain the wave number which corresponds to the peak of power spectral density. The wavelength is about 18R E and is consistent with previous theoretic and numerical results. After substituting the wave vector and other necessary parameters of the observed current sheet into the triggering condition of tearing mode instability, we find that the near-Earth current sheet prior to reconnection is unstable to tearing mode. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  20. A Review of Player Monitoring Approaches in Basketball: Current Trends and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jordan L; Scanlan, Aaron T; Stanton, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Fox, JL, Scanlan, AT, and Stanton, R. A review of player monitoring approaches in basketball: current trends and future directions. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 2021-2029, 2017-Effective monitoring of players in team sports such as basketball requires an understanding of the external demands and internal responses, as they relate to training phases and competition. Monitoring of external demands and internal responses allows coaching staff to determine the dose-response associated with the imposed training load (TL), and subsequently, if players are adequately prepared for competition. This review discusses measures reported in the literature for monitoring the external demands and internal responses of basketball players during training and competition. The external demands of training and competition were primarily monitored using time-motion analysis, with limited use of microtechnology being reported. Internal responses during training were typically measured using hematological markers, heart rate, various TL models, and perceptual responses such as rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Heart rate was the most commonly reported indicator of internal responses during competition with limited reporting of hematological markers or RPE. These findings show a large discrepancy between the reporting of external and internal measures and training and competition demands. Microsensors, however, may be a practical and convenient method of player monitoring in basketball to overcome the limitations associated with current approaches while allowing for external demands and internal responses to be recorded simultaneously. The triaxial accelerometers of microsensors seem well suited for basketball and warrant validation to definitively determine their place in the monitoring of basketball players. Coaching staff should make use of this technology by tracking individual player responses across the annual plan and using real-time monitoring to minimize factors such as fatigue

  1. Accelerated simulation of near-Earth-orbit polymer degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laue, Eric

    1992-01-01

    There is a need to simulate the near-Earth-orbit environmental conditions, and it is useful to be able to monitor the changes in physical properties of spacecraft materials. Two different methods for simulating the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) and soft X-ray near-Earth-orbit flux are presented. Also, methods for monitoring the changes in optical ultraviolet transmission and mass loss are presented. The results of exposures to VUV photons and charged particles on these materials are discussed.

  2. A simple and powerful XY-Type current monitor for 30 MeV IPEN/CNEN-SP cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcellos, Henrique; Matsuda, Hylton; Sumyia, Luiz Carlos do A.; Junqueira, Fernando de C.; Costa, Osvaldo L. da, E-mail: hbolivei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    A water-cooled XY-type current monitor was designed and built in the Cyclotrons Laboratory of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN). It is a very simple design and easily adaptable to the cyclotron beam lines. Tests were done demonstrating to be an instrument of great assistance in proton beam position along beam transport line and target port. Nowadays the XY-type current monitor has been widely used in {sup 18}F-FDG routine productions, employing irradiation system which were originally designed for productions on 18 MeV cyclotron accelerator only, however, applying the XY-type current monitor the target port may be exchanged between the 30 MeV and 18 MeV cyclotrons and the observed results are in perfect agreement with expected. (author)

  3. Fast Beam Current Change Monitor for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kral, Jan

    Stringent demands on the LHC safety and protection systems require improved methods of detecting fast beam losses. The Fast Beam Current Transformer (FBCT) is a measurement instrument, providing information about bunch-to-bunch intensity of the accelerated beam. This thesis describes the development of a new protection system based on the FBCT signal measurements. This system, the Fast Beam Current Change Monitor (FBCCM), measures the FBCT signal in a narrow frequency band and computes time derivation of the beam signal magnitude. This derivation is proportional to the beam losses. When the losses exceed a certain level, the FBCCM requests a beam dump in order to protect the LHC. The LHC protection will be ensured by four FBCCMs which will be installed into the LHC in July 2014. Six FBCCMs have been already constructed and their characteristics were measured with satisfactory results. The FBCCMs were tested by a laboratory simulation of the real LHC environment.

  4. Observation and integrated Earth-system science: A roadmap for 2016-2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Adrian; Fellous, Jean-Louis; Ramaswamy, Venkatachalam; Trenberth, Kevin; Asrar, Ghassem; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Burrows, John P.; Ciais, Philippe; Drinkwater, Mark; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gobron, Nadine; Guilyardi, Eric; Halpern, David; Heimann, Martin; Johannessen, Johnny; Levelt, Pieternel F.; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Penner, Joyce; Scholes, Robert; Shepherd, Ted

    2016-05-01

    This report is the response to a request by the Committee on Space Research of the International Council for Science to prepare a roadmap on observation and integrated Earth-system science for the coming ten years. Its focus is on the combined use of observations and modelling to address the functioning, predictability and projected evolution of interacting components of the Earth system on timescales out to a century or so. It discusses how observations support integrated Earth-system science and its applications, and identifies planned enhancements to the contributing observing systems and other requirements for observations and their processing. All types of observation are considered, but emphasis is placed on those made from space. The origins and development of the integrated view of the Earth system are outlined, noting the interactions between the main components that lead to requirements for integrated science and modelling, and for the observations that guide and support them. What constitutes an Earth-system model is discussed. Summaries are given of key cycles within the Earth system. The nature of Earth observation and the arrangements for international coordination essential for effective operation of global observing systems are introduced. Instances are given of present types of observation, what is already on the roadmap for 2016-2025 and some of the issues to be faced. Observations that are organised on a systematic basis and observations that are made for process understanding and model development, or other research or demonstration purposes, are covered. Specific accounts are given for many of the variables of the Earth system. The current status and prospects for Earth-system modelling are summarized. The evolution towards applying Earth-system models for environmental monitoring and prediction as well as for climate simulation and projection is outlined. General aspects of the improvement of models, whether through refining the

  5. Monitoring Strategies of Earth Dams by Ground-Based Radar Interferometry: How to Extract Useful Information for Seismic Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Andrea; Nico, Giovanni; Pitullo, Alfredo; Prezioso, Giuseppina

    2018-01-16

    The aim of this paper is to describe how ground-based radar interferometry can provide displacement measurements of earth dam surfaces and of vibration frequencies of its main concrete infrastructures. In many cases, dams were built many decades ago and, at that time, were not equipped with in situ sensors embedded in the structure when they were built. Earth dams have scattering properties similar to landslides for which the Ground-Based Synthetic Aperture Radar (GBSAR) technique has been so far extensively applied to study ground displacements. In this work, SAR and Real Aperture Radar (RAR) configurations are used for the measurement of earth dam surface displacements and vibration frequencies of concrete structures, respectively. A methodology for the acquisition of SAR data and the rendering of results is described. The geometrical correction factor, needed to transform the Line-of-Sight (LoS) displacement measurements of GBSAR into an estimate of the horizontal displacement vector of the dam surface, is derived. Furthermore, a methodology for the acquisition of RAR data and the representation of displacement temporal profiles and vibration frequency spectra of dam concrete structures is presented. For this study a Ku-band ground-based radar, equipped with horn antennas having different radiation patterns, has been used. Four case studies, using different radar acquisition strategies specifically developed for the monitoring of earth dams, are examined. The results of this work show the information that a Ku-band ground-based radar can provide to structural engineers for a non-destructive seismic assessment of earth dams.

  6. VAMOS: The verification and monitoring options study: Current research options for in-situ monitoring and verification of contaminant remediation and containment within the vadose zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betsill, J.D.; Gruebel, R.D.

    1995-09-01

    The Verification and Monitoring Options Study Project (VAMOS) was established to identify high-priority options for future vadose-zone environmental research in the areas of in-situ remediation monitoring, post-closure monitoring, and containment emplacement and verification monitoring. VAMOS examined projected needs not currently being met with applied technology in order to develop viable monitoring and verification research options. The study emphasized a compatible systems approach to reinforce the need for utilizing compatible components to provide user friendly site monitoring systems. To identify the needs and research options related to vadose-zone environmental monitoring and verification, a literature search and expert panel forums were conducted. The search included present drivers for environmental monitoring technology, technology applications, and research efforts. The forums included scientific, academic, industry, and regulatory environmental professionals as well as end users of environmental technology. The experts evaluated current and future monitoring and verification needs, methods for meeting these needs, and viable research options and directions. A variety of high-priority technology development, user facility, and technology guidance research options were developed and presented as an outcome of the literature search and expert panel forums

  7. Magnetic field of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Aleksey

    2013-04-01

    The magnetic field of the Earth has global meaning for a life on the Earth. The world geophysical science explains: - occurrence of a magnetic field of the Earth it is transformation of kinetic energy of movements of the fused iron in the liquid core of Earth - into the magnetic energy; - the warming up of a kernel of the Earth occurs due to radioactive disintegration of elements, with excretion of thermal energy. The world science does not define the reasons: - drift of a magnetic dipole on 0,2 a year to the West; - drift of lithospheric slabs and continents. The author offers: an alternative variant existing in a world science the theories "Geodynamo" - it is the theory « the Magnetic field of the Earth », created on the basis of physical laws. Education of a magnetic field of the Earth occurs at moving the electric charge located in a liquid kernel, at rotation of the Earth. At calculation of a magnetic field is used law the Bio Savara for a ring electric current: dB = . Magnetic induction in a kernel of the Earth: B = 2,58 Gs. According to the law of electromagnetic induction the Faradey, rotation of a iron kernel of the Earth in magnetic field causes occurrence of an electric field Emf which moves electrons from the center of a kernel towards the mantle. So of arise the radial electric currents. The magnetic field amplifies the iron of mantle and a kernel of the Earth. As a result of action of a radial electric field the electrons will flow from the center of a kernel in a layer of an electric charge. The central part of a kernel represents the field with a positive electric charge, which creates inverse magnetic field Binv and Emfinv When ?mfinv = ?mf ; ?inv = B, there will be an inversion a magnetic field of the Earth. It is a fact: drift of a magnetic dipole of the Earth in the western direction approximately 0,2 longitude, into a year. Radial electric currents a actions with the basic magnetic field of a Earth - it turn a kernel. It coincides with laws

  8. Design and initial tests of beam current monitoring systems for the APS transport lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xucheng.

    1992-01-01

    The non-intercepting beam current monitoring systems suitable for a wide, range of beam parameters have been developed for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) low energy transport lines and high energy transport line. The positron or electron beam pulse in the transport lines wig have peak beam currents ranging from 8 mA to 29 A with pulse widths varying from 120 ps to 30 ns and pulse repetition rates from 2 Hz to 60 Hz. The peak beam current or total beam charge is measured with the fast or integrating current transformer, respectively, manufactured by Bergoz. In-house high speed beam signal processing electronics provide a DC level output proportional to the peak current or total charge for the digitizer input. The prototype systems were tested on the linacs which have beam pulse structures similar to that of the APS transport lines. This paper describes the design of beam signal processing electronics and grounding and shielding methods for current transformers. The results of the initial operations are presented. A short introduction on the preliminary design of current monitoring systems for the APS rings is also included

  9. The Deep Space Gateway Lightning Mapper (DLM) - Monitoring Global Change and Thunderstorm Processes Through Observations of Earth's High-Latitude Lightning from Cis-Lunar Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Timothy; Blakeslee, R. J.; Cecil, D. J.; Christian, H. J.; Gatlin, P. N.; Goodman, S. J.; Koshak, W. J.; Petersen, W. A.; Quick, M.; Schultz, C. J.; hide

    2018-01-01

    Function: Monitor global change and thunderstorm processes through observations of Earth's high-latitude lightning. This instrument will combine long-lived sampling of individual thunderstorms with long-term observations of lightning at high latitudes: How is global change affecting thunderstorm patterns; How do high-latitude thunderstorms differ from low-latitude? Why is the Gateway the optimal facility for this instrument / research: Expected DSG (Deep Space Gateway) orbits will provide nearly continuous viewing of the Earth's high latitudes (50 degrees latitude and poleward); These regions are not well covered by existing lightning mappers (e.g., Lightning Imaging Sensor / LIS, or Geostationary Lightning Mapper / GLM); Polar, Molniya, Tundra, etc. Earth orbits have significant drawbacks related to continuous coverage and/or stable FOVs (Fields of View).

  10. Development of the AuScope Australian Earth Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawling, T.

    2017-12-01

    Advances in monitoring technology and significant investment in new national research initiatives, will provide significant new opportunities for delivery of novel geoscience data streams from across the Australian continent over the next decade. The AuScope Australian Earth Observing System (AEOS) is linking field and laboratory infrastructure across Australia to form a national sensor array focusing on the Solid Earth. As such AuScope is working with these programs to deploy observational infrastructure, including MT, passive seismic, and GNSS networks across the entire Australian Continent. Where possible the observational grid will be co-located with strategic basement drilling in areas of shallow cover and tied with national reflection seismic and sampling transects. This integrated suite of distributed earth observation and imaging sensors will provide unprecedented imaging fidelity of our crust, across all length and time scales, to fundamental and applied researchers in the earth, environmental and geospatial sciences. The AEOS will the Earth Science community's Square Kilometer Array (SKA) - a distributed telescope that looks INTO the earth rather than away from it - a 10 million SKA. The AEOS is strongly aligned with other community strategic initiatives including the UNCOVER research program as well as other National Collaborative Research Infrastructure programs such as the Terrestrial Environmental Research Network (TERN) and the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) providing an interdisciplinary collaboration platform across the earth and environmental sciences. There is also very close alignment between AuScope and similar international programs such as EPOS, the USArray and EarthCube - potential collaborative linkages we are currently in the process of pursuing more fomally. The AuScope AEOS Infrastructure System is ultimately designed to enable the progressive construction, refinement and ongoing enrichment of a live, "FAIR" four

  11. [Current situation of soil-transmitted nematodiasis monitoring in China and working keys in future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-dan; Zang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Soil-transmitted nematodiasis is widely epidemic in rural areas in China. It was showed that the infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes was 19.56% while the overall number of persons infected was 129,000,000, which was supported by the results of the National Survey of Current Situation of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China in 2005 published by former Ministry of Health. Therefore, soil-transmitted nematodiasis was included in the national infectious diseases and pathogenic media monitoring system by Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2006, and subsequently 22 monitoring spots were established nationwide. From 2006 to 2013, the human infection rate of intestinal nematodes in national monitoring spots decreased from 20.88% to 3.12%, which showed a declining trend year by year. Meanwhile, the infection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm, Enterobius vermicularis decreased from 10.10%, 5.88%, 8.88%, 10.00% in 2006 to 0.76%, 0.42%, 2.04%, 6.78% in 2013 respectively. In this paper, the current situation of soil-transmitted nematodiasis is overviewed based on a summary of the 8 years' monitoring work, as well as the experiences, challenges and key of monitoring work in the future.

  12. A global change data base using thematic mapper data: Earth monitoring educational system (EMES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Antoni, H.L.; Peterson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    The creation of an Earth Monitoring Educational System integrated with the research interests of NASA Ames Research Center and one or more university schools is proposed. This would be a first step in a new educational system at an international scale. Based on the integration of a global network of cooperators to build a global data base for assessments of global change, the EMES will promote AS, BS, MS and PhDs in global ecology at associated universities and colleges, and extra-curricular courses for multilevel audiences. These would range as appropriate from ministers to resource managers to students. Both programs will be conducted under a systemic approach, through active learning, coordination and correlation practices. They will be aimed to: (1) train specialists, (2) establish a tradition of solving regional problems concerning global change in a systemic manner, using remote sensing technology as the monitoring tool, and (3) transfer knowledge on global change to the national and world communities. The main goal of the extra-curricular courses would be to provide readily usable knowledge to the decision-making levels of all the participant countries and institutions. South America is proposed as the pilot continent for the project. This work is consistent with the educational goals of the International Space year in 1992

  13. Ion transport and loss in the earth's quiet ring current. I - Data and standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, R. B.; Hamilton, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the transport and loss of ions in the earth's quiet time ring current, in which the standard radial diffusion model developed for the high-energy radiation belt particles is compared with the measurements of the lower-energy ring current ions, is presented. The data set provides ionic composition information in an energy range that includes the bulk of the ring current energy density, 1-300 keV/e. Protons are found to dominate the quiet time energy density at all altitudes, peaking near L of about 4 at 60 keV/cu cm, with much smaller contributions from O(+) (1-10 percent), He(+) (1-5 percent), and He(2+) (less than 1 percent). A minimization procedure is used to fit the amplitudes of the standard electric radial diffusion coefficient, yielding 5.8 x 10 exp -11 R(E-squared)/s. Fluctuation ionospheric electric fields are suggested as the source of the additional diffusion detected.

  14. From Landsat through SLI: Ball Aerospace Instrument Architecture for Earth Surface Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, P. R.; Gilmore, A. S.; Malone, K. J.; Kampe, T. U.; Good, W. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Landsat legacy spans more than forty years of moderate resolution, multi-spectral imaging of the Earth's surface. Applications for Landsat data include global environmental change, disaster planning and recovery, crop and natural resource management, and glaciology. In recent years, coastal water science has been greatly enhanced by the outstanding on-orbit performance of Landsat 8. Ball Aerospace designed and built the Operational Land Imager (OLI) instrument on Landsat 8, and is in the process of building OLI 2 for Landsat 9. Both of these instruments have the same design however improved performance is expected from OLI 2 due to greater image bit depth (14 bit on OLI 2 vs 12 bit on OLI). Ball Aerospace is currently working on two novel instrument architectures applicable to Sustainable Land Imaging for Landsat 10 and beyond. With increased budget constraints probable for future missions, technological improvements must be included in future instrument architectures to enable increased capabilities at lower cost. Ball presents the instrument architectures and associated capabilities enabling new science in past, current, and future Landsat missions.

  15. Education technology with continuous real time monitoring of the current functional and emotional students' states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyushin, M. V.; Kolobashkina, L. V.

    2017-01-01

    The education technology with continuous monitoring of the current functional and emotional students' states is suggested. The application of this technology allows one to increase the effectiveness of practice through informed planning of the training load. For monitoring the current functional and emotional students' states non-contact remote technologies of person bioparameters registration are encouraged to use. These technologies are based on recording and processing in real time the main person bioparameters in a purely passive mode. Experimental testing of this technology has confirmed its effectiveness.

  16. Developing and implementing a data acquisition strategy for global agricultural monitoring: an inter-agency initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, C. O.; Whitcraft, A. K.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Killough, B.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, in response to global food crises, the G20 Agricultural Ministers launched a satellite-based global agricultural monitoring initiative to develop the Group on Earth Observations Global Agriculture Monitoring (GEOGLAM) system. The GEO is aimed at enhancing the availability and use of both satellite and in situ data for societal benefit. This initiative builds on the observation requirements developed by the GEO Agricultural Community of Practice, the understanding that no one satellite system can currently provide all the data needed for agricultural monitoring and the resulting recommendation for improved acquisition and availability of data by the World's space agencies. Implicit in this recommendation is the fact that certain regions of the Earth are imagery rich while others are imagery poor, leaving knowledge gaps about agricultural processes and food supply for certain areas of the World. In order to respond to these knowledge gaps and to strengthen national, regional, and global agricultural monitoring networks, GEOGLAM is working with the Committee on Earth Observations (CEOS), the space arm of GEO, to develop a coordinated global acquisition strategy. A key component of GEOGLAM is an effort to articulate the temporal and spatial Earth Observation (EO) requirements for monitoring; second, the identification of current and planned missions which are capable of fulfilling these EO requirements; and third, the development of a multi-agency, multi-mission image acquisition strategy for agricultural monitoring. CEOS engineers and GEOGLAM scientists have been collaborating on the EO requirements since 2012, and are now beginning the first implementation phase of the acquisition strategy. The goal is to put in place an operational system of systems using a virtual constellation of satellite-based sensors acquiring data to meet the needs for monitoring and early warning of shortfalls in agricultural production, a goal that was articulated in the 1970's

  17. Connecting Earth observation to high-throughput biodiversity data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bush, Alex; Sollmann, Rahel; Wilting, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Understandably, given the fast pace of biodiversity loss, there is much interest in using Earth observation technology to track biodiversity, ecosystem functions and ecosystem services. However, because most biodiversity is invisible to Earth observation, indicators based on Earth observation could...... observation data. This approach is achievable now, offering efficient and near-real-time monitoring of management impacts on biodiversity and its functions and services....

  18. Semiconductor sensor for optically measuring polarization rotation of optical wavefronts using rare earth iron garnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Described are the design of a rare earth iron garnet sensor element, optical methods of interrogating the sensor element, methods of coupling the optical sensor element to a waveguide, and an optical and electrical processing system for monitoring the polarization rotation of a linearly polarized wavefront undergoing external modulation due to magnetic field or electrical current fluctuation. The sensor element uses the Faraday effect, an intrinsic property of certain rare-earth iron garnet materials, to rotate the polarization state of light in the presence of a magnetic field. The sensor element may be coated with a thin-film mirror to effectively double the optical path length, providing twice the sensitivity for a given field strength or temperature change. A semiconductor sensor system using a rare earth iron garnet sensor element is described.

  19. From One Pixel to One Earth: Building a Living Atlas in the Cloud to Analyze and Monitor Global Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, D.; Brumby, S. P.; Chartrand, R.; Franco, E.; Keisler, R.; Kelton, T.; Kontgis, C.; Mathis, M.; Raleigh, D.; Rudelis, X.; Skillman, S.; Warren, M. S.; Longbotham, N.

    2016-12-01

    The recent computing performance revolution has driven improvements in sensor, communication, and storage technology. Historical, multi-decadal remote sensing datasets at the petabyte scale are now available in commercial clouds, with new satellite constellations generating petabytes per year of high-resolution imagery with daily global coverage. Cloud computing and storage, combined with recent advances in machine learning and open software, are enabling understanding of the world at an unprecedented scale and detail. We have assembled all available satellite imagery from the USGS Landsat, NASA MODIS, and ESA Sentinel programs, as well as commercial PlanetScope and RapidEye imagery, and have analyzed over 2.8 quadrillion multispectral pixels. We leveraged the commercial cloud to generate a tiled, spatio-temporal mosaic of the Earth for fast iteration and development of new algorithms combining analysis techniques from remote sensing, machine learning, and scalable compute infrastructure. Our data platform enables processing at petabytes per day rates using multi-source data to produce calibrated, georeferenced imagery stacks at desired points in time and space that can be used for pixel level or global scale analysis. We demonstrate our data platform capability by using the European Space Agency's (ESA) published 2006 and 2009 GlobCover 20+ category label maps to train and test a Land Cover Land Use (LCLU) classifier, and generate current self-consistent LCLU maps in Brazil. We train a standard classifier on 2006 GlobCover categories using temporal imagery stacks, and we validate our results on co-registered 2009 Globcover LCLU maps and 2009 imagery. We then extend the derived LCLU model to current imagery stacks to generate an updated, in-season label map. Changes in LCLU labels can now be seamlessly monitored for a given location across the years in order to track, for example, cropland expansion, forest growth, and urban developments. An example of change

  20. Modeling of the active vibroseismic monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalevskij, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    The results of the mathematical modeling of vibroseismic monitoring of changes in the elastic characteristics in the interior Earth's crust zone are presented. The model of the 'Earth's crust-mantle' system with point vibrational source on the free surface is considered. The estimates of sensitivity of active monitoring method with harmonic vibrational signals is determined. (author)

  1. Online Chip Temperature Monitoring Using υce-Load Current and IR Thermography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup; Trintis, Ionut

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents on-state collector-emitter voltage (υce, on)-load current (Ic) method to monitor chip temperature on power insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules in converter operation. The measurement method is also evaluated using infrared (IR) thermography. Temperature dependencies...

  2. Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS): A Space-Based System Concept for Revolutionizing Earth Protection and Utilization of Near-Earth Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Antol, Jeffrey; Kay-Bunnell, Linda; Werner, Martin R.; Park, Sang-Young; Kumar, Renjith R.

    2002-01-01

    There exists an infrequent, but significant hazard to life and property due to impacting asteroids and comets. There is currently no specific search for long-period comets, smaller near-Earth asteroids, or smaller short-period comets. These objects represent a threat with potentially little or no warning time using conventional ground-based telescopes. These planetary bodies also represent a significant resource for commercial exploitation, long-term sustained space exploration, and scientific research. The Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS) would expand the current detection effort to include long-period comets, as well as small asteroids and short-period comets capable of regional destruction. A space-based detection system, despite being more costly and complex than Earth-based initiatives, is the most promising way of expanding the range of detectable objects, and surveying the entire celestial sky on a regular basis. CAPS is a future spacebased system concept that provides permanent, continuous asteroid and comet monitoring, and rapid, controlled modification of the orbital trajectories of selected bodies. CAPS would provide an orbit modification system capable of diverting kilometer class objects, and modifying the orbits of smaller asteroids for impact defense and resource utilization. This paper provides a summary of CAPS and discusses several key areas and technologies that are being investigated.

  3. Magnetic Storms at Mars and Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup

    In analogy with magnetic storms at the Earth, periods of significantly enhanced global magnetic activity also exist at Mars. The extensive database of magnetic measurements from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), covering almost an entire solar cycle, is used in combination with geomagnetic activity...... indices at Earth to compare the occurrence of magnetic storms at Mars and Earth. Based on superposed epochs analysis the time-development of typical magnetic storms at Mars and Earth is described. In contradiction to storms at Earth, most magnetic storms at Mars are found to be associated...... with heliospheric current sheet crossings, where the IMF changes polarity. While most storms at the Earth occur due to significant southward excursions of the IMF associated with CMEs, at Mars most storms seem to be associated with the density enhancement of the heliospheric current sheet. Density enhancements...

  4. Monitoring Urban Heat Island Through Google Earth Engine: Potentialities and Difficulties in Different Cities of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanelli, R.; Nascetti, A.; Cirigliano, R. V.; Di Rico, C.; Monti, P.; Crespi, M.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work is to exploit the large-scale analysis capabilities of the innovative Google Earth Engine platform in order to investigate the temporal variations of the Urban Heat Island phenomenon as a whole. A intuitive methodology implementing a largescale correlation analysis between the Land Surface Temperature and Land Cover alterations was thus developed.The results obtained for the Phoenix MA are promising and show how the urbanization heavily affects the magnitude of the UHI effects with significant increases in LST. The proposed methodology is therefore able to efficiently monitor the UHI phenomenon.

  5. The Cost of Jointness: Insights from Environmental Monitoring Systems in Low-Earth Orbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Morgan Maeve [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of doctoral research that explored the cost impact of acquiring complex government systems jointly. The report begins by reviewing recent evidence that suggests that joint programs experience greater cost growth than non-joint programs. It continues by proposing an alternative approach for studying cost growth on government acquisition programs and demonstrates the utility of this approach by applying it to study the cost of jointness on three past programs that developed environmental monitoring systems for low-Earth orbit. Ultimately, the report concludes that joint programs' costs grow when the collaborating government agencies take action to retain or regain their autonomy. The report provides detailed qualitative and quantitative data in support of this conclusion and generalizes its findings to other joint programs that were not explicitly studied here. Finally, it concludes by presenting a quantitative model that assesses the cost impacts of jointness and by demonstrating how government agencies can more effectively architect joint programs in the future.

  6. Intensity variation of cosmic rays near the heliospheric current sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badruddin, K.S.; Yadav, R.S.; Yadav, N.R.

    1985-01-01

    Cosmic ray intensity variations near the heliospheric current sheet-both above and below it-have been studied during 1964-76. Superposed epoch analysis of the cosmic ray neutron monitor data with respect to sector boundaries (i.e., heliospheric current sheet crossings) has been performed. In this analysis data from neutron monitors well distributed in latitude over the Earth's surface is used. First, this study has been made during the two solar activity minimum periods 1964-65 and 1975-76, using the data from Thule (cut-off rigidity O GV), Deep River (cut-off rigidity 1.02 GV), Rome (cut-off rigidity 6.32 GV) and Huancayo (cut-off rigidity 13.45 GV) neutron monitors. The data is analyzed from Deep River, Rome and Huancayo neutron monitors, for which data is available for the full period (1964-76), by dividing the periods according to the changes in solar activity, interplanetary magnetic field polarity and coronal holes. All these studies have shown a negative gradient with respect to heliomagnetic latitude (current sheet). These results have been discussed in the light of theoretical and observational evidences. Suggestions have been given to overcome the discrepancy between the observational and theoretical results. Further, possible explanations for these observational results have been suggested. (author)

  7. Differential B-dot and D-dot monitors for current and voltage measurements on a 20-MA 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoup, Roy Willlam; Gilliland, Terrance Leo; Lee, James R.; Speas, Christopher Shane; Kim, Alexandre A.; Struve, Kenneth William; York, Mathew William; Leifeste, Gordon T.; Rochau, Gregory Alan; Sharpe, Arthur William; Stygar, William A.; Porter, John Larry Jr.; Wagoner, Tim C.; Reynolds, Paul Gerard; Slopek, Jeffrey Scott; Moore, William B.S.; Dinwoodie, Thomas Albert; Woodring, R.M.; Broyles, Robin Scott; Mills, Jerry Alan; Melville, J.A.; Dudley, M.E.; Androlewicz, K.E.; Mourning, R.W.; Moore, J.K.; Serrano, Jason Dimitri; Ives, H.C.; Johnson, M.F.; Peyton, B.P.; Leeper, Ramon Joe; Savage, Mark Edward; Donovan, Guy Louis; Spielman, R.B.; Seamen, Johann F.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a system of differential-output monitors that diagnose current and voltage in the vacuum section of a 20-MA 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator. The system includes 62 gauges: 3 current and 6 voltage monitors that are fielded on each of the accelerator's 4 vacuum-insulator stacks, 6 current monitors on each of the accelerator's 4 outer magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs), and 2 current monitors on the accelerator's inner MITL. The inner-MITL monitors are located 6 cm from the axis of the load. Each of the stack and outer-MITL current monitors comprises two separate B-dot sensors, each of which consists of four 3-mm-diameter wire loops wound in series. The two sensors are separately located within adjacent cavities machined out of a single piece of copper. The high electrical conductivity of copper minimizes penetration of magnetic flux into the cavity walls, which minimizes changes in the sensitivity of the sensors on the 100-ns time scale of the accelerator's power pulse. A model of flux penetration has been developed and is used to correct (to first order) the B-dot signals for the penetration that does occur. The two sensors are designed to produce signals with opposite polarities; hence, each current monitor may be regarded as a single detector with differential outputs. Common-mode-noise rejection is achieved by combining these signals in a 50-(Omega) balun. The signal cables that connect the B-dot monitors to the balun are chosen to provide reasonable bandwidth and acceptable levels of Compton drive in the bremsstrahlung field of the accelerator. A single 50-ω cable transmits the output signal of each balun to a double-wall screen room, where the signals are attenuated, digitized (0.5-ns/sample), numerically compensated for cable losses, and numerically integrated. By contrast, each inner-MITL current monitor contains only a single B-dot sensor. These monitors are fielded in opposite-polarity pairs. The two signals from a pair are

  8. EarthTutor: An Interactive Intelligent Tutoring System for Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, A. M.; Parton, K.; Smith, E.

    2005-12-01

    Earth science classes in colleges and high schools use a variety of satellite image processing software to teach earth science and remote sensing principles. However, current tutorials for image processing software are often paper-based or lecture-based and do not take advantage of the full potential of the computer context to teach, immerse, and stimulate students. We present EarthTutor, an adaptive, interactive Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) being built for NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) that is integrated directly with an image processing application. The system aims to foster the use of satellite imagery in classrooms and encourage inquiry-based, hands-on earth science scientific study by providing students with an engaging imagery analysis learning environment. EarthTutor's software is available as a plug-in to ImageJ, a free image processing system developed by the NIH (National Institute of Health). Since it is written in Java, it can be run on almost any platform and also as an applet from the Web. Labs developed for EarthTutor combine lesson content (such as HTML web pages) with interactive activities and questions. In each lab the student learns to measure, calibrate, color, slice, plot and otherwise process and analyze earth science imagery. During the activities, EarthTutor monitors students closely as they work, which allows it to provide immediate feedback that is customized to a particular student's needs. As the student moves through the labs, EarthTutor assesses the student, and tailors the presentation of the content to a student's demonstrated skill level. EarthTutor's adaptive approach is based on emerging Artificial Intelligence (AI) research. Bayesian networks are employed to model a student's proficiency with different earth science and image processing concepts. Agent behaviors are used to track the student's progress through activities and provide guidance when a student encounters difficulty. Through individual

  9. Laser fluorescent method for monitoring leaks from petrol pipes based on the neural network algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Belov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current systems for monitoring leaks from petrol pipes can detect large leaks only, and their sensitivity limit is about 1% of the whole petrol pipe’s capacity. In this paper, a problem of remote detection of small leaks (less than 1% from petrol pipes was considered. One of possible variations of such a system is a monitoring system of oil pollution at the earth surface along the petrol pipe. In this paper experimentally obtained data such as fluorescence spectra of oil products (crude oil, light-end oil products, heavy oil products, various earth surfaces (soil, vegetation, water, asphalt and oil products spilled over various earth's surface were used for the excitation wavelength of 266 nm. It was shown that use of the laser method based on detection of fluorescence radiation within three narrow spectral bands and a neural network algorithm of measured data processing allowed one to detect oil pollution on the earth surface with a probability of correct classification close to 1 and low probability of false alarm.

  10. Monitoring of the submerged arc welding process using current and voltage transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera, G.; Velez, M.; Espinosa, M.A.; Santos, O.; Barrera, E.; Gomez, G.

    1996-01-01

    Welding by fusion is one of the most used techniques to join materials in the manufacture industry. given the increase in applications of this welding process and the demand of more quality in the welding deposits, these welding processes are good candidates for the improvement of their instrumentation and control. Any improvement in the control technique will have a positive effect in the quality and productivity of the welding process. Some of the most significant variables in the submerged arc welding process are: current, voltage and torch speed. For the instrumentation of this research work, two transducers were designed, one for CD current monitoring and one for CD voltage monitoring of the welding machine. The design of both transducers includes an isolation amplifier. Graphical programming and the concept of virtual instrumentation were the main tools used for the design of the data acquisition system and the signal processing task. (Author) 9 refs

  11. Direct-reading inhalable dust monitoring--an assessment of current measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Andrew; Walsh, Peter T

    2013-08-01

    Direct-reading dust monitors designed specifically to measure the inhalable fraction of airborne dust are not widely available. Current practice therefore often involves comparing the response of photometer-type dust monitors with the concentration measured with a reference gravimetric inhalable sampler, which is used to adjust the dust monitor measurement. However, changes in airborne particle size can result in significant errors in the estimation of inhalable concentration by this method. The main aim of this study was to assess how these dust monitors behave when challenged with airborne dust containing particles in the inhalable size range and also to investigate alternative dust monitors whose response might not be as prone to variations in particle size or that could be adapted to measure inhalable dust concentration. Several photometer-type dust monitors and a Respicon TM, tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) personal dust monitor (PDM) 3600, TEOM 1400, and Dustrak DRX were assessed for the measurement of airborne inhalable dust during laboratory and field trials. The PDM was modified to allow it to sample and measure larger particles in the inhalable size range. During the laboratory tests, the dust monitors and reference gravimetric samplers were challenged inside a large dust tunnel with aerosols of industrial dusts known to present an inhalable hazard and aluminium oxide powders with a range of discrete particle sizes. A constant concentration of each dust type was generated and peak concentrations of larger particles were periodically introduced to investigate the effects of sudden changes in particle size on monitor calibration. The PDM, Respicon, and DataRam photometer were also assessed during field trials at a bakery, joinery, and a grain mill. Laboratory results showed that the Respicon, modified PDM, and TEOM 1400 observed good linearity for all types of dust when compared with measurements made with a reference IOM sampler; the

  12. The Contribution of GGOS to Understanding Dynamic Earth Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Richard

    2017-04-01

    of continental and basin-scale water masses; loading and unloading of the land surface due to seasonal changes of groundwater; measurement of water level of major lakes and rivers by satellite altimetry; and improved digital terrain models as basis for flux modeling of surface water and flood modeling. Geodesy is crucial for cryospheric studies because of its ability to measure the motions of ice masses and changes in their volumes. Ice sheets, glaciers, and sea ice are intricately linked to the Earth's climate system. They store a record of past climate; they strongly affect surface energy budget, global water cycle, and sea-level change; and they are sensitive indicators of climate change. Geodesy is at the heart of all present-day ocean studies. Geodetic observations uniquely produce accurate, quantitative, and integrated observations of gravity, ocean circulation, sea surface height, ocean bottom pressure, and mass exchanges among the ocean, cryosphere, and land. Geodetic observations have made fundamental contributions to monitoring and understanding physical ocean processes. In particular, geodesy is the basic technique used to determine an accurate geoid model, allowing for the determination of absolute surface geostrophic currents, which are necessary to quantify heat transport of the ocean. Geodesy also provides the absolute reference for tide gauge measurements, allowing those measurements to be merged with satellite altimetric measurements to provide a coherent worldwide monitoring system for sea level change. In this presentation, selected examples of the contribution of geodetic observations to understanding the dynamic Earth system will be presented.

  13. Facilitating the Easy Use of Earth Observation Data in Earth System Models through CyberConnector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, L.; Sun, Z.; Zhang, C.

    2017-12-01

    Earth system models (ESM) are an important tool used to understand the Earth system and predict its future states. On other hand, Earth observations (EO) provides the current state of the system. EO data are very useful in ESM initialization, verification, validation, and inter-comparison. However, EO data often cannot directly be consumed by ESMs because of the syntactic and semantic mismatches between EO products and ESM requirements. In order to remove the mismatches, scientists normally spend long time to customize EO data for ESM consumption. CyberConnector, a NSF EarthCube building block, is intended to automate the data customization so that scientists can be relieved from the laborious EO data customization. CyberConnector uses web-service-based geospatial processing models (GPM) as the mechanism to automatically customize the EO data into the right products in the right form needed by ESMs. It can support many different ESMs through its standard interfaces. It consists of seven modules: GPM designer, GPM binder, GPM runner, GPM monitor, resource register, order manager, and result display. In CyberConnector, EO data instances and GPMs are independent and loosely coupled. A modeler only needs to create a GPM in the GMP designer for EO data customization. Once the modeler specifies a study area, the designed GPM will be activated and take the temporal and spatial extents as constraints to search the data sources and customize the available EO data into the ESM-acceptable form. The execution of GMP is completely automatic. Currently CyberConnector has been fully developed. In order to validate the feasibility, flexibility, and ESM independence of CyberConnector, three ESMs from different geoscience disciplines, including the Cloud-Resolving Model (CRM), the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM), and the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ), have been experimented with CyberConnector through closely collaborating with modelers. In the experiment

  14. Hybrid Cloud Computing Environment for EarthCube and Geoscience Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C. P.; Qin, H.

    2016-12-01

    The NSF EarthCube Integration and Test Environment (ECITE) has built a hybrid cloud computing environment to provides cloud resources from private cloud environments by using cloud system software - OpenStack and Eucalyptus, and also manages public cloud - Amazon Web Service that allow resource synchronizing and bursting between private and public cloud. On ECITE hybrid cloud platform, EarthCube and geoscience community can deploy and manage the applications by using base virtual machine images or customized virtual machines, analyze big datasets by using virtual clusters, and real-time monitor the virtual resource usage on the cloud. Currently, a number of EarthCube projects have deployed or started migrating their projects to this platform, such as CHORDS, BCube, CINERGI, OntoSoft, and some other EarthCube building blocks. To accomplish the deployment or migration, administrator of ECITE hybrid cloud platform prepares the specific needs (e.g. images, port numbers, usable cloud capacity, etc.) of each project in advance base on the communications between ECITE and participant projects, and then the scientists or IT technicians in those projects launch one or multiple virtual machines, access the virtual machine(s) to set up computing environment if need be, and migrate their codes, documents or data without caring about the heterogeneity in structure and operations among different cloud platforms.

  15. Progress in Research on Diurnal and Semidiurnal Earth Rotation Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xueqing

    2015-08-01

    We mainly focus on the progress of research on high frequency changes in the earth rotation. Firstly, we review the development course and main motivating factors of the diurnal and semidiurnal earth rotation change. In recent decades, earth orientation has been monitored with increasing accuracy by advanced space-geodetic techniques, including lunar and satellite laser ranging, very long baseline interferometry and the global positioning system. We are able to obtain the Earth Rotation Parameters (ERP, polar motion and rotation rate changes) by even 1 to 2 hours observation data, form which obvious diurnal and semidiurnal signals can be detected, and compare them with the predicted results by the ocean model. Both the amplitude and phase are in good agreement in the main diurnal and semidiurnal wave frequency, especially for the UT1, whose compliance is 90%, and 60% for polar motion, there are 30% motivating factor of the diurnal and semidiurnal polar motion have not been identified. Then we comprehensively review the different types of global ocean tidal correction models since the last eighties century, as well as the application research on diurnal and semidiurnal polar motion and UT1, the current ocean tidal correction models have 10% to 20% uncertainty, and need for further refinement.

  16. Monitoring Agricultural Production in Primary Export Countries within the framework of the GEOGLAM Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C. O.; Vermote, E.

    2012-12-01

    Up to date, reliable, global, information on crop production prospects is indispensible for informing and regulating grain markets and for instituting effective agricultural policies. The recent price surges in the global grain markets were in large part triggered by extreme weather events in primary grain export countries. These events raise important questions about the accuracy of current production forecasts and their role in market fluctuations, and highlight the deficiencies in the state of global agricultural monitoring. Satellite-based earth observations are increasingly utilized as a tool for monitoring agricultural production as they offer cost-effective, daily, global information on crop growth and extent and their utility for crop production forecasting has long been demonstrated. Within this context, the Group on Earth Observations developed the Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative which was adopted by the G20 as part of the action plan on food price volatility and agriculture. The goal of GEOGLAM is to enhance agricultural production estimates through the use of Earth observations. This talk will explore the potential contribution of EO-based methods for improving the accuracy of early production estimates of main export countries within the framework of GEOGLAM.

  17. Geospace monitoring for space weather research and operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagatsuma Tsutomu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Geospace, a space surrounding the Earth, is one of the key area for space weather. Because geospace environment dynamically varies depending on the solar wind conditions. Many kinds of space assets are operating in geospace for practical purposes. Anomalies of space assets are sometimes happened because of space weather disturbances in geospace. Therefore, monitoring and forecasting of geospace environment is very important tasks for NICT's space weather research and development. To monitor and to improve forecasting model, fluxgate magnetometers and HF radars are operated by our laboratory, and its data are used for our research work, too. We also operate real-time data acquisition system for satellite data, such as DSCOVR, STEREO, and routinely received high energy particle data from Himawari-8. Based on these data, we are monitoring current condition of geomagnetic disturbances, and that of radiation belt. Using these data, we have developed empirical models for relativistic electron flux at GEO and inner magnetosphere. To provide userfriendly information , we are trying to develop individual spacecraft anomaly risk estimation tool based on combining models of space weather and those of spacecraft charging, Current status of geospace monitoring, forecasting, and research activities are introduced.

  18. Geospace monitoring for space weather research and operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatsuma, Tsutomu

    2017-10-01

    Geospace, a space surrounding the Earth, is one of the key area for space weather. Because geospace environment dynamically varies depending on the solar wind conditions. Many kinds of space assets are operating in geospace for practical purposes. Anomalies of space assets are sometimes happened because of space weather disturbances in geospace. Therefore, monitoring and forecasting of geospace environment is very important tasks for NICT's space weather research and development. To monitor and to improve forecasting model, fluxgate magnetometers and HF radars are operated by our laboratory, and its data are used for our research work, too. We also operate real-time data acquisition system for satellite data, such as DSCOVR, STEREO, and routinely received high energy particle data from Himawari-8. Based on these data, we are monitoring current condition of geomagnetic disturbances, and that of radiation belt. Using these data, we have developed empirical models for relativistic electron flux at GEO and inner magnetosphere. To provide userfriendly information , we are trying to develop individual spacecraft anomaly risk estimation tool based on combining models of space weather and those of spacecraft charging, Current status of geospace monitoring, forecasting, and research activities are introduced.

  19. The Mission Accessibility of Near-Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, Brent W.; Abell, P. A.; Adamo, D. R.; Mazanek, D. D.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Chodas, P. W.; Chamberlin, A. B.; Benner, L. A. M.; Taylor, P.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The population of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) that may be accessible for human space flight missions is defined by the Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). The NHATS is an automated system designed to monitor the accessibility of, and particular mission opportunities offered by, the NEA population. This is analogous to systems that automatically monitor the impact risk posed to Earth by the NEA population. The NHATS system identifies NEAs that are potentially accessible for future round-trip human space flight missions and provides rapid notification to asteroid observers so that crucial follow-up observations can be obtained following discovery of accessible NEAs. The NHATS was developed in 2010 and was automated by early 2012. NHATS data are provided via an interactive web-site, and daily NHATS notification emails are transmitted to a mailing list; both resources are available to the public.

  20. Human Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids: An Update on NASA's Current Status and Proposed Activities for Small Body Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; Larman, K. T.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on the human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs, and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010.

  1. Earth observation for rangeland monitoring

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available .kashan.co.za] INTRODUCTION Grass nitrogen (N), as an indicator of rangeland quality, plays a crucial role in understanding the distribution, densities and feeding patterns of both wild herbivores and livestock. Zebras and livestock in the grazing and agricultural lands... ? How can grass nitrogen be mapped for assessing and monitoring of rangeland quality at wider or regional scales? ? Conventional point-based techniques for assessing rangeland quality proved to be expensive, laborious and time consuming...

  2. JAXA's activities for environmental health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    In the first ten years after establishment of the Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) in 2003, our focuses were mainly on technical development (hardware and software) and accumulation of application research. In the next decade, we focus more on solution on social issues using innovative space science technology. Currently, JAXA is operating and developing several earth observation satellites and sensors: Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) "IBUKI", Global Change Observation Mission - Water "SHIZUKU" (GCOM-W), Global Precipitation Measurement/Dual- frequency Precipitation Radar (GPM/DPR), Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 "DAICHI-2" (ALOS-2), Global Change Observation Mission - Climate (GCOM-C), Earth Cloud, Aerosol and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE), and GOSAT-2. They will provide essential environmental parameters, such as aerosols, clouds, land vegetation, ocean color, GHGs, and so on. In addition to the above missions, we are studying new instruments (altimeter, LIDAR, detectors, optical components) to obtain new parameters. Our activities will advance to provide essential inputs for diagnosis, prediction, and management of climate change, environmental assessment, and disaster monitoring.

  3. Design and Calculation of an Earth Electrode

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez, J

    2000-01-01

    People using electrical installations have to be protected against electrical shock. For purposes of protection a distinction is made between direct and indirect contact. Direct contact is contact with a live conductor. Protection is provided by the insulation of cables or the screening of live parts. An indirect contact happens when someone touches exposed metal parts which are not intended to carry current but have become live as a result of a fault. In this case metallic parts raise the metal to a dangerous potential (contact voltage). Here protection is provided by connecting the exposed metal part (i.e. the case of the electrical machine) to the earthing point of the installation. A protective device will disconnect the circuit as soon as a fault current flows to earth. The earth fault value will depend on the impedance of the path taken by the fault current, which is known as the earth fault loop. The resistance of the earth electrode plays an important role in the final impedance of the earth fault loo...

  4. The Nimbus satellites - Pioneering earth observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Carolynne

    1990-01-01

    The many scientific achievements of the Nimbus series of seven satellites for low-altitude atmospheric research and global weather surveillance are reviewed. The series provides information on fishery resources, weather modeling, atmospheric pollution monitoring, earth's radiation budget, ozone monitoring, ocean dynamics, and the effects of cloudiness. Data produced by the forty-eight instruments and sensors flown on the satellites are applied in the fields of oceanography, hydrology, geology, geomorphology, geography, cartography, agriculture and meteorology. The instruments include the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (which depicts phytoplankton concentrations in coastal areas), the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (which measures sea-surface temperatures and sea-surface wind-speed), and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (which provides information on total amounts of ozone in the earth's atmosphere).

  5. Invitation to a forum: architecting operational `next generation' earth monitoring satellites based on best modeling, existing sensor capabilities, with constellation efficiencies to secure trusted datasets for the next 20 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmuth, Douglas B.; Bell, Raymond M.; Grant, David A.; Lentz, Christopher A.

    2012-09-01

    Architecting the operational Next Generation of earth monitoring satellites based on matured climate modeling, reuse of existing sensor & satellite capabilities, attention to affordability and evolutionary improvements integrated with constellation efficiencies - becomes our collective goal for an open architectural design forum. Understanding the earth's climate and collecting requisite signatures over the next 30 years is a shared mandate by many of the world's governments. But there remains a daunting challenge to bridge scientific missions to 'operational' systems that truly support the demands of decision makers, scientific investigators and global users' requirements for trusted data. In this paper we will suggest an architectural structure that takes advantage of current earth modeling examples including cross-model verification and a first order set of critical climate parameters and metrics; that in turn, are matched up with existing space borne collection capabilities and sensors. The tools used and the frameworks offered are designed to allow collaborative overlays by other stakeholders nominating different critical parameters and their own treaded connections to existing international collection experience. These aggregate design suggestions will be held up to group review and prioritized as potential constellation solutions including incremental and spiral developments - including cost benefits and organizational opportunities. This Part IV effort is focused on being an inclusive 'Next Gen Constellation' design discussion and is the natural extension to earlier papers.

  6. Seepage safety monitoring model for an earth rock dam under influence of high-impact typhoons based on particle swarm optimization algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme hydrological events induced by typhoons in reservoir areas have presented severe challenges to the safe operation of hydraulic structures. Based on analysis of the seepage characteristics of an earth rock dam, a novel seepage safety monitoring model was constructed in this study. The nonlinear influence processes of the antecedent reservoir water level and rainfall were assumed to follow normal distributions. The particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm was used to optimize the model parameters so as to raise the fitting accuracy. In addition, a mutation factor was introduced to simulate the sudden increase in the piezometric level induced by short-duration heavy rainfall and the possible historical extreme reservoir water level during a typhoon. In order to verify the efficacy of this model, the earth rock dam of the Siminghu Reservoir was used as an example. The piezometric level at the SW1-2 measuring point during Typhoon Fitow in 2013 was fitted with the present model, and a corresponding theoretical expression was established. Comparison of fitting results of the piezometric level obtained from the present statistical model and traditional statistical model with monitored values during the typhoon shows that the present model has a higher fitting accuracy and can simulate the uprush feature of the seepage pressure during the typhoon perfectly.

  7. ERATOSTHENES: excellence research Centre for Earth surveillance and space-based monitoring of the environment, the EXCELSIOR Horizon 2020 teaming project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Kontoes, Haris; Schreier, Gunter; Ansmann, Albert; Komodromos, George; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Mamouri, Rodanthi; Michaelides, Silas; Nisantzi, Argyro; Papoutsa, Christiana; Neocleous, Kyriacos; Mettas, Christodoulos; Tzouvaras, Marios; Evagorou, Evagoras; Christofe, Andreas; Melillos, George; Papoutsis, Ioannis

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the strategy and vision to upgrade the existing ERATOSTHENES Research Centre (ERC) established within the Cyprus University of Technology (CUT) into a sustainable, viable and autonomous Centre of Excellence (CoE) for Earth Surveillance and Space-Based Monitoring of the Environment, which will provide the highest quality of related services on the National, European and International levels. EXCELSIOR is a Horizon 2020 Teaming project which addresses a specific challenge defined by the work program, namely, the reduction of substantial disparities in the European Union by supporting research and innovation activities and systems in low performing countries. It also aims at establishing long-term and strategic partnerships between the Teaming partners, thus reducing internal research and innovation disparities within European Research and Innovation landscape. The proposed CoE envisions the upgrading of the existing ERC into an inspiring environment for conducting basic and applied research and innovation in the areas of the integrated use of remote sensing and space-based techniques for monitoring the environment. Environment has been recognized by the Smart Specialization Strategy of Cyprus as the first horizontal priority for future growth of the island. The foreseen upgrade will regard the expansion of this vision to systematic monitoring of the environment using Earth Observation, space and ground based integrated technologies. Such an approach will lead to the systematic monitoring of all three domains of the Environment (Air, Land, Water). Five partners have united to upgrade the existing ERC into a CoE, with the common vision to become a world-class innovation, research and education centre, actively contributing to the European Research Area (ERA). More specifically, the Teaming project is a team effort between the Cyprus University of Technology (CUT, acting as the coordinator), the German Aerospace Centre (DLR), the

  8. On-line Monitoring Device for High-voltage Switch Cabinet Partial Discharge Based on Pulse Current Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Tao, S.; Zhang, X. Z.; Cai, H. W.; Li, P.; Feng, Y.; Zhang, T. C.; Li, J.; Wang, W. S.; Zhang, X. K.

    2017-12-01

    The pulse current method for partial discharge detection is generally applied in type testing and other off-line tests of electrical equipment at delivery. After intensive analysis of the present situation and existing problems of partial discharge detection in switch cabinets, this paper designed the circuit principle and signal extraction method for partial discharge on-line detection based on a high-voltage presence indicating systems (VPIS), established a high voltage switch cabinet partial discharge on-line detection circuit based on the pulse current method, developed background software integrated with real-time monitoring, judging and analyzing functions, carried out a real discharge simulation test on a real-type partial discharge defect simulation platform of a 10KV switch cabinet, and verified the sensitivity and validity of the high-voltage switch cabinet partial discharge on-line monitoring device based on the pulse current method. The study presented in this paper is of great significance for switch cabinet maintenance and theoretical study on pulse current method on-line detection, and has provided a good implementation method for partial discharge on-line monitoring devices for 10KV distribution network equipment.

  9. 16 CFR Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 - Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility 1 Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility EC03OC91.008 ...

  10. How to Address a Global Problem with Earth Observations? Developing Best Practices to Monitor Forests Around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Cordova, Africa I.; Cherrington, Emil A.; Vadrevu, Krishna; Thapa, Rajesh Bahadur; Odour, Phoebe; Mehmood, Hamid; Quyen, Nguyen Hanh; Saah, David; Yero, Kadidia; Mamane, Bako; hide

    2017-01-01

    Forests represent a key natural resource, for which degradation or disturbance is directly associated to economic implications, particularly in the context of the United Nations program REDD+ in supporting national policies to fight illegal deforestation. SERVIR, a joint NASA-USAID initiative that brings Earth observations (EO) for improved environmental decision making in developing countries, works with established institutions, called SERVIR hubs, in four regions around the world. SERVIR is partnering with global programs with great experience in providing best practices in forest monitoring systems, such as SilvaCarbon and the Global Forest Observation Initiative (GFOI), to develop a capacity building plan that prioritizes user needs. Representatives from the SERVIR global network met in February 2017 with experts in the field of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for forest applications to envisage this capacity building plan that aims to leverage the state-of-the-art knowledge on remote sensing to enhance forest monitoring for user agencies in SERVIR regions.

  11. Differential-output B-dot and D-dot monitors for current and voltage measurements on a 20-MA, 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Wagoner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a system of differential-output monitors that diagnose current and voltage in the vacuum section of a 20-MA 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator. The system includes 62 gauges: 3 current and 6 voltage monitors that are fielded on each of the accelerator’s 4 vacuum-insulator stacks, 6 current monitors on each of the accelerator’s 4 outer magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs, and 2 current monitors on the accelerator’s inner MITL. The inner-MITL monitors are located 6 cm from the axis of the load. Each of the stack and outer-MITL current monitors comprises two separate B-dot sensors, each of which consists of four 3-mm-diameter wire loops wound in series. The two sensors are separately located within adjacent cavities machined out of a single piece of copper. The high electrical conductivity of copper minimizes penetration of magnetic flux into the cavity walls, which minimizes changes in the sensitivity of the sensors on the 100-ns time scale of the accelerator’s power pulse. A model of flux penetration has been developed and is used to correct (to first order the B-dot signals for the penetration that does occur. The two sensors are designed to produce signals with opposite polarities; hence, each current monitor may be regarded as a single detector with differential outputs. Common-mode-noise rejection is achieved by combining these signals in a 50-Ω balun. The signal cables that connect the B-dot monitors to the balun are chosen to provide reasonable bandwidth and acceptable levels of Compton drive in the bremsstrahlung field of the accelerator. A single 50-Ω cable transmits the output signal of each balun to a double-wall screen room, where the signals are attenuated, digitized (0.5-ns/sample, numerically compensated for cable losses, and numerically integrated. By contrast, each inner-MITL current monitor contains only a single B-dot sensor. These monitors are fielded in opposite-polarity pairs. The two

  12. Faulkes Telescope monitoring of the current outburst of IGR J00291+5934

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell, D.M.; Lewis, F.; Linares, M.; Roche, P.; Maitra, D.

    2008-01-01

    As part of an optical monitoring project of low-mass X-ray binaries (Lewis et al. 2008, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC.1010..204L), we report on recent observations just prior to, and during the current outburst of the millisecond X-ray pulsar IGR J00291+5934 (ATel #1660, #1664, #1665). The

  13. Development of a highly sensitive current and position monitor with HTS squids and an HTS magnetic shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.; Ikeda, T.; Kase, M.; Yano, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Sasaki, Y.; Kawaguchi, T.

    2005-01-01

    A highly sensitive current and position monitor with HTS (High-Temperature Superconducting) SQUIDs (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) and an HTS magnetic shield for the measurement of the intensity of faint beams, such as a radioisotope beam, has been developed for the RIKEN RI beam factory project. The HTS magnetic shield and the HTS current sensor including the HTS SQUID are cooled by a low-vibration pulse-tube refrigerator. Both the HTS magnetic shield and the HTS current sensor were fabricated by dip-coating a thin Bi 2 -Sr 2 -Ca 2 -Cu 3 -O x (Bi-2223) layer on 99.9% MgO ceramic substrates. The HTS technology enables us to develop a system equipped with a downsized and highly sensitive current monitor. Recently, a prototype system was completed and installed in the beam transport line of the RIKEN Ring Cyclotron to measure the DC-current of high-energy heavy-ion beams. As a result, we succeeded in measuring the intensity of the 600 nA 40 Ar 17+ beam (95 MeV/u). We describe the present status of the monitor system and the results of the beam measurements. (author)

  14. Beam current monitoring in the AGS Booster and its transfer lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkover, R.L.; Zitvogel, E.; Castillo, V.

    1991-01-01

    The new AGS Booster is designed to accelerate low intensity polarized protons and heavy ions, and high intensity protons. The wide range of beam parameters and the vacuum, thermal and radiation environment, presented challenges in the instrumentation design. This paper describes the problems and solutions for the beam current monitors in the Booster and its transport lines. Where available, results of the initial operation will be presented. 11 refs., 3 figs

  15. The value of earth observations: methods and findings on the value of Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly M.; Serbina, Larisa O.; Richardson, Leslie A.; Ryker, Sarah J.; Newman, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Data from Earth observation systems are used extensively in managing and monitoring natural resources, natural hazards, and the impacts of climate change, but the value of such data can be difficult to estimate, particularly when it is available at no cost. Assessing the socioeconomic and scientific value of these data provides a better understanding of the existing and emerging research, science, and applications related to this information and contributes to the decision making process regarding current and future Earth observation systems. Recent USGS research on Landsat data has advanced the literature in this area by using a variety of methods to estimate value. The results of a 2012 survey of Landsat users, a 2013 requirements assessment, and 2013 case studies of applications of Landsat imagery are discussed.

  16. Current status of process monitoring for IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroyasu, M.

    1987-06-01

    Based on literature survey, this report tries to answer some of the following questions on process monitoring for safeguards purposes of future large scale reprocessing plants: what is process monitoring, what are the basic elements of process monitoring, what kinds of process monitoring are there, what are the basic problems of process monitoring, what is the relationship between process monitoring and near-real-time materials accountancy, what are actual results of process monitoring tests and what should be studied in future. A brief description of Advanced Safeguards Approaches proposed by the four states (France, U.K., Japan and U.S.A.), the approach proposed by the U.S.A., the description of the process monitoring, the main part of the report published as a result of one of the U.S. Support Programmes for IAEA Safeguards and an article on process monitoring presented at an IAEA Symposium held in November 1986 are given in the annexes. 24 refs, 20 figs, tabs

  17. European Communication Monitor: Current developments, issues and tendencies of the professional practice of public relations in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, A.; Zerfass, A.; Tench, R.; Verčič, D.; Verhoeven, P.

    2009-01-01

    The European Communication Monitor (ECM) research explores the current developments for communications disciplines, practices and instruments. It is an extensive research project to monitor trends in communication management, analyse the changing framework for the profession driven by European

  18. Detection Model for Seepage Behavior of Earth Dams Based on Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxiang Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seepage behavior detecting is an important tool for ensuring the safety of earth dams. However, traditional seepage behavior detection methods have used insufficient monitoring data and have mainly focused on single-point measures and local seepage behavior. The seepage behavior of dams is not quantitatively detected based on the monitoring data with multiple measuring points. Therefore, this study uses data mining techniques to analyze the monitoring data and overcome the above-mentioned shortcomings. The massive seepage monitoring data with multiple points are used as the research object. The key information on seepage behavior is extracted using principal component analysis. The correlation between seepage behavior and upstream water level is described as mutual information. A detection model for overall seepage behavior is established. Result shows that the model can completely extract the seepage monitoring data with multiple points and quantitatively detect the overall seepage behavior of earth dams. The proposed method can provide a new and reasonable means of quantitatively detecting the overall seepage behavior of earth dams.

  19. Evidence for a critical Earth: the New Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampin, Stuart; Gao, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Phenomena that are critical-systems verging on criticality with 'butterfly wings' sensitivity are common - the weather, climate change; stellar radiation; the New York Stock Exchange; population explosions; population collapses; the life cycle of fruit-flies; and many more. It must be expected that the Earth, an archetypal complex heterogeneous interactive phenomena, is a critical-system, hence there is a New Geophysics imposing fundamentally new properties on conventional sub-critical geophysics. We shall show that, despite shear waves and shear-wave splitting (SWS) being observationally neglected, azimuthally-varying stress-aligned SWS is nearly universally observed throughout the Earth's crust and uppermost ~400km of the mantle. Caused by stress-aligned fluid-saturated microcracks (intergranular films of hydrolysed melt in the mantle), the microcracks are so closely-spaced that they verge on failure in fracturing and earthquakes. Phenomena that verge on failure in this way are critical-systems which impose a range of fundamental-new properties on conventional sub-critical geophysics including: self-similarity; monitorability; calculability; predictability; controllability; universality; and butterfly wings' sensitivity. We shall show how these phenomena have been consistently observed along millions of source-to-receiver ray paths confirming the New Geophysics. New Geophysics helps to explain many otherwise inexplicable observations including a number of geophysical conundrums such as the Gutenberg-Richter relationship which is used to describe the behaviour of conventional classic geophysics despite being massively non-linear. The great advantage of the critical Earth is that, unlike other critical-systems, the progress towards criticality can be monitored at almost any point within the deep interior of the material, by analysing observations of seismic SWS. This gives an unrivalled understanding of the detailed behaviour of a particular critical-system. This

  20. Earth observation from the manned low Earth orbit platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huadong; Dou, Changyong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Han, Chunming; Yue, Xijuan

    2016-05-01

    The manned low Earth orbit platforms (MLEOPs), e.g., the U.S. and Russia's human space vehicles, the International Space Station (ISS) and Chinese Tiangong-1 experimental space laboratory not only provide laboratories for scientific experiments in a wide range of disciplines, but also serve as exceptional platforms for remote observation of the Earth, astronomical objects and space environment. As the early orbiting platforms, the MLEOPs provide humans with revolutionary accessibility to the regions on Earth never seen before. Earth observation from MLEOPs began in early 1960s, as a part of manned space flight programs, and will continue with the ISS and upcoming Chinese Space Station. Through a series of flight missions, various and a large amount of Earth observing datasets have been acquired using handheld cameras by crewmembers as well as automated sophisticated sensors onboard these space vehicles. Utilizing these datasets many researches have been conducted, demonstrating the importance and uniqueness of studying Earth from a vantage point of MLEOPs. For example, the first, near-global scale digital elevation model (DEM) was developed from data obtained during the shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM). This review intends to provide an overview of Earth observations from MLEOPs and present applications conducted by the datasets collected by these missions. As the ISS is the most typical representative of MLEOPs, an introduction to it, including orbital characteristics, payload accommodations, and current and proposed sensors, is emphasized. The advantages and challenges of Earth observation from MLEOPs, using the ISS as an example, is also addressed. At last, a conclusive note is drawn.

  1. What can earth tide measurements tell us about ocean tides or earth structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, T. F.

    1978-01-01

    Current experimental problems in Earth tides are reviewed using comparisons of tidal gravity and tilt measurements in Europe with loading calculations are examples. The limitations of present day instrumentation and installation techniques are shown as well as some of the ways in which they can be improved. Many of the geophysical and oceanographic investigations that are possible with Earth tide measurements are discussed with emphasis on the percentage accuracies required in the measurements in order to obtain new information about Earth or its oceans.

  2. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. K Krishnamoorthy. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 111 Issue 4 December 2002 pp 425-435. Detection of marine aerosols with IRS P4-Ocean Colour Monitor · Indrani Das M Mohan K Krishnamoorthy · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  3. The Contribution of Earth Observation Technologies to Monitoring Strategies of Cultural Landscapes and Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, B.

    2017-08-01

    Coupling of Climate change effects with management and protection of cultural and natural heritage has been brought to the attention of policy makers since several years. On the worldwide level, UNESCO has identified several phenomena as the major geo-hazards possibly induced by climate change and their possible hazardous impact to natural and cultural heritage: Hurricane, storms; Sea-level rise; Erosion; Flooding; Rainfall increase; Drought; Desertification and Rise in temperature. The same document further referrers to satellite Remote Sensing (EO) as one of the valuable tools, useful for development of "professional monitoring strategies". More recently, other studies have highlighted on the impact of climate change effects on tourism, an economic sector related to build environment and traditionally linked to heritage. The results suggest that, in case of emergency the concrete threat could be given by the hazardous event itself; in case of ordinary administration, however, the threat seems to be a "hazardous attitude" towards cultural assets that could lead to inadequate maintenance and thus to a risk of an improper management of cultural heritage sites. This paper aims to illustrate potential benefits that advancements of Earth Observation technologies can bring to the domain of monitoring landscape heritage and to the management strategies, including practices of preventive maintenance. The attempt here is to raise awareness on the importance of integrating satellite remote sensing imagery and the deriving products with other geospatial information (even geo-referenced historic maps) for a more complete insight on the environmental dynamics of landscapes.

  4. Radionuclide monitoring in foodstuff: overview of the current implementation in the EU countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbala Mate; Katarzyna Sobiech-Matura; Timotheos Altzitzoglou

    2015-01-01

    The Member States (MS) of the European Union (EU) are obliged to monitor the radioactivity in the environment since the signature of the Euratom Treaty (Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community). Numerous secondary legislations derived from the Treaty can be found stating restrictions and maximum permitted levels of radionuclides in foodstuff. But to that purpose, no common integrated measurement methods are used with well-defined measurands. The present work consists of two parts. First, the current European regulations in force were collected, and then the food monitoring results, provided by the MS, were analysed. (author)

  5. Novel Solar Sail Mission Concepts for High-Latitude Earth and Lunar Observation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, M.J.; Parker, Jeffrey S.; Macdonald, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of solar sail periodic orbits in the Earth-Moon system for ob-servation of the high-latitudes of the Earth and Moon. At the Earth, the high-latitudes will be crucial in answering questions concerning global climate change, monitoring space weather events and ensuring

  6. Near Earth space plasma monitoring under COST 296

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Altadill, D.; Boška, Josef; Cander, Lj. R.; Gulyaeva, T.; Reinisch, B. W.; Romano, V.; Krankowski, A.; Bremer, J.; Belehaki, A.; Stanislawska, I.; Jakowski, N.; Scotto, C.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 52, 3/4 (2009), s. 221-234 ISSN 1593-5213 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Ionosphere * monitoring * data validation * monitoring techniques * campaigns * dissemination Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.548, year: 2009 http://www.annalsofgeophysics.eu/index.php/annals/article/view/4562

  7. Induced Current Characteristics Due to Laser Induced Plasma and Its Application to Laser Processing Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madjid, Syahrun Nur; Idris, Nasrullah; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik; Kagawa, Kiichiro

    2011-01-01

    In laser processing, suitable conditions for laser and gas play important role in ensuring a high quality of processing. To determine suitable conditions, we employed the electromagnetic phenomena associated with laser plasma generation. An electrode circuit was utilised to detect induced current due to the fast electrons propelled from the material during laser material processing. The characteristics of induced current were examined by changing parameters such as supplied voltage, laser pulse energy, number of laser shots, and type of ambient gas. These characteristics were compared with the optical emission characteristics. It was shown that the induced current technique proposed in this study is much more sensitive than the optical method in monitoring laser processing, that is to determine the precise focusing condition, and to accurately determine the moment of completion of laser beam penetration. In this study it was also shown that the induced current technique induced by CW CO 2 laser can be applied in industrial material processing for monitoring the penetration completion in a stainless steel plate drilling process.

  8. Eddy current sensor for in-situ monitoring of swelling of Li-ion prismatic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotnikov, Yuri, E-mail: plotnikov@ge.com; Karp, Jason, E-mail: plotnikov@ge.com; Knobloch, Aaron, E-mail: plotnikov@ge.com; Kapusta, Chris, E-mail: plotnikov@ge.com; Lin, David, E-mail: plotnikov@ge.com [GE Global Research, One Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2015-03-31

    In-situ monitoring an on-board rechargeable battery in hybrid cars can be used to ensure a long operating life of the battery and safe operation of the vehicle. Intercalations of ions in the electrode material during charge and discharge of a Lithium Ion battery cause periodic stress and strain of the electrode materials that can ultimately lead to fatigue resulting in capacity loss and potential battery failure. Currently this process is not monitored directly on the cells. This work is focused on development technologies that would quantify battery swelling and provide in-situ monitoring for onboard vehicle applications. Several rounds of tests have been performed to spatially characterize cell expansion of a 5 Ah cell with a nickel/manganese/cobalt-oxide cathode (Sanyo, Japan) used by Ford in their Fusion HEV battery pack. A collaborative team of researchers from GE and the University of Michigan has characterized the free expansion of these cells to be in the range of 100×125 microns (1% of total cell thickness) at the center point of the cell. GE proposed to use a thin eddy current (EC) coil to monitor these expansions on the cells while inside the package. The photolithography manufacturing process previously developed for EC arrays for detecting cracks in aircraft engine components was used to build test coils for gap monitoring. These sensors are thin enough to be placed safely between neighboring cells and capable of monitoring small variations in the gap between the cells. Preliminary investigations showed that these coils can be less than 100 micron thick and have sufficient sensitivity in a range from 0 to 2 mm. Laboratory tests revealed good correlation between EC and optical gap measurements in the desired range. Further technology development could lead to establishing a sensor network for a low cost solution for the in-situ monitoring of cell swelling during battery operation.

  9. Eddy current sensor for in-situ monitoring of swelling of Li-ion prismatic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Yuri; Karp, Jason; Knobloch, Aaron; Kapusta, Chris; Lin, David

    2015-03-01

    In-situ monitoring an on-board rechargeable battery in hybrid cars can be used to ensure a long operating life of the battery and safe operation of the vehicle. Intercalations of ions in the electrode material during charge and discharge of a Lithium Ion battery cause periodic stress and strain of the electrode materials that can ultimately lead to fatigue resulting in capacity loss and potential battery failure. Currently this process is not monitored directly on the cells. This work is focused on development technologies that would quantify battery swelling and provide in-situ monitoring for onboard vehicle applications. Several rounds of tests have been performed to spatially characterize cell expansion of a 5 Ah cell with a nickel/manganese/cobalt-oxide cathode (Sanyo, Japan) used by Ford in their Fusion HEV battery pack. A collaborative team of researchers from GE and the University of Michigan has characterized the free expansion of these cells to be in the range of 100×125 microns (1% of total cell thickness) at the center point of the cell. GE proposed to use a thin eddy current (EC) coil to monitor these expansions on the cells while inside the package. The photolithography manufacturing process previously developed for EC arrays for detecting cracks in aircraft engine components was used to build test coils for gap monitoring. These sensors are thin enough to be placed safely between neighboring cells and capable of monitoring small variations in the gap between the cells. Preliminary investigations showed that these coils can be less than 100 micron thick and have sufficient sensitivity in a range from 0 to 2 mm. Laboratory tests revealed good correlation between EC and optical gap measurements in the desired range. Further technology development could lead to establishing a sensor network for a low cost solution for the in-situ monitoring of cell swelling during battery operation.

  10. Calibration of an electron/proton monitor for the earth's radiation belt at 4 R/sub E/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higbie, P.R.; Belian, R.D.; Argo, H.V.; Baker, D.N.

    1982-03-01

    A charged particle dosimeter (the Burst Detector Dosimeter or BDD) was designed and fabricated and will be flown on certain of the Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) series of spacecraft. The BDD will monitor the dose received by the GPS spacecraft from the fluxes of electrons and protons in the Earth's radiation belt. The BDD uses absorbers in front of silicon sensors to determine the energy thresholds for measuring incident particle fluxes; and the magnitude of energy loss in a single sensor distinguishes between ions and electrons over a wide range of energies. Our electron calibrations were performed to determine accurately the energy response function of the dosimeter. The experimentally determined energy and angular responses are used to determine the equivalent energy thresholds and geometric factors for idealized step function responses

  11. Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids by Space Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Dehant, V.; Gross, R. S.; Ray, R. D.; Salstein, D. A.; Watkins, M.

    1999-01-01

    Since its establishment on 1/1/1998 by the International Earth Rotation Service, the Coordinating Center for Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids (MGGF) and its seven Special Bureaus have engaged in an effort to support and facilitate the understanding of the geophysical fluids in global geodynamics research. Mass transports in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-solid Earth-core system (the "global geophysical fluids") will cause the following geodynamic effects on a broad time scale: (1) variations in the solid Earth's rotation (in length-of-day and polar motion/nutation) via the conservation of angular momentum and effected by torques at the fluid-solid Earth interface; (2) changes in the global gravitational field according to Newton's gravitational law; and (3) motion in the center of mass of the solid Earth relative to that of the whole Earth ("geocenter") via the conservation of linear momentum. These minute signals have become observable by space geodetic techniques, primarily VLBI, SLR, GPS, and DORIS, with ever increasing precision/accuracy and temporal/spatial resolution. Each of the seven Special Bureaus within MGGF is responsible for calculations related to a specific Earth component or aspect -- Atmosphere, Ocean, Hydrology, Ocean Tides, Mantle, Core, and Gravity/Geocenter. Angular momenta and torques, gravitational coefficients, and geocenter shift will be computed for geophysical fluids based on global observational data, and from state-of-the-art models, some of which assimilate such data. The computed quantities, algorithm and data formats are standardized. The results are archived and made available to the scientific research community. This paper reports the status of the MGGF activities and current results.

  12. Correlations Between Variations in Solar EUV and Soft X-Ray Irradiance and Photoelectron Energy Spectra Observed on Mars and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, W. K.; Brain, D. A.; Mitchell, D. L.; Bailey, S. M.; Chamberlin, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    Solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV; 10-120 nm) and soft X-ray (XUV; 0-10 nm) radiation are major heat sources for the Mars thermosphere as well as the primary source of ionization that creates the ionosphere. In investigations of Mars thermospheric chemistry and dynamics, solar irradiance models are used to account for variations in this radiation. Because of limited proxies, irradiance models do a poor job of tracking the significant variations in irradiance intensity in the EUV and XUV ranges over solar rotation time scales when the Mars-Sun-Earth angle is large. Recent results from Earth observations show that variations in photoelectron energy spectra are useful monitors of EUV and XUV irradiance variability. Here we investigate photoelectron energy spectra observed by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Electron Reflectometer (ER) and the FAST satellite during the interval in 2005 when Earth, Mars, and the Sun were aligned. The Earth photoelectron data in selected bands correlate well with calculations based on 1 nm resolution observations above 27 nm supplemented by broadband observations and a solar model in the 0-27 nm range. At Mars, we find that instrumental and orbital limitations to the identifications of photoelectron energy spectra in MGS/ER data preclude their use as a monitor of solar EUV and XUV variability. However, observations with higher temporal and energy resolution obtained at lower altitudes on Mars might allow the separation of the solar wind and ionospheric components of electron energy spectra so that they could be used as reliable monitors of variations in solar EUV and XUV irradiance than the time shifted, Earth-based, F(10.7) index currently used.

  13. Correlations between variations in solar EUV and soft X-ray irradiance and photoelectron energy spectra observed on Mars and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, W. K.; Brain, D. A.; Mitchell, D. L.; Bailey, S. M.; Chamberlin, P. C.

    2013-11-01

    extreme ultraviolet (EUV; 10-120 nm) and soft X-ray (XUV; 0-10 nm) radiation are major heat sources for the Mars thermosphere as well as the primary source of ionization that creates the ionosphere. In investigations of Mars thermospheric chemistry and dynamics, solar irradiance models are used to account for variations in this radiation. Because of limited proxies, irradiance models do a poor job of tracking the significant variations in irradiance intensity in the EUV and XUV ranges over solar rotation time scales when the Mars-Sun-Earth angle is large. Recent results from Earth observations show that variations in photoelectron energy spectra are useful monitors of EUV and XUV irradiance variability. Here we investigate photoelectron energy spectra observed by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Electron Reflectometer (ER) and the FAST satellite during the interval in 2005 when Earth, Mars, and the Sun were aligned. The Earth photoelectron data in selected bands correlate well with calculations based on 1 nm resolution observations above 27 nm supplemented by broadband observations and a solar model in the 0-27 nm range. At Mars, we find that instrumental and orbital limitations to the identifications of photoelectron energy spectra in MGS/ER data preclude their use as a monitor of solar EUV and XUV variability. However, observations with higher temporal and energy resolution obtained at lower altitudes on Mars might allow the separation of the solar wind and ionospheric components of electron energy spectra so that they could be used as reliable monitors of variations in solar EUV and XUV irradiance than the time shifted, Earth-based, F10.7 index currently used.

  14. Can earth's magnetic micropulsations induce brain activities modifications?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, Altair Souza de

    2008-01-01

    Full text: We present in this paper preliminary study on which level earth's magnetic micro pulsations might interact with human brain activities. Magnetic micro pulsations are magnetospheric plasma wave Eigenmodes that are generated at the earth's magnetosphere and, via magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling induce ionospheric currents, and this ionospheric current pattern creates surface geomagnetic perturbations, which induce earth's surface electrical currents, and they are easily detected by earth's based magnetometers. These Eigenmodes are basically of Alfven type, and can be generated, for instance, by magnetic storms, situation where they are more intense and, in principle, might be felt by a more sensible human brain. Here, we also show how the modes are generated and present theirs basic physical properties. Finally, we compare the magnetic field level at the brain with the micro pulsation magnetic intensity. (author)

  15. Automatic Condition Monitoring of Industrial Rolling-Element Bearings Using Motor’s Vibration and Current Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    An automatic condition monitoring for a class of industrial rolling-element bearings is developed based on the vibration as well as stator current analysis. The considered fault scenarios include a single-point defect, multiple-point defects, and a type of distributed defect. Motivated by the pot...... characteristic frequencies, sideband effects, time-average of spectra, and selection of fault index and thresholds, are also discussed. The experimental work shows a huge potential to use some simple methods for successful diagnosis of industrial bearing systems.......An automatic condition monitoring for a class of industrial rolling-element bearings is developed based on the vibration as well as stator current analysis. The considered fault scenarios include a single-point defect, multiple-point defects, and a type of distributed defect. Motivated...... is extensively studied under diverse operating conditions: different sensor locations, motor speeds, loading conditions, and data samples from different time segments. The experimental results showed the powerful capability of vibration analysis in the bearing point defect fault diagnosis. The current analysis...

  16. Distortions of the magnetic field by storm-time current systems in Earth's magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Ganushkina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic field and current system changes in Earth's inner magnetosphere during storm times are studied using two principally different modeling approaches: on one hand, the event-oriented empirical magnetic field model, and, on the other, the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF built around a global MHD simulation. Two storm events, one moderate storm on 6–7 November 1997 with Dst minimum about −120 nT and one intense storm on 21–23 October 1999 with Dst minimum about −250 nT were modeled. Both modeling approaches predicted a large ring current (first partial, later symmetric contribution to the magnetic field perturbation for the intense storm. For the moderate storm, the tail current plays a dominant role in the event-oriented model results, while the SWMF results showed no strong tail current in the main phase, which resulted in a poorly timed storm peak relative to the observations. These results imply that the the development of a ring current depends on a strong force to inject the particles deep into the inner magnetosphere, and that the tail current is an important external source for the distortions of the inner magnetospheric magnetic field for both storms. Neither modeling approach was able to reproduce all the variations in the Bx and By components observed at geostationary orbit by GOES satellites during these two storms: the magnetopause current intensifications are inadequate, and the field-aligned currents are not sufficiently represented. While the event-oriented model reproduces rather well the Bz component at geostationary orbit, including the substorm-associated changes, the SWMF field is too dipolar at these locations. The empirical model is a useful tool for validation of the first-principle based models such as the SWMF.

  17. Geodetic Space Weather Monitoring by means of Ionosphere Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The term space weather indicates physical processes and phenomena in space caused by radiation of energy mainly from the Sun. Manifestations of space weather are (1) variations of the Earth's magnetic field, (2) the polar lights in the northern and southern hemisphere, (3) variations within the ionosphere as part of the upper atmosphere characterized by the existence of free electrons and ions, (4) the solar wind, i.e. the permanent emission of electrons and photons, (5) the interplanetary magnetic field, and (6) electric currents, e.g. the van Allen radiation belt. It can be stated that ionosphere disturbances are often caused by so-called solar storms. A solar storm comprises solar events such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which have different effects on the Earth. Solar flares may cause disturbances in positioning, navigation and communication. CMEs can effect severe disturbances and in extreme cases damages or even destructions of modern infrastructure. Examples are interruptions to satellite services including the global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), communication systems, Earth observation and imaging systems or a potential failure of power networks. Currently the measurements of solar satellite missions such as STEREO and SOHO are used to forecast solar events. Besides these measurements the Earth's ionosphere plays another key role in monitoring the space weather, because it responses to solar storms with an increase of the electron density. Space-geodetic observation techniques, such as terrestrial GNSS, satellite altimetry, space-borne GPS (radio occultation), DORIS and VLBI provide valuable global information about the state of the ionosphere. Additionally geodesy has a long history and large experience in developing and using sophisticated analysis and combination techniques as well as empirical and physical modelling approaches. Consequently, geodesy is predestinated for strongly supporting space weather monitoring via

  18. Mathematical models and methods for planet Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Locatelli, Ugo; Ruggeri, Tommaso; Strickland, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In 2013 several scientific activities have been devoted to mathematical researches for the study of planet Earth. The current volume presents a selection of the highly topical issues presented at the workshop “Mathematical Models and Methods for Planet Earth”, held in Roma (Italy), in May 2013. The fields of interest span from impacts of dangerous asteroids to the safeguard from space debris, from climatic changes to monitoring geological events, from the study of tumor growth to sociological problems. In all these fields the mathematical studies play a relevant role as a tool for the analysis of specific topics and as an ingredient of multidisciplinary problems. To investigate these problems we will see many different mathematical tools at work: just to mention some, stochastic processes, PDE, normal forms, chaos theory.

  19. Rare earth elements and permanent magnets (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Peter C.

    2012-04-01

    Rare earth (RE) magnets have become virtually indispensible in a wide variety of industries such as aerospace, automotive, electronics, medical, and military. RE elements are essential ingredients in these high performance magnets based on intermetallic compounds RECo5, RE2TM17 (TM: transition metal), and RE2TM14B. Rare earth magnets are known for their superior magnetic properties—high induction, and coercive force. These properties arise due to the extremely high magnetocrystalline anisotropy made possible by unique 3d-4f interactions between transition metals and rare earths. For more than 40 years, these magnets remain the number one choice in applications that require high magnetic fields in extreme operating conditions—high demagnetization forces and high temperature. EEC produces and specializes in RECo5 and RE2TM17 type sintered magnets. Samarium and gadolinium are key RE ingredients in the powder metallurgical magnet production processes which include melting, crushing, jet milling, pressing, sintering, and heat treating. The magnetic properties and applications of these magnets will be discussed. We will also briefly discuss the past, current, and future of the permanent magnet business. Currently, over 95% of all pure rare earth oxides are sourced from China, which currently controls the market. We will provide insights regarding current and potential new magnet technologies and designer choices, which may mitigate rare earth supply chain issues now and into the future.

  20. A MEMS AC current sensor for residential and commercial electricity end-use monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leland, E S; Wright, P K; White, R M

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel prototype MEMS sensor for alternating current designed for monitoring electricity end-use in residential and commercial environments. This new current sensor design is comprised of a piezoelectric MEMS cantilever with a permanent magnet mounted on the cantilever's free end. When placed near a wire carrying AC current, the magnet is driven sinusoidally, producing a voltage in the cantilever proportional to the current being measured. Analytical models were developed to predict the applicable magnetic forces and piezoelectric voltage output in order to guide the design of a sensor prototype. This paper also details the fabrication process for this sensor design. Released piezoelectric MEMS cantilevers have been fabricated using a four-mask process and aluminum nitride as the active piezoelectric material. Dispenser-printed microscale composite permanent magnets have been integrated, resulting in the first MEMS-scale prototypes of this current sensor design

  1. Tidal Stream Generators, current state and potential opportunities for condition monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappatos, Vassilios; Georgoulas, George; Avdelidis, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Tidal power industry has made significant progress towards commercialization over the past decade. Significant investments from sector leaders, strong technical progress and positive media coverage have established the credibility of this specific renewable energy source. However, its progress...... is being retarded by operation and maintenance problems, which results in very low operational availability times, as low as 25 %. This paper presents a literature review of the current state of tidal device operators as well as some commercial tidal turbine condition monitoring solutions. Furthermore......, an overview is given of the global tidal activity status (tidal energy market size and geography), the key industry activity and the regulations-standards related with tidal energy industry. Therefore, the main goal of this paper is to provide a bird’s view of the current status of the tidal power industry...

  2. Ground Return Current Behaviour in High Voltage Alternating Current Insulated Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Benato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of ground return current in fault occurrence plays a key role in the dimensioning of the earthing grid of substations and of cable sealing end compounds, in the computation of rise of earth potential at substation sites and in electromagnetic interference (EMI on neighbouring parallel metallic conductors (pipes, handrails, etc.. Moreover, the ground return current evaluation is also important in steady-state regime since this stray current can be responsible for EMI and also for alternating current (AC corrosion. In fault situations and under some assumptions, the ground return current value at a substation site can be computed by means of k-factors. The paper shows that these simplified and approximated approaches have a lot of limitations and only multiconductor analysis can show the ground return current behaviour along the cable (not only the two end values both in steady-state regime and in short circuit occurrence (e.g., phase-to-ground and phase-to-phase-to-ground. Multiconductor cell analysis (MCA considers the cable system in its real asymmetry without simplified and approximated hypotheses. The sensitivity of ground return current on circuit parameters (cross-bonding box resistances, substation earthing resistances, soil resistivity is presented in the paper.

  3. Mapping Near-Earth Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    How can we hunt down all the near-Earth asteroids that are capable of posing a threat to us? A new study looks at whether the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is up to the job.Charting Nearby ThreatsLSST is an 8.4-m wide-survey telescope currently being built in Chile. When it goes online in 2022, it will spend the next ten years surveying our sky, mapping tens of billions of stars and galaxies, searching for signatures of dark energy and dark matter, and hunting for transient optical events like novae and supernovae. But in its scanning, LSST will also be looking for asteroids that approach near Earth.Cumulative number of near-Earth asteroids discovered over time, as of June 16, 2016. [NASA/JPL/Chamberlin]Near-Earth objects (NEOs) have the potential to be hazardous if they cross Earths path and are large enough to do significant damage when they impact Earth. Earths history is riddled with dangerous asteroid encounters, including the recent Chelyabinsk airburst in 2013, the encounter that caused the kilometer-sized Meteor Crater in Arizona, and the impact thought to contribute to the extinction of the dinosaurs.Recognizing the potential danger that NEOs can pose to Earth, Congress has tasked NASA with tracking down 90% of NEOs larger than 140 meters in diameter. With our current survey capabilities, we believe weve discovered roughly 25% of these NEOs thus far. Now a new study led by Tommy Grav (Planetary Science Institute) examines whether LSST will be able to complete this task.Absolute magnitude, H, of asynthetic NEO population. Though these NEOs are all larger than 140 m, they have a large spread in albedos. [Grav et al. 2016]Can LSST Help?Based on previous observations of NEOs and resulting predictions for NEO properties and orbits, Grav and collaborators simulate a synthetic population of NEOs all above 140 m in size. With these improved population models, they demonstrate that the common tactic of using an asteroids absolute magnitude as a

  4. THE CONTRIBUTION OF EARTH OBSERVATION TECHNOLOGIES TO MONITORING STRATEGIES OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES AND SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cuca

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Coupling of Climate change effects with management and protection of cultural and natural heritage has been brought to the attention of policy makers since several years. On the worldwide level, UNESCO has identified several phenomena as the major geo-hazards possibly induced by climate change and their possible hazardous impact to natural and cultural heritage: Hurricane, storms; Sea-level rise; Erosion; Flooding; Rainfall increase; Drought; Desertification and Rise in temperature. The same document further referrers to satellite Remote Sensing (EO as one of the valuable tools, useful for development of “professional monitoring strategies”. More recently, other studies have highlighted on the impact of climate change effects on tourism, an economic sector related to build environment and traditionally linked to heritage. The results suggest that, in case of emergency the concrete threat could be given by the hazardous event itself; in case of ordinary administration, however, the threat seems to be a “hazardous attitude” towards cultural assets that could lead to inadequate maintenance and thus to a risk of an improper management of cultural heritage sites. This paper aims to illustrate potential benefits that advancements of Earth Observation technologies can bring to the domain of monitoring landscape heritage and to the management strategies, including practices of preventive maintenance. The attempt here is to raise awareness on the importance of integrating satellite remote sensing imagery and the deriving products with other geospatial information (even geo-referenced historic maps for a more complete insight on the environmental dynamics of landscapes.

  5. The Sun/Earth System and Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Arthur I.; Fox, Nicola; Lucid, Shannon

    2003-01-01

    Solar variability and solar activity are now seen as significant drivers with respect to the Earth and human technology systems. Observations over the last 10 years have significantly advanced our understanding of causes and effects in the Sun/Earth system. On a practical level the interactions between the Sun and Earth dictate how we build our systems in space (communications satellites, GPS, etc), and some of our ground systems (power grids). This talk will be about the Sun/Earth system: how it changes with time, its magnetic interactions, flares, the solar wind, and how the Sun effects human systems. Data will be presented from some current spacecraft which show, for example, how we are able to currently give warnings to the scientific community, the Government and industry about space storms and how this data has improved our physical understanding of processes on the Sun and in the magnetosphere. The scientific advances provided by our current spacecraft has led to a new program in NASA to develop a 'Space Weather' system called 'Living With a Star'. The current plan for the 'Living With a Star' program will also be presented.

  6. Electromagnetic monitoring of the Earth's interior in the frame of the MEM Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Santarelli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The MEM Project (Magnetic and Electric fields Monitoring was activated in the INGV Observatory of L’Aquila since 2004. The principal purpose of the project is to create in Central Italy a network of observatories to monitoring the electromagnetic signals in the frequency band [0.001 Hz - 100 kHz]. This band includes natural signals (magnetic pulsations of magnetospheric origin, Earth-ionosphere resonance mode signals, atmospheric noise, and so on and artificial signals (power line emissions, VLF radio transmissions, and so on. The innovative characteristic of the project is the approach chosen to study the complex problem concerning the representation of the spatial and temporal distributions of the electromagnetic fields in the band of interest. Both the distributions can be represented by some parameters containing the locations and the characteristics of the sources of the electromagnetic signals. When all the stations will be in operation the wide-band interferometry will be applied. Combining the simultaneous observations of the electromagnetic field measured in the stations of the network, we will be able to obtain detailed information about the investigated electromagnetic sources. A new measurement system has been developed to fulfil these requirements focusing on the automation of the measurements. The system is designed for long term recording of the electromagnetic fields in a wide frequency band. In the frequency band [1Hz - 100 kHz] the three components of the magnetic field and the three components of atmospheric electric field are processed in real time using DSP (Digital Signal Processing techniques. In the frequency band [0.001 - 25]Hz the two components of the telluric field and the three components of the magnetic field are recorded as sampled (100Hz. One of the main scientific objectives of the MEM project is the long term monitoring of the geodynamical processes, such as the earthquakes, by the calculation of the Poynting

  7. Monitoring of well-controlled turbidity currents using the latest technology and a dredger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellinga, A. J.; Cartigny, M.; Clare, M. A.; Mastbergen, D. R.; Van den Ham, G.; Koelewijn, A. R.; de Kleine, M.; Hizzett, J. L.; Azpiroz, M.; Simmons, S.; Parsons, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in technology enable monitoring of turbidity currents at field scale. This now allows us to test models developed at small-scale in the laboratory. However, interpretation of field measurements is complicated, as the instruments used are not bespoke for monitoring turbidity currents. For example, Acoustic Doppler Current Profiles (ADCPs) are developed to measure clear water flows, and 3D multimode multibeam echosounders (M3s) are made to find shoals of fish. Calibration of field-scale measurements is complicated, as we often do not know fundamental information about the measured flows, such as grain size and initial sediment volume. We present field-scale measurements of two turbidity currents for which the pre- and post-flow bathymetry, grain size and initial sediment volume is known precisely. A dredger created two turbidity currents by twice discharging 500m3 of sediment on a slope in the Western Scheldt Estuary, the Netherlands. Flow velocity and echo intensity were directly measured using three frequencies of ADCPs, and two M3 sonars imaged the flow morphology in 3D. This experiment was part of the IJkdijk research program. The turbidity currents formed upstream-migrating crescentic shaped bedforms. The ADCPs measured peak flow velocities of 1-1.5 m/s. The M3s however suggest head velocities are 2-4 m/s. The two measured turbidity currents have thicknesses of about 3m, are up to 50m in width and travel downslope for about 150m. Flow dimensions, duration, and sediment discharge indicate a mean sediment concentration of 1-5 vol. %. Flow morphology evolves from a fast but thin, snout-like head, to a thicker body, and a dilute tail. The initial flow dynamics contrast with many laboratory experiments, but are coherent with direct measurements of much larger flows in the Congo Canyon. Well-constrained field studies, like this one, thus help to understand the validity of scaling from the laboratory to the deep sea.

  8. Long Term Preservation of Earth Observation Data in Europe - Challenge and Cooperation Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molch, K.; Albani, M.

    2014-12-01

    Earth observation data are unique snapshots of the Earth and the atmosphere. As such they constitute a humankind asset in their importance for monitoring changes in global environmental conditions. With spaceborne Earth observation (EO) missions dating back to the 1970s, 40 years worth of observations are now available in EO data archives worldwide. Data holdings are growing exponentially, e.g. with the Sentinel series of high resolution EO satellites of the European Copernicus Program - which introduces a new dimension of data volumes to be handled. As other EO data holders around the globe, the European Space Agency (ESA) and its member states are committed to keeping the valuable EO data assets safe, accessible, and useable for an unlimited timespan. Rapidly evolving information technology and changing user requirements call for a dedicated and coordinated approach to EO data long term preservation. In Europe collaborative EO data stewardship activities are coordinated by ESA within the ESA long term data preservation (LTDP) program. With a view to the entire data set life cycle of historic and current missions an active LTDP working group addresses a wide range of relevant technical and organizational topics. Studies investigate archiving and access technologies, user expectations, or applicable standards; guidelines and best practices recommend preservation workflows, steps to take in curating individual data sets, the composition of the preserved data set, or concepts for introducing persistent identifiers. Fostering an active international exchange, the activities and documents developed within this European LTDP framework extend beyond Europe by being introduced to the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). The paper describes the European LTDP cooperation framework, discusses individual focus areas and current activities, and highlights the interaction with global data stewardship initiatives.

  9. Efforts Toward an Early Warning Crop Monitor for Countries at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, M. E.; Verdin, J. P.; Barker, B.; Humber, M. L.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C. O.; Magadzire, T.; Galu, G.; Rodriguez, M.; Jayanthi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing crop growing conditions is a crucial aspect of monitoring food security in the developing world. One of the core components of the Group on Earth Observations - Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) targets monitoring Countries at Risk (component 3). The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has a long history of utilizing remote sensing and crop modeling to address food security threats in the form of drought, floods, pest infestation, and climate change in some of the world's most at risk countries. FEWS NET scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and the University of Maryland Department of Geography have undertaken efforts to address component 3, by promoting the development of a collaborative Early Warning Crop Monitor (EWCM) that would specifically address Countries at Risk. A number of organizations utilize combinations of satellite earth observations, field campaigns, network partner inputs, and crop modeling techniques to monitor crop conditions throughout the world. Agencies such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), United Nations World Food Programme (WFP), and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) provide agricultural monitoring information and reporting across a broad number of areas at risk and in many cases, organizations routinely report on the same countries. The latter offers an opportunity for collaboration on crop growing conditions among agencies. The reduction of uncertainty and achievement of consensus will help strengthen confidence in decisions to commit resources for mitigation of acute food insecurity and support for resilience and development programs. In addition, the development of a collaborative global EWCM will provide each of the partner agencies with the ability to quickly gather crop condition information for areas where they may not typically work or have access to local networks. Using a framework

  10. Monitoring of radioactivity in the UK environment. An annotated bibliography of current programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    With the continuing use of radioactive materials in industry, research and medicine, the public's awareness about the potential impact on human health and safety of any enhanced levels of radiation in the environment has heightened. All those involved recognise this concern and there has developed over the years a network of comprehensive monitoring systems designed to determine the levels of radiation to which members of the public are exposed. In the UK, many organisations carry out regular radioactivity monitoring programmes, and summaries of these programmes have been published in 1983, 1988 and 1992. The number of organisations carrying out monitoring, particularly in the local authority sector, increased rapidly following the Chernobyl incident in 1986 and later levelled off. This report updates those previous summaries, giving synopses of regular UK programmes whose results are published in report form, and of which the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions is currently aware

  11. National health inequality monitoring: current challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Schlotheuber, Anne; Boerma, Ties

    National health inequality monitoring needs considerably more investment to realize equity-oriented health improvements in countries, including advancement towards the Sustainable Development Goals. Following an overview of national health inequality monitoring and the associated resource requirements, we highlight challenges that countries may encounter when setting up, expanding or strengthening national health inequality monitoring systems, and discuss opportunities and key initiatives that aim to address these challenges. We provide specific proposals on what is needed to ensure that national health inequality monitoring systems are harnessed to guide the reduction of health inequalities.

  12. Streaming sausage, kink and tearing instabilities in a current sheet with applications to the earth's magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L. C.; Wang, S.; Wei, C. Q.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates the growth rates and eigenmode structures of the streaming sausage, kink, and tearing instabilities in a current sheet with a super-Alfvenic flow. The growth rates and eigenmode structures are first considered in the ideal incompressible limit by using a four-layer model, as well as a more realistic case in which all plasma parameters and the magnetic field vary continuously along the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. An initial-value method is applied to obtain the growth rate and eigenmode profiles of the fastest growing mode, which is either the sausage mode or kink mode. It is shown that, in the earth's magnetotail, where super-Alfvenic plasma flows are observed in the plasma sheet and the ratio between the plasma and magnetic pressures far away from the current layer is about 0.1-0.3 in the lobes, the streaming sausage and streaming tearing instabilities, but not kink modes, are likely to occur.

  13. A novel approach for acid mine drainage pollution biomonitoring using rare earth elements bioaccumulated in the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnail, Estefanía; Pérez-López, Rafael; Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Nieto, José Miguel; DelValls, T Ángel

    2017-09-15

    Lanthanide series have been used as a record of the water-rock interaction and work as a tool for identifying impacts of acid mine drainage (lixiviate residue derived from sulphide oxidation). The application of North-American Shale Composite-normalized rare earth elements patterns to these minority elements allows determining the origin of the contamination. In the current study, geochemical patterns were applied to rare earth elements bioaccumulated in the soft tissue of the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea after exposure to different acid mine drainage contaminated environments. Results show significant bioaccumulation of rare earth elements in soft tissue of the clam after 14 days of exposure to acid mine drainage contaminated sediment (ΣREE=1.3-8μg/gdw). Furthermore, it was possible to biomonitor different degrees of contamination based on rare earth elements in tissue. The pattern of this type of contamination describes a particular curve characterized by an enrichment in the middle rare earth elements; a homologous pattern (E MREE =0.90) has also been observed when applied NASC normalization in clam tissues. Results of lanthanides found in clams were contrasted with the paucity of toxicity studies, determining risk caused by light rare earth elements in the Odiel River close to the Estuary. The current study purposes the use of clam as an innovative "bio-tool" for the biogeochemical monitoring of pollution inputs that determines the acid mine drainage networks affection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Seamless Framework for Global Water Cycle Monitoring and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.; Chaney, N.; Fisher, C. K.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Water Strategy ('From Observations to Decisions') recognizes that 'water is essential for ensuring food and energy security, for facilitating poverty reduction and health security, and for the maintenance of ecosystems and biodiversity', and that water cycle data and observations are critical for improved water management and water security - especially in less developed regions. The GEOSS Water Strategy has articulated a number of goals for improved water management, including flood and drought preparedness, that include: (i) facilitating the use of Earth Observations for water cycle observations; (ii) facilitating the acquisition, processing, and distribution of data products needed for effective management; (iii) providing expertise, information systems, and datasets to the global, regional, and national water communities. There are several challenges that must be met to advance our capability to provide near real-time water cycle monitoring, early warning of hydrological hazards (floods and droughts) and risk assessment under climate change, regionally and globally. Current approaches to monitoring and predicting hydrological hazards are limited in many parts of the world, and especially in developing countries where national capacity is limited and monitoring networks are inadequate. This presentation describes the development of a seamless monitoring and prediction framework at all time scales that allows for consistent assessment of water variability from historic to current conditions, and from seasonal and decadal predictions to climate change projections. At the center of the framework is an experimental, global water cycle monitoring and seasonal forecast system that has evolved out of regional and continental systems for the US and Africa. The system is based on land surface hydrological modeling that is driven by satellite remote sensing precipitation to predict current hydrological conditions

  15. Beam position and total current monitor for heavy ion fusion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berners, D.; Reginato, L.L.

    1992-10-01

    Heavy Ion Fusion requires moderate currents, 1-10A, for a duration of about 1 μs. For accurate beam transport, the center of charge must be located to within ± 100 μm. Beam position and intensity may be excited at frequencies approaching 10 MHz, and the monitoring system must have adequate bandwidth to respond at these frequencies. We have modified the Rogowski technique by using distributed reactance multiturn magnetic loops so that it is suitable for measuring current position as well as amplitude. Four identical stripline coils are wound one per quadrant around a non magnetic core. The sensitivity is similar to that of a lumped coil system, with the added advantage of increased bandwidth. The voltages induced on the four separate coils are compared and suitable signal conditioning is performed to recover beam position and intensity information

  16. HIGH PERCENTAGE OF RARE EARTH ELEMENT CONNECTION WITH THE ACCUMULATION SEDIMENT AS RESPONSE LONGSHORE CURRENTS IN THE BELITUNG WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delyuzar Ilahude

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study area is geographically located in the West coast of Belitung island at coordinates 105o48'00" - 106o06' 00" E and 06o46'00" - 06o50' 00" S. The beach and coastal area is influenced by wave energy from the West and North directions The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between the zone of sediment accumulation of empirical approaches on oceanography parameter containing rare earth elements. The approach used is to predict the shore wave energy using wave prediction curve deep waters to obtain the energy flux of the wave at each point of reference. Sediments containing rare earth elements tend to lead to the south as a result of the movement of longshore currents. Regional coastal area of the western part of the island of Belitung, especially in the southern part of the estuary of the river Tanjung Pandan is estimated to be a zone of sediment accumulation. The movement of sediment caused by wave energy from the north led to sedimentation evolved significantly in the south which is thought to contain rare earths minerals derived from land. This sedimentation process takes place on a seasonal basis, which allegedly took place in the west. The movement of sediment to the south of the mouth of the Cerucuk River it is predicted that rare earth elements were supplied from these rivers tend to settle in the southern part of the estuary Cerucuk throughout the year.

  17. Feedbacks between geomorphology and biota controlling Earth surface processes and landforms: A review of foundation concepts and current understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corenblit, Dov; Baas, Andreas C. W.; Bornette, Gudrun; Darrozes, José; Delmotte, Sébastien; Francis, Robert A.; Gurnell, Angela M.; Julien, Frédéric; Naiman, Robert J.; Steiger, Johannes

    2011-06-01

    This review article presents recent advances in the field of biogeomorphology related to the reciprocal coupling between Earth surface processes and landforms, and ecological and evolutionary processes. The aim is to present to the Earth Science community ecological and evolutionary concepts and associated recent conceptual developments for linking geomorphology and biota. The novelty of the proposed perspective is that (1) in the presence of geomorphologic-engineer species, which modify sediment and landform dynamics, natural selection operating at the scale of organisms may have consequences for the physical components of ecosystems, and particularly Earth surface processes and landforms; and (2) in return, these modifications of geomorphologic processes and landforms often feed back to the ecological characteristics of the ecosystem (structure and function) and thus to biological characteristics of engineer species and/or other species (adaptation and speciation). The main foundation concepts from ecology and evolutionary biology which have led only recently to an improved conception of landform dynamics in geomorphology are reviewed and discussed. The biogeomorphologic macroevolutionary insights proposed explicitly integrate geomorphologic niche-dimensions and processes within an ecosystem framework and reflect current theories of eco-evolutionary and ecological processes. Collectively, these lead to the definition of an integrated model describing the overall functioning of biogeomorphologic systems over ecological and evolutionary timescales.

  18. Near-Earth Asteroids: Destinations for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, Brent W.

    2014-01-01

    The Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) is a system that monitors the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population to identify NEAs whose orbital characteristics may make them potential destinations for future round-trip human space flight missions. To accomplish this monitoring, Brent Barbee (GSFC) developed and automated a system that applies specialized trajectory processing to the orbits of newly discovered NEAs, and those for which we have updated orbit knowledge, obtained from the JPL Small Bodies Database (SBDB). This automated process executes daily and the results are distributed to the general public and the astronomy community. This aids in prioritizing telescope radar time allocations for obtaining crucial follow-up observations of highly accessible NEAs during the critical, because it is often fleeting, time period surrounding the time at which the NEAs are initially discovered.

  19. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Program has evolved over the last two decades, and currently has several core and community components. Core components provide the basic operational capabilities to process, archive, manage and distribute data from NASA missions. Community components provide a path for peer-reviewed research in Earth Science Informatics to feed into the evolution of the core components. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a core component consisting of twelve Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and eight Science Investigator-led Processing Systems spread across the U.S. The presentation covers how the ESDS Program continues to evolve and benefits from as well as contributes to advances in Earth Science Informatics.

  20. Modeling of the Earth's gravity field using the New Global Earth Model (NEWGEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong E.; Braswell, W. Danny

    1989-01-01

    Traditionally, the global gravity field was described by representations based on the spherical harmonics (SH) expansion of the geopotential. The SH expansion coefficients were determined by fitting the Earth's gravity data as measured by many different methods including the use of artificial satellites. As gravity data have accumulated with increasingly better accuracies, more of the higher order SH expansion coefficients were determined. The SH representation is useful for describing the gravity field exterior to the Earth but is theoretically invalid on the Earth's surface and in the Earth's interior. A new global Earth model (NEWGEM) (KIM, 1987 and 1988a) was recently proposed to provide a unified description of the Earth's gravity field inside, on, and outside the Earth's surface using the Earth's mass density profile as deduced from seismic studies, elevation and bathymetric information, and local and global gravity data. Using NEWGEM, it is possible to determine the constraints on the mass distribution of the Earth imposed by gravity, topography, and seismic data. NEWGEM is useful in investigating a variety of geophysical phenomena. It is currently being utilized to develop a geophysical interpretation of Kaula's rule. The zeroth order NEWGEM is being used to numerically integrate spherical harmonic expansion coefficients and simultaneously determine the contribution of each layer in the model to a given coefficient. The numerically determined SH expansion coefficients are also being used to test the validity of SH expansions at the surface of the Earth by comparing the resulting SH expansion gravity model with exact calculations of the gravity at the Earth's surface.

  1. Pict'Earth: A new Method of Virtual Globe Data Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.; Long, S.; Riallant, D.; Hronusov, V.

    2007-12-01

    near-real time (high temporal resolution), and provide current radiance values (which is important for seasonal work). The final mosaics can also be assembled into time-lapse sequences and presented temporally. The suggested solution is cost effective when compared to the alternative methods of acquiring similar imagery. The systems are compact, mobile, and do not require a substantial amount of auxiliary equipment. Ongoing development of the software makes it possible to adapt the technology to different platforms, smartphones, sensors, and types of data. The range of application of this technology potentially covers a large part of the spectrum of Earth sciences including the calibration and validation of high-resolution satellite-derived products. These systems are currently being used for monitoring of dynamic land and water surface processes, and can be used for reconnaissance when locating and establishing field measurement sites.

  2. Educating the Public about Deep-Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, V. S.

    2010-12-01

    The nature of Earth’s interior is an active frontier of scientific research. Much of our current understanding of sub-crustal Earth is based on knowledge acquired in the last 2-3 decades, made possible by public funding and by dense seismic arrays, satellite remote sensing, increases in computer power that enable use of enhanced numerical techniques, improved theoretical and experimental knowledge of high PT mineral physics and chemistry, and a vigorous scientific community that has been trained to take advantage of these opportunities. An essential component of science is effective communication; therefore, providing for public education about science is a responsibility of the research community. Current public understanding of Earth’s interior is meager at best. In pre-college texts and in non-technical mass media, Earth's interior is typically visualized as an onion or baseball of concentric different-colored shells along whose upper surface "crustal" plates move like packages on conveyor belts of convecting mantle. Or the crust is thought to float on a molten mantle, as in the 19th century ideas of William Lowthian Green. Misconceptions about Earth that are brought to the undergraduate classroom must be confronted frankly and replaced by current understanding based on good science. Persistent ignorance has consequences. What do we want the public to know? First, the public should understand that knowledge of Earth's interior is important, not irrelevant. The public should know that deep-Earth processes result in Earth's dynamic magnetic field. Deep-Earth processes affect how radiation from the Sun reaches Earth, consequently affecting the atmosphere, the oceans, and the viability of life on Earth. The composition and differentiated structure of Earth's interior is a result of the early accretionary history of Earth and the Earth-Moon system. The public should also know that lithospheric tectonics, with all of its consequences (dynamic topography, volcanoes

  3. Earth Science Literacy: Building Community Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, M.; Ladue, N.; Budd, D.; Campbell, K.; Conklin, M.; Lewis, G.; Raynolds, R.; Ridky, R.; Ross, R.; Taber, J.; Tewksbury, B.; Tuddenham, P.

    2008-12-01

    During 2008, the Earth Sciences Literacy Initiative (ESLI) constructed a framework of earth science "Big Ideas" and "Supporting Concepts". Following the examples of recent literacy efforts in the ocean, atmosphere and climate research communities, ESLI has distilled the fundamental understandings of the earth science community into a document that all members of the community will be able to refer to when working with educators, policy-makers, the press and members of the general public. This document is currently in draft form for review and will be published for public distribution in 2009. ESLI began with the construction of an organizing committee of a dozen people who represent a wide array of earth science backgrounds. This group then organized and ran two workshops in 2008: a 2-week online content workshop and a 3-day intensive writing workshop. For both workshops, participants were chosen so as to cover the full breadth of earth science related to the solid earth, surficial processes, and fresh-water hydrology. The asynchronous online workshop included 350 scientists and educators participating from around the world and was a powerful way to gather ideas and information while retaining a written record of all interactions. The writing workshop included 35 scientists, educators and agency representatives to codify the extensive input of the online workshop. Since September, 2008, drafts of the ESLI literacy framework have been circulated through many different channels to make sure that the document accurately reflects the current understandings of earth scientists and to ensure that it is widely accepted and adopted by the earth science communities.

  4. Management Approach for Earth Venture Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Diane L.; Dutta, Sanghamitra

    2013-01-01

    The Earth Venture Instrument (EVI) element of the Earth Venture Program calls for developing instruments for participation on a NASA-arranged spaceflight mission of opportunity to conduct innovative, integrated, hypothesis or scientific question-driven approaches to pressing Earth system science issues. This paper discusses the EVI element and the management approach being used to manage both an instrument development activity as well as the host accommodations activity. In particular the focus will be on the approach being used for the first EVI (EVI-1) selected instrument, Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO), which will be hosted on a commercial GEO satellite and some of the challenges encountered to date and corresponding mitigations that are associated with the management structure for the TEMPO Mission and the architecture of EVI.

  5. Neutron monitor measurements on the German research vessel Polarstern. First results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heber, B. [Insititut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel (Germany); Schwerdt, C.; Walter, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Bernade, G.; Fuchs, R.; Krueger, H.; Moraal, H. [Center for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa)

    2014-07-01

    Cosmic-ray particles provide a unique opportunity to probe the dynamic conditions in the highly variable heliosphere. The longest continuous measurements of galactic cosmic rays come from cosmogenic isotopes and from neutron monitors located at different location on Earth. Understanding the effects of energetic particles in and on the atmosphere and the environment of Earth must address their transport to Earth and their interactions with the Earth's atmosphere, including their filtering by the terrestrial magnetosphere. Since neutron monitors are integral detectors of secondary cosmic rays produced in the atmosphere, a single neutron monitor can only derive the energy spectra of the particles impinging on the Earth during latitudinal surveys. A portable neutron monitor was built at the North-West University, South Africa, and was installed on the German research vessel Polarstern. Such latitude surveys have been done before, but this vessel is better suited for this purpose than previous platforms because it traverses all the locations with geomagnetic cutoff rigidities from <<1 GV to 15 GV at least twice per year. In this contribution we present first results from the measurement campaigns.

  6. A High-Sensitivity Flexible Eddy Current Array Sensor for Crack Monitoring of Welded Structures under Varying Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; He, Yuting; Du, Jinqiang

    2018-06-01

    This paper develops a high-sensitivity flexible eddy current array (HS-FECA) sensor for crack monitoring of welded structures under varying environment. Firstly, effects of stress, temperature and crack on output signals of the traditional flexible eddy current array (FECA) sensor were investigated by experiments that show both stress and temperature have great influences on the crack monitoring performance of the sensor. A 3-D finite element model was established using Comsol AC/DC module to analyze the perturbation effects of crack on eddy currents and output signals of the sensor, which showed perturbation effect of cracks on eddy currents is reduced by the current loop when crack propagates. Then, the HS-FECA sensor was proposed to boost the sensitivity to cracks. Simulation results show that perturbation effect of cracks on eddy currents excited by the HS-FECA sensor gradually grows stronger when the crack propagates, resulting in much higher sensitivity to cracks. Experimental result further shows that the sensitivity of the new sensor is at least 19 times that of the original one. In addition, both stress and temperature variations have little effect on signals of the new sensor.

  7. Current State and Development of Land Degradation Processes Based on Soil Monitoring in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobza Jozef

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Current state and development of land degradation processes based on soil monitoring system in Slovakia is evaluated in this contribution. Soil monitoring system in Slovakia is consistently running since 1993 year in 5-years repetitions. Soil monitoring network in Slovakia is constructed using ecological principle, taking into account all main soil types and subtypes, soil organic matter, climatic regions, emission regions, polluted and non-polluted regions as well as various land use. The result of soil monitoring network is 318 sites on agricultural land in Slovakia. Soil properties are evaluated according to the main threats to soil relating to European Commission recommendation for European soil monitoring performance as follows: soil erosion and compaction, soil acidification, decline in soil organic matter and soil contamination. The most significant change has been determined in physical degradation of soils. The physical degradation was especially manifested in compacted and the eroded soils. It was determined that about 39% of agricultural land is potentially affected by soil erosion in Slovakia. In addition, slight decline in soil organic matter indicates the serious facts on evaluation and extension of soil degradation processes during the last period in Slovakia. Soil contamination is without significant change for the time being. It means the soils contaminated before soil monitoring process this unfavourable state lasts also at present.

  8. Rare earth industries: Downstream business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The value chain of the rare earths business involves mining, extraction, processing, refining and the manufacture of an extensive range of downstream products which find wide applications in such industries including aerospace, consumer electronics, medical, military, automotive, renewable wind and solar energy and telecommunications. In fact the entire gamut of the high-tech industries depends on a sustainable supply of rare earths elements. The explosive demand in mobile phones is an excellent illustration of the massive potential that the rare earths business offers. In a matter of less than 20 years, the number of cell phones worldwide has reached a staggering 5 billion. Soon, going by the report of their growth in sales, the world demand for cell phones may even exceed the global population. Admittedly, the rare earths business does pose certain risks. Top among the risks are the health and safety risks. The mining, extraction and refining of rare earths produce residues and wastes which carry health and safety risks. The residues from the extraction and refining are radioactive, while their effluent waste streams do pose pollution risks to the receiving rivers and waterways. But, as clearly elaborated in a recent report by IAEA experts, there are technologies and systems available to efficiently mitigate such risks. The risks are Rare Earth manageable. However, it is crucial that the risk and waste management procedures are strictly followed and adhered to. This is where effective monitoring and surveillance throughout the life of all such rare earths facilities is crucial. Fortunately, Malaysia's regulatory standards on rare earths follow international standards. In some areas, Malaysia's regulatory regime is even more stringent than the international guidelines. (author)

  9. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Monitor Land Management Practices and the Development of Marshlands to Rice Fields in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusabimana, M. R.; Blach, D.; Mwiza, F.; Muzungu, E.; Swaminathan, R.; Tate, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Rwanda, a small country with the highest population density in Sub-Saharan Africa, is one of the world's poorest countries. Although agriculture is the backbone of Rwandan economy, agricultural productivity is extremely low. Over 90 % of the population is engaged in subsistence farming and only 52 % of the total land surface area is arable. Of this land, approximately 165,000 hectares are marshlands, of which only 57 % has been cultivated. Rwandan government has invested in the advancement of agriculture with activities such as irrigation, marshland reclamation, and crop regionalization. In 2001, Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources (MINAGRI) released the Rural Sector Support Program (RSSP), which aimed at converting marshlands into rice fields at various development sites across the country. The focus of this project was to monitor rice fields in Rwanda utilizing NASA Earth observations such as Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager. Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) was used to depict the progress of marshland to rice field conversion as it highlights the presence of irrigated rice fields from the surrounding area. Additionally, Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) was used to estimate rice yield at RSSP sites. Various simulations were run to find perfect conditions for cultivating the highest yield for a given farm. Furthermore, soil erosion susceptibility masks were created by combining factors derived from ASTER, MERRA, and ground truth data using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). The end results, maps, and tutorials were delivered to the partners and policy makers in Rwanda to help make informed decisions. It can be clearly seen that Earth observations can be successfully used to monitor agricultural and land management practices as a cost effective method that will enable farmers to improve crop yield production and food security.

  10. Spectrum Analyzer Application for the Proton Synchrotron Wall Current Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Limpens, Rik

    The Proton Synchrotron (PS) is a key component in CERN's accelerator complex, where it usually accelerates either protons or heavy ions. The new acquisition system for the PS ring wall current monitors has been installed to be able to perform higher frequency measurements of a beam bunch. This is an important improvement, since the oscillating signals are related to losses of a beam bunch. The main goal of this project is to develop a LabVIEW application running on a Real-Time target to perform continuous and triggered spectral acquisition of a PS beam bunch and to provide a data visualization and analysis tool for the operators and users of the machine.

  11. Replacing critical rare earth materials in high energy density magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, R. William

    2012-02-01

    High energy density permanent magnets are crucial to the design of internal permanent magnet motors (IPM) for hybride and electric vehicles and direct drive wind generators. Current motor designs use rare earth permanent magnets which easily meet the performance goals, however, the rising concerns over cost and foreign control of the current supply of rare earth resources has motivated a search for non-rare earth based permanent magnets alloys with performance metrics which allow the design of permanent magnet motors and generators without rare earth magnets. This talk will discuss the state of non-rare-earth permanent magnets and efforts to both improve the current materials and find new materials. These efforts combine first principles calculations and meso-scale magnetic modeling with advance characterization and synthesis techniques in order to advance the state of the art in non rare earth permanent magnets. The use of genetic algorithms in first principle structural calculations, combinatorial synthesis in the experimental search for materials, atom probe microscopy to characterize grain boundaries on the atomic level, and other state of the art techniques will be discussed. In addition the possibility of replacing critical rare earth elements with the most abundant rare earth Ce will be discussed.

  12. Space weather monitoring with neutron monitor measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steigies, Christian [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Space Weather affects many areas of the modern society, advance knowledge about space weather events is important to protect personnel and infrastructure. Cosmic Rays (CR) measurements by ground-based Neutron Monitors are influenced by Coronal Mass Ejections (CME), the intensity of the ever present Cosmic Rays is reduced in a Forbush decrease (Fd). In the case of very energetic CMEs, the measured intensity can be significantly increased in a Ground Level Enhancement (GLE). By detecting the anisotropy of the CR environment, a CME can be detected hours before it arrives at Earth. During a GLE the high-energy particles from the Sun can be detected before the more abundant lower energy particles arrive at Earth, thus allowing to take protective measures. Since the beginning of the Neutron Monitor Database (NMDB) project, which has been started in 2008 with funding from the European Commission, real-time data from Neutron Monitors around the world has been made available through one web-portal. We have more than doubled the number of stations providing data since the start of the project to now over 30 stations. The effectiveness of the ALERT applications which are based on NMDB data has been shown by the recent GLE71. We present different applications through which the measurements and different data products are accessible.

  13. High current precision long pulse electron beam position monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, S D; Fessenden, T J; Holmes, C

    2000-01-01

    Precision high current long pulse electron beam position monitoring has typically experienced problems with high Q sensors, sensors damped to the point of lack of precision, or sensors that interact substantially with any beam halo thus obscuring the desired signal. As part of the effort to develop a multi-axis electron beam transport system using transverse electromagnetic stripline kicker technology, it is necessary to precisely determine the position and extent of long high energy beams for accurate beam position control (6 - 40 MeV, 1 - 4 kA, 2 μs beam pulse, sub millimeter beam position accuracy.) The kicker positioning system utilizes shot-to-shot adjustments for reduction of relatively slow (< 20 MHz) motion of the beam centroid. The electron beams passing through the diagnostic systems have the potential for large halo effects that tend to corrupt position measurements.

  14. An in-vacuum wall current monitor and low cost signal sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Y.; Rawnsley, W.R.; Mackenzie, G.H.

    1993-11-01

    The beam bunches extracted from the TRIUMF cyclotron are usually about 4 ns long, contain ∼ 4 x 10 7 protons, and are spaced at 43 ns. A wall current monitor capable of giving the charge distribution within a bunch, on a bunch by bunch basis, has recently been installed together with a sampling system for routine display in the control room. The wall current monitor is enclosed in a vacuum vessel and no ceramic spacer is required. This enhances the response to high frequencies, ferrite rings extend the low frequency response. Bench measurements show a flat response between a few hundred kilohertz and 4.6 GHz. For a permanent display in the control room the oscilloscope will be replaced by a Stanford Research Systems fast sampler module, a scanner module, and an interface module made at TRIUMF. The time to acquire one 10 ns distribution encompassing the beam bunch is 30 ms with a sample width of 100 ps and an average sample spacing of 13 ps. The scan, sample, and retrace signals are buffered carried on 70 m differential lines to the control room. An analog scope in XYZ mode provides a real time display. Signal averaging can be performed by using a digital oscilloscope in YT mode. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  15. Sensing Planet Earth - Chalmers' MOOCs on Earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobiger, Thomas; Stöhr, Christian; Murtagh, Donal; Forkman, Peter; Galle, Bo; Mellquist, Johan; Soja, Maciej; Berg, Anders; Carvajal, Gisela; Eriksson, Leif; Haas, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    An increasing number of universities around the globe produce and conduct Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). In the beginning of 2016, Chalmers University of Technology ran two MOOCs on the topic of Earth observations on the edX platform. Both four week long courses were at introductory level and covered topics related to solid Earth, atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and cryosphere. It was discussed how one can measure and trace global change and use remote sensing tools for disaster monitoring. Research has attempted to assess the learners' motivations to participate in MOOCs, but there is a need for further case studies about motivations, opportunities and challenges for teachers engaging in MOOC development. In our presentation, we are going to report about the experiences gained from both the MOOC production and the actual course run from the instructors' perspective. After brief introduction to MOOCs in general and at Chalmers in particular, we share experiences and challenges of developing lecture and assessment material, the video production and coordination efforts between and within different actors involved in the production process. Further, we reflect upon the actual run of the course including course statistics and feedback from the learners. We discuss issues such as learner activation and engagement with the material, teacher-learner and student-student interaction as well as the scalability of different learning activities. Finally, we will present our lessons-learned and conclusions on the applicability of MOOCs in the field of Earth science teaching.

  16. Moving Closer to EarthScope: A Major New Initiative for the Earth Sciences*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, D.; Blewitt, G.; Ekstrom, G.; Henyey, T.; Hickman, S.; Prescott, W.; Zoback, M.

    2002-12-01

    EarthScope is a scientific research and infrastructure initiative designed to provide a suite of new observational facilities to address fundamental questions about the evolution of continents and the processes responsible for earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The integrated observing systems that will comprise EarthScope capitalize on recent developments in sensor technology and communications to provide Earth scientists with synoptic and high-resolution data derived from a variety of geophysical sensors. An array of 400 broadband seismometers will spend more than ten years crossing the contiguous 48 states and Alaska to image features that make up the internal structure of the continent and underlying mantle. Additional seismic and electromagnetic instrumentation will be available for high resolution imaging of geological targets of special interest. A network of continuously recording Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and sensitive borehole strainmeters will be installed along the western U.S. plate boundary. These sensors will measure how western North America is deforming, what motions occur along faults, how earthquakes start, and how magma flows beneath active volcanoes. A four-kilometer deep observatory bored directly into the San Andreas fault will provide the first opportunity to observe directly the conditions under which earthquakes occur, to collect fault rocks and fluids for laboratory study, and to monitor continuously an active fault zone at depth. All data from the EarthScope facilities will be openly available in real-time to maximize participation from the scientific community and to provide on-going educational outreach to students and the public. EarthScope's sensors will revolutionize observational Earth science in terms of the quantity, quality and spatial extent of the data they provide. Turning these data into exciting scientific discovery will require new modes of experimentation and interdisciplinary cooperation from the Earth

  17. The Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, Mark; Rood, Richard B.; Hildebrand, Peter; Raymond, Carol

    2003-01-01

    The Earth System Model is the natural evolution of current climate models and will be the ultimate embodiment of our geophysical understanding of the planet. These models are constructed from components - atmosphere, ocean, ice, land, chemistry, solid earth, etc. models and merged together through a coupling program which is responsible for the exchange of data from the components. Climate models and future earth system models will have standardized modules, and these standards are now being developed by the ESMF project funded by NASA. The Earth System Model will have a variety of uses beyond climate prediction. The model can be used to build climate data records making it the core of an assimilation system, and it can be used in OSSE experiments to evaluate. The computing and storage requirements for the ESM appear to be daunting. However, the Japanese ES theoretical computing capability is already within 20% of the minimum requirements needed for some 2010 climate model applications. Thus it seems very possible that a focused effort to build an Earth System Model will achieve succcss.

  18. An Overview of Rare Earth Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschneidner, Karl, Jr.

    2012-02-01

    Currently rare earth science and technology is robust: this includes all the major branches of science -- biochemistry, chemistry, materials and physics. There are, however, currently some anomalies and distortions especially in the technology and applications sector of the rare earth field, which is caused by the dominance of China on the sales of rare earths and rare earth containing products. For the past 5 to 10 years ˜95% of rare earths utilized in commerce came from China. Although Chinese actions have lead to sudden and large price spikes and export embargoes, the rare earths are still available but at a higher cost. The start up of production in 2011 at mines in the USA and Australia will alleviate this situation in about two years. Basic and applied research on the condensed matter physics/materials science has hardly been impacted by these events, but new research opportunities are opening up especially with regard to the USA's military and energy security. Magnets seems to be the hottest topic, but research on battery materials, phosphors and catalysts are also (or should be) strongly considered.

  19. The Global Geostationary Wildfire ABBA: Current Implementation and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, E.; Schmidt, C. C.; Hoffman, J.; Brunner, J.; Hyer, E. J.; Reid, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Wild Fire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA), developed at the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS), has a long legacy of operational near real-time wildfire detection and characterization in the Western Hemisphere. The first phase of the global geostationary WF_ABBA was made operational at NOAA NESDIS in 2009 and currently includes diurnal active fire monitoring from GOES-East, GOES-South America, GOES-West, Meteosat-9 and MTSAT-1R/-2. This allows for near global active fire monitoring with coverage of Europe, Africa, Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific utilizing distinct geostationary sensors and a consistent algorithm. Version 6.5.006 of the WF_ABBA was specifically designed to address the capabilities and limitations of diverse geostationary sensors and requests from the global fire monitoring and user community. This presentation will provide an overview of version 6.5.006 of the global WF_ABBA fire product including the new fire and opaque cloud mask and associated metadata. We will demonstrate the WF_ABBA showing examples from around the globe with a focus on the capabilities and plans for integrating new geostationary platforms with coverage of Eastern Europe and Asia (INSAT-3D, Korean COMS, Russian GOMS Elektro-L MSU-GS). We are also preparing for future fire monitoring in the Western Hemisphere, Europe, and Africa utilizing the next generation GOES-R Imager and Meteosat Third Generation Flexible Combined Imager (MTG - FCI). The goal is to create a globally consistent long-term fire product utilizing the capabilities of each of these unique operational systems and a common fire detection algorithm. On an international level, development of a global geostationary fire monitoring system is supported by the IGOS GOFC/GOLD Fire Implementation Team. This work also generally supports Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) activities and the Group on Earth Observations (GEO).

  20. SWARM - An earth Observation Mission investigating Geospace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Lühr, H.; Knudsen, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Swarm mission was selected as the 5th mission in ESA's Earth Explorer Programme in 2004. This mission aims at measuring the Earth's magnetic field with unprecedented accuracy. This will be done by a constellation of three satellites, where two will fly at lower altitude, measuring the gradient...... of the magnetic field, and one satellite will fly at higher altitude. The measured magnetic field is the sum of many contributions including both magnetic fields and currents in the Earth's interior and electrical currents in Geospace. In order to separate all these sources electric field and plasma measurements...... will also be made to complement the primary magnetic field measurements. Together these will allow the deduction of information on a series of solid earth processes responsible for the creation of the fields measured. The completeness of the measurements on each satellite and the constellation aspect...

  1. The Sun-earth Imbalance radiometer for a direct measurement of the net heating of the earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, Steven; Karatekin, Özgür; Chevalier, Andre; Clerbaux, Nicolas; Meftah, Mustapha; Irbah, Abdanour; Delabie, Tjorven

    2015-04-01

    It is accepted that the climate on earth is changing due to a radiative energy imbalance at the top of the atmosphere, up to now this radiation imbalance has not been measured directly. The measurement is challenging both in terms of space-time sampling of the radiative energy that is leaving the earth and in terms of accuracy. The incoming solar radiation and the outgoing terrestrial radiation are of nearly equal magnitude - of the order of 340 W/m² - resulting in a much smaller difference or imbalance of the order of 1 W/m². The only way to measure the imbalance with sufficient accuracy is to measure both the incoming solar and the outgoing terrestrial radiation with the same instrument. Based on our 30 year experience of measuring the Total Solar Irradiance with the Differential Absolute RADiometer (DIARAD) type of instrument and on our 10 year experience of measuring the Earth Radiation Budget with the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument on Meteosat Second Generation, we propose an innovative constellation of Sun-earth IMBAlance (SIMBA) radiometer cubesats with the ultimate goal to measure the Sun-earth radiation imbalance. A first Simba In Orbit Demonstration satellite is scheduled for flight with QB50 in 2015. It is currently being developed as ESA's first cubesat through an ESA GSTP project. In this paper we will give an overview of the Simba science objectives and of the current satellite and payload development status.

  2. GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas-Perea, V.; Balzter, H.

    2012-12-01

    GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET) is a Marie Curie funded project that aims to establish the first of a kind European Centre of Excellence for Earth Observation Research Training. GIONET is a partnership of leading Universities, research institutes and private companies from across Europe aiming to cultivate a community of early stage researchers in the areas of optical and radar remote sensing skilled for the emerging GMES land monitoring services during the GMES Initial Operations period (2011-2013) and beyond. GIONET is expected to satisfy the demand for highly skilled researchers and provide personnel for operational phase of the GMES and monitoring and emergency services. It will achieve this by: -Providing postgraduate training in Earth Observation Science that exposes students to different research disciplines and complementary skills, providing work experiences in the private and academic sectors, and leading to a recognized qualification (Doctorate). -Enabling access to first class training in both fundamental and applied research skills to early-stage researchers at world-class academic centers and market leaders in the private sector. -Building on the experience from previous GMES research and development projects in the land monitoring and emergency information services. The training program through supervised research focuses on 14 research topics (each carried out by an Early Stage Researchers based in one of the partner organization) divided in 5 main areas: Forest monitoring: Global biomass information systems Forest Monitoring of the Congo Basin using Synthetic Aperture radar (SAR) Multi-concept Earth Observation Capabilities for Biomass Mapping and Change Detection: Synergy of Multi-temporal and Multi-frequency Interferometric Radar and Optical Satellite Data Land cover and change: Multi-scale Remote Sensing Synergy for Land Process Studies: from field Spectrometry to Airborne Hyperspectral and

  3. Everglades Ecological Forecasting II: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Enhance the Capabilities of Everglades National Park to Monitor & Predict Mangrove Extent to Aid Current Restoration Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Donnie; Wolfe, Amy; Ba, Adama; Nyquist, Mckenzie; Rhodes, Tyler; Toner, Caitlin; Cabosky, Rachel; Gotschalk, Emily; Gregory, Brad; Kendall, Candace

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves act as a transition zone between fresh and salt water habitats by filtering and indicating salinity levels along the coast of the Florida Everglades. However, dredging and canals built in the early 1900s depleted the Everglades of much of its freshwater resources. In an attempt to assist in maintaining the health of threatened habitats, efforts have been made within Everglades National Park to rebalance the ecosystem and adhere to sustainably managing mangrove forests. The Everglades Ecological Forecasting II team utilized Google Earth Engine API and satellite imagery from Landsat 5, 7, and 8 to continuously create land-change maps over a 25 year period, and to allow park officials to continue producing maps in the future. In order to make the process replicable for project partners at Everglades National Park, the team was able to conduct a supervised classification approach to display mangrove regions in 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015. As freshwater was depleted, mangroves encroached further inland and freshwater marshes declined. The current extent map, along with transition maps helped create forecasting models that show mangrove encroachment further inland in the year 2030 as well. This project highlights the changes to the Everglade habitats in relation to a changing climate and hydrological changes throughout the park.

  4. Tolkku - a toolbox for decision support from condition monitoring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarela, Olli; Lehtonen, Mikko; Halme, Jari; Aikala, Antti; Raivio, Kimmo

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a software toolbox (a software library) designed for condition monitoring and diagnosis of machines. This toolbox implements both new methods and prior art and is aimed for practical down-to-earth data analysis work. The target is to improve knowledge of the operation and behaviour of machines and processes throughout their entire life-cycles. The toolbox supports different phases of condition based maintenance with tools that extract essential information and automate data processing. The paper discusses principles that have guided toolbox design and the implemented toolbox structure. Case examples are used to illustrate how condition monitoring applications can be built using the toolbox. In the first case study the toolbox is applied to fault detection of industrial centrifuges based on measured electrical current. The second case study outlines an application for centralized monitoring of a fleet of machines that supports organizational learning.

  5. EARTH RESOURCE PROBLEMS AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlitová Erika

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses some of the problems of geology and earth resources management in relation to environmental problems of the technosphere. It deals also with some aspects of environmental monitoring of areas where surveying or mining operations are planned or in progress.

  6. Where on Earth am I? Don't Worry,. GPS Satellites will Guide you ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ordinate frame shown is the reference frame used by GPS, it is called earth .... the satellite clock offsets five monitoring stations are spread over the earth ..... (P 2) GPS receiver for armoured vehicles (on the right is auxiliary display). ( P 3) GPS ...

  7. First results of the earth observation water cycle multi-mission observation strategy (WACMOS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Zhongbo; Fernadez-Prieto, D.; Timmermans, J.; Chen, Xuelong; Hungershoefer, K.; Schröder, M.; Schulz, J.; Stammes, P.; Wang, Peng; Wolters, e.

    2014-01-01

    Observing and monitoring the different components of the global water cycle and their dynamics are essential steps to understand the climate of the Earth, forecast the weather, predict natural disasters like floods and droughts, and improve water resources management. Earth observation technology is

  8. Current applications of vibration monitoring and neutron noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damiano, B.; Kryter, R.C.

    1990-02-01

    Monitoring programs using vibration monitoring or neutron noise analysis have demonstrated the ability to detect and, in some cases, diagnose the nature of reactor vessel internals structural degradation. Detection of compromised mechanical integrity of reactor vessel internal components in its early stages allows corrective action to be taken before weakening or damage occurs. In addition to the economic benefits early detection and correction can provide, they can also help maintain plant safety. Information on the condition of reactor vessel internal components gained from a monitoring program supplements in-service inspection results and may be useful in justifying plant license extension. This report, which was prepared under the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, discusses the application of vibration monitoring and neutron noise analysis for monitoring light-water reactor vessel internals. The report begins by describing the effects of structural integrity loss on internals vibration and how measurable parameters can be used to detect and track the progress of degradation. This is followed by a description and comparison of vibration monitoring and neutron noise analysis, two methods for monitoring the mechanical integrity of reactor vessel internals condition monitoring programs in the United States, Federal Republic of Germany, and France, three countries having substantial commitments to nuclear power. The last section presents guidelines for US utilities wishing to establish reactor internals condition monitoring programs. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Long-Period Tidal Variations of the Earth's Rotation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, S.; Gross, R.; Wahr, J.

    1999-01-01

    Long-period tidal variations of the Earth's rotation rate are caused by the redistribution of mass associated with the respective elastic solid Earth tides, the ocean tide heights, and the anelasticity of the Earth's mantle, and by the relative angular momentum associated with the long-period ocean tide currents.

  10. The particle carriers of field-aligned currents in the Earth's magnetotail during a substorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Z. W.; Zhang, J. C.; Shi, J. K.; Kistler, L. M.; Dunlop, M.; Dandouras, I.; Fazakerley, A.

    2016-04-01

    Although the particle carriers of field-aligned currents (FACs) in the Earth's magnetotail play an important role in the transfer of momentum and energy between the solar wind, magnetosphere, and ionosphere, the characteristics of the FAC carriers have been poorly understood. Taking advantage of multiinstrument magnetic field and plasma data collected by the four spacecraft of the Cluster constellation as they traversed the northern plasma sheet boundary layer in the magnetotail on 14 September 2004, we identified the species type and energy range of the FAC carriers for the first time. The results indicate that part of tailward FACs is carried by energetic keV ions, which are probably originated from the ionosphere through outflow, and they are not too small (~2 nA/m2) to be ignored. The earthward (tailward) FACs are mainly carried by the dominant tailward (earthward) motion of electrons, and higher-energy electrons (from ~0.5 to 26 keV) are the main carriers.

  11. Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pratik

    Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System PRATIK KUMAR SINGH1 1BALDEVRAM MIRDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,JAIPUR (RAJASTHAN) ,INDIA Water is everywhere on Earth and is the only known substance that can naturally exist as a gas, liquid, and solid within the relatively small range of air temperatures and pressures found at the Earth's surface.Changes in the hydrological cycle as a consequence of climate and land use drivers are expected to play a central role in governing a vast range of environmental impacts.Earth's climate will undergo changes in response to natural variability, including solar variability, and to increasing concentrations of green house gases and aerosols.Further more, agreement is widespread that these changes may profoundly affect atmospheric water vapor concentrations, clouds and precipitation patterns.As we know that ,a warmer climate, directly leading to increased evaporation, may well accelerate the hydrological cycle, resulting in an increase in the amount of moisture circulating through the atmosphere.The Changing Water Cycle programmer will develop an integrated, quantitative understanding of the changes taking place in the global water cycle, involving all components of the earth system, improving predictions for the next few decades of regional precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, hydrological storage and fluxes.The hydrological cycle involves evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. NASA's Aqua satellite will monitor many aspects of the role of water in the Earth's systems, and will do so at spatial and temporal scales appropriate to foster a more detailed understanding of each of the processes that contribute to the hydrological cycle. These data and the analyses of them will nurture the development and refinement of hydrological process models and a corresponding improvement in regional and global climate models, with a direct anticipated benefit of more accurate weather and

  12. A multisatellite case study of the expansion of a substorm current wedge in the near-Earth magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, R.E.; Lui, A.T.Y.

    1990-01-01

    This study presents observations made by four spacecraft (AMPTE CCE, AMPTE IRM, GOES 5, and GOES 6) and two ground stations (San Juan and Tucson) during a substorm that occurred at ∼0830 UT on April 19, 1985. The spacecraft were arrayed in a configuration that allows for the examination of the spatial evolution of the substorm current wedge, CCE was located between the GOES spacecraft in longitude, but at a radial distance of 8.0 R E . IRM was located west of the other three spacecraft in the same sector as Tucson, but at a radial distance of 11.6 R E . The relative times at which the signature of the substorm current wedge was first observed at the GOES spacecraft and the ground stations are consistent with a simple longitudinally expanding current wedge. However, the times at which IRM and CCE observed the current wedge are not consistent with a current wedge that expanded only longitudinally, IRM first observed the signature of the current wedge at about the same time the signature was observed by GOES 6 and Tucson, and CCE observed the current wedge only after both GOES satellites and the ground stations had done so. Moreover, both GOES spacecraft observed signatures consistent with entry into the central plasma sheet before CCE and IRM did, even though we estimate that CCE was slightly closer to the neutral sheet than the geosynchronous spacecraft. The sequence of events suggests that during this substorm the disruption of the cross-tail current sheet, the formation of the substorm current wedge, and the expansion of the plasma sheet began in the near-Earth region, and subsequently spread tailward as well as longitudinally

  13. Plasma jets in the near-Earth's magnetotail (Julius Bartels Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Rumi

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's magnetosphere is formed as a consequence of the interaction between the magnetized solar wind and the terrestrial magnetic field. While the large-scale and average (>hours) properties of the Earth's magnetotail current sheet can be well described by overall solar wind-magnetosphere interaction, the most dramatic energy conversion process takes place in an explosive manner involving transient (up to several minutes) and localized (up to a few RE) phenomena in the plasma sheet/current sheet regions. One of the most clear observables of such processes are the localized and transient plasma jets called Bursty bulk flows (BBF), embedding velocity peaks of 1-min duration, which are called flow bursts. This talk is a review of the current understanding of these plasma jets by highlighting the results from multi-spacecraft observations by the Cluster and THEMIS spacecraft. The first four-spacecraft mission Cluster crossed the near-Earth plasma sheet with inter-spacecraft distance of about 250 km to 10000 km, ideal for studying local structures of the flow bursts. The five-spacecraft THEMIS mission , separated by larger distances , succeeded to monitor the large-scale evolution of the fast flows from the mid-tail to the inner magnetosphere. Multi-point observations of BBFS have established the importance of measuring local gradients of the fields and the plasma to understand the BBF structures such as the spatial scales and 3D structure of localized Earthward convecting flux tubes. Among others the magnetic field disturbance forming at the front of BBF, called dipolarization front (DF), has been intensively studied. From the propagation properties of DF relative to the flows and by comparing with ionospheric data, the evolution of the fast flows in terms of magnetosphere-ionospheric coupling through field-aligned currents are established. An important aspect of BBF is the interaction of the Earthward plasma jets and the Earth's dipole field. Multi

  14. An "Off-the-Shelf" System for Intraprocedural Electrical Current Evaluation and Monitoring of Irreversible Electroporation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Robert E; Kavnoudias, Helen; Thomson, Kenneth R

    2015-06-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) ablation uses a series of brief electric pulses to create nanoscale defects in cell membranes, killing the cells. It has shown promise in numerous soft-tissue tumor applications. Larger voltages between electrodes will increase ablation volume, but exceeding electrical limits may risk damage to the patient, cause ineffective therapy delivery, or require generator restart. Monitoring electrical current for these conditions in real-time enables managing these risks. This capacity is not presently available in clinical IRE generators. We describe a system using a Tektronix TCP305 AC/DC Current Probe connected to a TCPA300 AC/DC Current Probe Amplifier, which is read on a computer using a Protek DSO-2090 USB computer-interfacing oscilloscope. Accuracy of the system was tested with a resistor circuit and by comparing measured currents with final outputs from the NanoKnife clinical electroporation pulse generator. Accuracy of measured currents was 1.64 ± 2.4 % relative to calculations for the resistor circuit and averaged 0.371 ± 0.977 % deviation from the NanoKnife. During clinical pulse delivery, the system offers real-time evaluation of IRE procedure progress and enables a number of methods for identifying approaching issues from electrical behavior of therapy delivery, facilitating protocol changes before encountering therapy delivery issues. This system can monitor electrical currents in real-time without altering the electric pulses or modifying the pulse generator. This facilitates delivering electric pulse protocols that remain within the optimal range of electrical currents-sufficient strength for clinically relevant ablation volumes, without the risk of exceeding safe electric currents or causing inadequate ablation.

  15. The survey on data format of Earth observation satellite data at JAXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, M.; Ikehata, Y.

    2017-12-01

    JAXA's earth observation satellite data are distributed by a portal web site for search and deliver called "G-Portal". Users can download the satellite data of GPM, TRMM, Aqua, ADEOS-II, ALOS (search only), ALOS-2 (search only), MOS-1, MOS-1b, ERS-1 and JERS-1 from G-Portal. However, these data formats are different by each satellite like HDF4, HDF5, NetCDF4, CEOS, etc., and which formats are not familiar to new data users. Although the HDF type self-describing format is very convenient and useful for big dataset information, old-type format product is not readable by open GIS tool nor apply OGC standard. Recently, the satellite data are widely used to be applied to the various needs such as disaster, earth resources, monitoring the global environment, Geographic Information System(GIS) and so on. In order to remove a barrier of using Earth Satellite data for new community users, JAXA has been providing the format-converted product like GeoTIFF or KMZ. In addition, JAXA provides format conversion tool itself. We investigate the trend of data format for data archive, data dissemination and data utilization, then we study how to improve the current product format for various application field users and make a recommendation for new product.

  16. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 5 ... was conducted through seasonal water quality monitoring in the year 2011. ... National Centre for Sustainable Coastal Management, MOEF, Chennai 600 025, India.

  17. Earth System Research Laboratory Long-Term Surface Aerosol Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerosol measurements began at the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) baseline observatories in the mid-1970's with the...

  18. Geoelectrical Methods and Monitoring for Dam Safety Assessment, Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S. K.; Oldenburg, D.; Kang, S.; Song, S. H.

    2016-12-01

    Geoelectrical methods and monitoring to detect the seepage and internal erosion are essential for the safety assessment of earth dams. This work aims to develop improved methodologies to analyze the observed data and to monitor changes in seepage flow using direct current (DC) and self-potential (SP) methods. The seasonal variation of water level at dams causes a change in seepage and water saturation and hence alters the resistivity of the dam material. DC data are sensitive to water saturation and hence changes in saturation can be obtained by repeatedly measuring DC data. However, a more diagnostic parameter for safety assessment is fluid flow, and resistivity is only weakly coupled to that. Fortunately SP signals are directly related to fluid flow, and thus an SP survey has the potential to characterize fluid flow through the earth matrix. In Korea, the safety assessment of earth fill dams has been dealt by Korea Rural Community Corporation (KRC). Most of the dams are relatively old ( >50 years), hence assessing deterioration and corresponding seepage of those dams are crucial. In order to evaluate the engineering geological properties of the soil at earth dams in Korea, two boreholes in each dam were drilled to a bedrock depth that exceeds the height of the dam. A large set of field tests, including standard penetration tests (SPT) and in-situ permeability tests, were carried out along the boreholes. However, seepage paths in the dam is complex hence those limited measurements at a few points is not sufficient to delineate the zone of preferential seepage flow. For this, KRC developed permanent DC monitoring systems at a number of agricultural dams in Korea. The data were automatically collected every 6 hours. During the monitoring, the measurements of the water level at two boreholes were gathered at the same time. In this presentation we select an agricultural dam and delineate an anomalous leakage zone by inverting and interpreting time-lapse DC resistivity

  19. Monitoring civil infrastructure using satellite radar interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) is a precise and efficient technique to monitor deformation on Earth with millimeter precision. Most InSAR applications focus on geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, or subsidence. Monitoring civil infrastructure with InSAR is relatively new,

  20. EarthServer: Cross-Disciplinary Earth Science Through Data Cube Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, P.; Rossi, A. P.

    2016-12-01

    The unprecedented increase of imagery, in-situ measurements, and simulation data produced by Earth (and Planetary) Science observations missions bears a rich, yet not leveraged potential for getting insights from integrating such diverse datasets and transform scientific questions into actual queries to data, formulated in a standardized way.The intercontinental EarthServer [1] initiative is demonstrating new directions for flexible, scalable Earth Science services based on innovative NoSQL technology. Researchers from Europe, the US and Australia have teamed up to rigorously implement the concept of the datacube. Such a datacube may have spatial and temporal dimensions (such as a satellite image time series) and may unite an unlimited number of scenes. Independently from whatever efficient data structuring a server network may perform internally, users (scientist, planners, decision makers) will always see just a few datacubes they can slice and dice.EarthServer has established client [2] and server technology for such spatio-temporal datacubes. The underlying scalable array engine, rasdaman [3,4], enables direct interaction, including 3-D visualization, common EO data processing, and general analytics. Services exclusively rely on the open OGC "Big Geo Data" standards suite, the Web Coverage Service (WCS). Conversely, EarthServer has shaped and advanced WCS based on the experience gained. The first phase of EarthServer has advanced scalable array database technology into 150+ TB services. Currently, Petabyte datacubes are being built for ad-hoc and cross-disciplinary querying, e.g. using climate, Earth observation and ocean data.We will present the EarthServer approach, its impact on OGC / ISO / INSPIRE standardization, and its platform technology, rasdaman.References: [1] Baumann, et al. (2015) DOI: 10.1080/17538947.2014.1003106 [2] Hogan, P., (2011) NASA World Wind, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Computing for Geospatial Research

  1. EarthLabs - Investigating Hurricanes: Earth's Meteorological Monsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Dahlman, L.; Barstow, D.

    2007-12-01

    Earth science is one of the most important tools that the global community needs to address the pressing environmental, social, and economic issues of our time. While, at times considered a second-rate science at the high school level, it is currently undergoing a major revolution in the depth of content and pedagogical vitality. As part of this revolution, labs in Earth science courses need to shift their focus from cookbook-like activities with known outcomes to open-ended investigations that challenge students to think, explore and apply their learning. We need to establish a new model for Earth science as a rigorous lab science in policy, perception, and reality. As a concerted response to this need, five states, a coalition of scientists and educators, and an experienced curriculum team are creating a national model for a lab-based high school Earth science course named EarthLabs. This lab course will comply with the National Science Education Standards as well as the states' curriculum frameworks. The content will focus on Earth system science and environmental literacy. The lab experiences will feature a combination of field work, classroom experiments, and computer access to data and visualizations, and demonstrate the rigor and depth of a true lab course. The effort is being funded by NOAA's Environmental Literacy program. One of the prototype units of the course is Investigating Hurricanes. Hurricanes are phenomena which have tremendous impact on humanity and the resources we use. They are also the result of complex interacting Earth systems, making them perfect objects for rigorous investigation of many concepts commonly covered in Earth science courses, such as meteorology, climate, and global wind circulation. Students are able to use the same data sets, analysis tools, and research techniques that scientists employ in their research, yielding truly authentic learning opportunities. This month-long integrated unit uses hurricanes as the story line by

  2. Motor current signature analysis for gearbox condition monitoring under transient speeds using wavelet analysis and dual-level time synchronous averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Imaz, Inaki; Davari Ardakani, Hossein; Liu, Zongchang; García-Arribas, Alfredo; Arnaiz, Aitor; Lee, Jay

    2017-09-01

    This paper focuses on analyzing motor current signature for fault diagnosis of gearboxes operating under transient speed regimes. Two different strategies are evaluated, extensively tested and compared to analyze the motor current signature in order to implement a condition monitoring system for gearboxes in industrial machinery. A specially designed test bench is used, thoroughly monitored to fully characterize the experiments, in which gears in different health status are tested. The measured signals are analyzed using discrete wavelet decomposition, in different decomposition levels using a range of mother wavelets. Moreover, a dual-level time synchronous averaging analysis is performed on the same signal to compare the performance of the two methods. From both analyses, the relevant features of the signals are extracted and cataloged using a self-organizing map, which allows for an easy detection and classification of the diverse health states of the gears. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of both methods for diagnosing gearbox faults. A slightly better performance was observed for dual-level time synchronous averaging method. Based on the obtained results, the proposed methods can used as effective and reliable condition monitoring procedures for gearbox condition monitoring using only motor current signature.

  3. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Monitoring of fire incidences in vegetation types and Protected Areas of India: Implications on carbon emissions ... Forest fire; forest type; Protected Area; conservation; remote sensing; AWiFS; India. ... Journal of Earth System Science | News.

  4. Beyond seismic interferometry: imaging the earth's interior with virtual sources and receivers inside the earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, C. P. A.; Van der Neut, J.; Thorbecke, J.; Broggini, F.; Slob, E. C.; Snieder, R.

    2015-12-01

    Imagine one could place seismic sources and receivers at any desired position inside the earth. Since the receivers would record the full wave field (direct waves, up- and downward reflections, multiples, etc.), this would give a wealth of information about the local structures, material properties and processes in the earth's interior. Although in reality one cannot place sources and receivers anywhere inside the earth, it appears to be possible to create virtual sources and receivers at any desired position, which accurately mimics the desired situation. The underlying method involves some major steps beyond standard seismic interferometry. With seismic interferometry, virtual sources can be created at the positions of physical receivers, assuming these receivers are illuminated isotropically. Our proposed method does not need physical receivers at the positions of the virtual sources; moreover, it does not require isotropic illumination. To create virtual sources and receivers anywhere inside the earth, it suffices to record the reflection response with physical sources and receivers at the earth's surface. We do not need detailed information about the medium parameters; it suffices to have an estimate of the direct waves between the virtual-source positions and the acquisition surface. With these prerequisites, our method can create virtual sources and receivers, anywhere inside the earth, which record the full wave field. The up- and downward reflections, multiples, etc. in the virtual responses are extracted directly from the reflection response at the surface. The retrieved virtual responses form an ideal starting point for accurate seismic imaging, characterization and monitoring.

  5. The BIOMASS mission — An ESA Earth Explorer candidate to measure the BIOMASS of the earth's forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scipal, K.; Arcioni, M.; Chave, J.

    2010-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) released a Call for Proposals for the next Earth Explorer Core Mission in March 2005, with the aim to select the 7th Earth Explorer (EE-7) mission for launch in the next decade. Twenty-four proposals were received and subject to scientific and technical assessment...... of any current space systems capable of addressing this need....

  6. Enhanced pinning in mixed rare earth-123 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Judith L [Los Alamos, NM; Foltyn, Stephen R [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-06-16

    An superconductive article and method of forming such an article is disclosed, the article including a substrate and a layer of a rare earth barium cuprate film upon the substrate, the rare earth barium cuprate film including two or more rare earth metals capable of yielding a superconductive composition where ion size variance between the two or more rare earth metals is characterized as greater than zero and less than about 10.times.10.sup.-4, and the rare earth barium cuprate film including two or more rare earth metals is further characterized as having an enhanced critical current density in comparison to a standard YBa.sub.2Cu.sub.3O.sub.y composition under identical testing conditions.

  7. Development and Evaluation of the Interferometric Monitor for Greenhouse Gases: a High-throughput Fourier-transform Infrared Radiometer for Nadir Earth Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Shimota, Akiro; Kondo, Kayoko; Okumura, Eisuke; Kameda, Yoshihiko; Shimoda, Haruhisa; Ogawa, Toshihiro

    1999-11-01

    The interferometric monitor for greenhouse gases (IMG) was the precursor of the high-resolution Fourier-transform infrared radiometer (FTIR) onboard a satellite for observation of the Earth. The IMG endured the stress of a rocket launch, demonstrating that the high-resolution, high-throughput spectrometer is indeed feasible for use onboard a satellite. The IMG adopted a newly developed lubricant-free magnetic suspension mechanism and a dynamic alignment system for the moving mirror with a maximum traveling distance of 10 cm. We present the instrumentation of the IMG, characteristics of the movable mirror drive system, and the evaluation results of sensor specifications during space operation.

  8. Time series of low-degree geopotential coefficients from SLR data: estimation of Earth's figure axis and LOD variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luceri, V.; Sciarretta, C.; Bianco, G.

    2012-12-01

    The redistribution of the mass within the earth system induces changes in the Earth's gravity field. In particular, the second-degree geopotential coefficients reflect the behaviour of the Earth's inertia tensor of order 2, describing the main mass variations of our planet impacting the EOPs. Thanks to the long record of accurate and continuous laser ranging observations to Lageos and other geodetic satellites, SLR is the only current space technique capable to monitor the long time variability of the Earth's gravity field with adequate accuracy. Time series of low-degree geopotential coefficients are estimated with our analysis of SLR data (spanning more than 25 years) from several geodetic satellites in order to detect trends and periodic variations related to tidal effects and atmospheric/oceanic mass variations. This study is focused on the variations of the second-degree Stokes coefficients related to the Earth's principal figure axis and oblateness: C21, S21 and C20. On the other hand, surface mass load variations induce excitations in the EOPs that are proportional to the same second-degree coefficients. The time series of direct estimates of low degree geopotential and those derived from the EOP excitation functions are compared and presented together with their time and frequency analysis.

  9. NASA's Earth Observing System: The Transition from Climate Monitoring to Climate Change Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael D.; Herring, David D.

    1998-01-01

    Earth's 4.5 billion year history is a study in change. Natural geological forces have been rearranging the surface features and climatic conditions of our planet since its beginning. There is scientific evidence that some of these natural changes have not only led to mass extinctions of species (e.g., dinosaurs), but have also severely impacted human civilizations. For instance, there is evidence that a relatively sudden climate change caused a 300-year drought that contributed to the downfall of Akkadia, one of the most powerful empires in the Middle-East region around 2200 BC. More recently, the "little ice age" from 1200-1400 AD forced the Vikings to abandon Greenland when temperatures there dropped by about 1.5 C, rendering it too difficult to grow enough crops to sustain the population. Today, there is compelling scientific evidence that human activities have attained the magnitude of a geological force and are speeding up the rate of global change. For example, carbon dioxide levels have risen 30 percent since the industrial revolution and about 40 percent of the world's land surface has been transformed by humans. We don't understand the cause-and-effect relationships among Earth's land, ocean, and atmosphere well enough to predict what, if any, impacts these rapid changes will have on future climate conditions. We need to make many measurements all over the world, over a long period of time, in order to assemble the information needed to construct accurate computer models that will enable us to forecast climate change. In 1988, the Earth System Sciences Committee, sponsored by NASA, issued a report calling for an integrated, long-term strategy for measuring the vital signs of Earth's climate system. The report urged that the measurements must all be intimately coupled with focused process studies, they must facilitate development of Earth system models, and they must be stored in an information system that ensures open access to consistent, long-term data

  10. Environmental monitoring using lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Ahmed, N.

    1997-01-01

    Activities of human beings are creating slow and long term changes in the Earth's atmosphere. As the sun provides the driving force for earth's ecosystem, therefore earth's radiation budget is an important parameter. Composition of the atmosphere is of basic importance in determining this radiation budget. Out of the atmospheric species, ozone is of special importance because it filters out much of the solar UV, while certain other molecular species, such as SO/sub 2/ , NO/sub 2/, benzene, toluene and aerosols have very harmful effects on life. Depletion of ozone layer over Antarctic and addition of chemical species to atmosphere and oceans have disturbed our ecosystem seriously. Thorough monitoring of distribution and dynamics of these species is essential for devising any countermeasure for their control. Conventional method of atmospheric monitoring (balloon, rocket or satellite borne sensors) are limited either in range or type of measurement apart from being complex and somewhat expensive. LASER based 'light detection and ranging (LIDAR) technique, on the other hand, enjoys a number of advantages over others. Due to recent developments in LASER technique, on the other hand, enjoys a number of advantages over other. Due to recent developments in LASER technology, LIDARS are economical and very flexible in range and type of measurement. This paper presents an overview of the technique. It includes principle of LIDAR, highlights its applications to the monitoring of atmosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere. (author)

  11. Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoogman, P.; Liu, X.; Suleiman, R. M.; Pennington, W. F.; Flittner, D. E.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Hilton, B. B.; Nicks, D. K.; Newchurch, M. J.; Carr, J. L.; hide

    2016-01-01

    TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution) was selected in 2012 by NASA as the first Earth Venture Instrument, for launch between 2018 and 2021. It will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO observes from Mexico City, Cuba, and the Bahamas to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution (approximately 2.1 kilometers N/S by 4.4 kilometers E/W at 36.5 degrees N, 100 degrees W). TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry, as well as contributing to carbon cycle knowledge. Measurements are made hourly from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the high variability present in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry that are unobservable from current low-Earth orbit (LEO) satellites that measure once per day. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a commercial GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), formaldehyde (H2CO), glyoxal (C2H2O2), bromine monoxide (BrO), IO (iodine monoxide),water vapor, aerosols, cloud parameters, ultraviolet radiation, and foliage properties. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, substantially reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides these near-real-time air quality products that will be made publicly available. TEMPO will launch at a prime time to be the

  12. Stress-Activated Electric Currents in the Earth Crust: How they Can and Cannot Flow (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, F. T.; Bleier, T. E.; Bortnik, J.; Dahlgren, R.

    2010-12-01

    Dormant electronic charge carriers exist in rocks. They “wake up” when stresses are applied: electrons e’ and positive holes, h., the latter being defect electrons in the oxygen anion sublattice of minerals [1, 2]. The h. can flow out of the stressed subvolume. They can spread into the unstressed surrounding, turning the rocks into p-type semiconductors. They travel fast and far using energy levels at the upper edge of the valence bands. Contrary to the h., the co-activated electrons e’ cannot flow out and propagate through unstressed rocks: they are stuck in the activation volume. The situation is akin to that in an electrochemical battery except that, in the “rock battery”, the positive charge carriers are not cations but positive holes h.. In the laboratory it is easy to close the battery circuit by offering the electrons a metal contact and connecting the stressed and unstressed rock with a metal wire. This is useful to demonstrate the functioning of the “rock battery”. In the field the h. outflow from a stressed rock volume is restricted as long as there is no return path. This is an important point when we try to understand why pre-earthquake EM emission is widely considered “unreliable” [3, 4]. However, there are at least three conditions, under which circuit closure can be achieved in the field under realistic pre-earthquake situations: (i) via n-type conducting rocks; (ii) via electrolytic conductivity of water; and (iii) via the air when the air above the epicentral region becomes highly ionized. We report on examples where these three conditions might have allowed large currents to flow and strong EM signals to be emitted. [1] Freund, F.T. et al.: Electric currents streaming out of stressed igneous rocks - A step towards understanding pre-earthquake low frequency EM emissions, Phys. Chem. Earth 31, 389-396 (2006). [2] Freund, F.T.: Charge generation and propagation in rocks, J. Geodyn. 33, 545-572 (2002). [3] Johnston, M.J.S. and

  13. Hazard assessment of the Gschliefgraben earth flow (Austria) based on monitoring data and evolution modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisel, R.; Preh, A.; Hofmann, R.; Schiffer, M.; Sausgruber, Th.

    2009-04-01

    A rock slide on to the clayey - silty - sandy - pebbly masses in the Gschliefgraben (Upper Austria province, Lake Traunsee) having occurred in 2006 as well as the humid autumn of 2007 triggered an earth flow comprising a volume up to 5 mill m³ and moving with a maximum displacement velocity of 5 m/day during the winter of 2007-2008. The possible damage was estimated up to 60 mill € due to possible destruction of houses and of a road to a settlement with heavy tourism. Exploratory drillings revealed that the moving mass consists of an alternate bedding of thicker, less permeable clayey - silty layers and thinner, more permeable silty - sandy - pebbly layers. The movement front ran ahead in the creek bed. Therefore it was assumed that water played an important role and the earth flow moved due to soaking of water into the ground from the area of the rock slide downslope. Inclinometer measurements showed that the uppermost, less permeable layer was sliding on a thin, more permeable layer. The movement process was analysed by numerical models (FLAC) and by conventional calculations in order to assess the hazard. The coupled flow and mechanical models showed that sections of the less permeable layer soaked with water were sliding on the thin, more permeable layer due to excessive watering out of the more permeable layer. These sections were thrust over the downward lying, less soaked areas, therefore having higher strength. The material thrust over the downward lying, less soaked areas together with the moving front of pore water pressures caused the downward material to fail and to be thrust over the downslope lying material in a distance of some 50 m. Thus a cyclic process was created without any indication of a sudden sliding of the complete less permeable layer. Nevertheless, the inhabitants of 15 houses had to be evacuated for safety reasons. They could return to their homes after displacement velocities had decreased. Displacement monitoring by GPS showed that

  14. Natural radioactivity monitoring in selected areas of the planet Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobst, L.

    2015-01-01

    Mankind lives with the natural radioactivity throughout its development. The effects of radiation may affect to some extent the evolutionary development of life on the Earth. It is therefore important to find out what values can achieve this natural radioactivity at different places of the world. In this presentation some results of dose rate measurement during transcontinental flyers are discussed.

  15. Enabling the Use of Earth Observation Data for Integrated Water Resource Management in Africa with the Water Observation and Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslaw Guzinski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Water Observation and Information System (WOIS is an open source software tool for monitoring, assessing and inventorying water resources in a cost-effective manner using Earth Observation (EO data. The WOIS has been developed by, among others, the authors of this paper under the TIGER-NET project, which is a major component of the TIGER initiative of the European Space Agency (ESA and whose main goal is to support the African Earth Observation Capacity for Water Resource Monitoring. TIGER-NET aims to support the satellite-based assessment and monitoring of water resources from watershed to cross-border basin levels through the provision of a free and powerful software package, with associated capacity building, to African authorities. More than 28 EO data processing solutions for water resource management tasks have been developed, in correspondence with the requirements of the participating key African water authorities, and demonstrated with dedicated case studies utilizing the software in operational scenarios. They cover a wide range of themes and information products, including basin-wide characterization of land and water resources, lake water quality monitoring, hydrological modeling and flood forecasting and mapping. For each monitoring task, step-by-step workflows were developed, which can either be adjusted by the user or largely automatized to feed into existing data streams and reporting schemes. The WOIS enables African water authorities to fully exploit the increasing EO capacity offered by current and upcoming generations of satellites, including the Sentinel missions.

  16. Kinetics studies of solvent extraction of rare earths into DEHPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, T.M.; Tran, T.

    1996-01-01

    The kinetics of rare earth solvent extraction into di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid have been studied using radiotracers ( 141 Ce, 152 Eu, 153 Gd, 160 Tb and 88 Y) in a modified Lewis cell. The experimental procedure involved continuous monitoring of both aqueous and organic phases using an automated γ- counting system. Using this method, highly reproducible results were obtained without chemical analysis or disturbance of the system. The initial rate extraction was first order with respect to individual rare earth concentration. At low acidities ([H+] < 0.01 M), the extraction rates of rare earths were equal and independent of pH. However, at high acidities, the extraction rate was strongly dependent on pH and varied between the rare earths. Similarly, differences in the extraction rate of individual rare earths were apparent at low DEHPA concentration. (authors)

  17. Earth Science Informatics - Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes over 180 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies.The talk will present an overview of current efforts in ESI, the role members of IEEE GRSS play, and discuss

  18. Earth Observations for Geohazards: Present and Future Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Tomás

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Earth Observations (EO encompasses different types of sensors (e.g., Synthetic Aperture Radar, Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging, Optical and multispectral and platforms (e.g., satellites, aircraft, and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and enables us to monitor and model geohazards over regions at different scales in which ground observations may not be possible due to physical and/or political constraints. EO can provide high spatial, temporal and spectral resolution, stereo-mapping and all-weather-imaging capabilities, but not by a single satellite at a time. Improved satellite and sensor technologies, increased frequency of satellite measurements, and easier access and interpretation of EO data have all contributed to the increased demand for satellite EO data. EO, combined with complementary terrestrial observations and with physical models, have been widely used to monitor geohazards, revolutionizing our understanding of how the Earth system works. This Special Issue presents a collection of scientific contributions focusing on innovative EO methods and applications for monitoring and modeling geohazards, consisting of four Sections: (1 earthquake hazards; (2 landslide hazards; (3 land subsidence hazards; and (4 new EO techniques and services.

  19. The Rise of GNSS Reflectometry for Earth Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuffada, Cinzia; Li, Zhijin; Nghiem, Son V.; Lowe, Steve; Shah, Rashmi; Clarizia, Maria Paola; Cardellach, Estel

    2015-01-01

    The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) reflectometry, i.e. GNSS-R, is a novel remote-sensing technique first published in that uses GNSS signals reflected from the Earth's surface to infer its surface properties such as sea surface height (SSH), ocean winds, sea-ice coverage, vegetation, wetlands and soil moisture, to name a few. This communication discusses the scientific value of GNSS-R to (a) furthering our understanding of ocean mesoscale circulation toward scales finer than those that existing nadir altimeters can resolve, and (b) mapping vegetated wetlands, an emerging application that might open up new avenues to map and monitor the planet's wetlands for methane emission assessments. Such applications are expected to be demonstrated by the availability of data from GEROS-ISS, an ESA experiment currently in phase A, and CyGNSS [3], a NASA mission currently in development. In particular, the paper details the expected error characteristics and the role of filtering played in the assimilation of these data to reduce the altimetric error (when averaging many measurements).

  20. Earth-ionosphere cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, A.; Polk, C.

    1976-01-01

    To analyze ELF wave propagation in the earth-ionosphere cavity, a flat earth approximation may be derived from the exact equations, which are applicable to the spherical cavity, by introducing a second-order or Debye approximation for the spherical Hankel functions. In the frequency range 3 to 30 Hz, however, the assumed conditions for the Debye approximation are not satisfied. For this reason an exact evaluation of the spherical Hankel functions is used to study the effects of the flat earth approximation on various propagation and resonance parameters. By comparing the resonance equation for a spherical cavity with its flat earth counterpart and by assuming that the surface impedance Z/sub i/ at the upper cavity boundary is known, the relation between the eigenvalue ν and S/sub v/, the sine of the complex angle of incidence at the lower ionosphere boundary, is established as ν(ν + 1) = (kaS/sub v/) 2 . It is also shown that the approximation ν(ν + 1) approximately equals (ν + 1/2) 2 which was used by some authors is not adequate below 30 Hz. Numerical results for both spherical and planar stratification show that (1) planar stratification is adequate for the computation of the lowest three ELF resonance frequencies to within 0.1 Hz; (2) planar stratification will lead to errors in cavity Q and wave attenuation which increase with frequency; (3) computation of resonance frequencies to within 0.1 Hz requires the extension of the lower boundary of the ionosphere to a height where the ratio of conduction current to displacement current, (sigma/ωepsilon 0 ), is less than 0.3; (4) atmospheric conductivity should be considered down to ground level in computing cavity Q and wave attenuation

  1. The development of control and monitoring system on marine current renewable energy Case study: strait of Toyapakeh - Nusa Penida, Bali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arief, I. S.; Suherman, I. H.; Wardani, A. Y.; Baidowi, A.

    2017-05-01

    Control and monitoring system is a continuous process of securing the asset in the Marine Current Renewable Energy. A control and monitoring system is existed each critical components which is embedded in Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) method. As the result, the process in this paper developed through a matrix sensor. The matrix correlated to critical components and monitoring system which supported by sensors to conduct decision-making.

  2. Process of magnetic reconnection as a source of longitudinal currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidneva, M.V.; Semenov, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    Variations in magnetic field and current system as applied to conditions in the Earth magnetospheric tail are calculated so as to show that three-dimensional reconnection leads inevitably to the appearance of a system of longitudinal currents. With reference to current layer of the magnetospheric tail the longitudinal currents appearing in the process of reconnection are directed to the Earth on the morning side and from Earth - on the evening side. The results presented suggest that magnetic reconnection can serve as a sourse of the Birkeland current loop of a substorm

  3. BIG DATA-Related Challenges and Opportunities in Earth System Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamzai, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of the Earth's climate has increased immensely in recent decades, both through observational analysis and modeling. BIG DATA-related challenges emerge in our quest for understanding the variability and predictability of the climate and earth system on a range of time scales, as well as in our endeavor to improve predictive capability using state-of-the-science models. To enable further scientific discovery, bottlenecks in current paradigms need to be addressed. An overview of current NSF activities in Earth System Modeling with a focus on associated data-related challenges and opportunities, will be presented.

  4. Earth Science Data Analysis in the Era of Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, K.-S.; Clune, T. L.; Ramachandran, R.

    2014-01-01

    Anyone with even a cursory interest in information technology cannot help but recognize that "Big Data" is one of the most fashionable catchphrases of late. From accurate voice and facial recognition, language translation, and airfare prediction and comparison, to monitoring the real-time spread of flu, Big Data techniques have been applied to many seemingly intractable problems with spectacular successes. They appear to be a rewarding way to approach many currently unsolved problems. Few fields of research can claim a longer history with problems involving voluminous data than Earth science. The problems we are facing today with our Earth's future are more complex and carry potentially graver consequences than the examples given above. How has our climate changed? Beside natural variations, what is causing these changes? What are the processes involved and through what mechanisms are these connected? How will they impact life as we know it? In attempts to answer these questions, we have resorted to observations and numerical simulations with ever-finer resolutions, which continue to feed the "data deluge." Plausibly, many Earth scientists are wondering: How will Big Data technologies benefit Earth science research? As an example from the global water cycle, one subdomain among many in Earth science, how would these technologies accelerate the analysis of decades of global precipitation to ascertain the changes in its characteristics, to validate these changes in predictive climate models, and to infer the implications of these changes to ecosystems, economies, and public health? Earth science researchers need a viable way to harness the power of Big Data technologies to analyze large volumes and varieties of data with velocity and veracity. Beyond providing speedy data analysis capabilities, Big Data technologies can also play a crucial, albeit indirect, role in boosting scientific productivity by facilitating effective collaboration within an analysis environment

  5. Non-inductive current probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christen Kjeldahl

    1977-01-01

    The current probe described is a low-cost, shunt resistor for monitoring current pulses in e.g., pulsed lasers. Rise time is......The current probe described is a low-cost, shunt resistor for monitoring current pulses in e.g., pulsed lasers. Rise time is...

  6. Rankine earth pressure theory considering microstructure of porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhu; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Wenchao; Xu, Riqing

    2017-11-01

    Soil as an engineering material has very complex properties, such as non-continuous, non-uniformity and nonlinear mechanical. In a certain extent, macroscopic properties of soil are affected by the changes of the microstructure. And microscopic porosity of soft clay and its influencing factors, the relationship between macro and micro porosity, the average contact area rate and its influencing factors are studied. Some mechanics problems were analyzed by using the relationship between macro-porosity and the average contact area rate. Combining soil lateral stress transfer principle, a calculation theory of earth pressure considering soil contact area was got. The possible reason of the differences between earth pressure and the actual monitoring earth pressure was analyzed by the case.

  7. Solar Wind Monitor--A School Geophysics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Described is an established geophysics project to construct a solar wind monitor based on a nT resolution fluxgate magnetometer. Low-cost and appropriate from school to university level it incorporates elements of astrophysics, geophysics, electronics, programming, computer networking and signal processing. The system monitors the earth's field in…

  8. [Correlation of fine structures of distributions of amplitudes of a photomultiplier dark current fluctuations with the Earth rotations about its axis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, M V; Belousov, L V; Voeĭkov, V L; Zenchenko, K I; Zenchenko, T A; Konradov, A A; Shnol', S E

    2001-01-01

    The fine structures of distributions of photomultiplier dark current fluctuations measured in two laboratories 2000 km distant from other: in the international Institute of Biophysics (Neuss, Germany) and in the Moscow State University (Moscow, Russia) were compared. It is shown that similar forms of appropriate histograms are apparently more often realized at both locations at the same local time. This confirms the previous conclusion that the fine structure of distributions correlates with rotation of the Earth about its axis.

  9. Relative location of a powerful flare, the heliospheric current sheet and the Earth favourable for the onset of a strong geomagnetic storm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, K.G.; Kharshiladze, A.F.; Romashets, E.P.

    1992-01-01

    Problem of magnetic clouds propagation in regular-nonuniform internal heliosphere is discussed. High dependence of their retardation and consequently intensity of interplanetary and geomagnetic disturbances on mutual location of flares, heliospheric current sheet and the Earth is identified. Eight solar flares, four of which caused strong storms, and another four led to weak disturbances, all of them being in fair agreement with theoretical conclusions, are presented as examples

  10. Exploiting Untapped Information Resources in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, R.; Fox, P. A.; Kempler, S.; Maskey, M.

    2015-12-01

    One of the continuing challenges in any Earth science investigation is the amount of time and effort required for data preparation before analysis can begin. Current Earth science data and information systems have their own shortcomings. For example, the current data search systems are designed with the assumption that researchers find data primarily by metadata searches on instrument or geophysical keywords, assuming that users have sufficient knowledge of the domain vocabulary to be able to effectively utilize the search catalogs. These systems lack support for new or interdisciplinary researchers who may be unfamiliar with the domain vocabulary or the breadth of relevant data available. There is clearly a need to innovate and evolve current data and information systems in order to improve data discovery and exploration capabilities to substantially reduce the data preparation time and effort. We assert that Earth science metadata assets are dark resources, information resources that organizations collect, process, and store for regular business or operational activities but fail to utilize for other purposes. The challenge for any organization is to recognize, identify and effectively utilize the dark data stores in their institutional repositories to better serve their stakeholders. NASA Earth science metadata catalogs contain dark resources consisting of structured information, free form descriptions of data and pre-generated images. With the addition of emerging semantic technologies, such catalogs can be fully utilized beyond their original design intent of supporting current search functionality. In this presentation, we will describe our approach of exploiting these information resources to provide novel data discovery and exploration pathways to science and education communities

  11. Rare earth element lithogeochemistry of granitoid mineral deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.P.; Fryer, B.J. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences)

    1983-12-01

    As a monitor of the processes involved in the formation of granitoid mineral deposits the coherent group behaviour of the rare earth elements (REE) actively reflects changing fluid characteristics. For example, in the porphyry environment, magmatic-hydrothermal fluids produce potassic alteration with strong enrichment in the light rare earth elements, reflecting their high pH, low fluid/rock ratios, and the dominant role of Cl/sup -/ complexing in metal (i.e. Cu, Au) transport. With increasing fluid/rock ratios and decreasing pH accompanying the progressive involvement of meteoric fluids (and the production of propylitic, argillic, and phyllic alteration) anionic species such as F/sup -/ and CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ become important in metal (e.g. Mo, W) transport through complexing, and their activity in the hydrothermal fluids is illustrated by mobilization of the heavy rare earth elements. The relative involvement of Cl/sup -/ versus F/sup -/ versus CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ in metal transport in other granite-related systems can also be monitored through REE behaviour. Hence granitoid tin-tungsten mineralization and associated greisenization typically exhibit heavy rare earth enrichment and evidence the importance of F/sup -/ and CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ in metal transport. Similarly, heavy rare earth element enrichment in hydrothermal uranium deposits can be related to the transport of uranium as carbonate complexes. REE are widely accepted as powerful tools in the study of rock petrogenesis, but their use has been neglected in the investigation of mineral deposits. The recognition of the systematic variation of REE distributions in granitoid mineral deposits suggests that the application of REE geochemistry, particularly when integrated with fluid inclusion and isotope studies, can provide l) an effective method for identifying the physiochemical controls of metal transport and 2) a useful criterion of elucidating metal distribution.

  12. Rare earth element lithogeochemistry of granitoid mineral deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.P.; Fryer, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a monitor of the processes involved in the formation of granitoid mineral deposits the coherent group behaviour of the rare earth elements (REE) actively reflects changing fluid characteristics. For example, in the porphyry environment, magmatic-hydrothermal fluids produce potassic alteration with strong enrichment in the light rare earth elements, reflecting their high pH, low fluid/rock ratios, and the dominant role of Cl - complexing in metal (i.e. Cu, Au) transport. With increasing fluid/rock ratios and decreasing pH accompanying the progressive involvement of meteoric fluids (and the production of propylitic, argillic, and phyllic alteration) anionic species such as F - and CO 3 2- become important in metal (e.g. Mo, W) transport through complexing, and their activity in the hydrothermal fluids is illustrated by mobilization of the heavy rare earth elements. The relative involvement of Cl - versus F - versus CO 3 2- in metal transport in other granite-related systems can also be monitored through REE behaviour. Hence granitoid tin-tungsten mineralization and associated greisenization typically exhibit heavy rare earth enrichment and evidence the importance of F - and CO 3 2- in metal transport. Similarly, heavy rare earth element enrichment in hydrothermal uranium deposits can be related to the transport of uranium as carbonate complexes. REE are widely accepted as powerful tools in the study of rock petrogenesis, but their use has been neglected in the investigation of mineral deposits. The recognition of the systematic variation of REE distributions in granitoid mineral deposits suggests that the application of REE geochemistry, particularly when integrated with fluid inclusion and isotope studies, can provide l) an effective method for identifying the physiochemical controls of metal transport and 2) a useful criterion of elucidating metal distribution

  13. Technological advances in perioperative monitoring: Current concepts and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilkoti, Geetanjali; Wadhwa, Rachna; Saxena, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Minimal mandatory monitoring in the perioperative period recommended by Association of Anesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland and American Society of Anesthesiologists are universally acknowledged and has become an integral part of the anesthesia practice. The technologies in perioperative monitoring have advanced, and the availability and clinical applications have multiplied exponentially. Newer monitoring techniques include depth of anesthesia monitoring, goal-directed fluid therapy, transesophageal echocardiography, advanced neurological monitoring, improved alarm system and technological advancement in objective pain assessment. Various factors that need to be considered with the use of improved monitoring techniques are their validation data, patient outcome, safety profile, cost-effectiveness, awareness of the possible adverse events, knowledge of technical principle and ability of the convenient routine handling. In this review, we will discuss the new monitoring techniques in anesthesia, their advantages, deficiencies, limitations, their comparison to the conventional methods and their effect on patient outcome, if any.

  14. Towards Big Earth Data Analytics: The EarthServer Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Peter

    2013-04-01

    import and, hence, duplication); the aforementioned distributed query processing. Additionally, Web clients for multi-dimensional data visualization are being established. Client/server interfaces are strictly based on OGC and W3C standards, in particular the Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS) which defines a high-level raster query language. We present the EarthServer project with its vision and approaches, relate it to the current state of standardization, and demonstrate it by way of large-scale data centers and their services using rasdaman.

  15. Characterization of the Sonoran desert as a radiometric calibration target for Earth observing sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angal, Amit; Chander, Gyanesh; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Choi, Tae-young; Wu, Aisheng

    2011-01-01

    To provide highly accurate quantitative measurements of the Earth's surface, a comprehensive calibration and validation of the satellite sensors is required. The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Characterization Support Team, in collaboration with United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation and Science Center, has previously demonstrated the use of African desert sites to monitor the long-term calibration stability of Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+). The current study focuses on evaluating the suitability of the Sonoran Desert test site for post-launch long-term radiometric calibration as well as cross-calibration purposes. Due to the lack of historical and on-going in situ ground measurements, the Sonoran Desert is not usually used for absolute calibration. An in-depth evaluation (spatial, temporal, and spectral stability) of this site using well calibrated L7 ETM+ measurements and local climatology data has been performed. The Sonoran Desert site produced spatial variability of about 3 to 5% in the reflective solar regions, and the temporal variations of the site after correction for view-geometry impacts were generally around 3%. The results demonstrate that, barring the impacts due to occasional precipitation, the Sonoran Desert site can be effectively used for cross-calibration and long-term stability monitoring of satellite sensors, thus, providing a good test site in the western hemisphere.

  16. Models of the earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Combined inferences from seismology, high-pressure experiment and theory, geomagnetism, fluid dynamics, and current views of terrestrial planetary evolution lead to models of the earth's core with five basic properties. These are that core formation was contemporaneous with earth accretion; the core is not in chemical equilibrium with the mantle; the outer core is a fluid iron alloy containing significant quantities of lighter elements and is probably almost adiabatic and compositionally uniform; the more iron-rich inner solid core is a consequence of partial freezing of the outer core, and the energy release from this process sustains the earth's magnetic field; and the thermodynamic properties of the core are well constrained by the application of liquid-state theory to seismic and labroatory data.

  17. Verification of the Viability of Equipotential Switching Direct Current Potential Drop Method for Piping Wall Loss Monitoring with Signal Sensitivity Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kyung Ha; Hwang, Il Soon; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) phenomenon of low alloy carbon steels in nuclear power plant has been known as one of major degradation mechanisms. It has a potential to cause nuclear pipe rupture accident which may directly impact on the plant reliability and safety. Recently, the equipotential switching direct current potential drop (ES-DCPD) method has been developed, by the present authors, as a method to monitor wall loss in a piping. This method can rapidly monitor the thinning of piping, utilizing either the wide range monitoring (WiRM) or the narrow range monitoring (NaRM) technique. WiRM is a method to monitor wide range of straight piping, whereas NaRM focuses significantly on a narrow range such as an elbow. WiRM and NaRM can improve the reliability of the current FAC screening method that is based on computer modeling on fluid flow conditions. In this paper, the measurements by ES-DCPD are performed with signal sensitivity analyses in the laboratory environment for extended period and showed the viability of ES-DCPD for real plant applications.

  18. Boosting Scientific Exploitation of Sentinel Data: The Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Fröhlich, Johannes; Stowasser, Rainer; Wotawa, Gerhard; Hoffmann, Christian; Federspiel, Christian; Nortarnicola, Claudia; Zebisch, Marc; Boresch, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    an increasing trend towards more specialisation and cooperation. Also this strategy has already led to remarkable advances in the provision of high-quality scientific EO data sets. Nonetheless, many of these collaborative developments stand on shaky grounds given that the scientific and technical know-how and the data processing capabilities remain largely fragmented. This is because the cooperation between different EO teams is typically project-based and can end abruptly after the end of a project. In other words, few EO teams cooperate on a more strategic level that involves e.g. the sharing of software code or the joint use of common IT resources. In recognition of the problems discussed above, and with a view on the high potential of the upcoming Sentinel satellites for monitoring of global water resources (Wagner et al. 2011, Hornáček et al. 2012), we are proposing the foundation of an Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring (EODC-Water). The EODC-Water will be a collaborative undertaking of research organisations, public agencies and private industry with the goal to foster the use of EO data for monitoring of global water resources. It will do so by proving a collaborative computer cloud that connects several data centres throughout Europe, thereby enabling the archiving, distributing, and processing of large EO data sets. The basic idea is to move the processing to the data instead of moving the data to where the software is. This sounds simple, but its realisation will overhaul the way of how EO data processing and distribution are organised. Another important element of EODC-Water will be its partner organisations which have agreed to participate in a collaborative software development process for establishing end-to-end EO data processing chains. EODC-Water will boost the scientific exploitation of EO data by allowing its scientific users to focus their efforts on scientific problems rather than having to deal with standard

  19. Swift X-ray monitoring of stellar coronal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brendan; Hagen, Cedric; Gallo, Elena; Wright, Jason T.

    2018-01-01

    We used California Planet Search Ca II H and K core emission measurements to identify and characterize chromospheric activity cycles in a sample of main-sequence FGK stars. About a dozen of these with existing ROSAT archival data were targeted with Swift to obtain a current epoch X-ray flux. We find that coronal variability by a factor of several is common on decade-long timescales (we attempt to link to the chromospheric cycle phase) but can also occur on short timescales between Swift visits to a given target, presumably related to stellar rotation and coronal inhomogeneity or to small flares. Additionally, we present new Swift monitoring observations of two M dwarfs with known exoplanets: GJ 15A and GJ 674. GJ 15A b is around 5.3 Earth masses with an 11.4 day orbital period, while GJ 674 is around 11.1 Earth masses with a 4.7 day orbital period. GJ 15A was observed several times in late 2014 and then monitored at approximately weekly intervals for several months in early 2016, for a total exposure of 18 ks. GJ 674 was monitored at approximately weekly intervals for most of 2016, for a total exposure of 40 ks. We provide light curves and hardness ratios for both sources, and also compare to earlier archival X-ray data. Both sources show significant X-ray variability, including between consecutive observations. We quantify the energy distribution for coronal flaring, and compare to optical results for M dwarfs from Kepler. Finally, we discuss the implications of M dwarf coronal activity for exoplanets orbiting within the nominal habitable zone.

  20. A journey through Earth climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramstein, Gilles; Brunet, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The author proposes a history of climates all along Earth's history, describes how cold and warm periods have been alternating during these billions of years. He also tries to highlight lessons learned from this long evolution of climate in order to better understand the current global warming. He discusses whether this disruption is unique in Earth's history, and how it threatens our environment and therefore our survival. The chapters describe how Earth could escape a global glaciation, the thermal regulation by greenhouse effect gases in a world without oxygen, the empowerment of oxygen and the first thermal accident, a new oxygenated and warm world, the second accident or how Earth entered and escaped from periods of total glaciation, the possible stabilisation, the succession of deregulations, crisis and extinctions, the slow way down to the cold, the various paleo-indicators during the Quaternary, the high frequency oscillations of climate during the last million of years, and the uncertain projections

  1. The ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.R.; Mälkki, A.; Visser, H.; Vries, J. de; Stammes, P.; Lundell, J.O.V.; Saari, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Adminsitration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial

  2. Continuity of Earth Radiation Budget Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, N. G.; Su, W.; Wong, T.; Priestley, K.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's climate is determined by the exchange of radiant energy between the Sun, Earth and space. The absorbed solar radiation at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) fuels the climate system, providing the energy required for atmospheric and oceanic motions. Earth's radiation budget (ERB) involves a balance between how much solar energy Earth absorbs and how much terrestrial thermal infrared radiation is emitted to space. Because of its critical role in climate, continuous monitoring of the ERB is necessary for improved understanding and prediction of climate variability and change. NASA's long history in observing the TOA ERB is acknowledged in the 2007 and 2013 reports of the IPCC (IPCC 2007, 2013), the 2007 NRC Decadal Survey (NRC 2007), and the GCOS implementation plan of the WMO (GCOS 2016). A key reason for NASA's success in this area is due to its support of the CERES Project and its predecessor, ERBE. During ERBE, the TOA ERB was observed using both scanner and nonscanner broadband instruments. The CERES project consists of six scanner instruments flying alongside high-resolution spectral imagers (MODIS, VIIRS) in morning and afternoon sun-synchronous orbits. In addition to extending the ERBE TOA radiation budget record, CERES also provides observations of Earth's surface radiation budget with unprecedented accuracy. Here we assess the likelihood of a measurement gap in the ERB record. We show that unless a follow-on ERB instrument to the last available CERES copy (FM6) is built and launched, there is a significant risk of a measurement gap in the ERB record by the mid-2020s. A gap is of concern not only because the ERB would not be monitored during the gap period but also because it would be exceedingly difficult to tie the records before and after the gap together with sufficient accuracy for climate analyses. While ERB instruments are highly stable temporally, they lack the absolute accuracy needed to bridge a gap. Consequently, there is a requirement that

  3. Earth Sciences Division Research Summaries 2006-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePaolo, Donald; DePaolo, Donald

    2008-01-01

    , climate systems, and environmental engineering. Building on this scientific foundation, we also perform applied earth science research and technology development to support DOE in a number of its program areas. We currently organize our efforts in the following Division Programs: Fundamental and Exploratory Research--fundamental research in geochemistry, geophysics, and hydrology to provide a basis for new and improved energy and environmental technologies; Climate and Carbon Sciences--carbon cycling in the terrestrial biosphere and oceans, and global and regional climate modeling, are the cornerstones of a major developing divisional research thrust related to understanding and mitigating the effects of increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere; Energy Resources--collaborative projects with industry to develop or improve technologies for the exploration and production of oil, gas, and geothermal reservoirs, and for the development of bioenergy; Environmental Remediation and Water Resources--innovative technologies for locating, containing, and remediating metals, radionuclides, chlorinated solvents, and energy-related contaminants in soils and groundwaters; Geologic Carbon Sequestration--development and testing of methods for introducing carbon dioxide to subsurface geologic reservoirs, and predicting and monitoring its subsequent migration; and Nuclear Waste and Energy--theoretical, experimental, and simulation studies of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These programs draw from each of ESD's disciplinary departments: Climate Science, Ecology, Geochemistry, Geophysics, and Hydrogeology. Short descriptions of these departments are provided as introductory material. In this document, we present summaries of selected current research projects. While it is not a complete accounting, the projects described here are representative of the nature and breadth of the ESD research effort. We are proud of our scientific accomplishments and we hope

  4. Earth Sciences Division Research Summaries 2006-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaolo, Donald; DePaolo, Donald

    2008-07-21

    , climate systems, and environmental engineering. Building on this scientific foundation, we also perform applied earth science research and technology development to support DOE in a number of its program areas. We currently organize our efforts in the following Division Programs: Fundamental and Exploratory Research--fundamental research in geochemistry, geophysics, and hydrology to provide a basis for new and improved energy and environmental technologies; Climate and Carbon Sciences--carbon cycling in the terrestrial biosphere and oceans, and global and regional climate modeling, are the cornerstones of a major developing divisional research thrust related to understanding and mitigating the effects of increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere; Energy Resources--collaborative projects with industry to develop or improve technologies for the exploration and production of oil, gas, and geothermal reservoirs, and for the development of bioenergy; Environmental Remediation and Water Resources--innovative technologies for locating, containing, and remediating metals, radionuclides, chlorinated solvents, and energy-related contaminants in soils and groundwaters; Geologic Carbon Sequestration--development and testing of methods for introducing carbon dioxide to subsurface geologic reservoirs, and predicting and monitoring its subsequent migration; and Nuclear Waste and Energy--theoretical, experimental, and simulation studies of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These programs draw from each of ESD's disciplinary departments: Climate Science, Ecology, Geochemistry, Geophysics, and Hydrogeology. Short descriptions of these departments are provided as introductory material. In this document, we present summaries of selected current research projects. While it is not a complete accounting, the projects described here are representative of the nature and breadth of the ESD research effort. We are proud of our scientific accomplishments and we

  5. The ESA River & Lake System: Current Capabilities and Future Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Richard G.; Salloway, Mark; Berry, Philippa A. M.

    Measuring the earth's river and lake resources using satellite radar altimetry offers a unique global monitoring capability, which complements the detailed measurements made by the steadily decreasing number of in-situ gauges. To exploit this unique remote monitoring capability, a global pilot...

  6. History of satellite missions and measurements of the Earth Radiation Budget (1957-1984)

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, F. B.; Gruber, A.; Hunt, G. E.; Mecherikunnel, A. T.

    1986-01-01

    The history of satellite missions and their measurements of the earth radiation budget from the beginning of the space age until the present time are reviewed. The survey emphasizes the early struggle to develop instrument systems to monitor reflected shortwave and emitted long-wave exitances from the earth, and the problems associated with the interpretation of these observations from space. In some instances, valuable data sets were developed from satellite measurements whose instruments were not specifically designed for earth radiation budget observations.

  7. Impact of the Diamond Light Source on research in Earth and environmental sciences: current work and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ian T; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Shaw, Samuel; Peacock, Caroline L; Benning, Liane G; Coker, Victoria S

    2015-03-06

    Diamond Light Source Ltd celebrated its 10th anniversary as a company in December 2012 and has now accepted user experiments for over 5 years. This paper describes the current facilities available at Diamond and future developments that enhance its capacities with respect to the Earth and environmental sciences. A review of relevant research conducted at Diamond thus far is provided. This highlights how synchrotron-based studies have brought about important advances in our understanding of the fundamental parameters controlling highly complex mineral-fluid-microbe interface reactions in the natural environment. This new knowledge not only enhances our understanding of global biogeochemical processes, but also provides the opportunity for interventions to be designed for environmental remediation and beneficial use.

  8. Microcontroller based four-channel current readout unit for beam slit monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holikatti, A.C.; Puntambekar, T.A.; Pithawa, C.K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a microcontroller based four-channel current readout unit for Beam Slit Monitor (BSM) installed in Transport Line-1 of Indus Accelerator Complex. BSM is a diagnostic device consisting of two horizontal and two vertical blades, which can be moved independently in to the beam pipe to cut the beam transversely. The readout unit employs switched integrators with reset, hold and select switches and timing and control unit. It integrates the current output of the four blades of BSM and produces an output corresponding to the beam charge intercepted by the blade. The integrator outputs are then multiplexed and digitized using 12-bit ADC. Acquired digital data from ADC is stored into on-chip RAM of the microcontroller. The readout sequence is synchronized with the Microtron beam-timing signal. The timing of integration, hold and reset cycles is controlled by the microcontroller. The unit is connected on a serial link to the host computer in main control room. This unit has been integrated with the BSM system and is being used to obtain the electron beam profile. (author)

  9. A noise reconfigurable current-reuse resistive feedback amplifier with signal-dependent power consumption for fetal ECG monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Shuang; Rooijakkers, M.J.; Harpe, P.; Rabotti, C.; Mischi, M.; Van Roermund, A.H.M.; Cantatore, E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a noise-reconfigurable resistive feedback amplifier with current-reuse technique for fetal ECG monitoring. The proposed amplifier allows for both tuning of the noise level and changing the power consumption according to the signal properties, minimizing the total power

  10. Earth observation in support of malaria control and epidemiology: MALAREO monitoring approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Jonas; Gebreslasie, Michael; Bauwens, Ides; Deleu, Julie; Siegert, Florian

    2015-06-03

    Malaria affects about half of the world's population, with the vast majority of cases occuring in Africa. National malaria control programmes aim to reduce the burden of malaria and its negative, socioeconomic effects by using various control strategies (e.g. vector control, environmental management and case tracking). Vector control is the most effective transmission prevention strategy, while environmental factors are the key parameters affecting transmission. Geographic information systems (GIS), earth observation (EO) and spatial modelling are increasingly being recognised as valuable tools for effective management and malaria vector control. Issues previously inhibiting the use of EO in epidemiology and malaria control such as poor satellite sensor performance, high costs and long turnaround times, have since been resolved through modern technology. The core goal of this study was to develop and implement the capabilities of EO data for national malaria control programmes in South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique. High- and very high resolution (HR and VHR) land cover and wetland maps were generated for the identification of potential vector habitats and human activities, as well as geoinformation on distance to wetlands for malaria risk modelling, population density maps, habitat foci maps and VHR household maps. These products were further used for modelling malaria incidence and the analysis of environmental factors that favour vector breeding. Geoproducts were also transferred to the staff of national malaria control programmes in seven African countries to demonstrate how EO data and GIS can support vector control strategy planning and monitoring. The transferred EO products support better epidemiological understanding of environmental factors related to malaria transmission, and allow for spatio-temporal targeting of malaria control interventions, thereby improving the cost-effectiveness of interventions.

  11. An “Off-the-Shelf” System for Intraprocedural Electrical Current Evaluation and Monitoring of Irreversible Electroporation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, Robert E., E-mail: Robert.Neal@alfred.org.au; Kavnoudias, Helen; Thomson, Kenneth R. [The Alfred Hospital, Radiology Research Unit, Department of Radiology (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    IntroductionIrreversible electroporation (IRE) ablation uses a series of brief electric pulses to create nanoscale defects in cell membranes, killing the cells. It has shown promise in numerous soft-tissue tumor applications. Larger voltages between electrodes will increase ablation volume, but exceeding electrical limits may risk damage to the patient, cause ineffective therapy delivery, or require generator restart. Monitoring electrical current for these conditions in real-time enables managing these risks. This capacity is not presently available in clinical IRE generators.MethodsWe describe a system using a Tektronix TCP305 AC/DC Current Probe connected to a TCPA300 AC/DC Current Probe Amplifier, which is read on a computer using a Protek DSO-2090 USB computer-interfacing oscilloscope. Accuracy of the system was tested with a resistor circuit and by comparing measured currents with final outputs from the NanoKnife clinical electroporation pulse generator.ResultsAccuracy of measured currents was 1.64 ± 2.4 % relative to calculations for the resistor circuit and averaged 0.371 ± 0.977 % deviation from the NanoKnife. During clinical pulse delivery, the system offers real-time evaluation of IRE procedure progress and enables a number of methods for identifying approaching issues from electrical behavior of therapy delivery, facilitating protocol changes before encountering therapy delivery issues.ConclusionsThis system can monitor electrical currents in real-time without altering the electric pulses or modifying the pulse generator. This facilitates delivering electric pulse protocols that remain within the optimal range of electrical currents—sufficient strength for clinically relevant ablation volumes, without the risk of exceeding safe electric currents or causing inadequate ablation.

  12. Development of capacitive beam position, beam current and Schottky-signal monitors for the Cryogenic Storage Ring (CSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laux, Felix

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis novel techniques based on capacitive pickups for the determination of the beam current, the beam position and the Schottky-signal in storage rings have been developed. Beam current measurements at the heavy ion storage ring TSR with a capacitive pickup have been found in very good agreement with the theory. Using this device the accurate measurement of beam currents at the TSR far below 1 μA is now possible. This method will also be used at the Cryogenic Storage Ring (CSR) at which beam currents in the range of 1 nA-1 μA are expected. For the first time, position measurements with a resonant amplifier system for capacitive pickups have been examined at the TSR for later use of this technique in the CSR. With this method an increased signal-to-noise ratio can be achieved using a parallel inductance. A comparison with measurements using the rest gas beam profile monitor has shown very good agreement even at very low intensities. Experiments with the cryo-capable electronics for the CSR beam position monitors have shown an achievable quality factor of Q=500, resulting in the prospect of precise position measurements at the CSR even at very low beam currents. The CSR Schottky-Pickup will also be equipped with a resonant amplifier system with a comparable quality factor. An estimation of the signal-to-noise ratio suggests a detection limit of a few protons. (orig.)

  13. The Rare Earth Magnet Industry and Rare Earth Price in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Kaihong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past four years, the price of rare earth metal fluctuates sharply for many reasons. Currently, it has become more stable and more reasonable. This presentation is focused on the effect about the rare earth metal price. Some motor manufacturers have shifted from rare earth permanent magnet to ferrite magnet. Many motor manufacturers changed the design for the motor cooling system to make the motor function at a lower temperature. Thus the consumption of Dy can be markedly reduced. As for manufacturer of NdFeB magnet, we are also trying to optimize our process to reduce to dependence of HREE such as Dy and Tb. HS process have been introduced to solve the problem. With more and more people focusing and engaging on the REE industry, the price of REE will be more transparent without too many fluctuations. China is considering the problems of balancing the environment, energy sources, and labor sources. The application field about NdFeB such as wind turbine generator, HEV/EV, FA /OA is flourishing.

  14. The Rare Earth Magnet Industry and Rare Earth Price in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kaihong

    2014-07-01

    In the past four years, the price of rare earth metal fluctuates sharply for many reasons. Currently, it has become more stable and more reasonable. This presentation is focused on the effect about the rare earth metal price. Some motor manufacturers have shifted from rare earth permanent magnet to ferrite magnet. Many motor manufacturers changed the design for the motor cooling system to make the motor function at a lower temperature. Thus the consumption of Dy can be markedly reduced. As for manufacturer of NdFeB magnet, we are also trying to optimize our process to reduce to dependence of HREE such as Dy and Tb. HS process have been introduced to solve the problem. With more and more people focusing and engaging on the REE industry, the price of REE will be more transparent without too many fluctuations. China is considering the problems of balancing the environment, energy sources, and labor sources. The application field about NdFeB such as wind turbine generator, HEV/EV, FA /OA is flourishing.

  15. Charged particle beam current monitoring tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, R.C.

    1994-10-01

    A tutorial presentation is made on topics related to the measurement of charged particle beam currents. The fundamental physics of electricity and magnetism pertinent to the problem is reviewed. The physics is presented with a stress on its interpretation from an electrical circuit theory point of view. The operation of devices including video pulse current transformers, direct current transformers, and gigahertz bandwidth wall current style transformers is described. Design examples are given for each of these types of devices. Sensitivity, frequency response, and physical environment are typical parameters which influence the design of these instruments in any particular application. Practical engineering considerations, potential pitfalls, and performance limitations are discussed

  16. Feedback from physical activity monitors is not compatible with current recommendations: A recalibration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dylan; Batterham, Alan M; Peacock, Oliver J; Western, Max J; Booso, Rahuman

    2016-10-01

    Wearable devices to self-monitor physical activity have become popular with individuals and healthcare practitioners as a route to the prevention of chronic disease. It is not currently possible to reconcile feedback from these devices with activity recommendations because the guidelines refer to the amount of activity required on top of normal lifestyle activities (e.g., 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity per week over-and-above normal moderate-to-vigorous lifestyle activities). The aim of this study was to recalibrate the feedback from self-monitoring. We pooled data from four studies conducted between 2006 and 2014 in patients and volunteers from the community that included both sophisticated measures of physical activity and 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (n=305). We determined the amount of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity that corresponded to FAO/WHO/UNU guidance for a required PAL of 1.75 (Total Energy Expenditure/Basal Metabolic Rate). Our results show that, at the UK median PAL, total moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity will be around 735 minutes per week (~11% of waking time). We estimate that a 4% increase in moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity will achieve standardised guidance from FAO/WHO/UNU and will require ~1000 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity per week. This study demonstrates that feedback from sophisticated wearable devices is incompatible with current physical activity recommendations. Without adjustment, people will erroneously form the view that they are exceeding recommendations by several fold. A more appropriate target from self-monitoring that accounts for normal moderate-to-vigorous lifestyle activities is ~1000 minutes per week, which represents ~15% of waking time. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The development of condition monitoring for the safety of rotating machine in PWR using motor current signature analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syaiful Bakhri

    2013-01-01

    Condition monitoring of rotating machine is essential to guarantee the safety operation as well as to improve the efficiency of nuclear power plants operations. One of the promising condition monitoring techniques which has been preferred currently since it is simple, non-invasive and inexpensive is Motor Stator Signature Analysis (MCSA). However, the investigation of the MCSA technique using a compact, low cost, and having industrial class hardware which is capable for nuclear power plant applications has been limited. The research is aimed to develop condition monitoring method based on MCSA utilizing a compact industrial class for nuclear power plant. The investigation includes development of condition monitoring based on real-time FPGA-CompatRIO hardware, development of a custom built display module for early warning system, testing of the monitoring hardware, fault frequency analysis of electric motors including the performances of fault detections. The condition monitoring system is able to execute a fault detection task around 164 ms, to recognize accurately fault frequencies of stator shorted turn for about 75%, broken rotor bar around 95%, eccentricity 65%, mechanical misalignment 85%, including supply voltage unbalances 100%. The condition monitoring system based on its performance assessments could become a suitable alternative not only for rotating machines but also condition monitoring for other nuclear reactor components. (author)

  18. Evolving NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, J.; Behnke, J.; Murphy, K. J.; Lowe, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System Project (ESDIS) is charged with managing, maintaining, and evolving NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) and is responsible for processing, archiving, and distributing NASA Earth science data. The system supports a multitude of missions and serves diverse science research and other user communities. Keeping up with ever-changing information technology and figuring out how to leverage those changes across such a large system in order to continuously improve and meet the needs of a diverse user community is a significant challenge. Maintaining and evolving the system architecture and infrastructure is a continuous and multi-layered effort. It requires a balance between a "top down" management paradigm that provides a coherent system view and maintaining the managerial, technological, and functional independence of the individual system elements. This presentation will describe some of the key elements of the current system architecture, some of the strategies and processes we employ to meet these challenges, current and future challenges, and some ideas for meeting those challenges.

  19. Remote monitoring of implantable cardiac devices: current state and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeshan, Raj; Enriquez, Alan D; Freeman, James V

    2018-01-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated substantial benefits associated with remote monitoring of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs), and treatment guidelines have endorsed the use of remote monitoring. Familiarity with the features of remote monitoring systems and the data supporting its use are vital for physicians' care for patients with CEIDs. Remote monitoring remains underutilized, but its use is expanding including in new practice settings including emergency departments. Patient experience and outcomes are positive, with earlier detection of clinical events such as atrial fibrillation, reductions in inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shocks and potentially a decrease in mortality with frequent remote monitoring utilizaiton. Rates of hospitalization are reduced among remote monitoring users, and the replacement of outpatient follow-up visits with remote monitoring transmissions has been shown to be well tolerated. In addition, health resource utilization is lower and remote monitoring has been associated with considerable cost savings. A dose relationship exists between use of remote monitoring and patient outcomes, and those with early and high transmission rates have superior outcomes. Remote monitoring provides clinicians with the ability to provide comprehensive follow-up care for patients with CIEDs. Patient outcomes are improved, and resource utilization is decreased with appropriate use of remote monitoring. Future efforts must focus on improving the utilization and efficiency of remote monitoring.

  20. VME computer monitoring system of KEK-PS fast pulsed magnet currents and beam intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakubo, T.; Akiyama, A.; Kadokura, E.; Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    For beam transfer from the KEK-PS Linac to the Booster synchrotron ring and from the Booster to the Main ring, many pulse magnets have been installed. It is very important for the machine operation to monitor the firing time, rising time and peak value of the pulsed magnet currents. It is also very important for magnet tuning to obtain good injection efficiency of the Booster and the Main ring, and to observe the last circulating bunched beam in the Booster as well as the first circulating in the Main. These magnet currents and beam intensity signals are digitized by a digital oscilloscope with signal multiplexers, and then shown on a graphic display screen of the console via a VME computer. (author)

  1. Short-term and long-term Vadose zone monitoring: Current technologies, development, and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faybishenko, Boris

    1999-01-01

    At Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and other DOE sites, field vadose zone observations have shown complex water seepage and mass transport behavior in a highly heterogeneous, thick vadose zone on a variety of scales. Recent investigation showed that severe contamination of soils and groundwater by organic contaminant and nuclear waste occurred because of water seepage and contaminant transport along localized, preferential, fast flow within the heterogeneous vadose zone. However, most of the existing characterization and monitoring methods are not able to locate these localized and persistent preferential pathways associated with specific heterogeneous geologic features, such as clastic dikes, caliche layers, or fractures. In addition, changes in the chemical composition of moving and indigenous solutes, particularly sodium concentration, redox conditions, biological transformation of organic materials, and high temperature, may significantly alter water, chemicals, and bio-transformation exchange between the zones of fast flow and the rest of the media. In this paper, using the data from Hanford and INEEL sites, we will (1) present evidence that central problems of the vadose zone investigations are associated with preferential, fast flow phenomena and accelerated migration of organic and radioactive elements, (2) identify gaps in current characterization and monitoring technologies, and (3) recommend actions for the development of advanced vadose zone characterization and monitoring methods using a combination of hydrologic, geochemical, and geophysical techniques

  2. The COSPAR roadmap on Space-based observation and Integrated Earth System Science for 2016-2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellous, Jean-Louis

    2016-07-01

    The Committee on Space Research of the International Council for Science recently commissioned a study group to prepare a roadmap on observation and integrated Earth-system science for the coming ten years. Its focus is on the combined use of observations and modelling to address the functioning, predictability and projected evolution of the Earth system on timescales out to a century or so. It discusses how observations support integrated Earth-system science and its applications, and identifies planned enhancements to the contributing observing systems and other requirements for observations and their processing. The paper will provide an overview of the content of the roadmap. All types of observation are considered in the roadmap, but emphasis is placed on those made from space. The origins and development of the integrated view of the Earth system are outlined, noting the interactions between the main components that lead to requirements for integrated science and modelling, and for the observations that guide and support them. What constitutes an Earth-system model is discussed. Summaries are given of key cycles within the Earth system. The nature of Earth observation and the arrangements for international coordination essential for effective operation of global observing systems are introduced in the roadmap. Instances are given of present types of observation, what is already on the roadmap for 2016-2025 and some of the issues to be faced. The current status and prospects for Earth-system modelling are summarized. Data assimilation is discussed not only because it uses observations and models to generate datasets for monitoring the Earth system and for initiating and evaluating predictions, in particular through reanalysis, but also because of the feedback it provides on the quality of both the observations and the models employed. Finally the roadmap offers a set of concluding discussions covering general developmental needs, requirements for continuity of

  3. Open Source Platform Application to Groundwater Characterization and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntarlagiannis, D.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Falzone, S.; Lane, J. W., Jr.; Slater, L. D.; Robinson, J.; Hammett, S.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater characterization and monitoring commonly rely on the use of multiple point sensors and human labor. Due to the number of sensors, labor, and other resources needed, establishing and maintaining an adequate groundwater monitoring network can be both labor intensive and expensive. To improve and optimize the monitoring network design, open source software and hardware components could potentially provide the platform to control robust and efficient sensors thereby reducing costs and labor. This work presents early attempts to create a groundwater monitoring system incorporating open-source software and hardware that will control the remote operation of multiple sensors along with data management and file transfer functions. The system is built around a Raspberry PI 3, that controls multiple sensors in order to perform on-demand, continuous or `smart decision' measurements while providing flexibility to incorporate additional sensors to meet the demands of different projects. The current objective of our technology is to monitor exchange of ionic tracers between mobile and immobile porosity using a combination of fluid and bulk electrical-conductivity measurements. To meet this objective, our configuration uses four sensors (pH, specific conductance, pressure, temperature) that can monitor the fluid electrical properties of interest and guide the bulk electrical measurement. This system highlights the potential of using open source software and hardware components for earth sciences applications. The versatility of the system makes it ideal for use in a large number of applications, and the low cost allows for high resolution (spatially and temporally) monitoring.

  4. Preliminary study on the influence of the tides of planet earth on hydrostatic leveling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaoye; Xu Shaofeng; Wang Peng

    2012-01-01

    Hydrostatic leveling system, used mainly in survey and alignment technology in particle accelerator and monitoring the tides is introduced in this paper. Based on the theory about the ocean tide and earth tide, we analyze effects of the earth tides on a hydrostatic leveling system. From the data obtained from an HLS, and their F are, and finally we verify the influence of the tides of planet earth. (authors)

  5. Coliform Bacteria Monitoring in Fish Systems: Current Practices in Public Aquaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, Erin E; Clayton, Leigh A; Hadfield, Catherine A; Arnold, Jill E; Bourbon, Holly M

    2016-06-01

    Public aquaria evaluate coliform indicator bacteria levels in fish systems, but the purpose of testing, testing methods, and management responses are not standardized, unlike with the coliform bacteria testing for marine mammal enclosures required by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. An online survey was sent to selected aquaria to document current testing and management practices in fish systems without marine mammals. The information collected included indicator bacteria species, the size and type of systems monitored, the primary purpose of testing, sampling frequency, test methods, the criteria for interpreting results, corrective actions, and management changes to limit human exposure. Of the 25 institutions to which surveys were sent, 19 (76%) responded. Fourteen reported testing for fecal indicator bacteria in fish systems. The most commonly tested indicator species were total (86%) and fecal (79%) coliform bacteria, which were detected by means of the membrane filtration method (64%). Multiple types and sizes of systems were tested, and the guidelines for testing and corrective actions were highly variable. Only three institutions performed additional tests to confirm the identification of indicator organisms. The results from this study can be used to compare bacterial monitoring practices and protocols in fish systems, as an aid to discussions relating to the accuracy and reliability of test results, and to help implement appropriate management responses. Received August 23, 2015; accepted December 29, 2015.

  6. SinoProbe - A Multidisciplinary Research Program of Earth Sciences in China (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S.; Li, T.

    2010-12-01

    China. Some stress monitoring were centered in the Beijing and the southeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau regions. Also, SinoProbe begin to establish a high-performance calculation platform that will consider coupling processes between deformation and thermal evolution in the lithosphere. Meanwhile, data integration and data dissemination is going to stored. Finally, SinoProbe will also devote to develop new technologies, innovative methods, data integration platforms, and modern equipments for deep Earth and mineral-deposit explorations. In summary, SinoProbe is a multi-year and multidisciplinary research program to be carried in China with 9 projects and 49 sub-projects. It will integrate geological, geophysical, geochemical, and modern exploration technology to examine the deep Earth structures and their evolution in China. The results will undoubtedly contribute to the improvement of our current understanding of the Eurasia continent in particular and the Earth in general.

  7. Effects of electron pressure anisotropy on current sheet configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artemyev, A. V., E-mail: aartemyev@igpp.ucla.edu; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A. [Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Vasko, I. Y. [Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Recent spacecraft observations in the Earth's magnetosphere have demonstrated that the magnetotail current sheet can be supported by currents of anisotropic electron population. Strong electron currents are responsible for the formation of very thin (intense) current sheets playing the crucial role in stability of the Earth's magnetotail. We explore the properties of such thin current sheets with hot isotropic ions and cold anisotropic electrons. Decoupling of the motions of ions and electrons results in the generation of a polarization electric field. The distribution of the corresponding scalar potential is derived from the electron pressure balance and the quasi-neutrality condition. We find that electron pressure anisotropy is partially balanced by a field-aligned component of this polarization electric field. We propose a 2D model that describes a thin current sheet supported by currents of anisotropic electrons embedded in an ion-dominated current sheet. Current density profiles in our model agree well with THEMIS observations in the Earth's magnetotail.

  8. Effects of electron pressure anisotropy on current sheet configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.; Vasko, I. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Recent spacecraft observations in the Earth's magnetosphere have demonstrated that the magnetotail current sheet can be supported by currents of anisotropic electron population. Strong electron currents are responsible for the formation of very thin (intense) current sheets playing the crucial role in stability of the Earth's magnetotail. We explore the properties of such thin current sheets with hot isotropic ions and cold anisotropic electrons. Decoupling of the motions of ions and electrons results in the generation of a polarization electric field. The distribution of the corresponding scalar potential is derived from the electron pressure balance and the quasi-neutrality condition. We find that electron pressure anisotropy is partially balanced by a field-aligned component of this polarization electric field. We propose a 2D model that describes a thin current sheet supported by currents of anisotropic electrons embedded in an ion-dominated current sheet. Current density profiles in our model agree well with THEMIS observations in the Earth's magnetotail.

  9. Renewable energy and characteristics of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    During studying sustainable development, my sixth-form pupils have to devise and carry out experiments to show connection between some characteristics of the Earth and renewable energy. Thus, helping by a list of equipment, they can show, using simples' experiments, causal link. For example, they show that the layout in latitude of solar energy received on the ground, creates ocean and atmospheric currents. These currents are useful to product renewable energy. These researches allow me to show them new jobs link with renewable energy and sustainable development on the Earth. They can have more information thanks to other teachers working on the professional training centre including my secondary school.

  10. Down to Earth with an electric hazard from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Schultz, Adam

    2017-01-01

    In reaching across traditional disciplinary boundaries, solid-Earth geophysicists and space physicists are forging new collaborations to map magnetic-storm hazards for electric-power grids. Future progress in evaluation storm time geoelectric hazards will come primarily through monitoring, surveys, and modeling of related data.

  11. Monitoring of Space and Earth electromagnetic environment by MAGDAS project: Collaboration with IKIR - Introduction to ICSWSE/MAGDAS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikawa Akimasa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For study of coupling processes in the Solar-Terrestrial System, International Center for Space Weather Science and Education (ICSWSE, Kyushu University has developed a real time magnetic data acquisition system (the MAGDAS project around the world. The number of observational sites is increasing every year with the collaboration of host countries. Now at this time, the MAGDAS Project has installed 78 real time magnetometers – so it is the largest magnetometer array in the world. The history of global observation at Kyushu University is over 30 years and number of developed observational sites is over 140. Especially, Collaboration between IKIR is extended back to 1990's. Now a time, we are operating Flux-gate magnetometer and FM-CW Radar. It is one of most important collaboration for space weather monitoring. By using MAGDAS data, ICSWSE produces many types of space weather index, such as EE-index (for monitoring long tern and shot term variation of equatorial electrojet, Pc5 index (for monitoring solar-wind velocity and high energy electron flux, Sq-index (for monitoring global change of ionospheric low and middle latitudinal current system, and Pc3 index (for monitoring of plasma density variation at low latitudes. In this report, we will introduce recent development of MAGDAS/ICSWSE Indexes project and topics for new open policy for MAGDAS data will be also discussed.

  12. Monitoring of Space and Earth electromagnetic environment by MAGDAS project: Collaboration with IKIR - Introduction to ICSWSE/MAGDAS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Akimasa; Fujimoto, Akiko; Ikeda, Akihiro; Uozumi, Teiji; Abe, Shuji

    2017-10-01

    For study of coupling processes in the Solar-Terrestrial System, International Center for Space Weather Science and Education (ICSWSE), Kyushu University has developed a real time magnetic data acquisition system (the MAGDAS project) around the world. The number of observational sites is increasing every year with the collaboration of host countries. Now at this time, the MAGDAS Project has installed 78 real time magnetometers - so it is the largest magnetometer array in the world. The history of global observation at Kyushu University is over 30 years and number of developed observational sites is over 140. Especially, Collaboration between IKIR is extended back to 1990's. Now a time, we are operating Flux-gate magnetometer and FM-CW Radar. It is one of most important collaboration for space weather monitoring. By using MAGDAS data, ICSWSE produces many types of space weather index, such as EE-index (for monitoring long tern and shot term variation of equatorial electrojet), Pc5 index (for monitoring solar-wind velocity and high energy electron flux), Sq-index (for monitoring global change of ionospheric low and middle latitudinal current system), and Pc3 index (for monitoring of plasma density variation at low latitudes). In this report, we will introduce recent development of MAGDAS/ICSWSE Indexes project and topics for new open policy for MAGDAS data will be also discussed.

  13. The UK Earth System Model project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongming

    2016-04-01

    In this talk we will describe the development and current status of the UK Earth System Model (UKESM). This project is a NERC/Met Office collaboration and has two objectives; to develop and apply a world-leading Earth System Model, and to grow a community of UK Earth System Model scientists. We are building numerical models that include all the key components of the global climate system, and contain the important process interactions between global biogeochemistry, atmospheric chemistry and the physical climate system. UKESM will be used to make key CMIP6 simulations as well as long-time (e.g. millennium) simulations, large ensemble experiments and investigating a range of future carbon emission scenarios.

  14. The fascination of the rare earths - then, now and in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wybourne, Brian G.

    2004-01-01

    The rare earths have long been a subject of fascination to chemists and physicists. Herein, I comment on some of the prehistory leading up to the advent of the Judd-Ofelt theory of the intensities of their remarkable spectra, the origins of the Judd-Ofelt theory and its early applications. I then consider subsequent developments and extensions of the theory, its current status and its relevance to current problems of interest in rare earth spectroscopy and the future of rare earth studies

  15. Monitoring And Controlling Hydroponic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Pressure-monitoring and -controlling apparatus maintains slight suction required on nutrient solution in apparatus described in "Tubular Membrane Plant-Growth Unit" (KSC-11375), while overcoming gravity effects on operation of system on Earth. Suction helps to hold solution in tubular membrane.

  16. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  17. Problem of simulating the Earth's induction effects in modeling polar magnetic substorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mareschal, M.

    1976-01-01

    A major problem encountered in trying to model the current system associated with a polar magnetic substorm from ground-based magnetic observations is the difficulty of adequately evaluating the earth's induction effects. Two methods for simulating these effects are reviewed here. Method 1 simply reduces the earth to a perfect conductor and leads to very simple field equations. Method 2 considers the earth as a ''horizontally'' layered body of finite conductivity but requires a large amount of computational time. The performances of both methods are compared when the substorm current system can be approximated by an infinitely long electrojet flowing over a flat earth. In this case it appears that for most substorm modeling problems it is sufficient to treat the earth as a perfect conductor. The depth of this perfect conductor below the earth's surface should be selected in function of the source frequency content

  18. Measuring the Earth's Magnetic Field in a Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartacci, A.; Straulino, S.

    2008-01-01

    Two methods for measuring the Earth's magnetic field are described. In the former, according to Gauss, the Earth's magnetic field is compared with that of a permanent magnet; in the latter, a well-known method, the comparison is made with the magnetic field generated by a current. As all the used instruments are available off the shelf, both…

  19. Earth System Science Education Interdisciplinary Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzek, M.; Johnson, D. R.

    2002-05-01

    Earth system science in the classroom is the fertile crucible linking science with societal needs for local, national and global sustainability. The interdisciplinary dimension requires fruitful cooperation among departments, schools and colleges within universities and among the universities and the nation's laboratories and agencies. Teaching and learning requires content which brings together the basic and applied sciences with mathematics and technology in addressing societal challenges of the coming decades. Over the past decade remarkable advances have emerged in information technology, from high bandwidth Internet connectivity to raw computing and visualization power. These advances which have wrought revolutionary capabilities and resources are transforming teaching and learning in the classroom. With the launching of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) the amount and type of geophysical data to monitor the Earth and its climate are increasing dramatically. The challenge remains, however, for skilled scientists and educators to interpret this information based upon sound scientific perspectives and utilize it in the classroom. With an increasing emphasis on the application of data gathered, and the use of the new technologies for practical benefit in the lives of ordinary citizens, there comes the even more basic need for understanding the fundamental state, dynamics, and complex interdependencies of the Earth system in mapping valid and relevant paths to sustainability. Technology and data in combination with the need to understand Earth system processes and phenomena offer opportunities for new and productive partnerships between researchers and educators to advance the fundamental science of the Earth system and in turn through discovery excite students at all levels in the classroom. This presentation will discuss interdisciplinary partnership opportunities for educators and researchers at the undergraduate and graduate levels.

  20. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 122; Issue 5. Monitoring subsurface coal fires in Jharia coalfield using observations of land subsidence from differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR). Nishant Gupta Tajdarul H Syed Ashiihrii Athiphro. Volume 122 Issue 5 October 2013 pp 1249- ...

  1. Magnetically levitated space elevator to low-earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, J. R.; Mulcahy, T. M.

    2001-01-01

    The properties of currently available NbTi superconductor and carbon-fiber structural materials enable the possibility of constructing a magnetically levitated space elevator from the earth's surface up to an altitude of(approx) 200 km. The magnetic part of the elevator consists of a long loop of current-carrying NbTi, composed of one length that is attached to the earth's surface in an east-west direction and a levitated-arch portion. The critical current density of NbTi is sufficiently high that these conductors will stably levitate in the earth's magnetic field. The magnetic self-field from the loop increases the levitational force and for some geometries assists levitational stability. The 200-km maximum height of the levitated arch is limited by the allowable stresses of the structural material. The loop is cryogenically cooled with helium, and the system utilizes intermediate pumping and cooling stations along both the ground and the levitated portion of the loop, similar to other large terrestrial cryogenic systems. Mechanically suspended from the basic loop is an elevator structure, upon which mass can be moved between the earth's surface and the top of the loop by a linear electric motor or other mechanical or electrical means. At the top of the loop, vehicles may be accelerated to orbital velocity or higher by rocket motors, electromagnetic propulsion, or hybrid methods

  2. NASA Earth Science Education Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerin, T. G.; Callery, S.; Chambers, L. H.; Riebeek Kohl, H.; Taylor, J.; Martin, A. M.; Ferrell, T.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA Earth Science Education Collaborative (NESEC) is led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies with partners at three NASA Earth science Centers: Goddard Space Flight Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Langley Research Center. This cross-organization team enables the project to draw from the diverse skills, strengths, and expertise of each partner to develop fresh and innovative approaches for building pathways between NASA's Earth-related STEM assets to large, diverse audiences in order to enhance STEM teaching, learning and opportunities for learners throughout their lifetimes. These STEM assets include subject matter experts (scientists, engineers, and education specialists), science and engineering content, and authentic participatory and experiential opportunities. Specific project activities include authentic STEM experiences through NASA Earth science themed field campaigns and citizen science as part of international GLOBE program (for elementary and secondary school audiences) and GLOBE Observer (non-school audiences of all ages); direct connections to learners through innovative collaborations with partners like Odyssey of the Mind, an international creative problem-solving and design competition; and organizing thematic core content and strategically working with external partners and collaborators to adapt and disseminate core content to support the needs of education audiences (e.g., libraries and maker spaces, student research projects, etc.). A scaffolded evaluation is being conducted that 1) assesses processes and implementation, 2) answers formative evaluation questions in order to continuously improve the project; 3) monitors progress and 4) measures outcomes.

  3. Analysing the Advantages of High Temporal Resolution Geostationary MSG SEVIRI Data Compared to Polar Operational Environmental Satellite Data for Land Surface Monitoring in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensholt, R.; Anyamba, A.; Huber, S.; Proud, S. R.; Tucker, C. J.; Small, J.; Pak, E.; Rasmussen, M. O.; Sandholt, I.; Shisanya, C.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1972, satellite remote sensing of the environment has been dominated by polar-orbiting sensors providing useful data for monitoring the earth s natural resources. However their observation and monitoring capacity are inhibited by daily to monthly looks for any given ground surface which often is obscured by frequent and persistent cloud cover creating large gaps in time series measurements. The launch of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite into geostationary orbit has opened new opportunities for land surface monitoring. The Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) instrument on-board MSG with an imaging capability every 15 minutes which is substantially greater than any temporal resolution that can be obtained from existing polar operational environmental satellites (POES) systems currently in use for environmental monitoring. Different areas of the African continent were affected by droughts and floods in 2008 caused by periods of abnormally low and high rainfall, respectively. Based on the effectiveness of monitoring these events from Earth Observation (EO) data the current analyses show that the new generation of geostationary remote sensing data can provide higher temporal resolution cloud-free (less than 5 days) measurements of the environment as compared to existing POES systems. SEVIRI MSG 5-day continental scale composites will enable rapid assessment of environmental conditions and improved early warning of disasters for the African continent such as flooding or droughts. The high temporal resolution geostationary data will complement existing higher spatial resolution polar-orbiting satellite data for various dynamic environmental and natural resource applications of terrestrial ecosystems.

  4. Modeling Sustainability: Population, Inequality, Consumption, and Bidirectional Coupling of the Earth and Human Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motesharrei, Safa; Rivas, Jorge; Kalnay, Eugenia; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Cahalan, Robert F.; Cane, Mark A.; Colwell, Rita R.; Feng, Kuishuang; Franklin, Rachel S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two centuries, the impact of the Human System has grown dramatically, becoming strongly dominant within the Earth System in many different ways. Consumption, inequality, and population have increased extremely fast, especially since about 1950, threatening to overwhelm the many critical functions and ecosystems of the Earth System. Changes in the Earth System, in turn, have important feedback effects on the Human System, with costly and potentially serious consequences. However, current models do not incorporate these critical feedbacks. We argue that in order to understand the dynamics of either system, Earth System Models must be coupled with Human System Models through bidirectional couplings representing the positive, negative, and delayed feedbacks that exist in the real systems. In particular, key Human System variables, such as demographics, inequality, economic growth, and migration, are not coupled with the Earth System but are instead driven by exogenous estimates, such as UN population projections. This makes current models likely to miss important feedbacks in the real Earth-Human system, especially those that may result in unexpected or counterintuitive outcomes, and thus requiring different policy interventions from current models. The importance and imminence of sustainability challenges, the dominant role of the Human System in the Earth System, and the essential roles the Earth System plays for the Human System, all call for collaboration of natural scientists, social scientists, and engineers in multidisciplinary research and modeling to develop coupled Earth-Human system models for devising effective science-based policies and measures to benefit current and future generations.

  5. Preparing rare earth-silicon-iron-aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchant, J.D.; Morrice, E.; Herve, B.P.; Wong, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    As part of its mission to assure the maximum recovery and use of the Nation's mineral resources, the Bureau of Mines, investigated an improved procedure for producing rare earth-silicon alloys. For example, a charge consisting of 681 grams of mixed rare-earth oxides, 309 grams of ferrosilicon (75 wt-pct Si), and 182 grams of aluminum metal along with a flux consisting of 681 grams of CaO and 45 grams of MgO was reacted at 1500 0 C in an induction furnace. Good slag-metal separation was achieved. The alloy product contained, in weight-percent, 53 RE, 28 Si, 11 Fe, and 4 Al with a rare earth recovery of 80 pct. In current industrial practice rare earth recoveries are usually about 60 pct in alloy products that contain approximately 30 wt-pct each of rare earths and silicon. Metallurgical evaluations showed the alloys prepared in this investigation to be as effective in controlling the detrimental effect of sulfur in steel and cast iron as the commercial rare earth-silicon-iron alloys presently used in the steel industry

  6. Monitoring the orientation of rare-earth-doped nanorods for flow shear tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, J.; Michelin, S.; Hilbers, M.; Martinelli, L.; Chaudan, E.; Amselem, G.; Fradet, E.; Boilot, J.-P.; Brouwer, A.M.; Baroud, C.N.; Peretti, J.; Gacoin, T.

    Rare-earth phosphors exhibit unique luminescence polarization features originating from the anisotropic symmetry of the emitter ion's chemical environment. However, to take advantage of this peculiar property, it is necessary to control and measure the ensemble orientation of the host particles with

  7. Setting to earth for computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego V, Luis Eduardo; Montana Ch, Johny Hernan; Tovar P, Andres Fernando; Amortegui, Francisco

    2000-01-01

    The program GMT allows the analysis of setting to earth for tensions DC and AC (of low frequency) of diverse configurations composed by cylindrical electrodes interconnected, in a homogeneous land or stratified (two layers). This analysis understands among other aspects: calculation of the setting resistance to earth, elevation of potential of the system (GPR), calculation of current densities in the conductors, potentials calculation in which point on the land surface (profile and surfaces), tensions calculation in passing and of contact, also, it carries out the interpretation of resistivity measures for Wenner and Schlumberger methods, finding a model of two layers

  8. Earth observation in support of malaria control and epidemiology: MALAREO monitoring approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Franke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria affects about half of the world’s population, with the vast majority of cases occuring in Africa. National malaria control programmes aim to reduce the burden of malaria and its negative, socioeconomic effects by using various control strategies (e.g. vector control, environmental management and case tracking. Vector control is the most effective transmission prevention strategy, while environmental factors are the key parameters affecting transmission. Geographic information systems (GIS, earth observation (EO and spatial modelling are increasingly being recognised as valuable tools for effective management and malaria vector control. Issues previously inhibiting the use of EO in epidemiology and malaria control such as poor satellite sensor performance, high costs and long turnaround times, have since been resolved through modern technology. The core goal of this study was to develop and implement the capabilities of EO data for national malaria control programmes in South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique. High- and very high resolution (HR and VHR land cover and wetland maps were generated for the identification of potential vector habitats and human activities, as well as geoinformation on distance to wetlands for malaria risk modelling, population density maps, habitat foci maps and VHR household maps. These products were further used for modelling malaria incidence and the analysis of environmental factors that favour vector breeding. Geoproducts were also transferred to the staff of national malaria control programmes in seven African countries to demonstrate how EO data and GIS can support vector control strategy planning and monitoring. The transferred EO products support better epidemiological understanding of environmental factors related to malaria transmission, and allow for spatio-temporal targeting of malaria control interventions, thereby improving the cost-effectiveness of interventions.

  9. Current status of personnel monitoring for beta particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plato, P.; Miklos, J.

    1983-01-01

    From 1975 to 1982, a concerted effort was made to develop a uniform procedure to test the performance of personnel dosimetry processors throughout the United States. The heart of this effort is a standard developed by the Health Physics Society Standards Committee (HPSSC) and adopted by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as ANSI N13.11-1982. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored a five year pilot study of this Standard which included three trial tests in which approximately 80 dosimetry processors participated. The Standard has made several contributions to the art and science of personnel monitoring for beta particles. First, the Standard defines test categories for beta particles and mixtures of beta particles plus gamma rays in addition to test categories for other types of radiation. Second, it defines a reference beta-particle source for test purposes. Third, it provides test criteria which are used to determine acceptable performance by a processor. The pilot study provided information on the state of the art of personnel monitoring within the bounds of the Standard. In addition, since the pilot study was advertised as the forerunner of a future mandatory certification program for dosimetry processors throughout the United States, considerable attention was given to personnel monitoring in general, and beta particles in particular. This paper discusses specific contibutions of the HPSSC/ANSI Standard and the pilot study to beta-particle dosimetry. The results of the three tests of the pilot study are summarized. The paper also amplifies on the needs to define the monitoring particle sources clearly

  10. Space-Based Sensorweb Monitoring of Wildfires in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Mclaren, David; Davies, Ashley; Tran, Daniel; Tanpipat, Veerachai; Akaakara, Siri; Ratanasuwan, Anuchit; Mandl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We describe efforts to apply sensorweb technologies to the monitoring of forest fires in Thailand. In this approach, satellite data and ground reports are assimilated to assess the current state of the forest system in terms of forest fire risk, active fires, and likely progression of fires and smoke plumes. This current and projected assessment can then be used to actively direct sensors and assets to best acquire further information. This process operates continually with new data updating models of fire activity leading to further sensing and updating of models. As the fire activity is tracked, products such as active fire maps, burn scar severity maps, and alerts are automatically delivered to relevant parties.We describe the current state of the Thailand Fire Sensorweb which utilizes the MODIS-based FIRMS system to track active fires and trigger Earth Observing One / Advanced Land Imager to acquire imagery and produce active fire maps, burn scar severity maps, and alerts. We describe ongoing work to integrate additional sensor sources and generate additional products.

  11. Three-dimensional MHD simulation of the interaction of the solar wind with the earth's magnetosphere: The generation of field-aligned currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, T.

    1986-01-01

    A global computer simulation of the interaction of the solar wind with the earth's magnetosphere was executed by using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model. As a result, we were able to reproduce quasi-steady-state magnetospheric configurations and a Birkeland field-aligned current system which depend on the polarity of the z component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Twin convection cells and a dawn to dusk electric potential of 30--100 kV appeared at the equator in the magnetosphere. Four types of field-aligned currents were observed. Region 1 and 2 field-aligned currents generated for all IMF conditions were 0.6--1.0 x 10 6 A and 0.15--0.61 x 10 6 A, respectively, in the total current. Region 1 currents at high latitudes are generated from the field-aligned vorticity at the flanks through a viscous interaction and are strengthened by a twisting of open magnetic field lines in the tail region for southward IMF. On the other hand, the low-latitude region 2 currents probably are generated mainly from the inner pressure gradient of the plasma sheet. The region 1 current obtained from the simulation was in good agreement with an estimate from our theoretical analysis of the localized Alfven mode. The other two types of field-aligned currents are the dayside magnetopause currents in the dayside cusp region, which increase for northward IMF, and the dayside cusp currents for southward IMF. The cusp currents are associated with a twisting of open magnetic field lines in the magnetopause region

  12. Automatic Condition Monitoring of Industrial Rolling-Element Bearings Using Motor’s Vibration and Current Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An automatic condition monitoring for a class of industrial rolling-element bearings is developed based on the vibration as well as stator current analysis. The considered fault scenarios include a single-point defect, multiple-point defects, and a type of distributed defect. Motivated by the potential commercialization, the developed system is promoted mainly using off-the-shelf techniques, that is, the high-frequency resonance technique with envelope detection and the average of short-time Fourier transform. In order to test the flexibility and robustness, the monitoring performance is extensively studied under diverse operating conditions: different sensor locations, motor speeds, loading conditions, and data samples from different time segments. The experimental results showed the powerful capability of vibration analysis in the bearing point defect fault diagnosis. The current analysis also showed a moderate capability in diagnosis of point defect faults depending on the type of fault, severity of the fault, and the operational condition. The temporal feature indicated a feasibility to detect generalized roughness fault. The practical issues, such as deviations of predicted characteristic frequencies, sideband effects, time-average of spectra, and selection of fault index and thresholds, are also discussed. The experimental work shows a huge potential to use some simple methods for successful diagnosis of industrial bearing systems.

  13. Monitoring of anticoagulant therapy in heart disease: considerations for the current assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroumand, Mohammadali; Goodarzynejad, Hamidreza

    2010-01-01

    Clinicians should be aware of new developments to familiarize themselves with pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of new anticoagulant agents to appropriately and safely use them. For the moment, cardiologists and other clinicians also require to master currently available drugs, realizing the mechanism of action, side effects, and laboratory monitoring to measure their anticoagulant effects. Warfarin and heparin have narrow therapeutic window with high inter- and intra-patient variability, thereby the use of either drug needs careful laboratory monitoring and dose adjustment to ensure proper antithrombotic protection while minimizing the bleeding risk. The prothrombin time (PT) and the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) are laboratory tests commonly used to monitor warfarin and heparin, respectively. These two tests depend highly on the combination of reagent and instrument utilized. Results for a single specimen tested in different laboratories are variable; this is mostly attributable to the specific reagents and to a much lesser degree to the instrument used. The PT stands alone as the single coagulation test that has undergone the most extensive attempt at assay standardization. The international normalized ratio (INR) was introduced to "normalize" all PT reagents to a World Health Organization (WHO) reference thromboplastin preparation standard, such that a PT measured anywhere in the world would result in an INR value similar to that which would have been achieved had the WHO reference thromboplastin been utilized. However, INRs are reproducible between laboratories for only those patients who are stably anticoagulated with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) (i.e., at least 6 weeks of VKA therapy), and are not reliable or reproducible between laboratories for patients for whom VKA therapy has recently been started or any other clinical conditions associated with a prolonged PT such as liver disease, disseminated intravascular coagulation

  14. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key parameter in environment and earth science study, especially for monitoring drought. The objective of this work is a comparison of two split-window methods: Mao method and Sobrino method, for retrieving LST using MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data in ...

  15. Preparation and physical properties of rare earth, alkaline earth, and transition metal ternary chalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgobiani, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    A study was made on current-voltage characteristics, temperature dependences of electric conductivity and currents of thermoinduced depolarization of monocrystals, including EuGa 2 S 4 and (Ga 2 S 3 ) 1-x (Eu 2 O 3 ) x solid solutions. It is shown that these compounds, activated by europium, cerium, neodymium and other rare earths, manifest effective luminescence under the effect of ultraviolet and X-radiation, as well as under the effect of electron beams and electric field

  16. [Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring in Spain: its beginnings, current situation and future prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Donate, V E; Perez-Lorensu, P J; Garcia-Garcia, A; Asociacion de Monitorizacion Intraquirurgica Neurofisiologica Espanola Amine, Asociacion de Monitorizacion Intraquirurgica Neurofisiologica Espanola Amine; Sociedad Espanola de Neurofisiologia Clinica Senfc, Sociedad Espanola de Neurofisiologia Clinica Senfc; Grupo de Trabajo de Monitorizacion Neurofisiologica Intraoperatoria de la Senfc, Grupo de Trabajo de Monitorizacion Neurofisiologica Intraoperatoria de la Senfc

    2018-05-01

    Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) is nowadays another tool within the operating room that seeks to avoid neurological sequels derived from the surgical act. The Spanish Neurophysiological Intra-Surgical Monitoring Association (AMINE) in collaboration with the Spanish Society of Clinical Neurophysiology (SENFC), and the IONM Working Group of the SENFC has been collecting data in order to know the current situation of the IONM in Spain by hospitals, autonomous communities including the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla, the opinions of the specialists in clinical neurophysiology involved in this topic and further forecasts regarding IONM. The data was gathered from November 2015 to May 2016 through telephone contact and/or email with specialists in clinical neurophysiology of the public National Health System, and through a computerized survey that also includes private healthcare centers. With the data obtained, from the perspective of AMINE and the SENFC we consider that nowadays the field of medicine covered by IONM is considerably large and it is foreseen that it will continue to grow. Therefore, a greater number of specialists in Clinical Neurophysiology will be required, as well as the need for specific training within the specialty that involves increasing the training period of MIRs based on competencies due to the increase in techniques/procedures, as well as its complexity.

  17. Spacecraft attitude determination using the earth's magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, David G.

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented by which the attitude of a low-Earth orbiting spacecraft may be determined using a vector magnetometer, a digital Sun sensor, and a mathematical model of the Earth's magnetic field. The method is currently being implemented for the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft (as a backup for the failing star trackers) as a way to determine roll gyro drift.

  18. Tropospheric emissions: Monitoring of pollution (TEMPO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoogman, P.; Liu, X.; Suleiman, R. M.; Pennington, W. F.; Flittner, D. E.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Hilton, B. B.; Nicks, D. K.; Newchurch, M. J.; Carr, J. L.; Janz, S. J.; Andraschko, M. R.; Arola, A.; Baker, B. D.; Canova, B. P.; Chan Miller, C.; Cohen, R. C.; Davis, J. E.; Dussault, M. E.; Edwards, D. P.; Fishman, J.; Ghulam, A.; González Abad, G.; Grutter, M.; Herman, J. R.; Houck, J.; Jacob, D. J.; Joiner, J.; Kerridge, B. J.; Kim, J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Lamsal, L.; Li, C.; Lindfors, A.; Martin, R. V.; McElroy, C. T.; McLinden, C.; Natraj, V.; Neil, D. O.; Nowlan, C. R.; O`Sullivan, E. J.; Palmer, P. I.; Pierce, R. B.; Pippin, M. R.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Szykman, J. J.; Torres, O.; Veefkind, J. P.; Veihelmann, B.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Chance, K.

    2017-01-01

    TEMPO was selected in 2012 by NASA as the first Earth Venture Instrument, for launch between 2018 and 2021. It will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO observes from Mexico City, Cuba, and the Bahamas to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution ( 2.1 km N/S×4.4 km E/W at 36.5°N, 100°W). TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry, as well as contributing to carbon cycle knowledge. Measurements are made hourly from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the high variability present in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry that are unobservable from current low-Earth orbit (LEO) satellites that measure once per day. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a commercial GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), formaldehyde (H2CO), glyoxal (C2H2O2), bromine monoxide (BrO), IO (iodine monoxide), water vapor, aerosols, cloud parameters, ultraviolet radiation, and foliage properties. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, substantially reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides these near-real-time air quality products that will be made publicly available. TEMPO will launch at a prime time to be the North American component of the global geostationary constellation of pollution monitoring

  19. Waste Management with Earth Observation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarit, Gerard; Tabasco, A.

    2010-05-01

    The range of applications where Earth Observation (EO) can be useful has been notably increased due to the maturity reached in the adopted technology and techniques. In most of the cases, EO provides a manner to remotely monitor particular variables and parameters with a more efficient usage of the available resources. Typical examples are environmental (forest, marine, resources…) monitoring, precision farming, security and surveillance (land, maritime…) and risk / disaster management (subsidence, volcanoes…). In this context, this paper presents a methodology to monitor waste disposal sites with EO. In particular, the explored technology is Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), which applies the interferometric concept to SAR images. SAR is an advanced radar concept able to acquire 2D coherent microwave reflectivity images for large scenes (tens of thousands kilometres) with fine resolution (case of waste management, InSAR has been used to evaluate the potentiality of EO to monitor the disposed volume along a specific range of time. This activity has been developed in collaboration with the Agència de Resídus de Catalunya (ARC) (The Waste Agency of Catalonia), Spain, in the framework of a pilot project. The motivation comes from the new law promoted by the regional Government that taxes the volume of disposed waste. This law put ARC in duty to control that the real volume matches the numbers provided by the waste processing firms so that they can not commit illegal actions. Right now, this task is performed with in-situ altimetry. But despite of the accurate results, this option is completely inefficient and limits the numbers of polls that can be generated and the number of waste sites that can be studied. As a consequence, the option to take profit of EO represents a good chance for ARC to improve the precision and quality of the monitoring tasks. This paper will present the methodology developed for monitoring waste sites as well as some

  20. Earth Observing System, Conclusions and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The following Earth Observing Systems (E.O.S.) recommendations were suggested: (1) a program must be initiated to ensure that present time series of Earth science data are maintained and continued. (2) A data system that provides easy, integrated, and complete access to past, present, and future data must be developed as soon as possible. (3) A long term research effort must be sustained to study and understand these time series of Earth observations. (4) The E.O.S. should be established as an information system to carry out those aspects of the above recommendations which go beyond existing and currently planned activities. (5) The scientific direction of the E.O.S. should be established and continued through an international scientific steering committee.

  1. Land subsidence and earth fissures in south-central and southern Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Brian D.

    2016-05-01

    Land subsidence due to groundwater overdraft has been an ongoing problem in south-central and southern Arizona (USA) since the 1940s. The first earth fissure attributed to excessive groundwater withdrawal was discovered in the early 1950s near Picacho. In some areas of the state, groundwater-level declines of more than 150 m have resulted in extensive land subsidence and earth fissuring. Land subsidence in excess of 5.7 m has been documented in both western metropolitan Phoenix and Eloy. The Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) has been monitoring land subsidence since 2002 using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and since 1998 using a global navigation satellite system (GNSS). The ADWR InSAR program has identified more than 25 individual land subsidence features that cover an area of more than 7,300 km2. Using InSAR data in conjunction with groundwater-level datasets, ADWR is able to monitor land subsidence areas as well as identify areas that may require additional monitoring. One area of particular concern is the Willcox groundwater basin in southeastern Arizona, which is the focus of this paper. The area is experiencing rapid groundwater declines, as much as 32.1 m during 2005-2014 (the largest land subsidence rate in Arizona State—up to 12 cm/year), and a large number of earth fissures. The declining groundwater levels in Arizona are a challenge for both future groundwater availability and mitigating land subsidence associated with these declines. ADWR's InSAR program will continue to be a critical tool for monitoring land subsidence due to excessive groundwater withdrawal.

  2. Personal dosimetry and area monitoring for neutrons and radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tommasino, L.

    2001-01-01

    The first successful applications of damage track detectors in radiation protection have been made in the early 1970s in personal dosimetry of neutrons, radon and its progenies. Most of the scientists actively engaged in the solution of the complex problem of personal neutron dosimetry by damage track detectors-SSNTD, have attempted to develop individual radon monitoring for exposure in mines by using the same SSNTDs. In late 1970s and the early 1980s, new radon monitoring devices based on SSNTDs have been developed to measure radon in soil, mainly for applications in uranium prospecting or more generally in earth sciences. Most of the radon monitors, developed since then for completely different applications in mind, have been used later for large scale survey of indoor radon. With the current implementation within Europe of the European Union Directive 96/29, applications of damage track detectors will increase drastically, specially for the assessment of the exposure of the workers to natural sources of radiation. In this case, the early work on personal neutron/radon dosimetry, is highly valuable to tackle these new problems of individual monitoring

  3. Advance the Earth Science Education in China by Using New Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, R.; Wang, X.; Sun, L.

    2013-12-01

    With the development of Chinese economy, science and technology, as well as the increasing demand of the persons with knowledge and experience in earth science and geological exploration, the higher education of earth science has been boosted in recent years. There are 2,000 to 3,000 students studying earth science every year and many of them will take part in scientific research and engineering technology work around the world after graduation, which increased the demand of educators, both in quantity and quality. However, the fact is that there is a huge gap between the demand and the current number of educators due to the explosion of students, which makes the reform of traditional education methods inevitable. There is great significance in doing research on the teaching methods catering to a large number of students. Some research contents and result based on the reform of education methods has been conducted. We integrate the teaching contents with the cutting-edge research projects and stress significance of earth science, which will greatly enhance the student's enthusiasm of it. Moreover. New technology will be applied to solve the problem that every teacher are responsible for 100~150 students in one courses. For instance, building the Internet platform where teachers and the students can discuss the courses contents, read the latest scientific articles. With the numerical simulation technology, the internal structure of the Earth, geological phenomena, characteristics of ore body, geophysical and hydrological fields, etc. can be simulated and the experiments and teaching practice can be demonstrated via video technology. It can also be used to design algorithm statistics and assessment and monitor teaching effect. Students are separated into small groups to take research training with their personal tutor at the beginning of the first semester, which will increase the opportunities for students to communicate with educators and solve the problem that the

  4. Tracheal cuff pressure monitoring in the ICU: a literature review and survey of current practice in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talekar, C R; Udy, A A; Boots, R J; Lipman, J; Cook, D

    2014-11-01

    The application of tracheal cuff pressure monitoring is likely to vary between institutions. The aim of this study was therefore to review current evidence concerning this intervention in the intensive care unit (ICU) and to appraise regional practice by performing a state-wide survey. Publications for review were identified through searches of PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane (1977 to 2014). All studies in English relevant to critical care and with complete data were included. Survey questions were developed by small-group consensus. Public and private ICUs across Queensland were contacted, with responses obtained from a representative member of the medical or nursing staff. Existing literature suggests significant variability in tracheal cuff pressure monitoring in the ICU, particularly in the applied technique, frequency of assessment and optimal intra-cuff pressures. Twenty-nine respondents completed the survey, representing 80.5% (29/36) of ICUs in Queensland. Twenty-eight out of twenty-nine respondents reported routinely monitoring tracheal cuff function, primarily employing cuff pressure measurement (26/28). Target cuff pressures varied, with 3/26 respondents aiming for 10 to 20 cmH2O, 10/26 for 21 to 25 cmH2O, and 13/26 for 26 to 30 cmH2O. Fifteen out of twenty-nine reported they had no current guideline or protocol for tracheal cuff management and only 16/29 indicated there was a dedicated area in the clinical record for reporting cuff intervention. Our results indicate that many ICUs across Queensland routinely measure tracheal cuff function, with most utilising pressure monitoring devices. Consistent with existing literature, the optimum cuff pressure remains uncertain. Most, however, considered that this should be a routine part of ICU care.

  5. Quantitative Modeling of Earth Surface Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jon D.

    This textbook describes some of the most effective and straightforward quantitative techniques for modeling Earth surface processes. By emphasizing a core set of equations and solution techniques, the book presents state-of-the-art models currently employed in Earth surface process research, as well as a set of simple but practical research tools. Detailed case studies demonstrate application of the methods to a wide variety of processes including hillslope, fluvial, aeolian, glacial, tectonic, and climatic systems. Exercises at the end of each chapter begin with simple calculations and then progress to more sophisticated problems that require computer programming. All the necessary computer codes are available online at www.cambridge.org/9780521855976. Assuming some knowledge of calculus and basic programming experience, this quantitative textbook is designed for advanced geomorphology courses and as a reference book for professional researchers in Earth and planetary science looking for a quantitative approach to Earth surface processes. More details...

  6. Optimized autonomous space in-situ sensor web for volcano monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.-Z.; Shirazi, B.; Huang, R.; Xu, M.; Peterson, N.; LaHusen, R.; Pallister, J.; Dzurisin, D.; Moran, S.; Lisowski, M.; Kedar, S.; Chien, S.; Webb, F.; Kiely, A.; Doubleday, J.; Davies, A.; Pieri, D.

    2010-01-01

    In response to NASA's announced requirement for Earth hazard monitoring sensor-web technology, a multidisciplinary team involving sensor-network experts (Washington State University), space scientists (JPL), and Earth scientists (USGS Cascade Volcano Observatory (CVO)), have developed a prototype of dynamic and scalable hazard monitoring sensor-web and applied it to volcano monitoring. The combined Optimized Autonomous Space In-situ Sensor-web (OASIS) has two-way communication capability between ground and space assets, uses both space and ground data for optimal allocation of limited bandwidth resources on the ground, and uses smart management of competing demands for limited space assets. It also enables scalability and seamless infusion of future space and in-situ assets into the sensor-web. The space and in-situ control components of the system are integrated such that each element is capable of autonomously tasking the other. The ground in-situ was deployed into the craters and around the flanks of Mount St. Helens in July 2009, and linked to the command and control of the Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite. ?? 2010 IEEE.

  7. Monitoring production target thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oothoudt, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Pion and muon production targets at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility consist of rotating graphite wheels. The previous target thickness monitoring Procedure scanned the target across a reduced intensity beam to determine beam center. The fractional loss in current across the centered target gave a measure of target thickness. This procedure, however, required interruption of beam delivery to experiments and frequently indicated a different fractional loss than at normal beam currents. The new monitoring Procedure compares integrated ups and downs toroid current monitor readings. The current monitors are read once per minute and the integral of readings are logged once per eight-hour shift. Changes in the upstream to downstream fractional difference provide a nonintrusive continuous measurement of target thickness under nominal operational conditions. Target scans are now done only when new targets are installed or when unexplained changes in the current monitor data are observed

  8. Sensitivity Analysis of a Horizontal Earth Electrode under Impulse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the sensitivity analysis of an earthing conductor under the influence of impulse current arising from a lightning stroke. The approach is based on the 2nd order finite difference time domain (FDTD). The earthing conductor is regarded as a lossy transmission line where it is divided into series connected ...

  9. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. K Jeeva. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 111 Issue 1 March 2002 pp 51-62. Velocity of small-scale auroral ionospheric current systems over Indian Antarctic station Maitri · Girija Rajaram A N Hanchinal R Kalra K Unnikrishnan K Jeeva M ...

  10. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. V Fernando. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 123 Issue 5 July 2014 pp 1045-1074. Observed intraseasonal and seasonal variability of the West India Coastal Current on the continental slope · P Amol D Shankar V Fernando A Mukherjee S G ...

  11. Current status of personnel monitoring for β particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plato, P.; Miklos, J.

    1984-01-01

    From 1975 to 1982, a concerted effort was made to develop a uniform procedure to test the performance of personnel dosimetry processors throughout the United States. The heart of this effort is a standard developed by the Health Physics Society Standards Committee (HPSSC) and adopted by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as ANSI N13.11-1982. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored a five year pilot study of this Standard which included three trial tests in which approximately 80 dosimetry processors participated. This paper addresses two major questions. First, what have the HPSSC/ANSI Standard and the NRC-sponsored pilot study contributed toward improvements in personnel monitoring for β particles. Second, what additional improvements are necessary. The Standard defines test categories for β particles and mixtures of β particles plus γ rays in addition to test categories for other types of radiation. It also defines a reference β-particle source for test purposes. Third, it provides test criteria which are used to determine acceptable performance by a processor. The pilot study provided information on the state of the art of personnel monitoring within the bounds of the Standard. In addition, since the pilot study was advertised as the forerunner of a future mandatory certification program for dosimetry processors throughout the United States, considerable attention was given to personnel monitoring in general, and β particles in particular, that otherwise would have been given to other squeaky wheels. The results of the three tests of the pilot study are summarized. The paper also amplifies on the needs to define the monitoring problems of the work place and to define appropriate β-particle sources clearly

  12. One-by-one single-molecule detection of mutated nucleobases by monitoring tunneling current using a DNA tip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Phuc Tan; Nishino, Tomoaki; Shiigi, Hiroshi; Nagaoka, Tsutomu

    2015-01-31

    A DNA molecule was utilized as a probe tip to achieve single-molecule genetic diagnoses. Hybridization of the probe and target DNAs resulted in electron tunneling along the emergent double-stranded DNA. Simple stationary monitoring of the tunneling current leads to single-molecule DNA detection and discovery of base mismatches and methylation.

  13. Rare earth elements behavior in Peruibe black mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson K.; Carvalho, Leandro P.; Gouvea, Paulo F.M.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements in sediments have been used as powerful tools for environmental studies because of their behavior during geochemical processes and are also widely accepted as reliable provenance tracers because they are largely water-immobile and thus behave conservatively during sedimentary processes. The Peruibe Black Mud (PBM) is a sedimentary deposit originated from the interactions of marine sediments and organic matter in an estuarine environment that originates a peloid currently used for medicinal purposes. The objective of this study was to examine rare earth elements pattern distribution in the Peruibe black mud sedimentary deposit as a proxy for its geochemical development. Elemental ratios such as LaN/YbN, Th/U and La/Th were determined and a normalization of the mean rare earth elements concentrations in the samples related to NASC indicates that the light (La to Eu) rare earth elements present values close to the unity while the heavy (Tb to Lu) rare earth elements are depleted related to NASC. It can be observed that the light rare earth elements present enrichment values slightly enriched over the unity while the heavy rare earth elements present values generally below the unity reflecting the enrichment of the light rare earth elements over the heavy rare earth. Rare earth elements concentrations determined in Peruibe black mud samples showed a distribution similar to that found in the NASC for the light rare earth elements and depleted for the heavy rare earth elements. (author)

  14. Rare earth elements behavior in Peruibe black mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson K.; Carvalho, Leandro P.; Gouvea, Paulo F.M.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da, E-mail: jeffkoy@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Rare earth elements in sediments have been used as powerful tools for environmental studies because of their behavior during geochemical processes and are also widely accepted as reliable provenance tracers because they are largely water-immobile and thus behave conservatively during sedimentary processes. The Peruibe Black Mud (PBM) is a sedimentary deposit originated from the interactions of marine sediments and organic matter in an estuarine environment that originates a peloid currently used for medicinal purposes. The objective of this study was to examine rare earth elements pattern distribution in the Peruibe black mud sedimentary deposit as a proxy for its geochemical development. Elemental ratios such as LaN/YbN, Th/U and La/Th were determined and a normalization of the mean rare earth elements concentrations in the samples related to NASC indicates that the light (La to Eu) rare earth elements present values close to the unity while the heavy (Tb to Lu) rare earth elements are depleted related to NASC. It can be observed that the light rare earth elements present enrichment values slightly enriched over the unity while the heavy rare earth elements present values generally below the unity reflecting the enrichment of the light rare earth elements over the heavy rare earth. Rare earth elements concentrations determined in Peruibe black mud samples showed a distribution similar to that found in the NASC for the light rare earth elements and depleted for the heavy rare earth elements. (author)

  15. Current strategies for monitoring men with localised prostate cancer lack a strong evidence base: observational longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, C; Tilling, K; Davis, M; Lane, J A; Martin, R M; Kynaston, H; Powell, P; Neal, D E; Hamdy, F; Donovan, J L

    2009-08-04

    The UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance recommends conservative management of men with 'low-risk' localised prostate cancer, monitoring the disease using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics and re-biopsy. However, there is little evidence of the changes in PSA level that should alert to the need for clinical re-assessment. This study compares the alerts resulting from PSA kinetics and a novel longitudinal reference range approach, which incorporates age-related changes, during the monitoring of 408 men with localised prostate cancer. Men were monitored by regular PSA tests over a mean of 2.9 years, recording when a man's PSA doubling time fell below 2 years, PSA velocity exceeded 2 ng ml(-1) per year, or when his upper 10% reference range was exceeded. Prostate-specific antigen doubling time and PSA velocity alerted a high proportion of men initially but became unresponsive to changes with successive tests. Calculating doubling time using recent PSA measurements reduced the decline in response. The reference range method maintained responsiveness to changes in PSA level throughout the monitoring. The increasing unresponsiveness of PSA kinetics is a consequence of the underlying regression model. Novel methods are needed for evaluation in cohorts currently being managed by monitoring. Meanwhile, the NICE guidance should be cautious.

  16. Earth Observations for Global Water Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, Richard; Strauch, Adrian; Toll, David; Fekete, Balazs; Cripe, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    The combined effects of population growth, increasing demands for water to support agriculture, energy security, and industrial expansion, and the challenges of climate change give rise to an urgent need to carefully monitor and assess trends and variations in water resources. Doing so will ensure that sustainable access to adequate quantities of safe and useable water will serve as a foundation for water security. Both satellite and in situ observations combined with data assimilation and models are needed for effective, integrated monitoring of the water cycle's trends and variability in terms of both quantity and quality. On the basis of a review of existing observational systems, we argue that a new integrated monitoring capability for water security purposes is urgently needed. Furthermore, the components for this capability exist and could be integrated through the cooperation of national observational programmes. The Group on Earth Observations should play a central role in the design, implementation, management and analysis of this system and its products.

  17. Decision-making contexts involving Earth observations in federal and state government agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Y.; Thompson, A.

    2017-12-01

    National and international organizations are placing greater emphasis on the societal and economic benefits that can be derived from applications of Earth observations, yet improvements are needed to connect to the decision processes that produce actions with direct societal benefits. The Consortium for the Valuation of Applications Benefits Linked with Earth Science (VALUABLES), a cooperative agreement between Resources for the Future (RFF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), has the goal of advancing methods for the valuation and communication of the applied benefits linked with Earth observations. One of the Consortium's activities is a set of Policy Briefs that document the use of Earth observations for decision making in federal and state government agencies. In developing these Policy Briefs, we pay special attention to documenting the entire information value chain associated with the use of Earth observations in government decision making, namely (a) the specific data product, modeling capability, or information system used by the agency, (b) the decision context that employs the Earth observation information and translates it into an agency action, (c) the outcomes that are realized as a result of the action, and (d) the beneficiaries associated with the outcomes of the decision. Two key examples include the use of satellite data for informing the US Drought Monitor (USDM), which is used to determine the eligibility of agricultural communities for drought disaster assistance programs housed at the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the use of satellite data by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection to develop numeric nutrient water quality standards and monitoring methods for chlorophyll-a, which is codified in Florida state code (62-302.532).

  18. Urban Seismology: on the origin of earth vibrations within a city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Jordi; Ruiz, Mario; Sánchez-Pastor, Pilar S; Romero, Paula

    2017-11-10

    Urban seismology has become an active research field in the recent years, both with seismological objectives, as obtaining better microzonation maps in highly populated areas, and with engineering objectives, as the monitoring of traffic or the surveying of historical buildings. We analyze here the seismic records obtained by a broad-band seismic station installed in the ICTJA-CSIC institute, located near the center of Barcelona city. Although this station was installed to introduce visitors to earth science during science fairs and other dissemination events, the analysis of the data has allowed to infer results of interest for the scientific community. The main results include the evidence that urban seismometers can be used as a easy-to-use, robust monitoring tool for road traffic and subway activity inside the city. Seismic signals generated by different cultural activities, including rock concerts, fireworks or football games, can be detected and discriminated from its seismic properties. Beside the interest to understand the propagation of seismic waves generated by those rather particular sources, those earth shaking records provide a powerful tool to gain visibility in the mass media and hence have the opportunity to present earth sciences to a wider audience.

  19. Big earth-observation data analytics for modelling pan-tropical land-use change trajectories for newly deforested areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca Castro, Alejandro; Reymondin, Louis; Rebetez, Julien; Fabio Satizabal Mejia, Hector; Perez-Uribe, Andres; Mulligan, Mark; Smith, Thomas; Hyman, Glenn

    2017-04-01

    Global land use monitoring is important to the the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The latest advances in storage and manipulation of big earth-observation data have been key to developing multiple operational forest monitoring initiatives such as FORMA, Terra-i and Global Forest Change. Although the data provided by these systems are useful for identifying and estimating newly deforested areas (from 2000), they do not provide details about the land use to which these deforested areas are transitioned. This information is critical to understand the biodiversity and ecosystem services impact of deforestation and the resulting impacts on human wellbeing, locally and downstream. With the aim of contributing to current forest monitoring initiatives, this research presents a set of experimental case studies in Latin America which integrate existing land-change information derived from remote sensing image and aerial photography/ground datasets, high-temporal resolution MODIS data, advanced machine learning (i.e deep learning) and big data technologies (i.e. Hadoop and Spark) to assess land-use change trajectories in newly deforested areas in near real time.

  20. The B-dot Earth Average Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capo-Lugo, Pedro A.; Rakoczy, John; Sanders, Devon

    2013-01-01

    The average Earth's magnetic field is solved with complex mathematical models based on mean square integral. Depending on the selection of the Earth magnetic model, the average Earth's magnetic field can have different solutions. This paper presents a simple technique that takes advantage of the damping effects of the b-dot controller and is not dependent of the Earth magnetic model; but it is dependent on the magnetic torquers of the satellite which is not taken into consideration in the known mathematical models. Also the solution of this new technique can be implemented so easily that the flight software can be updated during flight, and the control system can have current gains for the magnetic torquers. Finally, this technique is verified and validated using flight data from a satellite that it has been in orbit for three years.

  1. Magnetically levitated space elevator to low-earth orbit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, J. R.; Mulcahy, T. M.

    2001-07-02

    The properties of currently available NbTi superconductor and carbon-fiber structural materials enable the possibility of constructing a magnetically levitated space elevator from the earth's surface up to an altitude of {approx} 200 km. The magnetic part of the elevator consists of a long loop of current-carrying NbTi, composed of one length that is attached to the earth's surface in an east-west direction and a levitated-arch portion. The critical current density of NbTi is sufficiently high that these conductors will stably levitate in the earth's magnetic field. The magnetic self-field from the loop increases the levitational force and for some geometries assists levitational stability. The 200-km maximum height of the levitated arch is limited by the allowable stresses of the structural material. The loop is cryogenically cooled with helium, and the system utilizes intermediate pumping and cooling stations along both the ground and the levitated portion of the loop, similar to other large terrestrial cryogenic systems. Mechanically suspended from the basic loop is an elevator structure, upon which mass can be moved between the earth's surface and the top of the loop by a linear electric motor or other mechanical or electrical means. At the top of the loop, vehicles may be accelerated to orbital velocity or higher by rocket motors, electromagnetic propulsion, or hybrid methods.

  2. A concept for providing warning of earth impacts by small asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, D. W.; Reitsema, H. J.; Lu, E.; Arentz, R.; Linfield, R.; Chapman, C.; Farquhar, R.; Ledkov, A. A.; Eismont, N. A.; Chumachenko, E.

    2013-07-01

    The atmospheric detonation of a 17 m-asteroid above Chelyabinsk, Russia on 2013 February 15 shows that even small asteroids can cause extensive damage. Earth-based telescopes have found smaller harmless objects, such as 2008 TC3, a 4 m-asteroid that was discovered 20h before it exploded over northeastern Sudan (Jenniskens, 2009). 2008 TC3 remains the only asteroid discovered before it hit Earth because it approached Earth from the night side, where it was observed by large telescopes searching for near-Earth objects (NEO's). The larger object that exploded over Chelyabinsk approached Earth from the day side, from too close to the Sun to be detected from Earth. A sizeable telescope in an orbit about the Sun-Earth L1 (SE-L1) libration point could find objects like the "Chelyabinsk" asteroid approaching approximately from the line of sight to the Sun about a day before Earth closest approach. Such a system would have the astrometric accuracy needed to determine the time and impact zone for a NEO on a collision course. This would give at least several hours, and usually 2-4 days, to take protective measures, rather than the approximately two-minute interval between the flash and shock wave arrival that occurred in Chelyabinsk. A perhaps even more important reason for providing warning of these events, even smaller harmless ones that explode high in the atmosphere with the force of an atomic bomb, is to prevent mistaking such an event for a nuclear attack that could trigger a devastating nuclear war. A concept using a space telescope similar to that needed for an SE-L1 monitoring satellite, is already conceived by the B612 Foundation, whose planned Sentinel Space Telescope could find nearly all 140 m and larger NEO's, including those in orbits mostly inside the Earth's orbit that are hard to find with Earth-based telescopes, from a Venus-like orbit (Lu, 2013). Few modifications would be needed to the Sentinel Space Telescope to operate in a SE-L1 orbit, 0.01 AU from

  3. Radiological aspects in a monazite based rare earth production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harikumar, M.; Sujata, R.; Chinnaesakki, S.; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.; Nair, N.N.G.

    2011-01-01

    One of the largest reserves of monazite in the world is present in the Indian subcontinent. Monazite ore has around 8-9% thorium oxide and nearly 60% Rare earth oxides. Selective acid extraction is used to separate the composite rare earths. The main radiological hazard arises from the presence of thorium and its daughter products. Monitoring of the radiation field and air activity in the rare earths plant is done routinely to reduce the radiation exposure to plant personnel. The separation of uranium and rare earths from Thorium concentrate separated from Monazite is being done as a part of the THRUST (Thorium Retrieval, Recovery of Uranium and Re-storage of Thorium) project from 2004 at Indian Rare Earths Limited, Udyogamandal. The radiological aspect for this extraction of uranium and rare earths was studied. The general radiation field in the rare earth production plant was 0.3-5.0 μGyh -1 and the average short lived air activity was 46 ± 7 mWL. The long lived air activity arising from 232 Th is very insignificant radiologically. The occupational radiation exposure for the rare earths separation plant is only 6 % of the total dose and the estimated average individual dose is 1.6 mSv per year. Studies were also done to estimate the residual radioactivity in the separated rare earth compounds using gamma spectrometry and the results showed significant presence of 227 Ac arising due to the protactinium fraction in the thorium concentrate. This activity is not detectable in a freshly separated rare earth compound but can buildup with time. (author)

  4. Current disruptions in the near-earth neutral sheet region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, A.T.Y.; Anderson, B.J.; Takahashi, K.; Zanetti, L.J.; McEntire, R.W.; Potemra, T.A.; Lopez, R.E.; Klumpar, D.M.; Greene, E.M.; Strangeway, R.

    1992-01-01

    Observations from the Charge Composition Explorer in 1985 and 1986 revealed fifteen current disruption events in which the magnetic field fluctuations were large and their onsets coincided well with ground onsets of substorm expansion or intensification. Over the disruption interval, the local magnetic field can change by as much as a factor of ∼7. In general, the stronger the current buildup and the closer the neutral sheet, the larger the resultant field change. There is also a tendency for a larger subsequent enhancement in the AE index with a stronger current buildup prior to current disruption. For events with good pitch angle coverage and extended observation in the neutral sheet region the authors find that the particle pressure increases toward the disruption onset and decreases afterward. Just prior to disruption, either the total particle pressure is isotropic, or the perpendicular component (P perpendicular ) dominates the parallel component (P parallel ), the plasma beta is seen to be as high as ∼70, and the observed plasma pressure gradient at the neutral sheet is large along the tail axis. The deduced local current density associated with pressure gradient is ∼27-80 n/Am 2 and is ∼85-105 mA/m when integrated over the sheet thickness. They infer from these results that just prior to the onset of current disruption, (1) an extremely thin current sheet requiring P parallel > P perpendicular for stress balance does not develop at these distances, (2) the thermal ion orbits are in the chaotic or Speiser regime while the thermal electrons are in the adiabatic regime and, in one case, exhibit peaked fluxes perpendicular to the magnetic field, thus implying no electron orbit chaotization to possibly initiate ion tearing instability, and (3) the neutral sheet is in the unstable regime specified by the cross-field current instability

  5. Biological modulation of planetary atmospheres: The early Earth scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schidlowski, M.

    1985-01-01

    The establishment and subsequent evolution of life on Earth had a profound impact on the chemical regime at the planet's surface and its atmosphere. A thermodynamic gradient was imposed on near-surface environments that served as the driving force for a number on important geochemical transformations. An example is the redox imbalance between the modern atmosphere and the material of the Earth's crust. Current photochemical models predict extremely low partial pressures of oxygen in the Earth's prebiological atmosphere. There is widespread consensus that any large-scale oxygenation of the primitive atmosphere was contingent on the advent of biological (autotrophic) carbon fixation. It is suggested that photoautotrophy existed both as a biochemical process and as a geochemical agent since at least 3.8 Ga ago. Combining the stoichiometry of the photosynthesis reaction with a carbon isotope mass balance and current concepts for the evolution of the stationary sedimentary mass as a funion of time, it is possible to quantify, the accumulation of oxygen and its photosynthetic oxidation equivalents through Earth history.

  6. EVER-EST: European Virtual Environment for Research in Earth Science Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaves, H.; Albani, M.

    2016-12-01

    EVER-EST is an EC Horizon 2020 project having the goal to develop a Virtual Research Environment (VRE) providing a state-of-the-art solution to allow Earth Scientists to preserve their work and publications for reference and future reuse, and to share with others. The availability of such a solution, based on an innovative concept and state of art technology infrastructure, will considerably enhance the quality of how Earth Scientists work together within their own institution and also across other organizations, regions and countries. The concept of Research Objects (ROs), used in the Earth Sciences for the first time, will form the backbone of the EVER-EST VRE infrastructure. ROs will enhance the ability to preserve, re-use and share entire or individual parts of scientific workflows and all the resources related to a specific scientific investigation. These ROs will also potentially be used as part of the scholarly publication process. EVER-EST is building on technologies developed during almost 15 years of research on Earth Science data management infrastructures. The EVER-EST VRE Service Oriented Architecture is being meticulously designed to accommodate at best the requirements of a wide range of Earth Science communities and use cases: focus is put on common requirements and on minimising the level of complexity in the EVER-EST VRE to ensure future sustainability within the user communities beyond the end of the project. The EVER-EST VRE will be validated through its customisation and deployment by four Virtual Research Communities (VRCs) from different Earth Science disciplines and will support enhanced interaction between data providers and scientists in the Earth Science domain. User community will range from bio-marine researchers (Sea Monitoring use case), to common foreign and security policy institutions and stakeholders (Land Monitoring for Security use case), natural hazards forecasting systems (Natural Hazards use case), and disaster and risk

  7. Monitor Clean and Efficient. Current state of affairs 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdes, J.

    2010-04-01

    This is the second report of the annual Monitor of the Dutch Clean and Efficient programme. The monitoring focuses on the development of target variables, effects, results and progress of the process. Most of the data regarding the results and effects concern the period until the end of 2009. Some data are not yet available for 2009 and can therefore only be provided for the preceding years. [nl

  8. Recent advances in rare earth doped alkali-alkaline earth borates for solid state lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shefali; Verma, Kartikey; Kumar, Deepak; Chaudhary, Babulal; Som, Sudipta; Sharma, Vishal; Kumar, Vijay; Swart, Hendrik C.

    2018-04-01

    As a novel class of inorganic phosphor, the alkali-alkaline earth borate phosphors have gained huge attention due to their charming applications in solid-state lighting (SSL) and display devices. The current research drive shows that phosphors based on the alkali-alkaline earth borates have transformed the science and technology due to their high transparency over a broad spectral range, their flexibility in structure and durability for mechanical and high-laser applications. Recent advances in various aspects of rare-earth (RE) doped borate based phosphors and their utilizations in SSL and light emitting diodes are summarized in this review article. Moreover, the present status and upcoming scenario of RE-doped borate phosphors were reviewed in general along with the proper credential from the existing literature. It is believed that this review is a sole compilation of crucial information about the RE-doped borate phosphors in a single platform.

  9. Radiophysical methods of diagnostics the Earth's ionosphere and the underlying earth's surface by remote sensing in the short-wave range of radio waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, S. Yu.; Belova, I. N.

    2017-11-01

    Monitoring of the earth's surface by remote sensing in the short-wave band can provide quick identification of some characteristics of natural systems. This band range allows one to diagnose subsurface aspects of the earth, as the scattering parameter is affected by irregularities in the dielectric permittivity of subsurface structures. This method based on the organization of the monitoring probe may detect changes in these environments, for example, to assess seismic hazard, hazardous natural phenomena such as earthquakes, as well as some man-made hazards and etc. The problem of measuring and accounting for the scattering power of the earth's surface in the short-range of radio waves is important for a number of purposes, such as diagnosing properties of the medium, which is of interest for geological, environmental studies. In this paper, we propose a new method for estimating the parameters of incoherent signal/noise ratio. The paper presents the results of comparison of the measurement method from the point of view of their admissible relative analytical errors. The new method is suggested. Analysis of analytical error of estimation of this parameter allowed to recommend new method instead of standard method. A comparative analysis and shows that the analytical (relative) accuracy of the determination of this parameter new method on the order exceeds the widely-used standard method.

  10. Ion Composition and Energization in the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere and the Effects on Ring Current Buildup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keika, K.; Kistler, L. M.; Brandt, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    In-situ observations and modeling work have confirmed that singly-charged oxygen ions, O+, which are of Earth's ionospheric origin, are heated/accelerated up to >100 keV in the magnetosphere. The energetic O+ population makes a significant contribution to the plasma pressure in the Earth's inner magnetosphere during magnetic storms, although under quiet conditions H+ dominates the plasma pressure. The pressure enhancements, which we term energization, are caused by adiabatic heating through earthward transport of source population in the plasma sheet, local acceleration in the inner magnetosphere and near-Earth plasma sheet, and enhanced ion supply from the topside ionosphere. The key issues regarding stronger O+ energization than H+ are non-adiabatic local acceleration, responsible for increase in O+ temperature, and more significant O+ supply than H+, responsible for increase in O+ density. Although several acceleration mechanisms and O+ supply processes have been proposed, it remains an open question what mechanism(s)/process(es) play the dominant role in stronger O+ energization. In this paper we summarize important spacecraft observations including those from Van Allen Probes, introduces the proposed mechanisms/processes that generate O+-rich energetic plasma population, and outlines possible scenarios of O+ pressure abundance in the Earth's inner magnetosphere.

  11. Measuring currents, ice drift, and waves from space: the Sea surface KInematics Multiscale monitoring (SKIM) concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Aksenov, Yevgueny; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bertino, Laurent; Brandt, Peter; Caubet, Eric; Chapron, Bertrand; Collard, Fabrice; Cravatte, Sophie; Delouis, Jean-Marc; Dias, Frederic; Dibarboure, Gérald; Gaultier, Lucile; Johannessen, Johnny; Korosov, Anton; Manucharyan, Georgy; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Menendez, Melisa; Monnier, Goulven; Mouche, Alexis; Nouguier, Frédéric; Nurser, George; Rampal, Pierre; Reniers, Ad; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Stopa, Justin; Tison, Céline; Ubelmann, Clément; van Sebille, Erik; Xie, Jiping

    2018-05-01

    We propose a satellite mission that uses a near-nadir Ka-band Doppler radar to measure surface currents, ice drift and ocean waves at spatial scales of 40 km and more, with snapshots at least every day for latitudes 75 to 82°, and every few days for other latitudes. The use of incidence angles of 6 and 12° allows for measurement of the directional wave spectrum, which yields accurate corrections of the wave-induced bias in the current measurements. The instrument's design, an algorithm for current vector retrieval and the expected mission performance are presented here. The instrument proposed can reveal features of tropical ocean and marginal ice zone (MIZ) dynamics that are inaccessible to other measurement systems, and providing global monitoring of the ocean mesoscale that surpasses the capability of today's nadir altimeters. Measuring ocean wave properties has many applications, including examining wave-current interactions, air-sea fluxes, the transport and convergence of marine plastic debris and assessment of marine and coastal hazards.

  12. GIONET (GMES Initial Operations Network for Earth Observation Research Training)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, V.; Balzter, H.

    2013-12-01

    GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET) is a Marie Curie funded project that aims to establish the first of a kind European Centre of Excellence for Earth Observation Research Training. Copernicus (previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is a joint undertaking of the European Space Agency and the European Commission. It develops fully operational Earth Observation monitoring services for a community of end users from the public and private sector. The first services that are considered fully operational are the land monitoring and emergency monitoring core services. In GIONET, 14 early stage researchers are being trained at PhD level in understanding the complex physical processes that determine how electromagnetic radiation interacts with the atmosphere and the land surface ultimately form the signal received by a satellite. In order to achieve this, the researchers are based in industry and universities across Europe, as well as receiving the best technical training and scientific education. The training programme through supervised research focuses on 14 research topics. Each topic is carried out by an Early Stage Researcher based in one of the partner organisations and is expected to lead to a PhD degree. The 14 topics are grouped in 5 research themes: Forest monitoring Land cover and change Coastal zone and freshwater monitoring Geohazards and emergency response Climate adaptation and emergency response The methods developed and used in GIONET are as diverse as its research topics. GIONET has already held two summer schools; one at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany), on 'New operational radar satellite applications: Introduction to SAR, Interferometry and Polarimetry for Land Surface Mapping'. The 2nd summer school took place last September at the University of Leicester (UK )on 'Remote sensing of land cover and forest in GMES'. The next Summer School in September 2013

  13. Preface: Current perspectives in modelling, monitoring, and predicting geophysical fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancho, Ana M.; Hernández-García, Emilio; López, Cristóbal; Turiel, Antonio; Wiggins, Stephen; Pérez-Muñuzuri, Vicente

    2018-02-01

    The third edition of the international workshop Nonlinear Processes in Oceanic and Atmospheric Flows was held at the Institute of Mathematical Sciences (ICMAT) in Madrid from 6 to 8 July 2016. The event gathered oceanographers, atmospheric scientists, physicists, and applied mathematicians sharing a common interest in the nonlinear dynamics of geophysical fluid flows. The philosophy of this meeting was to bring together researchers from a variety of backgrounds into an environment that favoured a vigorous discussion of concepts across different disciplines. The present Special Issue on Current perspectives in modelling, monitoring, and predicting geophysical fluid dynamics contains selected contributions, mainly from attendants of the workshop, providing an updated perspective on modelling aspects of geophysical flows as well as issues on prediction and assimilation of observational data and novel tools for describing transport and mixing processes in these contexts. More details on these aspects are discussed in this preface.

  14. The origin of the Earth's magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibberd, F.H.

    1979-01-01

    A theory is developed and a model described for a homogeneous axi-symmetric generator of the geomagnetic field, based on the Nernst effect associated with a radially outward flow of heat from heat sources within the core region of the earth across an initial meridional magnetic field. The thermomagnetic e.m.f. drives a system of two azimuthal current shells in the core region, one nested inside the other, with the currents flowing in opposite directions. The current shells slowly expand radially. As the outer shell decays a new current shell develops inside the inner shell. The resultant magnetic field near and beyond the Earth's surface approximates to a dipole field that undergoes repeated reversals. A rough estimate of the required magnitude of the Nernst coefficient indicates that the effect could be large enough to drive the generator. The generator does not violate Cowling's theorem because the temperature gradient, which plays a part analogous to fluid velocity in conventional homogeneous fluid dynamo theory, has a non-zero divergence in regions where heat is being evolved. (author)

  15. Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar: Current status and future directions. A report to the Committee on Earth Sciences, Space Studies Board, National Research Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D. L. (Editor); Apel, J.; Arvidson, R.; Bindschadler, R.; Carsey, F.; Dozier, J.; Jezek, K.; Kasischke, E.; Li, F.; Melack, J.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides a context in which questions put forth by NASA's Office of Mission to Planet Earth (OMPTE) regarding the next steps in spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) science and technology can be addressed. It summarizes the state-of-the-art in theory, experimental design, technology, data analysis, and utilization of SAR data for studies of the Earth, and describes potential new applications. The report is divided into five science chapters and a technology assessment. The chapters summarize the value of existing SAR data and currently planned SAR systems, and identify gaps in observational capabilities needing to be filled to address the scientific questions. Cases where SAR provides complementary data to other (non-SAR) measurement techniques are also described. The chapter on technology assessment outlines SAR technology development which is critical not only to NASA's providing societally relevant geophysical parameters but to maintaining competitiveness in SAR technology, and promoting economic development.

  16. Map of Life - A Dashboard for Monitoring Planetary Species Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetz, W.

    2016-12-01

    Geographic information about biodiversity is vital for understanding the many services nature provides and their potential changes, yet remains unreliable and often insufficient. By integrating a wide range of knowledge about species distributions and their dynamics over time, Map of Life supports global biodiversity education, monitoring, research and decision-making. Built on a scalable web platform geared for large biodiversity and environmental data, Map of Life endeavors provides species range information globally and species lists for any area. With data and technology provided by NASA and Google Earth Engine, tools under development use remote sensing-based environmental layers to enable on-the-fly predictions of species distributions, range changes, and early warning signals for threatened species. The ultimate vision is a globally connected, collaborative knowledge- and tool-base for regional and local biodiversity decision-making, education, monitoring, and projection. For currently available tools, more information and to follow progress, go to MOL.org.

  17. NASA's Earth Science Flight Program Meets the Challenges of Today and Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianson, Eric E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's capability for better understanding the current state of the Earth system. ESM and ESSP projects often involve partnerships with other US agencies and/or international organizations. This adds to the complexity of mission development, but allows for a greater scientific return on NASA's investments. The Earth Science Airborne Science Program provides manned and unmanned aircraft systems that further science and advance the use of satellite data. NASA uses these assets worldwide in campaigns to investigate extreme weather events, observe Earth system processes, obtain data for Earth science modeling activities, and calibrate instruments flying aboard Earth science spacecraft. The Airborne Science Program has six dedicated aircraft and access to many other platforms. The Earth Science Multi-Mission Operations program acquires, preserves, and distributes observational data from operating spacecraft to support Earth Science research focus areas. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), which has been in operations since 1994, primarily accomplishes this. EOSDIS acquires, processes, archives, and distributes Earth Science data and information products. The archiving of NASA Earth Science information happens at eight Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and four disciplinary data centers located across the United States. The DAACs specialize by topic area, and make their data available to researchers around the world. The DAACs currently house over 9 petabytes of data, growing at a rate of 6.4 terabytes per day. NASA's current Earth Science portfolio is responsive to the National Research Council (NRC) 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey and well as the 2010 NASA Response to President Obama's Climate Plan. As the program evolves into the future it will leverage the lessons learned from the current missions in operations and development, and plan for adjustments to future objectives in response to the anticipated 2017 NRC Decadal Survey.

  18. Smarter Earth Science Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The explosive growth in Earth observational data in the recent decade demands a better method of interoperability across heterogeneous systems. The Earth science data system community has mastered the art in storing large volume of observational data, but it is still unclear how this traditional method scale over time as we are entering the age of Big Data. Indexed search solutions such as Apache Solr (Smiley and Pugh, 2011) provides fast, scalable search via keyword or phases without any reasoning or inference. The modern search solutions such as Googles Knowledge Graph (Singhal, 2012) and Microsoft Bing, all utilize semantic reasoning to improve its accuracy in searches. The Earth science user community is demanding for an intelligent solution to help them finding the right data for their researches. The Ontological System for Context Artifacts and Resources (OSCAR) (Huang et al., 2012), was created in response to the DARPA Adaptive Vehicle Make (AVM) programs need for an intelligent context models management system to empower its terrain simulation subsystem. The core component of OSCAR is the Environmental Context Ontology (ECO) is built using the Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) (Raskin and Pan, 2005). This paper presents the current data archival methodology within a NASA Earth science data centers and discuss using semantic web to improve the way we capture and serve data to our users.

  19. Earth system commitments due to delayed mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfister, Patrik L; Stocker, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    As long as global CO 2 emissions continue to increase annually, long-term committed Earth system changes grow much faster than current observations. A novel metric linking this future growth to policy decisions today is the mitigation delay sensitivity (MDS), but MDS estimates for Earth system variables other than peak temperature (ΔT max ) are missing. Using an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity, we show that the current emission increase rate causes a ΔT max increase roughly 3–7.5 times as fast as observed warming, and a millenial steric sea level rise (SSLR) 7–25 times as fast as observed SSLR, depending on the achievable rate of emission reductions after the peak of emissions. These ranges are only slightly affected by the uncertainty range in equilibrium climate sensitivity, which is included in the above values. The extent of ocean acidification at the end of the century is also strongly dependent on the starting time and rate of emission reductions. The preservable surface ocean area with sufficient aragonite supersaturation for coral reef growth is diminished globally at an MDS of roughly 25%–80% per decade. A near-complete loss of this area becomes unavoidable if mitigation is delayed for a few years to decades. Also with respect to aragonite, 12%–18% of the Southern Ocean surface become undersaturated per decade, if emission reductions are delayed beyond 2015–2040. We conclude that the consequences of delaying global emission reductions are much better captured if the MDS of relevant Earth system variables is communicated in addition to current trends and total projected future changes. (letter)

  20. WATER FORMATION IN THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE OF THE EARLY EARTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleury, Benjamin; Carrasco, Nathalie; Marcq, Emmanuel; Vettier, Ludovic; Määttänen, Anni, E-mail: benjamin.fleury@latmos.ipsl.fr [Université Versailles St-Quentin, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS/INSU, LATMOS-IPSL, 11 Boulevard d’Alembert, F-78280 Guyancourt (France)

    2015-07-10

    The water concentration and distribution in the early Earth's atmosphere are important parameters that contribute to the chemistry and the radiative budget of the atmosphere. If the atmosphere above the troposphere is generally considered as dry, photochemistry is known to be responsible for the production of numerous minor species. Here we used an experimental setup to study the production of water in conditions simulating the chemistry above the troposphere of the early Earth with an atmospheric composition based on three major molecules: N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}. The formation of gaseous products was monitored using infrared spectroscopy. Water was found as the major product, with approximately 10% of the gas products detected. This important water formation is discussed in the context of the early Earth.

  1. Earth observations from space: History, promise, and reality. Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In this report the Committee on Earth Studies (CES), a standing committee of the Space Studies Board (SSB) within the National Research Council (NRC), reviews the recent history (nominally from 1981 to 1995) of the U.S. earth observations programs that serve civilian needs. The principal observations programs examined are those of NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The Air Force' s Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) is discussed, but only from the perspective of its relationship to civil needs and the planned merger with the NOAA polar-orbiting system. The report also reviews the interfaces between the earth observations satellite programs and the major national and international environmental monitoring and research programs. The monitoring and research programs discussed are the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), the World Climate Research Program (WCRP), related international scientific campaigns, and operational programs for the sharing and application of environmental data. The purpose of this report is to provide a broad historical review and commentary based on the views of the CES members, with particular emphasis on tracing the lengthy record of advisory committee recommendations. Any individual topic could be the subject of an extended report in its own right. Indeed, extensive further reviews are already under way to that end. If the CES has succeeded in the task it has undertaken. This report will serve as a useful starting point for any such more intensive study. The report is divided into eight chapters: ( I ) an introduction, (2) the evolution of the MTPE, (3) its relationship to the USGCRP, (4) applications of earth observations data, (5) the role that smaller satellites can play in research and operational remote sensing, (6) earth system modeling and information systems, (7) a number of associated activities that contribute to the MTPE

  2. The population of natural Earth satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granvik, Mikael; Vaubaillon, Jeremie; Jedicke, Robert

    2012-03-01

    We have for the first time calculated the population characteristics of the Earth’s irregular natural satellites (NESs) that are temporarily captured from the near-Earth-object (NEO) population. The steady-state NES size-frequency and residence-time distributions were determined under the dynamical influence of all the massive bodies in the Solar System (but mainly the Sun, Earth, and Moon) for NEOs of negligible mass. To this end, we compute the NES capture probability from the NEO population as a function of the latter’s heliocentric orbital elements and combine those results with the current best estimates for the NEO size-frequency and orbital distribution. At any given time there should be at least one NES of 1-m diameter orbiting the Earth. The average temporarily-captured orbiter (TCO; an object that makes at least one revolution around the Earth in a co-rotating coordinate system) completes (2.88 ± 0.82) rev around the Earth during a capture event that lasts (286 ± 18) d. We find a small preference for capture events starting in either January or July. Our results are consistent with the single known natural TCO, 2006 RH120, a few-meter diameter object that was captured for about a year starting in June 2006. We estimate that about 0.1% of all meteors impacting the Earth were TCOs.

  3. CENTIMETER COSMO-SKYMED RANGE MEASUREMENTS FOR MONITORING GROUND DISPLACEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fratarcangeli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery are widely used in order to monitor displacements impacting the Earth surface and infrastructures. The main remote sensing technique to extract sub-centimeter information from SAR imagery is the Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR, based on the phase information only. However, it is well known that DInSAR technique may suffer for lack of coherence among the considered stack of images. New Earth observation SAR satellite sensors, as COSMO-SkyMed, TerraSAR-X, and the coming PAZ, can acquire imagery with high amplitude resolutions too, up to few decimeters. Thanks to this feature, and to the on board dual frequency GPS receivers, allowing orbits determination with an accuracy at few centimetres level, the it was proven by different groups that TerraSAR-X imagery offer the capability to achieve, in a global reference frame, 3D positioning accuracies in the decimeter range and even better just exploiting the slant-range measurements coming from the amplitude information, provided proper corrections of all the involved geophysical phenomena are carefully applied. The core of this work is to test this methodology on COSMO-SkyMed data acquired over the Corvara area (Bolzano – Northern Italy, where, currently, a landslide with relevant yearly displacements, up to decimeters, is monitored, using GPS survey and DInSAR technique. The leading idea is to measure the distance between the satellite and a well identifiable natural or artificial Persistent Scatterer (PS, taking in account the signal propagation delays through the troposphere and ionosphere and filtering out the known geophysical effects that induce periodic and secular ground displacements. The preliminary results here presented and discussed indicate that COSMO-SkyMed Himage imagery appear able to guarantee a displacements monitoring with an accuracy of few centimetres using only the amplitude data, provided few (at least one stable PS’s are

  4. Sun-Earth Day 2005: Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J. R.; Cline, T.; Lewis, E.; Hawkins, I.; Odenwald, S.; Mayo, L.

    2005-05-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF) annually promotes an event called Sun-Earth Day. For Sun-Earth Day 2005 SECEF has selected a theme called "Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge. This year's Sun-Earth Day theme is your ticket to a fascinating journey through time as we explore centuries of sun watching by a great variety of cultures. From ancient solar motion tracking to modern solar activity monitoring the Sun has always occupied an important spot in mankind's quest to understand the Universe. Sun-Earth Day events usually are centered on the spring equinox around March 21, but this year there has already been a webcast from the San Francisco Exploratorium and the Native American ruins at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico on the day of winter solstice 2004. There will be another webcast on March 20 live from Chichen Itza, Mexico highlighting the solar alignment that makes a serpent appear on one of the ancient pyramids. The website http://sunearthday.nasa.gov has been developed to provide the necessary resources and opportunities for participation by scientists and educators in giving school or general public programs about Sun-Earth Day. The goal is to involve as much of the student population and the public in this event as possible and to help them understand the importance of the Sun for ancient and modern peoples. Through engaging activities available on the website, classrooms and museums can create their own event or participate in one of the opportunities we make available. Scientists, educators, amateur astronomers, and museums are invited to register on the website to receive a free packet of materials about Sun-Earth Day for use in making presentations or programs about the event. Past and future Sun-Earth Days will be discussed as well.

  5. Performance Study of Earth Networks Total Lightning Network using Rocket-Triggered Lightning Data in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, S.

    2015-12-01

    Modern lightning locating systems (LLS) provide real-time monitoring and early warning of lightningactivities. In addition, LLS provide valuable data for statistical analysis in lightning research. It isimportant to know the performance of such LLS. In the present study, the performance of the EarthNetworks Total Lightning Network (ENTLN) is studied using rocket-triggered lightning data acquired atthe International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT), Camp Blanding, Florida.In the present study, 18 flashes triggered at ICLRT in 2014 were analyzed and they comprise of 78negative cloud-to-ground return strokes. The geometric mean, median, minimum, and maximum for thepeak currents of the 78 return strokes are 13.4 kA, 13.6 kA, 3.7 kA, and 38.4 kA, respectively. The peakcurrents represent typical subsequent return strokes in natural cloud-to-ground lightning.Earth Networks has developed a new data processor to improve the performance of their network. Inthis study, results are presented for the ENTLN data using the old processor (originally reported in 2014)and the ENTLN data simulated using the new processor. The flash detection efficiency, stroke detectionefficiency, percentage of misclassification, median location error, median peak current estimation error,and median absolute peak current estimation error for the originally reported data from old processorare 100%, 94%, 49%, 271 m, 5%, and 13%, respectively, and those for the simulated data using the newprocessor are 100%, 99%, 9%, 280 m, 11%, and 15%, respectively. The use of new processor resulted inhigher stroke detection efficiency and lower percentage of misclassification. It is worth noting that theslight differences in median location error, median peak current estimation error, and median absolutepeak current estimation error for the two processors are due to the fact that the new processordetected more number of return strokes than the old processor.

  6. The Earth's magnetosphere is 165 R(sub E) long: Self-consistent currents, convection, magnetospheric structure, and processes for northward interplanetary magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedder, J. A.; Lyon, J. G.

    1995-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a self-consistent, magnetohydrodynamic numerical realization for the Earth's magnetosphere which is in a quasi-steady dynamic equilibrium for a due northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Although a few hours of steady northward IMF are required for this asymptotic state to be set up, it should still be of considerable theoretical interest because it constitutes a 'ground state' for the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction. Moreover, particular features of this ground state magnetosphere should be observable even under less extreme solar wind conditions. Certain characteristics of this magnetosphere, namely, NBZ Birkeland currents, four-cell ionospheric convection, a relatively weak cross-polar potential, and a prominent flow boundary layer, are widely expected. Other characteristics, such as no open tail lobes, no Earth-connected magnetic flux beyond 155 R(sub E) downstream, magnetic merging in a closed topology at the cusps, and a 'tadpole' shaped magnetospheric boundary, might not be expected. In this paper, we will present the evidence for this unusual but interesting magnetospheric equilibrium. We will also discuss our present understanding of this singular state.

  7. Marine Aerosol Precursor Emissions for Earth System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltrud, Mathew Einar [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-25

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is generated by marine ecosystems and plays a major role in cloud formation over the ocean. Currently, Earth System Models use imposed flux of DMS from the ocean to the atmosphere that is independent of the climate state. We have added DMS as a prognostic variable to the Community Earth System Model (CESM) that depends on the distribution of phytoplankton species, and thus changes with climate.

  8. Development and implementation of a GEOGLAM Crop Monitor web interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, P.; Sanchez, A.; Humber, M. L.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C. J.; McGaughey, K.; Barker, B.

    2016-12-01

    Beginning in September 2013, the GEOGLAM Crop Monitor activity has provided earth observation (EO) data to a network of partners and collected crop assessments on a subnational basis through a web interface known as the Crop Assessment Tool. Based on the collection of monthly crop assessments, a monthly crop condition bulletin is published in the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS) Market Monitor report. This workflow has been successfully applied to food security applications through the Early Warning Crop Monitor activity. However, a lack of timely and accurate information on crop conditions and prospects at the national scale is a critical issue in the majority of southern and eastern African countries and some South American countries. Such information is necessary for informed and prompt decision making in the face of emergencies, food insecurity and planning requirements for agricultural markets. This project addresses these needs through the development of relevant, user-friendly remote sensing monitor systems, collaborative internet technology, and collaboration with national and regional agricultural monitoring networks. By building on current projects and relationships established through the various GEOGLAM Crop Monitor activities, this project aims to ultimately provide EO-informed crop condition maps and charts designed for economics and policy oriented audiences, thereby providing quick and easy to understand products on crop conditions as the season progresses. Integrating these data and assessments vertically throughout the system provides a basis for regional sharing and collaboration in food security applications.

  9. Beam-current monitor for FMIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlin, D.D.; Brousseau, A.T.

    1981-03-01

    The application of a single toroidal core, coupled with very simple circuitry, that results in the production of a simple instrument, and eliminates the problems inherent in the Faraday cup technique for the current measurements of the FMIT injector beam is described

  10. Revolutions that made the earth

    CERN Document Server

    Lenton, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The Earth that sustains us today was born out of a few remarkable, near-catastrophic revolutions, started by biological innovations and marked by global environmental consequences. The revolutions have certain features in common, such as an increase in the complexity, energy utilization, and information processing capabilities of life. This book describes these revolutions, showing the fundamental interdependence of the evolution of life and its non-living environment. We would not exist unless these upheavals had led eventually to 'successful' outcomes - meaning that after each one, at length, a new stable world emerged. The current planet-reshaping activities of our species may be the start of another great Earth system revolution, but there is no guarantee that this one will be successful. This book explains what a successful transition through it might look like, if we are wise enough to steer such a course. This book places humanity in context as part of the Earth system, using a new scientific synthe...

  11. Current and Emerging Uses of Insertable Cardiac Monitors: Evaluation of Syncope and Monitoring for Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomson, Todd T; Passman, Rod

    Insertable cardiac monitors (ICMs) have provided clinicians with a superb tool for assessing infrequent or potentially asymptomatic arrhythmias. ICMs have shown their usefulness in the evaluation of unexplained syncope, providing high diagnostic yields in a cost-effective manner. While unexplained syncope continues to be the most common reason for their use, ICMs are increasingly being used for the monitoring of atrial fibrillation (AF). Recent trials have demonstrated that a substantial proportion of patients with cryptogenic stroke have AF detected only by the prolonged monitoring provided by ICMs. A particularly promising and emerging use for ICMs is in the management of anticoagulation in patients with known paroxysmal AF. The introduction in recent years of ICMs with automatic AF detection algorithms and continuous remote monitoring in combination with novel oral anticoagulants have opened the door for targeted anticoagulation guided by remote monitoring, a strategy that has recently shown promise in pilot studies of this technique. While further research is needed before official recommendations can be given, this use of ICMs opens exciting new possibilities for personalized medicine that could potentially reduce bleeding risk and improve quality of life in patients with atrial fibrillation.

  12. Earth surface reflectance climatology from 3 years of OMI data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleipool, Q.L.; Dobber, M.R.; Haan, de J.F.; Levelt, P.F.

    2008-01-01

    Global maps of the Earth's surface Lambertian equivalent reflectance (LER) are constructed using 3 years of Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements obtained between October 2004 and October 2007 at 23 wavelengths between 328 and 500 nm. The maps are constructed on a 0.5° by 0.5°

  13. Alternative Conceptions Concerning the Earth's Interior Exhibited by Honduran Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Daniel K.; McAllister, Meredith; Boone, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Although multiple studies of misconceptions in Earth science have been completed using samples of North American and European students and teachers, little research has been conducted on alternative Earth science conceptions in developing countries. The current study was conducted in 5th- and 6th-grade classrooms in eastern Honduras, Central…

  14. Continuous Glucose Monitoring: Current Use in Diabetes Management and Possible Future Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettoretti, Martina; Cappon, Giacomo; Acciaroli, Giada; Facchinetti, Andrea; Sparacino, Giovanni

    2018-05-01

    The recent announcement of the production of new low-cost continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors, the approval of marketed CGM sensors for making treatment decisions, and new reimbursement criteria have the potential to revolutionize CGM use. After briefly summarizing current CGM applications, we discuss how, in our opinion, these changes are expected to extend CGM utilization beyond diabetes patients, for example, to subjects with prediabetes or even healthy individuals. We also elaborate on how the integration of CGM data with other relevant information, for example, health records and other medical device/wearable sensor data, will contribute to creating a digital data ecosystem that will improve our understanding of the etiology and complications of diabetes and will facilitate the development of data analytics for personalized diabetes management and prevention.

  15. Sharing Earth Observation Data When Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, E. L., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    While the global community is struck by pandemics and epidemics from time to time the ability to fully utilize earth observations and integrate environmental information has been limited - until recently. Mature science understanding is allowing new levels of situational awareness be possible when and if the relevant data is available and shared in a timely and useable manner. Satellite and other remote sensing tools have been used to observe, monitor, assess and predict weather and water impacts for decades. In the last few years much of this has included a focus on the ability to monitor changes on climate scales that suggest changes in quantity and quality of ecosystem resources or the "one-health" approach where trans-disciplinary links between environment, animal and vegetative health may provide indications of best ways to manage susceptibility to infectious disease or outbreaks. But the scale of impacts and availability of information from earth observing satellites, airborne platforms, health tracking systems and surveillance networks offer new integrated tools. This presentation will describe several recent events, such as Superstorm Sandy in the United States and the Ebola outbreak in Africa, where public health and health infrastructure have been exposed to environmental hazards and lessons learned from disaster response in the ability to share data have been effective in risk reduction.

  16. Introduction. Progress in Earth science and climate studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J Michael T

    2008-12-28

    In this introductory paper, I review the 'visions of the future' articles prepared by top young scientists for the second of the two Christmas 2008 Triennial Issues of Phil. Trans. R. Soc.A, devoted respectively to astronomy and Earth science. Topics covered in the Earth science issue include: trace gases in the atmosphere; dynamics of the Antarctic circumpolar current; a study of the boundary between the Earth's rocky mantle and its iron core; and two studies of volcanoes and their plumes. A final section devoted to ecology and climate covers: the mathematical modelling of plant-soil interactions; the effects of the boreal forests on the Earth's climate; the role of the past palaeoclimate in testing and calibrating today's numerical climate models; and the evaluation of these models including the quantification of their uncertainties.

  17. Shaft MisalignmentDetectionusing Stator Current Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Alok Kumar Verma, Somnath Sarangi and M.H. Kolekar

    2013-01-01

    This paper inspects the misaligned of shaft by usingdiagnostic medium such as current and vibration.Misalignments in machines can cause decrease inefficiency and in the long-run it may cause failurebecause of unnecessary vibration, stress on motor,bearings and short-circuiting in stator and rotorwindings.In this study, authors investigate the onsetof instability on a shaft mounted on journal bearings.Shaft displacement and stator current samples duringmachine run up under misaligned condition...

  18. The Earth Information Exchange: A Portal for Earth Science From the ESIP Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, R.; Hutchinson, C.; Hardin, D.

    2006-12-01

    current working groups are focused toward the issues of Air Quality, Coastal Management, Disaster Management, Ecological Forecasting, Public Health, and Water Management. Initially, the Exchange will be linked to USGS's Geospatial One Stop portal, NASA's Earth Science Gateway, the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) and the Eos ClearingHOuse (ECHO). The Earth Information Exchange will be an integrated system of distributed components that work together to expedite the process of Earth science and to increase the effective application of its results to benefit the public. Specifically the EIE is designed to provide a comprehensive inventory of Earth observation metadata by GEOSS and other commonly used issue area categories. To provide researchers, educators and policy makers with ready access to metadata over the web, via URLs. To provide researchers with access to data in common scientific data formats such as netCDF and HDF-EOS and common scientific data models such as swath, point and grid. To provide policy makers and others with an e-commerce marketplace where advanced data products (analysis tools, models, simulations, decision support products) can be found and acquired. And, to provide researchers, educators and policy makers with a broad inventory of the human resources associated with the Federation and its partners.

  19. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Earth System Science. Current Issue : Vol. 127, Issue 2. Current Issue Volume 127 | Issue 2. March 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  20. How Essential Biodiversity Variables and remote sensing can help national biodiversity monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petteri Vihervaara

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs have been suggested to harmonize biodiversity monitoring worldwide. Their aim is to provide a small but comprehensive set of monitoring variables that would give a balanced picture of the development of biodiversity and the reaching of international and national biodiversity targets. Globally, GEO BON (Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network has suggested 22 candidate EBVs to be monitored. In this article we regard EBVs as a conceptual tool that may help in making national scale biodiversity monitoring more robust by pointing out where to focus further development resources. We look at one country –Finland –with a relatively advanced biodiversity monitoring scheme and study how well Finland’s current biodiversity state indicators correspond with EBVs. In particular, we look at how national biodiversity monitoring could be improved by using available remote sensing (RS applications. Rapidly emerging new technologies from drones to airborne laser scanning and new satellite sensors providing imagery with very high resolution (VHR open a whole new world of opportunities for monitoring the state of biodiversity and ecosystems at low cost. In Finland, several RS applications already exist that could be expanded into national indicators. These include the monitoring of shore habitats and water quality parameters, among others. We hope that our analysis and examples help other countries with similar challenges. Along with RS opportunities, our analysis revealed also some needs to develop the EBV framework itself.

  1. Terrestrial planet formation in the presence of migrating super-Earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izidoro, André; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Raymond, Sean N.

    2014-01-01

    Super-Earths with orbital periods less than 100 days are extremely abundant around Sun-like stars. It is unlikely that these planets formed at their current locations. Rather, they likely formed at large distances from the star and subsequently migrated inward. Here we use N-body simulations to study the effect of super-Earths on the accretion of rocky planets. In our simulations, one or more super-Earths migrate inward through a disk of planetary embryos and planetesimals embedded in a gaseous disk. We tested a wide range of migration speeds and configurations. Fast-migrating super-Earths (τ mig ∼ 0.01-0.1 Myr) only have a modest effect on the protoplanetary embryos and planetesimals. Sufficient material survives to form rocky, Earth-like planets on orbits exterior to the super-Earths'. In contrast, slowly migrating super-Earths shepherd rocky material interior to their orbits and strongly deplete the terrestrial planet-forming zone. In this situation any Earth-sized planets in the habitable zone are extremely volatile-rich and are therefore probably not Earth-like.

  2. Annual report on radioactive discharges from Winfrith and monitoring the environment 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    The 1987 Annual Report on radioactive discharges from Winfrith Atomic Energy Establishment and monitoring of the environment is given. The report covers waste discharges to the sea and the earth atmosphere and the associated environmental monitoring. (UK)

  3. An optically coupled system for quantitative monitoring of MRI-induced RF currents into long conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Marta G; Venook, Ross; Pauly, John M; Scott, Greig C

    2010-01-01

    The currents induced in long conductors such as guidewires by the radio-frequency (RF) field in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are responsible for potentially dangerous heating of surrounding media, such as tissue. This paper presents an optically coupled system with the potential to quantitatively measure the RF currents induced on these conductors. The system uses a self shielded toroid transducer and active circuitry to modulate a high speed light-emitting-diode transmitter. Plastic fiber guides the light to a photodiode receiver and transimpedance amplifier. System validation included a series of experiments with bare wires that compared wire tip heating by fluoroptic thermometers with the RF current sensor response. Validations were performed on a custom whole body 64 MHz birdcage test platform and on a 1.5 T MRI scanner. With this system, a variety of phenomena were demonstrated including cable trap current attenuation, lossy dielectric Q-spoiling and even transverse electromagnetic wave node patterns. This system should find applications in studies of MRI RF safety for interventional devices such as pacemaker leads, and guidewires. In particular, variations of this device could potentially act as a realtime safety monitor during MRI guided interventions.

  4. An Optically-Coupled System for Quantitative Monitoring of MRI-Induced RF Currents into Long Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Marta G.; Venook, Ross; Pauly, John M.; Scott, Greig C.

    2010-01-01

    The currents induced in long conductors such as guidewires by the radio frequency (RF) field in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are responsible for potentially dangerous heating of surrounding media, such as tissue. This paper presents an optically-coupled system with the potential to quantitatively measure the RF currents induced on these conductors. The system uses a self shielded toroid transducer and active circuitry to modulate a high speed LED transmitter. Plastic fiber guides the light to a photodiode receiver and transimpedance amplifier. System validation included a series of experiments with bare wires that compared wire tip heating by fluoroptic thermometers with the RF current sensor response. Validations were performed on a custom whole body 64 MHz birdcage test platform and on a 1.5T MRI scanner. With this system, a variety of phenomena were demonstrated including cable trap current attenuation, lossy dielectric Q-spoiling and even transverse electromagnetic wave node patterns. This system should find applications in studies of MRI RF safety for interventional devices such as pacemaker leads, and guidewires. In particular, variations of this device could potentially act as a realtime safety monitor during MRI guided interventions. PMID:19758855

  5. Semantic Web Data Discovery of Earth Science Data at NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Mahabaleshwara; Strub, Richard F.; Lynnes, Christopher S.; Fang, Hongliang; Teng, William

    2008-01-01

    Mirador is a web interface for searching Earth Science data archived at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). Mirador provides keyword-based search and guided navigation for providing efficient search and access to Earth Science data. Mirador employs the power of Google's universal search technology for fast metadata keyword searches, augmented by additional capabilities such as event searches (e.g., hurricanes), searches based on location gazetteer, and data services like format converters and data sub-setters. The objective of guided data navigation is to present users with multiple guided navigation in Mirador is an ontology based on the Global Change Master directory (GCMD) Directory Interchange Format (DIF). Current implementation includes the project ontology covering various instruments and model data. Additional capabilities in the pipeline include Earth Science parameter and applications ontologies.

  6. Radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, L.Eh.; B'yuli, D.K.; Karmikel, Dzh.Kh.E.

    1985-01-01

    Recommendations on radiation monitoring of personnel, used medical ionizing radiation source, are given. The necessity to carry out radiation monitoring of situation at medical personnel's positions and personnel dosimetry is marked. It is convenient to subdivide radiation monitoring into 3 types: usual, surgical and special. Usual monitoring is connected with current work; surgical monitoring is carried out to receive information during a concrete operation; special monitoring is used to detect possible deviation from standard conditions of work or when suspecting them

  7. Modeling Sustainability: Population, Inequality, Consumption, and Bidirectional Coupling of the Earth and Human Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motesharrei, Safa; Rivas, Jorge; Kalnay, Eugenia; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Cahalan, Robert F.; Cane, Mark A.; Colwell, Rita R.; Feng, Kuishuang; Franklin, Rachel S.; Hubacek, Klaus; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando; Miyoshi, Takemasa; Ruth, Matthias; Sagdeev, Roald; Shirmohammadi, Adel; Shukla, Jagadish; Srebric, Jelena; Yakovenko, Victor M.; Zeng, Ning

    2016-12-11

    Over the last two centuries, the impact of the Human System has grown dramatically, becoming strongly dominant within the Earth System in many different ways. Consumption, inequality, and population have increased extremely fast, especially since about 1950, threatening to overwhelm the many critical functions and ecosystems of the Earth System. Changes in the Earth System, in turn, have important feedback effects on the Human System, with costly and potentially serious consequences. However, current models do not incorporate these critical feedbacks. We argue that in order to understand the dynamics of either system, Earth System Models must be coupled with Human System Models through bidirectional couplings representing the positive, negative, and delayed feedbacks that exist in the real systems. In particular, key Human System variables, such as demographics, inequality, economic growth, and migration, are not coupled with the Earth System but are instead driven by exogenous estimates, such as United Nations population projections. This makes current models likely to miss important feedbacks in the real Earth–Human system, especially those that may result in unexpected or counterintuitive outcomes, and thus requiring different policy interventions from current models. The importance and imminence of sustainability challenges, the dominant role of the Human System in the Earth System, and the essential roles the Earth System plays for the Human System, all call for collaboration of natural scientists, social scientists, and engineers in multidisciplinary research and modeling to develop coupled Earth–Human system models for devising effective science-based policies and measures to benefit current and future generations.

  8. Monitoring And Recording Data For Solar Radiation Temperature And Charging Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung Bhone Myint

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A data logger based on 8051 microcontroller has been implemented in this project to measure the solar radiation temperature and charging current. Development of a low-cost data logger can easily be made and easily be used to convert the analog signal of physical parameters of various test or other purposes of engineering. By using a suitable program code it can be used to read the value digitally with a PC. Our aim is to provide with a module and a software package when installed in a computer one can remotely acquire and monitor several numbers of the same or different types of signals sequentially at a time. Signals obtained from various sensors have been effectively conditioned. Now interfacing these signals using ADC with the Bluetooth module port of a computer satisfies the very goal of data acquisition. Proposed system provides better performance and has low cost versatile portable.

  9. Anodic solution of alkali earth alloys in potassium chloride-sodium chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Generalized results of studying the process of anodic dissolution of alkaline-earth metal alloys with zinc, aluminium and copper in the melts of KCl-NaCl equimolar mixture containing alkaline-earth metal chlorides, are presented. It is shown that during dissolution of both pure liquid metals and their alloys there is no electrode polarization in the range of the current densities lower or comparable in their values to corrosion current

  10. Partial radiogenic heat model for Earth revealed by geoneutrino measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abe, S.; et al., [Unknown; Decowski, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    The Earth has cooled since its formation, yet the decay of radiogenic isotopes, and in particular uranium, thorium and potassium, in the planet’s interior provides a continuing heat source. The current total heat flux from the Earth to space is 44.2±1.0 TW, but the relative contributions from

  11. Sensing Using Rare-Earth-Doped Upconversion Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Shuwei; Chen, Guanying; Yang, Chunhui

    2013-01-01

    Optical sensing plays an important role in theranostics due to its capability to detect hint biochemical entities or molecular targets as well as to precisely monitor specific fundamental psychological processes. Rare-earth (RE) doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are promising for these endeavors due to their unique frequency converting capability; they emit efficient and sharp visible or ultraviolet (UV) luminescence via use of ladder-like energy levels of RE ions when excited at near ...

  12. NASA's Earth science flight program status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeck, Steven P.; Volz, Stephen M.

    2010-10-01

    NASA's strategic goal to "advance scientific understanding of the changing Earth system to meet societal needs" continues the agency's legacy of expanding human knowledge of the Earth through space activities, as mandated by the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958. Over the past 50 years, NASA has been the world leader in developing space-based Earth observing systems and capabilities that have fundamentally changed our view of our planet and have defined Earth system science. The U.S. National Research Council report "Earth Observations from Space: The First 50 Years of Scientific Achievements" published in 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences articulates those key achievements and the evolution of the space observing capabilities, looking forward to growing potential to address Earth science questions and enable an abundance of practical applications. NASA's Earth science program is an end-to-end one that encompasses the development of observational techniques and the instrument technology needed to implement them. This includes laboratory testing and demonstration from surface, airborne, or space-based platforms; research to increase basic process knowledge; incorporation of results into complex computational models to more fully characterize the present state and future evolution of the Earth system; and development of partnerships with national and international organizations that can use the generated information in environmental forecasting and in policy, business, and management decisions. Currently, NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) has 14 operating Earth science space missions with 6 in development and 18 under study or in technology risk reduction. Two Tier 2 Decadal Survey climate-focused missions, Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons (ASCENDS) and Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT), have been identified in conjunction with the U.S. Global Change Research Program and initiated for launch in the 2019

  13. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Earth System Science. Current Issue : Vol. 127, Issue 3 · Current Issue Volume 127 | Issue 3. April 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  14. Google Earth Visualizations of the Marine Automatic Identification System (AIS): Monitoring Ship Traffic in National Marine Sanctuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwehr, K.; Hatch, L.; Thompson, M.; Wiley, D.

    2007-12-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a new technology that provides ship position reports with location, time, and identity information without human intervention from ships carrying the transponders to any receiver listening to the broadcasts. In collaboration with the USCG's Research and Development Center, NOAA's Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (SBNMS) has installed 3 AIS receivers around Massachusetts Bay to monitor ship traffic transiting the sanctuary and surrounding waters. The SBNMS and the USCG also worked together propose the shifting the shipping lanes (termed the traffic separation scheme; TSS) that transit the sanctuary slightly to the north to reduce the probability of ship strikes of whales that frequent the sanctuary. Following approval by the United Nation's International Maritime Organization, AIS provided a means for NOAA to assess changes in the distribution of shipping traffic caused by formal change in the TSS effective July 1, 2007. However, there was no easy way to visualize this type of time series data. We have created a software package called noaadata-py to process the AIS ship reports and produce KML files for viewing in Google Earth. Ship tracks can be shown changing over time to allow the viewer to feel the motion of traffic through the sanctuary. The ship tracks can also be gridded to create ship traffic density reports for specified periods of time. The density is displayed as map draped on the sea surface or as vertical histogram columns. Additional visualizations such as bathymetry images, S57 nautical charts, and USCG Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement (MISLE) can be combined with the ship traffic visualizations to give a more complete picture of the maritime environment. AIS traffic analyses have the potential to give managers throughout NOAA's National Marine Sanctuaries an improved ability to assess the impacts of ship traffic on the marine resources they seek to protect. Viewing ship traffic

  15. Current state in the research on electronic monitoring systems for the security and flow of objects and individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Dietrich Marcela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets forth the current state of security systems in prisons from Romania and around the world, particularly aiming electronic systems of monitoring the flow of people, materials control and perimeter security, focusing on the research results concluded by motion detection tests and devices. The currently used systems were observed in order to put an analysis of the methodology together and implement and perfect these systems in protected areas. The protection of citizens must be performed to the extent that is allowed by the legislation.

  16. All-Sky Monitoring of Variable Sources with Fermi GBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Cherry, Michael L.; Case, Gary L.; Camero-Arranz, Ascension; Chaplin, Vandiver; Connaughton, Valerie; Finger, Mark H.; Jenke, Pater; Rodi, James C.; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; hide

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the monitoring of variable sources with the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM). It reviews the use of the Earth Occultation technique, the observations of the Crab Nebula with the GBM, and the comparison with other satellite's observations. The instruments on board the four satellites indicate a decline in the Crab from 2008-2010.

  17. Integrated Voltage—Current Monitoring and Control of Gas Metal Arc Weld Magnetic Ball-Jointed Open Source 3-D Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuenyong Nilsiam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To provide process optimization of metal fabricating self-replicating rapid prototyper (RepRap 3-D printers requires a low-cost sensor and data logger system to measure current (I and voltage (V of the gas metal arc welders (GMAW. This paper builds on previous open-source hardware development to provide a real-time measurement of welder I-V where the measuring circuit is connected to two analog inputs of the Arduino that is used to control the 3-D printer itself. Franklin firmware accessed through a web interface that is used to control the printer allows storing the measured values and downloading those stored readings to the user’s computer. To test this custom current and voltage monitoring device this study reports on its use on an upgraded all metal RepRap during the printing of aluminum alloy (ER1100, ER4043, ER4943, ER4047, and ER5356. The voltage and current data were analyzed on a per alloy basis and also layer-by-layer in order to evaluate the device’s efficacy as a monitoring device for 3-D printing and the results of the integrated design are discussed.

  18. Heat-pipe Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G

    2013-09-26

    The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics.

  19. 1988 Monitoring Activities Review (MAR) of the environmental monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The EGandG Idaho Environmental Monitoring (EM) Unit is responsible for coordinating and conducting environmental measurements of radioactive and hazardous contaminants around facilities operated by EGandG Idaho. The EM Unit has several broad program objectives, which include complying with regulatory standards and developing a basis for estimating future impacts of operations at EGandG Idaho facilities. To improve program planning and to provide bases for technical improvement of the monitoring program, the EGandG Environmental Monitoring organization has regularly used the Monitoring Activities Review (MAR) process since 1982. Each MAR is conducted by a committee of individuals selected for their experience in the various types of monitoring performed by the EM organization. Previous MAR studies have focused on procedures for all currently monitored media except biota. Biotic monitoring was initiated following the last MAR. This report focuses on all currently monitored media, and includes the first review of biotic monitoring. The review of biotic monitoring has been conducted at a level of detail consistent with initial MAR reports for other parts of the Waste Management Program Facilities Environmental Monitoring Program. The review of the biotic monitoring activities is presented in Section 5.5 of this report. 21 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Generating Southern Africa Precipitation Forecast Using the FEWS Engine, a New Application for the Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsfeld, M. F.; Hegewisch, K.; Daudert, B.; Morton, C.; Husak, G. J.; Friedrichs, M.; Funk, C. C.; Huntington, J. L.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Verdin, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) focuses on food insecurity in developing nations and provides objective, evidence-based analysis to help government decision-makers and relief agencies plan for and respond to humanitarian emergencies. The network of FEWS NET analysts and scientists require flexible, interactive tools to aid in their monitoring and research efforts. Because they often work in bandwidth-limited regions, lightweight Internet tools and services that bypass the need for downloading massive datasets are preferred for their work. To support food security analysis FEWS NET developed a custom interface for the Google Earth Engine (GEE). GEE is a platform developed by Google to support scientific analysis of environmental data in their cloud computing environment. This platform allows scientists and independent researchers to mine massive collections of environmental data, leveraging Google's vast computational resources for purposes of detecting changes and monitoring the Earth's surface and climate. GEE hosts an enormous amount of satellite imagery and climate archives, one of which is the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations dataset (CHIRPS). CHIRPS precipitation dataset is a key input for FEWS NET monitoring and forecasting efforts. In this talk we introduce the FEWS Engine interface. We present an application that highlights the utility of FEWS Engine for forecasting the upcoming seasonal precipitation of southern Africa. Specifically, the current state of ENSO is assessed and used to identify similar historical seasons. The FEWS Engine compositing tool is used to examine rainfall and other environmental data for these analog seasons. The application illustrates the unique benefits of using FEWS Engine for on-the-fly food security scenario development.

  1. Inventory of current environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C.S.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Chapman, E.G.

    1986-05-01

    This document presents the results of a study commissioned to survey and summarize major environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region. Projects with field sites located within 400 km (250 mi) of the border and active after 1980 were reviewed. The types of projects included: ambient air-quality monitoring, ambient water-quality monitoring, deposition monitoring, forest/vegetation monitoring and research, soil studies, and ecosystem studies. Ecosystem studies included projects involving the measurement of parameters from more than one monitoring category (e.g., studies that measured both water and soil chemistry). Individual descriptions were formulated for 184 projects meeting the spatial and temporal criteria. Descriptions included the official title for the project, its common abbreviation, program emphasis, monitoring site locations, time period conducted, parameters measured, protocols employed, frequency of sample collection, data storage information, and the principal contact for the project. A summary inventory subdivided according to the six monitoring categories was prepared using a computerized data management system. Information on major centralized data bases in the field of environmental monitoring was also obtained, and summary descriptions were prepared. The inventory and data base descriptions are presented in appendices to this document.

  2. Analysing the advantages of high temporal resolution geostationary MSG SEVIRI data compared to Polar operational environmental satellite data for land surface monitoring in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fensholt, Rasmus; Anyamba, Assaf; Huber Gharib, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Since 1972, satellite remote sensing of the environment has been dominated by polar-orbiting sensors providing useful data for monitoring the earth’s natural resources. However their observation and monitoring capacity are inhibited by daily to monthly looks for any given ground surface which often...... is obscured by frequent and persistent cloud cover creating large gaps in time series measurements. The launch of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite into geostationary orbit has opened new opportunities for land surface monitoring. The Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI...... affected by droughts and floods in 2008 caused by periods of abnormally low and high rainfall, respectively. Based on the effectiveness of monitoring these events from Earth Observation (EO) data the current analyses show that the new generation of geostationary remote sensing data can provide higher...

  3. Linkages between the Urban Environment and Earth's Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Jin, Menglin

    2003-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the extreme cases of land use change. Although currently only 1.2% of the land is considered urban, the spatial coverage and density of cities are expected to rapidly increase in the near future. It is estimated that by the year 2025 60% of the world s population will live in cities (UNFP, 1999). Though urban areas are local in scale, human activity in urban environments has impacts at local, to global scale by changing atmospheric composition; impacting components of the water cycle; and modifying the carbon cycle 2nd ecosystems. For example, urban dwellers are undoubtedly familiar with "high" ozone pollution days, flash flooding in city streets, or heat stress on summer days. However, our understanding of urbanization on the total Earth-climate system is incomplete. Better understanding of how the Earth s weather, oceans, and land work together and the influence of the urban environment on this climate system is critical. This paper highlights some of the major and current issues involving interactions between urban environments and the Earth's climate system. It also captures some of the most current thinking and findings of the authors and key experts in the field.

  4. Parallel Optimization of an Earth System Model (100 Gigaflops and Beyond?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, L. A.; Farrara, J. D.; Mechoso, C. R.; Spahr, J. A.; Chao, Y.; Katz, S.; Lou, J. Z.; Wang, P.

    1997-01-01

    We are developing an Earth System Model (ESM) to be used in research aimed to better understand the interactions between the components of the Earth System and to eventually predict their variations. Currently, our ESM includes models of the atmosphere, oceans and the important chemical tracers therein.

  5. Measuring currents, ice drift, and waves from space: the Sea surface KInematics Multiscale monitoring (SKIM concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ardhuin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a satellite mission that uses a near-nadir Ka-band Doppler radar to measure surface currents, ice drift and ocean waves at spatial scales of 40 km and more, with snapshots at least every day for latitudes 75 to 82°, and every few days for other latitudes. The use of incidence angles of 6 and 12° allows for measurement of the directional wave spectrum, which yields accurate corrections of the wave-induced bias in the current measurements. The instrument's design, an algorithm for current vector retrieval and the expected mission performance are presented here. The instrument proposed can reveal features of tropical ocean and marginal ice zone (MIZ dynamics that are inaccessible to other measurement systems, and providing global monitoring of the ocean mesoscale that surpasses the capability of today's nadir altimeters. Measuring ocean wave properties has many applications, including examining wave–current interactions, air–sea fluxes, the transport and convergence of marine plastic debris and assessment of marine and coastal hazards.

  6. Long-term monitoring of the earth's radiation budget; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 17, 18, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The uses of the broadband flux measurements as well as the improvements in the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment in instrumentation and data reduction are summarized. Scientific uses of earth-radiation budget data are discussed, along with a perspective on the instrumentation giving a new foundation for studies of the radiation budget, with emphasis on calibration and long-term stability. Cloud identification and angular modeling are covered including angular dependence models for radiance to flux conversion and the pattern recognition of clouds and ice in polar regions. The surface-radiation budget and atmospheric radiative flux divergence from the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System are covered, and time dependence of the earth's radiation fields, determination of the outgoing longwave radiation and its diurnal variations are considered.

  7. An Earth-sized planet with an Earth-like density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Francesco; Cameron, Andrew Collier; Latham, David W; Molinari, Emilio; Udry, Stéphane; Bonomo, Aldo S; Buchhave, Lars A; Charbo