Sample records for earth chromite coated

  1. High temperature oxidation resistance of rare earth chromite coated Fe-20Cr and Fe-20Cr-4Al alloys

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    Marina Fuser Pillis


    Full Text Available Doped lanthanum chromite has been used in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC interconnects. The high costs involved in obtaining dense lanthanum chromite have increased efforts to find suitable metallic materials for interconnects. In this context, the oxidation behavior of lanthanum chromite coated Fe-20Cr and Fe-20Cr-4Al alloys at SOFC operation temperature was studied. Isothermal oxidation tests were carried out at 1000 °C for 20, 50 and 200 hours. Cyclic oxidation tests were also carried out and each oxidation cycle consisted of 7 hours at 1000/°C followed by cooling to room temperature. The oxidation measurements and the results of SEM/EDS as well as XRD analyses indicated that lanthanum chromite coated Fe-20Cr and Fe-20Cr-4Al alloys were significantly more resistant to oxidation compared with the uncoated alloys.

  2. Probing structural distortions in rare earth chromites using Indian synchrotron radiation source (United States)

    Late, R.; Rai, H. M.; Saxena, S. K.; Kumar, R.; Sagdeo, A.; Sagdeo, P. R.


    Effect of R site ionic radius on the structural distortions in RCrO3 (R: La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb and Y) rare earth perovskite chromites is investigated through synchrotron based X-ray diffraction technique. The said structural distortions are measured in the terms of CrO bond lengths, CrO6 octahedral tilt, tolerance factor ( t) and RO12 polyhedral distortion. It is observed that the lattice parameters (b and c), RO bond length, tolerance factor and Cr-O-Cr bond angle increases with increase in the radius of R site ion; whereas octahedral tilts (along [010] and [101]) and RO12 polyhedral distortion decreases with increase in the radius of R site ion. Further it is observed that the radius of R site cation does not have significant effect on lattice parameter `a' and CrO bond length (hence on the distortion of CrO6 octahedra). A comparison of the crystal structure parameters obtained using refinement of synchrotron powder X-ray data and that estimated theoretically using modern bond valence parameters (SPuDS) has been carried out. A one to one correlation between the experimental and theoretical results has been observed.

  3. Stratiform chromite deposit model (United States)

    Schulte, Ruth F.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.


    Stratiform chromite deposits are of great economic importance, yet their origin and evolution remain highly debated. Layered igneous intrusions such as the Bushveld, Great Dyke, Kemi, and Stillwater Complexes, provide opportunities for studying magmatic differentiation processes and assimilation within the crust, as well as related ore-deposit formation. Chromite-rich seams within layered intrusions host the majority of the world's chromium reserves and may contain significant platinum-group-element (PGE) mineralization. This model of stratiform chromite deposits is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new descriptive mineral deposit models to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. The model focuses on features that may be common to all stratiform chromite deposits as a way to gain insight into the processes that gave rise to their emplacement and to the significant economic resources contained in them.

  4. Thermochemistry of Rare Earth Silicates for Environmental Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Costa, Gustavo; Jacobson, Nathan


    Rare earth silicates are promising candidates as environmental protective coatings (EBCs) for silica-forming ceramics and composites in combustion environments since they are predicted to have lower reactivity with the water vapor combustion products. The reactivity of rare earth silicates is assessed by the thermodynamic activity of the silica component which is best measured by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS). Here, we discuss a novel method based on a reducing agent to increase the partial pressure of SiO(g) which is then used to calculate thermodynamic activity of silica in Y2O3-SiO2 and Yb2O3-SiO2 systems. After the KEMS measurements, samples were probed by X-ray diffraction and their phase content was calculated from Rietveld refinement.

  5. Multilayer Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Architectures Utilizing Rare Earth Doped YSZ and Rare Earth Pyrochlores (United States)

    Schmitt, Michael P.; Rai, Amarendra K.; Bhattacharya, Rabi; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.


    To allow for increased gas turbine efficiencies, new insulating thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) must be developed to protect the underlying metallic components from higher operating temperatures. This work focused on using rare earth doped (Yb and Gd) yttria stabilized zirconia (t' Low-k) and Gd2Zr2O7 pyrochlores (GZO) combined with novel nanolayered and thick layered microstructures to enable operation beyond the 1200 C stability limit of current 7 wt% yttria stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) coatings. It was observed that the layered system can reduce the thermal conductivity by approximately 45 percent with respect to YSZ after 20 hr of testing at 1316 C. The erosion rate of GZO is shown to be an order to magnitude higher than YSZ and t' Low-k, but this can be reduced by almost 57 percent when utilizing a nanolayered structure. Lastly, the thermal instability of the layered system is investigated and thought is given to optimization of layer thickness.

  6. Synthesis of copper chromite catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamoto, A.M.; Claudio Rezende, L. [Space Aeronautical Institute/Aerospace Center, Chemistry Div., Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Claudio Pardini, L. [Space Aeronautical Institute/Aerospace Center, Materials Div., Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)


    The present work has the objective to investigate the catalytic behaviour of copper chromite (CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}) in the burning rate of poly-butadiene hydroxyl terminated (HTPB) which is an ammonium perchlorate propellant for solid fueled rockets. Copper chromite catalysts were prepared by ceramic and coprecipitation methods and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), elemental, differential calorimetric (DSC), thermogravimetric and granulometric analysis, mass spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy (IR). Elemental and IR analysis have shown similarities among the samples for both synthetic methods. However, DSC, SEM and X-ray analysis of the samples synthesized by coprecipitation method presented different physical properties. For those samples, DSC could identify a tetragonal {yields} cubic phase transition, SEM showed particles with defined crystalline shapes and X-ray analysis contains the main assignments which identify the formation of CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}. HTPB propellants containing CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples were manufactured, then burning rate and mechanical properties have been measured. The results were compared with HTPB propellants containing iron (III) oxide as catalyst. The highest burning rate values were obtained with samples which present a more defined crystalline shape, i.e., the ones synthesized by the coprecipitation method. (authors)

  7. Alkaline Earth Element Adsorption onto PAA-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles

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    Qing Wang


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a study on the adsorption of calcium (Ca2+ onto polyacrylic acid-functionalized iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles (PAA-MNPs to gain an insight into the adsorption behavior of alkaline earth elements at conditions typical of produced water from hydraulic fracturing. An aqueous co-precipitation method was employed to fabricate iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles, whose surface was first coated with amine and then by PAA. To evaluate the Ca2+ adsorption capacity by PAA-MNPs, the Ca2+ adsorption isotherm was measured in batch as a function of pH and sodium chlorite (electrolyte concentration. A surface complexation model accounting for the coulombic forces in the diffuse double layer was developed to describe the competitive adsorption of protons (H+ and Ca2+ onto the anionic carboxyl ligands of the PAA-MNPs. Measurements show that Ca2+ adsorption is significant above pH 5 and decreases with the electrolyte concentration. Upon adsorption, the nanoparticle suspension destabilizes and creates large clusters, which favor an efficient magnetic separation of the PAA-MNPs, therefore, helping their recovery and recycle. The model agrees well with the experiments and predicts that the maximum adsorption capacity can be achieved within the pH range of the produced water, although that maximum declines with the electrolyte concentration.

  8. Polymer Derived Rare Earth Silicate Nanocomposite Protective Coatings for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this Phase I SBIR program is to develop polymer derived rare earth silicate nanocomposite environmental barrier coatings (EBC) for providing...

  9. Chromite/titanate based perovskites for application as anodes in solid oxide fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pudmich, G.; Boukamp, Bernard A.; Gonzalez Cuenca, M.M.; Jungen, W.; Zipprich, W.M.; Tietz, F.


    Perovskites containing lanthanides, partially substituted by alkaline-earth elements and transition metals like Cr, Ti, Fe or Co show a very broad range of physical properties. Therefore several perovskite materials, based on lanthanum chromite and strontium titanate were synthesised and

  10. The Effect of Rare Earth on the Structure and Performance of Laser Clad Coatings (United States)

    Bao, Ruiliang; Yu, Huijun; Chen, Chuanzhong; Dong, Qing

    Laser cladding is one kind of advanced surface modification technology and has the abroad prospect in making the wear-resistant coating on metal substrates. However, the application of laser cladding technology does not achieve the people's expectation in the practical production because of many defects such as cracks, pores and so on. The addiction of rare earth can effectively reduce the number of cracks in the clad coating and enhance the coating wear-resistance. In the paper, the effects of rare earth on metallurgical quality, microstructure, phase structure and wear-resistance are analyzed in turns. The preliminary discussion is also carried out on the effect mechanism of rare earth. At last, the development tendency of rare earth in the laser cladding has been briefly elaborated.

  11. Periclase-chromite refractories from fused materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slovikovskii, V.V.; Eroshkina, V.I.; Kononenko, G.V.; Nechistykh, G.A.; Simonov, K.V.


    Experiments were carried out to obtain high-grade fused chromitepericlase. It is shown that during the melting of batch consisting of raw magnesite and chromite ore the process of reducing the chromite ore to metallic ferrochromium is eliminated, which adversely affects both the content of Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in the fused material, and also the commercial appearance of the resulting refractories. The authors developed a technology for preparing periclase-chromite refractories with chrommite-periclase constituents. The goods obtained possess good physicoceramic properties and a low content of silicites. The articles thus prepared were used to make the linings of the most critical parts of the converters which allowed an increase to be made in the duration of campaigns for the Kivset units of 1.5-2 times.

  12. Rare earth conversion coatings grown on AA6061 aluminum alloys. Corrosion studies

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    Brachetti S, S. B. [Instituto Tecnologico de Ciudad Madero, Av. 1o. de Mayo y Sor Juana I. de la Cruz, Col. Los Mangos, 89440 Ciudad Madero, Tanaulipas (Mexico); Dominguez C, M. A.; Torres H, A. M.; Onofre B, E. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada - Altamira, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial Altamira Km. 14.5, 89600 Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); De la Cruz H, W., E-mail: [UNAM, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Apdo. Postal 2681, 22800 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)


    The present work is aimed to investigate the corrosion resistance of rare earth protective coatings deposited by spontaneous deposition on AA6061 aluminum alloy substrates. Coatings were deposited from water-based Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solutions by varing parameters such as rare earth solution concentration, bath temperature and immersion time. The values of the Tafel slopes indicate that the cathodic process is favored by concentration polarization rather than activation polarization. Chemical and morphological characterizations of the surface before and after electrochemical evaluations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. (Author)

  13. Evaluation of thermal control coatings for use on solar dynamic radiators in low earth orbit (United States)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Rodriguez, Elvin; Slemp, Wayne S.; Stoyack, Joseph E.


    Thermal control coatings with high thermal emittance and low solar absorptance are needed for Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar dynamic power module radiator (SDR) surfaces for efficient heat rejection. Additionally, these coatings must be durable to low earth orbital (LEO) environmental effects of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and deep thermal cycles which occur as a result of start-up and shut-down of the solar dynamic power system. Eleven candidate coatings were characterized for their solar absorptance and emittance before and after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation (200 to 400 nm), vacuum UV (VUV) radiation (100 to 200 nm) and atomic oxygen. Results indicated that the most durable and best performing coatings were white paint thermal control coatings Z-93, zinc oxide pigment in potassium silicate binder, and YB-71, zinc orthotitanate pigment in potassium silicate binder. Optical micrographs of these materials exposed to the individual environmental effects of atomic oxygen and vacuum thermal cycling showed that no surface cracking occurred.

  14. Direct Reuse of Rare Earth Permanent Magnets—Coating Integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Stig; Holbøll, Joachim; Mijatovic, Nenad


    Rare earth permanent magnets can be reused directly as an alternative to traditional recycling methods, in which scrapped magnets are reprocessed into new magnets by undergoing many of the original energy-intensive and expensive production processes. Direct reuse entails using segmented magnet...... assemblies built by several small standard-sized magnets that can be reused directly in a number of different applications. A central part of the direct reuse strategy is to separate and demagnetize magnets by heating them to the Curie temperature. We investigated the validity of direct reuse as a rare earth...

  15. Fibre Tip Sensors for Localised Temperature Sensing Based on Rare Earth-Doped Glass Coatings

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    Erik P. Schartner


    Full Text Available We report the development of a point temperature sensor, based on monitoring upconversion emission from erbium:ytterbium-doped tellurite coatings on the tips of optical fibres. The dip coating technique allows multiple sensors to be fabricated simultaneously, while confining the temperature-sensitive region to a localised region on the end-face of the fibre. The strong response of the rare earth ions to changing temperature allows a resolution of 0.1–0.3 °C to be recorded over the biologically relevant range of temperatures from 23–39 °C.

  16. Mechanical properties of lanthanum and yttrium chromites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulik, S.W.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    In an operating high-temperature (1000{degrees}C) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the interconnect separates the fuel (P(O{sub 2}){approx}10{sup -16} atm) and the oxidant (P(O2){approx}10{sup 0.2} atm), while being electrically conductive and connecting the cells in series. Such severe atmospheric and thermal demands greatly reduce the number of viable candidate materials. Only two materials, acceptor substituted lanthanum chromite and yttrium chromite, meet these severe requirements. In acceptor substituted chromites (Sr{sup 2+} or Ca{sup 2+} for La{sup 3+}), charge compensation is primarily electronic in oxidizing conditions (through the formation of Cr{sup 4+}). Under reducing conditions, ionic charge compensation becomes significant as the lattice becomes oxygen deficient. The formation of oxygen vacancies is accompanied by the reduction of Cr{sup 4+} ions to Cr{sup 3+} and a resultant lattice expansion. The lattice expansion observed in large chemical potential gradients is not desirable and has been found to result in greatly reduced mechanical strength.

  17. Effects of Rare Earth Elements on Properties of Ni-Base Superalloy Powders and Coatings

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    Chunlian Hu


    Full Text Available NiCrMoY alloy powders were prepared using inert gas atomization by incorporation of rare earth elements, such as Mo, Nb, and Y into Ni60A powders, the coatings were sprayed by oxy-acetylene flame spray and then remelted with high-frequency induction. The morphologies, hollow particle ratio, particle-size distribution, apparent density, flowability, and the oxygen content of the NiCrMoY alloy powders were investigated, and the microstructure and hardness of the coatings were evaluated by optical microscopy (OM. Due to incorporation of the rare earth elements of Mo, Nb, or Y, the majority of the NiCrMoY alloy particles are near-spherical, the minority of which have small satellites, the surface of the particles is smoother and hollow particles are fewer, the particles exhibit larger apparent density and lower flowability than those of particles without incorporation, i.e., Ni60A powders, and particle-size distribution exhibits a single peak and fits normal distribution. The microstructure of the NiCrMoY alloy coatings exhibits finer structure and Rockwell hardness HRC of 60–63 in which the bulk- and needle-like hard phases are formed.

  18. Endothelialization of Novel Magnesium-Rare Earth Alloys with Fluoride and Collagen Coating

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    Nan Zhao


    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg alloys are promising scaffolds for the next generation of cardiovascular stents because of their better biocompatibility and biodegradation compared to traditional metals. However, insufficient mechanical strength and high degradation rate are still the two main limitations for Mg materials. Hydrofluoric acid (HF treatment and collagen coating were used in this research to improve the endothelialization of two rare earth-based Mg alloys. Results demonstrated that a nanoporous film structure of fluoride with thickness of ~20 µm was formed on the Mg material surface, which improved the corrosion resistance. Primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs had much better attachment, spreading, growth and proliferation (the process of endothelialization on HF-treated Mg materials compared to bare- or collagen-coated ones.

  19. Effective Laboratory Method of Chromite Content Estimation in Reclaimed Sands

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    Ignaszak Z.


    Full Text Available The paper presents an original method of measuring the actual chromite content in the circulating moulding sand of foundry. This type of material is applied for production of moulds. This is the case of foundry which most frequently perform heavy casting in which for the construction of chemical hardening mould is used, both the quartz sand and chromite sand. After the dry reclamation of used moulding sand, both types of sands are mixed in various ratios resulting that in reclaimed sand silos, the layers of varying content of chromite in mixture are observed. For chromite recuperation from the circulating moulding sand there are applied the appropriate installations equipped with separate elements generating locally strong magnetic field. The knowledge of the current ratio of chromite and quartz sand allows to optimize the settings of installation and control of the separation efficiency. The arduous and time-consuming method of determining the content of chromite using bromoform liquid requires operational powers and precautions during using this toxic liquid. It was developed and tested the new, uncomplicated gravimetric laboratory method using powerful permanent magnets (neodymium. The method is used in the production conditions of casting for current inspection of chromite quantity in used sand in reclamation plant.

  20. Quantum efficiency of silica-coated rare-earth doped yttrium silicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes-Vásquez, D., E-mail: [Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Carretera Ensenada-Tijuana No. 3918, Zona Playitas, C.P. 22860 Ensenada, B.C., México (Mexico); Contreras, O.E.; Hirata, G.A. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, C.P. 22800 Ensenada, B.C., México (Mexico)


    The photoluminescent properties of rare earth-activated white-emitting Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce,Tb nanocrystalline phosphor prepared by two different methods, pressure-assisted combustion synthesis and sol–gel, were studied. The synthesized phosphor samples were post-annealed at 1373 K and 1623 K in order to obtain the X1-Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} and X2-Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} phases, respectively, which were confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. Photoluminescence analysis showed the contribution of two blue-emission bands within the 380–450 nm region originating from 5d–4f transitions in Ce{sup 3+} ions and a well-defined green emission of Tb{sup 3+} ions located at 545 nm corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 5} electronic transitions. Thereafter, Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce,Tb powders were coated with colloidal silica in order to investigate the effect of silica coatings on their luminescent properties. Absolute fluorescence quantum efficiency measurements were carefully performed, which revealed an increase of 12% of efficiency in coated compared with bare-Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce,Tb phosphor. -- Highlights: • Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce,Tb phosphor powders were successfully coated with colloidal silica. • Post-annealing treatments improved the quantum efficiency of silica-coated Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce,Tb phosphors. • Absolute fluorescence quantum efficiency measurements showed an increase of 12%.

  1. Thermal Cycling and High-Temperature Corrosion Tests of Rare Earth Silicate Environmental Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Darthout, Émilien; Gitzhofer, François


    Lutetium and yttrium silicates, enriched with an additional secondary zirconia phase, environmental barrier coatings were synthesized by the solution precursor plasma spraying process on silicon carbide substrates. A custom-made oven was designed for thermal cycling and water vapor corrosion testing. The oven can test four specimens simultaneously and allows to evaluate environmental barrier performances under similar corrosion kinetics compared to turbine engines. Coatings structural evolution has been observed by SEM on the polished cross sections, and phase composition has been analyzed by XRD. All coatings have been thermally cycled between 1300 °C and the ambient temperature, without spallation, due to their porosity and the presence of additional secondary phase which increases the thermal cycling resistance. During water vapor exposure at 1200 °C, rare earth disilicates showed a good stability, which is contradictory with the literature, due to impurities—such as Si- and Al-hydroxides—in the water vapor jets. The presence of vertical cracks allowed the water vapor to reach the substrate and then to corrode it. It has been observed that thin vertical cracks induced some spallation after 24 h of corrosion.

  2. Thermal Cycling and High-Temperature Corrosion Tests of Rare Earth Silicate Environmental Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Darthout, Émilien; Gitzhofer, François


    Lutetium and yttrium silicates, enriched with an additional secondary zirconia phase, environmental barrier coatings were synthesized by the solution precursor plasma spraying process on silicon carbide substrates. A custom-made oven was designed for thermal cycling and water vapor corrosion testing. The oven can test four specimens simultaneously and allows to evaluate environmental barrier performances under similar corrosion kinetics compared to turbine engines. Coatings structural evolution has been observed by SEM on the polished cross sections, and phase composition has been analyzed by XRD. All coatings have been thermally cycled between 1300 °C and the ambient temperature, without spallation, due to their porosity and the presence of additional secondary phase which increases the thermal cycling resistance. During water vapor exposure at 1200 °C, rare earth disilicates showed a good stability, which is contradictory with the literature, due to impurities—such as Si- and Al-hydroxides—in the water vapor jets. The presence of vertical cracks allowed the water vapor to reach the substrate and then to corrode it. It has been observed that thin vertical cracks induced some spallation after 24 h of corrosion.


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    Sacit DÜNDAR


    Full Text Available Chromium oxide of technical purity serves as a green colorant in the mixed metal oxides system. Chromite concentrate processed at Antalya Ferrochromium plant has been studied as a potential underglaze colorant of ceramic materials. The green colour expected from the chromite concentrate was damped by the Fe2 O3 content resulting in a brown colour. Cobalt oxide addition to the concentrate leads to commercial quality blue colours.

  4. Controlled reactions between chromia and coating on alloy surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, Søren


    An electrically conducting Sr-doped lanthanum chromite (LSC) coating has been produced by reacting a coating of fine particles of La oxide and Sr oxide with chromia formed as an external scale on a metallic alloy. In addition to the formation of LSC the coating also resulted in much reduced...... buckling of the underlying chromia layer compared with a non-coated alloy....

  5. Messengers from the deep: Fossil wadsleyite-chromite microstructures from the Mantle Transition Zone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Satsukawa, Takako; Griffin, William L; Piazolo, Sandra; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y


    .... Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis reveals that olivine grains co-existing with exsolved phases inside chromite grains and occurring on chromite grain boundaries have a single pronounced crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO...

  6. Chromite oxidation by manganese oxides in subseafloor basalts and the presence of putative fossilized microorganisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Broman, Curt; Holm, Nils G


    Chromite is a mineral with low solubility and is thus resistant to dissolution. The exception is when manganese oxides are available, since they are the only known naturally occurring oxidants for chromite...

  7. Absence of a polar phase in perovskite chromite RCrO{sub 3} (R=La and Pr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshii, Kenji, E-mail: [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Ikeda, Naoshi [Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Shimojo, Yutaka; Ishii, Yoshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)


    Magnetic and dielectric properties have been studied for LaCrO{sub 3}, PrCrO{sub 3}, and their solid solution La{sub 0.5}Pr{sub 0.5}CrO{sub 3}, which belong to a family of the ferroelectric orthochromite series RCrO{sub 3} (R: rare earths). The magnetic measurements confirm that the materials show canted antiferromagnetic ordering at 240–288 K. Neutron diffraction patterns could be fitted with the centrosymmetric Pnma, which is different from the non-centrosymmetric structure proposed for the ferroelectric phase of NdCrO{sub 3}. The large dielectric constants are likely due to the hopping of charge carriers as proposed previously for other chromites. - Highlights: • Magnetic and dielectric properties of the three perovskite chromites. • Neutron diffraction patterns fitted with centrosymmetric Pnma. • Large dielectric constants likely due to the hopping of charge carriers.

  8. Placer chromite along south Maharashtra, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.; Iyer, S.D.; Mislankar, P.G.; Loveson, V.J.

    minerals include hematite, ilmeno-rutile, ana- tase and garnet. The presence of chromite with other heavy minerals, mainly ilmenite, is also confirmed in the samples from the Gad river (Figure 4 b and c). Similarly, samples from lenses around Janoli..., the Janoli, flow through a rocky terrain which contains chro- mite lenses of variable dimensions (Figures 6 a–d) in the upstream region near Kankavali (Figure 1) 28,31 . Chromite grains are also present in the ultrabasic rocks such as serpentinite...

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of nanosized transition metal chromite spinels


    DURRANI, Shahid Khan; HUSSAIN, Syed Zahid; Saeed, Khalid


    Homogeneous crystalline transition metal chromite spinels (MCr2O4, where M = Co, Mn, and Ni) were prepared by hydrothermal reaction of aqueous solutions containing the respective metal nitrate, chromium(III) nitrate, and sodium hydroxide in stoichiometric amounts at 180-200 °C and pH 10.5-11.5 for 11-13 h. The crystalline structure, microstructure, and thermal stability of the synthesized chromite products were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, thermog...

  10. Adsorption of Zn(II) ions by chitosan coated diatomaceous earth. (United States)

    Salih, Suhaib S; Ghosh, Tushar K


    In this work, chitosan coated diatomaceous earth (CCDE) beads were synthesized by a drop-wise method and characterized by FTIR, BET, SEM, EDS, and zeta potential for Zn(II) ion removal from aqueous solution in batch and continuous processes. Several parameters have been studied such as solution-pH, initial Zn(II) ion concentration, temperature, flow rate, and contact time to investigate the Zn(II) ion uptake. The maximum adsorption capacity of Zn(II) ion onto CCDE beads was 127.4mg/g in batch studies. The adsorption followed Pseudo second order and was well fitted to Langmuir model, indicating monolayer adsorption behavior. The continuous adsorption studies showed decreasing breakthrough and exhausted time with increasing flow rate of solution. The breakthrough points were 220 and 115min at flow rate 3 and 6mL/min, respectively. Loaded CCDE beads with Zn(II) ions were successfully regenerated by 0.2M NaOH without damaging the adsorbents and up to 87% recovery in the fourth cycle. Anions in the solution had an insignificant effect on Zn(II) ion uptake by CCDE beads. Overall results suggested that the prepared adsorbents could be employed as a low-cost, sustainable, and excellent alternative material for Zn(II) ion removal from wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Stratiform chromite deposit model: Chapter E in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment (United States)

    Schulte, Ruth F.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.


    A new descriptive stratiform chromite deposit model was prepared which will provide a framework for understanding the characteristics of stratiform chromite deposits worldwide. Previous stratiform chromite deposit models developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have been referred to as Bushveld chromium, because the Bushveld Complex in South Africa is the only stratified, mafic-ultramafic intrusion presently mined for chromite and is the most intensely researched. As part of the on-going effort by the USGS Mineral Resources Program to update existing deposit models for the upcoming national mineral resource assessment, this revised stratiform chromite deposit model includes new data on the geological, mineralogical, geophysical, and geochemical attributes of stratiform chromite deposits worldwide. This model will be a valuable tool in future chromite resource and environmental assessments and supplement previously published models used for mineral resource evaluation.

  12. Advances towards a Clean Hydrometallurgical Process for Chromite

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    Bo Zhang


    Full Text Available Because of the acute toxicity of Cr(VI-bearing substances, the pollution problem caused by chromite process residue has become a worldwide concern. In the view of relevant studies, the technologies based on the alkali treatment cannot fundamentally resolve the pollution problem, because the oxidation of Cr(III to Cr(VI is unavoidable during chromite decomposition. In contrast, the oxidation of Cr(III to Cr(VI can be controlled by the sulfuric acid treatment of chromite, and the Cr(VI pollution can be eliminated from the original source of production. Many research studies focusing on the resolutions of the key obstacles hindering the development of the sulfuric acid treatment process have been carried out, and significant progress has been achieved. In this study, a clean hydrometallurgical process without the generation of hexavalent chromium is demonstrated. First, the chromite was decomposed and leached by sulfuric acid solution in the presence of an oxidant. Then, iron was hydrothermally removed from the acid solution as the precipitate of jarosite. Finally, chromium salts were obtained by adjusting the basicity of the solution, separation and drying. With the aim of realizing industrialization, future research emphasis on the development of the sulfuric acid treatment process is proposed in this study.

  13. Applications and Preparation Methods of Copper Chromite Catalysts: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Prasad


    Full Text Available In this review article various applications and preparation methods of copper chromite catalysts have been discussed. While discussing it is concluded that copper chromite is a versatile catalyst which not only catalyses numerous processes of commercial importance and national program related to defence and space research but also finds applications in the most concerned problem worldwide i.e. environmental pollution control. Several other very useful applications of copper chromite catalysts are in production of clean energy, drugs and agro chemicals, etc. Various preparation methods about 15 have been discussed which depicts clear idea about the dependence of catalytic activity and selectivity on way of preparation of catalyst. In view of the globally increasing interest towards copper chromite catalysis, reexamination on the important applications of such catalysts and their useful preparation methods is thus the need of the time. This review paper encloses 369 references including a well-conceivable tabulation of the newer state of the art. Copyright © 2011 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.(Received: 19th March 2011, Revised: 03rd May 2011, Accepted: 23rd May 2011[How to Cite: R. Prasad, and P. Singh. (2011. Applications and Preparation Methods of Copper Chromite Catalysts: A Review. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6 (2: 63-113. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.2.829.63-113][How to Link / DOI: || or local: ] | View in 

  14. The Development of HfO2-Rare Earth Based Oxide Materials and Barrier Coatings for Thermal Protection Systems (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan James


    Advanced hafnia-rare earth oxides, rare earth aluminates and silicates have been developed for thermal environmental barrier systems for aerospace propulsion engine and thermal protection applications. The high temperature stability, low thermal conductivity, excellent oxidation resistance and mechanical properties of these oxide material systems make them attractive and potentially viable for thermal protection systems. This paper will focus on the development of the high performance and high temperature capable ZrO2HfO2-rare earth based alloy and compound oxide materials, processed as protective coating systems using state-or-the-art processing techniques. The emphasis has been in particular placed on assessing their temperature capability, stability and suitability for advanced space vehicle entry thermal protection systems. Fundamental thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of the material systems have been investigated at high temperatures. Laser high-heat-flux testing has also been developed to validate the material systems, and demonstrating durability under space entry high heat flux conditions.

  15. Rare earth doped SnO2 nanoscaled powders and coatings: enhanced photoluminescence in water and waveguiding properties. (United States)

    Gonçalves, R R; Messaddeq, Y; Aegerter, M A; Ribeiro, S J L


    Luminescent Eu3+ and Er3+ doped SnO2 powders have been prepared by Sn4+ hydrolysis followed by a controlled growth reaction using a particle's surface modifier in order to avoid particles aggregation. The powders so obtained doped with up to 2 mol% rare earth ions are fully redispersable in water at pH > 8 and present the cassiterite structure. Particles size range from 3 to 10 nm as determined by Photon Correlation Spectroscopy. Rare earth ions were found to be essentially incorporated into the cassiterite structure, substituting for Sn4+, for doping concentration smaller than 0.05 mol%. For higher concentration they are also located at the particles surface. The presence of Eu3+ ions at the surface of the particles hinder their growth and has therefore allowed the preparation of new materials consisting of water redispersable powders coated with Eu(3+)-beta diketonate complexes. Enhanced UV excited photoluminescence was observed in water. SnO2 single layers with thickness up to 200 nm and multilayer coatings were spin coated on borosilicate glass substrates from the colloidal suspensions. Waveguiding properties were evaluated by the prism coupling technique. For a 0.3 microm planar waveguide single propagating mode was observed with attenuation coefficient of 3.5 dB/cm at 632.8 nm.

  16. Borohydride electro-oxidation by Ag-doped lanthanum chromites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrocatalytic activity of Ag-doped lanthanum chromites electrode materials viz., LaCr0.4Ag0.6O3 and LaCr0.7Ag0.3O3 prepared by decomposing the precursor complex is studied. Pure LaCrO3 is synthesized by combustion route using oxalic acid as a fuel. The decomposition behaviour of the assynthesized powder ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ms. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts


    During this reporting period, a ''zinc chromite'' catalyst promoted with 6 wt.% cesium (Cs) was evaluated at the following operating conditions: Temperature - 375 C and 400 C; Total Pressure--13.6 MPa (2000 psig); Gas Hourly Space Velocity (GHSV) - 5000 standard liters/kg(cat)-hr; and H{sub 2}/CO feed ratio--0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mole/mole. Decahydronaphthalene (DHN) was used as the slurry liquid. The experiment lasted for twelve days of continuous operation. Unpromoted zinc chromite catalyst then was re-examined under the same operating conditions. Reproducible data was achieved with a continuous liquid make-up. Compared with unpromoted zinc chromite catalyst, 6 wt.% Cs-promoted catalyst shifted the product distribution from methanol to higher alcohols, even though methanol was still the major product. The effect of operating conditions was less important than the addition of promoter. However, it was observed that higher temperature favors higher alcohol synthesis, and that a higher H{sub 2}/CO ratio leads to lower oxygenates selectivity and higher hydrocarbons selectivity. These trends showed clearly with the Cs-promoted catalyst, but were not as prominent with the unpromoted catalyst. The slurry liquid did not decompose or alkylate to a measurable extent during either continuous, 12 - day experiment, even with the higher reactor temperature (400 C). There was a relatively significant loss of catalyst surface area during the experiment with the promoted catalyst, but not with the unpromoted catalyst.

  18. Geological and Mineralogical-technological features chromite ore from nickel-weathering crusts Average Bug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkov E.S.


    Full Text Available Conditions of occurrence and distribution features of chromites ore bodies in the ultra-basic nickel bearing weathering crusts of Middle Bug Area are considered. Main types of exogenous chromites ores in weathering crusts and beyond of them are identified as well as mineralogical, chemical and grain features of mineralization are given. Obtained data are substantiated in order to apply them while developing the efficient schemes of mining and processing of exogenous chromites ores.

  19. Ilmenite, magnetite and chromite beach placers from south Maharashtra, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.; Mislankar, P.G.; Iyer, S.D.

    .76 %) compared to that of the Gad river (13.19 to 34.32 %. avg. 24.84 %) (Table 2). This indicates that the supply of heavy minerals is predominantly from the Gad River, which flows through the area where the occurrence of chromite lenses of variable dimensions... heterogeneous provenance comprising of igneous rocks, high grade metamorphic rocks and reworked sediments derived from Kaladgi Group. Detrital chromite appears to have resulted from the chromite lenses of variable dimensions and the associated ultrabasic...

  20. Preheated ignition and work function studies on alkaline earth metal oxides coated tungsten electrodes of fluorescent lamps (United States)

    Langer, Reinhard; Dar, Farrukh; Hilscher, Achim; Horn, Siegfried; Tidecks, Reinhard


    This paper describes measurements on the alkaline earth (Ba, Sr, Ca) oxide layers utilized as emitting material in fluorescent lamp electrodes. In a first approach we compared the emission capabilities of the different materials (BaO, SrO and CaO coatings on tungsten filaments) by their ability to facilitate the start of a lamp. In a second investigation the work function was measured quantitatively by means of a Kelvin probe. Basically, the results of both measurements coincide. The impact of sample geometry on measurement results of a Kelvin probe applied for work function measurements of lamp electrodes are discussed in detail.

  1. On the evaluation of stability of rare earth oxides as face coats for investment casting of titanium (United States)

    Saha, R. L.; Nandy, T. K.; Misra, R. D. K.; Jacob, K. T.


    Attempts have been made to evaluate the thermal stability of rare earth oxide face coats against liquid titanium. Determination of microhardness profiles and concentration profiles of oxygen and metallic constituents of oxide in investment cast titanium rods has allowed grActation of relative stability of rare earth oxides. The relative stability of evaluated oxides in the order of increasing stability follows the sequence CeO2 — ZrO2 — Gd2O3 — didymium oxide — Sm2O3 —Nd2O3 — Y2O3. The grading does not follow the free energy data of the formation of these oxides. A better correlation with the experimental observations is obtained when the solubility of the metallic species in titanium is also taken into consideration.

  2. Studies on genesis of chromite and PGE in Naein ophiolite melange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shamsipour Dehkordi


    Full Text Available Nain ophiolite melange is located 140 Km east of Isfahan. Based on the geological studies, this area belongs to Mesozoic ophiolite of Urumieh – Dokhtar zone, west of central Iran. Country rocks are pridotite and serpentinized pridotite. The pridotite rocks are composed of Harzburgite, Lherzolite and replacement Dunite which is belong to spinel pridotite facies. Paragenesis of ore minerals are Chromite, Irarsite, Magnetite, Hematite, Pentlandite, Millerite, Chalcopyrite, Pyrite, and Covelline. Geochemical surveys of host rock and chromite show tholeiite series of magma and alpine type chromite. PGE (Ir, Pt, Pd, and Os are enriched in chromite. REE spider diagram pattern show the processes of boninitic magma and partial melting.

  3. Polymer Derived Rare Earth Silicate Nanocomposite Protective Coatings for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leveraging a rapidly evolving state-of-the-art technical base empowered by Phase I NASA SBIR funding, NanoSonic's polymer derived rare earth silicate EBCs will...

  4. Air-sintering mechanisms of chromites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chick, L.A.; Bates, J.L.; Maupin, G.D.


    The sintering behaviors of La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CrO{sub 3} and Y{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}CrO{sub 3} in air at 1550{degrees}C are described as functions of alkaline earth concentration and chromium enrichment or depletion. Vapor-, liquid-, and solid-phase mass transport mechanisms appear to be operative in both systems. Liquid-phase sintering appears dominant an Y{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}CrO{sub 3} with x = 0.15 to 0.40, especially with Cr enrichment. Either vapor- or solid-phase transport may dominate in the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CrO{sub 3} system. Slight depletion or enrichment of Cr in both systems has dramatic effects on air-sintered density and microstructure, probably due to modulation of vapor-phase transport and liquid-phase formation. Substantial Cr depletion enhances sintering. 10 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Optics of Chromites and Charge-Transfer Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei V. Zenkov


    Full Text Available Specific features of the charge-transfer (CT states and O2p→Cr3d transitions in the octahedral (CrO69− complex are considered in the cluster approach. The reduced matrix elements of the electric-dipole transition operator are calculated on many-electron wave functions of the complex corresponding to the initial and final states of a CT transition. Modeling the optic spectrum of chromites has yielded a complicated CT band. The model spectrum is in satisfactory agreement with experimental data which demonstrates the limited validity of the generally accepted concept of a simple structure of CT spectra.

  6. Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Jason


    This curriculum-based, easy-to-follow book teaches young readers about Earth as one of the eight planets in our solar system in astronomical terms. With accessible text, it provides the fundamental information any student needs to begin their studies in astronomy, such as how Earth spins and revolves around the Sun, why it's uniquely suitable for life, its physical features, atmosphere, biosphere, moon, its past, future, and more. To enhance the learning experience, many of the images come directly from NASA. This straightforward title offers the fundamental information any student needs to sp

  7. Brief report on thermodynamics of chromium slags and kinetic modelling of chromite reduction (1995-96)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Yamping; Holappa, L. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Metallurgy


    This article summaries the research work on thermodynamics of chromium slags and kinetic modelling of chromite reduction. The thermodynamic properties of FeCr slag systems were calculated with the regular solution model. The effects of CaO/MgO ratio, Al{sub 2}0{sub 3} amount as well as the slag basicity on the activities of chromium oxides and the oxidation state of chromium were examined. The calculated results were compared to the experimental data in the literature. In the kinetic modelling of the chromite reduction, the reduction possibilities and tendencies of the chromite constitutes with CO were analysed based on the thermodynamic calculation. Two reaction models, a structural grain model and a multi-layers reaction model, were constructed and applied to simulate the chromite pellet reduction and chromite lumpy ore reduction, respectively. The calculated reduction rates were compared with the experimental measurements and the reaction mechanisms were discussed. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 4 refs.

  8. Bactericidal activities of woven cotton and nonwoven polypropylene fabrics coated with hydroxyapatite-binding silver/titanium dioxide ceramic nanocomposite "Earth-plus". (United States)

    Kasuga, Eriko; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Hidaka, Eiko; Oana, Kozue; Ogiwara, Naoko; Yamaki, Dai; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Honda, Takayuki


    Bacteria from the hospital environment, including linens and curtains, are often responsible for hospital-associated infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bactericidal effects of fabrics coated with the hydroxyapatite-binding silver/titanium dioxide ceramic nanocomposite "Earth-plus". Bactericidal activities of woven and nonwoven fabrics coated with Earth-plus were investigated by the time-kill curve method using nine bacterial strains, including three Staphylococcus aureus, three Escherichia coli, and three Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. The numbers of viable S. aureus and E. coli cells on both fabrics coated with Earth-plus decreased to below 2 log(10) colony-forming units/mL in six hours and reached the detection limit in 18 hours. Viable cell counts of P. aeruginosa on both fabrics coated with Earth-plus could not be detected after 3-6 hours. Viable cells on woven fabrics showed a more rapid decline than those on nonwoven fabrics. Bacterial cell counts of the nine strains on fabrics without Earth-plus failed to decrease even after 18 hours. Woven cotton and nonwoven polypropylene fabrics were shown to have excellent antibacterial potential. The woven fabric was more bactericidal than the nonwoven fabric.

  9. Bactericidal activities of woven cotton and nonwoven polypropylene fabrics coated with hydroxyapatite-binding silver/titanium dioxide ceramic nanocomposite “Earth-plus” (United States)

    Kasuga, Eriko; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Hidaka, Eiko; Oana, Kozue; Ogiwara, Naoko; Yamaki, Dai; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Honda, Takayuki


    Background Bacteria from the hospital environment, including linens and curtains, are often responsible for hospital-associated infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bactericidal effects of fabrics coated with the hydroxyapatite-binding silver/titanium dioxide ceramic nanocomposite “Earth-plus”. Methods Bactericidal activities of woven and nonwoven fabrics coated with Earth-plus were investigated by the time-kill curve method using nine bacterial strains, including three Staphylococcus aureus, three Escherichia coli, and three Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Results The numbers of viable S. aureus and E. coli cells on both fabrics coated with Earth-plus decreased to below 2 log10 colony-forming units/mL in six hours and reached the detection limit in 18 hours. Viable cell counts of P. aeruginosa on both fabrics coated with Earth-plus could not be detected after 3–6 hours. Viable cells on woven fabrics showed a more rapid decline than those on nonwoven fabrics. Bacterial cell counts of the nine strains on fabrics without Earth-plus failed to decrease even after 18 hours. Conclusion Woven cotton and nonwoven polypropylene fabrics were shown to have excellent antibacterial potential. The woven fabric was more bactericidal than the nonwoven fabric. PMID:21931489


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Trent Weaver; Matthew T. Kiser; Frank W. Zok; Carlos G. Levi; Jeffrey Hawk


    In an effort to realize minimum of a 2x increase in wear life of ground engaging components used on mining machines, two potentially cost effective processes were explored for the production of tailored, highly abrasion resistant materials: (1) hybrid pressure casting of steel composites, and (2) arc lamp fusing of thermal spray coatings. Steel composites comprised of cermet or oxide hard particles were successfully produced using pressure casting processes, although a cost effective process has not yet been identified for oxide particles. Both composites achieved project wear targets in high stress gouging wear, but the cermet composites did not meet the targets in impact wear, due to poor matrix toughness resulting from particle dissolution. Oxide composites had superior toughness and are expected to meet impact wear goals. Arc lamp processing of thermal spray coatings was successfully demonstrated to produce a metallurgical bond at the coating interface. Functionally graded materials were developed and successfully fused to allow for the accommodation of thermal process stresses in an intermediate layer. Ultimately, three functionally graded materials were identified as having high stress, three-body abrasion resistance sufficient to exceed project goals.

  11. Study on silicon oxide coated on silver nanocrystal to enhance fluorescence intensity of rare earth complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Yan-rong; Lin, Xue-mei; Wang, Ai-ling; Wang, Zhong-xia; Kang, Jie; Chu, Hai-bin, E-mail:; Zhao, Yong-liang, E-mail:


    Twelve kinds of rare earth complexes were synthesized using halo-benzoic acid as anion ligand and Sm{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} as central ions, respectively. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, rare earth coordination titration and electrospray ionization mass spectra, from which the compositions of the complexes were confirmed to be RE(p-FBA){sub 3}·H{sub 2}O, RE(p-ClBA){sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O, RE(p-BrBA){sub 3}·H{sub 2}O, RE(o-FBA){sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O, RE(o-ClBA){sub 3}·H{sub 2}O, RE(o-BrBA){sub 3}·H{sub 2}O (RE=Sm{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}). Besides, IR spectra and UV–visible absorption spectroscopy indicated that the carboxyl oxygen atoms of ligands coordinated to the rare earth ions. Moreover, Ag@SiO{sub 2} core–shell nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared via a modified Stöber method. The average diameters of silver cores were typically between 60 nm and 70 nm, and the thicknesses of the SiO{sub 2} shells were around 10 nm, 15 nm and 25 nm, respectively. The influence of Ag@SiO{sub 2} NPs on the luminescence properties of the rare earth complexes showed that the luminescence intensities of rare earth complexes were enhanced remarkably. As the thickness of SiO{sub 2} shell increases in the range of 10–25 nm, the effect of metal-enhanced fluorescence become obvious. The mechanism of the changes of the fluorescence intensity is also discussed. - Highlights: • Among 10–25 nm, the thicker the shell thickness, the better the fluorescence effect. • The strong the intensity of the pure complexes, the smaller the multiple enhanced. • The intensity of Sm(p-BrBA){sub 3}·H{sub 2}O is the strongest among Sm(p-XBA){sub 3}·nH{sub 2}O complexes. • The intensity of Dy(p-ClBA){sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O is the strongest among Dy(p-XBA){sub 3}·nH{sub 2}O complexes. • When halogen is in o-position, the intensity of RE(o-ClBA){sub 3}·H{sub 2}O is the strongest.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ms. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts


    Work during the report period was concentrated on developing analytical techniques. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was used in an attempt to define the best mobile phase to separate the components of ''spent'' tetrahydroquinoline by liquid chromatography in a silica gel column. Conditions have been defined for separating the light gases produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) over promoted ''zinc chromite'' catalysts. This will be done with a temperature-programmed Carboxen-1000 column, using a thermal conductivity detector for analysis. A Petrocol DM 150 capillary column will be purchased to separate the heavier products, which will be analyzed using a flame ionization detector.

  13. Lanthanum chromite colloidal processing; Processamento coloidal de cromito de lantanio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setz, Luiz Fernando Grespan


    Lanthanum chromite (LaCrO{sub 3}) is currently the most studied material for applications such as solid oxide fuel cell inter connector (HTSOFC). The complexity of microstructures and geometries of HTSOFC devices, require a precise control of processing parameters to get the desired combination of properties and this, the use of techniques involving concentrated ceramic slips conformation are appropriate, therefore, is well controlled, assist in obtaining homogeneous parts, reproductive and complex geometries. Thus, studies involving the surface chemistry, the stability conditions and slips flow behaviour in the forming conditions, provide important elements for processes control in the inter connectors manufacture, where more applied settings have slots and channels for the gases passage. Thus, surface chemistry, stability and rheological behaviour of strontium and cobalt doped LaCrO{sub 3} (La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}Cr{sub 0.92}Co{sub 0.08}O{sub 3}) slips prepared with ethanol and water, were studied. The doped lanthanum chromite was produced by combustion synthesis in the IPEN/SP labs. The influence of parameters: p H (water), dispersant concentration, homogenization times and conditions, solid concentration, different ratios binder:plasticizer in the stability and the flow behavior of ceramic suspensions prepared were evaluated. The La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}Cr{sub 0.92}Co{sub 0.08}O{sub 3} products obtained by casting aqueous slips in a plaster mould, using alkaline p H and anionic polyelectrolyte and tapes obtained by using ethanol as a dispersant medium, after sintering at 1600 deg C/4h presented theoretical density > 94%, suitable for use as HTSOFC inter connector. (author)

  14. Use in open-hearth roofs of periclase-chromite parts made from electrofused periclase-chromite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonov, K.V.; Bocharov, L.D.; Kapichev, A.G.; Kukushkin, A.P.; Solyanikov, B.G.; Tyvlebaev, V.G.


    The authors investigate the influence of the quality of periclasechromite parts on their wear rate and the life of open hearth roofs. The experimental parts met the property requirements of TU 14-8368-81 for dense PKhPPP, packed PKhPU, and medium density PKhPS; the experimental parts are characterized by a coarse-grained structure and high properties. The low silica and silicate content in the parts is responsible for their high temperature of deformation under load, and the heat resistance of the refractories is good. It was shown that the main improvement in the quality of the refractories is a signifigant reserve for increasing the life of open hearth roofs. The use in open hearth roofs of parts of electrofused periclase-chromite makes it possible to decrease the refractory consumption by 3.36 kg per ton of steel and to reduce the cost of a ton of steel.

  15. Performance evaluation of commercial copper chromites as burning rate catalyst for solid propellants


    Campos,Eunice Aparecida; Rita de Cássia L. Dutra; Rezende, Luis Cláudio; Diniz,Milton Faria; Nawa, Wilma Massae Dio; Iha,Koshun


    Abstract: Copper chromites are well known as burning rate catalysts for the combustion of composite solid propellants, used as a source of energy for rocket propulsion. The propellant burning rate depends upon the catalyst characteristics such as chemical composition and specific surface area. In this work, copper chromite samples from different suppliers were characterized by chemical analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy and by surface area measurement (BET). The samples were then evaluated as burni...

  16. Performance evaluation of commercial copper chromites as burning rate catalyst for solid propellants


    Milton Faria Diniz; Eunice Aparecida Campos; Luis Cláudio Rezende; Rita de Cássia L. Dutra; Wilma Massae Dio Nawa; Koshun Iha


    Copper chromites are well known as burning rate catalysts for the combustion of composite solid propellants, used as a source of energy for rocket propulsion. The propellant burning rate depends upon the catalyst characteristics such as chemical composition and specific surface area. In this work, copper chromite samples from different suppliers were characterized by chemical analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy and by surface area measurement (BET). The samples were then evaluated as burning rate ca...

  17. Development and Property Evaluation of Selected HfO2-Silicon and Rare Earth-Silicon Based Bond Coats and Environmental Barrier Coating Systems for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming


    Ceramic environmental barrier coatings (EBC) and SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will play a crucial role in future aircraft propulsion systems because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures, improve component durability, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. Advanced EBC systems for SiC/SiC CMC turbine and combustor hot section components are currently being developed to meet future turbine engine emission and performance goals. One of the significant material development challenges for the high temperature CMC components is to develop prime-reliant, high strength and high temperature capable environmental barrier coating bond coat systems, since the current silicon bond coat cannot meet the advanced EBC-CMC temperature and stability requirements. In this paper, advanced NASA HfO2-Si and rare earth Si based EBC bond coat EBC systems for SiC/SiC CMC combustor and turbine airfoil applications are investigated. High temperature properties of the advanced EBC systems, including the strength, fracture toughness, creep and oxidation resistance have been studied and summarized. The advanced NASA EBC systems showed some promise to achieve 1500C temperature capability, helping enable next generation turbine engines with significantly improved engine component temperature capability and durability.

  18. Occurrence and mineral chemistry of chromite and related silicates from the Hongshishan mafic-ultramafic complex, NW China with petrogenetic implications (United States)

    Ruan, Banxiao; Yu, Yingmin; Lv, Xinbiao; Feng, Jing; Wei, Wei; Wu, Chunming; Wang, Heng


    The Hongshishan mafic-ultramafic complex is located in the western Beishan Terrane, NW China, and hosts an economic Ni-Cu deposit. Chromite as accessory mineral from the complex is divided into three types based on its occurrence and morphology. Quantitative electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) have been conducted on the different types of chromites. Type 1 chromite occurs as inclusions within silicate minerals and has relatively homogeneous composition. Type 2 chromite occurs among serpentine, as interstitial phase. Type 3 chromite is zoned and exhibits a sudden change in compositions from core to rim. Type 1 chromite occurs in olivine gabbro and troctolite showing homogeneous composition. This chromite is more likely primary. Interstitial type 2 and zoned type 3 chromite has compositional variation from core to rim and is more likely modified. Abundant inclusions of orthopyroxene, phlogopite and hornblende occur within type 2 and type 3 chromites. The parental melt of type 1 chromite has an estimated composition of 14.5 wt% MgO, 12.3 wt% Al2O3 and 1.9 wt% TiO2 and is characterized by high temperature, picritic affinity, hydrous nature and high Mg and Ti contents. Compositions of chromite and clinopyroxene are distinct from those of Alaskan-type complexes and imply that the subduction-related environment is not reasonable. Post orogenic extension and the early Permian mantle plume are responsible for the emplacement of mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Beishan Terrane. The cores of zoned chromites are classified as ferrous chromite and the rims as ferrian chromite. The formation of ferrian rim involves reaction of ferrous chromite, forsterite and magnetite to produce ferrian chromite and chlorite, or alternaively, the rim can be simply envisioned as the result of external addition of magnetite in solution to the already formed ferrous chromite.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ms. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts


    During this reporting period, a ''zinc chromite'' catalyst promoted with 6 wt.% cesium (Cs) was evaluated at the following conditions: Temperature--375 C; Total Pressure--6.8 MPa (1000 psig); Gas Hourly Space Velocity (GHSV) - 5000 standard liters/kg(cat)-hr, and; H{sub 2}/CO feed ratio--1.0 mole/mole. Decahydronaphthalene (DHN) was used as the slurry liquid. The experiment lasted for eight days of continuous operation. Although the experimental data once again did not exhibit the desired degree of consistency, the data did show that methanol was the primary reaction product. The slurry liquid did not decompose or alkylate to a measurable extent during the continuous 8-day experiment. There was a relatively significant loss of catalyst surface area during the experiment. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of various fractions of ''spent'' THQ was carried out. The fractions were prepared by silica gel liquid chromatography (LC). Chemical formuli and probable structures for each major compound were obtained. However, a higher degree of purification will be necessary to allow nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis to be used for definitive compound identification. A new Maxpro gas booster (DLE 15-75) was purchased because the existing Haskel gas booster once again developed a severe leak of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, and was judged to be unworthy of repair.

  20. Microstructure and properties of the low-power-laser clad coatings on magnesium alloy with different amount of rare earth addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Rundong; Li, Zhiyong, E-mail:; Li, Xiaoxi; Sun, Qi


    Highlights: • The low-power-laser was used to obtain the excellent coatings with different amount of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. • The addition of rare earth oxide Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} refined and purified the microstructure of the coatings, meanwhile, increased the thickness of the coatings and reduced the dilution of cladding materials from based alloy. • The primary phases in the coatings are Mg{sub 32}Al{sub 47}Cu{sub 7}, MgCu{sub 6}Al{sub 5}, Al{sub 2}CuMg and Al{sub 12}Mg{sub 17}. The A{sub l4}MgY and MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase can be found in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-modified coatings. • The micro-hardness and the abrasion resistance of the coatings with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} had been improved obviously compared with the coatings without Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • The corrosion resistance of the AZ91D magnesium alloy had been improved by laser cladding. And the effect of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the corrosion potential of the coatings was less than the effect of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} on corrosion current density of the coatings. - Abstract: Due to the low-melting-point and high evaporation rate of magnesium at elevated temperature, high power laser clad coating on magnesium always causes subsidence and deterioration in the surface. Low power laser can reduce the evaporation effect while brings problems such as decreased thickness, incomplete fusion and unsatisfied performance. Therefore, low power laser with selected parameters was used in our research work to obtain Al–Cu coatings with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition on AZ91D magnesium alloy. The addition of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} obviously increases thickness of the coating and improves the melting efficiency. Furthermore, the effect of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition on the microstructure of laser clad Al–Cu coatings was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were used to examine the elemental and phase compositions of the coatings. The properties were investigated

  1. Petrology of chromite in ureilites: Deconvolution of primary oxidation states and secondary reduction processes (United States)

    Goodrich, Cyrena Anne; Harlow, George E.; Van Orman, James A.; Sutton, Stephen R.; Jercinovic, Michael J.; Mikouchi, Takashi


    Ureilites are ultramafic achondrites thought to be residues of partial melting on a carbon-rich asteroid. They show a trend of FeO-variation (olivine Fo from ∼74 to 95) that suggests variation in oxidation state. Whether this variation was established during high-temperature igneous processing on the ureilite parent body (UPB), or preserved from nebular precursors, is a subject of debate. The behavior of chromium in ureilites offers a way to assess redox conditions during their formation and address this issue, independent of Fo. We conducted a petrographic and mineral compositional study of occurrences of chromite (Cr-rich spinel) in ureilites, aimed at determining the origin of the chromite in each occurrence and using primary occurrences to constrain models of ureilite petrogenesis. Chromite was studied in LEW 88774 (Fo 74.2), NWA 766 (Fo 76.7), NWA 3109 (Fo 76.3), HaH 064 (Fo 77.5), LAP 03587 (Fo 74.9), CMS 04048 (Fo 76.4), LAP 02382 (Fo 78.6) and EET 96328 (Fo 85.2). Chromite occurs in LEW 88774 (∼5 vol.%), NWA 766 (low as 0.2). The grains are surrounded by rims of Si-Al-rich glass, graphite, Fe, Cr-carbides ([Fe,Cr]3C and [Fe,Cr]7C3), Cr-rich sulfides (daubréelite and brezinaite) and Cr-rich symplectic bands on adjacent silicates. Chromite is inferred to have been reduced by graphite, forming eskolaite-corundum and carbides as byproducts, during impact excavation. This event involved initial elevation of T (to 1300-1400 °C), followed by rapid decompression and drop in T (to LAP 02382. LAP 03587 and CMS 04048 contain ⩽μm-sized chromite + pyroxene symplectic exsolutions in olivine, indicating high Cr valence in the primary olivine. EET 96328 contains a round grain of chromite that could be a late-crystallizing phase. Tiny chromite grains in melt inclusions in EET 96328 formed in late, closed-system reactions. For 7 of the 8 ureilites we conclude that the relatively oxidizing conditions evidenced by the presence of primary or early chromite pertain to

  2. Preparation of Potassium Dichromate Crystals from the Chromite Concentrate by Microwave Assisted Leaching

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    Hua Liu


    Full Text Available In the present investigation, the oxidizing roasting process of chromite with sodium carbonate to prepare potassium dichromate crystals was studied in the microwave field with air, by heating the chromite and sodium carbonate. The chromite and sodium carbonate heated separately at 1000 °C in the microwave oven (frequency: 2.45 GHz; power 1.5 kW in order to study the microwave absorption properties. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor of the chromite and sodium carbonate examined. Then, chromite with sodium carbonate taken in (1:2 ratio and heated at 750 °C. Thus obtained samples were characterized using various techniques includes Powder-XRD (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF. The XRD pattern reveals the existence of Fe3O4, Fe2O3, NaAlO2, and Na2CrO4. The iron and aluminum were leached out as Fe2O3 and Al(OH3 respectively. The resulting sample treated with the KCl to prepare potassium dichromate crystals. Finally, potassium dichromate crystals formed.

  3. Chromite Composition and Accessory Minerals in Chromitites from Sulawesi, Indonesia: Their Genetic Significance

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    Federica Zaccarini


    Full Text Available Several chromite deposits located in the in the South and Southeast Arms of Sulawesi, Indonesia, have been investigated by electron microprobe. According to the variation of the Cr# = Cr/(Cr + Fe3+, the chromite composition varies from Cr-rich to Al-rich. Small platinum-group minerals (PGM, 1–10 μm in size, occur in the chromitites. The most abundant PGM is laurite, which has been found included in fresh chromite or in contact with chlorite along cracks in the chromite. Laurite forms polygonal crystals, and it occurs as a single phase or in association with amphibole, chlorite, Co-pentlandite and apatite. Small blebs of irarsite (less than 2 μm across have been found associated with grains of awaruite and Co-pentlandite in the chlorite gangue of the chromitites. Grains of olivine, occurring in the silicate matrix or included in fresh chromite, have been analyzed. They show a composition typical of mantle-hosted olivine. The bimodal composition and the slight enrichment in TiO2 observed in some chromitites suggest a vertical zonation due to the fractionation of a single batch magma with an initial boninitic composition during its ascent, in a supra-subduction zone. This observation implies the accumulation of Cr-rich chromitites at deep mantle levels and the formation of the Al-rich chromitites close or above the Moho-transition zone. All of the laurites are considered to be magmatic in origin, i.e., entrapped as solid phases during the crystallization of chromite at temperature of around 1200 °C and a sulfur fugacity below the sulfur saturation. Irarsite possibly represents a low temperature, less than 400 °C, exsolution product.

  4. Heterogeneous selective hydrogenation of ethylene carbonate to methanol and ethylene glycol over a copper chromite nanocatalyst. (United States)

    Lian, Chao; Ren, Fumin; Liu, Yuxi; Zhao, Guofeng; Ji, Yongjun; Rong, Hongpan; Jia, Wei; Ma, Lei; Lu, Haiyuan; Wang, Dingsheng; Li, Yadong


    Heterogeneous selective hydrogenation of ethylene carbonate (EC), a key step in indirect conversion of CO2, was realized over a copper chromite nanocatalyst prepared via a hydrothermal method followed by calcination. The selectivities towards methanol (60%) and ethylene glycol (93%) were higher than those achieved over other usual hydrogenation catalysts.

  5. Performance evaluation of commercial copper chromites as burning rate catalyst for solid propellants

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    Milton Faria Diniz


    Full Text Available Copper chromites are well known as burning rate catalysts for the combustion of composite solid propellants, used as a source of energy for rocket propulsion. The propellant burning rate depends upon the catalyst characteristics such as chemical composition and specific surface area. In this work, copper chromite samples from different suppliers were characterized by chemical analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy and by surface area measurement (BET. The samples were then evaluated as burning rate catalyst in a typical composite propellant formulation based on HTPB binder, ammonium perchlorate and aluminum. The obtained surface area values are very close to those informed by the catalyst suppliers. The propellant processing as well as its mechanical properties were not substantially affected by the type of catalyst. Some copper chromite catalysts caused an increase in the propellant burning rate in comparison to the iron oxide catalyst. The results show that in addition to the surface area, other parameters like chemical composition, crystalline structure and the presence of impurities might be affecting the catalyst performance. All evaluated copper chromite samples may be used as burning rate catalyst in composite solid propellant formulations, with slight advantages for the SX14, Cu-0202P and Cu-1800P samples, which led to the highest burning rate propellants.

  6. Chromite and other mineral deposits in serpentine rocks of the Piedmont Upland, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware (United States)

    Pearre, Nancy C.; Heyl, Allen V.


    The Piedmont Upland in Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware is about 160 miles long and at the most 50 miles wide. Rocks that underlie the province are the Baltimore gneiss of Precambrian age and quartzite, gneiss, schist, marble, phyllite, and greenstone, which make up the Glenarm series of early Paleozoic (?) age. These are intruded by granitic, gabbroic, and ultramaflc igneous rocks. Most of the ultramaflc rocks, originally peridotite, pyroxenite, and dunite, have been partly or completely altered to serpentine and talc; they are all designated by the general term serpentine. The bodies of serpentine are commonly elongate and conformable with the enclosing rocks. Many have been extensively quarried for building, decorative, and crushed stone. In addition, chromite, titaniferous magnetite, rutile, talc and soapstone, amphibole asbestos, magnesite, sodium- rich feldspar (commercially known as soda spar), and corundum have been mined or prospected for in the serpentine. Both high-grade massive chromite and lower grade disseminated chromite occur in very irregular and unpredictable form in the serpentine, and placer deposits of chromite are in and near streams that drain areas underlain by serpentine. A group of unusual minerals, among them kammererite, are typical associates of high-grade massive chromite but are rare in lower grade deposits. Chromite was first discovered in the United States at Bare Hills, Md., around 1810. Between 1820 and 1850, additional deposits were discovered and mined in Maryland and Pennsylvania, including the largest deposit of massive chromite ever found in the United States the Wood deposit, in the State Line district. A second period of extensive chromite mining came during the late 1860's and early 1870's. Production figures are incomplete and conflicting. Estimates from the available data indicate that the aggregate production from 27 of 40 known mines before 1900 totaled between 250,000 and 280,000 tons of lode-chromite ore

  7. Rare earth oxide reinforced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} ceramics for inert coating of metallic parts for petroleum extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadava, Yoggendra Prasad; Rego, Sheila Alves Bezerra da Costa; Ferreira, Ricardo Artur Sanguinetti [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife (Brazil)


    Recent findings of largest known pre-salt petroleum reservoir in Brazil have created an intense demand for new materials capable of withstanding direct contact with the crude petroleum as it is a highly corrosive and chemically reactive fluid. Petroleum drilling equipment, storage tanks and transportation systems suffer from constant physical stress caused by chemical attack of crude petroleum on its structure. Ceramics are materials with high chemical stability in hostile environment and therefore can be used as an inert coating material to resolve such problems. To date, ceramics based on alumina are most widely used in practice where there is demand for high mechanical strength and high fracture toughness. However intrinsic fragility of ceramics is still a fatal factor for their use in mechanical structures. To improve these characteristics, usually ceramics are reinforced with one or more ceramic additives. Mechanical properties of alumina based ceramics improve considerably with the addition of TiO{sub 2}, TiN, ZrO{sub 2} etc. ceramic additives. Nucleation and propagation of cracks is a major problem for ceramic coating applications. Initial studies show that addition of small percentages of rare earth oxides can increase the toughness of the alumina based ceramics. In the present work, we have produced rare-earth oxide (CeO{sub 2}) reinforced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} ceramics in proportions of 5-20 wt% TiO{sub 2} and 2%wt% CeO{sub 2} through thermomechanical processing and sintering techniques and studied there microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties. To evaluate the potential of these ceramics as inert coatings for crude petroleum extraction, storage and transportation systems, we have studied the physic-chemical and mechanical stability of these ceramics in crude petroleum environment. Our studies presented satisfactory results in terms of physic-chemical and mechanical stability of these materials for the use of 2wt% of CeO{sub 2

  8. Development and Performance Evaluations of HfO2-Si and Rare Earth-Si Based Environmental Barrier Bond Coat Systems for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming


    Ceramic environmental barrier coatings (EBC) and SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will play a crucial role in future aircraft propulsion systems because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures, improve component durability, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. Advanced EBC systems for SiCSiC CMC turbine and combustor hot section components are currently being developed to meet future turbine engine emission and performance goals. One of the significant material development challenges for the high temperature CMC components is to develop prime-reliant, high strength and high temperature capable environmental barrier coating bond coat systems, since the current silicon bond coat cannot meet the advanced EBC-CMC temperature and stability requirements. In this paper, advanced NASA HfO2-Si based EBC bond coat systems for SiCSiC CMC combustor and turbine airfoil applications are investigated. The coating design approach and stability requirements are specifically emphasized, with the development and implementation focusing on Plasma Sprayed (PS) and Electron Beam-Physic Vapor Deposited (EB-PVD) coating systems and the composition optimizations. High temperature properties of the HfO2-Si based bond coat systems, including the strength, fracture toughness, creep resistance, and oxidation resistance were evaluated in the temperature range of 1200 to 1500 C. Thermal gradient heat flux low cycle fatigue and furnace cyclic oxidation durability tests were also performed at temperatures up to 1500 C. The coating strength improvements, degradation and failure modes of the environmental barrier coating bond coat systems on SiCSiC CMCs tested in simulated stress-environment interactions are briefly discussed and supported by modeling. The performance enhancements of the HfO2-Si bond coat systems with rare earth element dopants and rare earth-silicon based bond coats are also highlighted. The advanced bond coat systems, when

  9. Note: Effective anvil size for transverse delamination test of rare-earth-Ba₂Cu₃Oy coated conductor tapes. (United States)

    Shin, Hyung-Seop; Gorospe, Alking B; Dedicatoria, Marlon J


    In coated conductor (CC) tapes used in magnet and coil applications, delamination due to excessive transverse tensile stresses is still one of the major issues that need considerations. Recently, several methods in evaluating the delamination strength of CC tapes are being used. In the case of anvil test, size of the anvils will be an important factor considering its applications (i.e., superconducting coil impregnation). In this study, delamination strength of CC tape was examined using different upper anvil sizes and their effects were discussed. Finally, reasonable sizes of upper anvil to be used were proposed considering the application conditions.

  10. Phase transitions and transient liquid-phase sintering in calcium-substituted lanthanum chromite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chick, L.A.; Liu, J.; Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.; McCready, D.E.; Maupin, G.D.; Coffey, G.W.; Coyle, C.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States). Materials and Chemical Sciences Dept.


    This paper investigates sintering and phase transitions of La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub x}CrO{sub 3} (0.25 {le} x {le} 0.35), a material useful as electrical interconnections in solid oxide fuel cells. Heating of the quenched, metastable single-phase chromite resulted in exsolution of CaCrO{sub 4} due to Ca solubility limitations below 1,200 C. A transient liquid phase formed between 850 and 1,000 C as the CaCrO{sub 4} melted, causing partial densification in materials having 0.25 < x < 0.30. A slight increase in Ca content induced an additional liquid-phase sintering event, likely due to melting of Ca{sub 3}(CrO{sub 4}){sub 2}, which facilitated near-complete densification by 1,250 C. After enhancing sintering, the secondary phases redissolved into the chromite.

  11. The Effect of Carbonaceous Reductant Selection on Chromite Pre-reduction (United States)

    Kleynhans, E. L. J.; Beukes, J. P.; Van Zyl, P. G.; Bunt, J. R.; Nkosi, N. S. B.; Venter, M.


    Ferrochrome (FeCr) production is an energy-intensive process. Currently, the pelletized chromite pre-reduction process, also referred to as solid-state reduction of chromite, is most likely the FeCr production process with the lowest specific electricity consumption, i.e., MWh/t FeCr produced. In this study, the effects of carbonaceous reductant selection on chromite pre-reduction and cured pellet strength were investigated. Multiple linear regression analysis was employed to evaluate the effect of reductant characteristics on the aforementioned two parameters. This yielded mathematical solutions that can be used by FeCr producers to select reductants more optimally in future. Additionally, the results indicated that hydrogen (H)- (24 pct) and volatile content (45.8 pct) were the most significant contributors for predicting variance in pre-reduction and compressive strength, respectively. The role of H within this context is postulated to be linked to the ability of a reductant to release H that can induce reduction. Therefore, contrary to the current operational selection criteria, the authors believe that thermally untreated reductants ( e.g., anthracite, as opposed to coke or char), with volatile contents close to the currently applied specification (to ensure pellet strength), would be optimal, since it would maximize H content that would enhance pre-reduction.

  12. Petrogenetic implications of ophiolitic chromite from Rutland Island, Andaman—a boninitic parentage in supra-subduction setting (United States)

    Ghosh, Biswajit; Pal, Tapan; Bhattacharya, Anindya; Das, Dipankar


    Chromites occurring in different modes have been characterized from ophiolites of Rutland Island, a part of Burma-Andaman-Java subduction complex in the Bay of Bengal. Chromite mainly occurs as massive chromitite pods in mantle ultramafic tectonite and as thin massive chromitite bands together with minor disseminations in crustal ultramafic cumulate. Other than pods chromite also appears as: (a) anhedral restitic grains, (b) strings occurring as exsolved phases and as (c) symplectitic intergrowth with orthopyroxene in mantle tectonite. The chromites occurring as massive chromitite pods and bands contain high Cr (Cr#—73 to 80). Restitic chromite grains in mantle ultramafics are high-Mg (Mg#—58), high-Al (Al2O3—34 wt.%) and intermediate-Cr (Cr#—37) chromites. The bivariant plots of TiO2 wt.% vs 100Cr#, Mg# vs Cr# and Cr-Al-Fe3+ ternary discrimination diagram show that the massive and disseminated chromites fall in the boninitic field. The (Al2O3)melt and (FeO/MgO)melt values for the massive chromitites are estimated as 10 wt.% to 11 wt.% and 0.67-1.78 respectively, corroborating a boninitic parentage. Massive chromitite on Fe2+/Fe3+ vs Al2O3 wt.% and TiO2 wt.% vs Al2O3 wt.% plots occupy mainly the field of supra-subduction zone peridotites. High-Mg olivine (Fo91-93), high-Mg orthopyroxene (En˜90) and high-Cr chromites of Rutland ophiolite are all supportive of boninitic source at supra-subduction zone setting. 57Fe Mössbauer study of chromite of beach placer shows that chromites occur in partly inverse spinel structure with iron distribution as Fe3+(A)Fe2+(A)Fe2+(B) which might be a result of oxidation. The olivine-spinel geothermometry shows 650-700°C re-equilibration temperature which is much lower than near crystallization temperature (950-1,050°C) derived from orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene assemblage. At supra-subduction setting an oxidizing hydrous fluid derived from subducting slab might have a major influence during the formation of Rutland ophiolite

  13. Effect of thermally growth oxides (TGO) on adhesion strength for high purity yitria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) and rare - Earth lanthanum zirconates (LZ) multilayer thermal barrier coating before and after isothermal heat treatment (United States)

    Yunus, Salmi Mohd; Johari, Azril Dahari; Husin, Shuib


    Investigation on the effect of Thermally Growth Oxides (TGO) on the adhesion strength for thermal barrier coating (TBC) was carried out. The TBC under studied was the multilayer systems which consist of NiCrAlY bond coat and YSZ/LZ ceramic coating deposited on Ni-based superalloy substrates. The development of thermally growth oxides (TGO) for both TBC systems after isothermal heat treatment was measured. Isothermal heat treatment was carried out at 1100 ˚C for 100 hours to age the samples. ASTM D4541: Standard Test Method for Pull-off Strength of Coatings using Portable Adhesion Tester was used to measure the adhesion strength of both TBC systems before and after heat treatment. The effect of the developed TGO on the measured adhesion strength was examined and correlation between them was established individually for both TBC systems. The failure mechanism of the both system was also identified; either cohesive or adhesive or the combination of both. The results showed that TGO has more than 50% from the bond coat layer for rare-earth LZ system compared to the typical YSZ system, which was less than 10 % from the bond coat layer. This leads to the lower adhesion strength of rare-earth LZ coating system compared to typical YSZ system. Failure mechanism during the pull-off test also was found to be different for both TBC systems. The typical YSZ system experienced cohesive failure whereas the rare-earth LZ system experienced the combination of cohesive and adhesive failure.

  14. Superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth (United States)

    Simpson, John T [Clinton, TN; D& #x27; Urso, Brian R [Clinton, TN


    A superhydrophobic powder is prepared by coating diatomaceous earth (DE) with a hydrophobic coating on the particle surface such that the coating conforms to the topography of the DE particles. The hydrophobic coating can be a self assembly monolayer of a perfluorinated silane coupling agent. The DE is preferably natural-grade DE where organic impurities have been removed. The superhydrophobic powder can be applied as a suspension in a binder solution to a substrate to produce a superhydrophobic surface on the substrate.

  15. Multifunctional gold coated rare-earth hydroxide fluoride nanotubes for simultaneous wastewater purification and quantitative pollutant determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Da-Quan; Sun, Tian-Ying [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yu, Xue-Feng, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Jia, Yue; Chen, Ming; Wang, Jia-Hong [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Huang, Hao [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chu, Paul K., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)


    Highlights: • The morphology and properties of Ce-doped yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanotubes (YHF:Ce NTs) were investigated. • YHF:Ce NTs were conjugated with Au nanoparticles to produce Au-YHF:Ce nanocomposites. • Au-YHF:Ce NTs showed excellent capability and efficiency in removing Congo red from solutions. • Au-YHF:Ce NTs were utilized to determine the concentration of Congo red based on SERS. - Abstract: Ce-doped yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanotubes (YHF:Ce NTs) with large surface area are synthesized and conjugated with Au nanoparticles (NPs) to produce Au-YHF:Ce nanocomposites. The Au-YHF:Ce NTs have a hollow structure, rough surface, polymer coating, and good surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) properties. They are applied to wastewater treatment to remove Congo red as a typical pollutant. The materials not only remove pollutants rapidly from the wastewater, but also detect trace amounts of the pollutants quantitatively. The multifunctional Au-YHF:Ce NTs have commercial potential as nano-absorbents and nano-detectors in water treatment and environmental monitoring.

  16. Simultaneous determination of rare earth elements in ore and anti-corrosion coating samples using a portable capillary electrophoresis instrument with contactless conductivity detection. (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Anh Huong; Nguyen, Van Ri; Le, Duc Dung; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Binh; Cao, Van Hoang; Nguyen, Thi Kim Dung; Sáiz, Jorge; Hauser, Peter C; Mai, Thanh Duc


    The employment of an in-house-made capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) as a simple and inexpensive solution for simultaneous determination of many rare earth elements (REEs) in ore samples from Vietnam, as well as in anti-corrosion coating samples is reported. 14 REEs (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu) were determined using an electrolyte composed of 20mM arginine and 10mM α-hydroxyisobutyric acid adjusted to pH 4.2 with acetic acid. The best detection limit achieved was 0.24mg/L using the developed CE-C(4)D method. Good agreement between results from CE-C(4)D and the confirmation method (ICP-MS) was achieved, with a coefficient of determination (r(2)) for the two pairs of data of 0.998. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Chromite-rich mafic silicate chondrules in ordinary chondrites: Formation by impact melting (United States)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Rubin, Alan E.


    Chromium-rich chondrules constitute less than 0.1 percent of all ordinary chondrite (OC) chondrules and comprise three groups: chromian-spinel chondrules, chromian-spinel inclusions, and chromite-rich mafic silicate (CRMS) chondrules. Chromian-spinel chondrules (typically 100-300 microns in apparent diameter) exhibit granular, porphyritic and unusual textures and occur mainly in H chondrites. Their morphologies are distinct from the irregularly shaped chromian-spinel inclusions of similar mineralogy. Chromian-spinel chondrules and inclusions consist of grains of chromian-spinel embedded in plagioclase (Pl) or mesostasis of Pl composition. Many also contain accessory ilmenite (Ilm), high-Ca pyroxene (Px), merrillite (Mer), and rare olivine (Ol); some exhibit concentric mineral and chemical zoning. CRMS chondrules (300-1100 microns in apparent diameter) are generally larger than chromian-spinel chondrules and occur in all metamorphosed OC groups. Most CRMS chondrules are nearly spherical although a few are ellipsoidal with a/b aspect ratios ranging up to 1.7. Textures include cryptocrystalline, granular, radial, barred, and porphyritic varieties; some contain apparently relict grains. The chondrules consist of chromite (Chr), Ol and Pl, along with accessory Mer, troilite (Tr), metallic Fe-Ni (Met), Px and Ilm. The mesostasis in CRMS chondrules is nearly opaque in transmitted light; thus, they can be easily recognized in the optical microscope. Based on the similarity of mineralogy and chemistry between CRMS chondrules of different textures (opaque chromite-rich mesostasis, skeletal morphology of Ol grains, similar bulk compositions) we suggest that these chondrules form a genetically related population.

  18. Crystallization of high-Ca chromium garnet upon interaction of serpentine, chromite, and Ca-bearing hydrous fluid (United States)

    Chepurov, A. A.; Turkin, A. I.; Pokhilenko, N. P.


    The results of experimental modeling of the conditions of crystallization of high-Ca chromium garnets in the system serpentine-chromite-Ca-Cr-bearing hydrous fluid at a pressure of 5 GPa and temperature of 1300°C are reported. The mineral association including quantitatively predominant high-Mg olivine and diopside-rich clinopyroxene, bright-green garnet, and newly formed chrome spinel was formed. Garnet mostly crystallized around primary chromite grains and was characterized by a high concentration of CaO and Cr2O3. According to the chemical composition, garnets obtained are close to the uvarovite-pyrope varieties, which enter the composition of relatively rare natural paragenesis of garnet wehrlite. The experimental data obtained clearly show that high-Ca chromium garnets are formed in the reaction of chromite-bearing peridotite and Ca-rich fluid at high P-T parameters.

  19. The 3.1 Ga Nuggihalli chromite deposits, Western Dhawar craton (India)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, Ria; Mondal, Sisir K.; Frei, Robert


    The Nuggihalli greenstone belt is part of the older greenstone belts (3.4 - 3.0 Ga) in the Western Dharwar Craton, southern India. This greenstone sequence consists of conformable metavolcanic and metasedimentary supracrustal rock assemblages that belong to the Sargur Group. Sill-like ultramafic...... of aggregation and breakup of supercontinents. The 3.1 Ga chromite deposits of the Nuggihalli greenstone belt are part of the global komatiitic surge and are perhaps related to the amalgamation stage of the supercontinent 'Ur' in the southern hemisphere, which is believed to have been stable at ˜ 3.0 Ga....

  20. Study to improve the breaking strength of the no-bake chromite sand-furan resin cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntwagae M.


    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of number of washings, curing time and heat treatment on the breaking strength of no-bake chromite sand-furan resin cores. The Hevi chromite sand produced by a single stage washing of chromite sand was found to exhibit lower breaking strength in service. Forty five samples of no-bake chromite sand mixes were prepared with furan resin at room temperature and 39% humidity from chromite sand washed in single and two stages and cured at 2, 4 and 24 hours. Eighteen of the samples washed in single and two stages were tested for breaking strength without heat treatment, while the 27 obtained from single stage washing sand mix were heated to 900oC and held at 12, 14 and 16 minutes before cooling. Re-washing gave an appreciable increase in breaking strength only for samples cured for 24 hours. The results obtained showed that highest breaking strength occurred in heat treated and cured samples with the highest occurring at curing period of 24 hours and 900oC with holding time of 16 minutes. For re-washed samples held in room atmosphere, there was a decrease in breaking strength compared to the single stage washed samples. The implication of this work is that Hevi chromite sand has better breaking strength when heat treated at 900°C and held in the temperature for 16 minutes. Evidently, the air cured samples may have been affected by the air humidity.

  1. Synthesis and performance evaluation of Al/Fe oxide coated diatomaceous earth in groundwater defluoridation: Towards fluorosis mitigation. (United States)

    Izuagie, Anthony A; Gitari, Wilson M; Gumbo, Jabulani R


    The quest to reduce fluoride in groundwater to WHO acceptable limit of 1.5 mg/L to prevent diseases such as teeth mottling and skeletal fluorosis was the motivation for this study. Al/Fe oxide-modified diatomaceous earth was prepared and its defluoridation potential evaluated by batch method. The sorbent with pHpzc 6.0 ± 0.2 is very reactive. The maximum 82.3% fluoride removal attained in 50 min using a dosage of 0.3 g/100 mL in 10 mg/L fluoride was almost attained within 5 min contact time; 81.3% being the percent fluoride removal at 5 min contact time. The sorbent has a usage advantage of not requiring solution pH adjustment before it can exhibit its fluoride removal potential. A substantial amount of fluoride (93.1%) was removed from solution when a sorbent dosage of 0.6 g/100 mL was contacted with 10 mg/L fluoride solution for 50 min at a mixing rate of 200 rpm. The optimum adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was 7.633 mg/g using a solution containing initially 100 mg/L fluoride. The equilibrium pH of the suspensions ranged between 6.77 and 8.26 for 10 and 100 mg/L fluoride solutions respectively. Contacting the sorbent at a dosage of 0.6 g/100 mL with field water containing 5.53 mg/L at 200 rpm for 50 min reduced the fluoride content to 0.928 mg/L-a value below the upper limit of WHO guideline of 1.5 mg/L fluoride in drinking water. The sorption data fitted to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms but better with the former. The sorption data obeyed only the pseudo-second-order kinetic, which implies that fluoride was chemisorbed.

  2. Earth mortars and earth-lime renders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernandes


    Full Text Available Earth surface coatings play a decorative architectural role, apart from their function as wall protection. In Portuguese vernacular architecture, earth mortars were usually applied on stone masonry, while earth renders and plasters were used on indoors surface coatings. Limestone exists only in certain areas of the country and consequently lime was not easily available everywhere, especially on granite and schist regions where stone masonry was a current building technique. In the central west coast of Portugal, the lime slaking procedure entailed slaking the quicklime mixed with earth (sandy soil, in a pit; the resulting mixture would then be combined in a mortar or plaster. This was also the procedure for manufactured adobes stabilized with lime. Adobe buildings with earth-lime renderings and plasters were also traditional in the same region, using lime putty and lime wash for final coat and decoration. Classic decoration on earth architecture from the 18th-19th century was in many countries a consequence of the François Cointeraux (1740-1830 manuals - Les Cahiers d'Architecture Rurale" (1793 - a French guide for earth architecture and building construction. This manual arrived to Portugal in the beginning of XIX century, but was never translated to Portuguese. References about decoration for earth houses were explained on this manual, as well as procedures about earth-lime renders and ornamentation of earth walls; in fact, these procedures are exactly the same as the ones used in adobe buildings in this Portuguese region. The specific purpose of the present paper is to show some cases of earth mortars, renders and plasters on stone buildings in Portugal and to explain the methods of producing earth-lime renders, and also to show some examples of rendering and coating with earth-lime in Portuguese adobe vernacular architecture.

  3. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)


    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  4. Microbial leaching of chromite overburden from Sukinda mines, Orissa, India using Aspergillus niger (United States)

    Biswas, Supratim; Samanta, Saikat; Dey, Rajib; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Banerjee, Pataki C.


    Leaching of nickel and cobalt from two physical grades (S1, 125-190 μm, coarser and S3, 53-75 μm, finer) of chromite overburden was achieved by treating the overburden (2% pulp density) with 21-d culture filtrate of an Aspergillus niger strain grown in sucrose medium. Metal dissolution increases with ore roasting at 600°C and decreasing particle size due to the alteration of microstructural properties involving the conversion of goethite to hematite and the increase in surface area and porosity as evident from X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (DT-TGA), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). About 65% Ni and 59% Co were recovered from the roasted S3 ore employing bioleaching against 26.87% Ni and 31.3% Co using an equivalent amount of synthetic oxalic acid under identical conditions. The results suggest that other fungal metabolites in the culture filtrate played a positive role in the bioleaching process, making it an efficient green approach in Ni and Co recovery from lateritic chromite overburden.

  5. Characterizing toxic Cr(VI) contamination in chromite mine overburden dump and its bacterial remediation. (United States)

    Dhal, B; Das, N N; Thatoi, H N; Pandey, B D


    Cr(VI) generated due to natural oxidation of chromite mineral present in chromite mine overburden (COB) dumps of Sukinda, India, has been characterized by different physico-chemical methods. The Cr(VI) was found to be associated with goethite matrix at a contamination level of 500 mg Cr(VI)kg(-1) of COB. Bacillus sp. isolated from the overburden sample exhibiting high tolerance to the hexavalent chromium, was used for the remediation of Cr(VI) in the overburden. The process was optimized while varying the parameters such as pH (2-9), pulp density (10-60%) and temperature (25-40 °C). Optimal reduction of more than 98% of Cr(VI) in the COB sample was achieved in 16 h at pH∼7.0 and 60% pulp density with the Bacillus sp. (4.05 × 10(7)cells mL(-1)) in absence of media. The exponential rate equation yielded rate constant value of 2.14 × 10(-1)h(-1) at 60% pulp density. The mode of bio-reduction of Cr(VI) in the overburden sample was established by FT-IR, XRD, EPMA and SEM-EDS studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Geochemistry and mineralogy of platinum-group elements (PGE in chromites from Centralnoye I, Polar Urals, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pašava


    Full Text Available The Polar Urals region of northern Russia is well known for large chromium (Cr-bearing massifs with major chromite orebodies, including the Centralnoye I deposit in the Ray-Iz ultramafic massif of the Ural ophiolite belt. New data on platinum (Pt-group elements (PGE, geochemistry and mineralogy of the host dunite shows that the deposit has anomalous iridium (Ir values. These values indicate the predominance of ruthenium–osmium–iridium (Ru–Os–Ir-bearing phases among the platinum-group mineral (PGM assemblage that is typical of mantle-hosted chromite ores. Low Pt values in chromites and increased Pt values in host dunites might reflect the presence of cumulus PGM grains. The most abundant PGM found in the chromite is erlichmanite (up to 15 μm. Less common are cuproiridsite (up to 5 μm, irarsite (up to 4–5 μm, and laurite (up to 4 μm. The predominant sulfide is heazlewoodite, in intergrowth with Ni–Fe alloys, sporadically with pentlandite, and rarely with pure nickel. Based on the average PGE values and estimated Cr-ore resources, the Centralnoye I deposit can be considered as an important resource of PGE.

  7. Operasjon Chromite


    Meyer, Eystein Lockwood; Ydstebø, Palle


    Amfibielandsettingen i Inchon 15. september 1950 er kanskje det oftest benyttede eksempelet på suksessfull operasjonell manøver. General Douglas MacArthur snudde der en vanskelig situasjon for FN og de sør-koreanske styrkene i Pusan perimeteret til seier over den nord-koreanske arméen, og gjenopprettet grensen ved den 38. breddegrad i løpet av to uker. Siden det er 65 år siden det hendte, og at en ny langtidsmelding for Forsvaret skal vedtas av Stortinget våren 2016 er det betimelig å v...

  8. Compositional variations in the Mesoarchean chromites of the Nuggihalli schist belt, Western Dharwar Craton (India)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, Ria; Mondal, Sisir Kanti; Rosing, Minik Thorleif


    .01-0.38; Cr-ratio = 0.02-0.99) and in silicate-rich chromitite (Mg-ratio = 0.06-0.48; Cr-ratio = 0.60-0.99). In the massive chromitites, the sub-solidus re-equilibration for chromite is less or absent. However, the re-equilibration is prominent in the co-existing interstitial and included olivine (Fo(96...... has been used to compute the nature of the parental melt. The parental melt calculations indicate derivation from a high-Mg komatiitic basalt that is similar to the composition of the komatiitic rocks reported from the greenstone sequences of the Western Dharwar Craton. Tectonic discrimination...

  9. Experimental study on solid state reduction of chromite with rising temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kekkonen, M.; Syynimaa, A.; Holappa, L.


    The solid state reduction of preoxidized sintered chromite pellets, raw pellets, process pellets and lumpy ores have been studied with rising temperature 700-1520 deg C under CO-atmosphere in order to better simulate the conditions in the upper part of a real submerged arc furnace. According to the reduction degree curves the reduction behaviour of chromite pellets seems to be similar. The reduction rate was slow at the beginning but increased rapidly when the temperature reached about 1000 deg C. The final reduction degree was highest in the case of process pellets and lowest in the case of raw pellet. In the case of preoxidized pellets there was not much difference of the reduction rate and final reduction degree between different oxidation states. In the case of lumpy ores the reduction rate and the final reduction degree was much lower compared to the pellets. Optical photographs, phase and microanalysis show that the reduction has proceeded further in the surface of the samples and confirmed also that the reduction degree remained lower in the case of raw pellet and lumpy ores which was also seen from the reduction degree curves. According to the experiments in the case of preoxidized pellets the effect of oxidation state on the reduction rate was not observed due to small difference in the oxidation state of the samples. But when comparing the reduction of preoxidized pellets and unoxidised raw pellet we can say that preoxidation promotes the reduction. The final reduction degree of the raw pellet remained lower than in the case of preoxidized pellets. (orig.)

  10. Platinum-Group Minerals and Other Accessory Phases in Chromite Deposits of the Alapaevsk Ophiolite, Central Urals, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Zaccarini


    Full Text Available An electron microprobe study has been carried out on platinum-group minerals, accessory phases, and chromite in several chromite deposits of the Alapaevsk ophiolite (Central Urals, Russia namely the Bakanov Kluch, Kurmanovskoe, Lesnoe, 3-d Podyony Rudnik, Bol’shaya Kruglyshka, and Krest deposits. These deposits occur in partially to totally serpentinized peridotites. The microprobe data shows that the chromite composition varies from Cr-rich to Al-rich. Tiny platinum-group minerals (PGM, 1–10 µm in size, have been found in the chromitites. The most abundant PGM is laurite, accompanied by minor cuproiridsite and alloys in the system Os–Ir–Ru. A small grain (about 20 μm was found in the interstitial serpentine of the Bakanov Kluch chromitite, and its calculated stoichiometry corresponds to (Ni,Fe5P. Olivine, occurring in the silicate matrix or included in fresh chromite, has a mantle-compatible composition in terms of major and minor elements. Several inclusions of amphibole, Na-rich phlogopite, and clinopyroxene have been identified. The bimodal Cr–Al composition of chromite probably corresponds to a vertical distribution in the ophiolite sequence, implying formation of Cr-rich chromitites in the deep mantle, and Al-rich chromitites close to the Moho-transition zone, in a supra-subduction setting. The presence of abundant hydrous silicate inclusions, such as amphibole and phlogopite, suggests that the Alapaevsk chromitites crystallized as a result of the interaction between a melt enriched in fluids and peridotites. Laurite and cuproiridsite are considered to be magmatic in origin, i.e., entrapped as solid phases during the crystallization of chromite at high temperatures. The sulfur fugacity was relatively high to allow the precipitation of Ir-bearing sulfides, but below the Os–OsS2 buffer. The alloys in the system Os–Ir–Ru are classified as secondary PGM, i.e., formed at low temperature during the serpentinization process. The

  11. An Image Analysis-Based Methodology for Chromite Exploration through Opto-Geometric Parameters; a Case Study in Faryab Area, SE of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansur Ziaii


    Full Text Available Traditional methods of chromite exploration are mostly based on geophysical techniques and drilling operations. They are expensive and time-consuming. Furthermore, they suffer from several shortcomings such as lack of sufficient geophysical density contrast. In order to overcome these drawbacks, the current research work is carried out to introduce a novel, automatic and opto-geometric image analysis (OGIA technique for extracting the structural properties of chromite minerals using polished thin sections prepared from outcrops. Several images are taken from polished thick sections through a reflected-light microscope equipped with a digital camera. The images are processed in filtering and segmentation steps to extract the worthwhile information of chromite minerals. The directional density of chromite minerals, as a textural property, is studied in different inclinations, and the main trend of chromite growth is identified. Microscopic inclination of chromite veins can be generalized for exploring the macroscopic layers of chromite buried under either the surface quaternary alluvium or overburden rocks. The performance of the OGIA methodology is tested in a real case study, where several exploratory boreholes are drilled. The results obtained show that the microscopic investigation outlines through image analysis are in good agreement with the results obtained from interpretation of boreholes. The OGIA method represents a reliable map of the absence or existence of chromite ore deposits in different horizontal surfaces. Directing the exploration investigations toward more susceptible zones (potentials and preventing from wasting time and money are the major contributions of the OGIA methodology. It leads to make an optimal managerial and economical decision.

  12. Detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue in spinel-based glass-ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Chang-Zhong [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Tang, Yuanyuan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Lee, Po-Heng [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Liu, Chengshuai, E-mail: [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550009 (China); Shih, Kaimin, E-mail: [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Li, Fangbai [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China)


    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue in spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix. All Cr(VI) species is reduced to Cr(III) and most chromium contents are incorporated into spinel structure where the residual chromium are resided in the glass networks. - Highlights: • COPR was detoxified and immobilized in a spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix. • Cr-rich crystalline phase was determined to be MgCr{sub 1.32}Fe{sub 0.19}Al{sub 0.49}O{sub 4} spinel. • The partitioning ratio of Cr into spinel in the glass-ceramic can be up to 77%. • No Cr(VI) was observed after conversion of COPR into a glass-ceramic. • TCLP results demonstrate the superiority of the final product in immobilizing Cr. - Abstract: A promising strategy for the detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) in a spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix is reported in this study. In the search for a more chemically durable matrix for COPR, the most critical crystalline phase for Cr immobilization was found to be a spinel solid solution with a chemical composition of MgCr{sub 1.32}Fe{sub 0.19}Al{sub 0.49}O{sub 4}. Using Rietveld quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis, we identified this final product is with the phases of spinel (3.5 wt.%), diopside (5.2 wt.%), and some amorphous contents (91.2 wt.%). The partitioning ratio of Cr reveals that about 77% of the Cr was incorporated into the more chemically durable spinel phase. The results of Cr K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy show that no Cr(VI) was observed after conversion of COPR into a glass-ceramic, which indicates successful detoxification of Cr(VI) into Cr(III) in the COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic. The leaching performances of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic were compared with a prolonged acid-leaching test, and the results demonstrate the superiority of the COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic matrix in the

  13. A comparison of selected Precambrian Brazilian chromitites: Chromite, PGE-PGM, and Re/Os as parental source indicators (United States)

    Girardi, V. A. V.; Ferrario, A.; Correia, C. T.; Diella, V.


    Mineralogical and geochemical studies were carried out in chromitites belonging to the mafic-ultramafic bodies of Niquelândia, Luanga, and Campo Formoso, which are, respectively, included in the Goiás Massif and the Amazon and São Francisco cratons. The main platinum-group minerals (PGM) included or associated with chromite grains are laurite in Niquelândia and Campo Formoso and sperrylite and braggite in Luanga. The most common primary base metal sulfides (BMS) are pentlandite, chalcopyrite, and minor pyrrhotite. Also present are base metal alloys (BMA), such as awaruite, and the BMS millerite, pyrite, and copper as secondary mineral phases linked to later alteration process. The Luanga chromites display the lowest Cr 2O 3/Al 2O 3 and Cr 2O 3/FeO t ratios. The chondrite-normalized profiles are strongly enriched in the platinum PGE subgroup (PPGE, Pt, Pd, Rh). The average Pd/Ir ratio (24.2) and 187Os/ 188Os values (0.17869-0.18584) are very high. Niquelândia chromites have higher Cr 2O 3/Al 2O 3 and Cr 2O 3/FeO t ratios than Luanga. Its PGE contents are low and chondrite-normalized profiles depleted, mainly in the PPGE subgroup. The average Pd/Ir ratio (0.45) and 187Os/ 188Os values (0.12598-0.12777) are low. Campo Formoso chromites have the highest Cr 2O 3/Al 2O 3 and Cr 2O 3/FeO t ratios; its average Pd/Ir ratio (0.72) and chondrite-normalized profiles (except the pronounced Ru spike) are closer to those of Niquelândia. The remarkable differences in terms of chromite bulk-composition, PGE contents and patterns, Pd/Ir ratios, and 187Os/ 188Os values associated with probable distinctions in the inferred geochemical compositions of the respective parental magmas indicate that the Luanga and Niquelândia complexes originated from distinct parental sources. Geochemical and isotopic features indicate that Luanga chromitites and associated rocks are consistent with a parental magma, either originated from an enriched mantle reservoir or strongly contaminated

  14. Hexavalent chromium reduction by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria indigenous to chromite mine overburden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey Satarupa


    Full Text Available Microbiological analysis of overburden samples collected from chromite mining areas of Orissa, India revealed that they are rich in microbial density as well as diversity and dominated by Gramnegative (58% bacteria. The phenotypically distinguishable bacterial isolates (130 showed wide degree of tolerance to chromium (2-8 mM when tested in peptone yeast extract glucose agar medium. Isolates (92 tolerating 2 mM chromium exhibited different degrees of Cr+6 reducing activity in chemically defined Vogel Bonner (VB broth and complex KSC medium. Three potent isolates, two belonging to Arthrobacter spp. and one to Pseudomonas sp. were able to reduce more than 50 and 80% of 2 mM chromium in defined and complex media respectively. Along with Cr+6 (MIC 8.6-17.8 mM, the isolates showed tolerance to Ni+2, Fe+3, Cu+2 and Co+2 but were extremely sensitive to Hg+2 followed by Cd+2, Mn+2 and Zn+2. In addition, they were resistant to antibiotics like penicillin, methicillin, ampicillin, neomycin and polymyxin B. During growth under shake-flask conditions, Arthrobacter SUK 1201 and SUK 1205 showed 100% reduction of 2 mM Cr+6 in KSC medium with simultaneous formation of insoluble precipitates of chromium salts. Both the isolates were also equally capable of completely reducing the Cr+6 present in mine seepage when grown in mine seepage supplemented with VB concentrate.

  15. Microstructural analyses of Cr(VI) speciation in chromite ore processing Residue (COPR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHRYSOCHOOU, MARIA; FAKRA, SIRINE C .; Marcus, Matthew A.; Moon, Deok Hyun; Dermatas, Dimitris


    The speciation and distribution of Cr(VI) in the solid phase was investigated for two types of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) found at two deposition sites in the United States: gray-black (GB) granular and hard brown (HB) cemented COPR. COPR chemistry and mineralogy were investigated using micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy and micro-X-ray diffraction, complemented by laboratory analyses. GB COPR contained 30percent of its total Cr(VI) (6000 mg/kg) as large crystals(>20 ?m diameter) of a previously unreported Na-rich analog of calcium aluminum chromate hydrates. These Cr(VI)-rich phases are thought to be vulnerable to reductive and pH treatments. More than 50percent of the Cr(VI) was located within nodules, not easily accessible to dissolved reductants, and bound to Fe-rich hydrogarnet, hydrotalcite, and possibly brucite. These phases are stable over a large pH range, thus harder to dissolve. Brownmilleritewasalso likely associated with physical entrapment of Cr(VI) in the interior of nodules. HB COPR contained no Cr(VI)-rich phases; all Cr(VI) was diffuse within the nodules and absent from the cementing matrix, with hydrogarnet and hydrotalcite being the main Cr(VI) binding phases. Treatment ofHBCOPRis challenging in terms of dissolving the acidity-resistant, inaccessible Cr(VI) compounds; the same applies to ~;;50percent of Cr(VI) in GB COPR.

  16. Application of the Rietveld method to assess chromium(VI) speciation in chromite ore processing residue. (United States)

    Chrysochoou, Maria; Dermatas, Dimitris


    The Rietveld method allows the quantification of crystalline phases and amorphous material identified by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and other diffraction methods. The method assists in determining the speciation of contaminants in solid matrices both qualitatively and quantitatively in a statistically defensible approach, as it does not focus on a microscale. Rietveld was applied to chromite ore processing residue (COPR), a cementitious waste containing hexavalent chromium. Calcium aluminum chromium oxide hydrates (CACs) were the crystalline phases identified by XRPD that bind Cr(6+) in COPR according to their chemical formula. Rietveld quantification, combined with mass balances on Cr(6+), showed that CACs may bind Cr(6+) in variable percentages, ranging from 25% to 85%. Analysis of duplicate samples showed that material variability is the predominant factor of uncertainty in evaluating the role of CACs in Cr(6+) speciation, provided that a consistent quantification strategy is pursued. The choice of strategy was performed on the basis of the pertinent literature, preliminary analyses of the equipment and the software settings, and mass balances. The correlation between the average CAC-bound Cr(6+) concentration and the total Cr(6+) for five samples (R(2)=0.94), extracted from different zones and soil borings, suggests that CACs are a primary sink for Cr(6+) in COPR.

  17. From spin induced ferroelectricity to dipolar glasses: Spinel chromites and mixed delafossites (United States)

    Maignan, A.; Martin, C.; Singh, K.; Simon, Ch.; Lebedev, O. I.; Turner, S.


    Magnetoelectric multiferroics showing coupling between polarization and magnetic order are attracting much attention. For instance, they could be used in memory devices. Metal-transition oxides are provided several examples of inorganic magnetoelectric multiferroics. In the present short review, spinel and delafossite chromites are described. For the former, an electric polarization is evidenced in the ferrimagnetic state for ACr2O4 polycrystalline samples (A=Ni, Fe, Co). The presence of a Jahn-Teller cation such as Ni2+ at the A site is shown to yield larger polarization values. In the delafossites, substitution by V3+ at the Cr or Fe site in CuCrO2 (CuFeO2) suppresses the complex antiferromagnetic structure at the benefit of a spin glass state. The presence of cation disorder, probed by transmission electron microscopy, favors relaxor-like ferroelectricity. The results on the ferroelectricity of ferrimagnets and insulating spin glasses demonstrate that, in this research field, transition-metal oxides are worth to be studied.

  18. Structural, Optical, and Magnetic Characterization of Spinel Zinc Chromite Nanocrystallines Synthesised by Thermal Treatment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahudeen A. Gene


    Full Text Available The present study reports the structural and magnetic characterization of spinel zinc chromite (ZnCr2O4 nanocrystallines synthesized by thermal treatment method. The samples were calcined at different temperatures in the range of 773 to 973 K. Polyvinylpyrrolidone was used to control the agglomeration of the nanoparticles. The average particle size of the synthesized nanocrystals was determined by powder X-ray diffraction which shows that the crystallite size increases from 19 nm at 773 K to 24 nm at 973 K and the result was in good agreement with the transmission electron microscopy images. The elemental composition of the samples was determined by energy dispersed X-ray spectroscopy which confirmed the presence of Zn, Cr, and O in the final products. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy also confirmed the presence of metal oxide bands for all the samples calcined at different temperature. The band gap energy was calculated from UV-vis reflectance spectra using the Kubelka-Munk function and the band gap energy of the samples was found to decrease from 4.03 eV at 773 K to 3.89 eV at 973 K. The magnetic properties were also demonstrated by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, the presence of unpaired electrons was confirmed, and the resonant magnetic field and the g-factor of the calcined samples were also studied.

  19. Distribution of platinum-group elements and Os isotopes in chromite ores from Mayarí-Baracoa Ophiolitic Belt (eastern Cuba) (United States)

    Gervilla, F.; Proenza, J. A.; Frei, R.; González-Jiménez, J. M.; Garrido, C. J.; Melgarejo, J. C.; Meibom, A.; Díaz-Martínez, R.; Lavaut, W.


    The Mayarí-Baracoa ophiolitic belt in eastern Cuba hosts abundant chromite deposits of historical economic importance. Among these deposits, the chemistry of chromite ore is very variable, ranging from high Al (Cr#=0.43-0.55) to high Cr (Cr#=0.60-0.83) compositions. Platinum-group element (PGE) contents are also variable (from 33 ppb to 1.88 ppm) and correlate positively with the Cr# of the ore. Bulk PGE abundances correlate negatively with the Pd/Ir ratio showing that chromite concentrates mainly Os, Ir and Ru which gives rise to the characteristic negatively sloped, chrondrite-normalized PGE patterns in many chromitites. This is consistent with the mineralogy of PGEs, which is dominated by members of the laurite-erlichmanite solid solution series (RuS2-OsS2), with minor amounts of irarsite (IrAsS), Os-Ir alloys, Ru-Os-Ir-Fe-Ni alloys, Ni-Rh-As, and sulfides of Ir, Os, Rh, Cu, Ni, and/or Pd. Measured 187Os/188Os ratios (from 0.1304 to 0.1230) are among the lower values reported for podiform chromitites. The 187Os/188Os ratios decrease with increasing whole-rock PGE contents and Cr# of chromite. Furthermore, γOs values of all but one of the chromitite samples are negative indicating a subchondiritc mantle source. γOs decrease with increasing bulk Os content and decreasing 187Re/188Os ratios. These mineralogical and geochemical features are interpreted in terms of chromite crystallization from melts varying in composition from back-arc basalts (Al-rich chromite) to boninites (Cr-rich chromite) in a suprasubduction zone setting. Chromite crystallization occurs as a consequence of magma mixing and assimilation of preexisting gabbro sills at the mantle-crust transition zone. Cr#, PGE abundances, and bulk Os isotopic composition of chromitites are determined by the combined effects of mantle source heterogeneity, the degree of partial melting, the extent of melt-rock interactions, and the local sulfur fugacity. Small-scale (μm to cm) chemical and isotopic

  20. Spark plasma sintering of hydrothermally derived ultrafine Ca doped lanthanum chromite powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendón-Angeles, J. C.


    Full Text Available Lanthanum chromite nano-particles, with a composition of La0.9Ca0.1CrO3 and La0.8Ca0.2CrO3, were produced by 1 h of hydrothermal reaction at 400 and 425°C respectively. The sintering of the powders was conducted using a spark plasma apparatus over the temperature range 1300-1550ºC for 1 min with a constant loading pressure of 45 MPa. Additional sintering experiments using conventional firing were carried out for comparison. Fully densified (98 % r.d. lanthanum chromite pellets with fine equiaxial grains 2.3 μm in size were obtained using the SPS (spark plasma sintering method. In contrast, a maximum relative density of 97 % was produced using La0.8Ca0.2CrO3 sintered conventionally at 1400ºC for 300 min, and the average grain size of the resulting sintered sample was 6 μm.

    Partículas ultrafinas de cromita de lantano, con una composición de La0.9Ca0.1CrO3 y La0.8Ca0.2CrO3, se obtuvieron después de 1 hora de síntesis hidrotermal a las temperaturas de 400 y 425°C respectivamente. Los compuestos obtenidos, con un tamaño de partícula de ~ 200 nm, se caracterizaron utilizando las técnicas de DRX, MEB y MET. La sinterización de estos polvos se efectuó en un equipo de chispa de plasma en el rango de temperatura de 1300-1500°C durante 1 min, y a una presión de compactación de 45 MPa. Ambos polvos también se sinterizaron siguiendo un tratamiento térmico convencional, en aire, con el propósito de comparar ambos métodos de sinterización. Las muestras de cromita de lantano sinterizadas por plasma presentaban una densidad relativa del 98 % (/t; y una microestructura monofásica con granos equaxiales con un tamaño medio de grano menor de 2.3 μm. En contraste, la composición La0.8Ca0.2CrO3, sinterizada a 1400°C/300 min, por métodos convencionales alcanzó una densidad relativa máxima del 97 % y su microestructura estaba formada por una sola fase con un tamaño medio de grano de 6 μm.

  1. Lanthanum chromite materials as potential symmetrical electrodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Morales, J. C.


    Full Text Available A commonly used interconnector material has been tested as electrode for a new concept of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, where the same material could be used, simultaneously, as interconnector, anode and cathode. We have found that a typical substituted chromite, such as La0.7Ca0.3CrO3-δ (LCC can be considered a good candidate for such configuration, due to its high electronic conductivity in both reducing and oxidising conditions, and moderate catalytic properties for oxygen reduction and hydrogen oxidation. The symmetrical design renders performances of 100 mWcm-2 at 950ºC, using O2 and H2 as oxidant and fuel respectively. Performances exceeding 300 mWcm-2 can be predicted for a 100μm-thick YSZ electrolyte.

    Un material comúnmente utilizado como interconector ha sido probado como electrodo para un nuevo concepto de Pila de Combustible de Óxidos Sólido, en el cual el mismo material se utiliza, simultáneamente, como interconector, ánodo y cátodo. Hemos encontrado que una cromita típica como La0.7Ca0.3CrO3-δ (LCC puede ser considerada una buena candidata para dicha configuración, debido a sus altas conductividades eléctricas tanto en condiciones reductoras como oxidantes y una aceptable actividad catalítica para la reducción del oxígeno y la oxidación del hidrógeno. El diseño simétrico permite obtener rendimientos del orden de 100mWcm-2 a 950ºC, utilizando O2 e H2 como oxidante y combustible, respectivamente. Rendimientos que superan los 300mWcm-2 pueden predecirse para pilas con electrolitos de YSZ de 100 μm de grosor.

  2. Calcium- and Cobalt-doped Yttrium Chromites as an Interconnect Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Kyung J.; Cramer, Carolyn N.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Coffey, Greg W.; Marina, Olga A.


    The structural, thermal and electrical characteristics of calcium- and cobalt-doped yttrium chromites were studied for a potential use as the interconnect material in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) as well as other high temperature electrochemical and thermoelectric devices. The Y0.8Ca0.2Cr1-xCoxO3±δ (x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) compositions had single phase orthorhombic perovskite structures in the wide range of oxygen pressures. Sintering behavior was remarkably enhanced upon cobalt doping and densities 95% and 97% of theoretical density were obtained after sintering at 1300oC in air, when x was 0.2 and 0.3, respectively. The electrical conductivity in both oxidizing and reducing atmospheres was significantly improved with cobalt content, and values of 49 and 10 S/cm at 850oC and 55 and 14 S/cm at 950oC in air and forming gas, respectively, were reported for x=0.2. The conductivity increase was attributed to the charge carrier density increase upon cobalt substitution for chromium confirmed with Seebeck measurements. The thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) was increased with cobalt content and closely matched to that of an 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte for 0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.2. The chemical compatibility between Y0.8Ca0.2Cr1-xCoxO3±δ and YSZ was evaluated firing the two at 1400oC and no reaction products were found if x value was kept lower than 0.2.

  3. Rapid synthesis of nanocrystalline magnesium chromite and ferrite ceramics with concentrated sunlight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalsky, Ronald, E-mail:; Peterson, Brian A.; Pfromm, Peter H.


    Highlights: • Refractory ceramics are produced via rapid solar-thermal processing. • The formed chromite and ferrite spinels have a high specific surface area. • The presence of transition metal oxides enables reduction of Mg cations. • Dinitrogen is reduced only by chromium. • The spinels are stable in reducing environments and in the presence of solar radiation. - Abstract: High-temperature refractory ceramics and catalysts such as MgM{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Cr, Fe) are produced conventionally via energy-intensive solid-state syntheses (using 0.44–10 GJ electricity for sintering per ton oxide, equivalent to combustion of 48–1088 kg coal per ton oxide). This article reports rapid production of 17 ± 2 mol% MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 8.6 ± 0.9 mol% MgCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} after 30 min at 1200 °C employing 0.82 kW m{sup −2} sunlight concentrated at a geometric ratio of about 900 m{sup 2} m{sup −2} using a Fresnel lens. Solar radiation promotes the diffusion-limited ferrite formation (42 ± 5 μmol MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} per mol Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} s{sup −1} vs. 26 ± 3 μmol mol{sup −1} s{sup −1} in absence of sunlight) while the transition metals promote the reduction of Mg{sup 2+}. The nanocrystalline and macroporous spinel has a specific surface area of 9.7–11.9 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} (in the order of sol–gel synthesis methods) and is stable under extreme conditions, i.e., high temperature, solar radiation, and reducing agents.

  4. Influence of the charge of chromite-magnesite dust on the effectiveness of its removal in a bag filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saranchuk, V.I.; Maslov, A.E.; Rekun, V.V.


    This paper presents results of work on determination of the effectiveness of filtering of chromite-magnesite dust with similar and different charging of the particles and the surface of the filter cloth. On the basis of investigations of the contact interactions of mineral dusts with polymer materials a device was developed for charging of a dust aerosol which makes it possible to charge neutral and recharge positively charged particles to a negative polarity. The results presented show an increase in the effectiveness of removal of the dust from 97.33 to 98.49% as the result of the change in its charge with the use of the charging device.

  5. Chromites from the Gogoł;ów-Jordanów Serpentinite Massif (SW Poland) - evidence of the arc setting magmatism (United States)

    Wojtulek, Piotr; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Bukała, Michał


    The Gogołów-Jordanów Serpentinite Massif (GJSM) is a peridotitic member of the Variscan Ślęża Ophiolite (SW Poland). Chromitite veinlets and pockets occur in the central part of the massif in the Czernica Hill area within completely serpentinized rocks. Chromitites consist of rounded chromite grains up to 4 cm and chlorite filling the interstices. The veins are embedded in serpentine-olivine-chlorite aggregates. Chemical composition of chromite occurring in chromitites defines two varieties. Chromite I (Cr# = 0.49 - 0.58) contains 23.32 - 28.36 wt.% Al2O3, 40.29 - 48.10 wt.% Cr2O3, 15.10 - 15.50 wt.% FeO, 14.50 - 15.50 wt.% MgO and ~0.1 wt.% TiO2. Chromite II (Cr# = 0.71 - 0.73) contains 13.83 - 15.24 wt.% Al2O3, 54.85 - 56.65 wt.% Cr2O3, 16.71 - 18.04 wt.% FeO, 10.62 - 11.59 wt.% MgO and 0.1 wt.% TiO2. Chromite grains are composed mostly of chromite I. Chromite II forms irregular spongy domains up to 150 µm, located at fissures or forming grain rims. The bulk chromitite composition of the massive ores reveals Rb, Ba, Pb and Sb enrichment relative to primitive mantle; Pt and Pd (up to 36 ppb) are also enriched relative to primitive mantle. Other phases coexisting with chromite are chlorite and olivine. Chlorite (Fe# = 0.02) contains 17.5 - 23.0 wt.% Al2O3, 0.6 - 1.8 wt.% Cr2O3 and 31.8 - 34.2 wt.% MgO. Olivine (Fo93.5-96.2) contains 0.44- 0.51 wt.% NiO. Olivine grains are zoned - the low-forsteritic cores are surrounded by high-forsteritic domain. Chromite II and chlorite are secondary phases and were probably formed due to greenschist facies metamorphism. Chromitites are cumuletes of melt blocked during its flow through peridotitic host. Low TiO2 content and moderate chromian number of the GJSM chromitites is typical for chromian spinels originated from melt derived from back arc depleted source (cf. Python et al., 2008, Gonzalez-Jimenez, 2011). The GJSM chromitites are rich in Al and poor in Pt and Pd what is typical for chromitites occurring in the

  6. The variability of ruthenium in chromite from chassignite and olivine-phyric shergottite meteorites: New insights into the behavior of PGE and sulfur in Martian magmatic systems (United States)

    Baumgartner, Raphael J.; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Baratoux, David; Ferrière, Ludovic; Locmelis, Marek; Tomkins, Andrew; Sener, Kerim A.


    The Martian meteorites comprise mantle-derived mafic to ultramafic rocks that formed in shallow intrusions and/or lava flows. This study reports the first in situ platinum-group element data on chromite and ulvöspinel from a series of dunitic chassignites and olivine-phyric shergottites, determined using laser-ablation ICP-MS. As recent studies have shown that Ru has strongly contrasting affinities for coexisting sulfide and spinel phases, the precise in situ analysis of this element in spinel can provide important insights into the sulfide saturation history of Martian mantle-derived melts. The new data reveal distinctive differences between the two meteorite groups. Chromite from the chassignites Northwest Africa 2737 (NWA 2737) and Chassigny contained detectable concentrations of Ru (up to 160 ppb Ru) in solid solution, whereas chromite and ulvöspinel from the olivine-phyric shergottites Yamato-980459 (Y-980459), Tissint, and Dhofar 019 displayed Ru concentrations consistently below detection limit (systems.

  7. Optimization of cultural conditions for growth associated chromate reduction by Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201 isolated from chromite mine overburden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Satarupa, E-mail: [Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700019 (India); Paul, A.K., E-mail: [Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700019 (India)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolation of a potent Cr(VI) resistant and reducing Arthrobacter SUK 1201 from chromite mine overburdens of Orissa, India. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phylogenetically (16S rDNA analysis), Arthrobacter SUK 1201 showed 99% nucleotide base pair similarity with Arthrobacter GZK-1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Production of insoluble chromium precipitates during chromate reduction under batch culture by the isolate SUK 1201. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Confirmation of formation of insoluble chromium precipitate during reduction studies by EDX analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimization of cultural conditions for Cr(VI) reduction under batch culture leading to complete reduction of 2 mM of Cr(VI). - Abstract: Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201, a chromium resistant and reducing bacterium having 99% sequence homology of 16S rDNA with Arthrobacter sp. GZK-1 was isolated from chromite mine overburden dumps of Orissa, India. The objective of the present study was to optimize the cultural conditions for chromate reduction by Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201. The strain showed 67% reduction of 2 mM chromate in 7 days and was associated with the formation of green insoluble precipitate, which showed characteristic peak of chromium in to energy dispersive X-ray analysis. However, Fourier transform infrared spectra have failed to detect any complexation of end products of Cr(VI) reduction with the cell mass. Reduction of chromate increased with increased cell density and was maximum at 10{sup 10} cells/ml, but the reduction potential decreased with increase in Cr(VI) concentration. Chromate reducing efficiency was promoted when glycerol and glucose was used as electron donors. Optimum pH and temperature of Cr(VI) reduction was 7.0 and 35 Degree-Sign C respectively. The reduction process was inhibited by several metal ions and metabolic inhibitors but not by Cu(II) and DNP. These findings suggest that Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201 has great promise

  8. Facile Synthesis of Nickel Chromite Nanostructures by Hydrothermal Route for Photocatalytic Degradation of Acid Black 1 under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Beshkar


    Full Text Available NiCr2O4 normal spinel nanostructures were prepared via hydrothermal treatment at 180 °C for 12 h in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS and poly vinylpyrrolidone-25000 (PVP-25000 as capping agents and subsequent calcination process at 500 °C for 3 h . In this method, [Ni(en2(H2O2](NO32 and [Cr(en3]Cl3.3H2O used as precursors and not utilized any alkaline or precipitating agent. Detailed characterization of  the as-prepared nanostructures were carried out by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS. XRD revealed the formation of pure nickel chromite spinel phase and SEM showed the formation of uniform sphere-like nanoparticles. Furthermore, the photocatalytic degradation of acid black 1 as diazo dye used in textile and dyeing water pollutants was Investigated.

  9. The differential stress response of adapted chromite mine isolates Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli and its impact on bioremediation potential. (United States)

    Samuel, Jastin; Paul, Madona Lien; Ravishankar, Harish; Mathur, Ankita; Saha, Dipti Priya; Natarajan, Chandrasekaran; Mukherjee, Amitava


    In the current study, indigenous bacterial isolates Bacillus subtilis VITSUKMW1 and Escherichia coli VITSUKMW3 from a chromite mine were adapted to 100 mg L(-1) of Cr(VI). The phase contrast and scanning electron microscopic images showed increase in the length of adapted E. coli cells and chain formation in case of adapted B. subtilis. The presence of chromium on the surface of the bacteria was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), which was also supported by the conspicuous Cr-O peaks in FTIR spectra. The transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images of adapted E. coli and B. subtilis showed the presence of intact cells with Cr accumulated inside the bacteria. The TEM-EDX confirmed the internalization of Cr(VI) in the adapted cells. The specific growth rate and Cr(VI) reduction capacity was significantly higher in adapted B. subtilis compared to that of adapted E. coli. To study the possible role of Cr(VI) toxicity affecting the Cr(VI) reduction capacity, the definite assays for the released reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ROS scavenging enzymes (SOD and GSH) were carried out. The decreased ROS production as well as SOD and GSH release observed in adapted B. subtilis compared to the adapted E. coli corroborated well with its higher specific growth rate and increased Cr(VI) reduction capacity.

  10. Pyrolysis Treatment of Chromite Ore Processing Residue by Biomass: Cellulose Pyrolysis and Cr(VI) Reduction Behavior. (United States)

    Zhang, Da-Lei; Zhang, Mei-Yi; Zhang, Chu-Hui; Sun, Ying-Jie; Sun, Xiao; Yuan, Xian-Zheng


    The pyrolysis treatment with biomass is a promising technology for the remediation of chromite-ore-processing residue (COPR). However, the mechanism of this process is still unclear. In this study, the behavior of pyrolysis reduction of Cr(VI) by cellulose, the main component of biomass, was elucidated. The results showed that the volatile fraction (VF) of cellulose, ie. gas and tar, was responsible for Cr(VI) reduction. All organic compounds, as well as CO and H2 in VF, potentially reduced Cr(VI). X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy confirmed the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and the formation of amorphous Cr2O3. The remnant Cr(VI) content in COPR can be reduced below the detection limit (2 mg/kg) by the reduction of COPR particle and extension of reaction time between VF and COPR. This study provided a deep insight on the co-pyrolysis of cellulose with Cr(VI) in COPR and an ideal approach by which to characterize and optimize the pyrolysis treatment for COPR by other organics.

  11. Crystal structure, phonon modes and dielectric properties of 3d Cu2+ ion doped multiferroic Co1-x Cu x Cr2O4 (x  =  0.0, 0.5) chromites (United States)

    Choudhary, Pankaj; Varshney, Dinesh


    Multiferroic Co1-x Cu x Cr2O4 (x  =  0.0, 0.5) chromites are synthesized by low temperature fired sol-gel auto combustion method. Synchrotron and lab x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirms the single-phase crystalline nature. Structural phase transition is observed from cubic (CoCr2O4 (space group Fd3m)) to tetragonal (Co0.5Cu0.5Cr2O4 (space group I41/amd)). Scanning electron micrograph of sintered chromites discerns less agglomeration with average grain size distribution ranging from ~100 to 150 nm. High intense Raman mode (A 1g) is shifted lower wave number (red shift) for Jahn-Teller [JT] Cu2+ ion doped: Co0.5Cu0.5Cr2O4 chromites. Dielectric dispersion of CoCr2O4 and Co0.5Cu0.5Cr2O4 is attributed to hopping mechanism. Minimum power loss for Cu2+ as JT ion Co0.5Cu0.5Cr2O4 is observed as compare to CoCr2O4 chromite. JT (Cu2+) ions substitution does not show the existence of electric polarization in chromites.

  12. Effects of cation substitution on thermal expansion and electrical properties of lanthanum chromites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Xifeng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210009 (China); Liu Yingjia [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210009 (China); Gao Ling [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210009 (China); Guo Lucun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210009 (China)]. E-mail:


    The effects of cation substitution on the sintering characteristics, thermal expansion and electrical conductivity properties of La(AE)Cr(M)O{sub 3} (AE=Mg, Ca, Sr, M=Ni, Cu, Co) were investigated. The sinterability of alkaline metal earth (AE)-doped LaCrO{sub 3} increased with AE contents in a sequence of Ca > Sr > Mg. Sr-doped LaCrO{sub 3} sample had a TEC compatible with that of 8YSZ electrolyte. The transition metals of Ni, Co and Cu substituted in Cr-site further optimized the sinterability of La{sub 0.85}Sr{sub 0.15}CrO{sub 3} in air. Ni and Co could effectively enhance the electrical conductivity from room temperature to 1123 K though the concomitant increase in TEC was distinctively large with Co doping. The TEC was controlled by co-doping Ni and Co in Cr-site, and La{sub 0.85}Sr{sub 0.15}Cr{sub 0.95}Ni{sub 0.02}Co{sub 0.02}O{sub 3} exhibited a TEC of 10.9 x 10{sup -6}/K, which was matched with that of 8YSZ, indicating that it could be suitable to be used as an SOFC interconnect material.

  13. Development and application of a green-chemistry solution deposition technique for buffer layer coating on cube-textured metal substrates in view of further deposition of rare-earth based superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallewatta, Pallewatta G A P

    and hazardous chemicals such as 2-methoxyethanol, and trifluroacetic acid (TFA). Therefore, in our research the main focus was on the development of SrTiO3 single buffer layers based on environmentally safe chemicals, to reach the engineering requirements for continuous coating of long substrate tapes. A new...... precursor solution for SrTiO3 buffer layers has been successfully developed with the reagents of strontium acetate, acetic acid, titanium isopropoxide, 1-methoxy-2-propanol and 2,4-pentanedione. Using this precursor with dip-coating, high cube-textured SrTiO3 mono-coatings on Cu-33at.%Ni tapes were...... which consist of YBCO superconducting coatings on cube-textured Ni based alloy tapes.  Before the epitaxial deposition this superconducting layer, a buffer layer is applied on the metal substrate as a diffusion barrier which is also required to transfer the strong texture of the underlying substrate...

  14. Assessment of heavy metal tolerance and hexavalent chromium reducing potential of Corynebacterium paurometabolum SKPD 1204 isolated from chromite mine seepage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Kanti Paul


    Full Text Available Corynebacterium paurometabolum SKPD 1204 (MTCC 8730, a heavy metal tolerant and chromate reducing bacterium isolated from chromite mine seepage of Odisha, India has been evaluated for chromate reduction under batch culture. The isolate was found to tolerate metals like Co(II, Cu(II, Ni(II, Mn(II, Zn(II, Fe(III and Hg(II along with Cr(VI and was resistant to different antibiotics as evaluated by disc-diffusion method. The isolate, SKPD 1204 was found to reduce 62.5% of 2 mM Cr(VI in Vogel Bonner broth within 8 days of incubation. Chromate reduction capability of SKPD 1204 decreased with increase in Cr(VI concentration, but increased with increase in cell density and attained its maximum at 1010 cells/mL. Chromate reducing efficiency of SKPD 1204 was promoted in the presence of glycerol and glucose, while the highest reduction was recorded at pH 7.0 and 35 °C. The reduction process was inhibited by divalent cations Zn(II, Cd(II, Cu(II, and Ni(II, but not by Mn(II. Anions like nitrate, phosphate, sulphate and sulphite was found to be inhibitory to the process of Cr(VI reduction. Similarly, sodium fluoride, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, sodium azide and N, N,-Di cyclohexyl carboiimide were inhibitory to chromate reduction, while 2,4-dinitrophenol appeared to be neither promotive nor inhibitory to the process.

  15. Earth\\'s Mass Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Mawad, Ramy


    The perturbation of the Earth caused by variability of mass of Earth as additional reason with gravity of celestial bodies and shape of the Earth. The Earth eating and collecting matters from space and loss or eject matters to space through its flying in the space around the Sun. The source of the rising in the global sea level is not closed in global warming and icebergs, but the outer space is the additional important source for this rising. The Earth eats waters from space in unknown mechanism. The mass of the Earth become greater in November i.e. before transit apoapsis two months, and become latter in February i.e. after transit apoapsis to two months.

  16. Effect of Organic Manures on the Growth of Cymbopogon citratus and Chrysopogon zizanioides for the Phytoremediation of Chromite-Asbestos Mine Waste: A Pot Scale Experiment. (United States)

    Kumar, Adarsh; Maiti, Subodh Kumar


    The abandoned chromite-asbestos mines are located in the Roro hills, West Singhbhum, Jharkhand, India, where mining operation ceased in 1983, and since then these mines are causing environmental pollution. The present study was planned to phytoremediate these metalloid and metal contaminated mine waste by using two aromatic grasses, Cymbopogon citratus and Chrysopogon zizanioides by applying different proportions of amendments (chicken manure, farmyard manure and garden soil). Mine waste has neutral pH, low electrical conductivity and organic carbon with higher concentration of total metals (Cr and Ni) as compared to soil. Application of manures resulted significant improvements of mine waste characteristics and plant growth, reduction in the availability of total extractable toxic metals (Cr, Ni) and increase in Mn, Zn and Cu concentration in the substrate. The maximum growth and biomass production for C. citratus and C. zizanioides were found in T-IV combination comprising of mine waste (90%), chicken manure (2.5%), farmyard manure (2.5%) and garden soil (5%). Addition of T-IV combination also resulted in low Cr and Ni accumulation in roots and reduction in translocation to shoots. Study indicates that C. citratus and C. zizanioides can be used for phytostabilization of abandoned chromite-asbestos mine waste with amendments.

  17. Earth materials and earth dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, K; Shankland, T. [and others


    In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  18. Enhancing the stability of copper chromite catalysts for the selective hydrogenation of furfural with ALD overcoating (II) – Comparison between TiO2 and Al2O3 overcoatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Canlas, Christian; Kropf, A. Jeremy; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Dumesic, James A; Marshall, Christopher L.


    TiO2 atomic layer deposition (ALD) overcoatings were applied to copper chromite catalysts to increase the stability for 2-furfuraldehyde (“furfural”) hydrogenation. After overcoating, about 75% activity was preserved compared to neat copper chromite: much higher activity than an alumina ALD overcoated catalyst with a similar number of ALD cycles. The effects of ALD TiO2 on the active Cu nanoparticles were studied extensively using both in-situ TPR/isothermal-oxidation and in-situ furfural hydrogenation via Cu XAFS. The redox properties of Cu were modified only slightly by the TiO2 ALD overcoat. However, a subtle electronic interaction was observed between the TiO2 ALD layers and the Cu nanoparticles. With calcination at 500 °C the interaction between the TiO2 overcoat and the underlying catalyst is strong enough to inhibit migration and site blocking by chromite, but is sufficiently weaker than the interaction between the Al2O3 overcoat and copper chromite that it does not strongly inhibit the catalytic activity of the copper nanoparticles.

  19. Superhydrophobic Ceramic Coatings by Solution Precursor Plasma Spray (United States)

    Cai, Yuxuan; Coyle, Thomas W.; Azimi, Gisele; Mostaghimi, Javad


    This work presents a novel coating technique to manufacture ceramic superhydrophobic coatings rapidly and economically. A rare earth oxide (REO) was selected as the coating material due to its hydrophobic nature, chemical inertness, high temperature stability, and good mechanical properties, and deposited on stainless steel substrates by solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS). The effects of various spraying conditions including standoff distance, torch power, number of torch passes, types of solvent and plasma velocity were investigated. The as-sprayed coating demonstrated a hierarchically structured surface topography, which closely resembles superhydrophobic surfaces found in nature. The water contact angle on the SPPS superhydrophobic coating was up to 65% higher than on smooth REO surfaces.

  20. Podiform chromite deposits (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Location and characteristics of 1,124 individual mineral deposits of this type, with grade and tonnage models for chromium as well as several related elements.

  1. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth (United States)



    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  2. spin coating

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Intense UV photoluminescence is observed for intrinsic ZnO film. Keywords : thin films, oxidize zinc doped aluminium (ZnO:Al), sol-gel, spin coating, structural analysis, electric and optical properties. 1. Introduction. Depuis ces vingt dernières années les couches minces d'oxyde de zinc ont connu un intérêt croissant dans ...

  3. Doped Yttrium Chromite-Ceria Composite as a Redox-Stable and Sulfur-Tolerant Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Kyung J.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Marina, Olga A.


    A Ca- and Co-doped yttrium chromite (YCCC) - samaria-doped ceria (SDC) composite was studied in relation to a potential use as a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode material. Tests performed using the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte-supported cells revealed that the electrocatalytic activity of the YCCC-SDC anode towards hydrogen oxidation at 800 C was comparable to that of the Ni-YSZ anode. In addition, the YCCC-SDC anode exhibited superior sulfur tolerant characteristics showing less than 10% increase in a polarization resistance, fully reversible, upon exposure to 20 ppm H2S at 800 C. No performance degradation was observed during multiple reduction-oxidation (redox) cycles when the anode was intentionally exposed to the air environment followed by the reduction in hydrogen. The redox tolerance of the YCCC-SDC anode was attributed to the dimensional and chemical stability of the YCCC exhibiting minimal isothermal chemical expansion upon redox cycling.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Medved


    Full Text Available The interactions of magnesia-chromite refractory brick with Cu-Na2O.2SiO2 and CuO-Na2O.2SiO2 melts are studied and the chemical durability of corrosion products in water is evaluated. The corrosion tests confirm intensive infiltration of the slag melts into the tested refractory bricks and formation of Cr(6+ compounds. The molten copper partially oxidizes during corrosion test by air and penetrates into bricks. Interactions among periclase (MgO and chromite (FeCr2O4 grains with the melt Na2O.2SiO2 and copper oxides makes possible to form several compounds (e.g. Cu2MgO3, CuCrO4, CaCrO4, Na2CrO4, MgCrO4. Just the marked yellow spots, which were observed on the corroded brick surface after 30 days of free storage, suggest hydration of the high-temperature corrosion products. The yellow color of spots points out to chromates as Na2CrO4 and MgCrO4, which are well soluble in water. The leaching of corroded bricks in water (batch leaching test of a ratio of S (solid : W (water = 0.1 taking up to 28 days confirmed the Cr, Na, Mg and Ca ions leach-out. The pH value of solution increased up to 9 during leaching mainly as a consequence of elevated Na+ ion concentration. The Cr ion concentration rises in the solution up to 1 mmol.l-1. The observed moderate decrease of Cr ion concentration in the solution with the length of leaching indicates super-saturation of the solution and precipitation of the products.

  5. spin coating

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dans ce travail nous avons préparé des couches minces de l'oxyde de zinc ZnO dopées à l'aluminium et non dopées par la technique Sol-Gel associée au « spin coating » sur des substrats en verre « pyrex » à partir de l'acétate de zinc dissous dans une solution de l'éthanol. Nous avons ensuite effectué des analyses ...

  6. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  7. Graphene Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten; Camilli, Luca; Bøggild, Peter


    Owing to its remarkable electrical and mechanical properties, graphene has been attracting tremendous interest in materials science. In particular, its chemical stability and impermeability make it a promising protective membrane. However, recent investigations reveal that single layer graphene...... cannot be used as a barrier in the long run, due to galvanic corrosion phenomena arising when oxygen or water penetrate through graphene cracks or domain boundaries. Here, we overcome this issue by using a multilayered (ML) graphene coating. Our lab- as well as industrial-scale tests demonstrate that ML...... graphene can effectively protect Ni in harsh environments, even after long term exposure. This is made possible by the presence of a high number of graphene layers, which can efficiently mask the cracks and domain boundaries defects found in individual layers of graphene. Our findings thus show...

  8. Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors (United States)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Boyd, Donald W.; Buchanan, Michael J.; Kelly, Patrick; Kutilek, Luke A.; McCamy, James W.; McPheron, Douglas A.; Orosz, Gary R.; Limbacher, Raymond D.


    An electrically conductive protective coating or film is provided over the surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by flowing or directing a cation containing liquid and an anion containing liquid onto the conductive surface. The cation and the anion containing liquids are spaced from, and preferably out of contact with one another on the surface of the reflective coating as an electric current is moved through the anion containing liquid, the conductive surface between the liquids and the cation containing liquid to coat the conductive surface with the electrically conductive coating.

  9. Flow coating apparatus and method of coating (United States)

    Hanumanthu, Ramasubrahmaniam; Neyman, Patrick; MacDonald, Niles; Brophy, Brenor; Kopczynski, Kevin; Nair, Wood


    Disclosed is a flow coating apparatus, comprising a slot that can dispense a coating material in an approximately uniform manner along a distribution blade that increases uniformity by means of surface tension and transfers the uniform flow of coating material onto an inclined substrate such as for example glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed is a method of flow coating a substrate using the apparatus such that the substrate is positioned correctly relative to the distribution blade, a pre-wetting step is completed where both the blade and substrate are completed wetted with a pre-wet solution prior to dispensing of the coating material onto the distribution blade from the slot and hence onto the substrate. Thereafter the substrate is removed from the distribution blade and allowed to dry, thereby forming a coating.

  10. Niobium pentoxide coating replacing zinc phosphate coating




    A new coating made of niobium pentoxide, obtained through the sol-gel process, was developed for the carbon steel (SAE 1010). The corrosion protection provided by this coating was evaluated through electrochemical tests such as: open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and anodic potentiodynamic polarization in NaCl 0,5 mol L-1 solution. The morphology and composition of the coatings were analyzed using scanning electronic microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X...

  11. Development and characterization of ceramic composites based on alumina-titania reinforced with rare earth oxide (holmium oxide) for the production of inert coatings in metal tanks of petroleum industry; Desenvolvimento e caracterizacao de compositos ceramicos baseados em alumina-titania reforcados com oxido de terra rara (oxido de holmio) para fabricacao de revestimentos inertes em tanques metalicos da industria petrolifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, N.D.G.; Pontual, J.O.; Ferreira, R.A.S.; Yadava, Y.P., E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica


    Due to the importance of petroleum and its derivatives for modern society, it is necessary to develop technologies that improve processes and transports of petroleum. The crude oil creates hostile environments and in the process of transport and storage of petroleum are used metallic materials, which corrode becoming a critical problem in this industry. One way of solving this problem is the use of ceramics based on alumina as inert coating on hostile environments. In this work was studied a structure, microstructure and mechanical properties of ceramic composite based on Al2O3 - TiO2 reinforced Ho2O3. The composites were produced by a thermomechanical process, sintered at 1350°C, were analyzed by x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and microhardness. Analyses were performed before and after immersion in earth and offshore crude petroleum to study stability of the developed composites and concluded that the ceramic composites immersed in petroleum show stable in hostile environments. (author)

  12. European coatings conference - Marine coatings. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This volume contains 13 lectures (manuscripts or powerpoint foils) with the following topics: 1. Impact of containerization on polyurethane and polyurea in marine and protective coatings (Malte Homann); 2. The application of combinatorial/high-throughput methods to the development of marine coatings (Bret Chisholm); 3. Progress and perspectives in the AMBIO (advanced nanostructured surfaces for the control of biofouling) Project (James Callow); 4. Release behaviour due to shear and pull-off of silicone coatings with a thickness gradient (James G. Kohl); 5. New liquid rheology additives for high build marine coatings (Andreas Freytag); 6. Effective corrosion protection with polyaniline, polpyrrole and polythiophene as anticorrosice additives for marine paints (Carlos Aleman); 7. Potential applications of sol gel technology for marine applications (Robert Akid); 8: Performance of biocide-free Antifouling Coatings for leisure boats (Bernd Daehne); 9. Novel biocidefree nanostructured antifouling coatings - can nano do the job? (Corne Rentrop); 10. One component high solids, VOC compliant high durability finish technology (Adrian Andrews); 11. High solid coatings - the hybrid solution (Luca Prezzi); 12. Unique organofunctional silicone resins for environmentally friendly high-performance coatings (Dieter Heldmann); 13. Silicone-alkyd paints for marine applications: from battleship-grey to green (Thomas Easton).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seljaev Vladimir Pavlovich


    Full Text Available On the basis of the computer program «Statistical analysis of color components for paint and varnish coatings», methods are suggested and experimental results are obtained for decorative characteristics polyurethane coatings.

  14. Corrosion inhibiting organic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasson, E.


    A corrosion inhibiting coating comprises a mixture of waxes, petroleum jelly, a hardener and a solvent. In particular, a corrosion inhibiting coating comprises candelilla wax, carnauba wax, microcrystalline waxes, white petrolatum, an oleoresin, lanolin and a solvent.

  15. Nanocrystalline coatings properties forecasting (United States)

    Eremin, E. N.; Yurov, V. M.; Guchenko, S. A.; Laurynas, V. Ch


    The paper considers various properties of nanocrystalline coatings. The methods of determining the surface tension of the deposited coating on the basis of the size dependence of their physical properties. It is shown that predict the mechanical properties of the coatings, their melting point, heat resistance, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, etc. It can be based on a theoretical evaluation of the surface tension.

  16. Spin coating of electrolytes (United States)

    Stetter, Joseph R.; Maclay, G. Jordan


    Methods for spin coating electrolytic materials onto substrates are disclosed. More particularly, methods for depositing solid coatings of ion-conducting material onto planar substrates and onto electrodes are disclosed. These spin coating methods are employed to fabricate electrochemical sensors for use in measuring, detecting and quantifying gases and liquids.

  17. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  18. Coating of graphene


    Schneider, G.F.; Dekker, C.


    The present invention is in the field of highly crystalline graphene and coating said graphene with a layer. Said graphene may have further structures, such as nanopores, nanogaps, and nanoribbons. The coated graphene can be used for biomolecular analysis and modification, such as DNA-sequencing, as a sensor, etc. The invention therefor also relates to use of coated graphene.

  19. The mechanical and physical properties of unfired earth bricks stabilized with gypsum and Elazığ Ferrochrome slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Türkmen


    Full Text Available During the last few years, an increasing interest has been appeared for earth as a building material. Earth-based materials have been studied because of energy efficiency and ecologically sustainability. The chromite deposits, 10% of the world reserves, are processed in Elazığ Ferrochrome Factory in Eastern of Turkey. Elazığ Ferrochrome slag (EFS as a by-product of the factory is produced roughly 50,000 tons in a year. The disposal, removal and storage of this by-product is a serious problem. Therefore, the utilization of this waste material in building applications is very important. The aim of this work is to investigate effects of gypsum and EFS additives on mechanical and physical properties of unfired earth brick (UEB materials in order to assess their potential advantages in building applications. The earth material was characterized by laboratory tests. Four different UEB samples were produced by using different compositions of earth, gypsum, EFS and straw fibers. Compressive strength, water absorption coefficient, drying shrinkage, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV and density of the prepared UEB samples were determined. The experimental findings have showed that the usage of gypsum and EFS in stabilizing process of UEBs was advantageous.

  20. Methods of Antimicrobial Coating of Diverse Materials (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.; Kliestik, Helen


    Methods of coating diverse substrate materials with antimicrobial agents have been developed. Originally intended to reduce health risks to astronauts posed by pathogenic microorganisms that can grow on surfaces in spacecraft, these methods could also be used on Earth for example, to ensure sterility of surgical inserts and other medical equipment. The methods involve, generally, chemical preparation of substrate surfaces to enable attachment of antimicrobial molecules to the substrate surfaces via covalent bonds. Substrate materials that have been treated successfully include aluminum, glass, a corrosion-resistant nickel alloy, stainless steel, titanium, and poly(tetrafluoroethylene). Antimicrobial agents that have been successfully immobilized include antibiotics, enzymes, bacteriocins, bactericides, and fungicides. A variety of linkage chem istries were employed. Activity of antimicrobial coatings against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and fungi was demonstrated. Results of investigations indicate that the most suitable combination of antimicrobial agent, substrate, and coating method depends upon the intended application.

  1. Comportamento reológico de suspensões aquosas de cromito de lantânio Rheological behaviour of lanthanum chromite aqueous suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. G. Setz


    Full Text Available O cromito de lantânio (LaCrO3 é o material mais estudado para a produção de interconectores para células a combustível de ��xido sólido (SOFC. Devido a complexidade das microestruturas e geometrias das SOFCs, freqüentemente são necessárias, técnicas de processamento coloidal, os quais têm recebido maior atenção nos últimos anos por permitirem a obtenção de partes complexas com microestrutura controlada e reprodutíveis. Nos últimos anos, muito esforço tem sido direcionado ao processamento dos eletrólitos e eletrodos, mas aos componentes como o interconector, pouca atenção tem sido dada. Este artigo apresenta o estudo reológico e de conformação em moldes de gesso do cromito de lantânio para a produção de interconectores para SOFCs. A composição La0,80Sr0,20Cr0,92Co0,08O3, obtida por reação de combustão, foi utilizada. As suspensões aquosas foram preparadas com conteúdo de sólidos variando de 8 a 17,5% vol. utilizando-se, poliacrilato de amônia (PAA como polieletrólito/dispersante e hidróxido de tetrametilamônio (HTMA como provedor de alcalinidade. A influência da concentração dos aditivos e o tempo em moinho de bolas foram estudados. Os resultados indicam que o tempo 24 h de homogeneização em moinho de bolas, com 3% e 1%, em massa, de PAA e HTMA respectivamente, proporcionam as melhores condições para colagem em moldes de gesso, sendo possível obter peças após sinterização com densidades relativas elevadas.Lanthanum chromite (LaCrO3 is the most studied material for SOFC's interconnectors' production. The complexity of microstructures and geometries of SOFC devices often requires the use of colloidal processing techniques, which have received increased attention in the last years for obtaining complex parts with controlled microstructure and high reliability. Much effort has been devoted to the processing of electrodes and electrolytes but the other layers, such as that of interconnecting

  2. Meteorology drives ambient air quality in a valley: a case of Sukinda chromite mine, one among the ten most polluted areas in the world. (United States)

    Mishra, Soumya Ranjan; Pradhan, Rudra Pratap; Prusty, B Anjan Kumar; Sahu, Sanjat Kumar


    The ambient air quality (AAQ) assessment was undertaken in Sukinda Valley, the chromite hub of India. The possible correlations of meteorological variables with different air quality parameters (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO) were examined. Being the fourth most polluted area in the globe, Sukinda Valley has always been under attention of researchers, for hexavalent chromium contamination of water. The monitoring was carried out from December 2013 through May 2014 at six strategic locations in the residential and commercial areas around the mining cluster of Sukinda Valley considering the guidelines of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). In addition, meteorological parameters viz., temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction and rainfall, were also monitored. The air quality data were subjected to a general linear model (GLM) coupled with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test for testing the significant difference in the concentration of various parameters among seasons and stations. Further, a two-tailed Pearson's correlation test helped in understanding the influence of meteorological parameters on dispersion of pollutants in the area. All the monitored air quality parameters varied significantly among the monitoring stations suggesting (i) the distance of sampling location to the mine site and other allied activities, (ii) landscape features and topography and (iii) meteorological parameters to be the forcing functions. The area was highly polluted with particulate matters, and in most of the cases, the PM level exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The meteorological parameters seemed to play a major role in the dispersion of pollutants around the mine clusters. The role of wind direction, wind speed and temperature was apparent in dispersion of the particulate matters from their source of generation to the surrounding residential and commercial areas of the mine.

  3. Near Earth Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Stefan


    , Near Earth Objects: Asteroids and comets following paths that bring them near the Earth. NEOs have collided with the Earth since its formation, some causing local devastation, some causing global climate changes, yet the threat from a collision with a near Earth object has only recently been recognised...

  4. Antibacterial polymer coatings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Allen, Ashley N.; Barnhart, Meghan; Tucker, Mark David; Hibbs, Michael R.


    A series of poly(sulfone)s with quaternary ammonium groups and another series with aldehyde groups are synthesized and tested for biocidal activity against vegetative bacteria and spores, respectively. The polymers are sprayed onto substrates as coatings which are then exposed to aqueous suspensions of organisms. The coatings are inherently biocidal and do not release any agents into the environment. The coatings adhere well to both glass and CARC-coated coupons and they exhibit significant biotoxicity. The most effective quaternary ammonium polymers kills 99.9% of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and the best aldehyde coating kills 81% of the spores on its surface.

  5. ATHENA optimized coating design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen


    The optimization of coating design for the ATHENA mission si described and the possibility of increasing the telescope effective area in the range between 0.1 and 10 keV is investigated. An independent computation of the on-axis effective area based on the mirror design of ATHENA is performed...... in order to review the current coating baseline. The performance of several material combinations, considering a simple bi-layer, simple multilayer and linear graded multilayer coatings are tested and simulation of the mirror performance considering both the optimized coating design and the coating...

  6. Evaluation of HVOF coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Landová


    Full Text Available Attention in this paper is devoted to the evaluation of wear coatings deposited using HVOF technology (high velocity oxy-fuel. There were evaluated three types of coatings based on WC-Co (next only 1343, WC-Co-Cr (next only 1350 and Cr3C2-25NiCr (next only 1375. There was assessed adherence of coatings, micro hardness, porosity and the tribological properties of erosive, abrasive, adhesive and wear resistance of coatings in terms of cyclic thermal load. Thanks to wide variety of suitable materials and their combinations, the area of utilization thermally sprayed coatings is very broad. It is possible to deposit coatings of various materials from pure metals to special alloys. The best results in the evaluated properties were achieved at the coating with the label 1375.

  7. Flexible Antibacterial Coatings. (United States)

    Musil, Jindřich


    This article reviews the present state of the art in the field of flexible antibacterial coatings which efficiently kill bacteria on their surfaces. Coatings are formed using a reactive magnetron sputtering. The effect of the elemental composition and structure of the coating on its antibacterial and mechanical properties is explained. The properties of Cr-Cu-O, Al-Cu-N, and Zr-Cu-N antibacterial coatings are used as examples and described in detail. The efficiency of killing of bacteria was tested for the Escherichia coli bacterium. The principle of the formation of thick, flexible antibacterial coatings which are resistant to cracking under bending is explained. It is shown that magnetron sputtering enables production of robust, several-micrometer thick, flexible antibacterial coatings for long-term use. The antibacterial coatings produced by magnetron sputtering present huge potential for many applications.

  8. Anticorrosive coatings: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim


    The main objective of this review is to describe some of the important topics related to the use of marine and protective coatings for anticorrosive purposes. In this context, "protective" refers to coatings for containers, offshore constructions, wind turbines, storage tanks, bridges, rail cars...... of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have caused significant changes in the anticorrosive coating industry. The requirement for new VOC-compliant coating technologies means that coating manufacturers can no longer rely on the extensive track record of their time-served products to convince consumers......, and inhibitive coatings are outlined. In the past decades, several alternatives to organic solvent-borne coatings have reached the commercial market. This review also presents some of these technologies and discusses some of their advantages and limitations. Finally, some of the mechanisms leading to degradation...

  9. Coated Aerogel Beads (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)


    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  10. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  11. The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth (United States)

    Juuti, Kalle


    The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the…

  12. Preliminary coating design and coating developments for ATHENA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland


    We present initial novel coating design for ATHENA. We make use of both simple bilayer coatings of Ir and B4C and more complex constant period multilayer coatings to enhance the effective area and cover the energy range from 0.1 to 10 keV. We also present the coating technology used...... for these designs and present test results from coatings....

  13. Development of AL{sub 2}O{sub 3} - ZrO{sub 2} ceramic composite reinforced with rare earth oxides (Y{sub 2}O)3) for inert coating of storage and transport systems of crude petroleum; Desenvolvimento de composito ceramico Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} - ZrO{sub 2} reforcada com oxido de terra rara para sistema de armazenamento e transporte de petroleo cru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, J.C.; Yadava, Y.P.; Sanguinetti Ferreira, R.A.; Albuquerque, L.T., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Jaboatao de Guararapes, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica


    The advancement of the oil sector has generated the need for the use of materials resistant to aggressive environments to oil. Although ceramics have high melting point and high hardness is, on the other hand, more fragile and less tough, which can cause damage to the metal structure. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} based ceramics reinforced with rare earth oxide can improve tenaciousness and makes the ceramic material more resistant. This article aims to present the production of composite Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} - Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} stabilized ZrO{sub 2} by uniaxial pressing, following sintering (1200-1350 deg C). Structural and microstructural characterizations as XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and mechanical tests as Vickers hardness, % absorption and % linear shrinkage were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using the composite and ceramic coating for storage and transportation of oil tanks. The results indicate that the proportions of 5%, 10% and 30% ZrO{sub 2} make it suitable as a good composite suitable coating. (author)

  14. Improved Manganese Phosphate Coatings (United States)


    AD K/ . / R-TR-75-034 IMPROVED MANGANESE PHOSPHATE COATINGS HENRY CRAIN - APRIL 1975 RESEARCH DIRECTORATE DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT Approved for public...which superior manganese phosphate coatings are producel. The phosphate coatings were applied at temp- eratures above 2124F and with -.anganese...temperature for the conversion of mlnganese dihydrogen phosphate [(P(HjPO•’)] to manganese phosphate [Nns(PO4)J]. 1 A ii UNCLASSIFIED SE[CURITY CL. A

  15. Nanostructured Protective Coatings (United States)


    understanding of PVD parameters, depositing coatings on practical substrates such as the Ti6Al4V used for turbine blades, and developing a versatile...Phase I objectives, particularly in enhancing the understanding of PVD parameters, depositing coatings on practical substrates such as the Ti6Al4V ...understanding of PVD parameters, depositing coatings on practical substrates such as the Ti6Al4V used for turbine blades, and developing a versatile

  16. Smooth Compliant Antifoulant Coatings. (United States)


    team reviewed the state of the art in marine antifoulant tech- nology. As part of this technology review, the team visited the Naval Ship Research and...high payoff is the incorporation of the biocide within the substrate polymer chain. This permits the antifoulant to be held chemi- cally rather than by...traditionally used red lead as a basis for protection against marine fouling. The antifoulant coating consists of a metal pretreatment coat, four coats of an

  17. Experimental Observations of the Patterns of Fungi-Mineral Surfaces Interactions with Muscovite, Biotite, Bauxite, Chromite, Hematite, Galena, Malachite, Manganite and Carbonate Substrates. (United States)

    Claeys, P.


    In an in vitro experimental work, mineral substrates of muscovite, biotite, bauxite, chromite, hematite, galena, malachite, manganite and carbonate were exposed to free fungal growth and interaction in Petri dishes under open conditions. All of the experimental minerals were examined by XRD for identity and purity. The 12-week experiment resulted in significant alteration of the mineral substrates. SEM, EDX, and XRD analysis showed secondary mineral biomineralization represented by different crystal morphologies of Ca- and Mg- oxalates (weddelite: CaC2O4·2H2O, whewellite CaC2O4·H2O and glushinskite: MgC2O4·2H2O), struvite: (NH4) MgPO4·6H2O, gypsum CaSO4.2H2O, and possible dolomite. Metals bioleached from the substrates included: Fe, Pb, S, Cu, Al as single crystals or aggregates, amorphous layers, amorphous aggregates, and linear forms influenced by the fungal filaments. Bauxite and manganite showed the strongest cases of bioleaching where Fe and Al were fungally extracted and deposited as separate mineral species from the Al-Fe oxides mixture, while Ca and S were extracted from the manganite substrate and deposited as gypsum. The bioleached metals were either deposited on the mineral substrates, attached to fungal filaments, embedded in the fungal mycelium or in the extracellular polysaccharide substance (EPS) layer. The EDX microanalysis of the fungal hyphae frequently revealed metal content adsorbed on the hyphae sheath surface. During the short period of the experiment, fungal interaction with the mineral surfaces produced significant biomechanical and biochemical bioweathering features: strong pitting of the mineral surfaces, exfoliation, tunnelling, dissolution, honeycomb-alveolar structures, perforations, fragmentation, and cementation. One important aspect of these interactions is the strong affinity of fungal hyphae to mineral surfaces. The fungi engulfed whole blocks of minerals in the hyphal network, irrespective of mineral surface topography with

  18. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings (United States)

    Sugama, T.


    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  19. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi


    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  20. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  1. EarthKAM (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sponsored by NASA, EarthKAM (Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students) is an educational outreach program allowing middle school students to take pictures...

  2. Superhydrophobic silica coating by dip coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadik, Satish A., E-mail: [Air Glass Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004, Maharashtra (India); Parale, Vinayak; Vhatkara, Rajiv S.; Mahadik, Dinesh B.; Kavale, Mahendra S. [Air Glass Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004, Maharashtra (India); Wagh, Pratap B.; Gupta, Satish [Applied Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Gurav, Jyoti [Empa, Advanced Materials Processing laboratory, 3602 Thun (Switzerland)


    Herein, we report a simple and low cost method for the fabrication of superhydrophobic coating surface on quartz substrates via sol-gel dip coating method at room temperature. Desired surface chemistry and texture growth for superhydrophobicity developed under double step sol–gel process at room temperature. The resultant superhydrophobic surfaces were characterized by Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), water contact angle (WCA) measurement, differential thermal gravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA) calorimetry and optical spectrometer. Coating shows the ultra high water contact angle about 168 ± 2° and water sliding angle 3 ± 1° and superoleophilic with petroleum oils. This approach allows a simple strategy for the fabrication process of superhydrophilic–superhydrophobic on same surfaces with high thermal stability of superhydrophobicity up to 560 °C. Thus, durability, special wettability and thermal stability of superhydrophobicity expand their application fields.

  3. Rocket Combustion Chamber Coating (United States)

    Holmes, Richard R. (Inventor); McKechnie, Timothy N. (Inventor)


    A coating with the ability to protect (1) the inside wall (i.e., lining) of a rocket engine combustion chamber and (2) parts of other apparatuses that utilize or are exposed to combustive or high temperature environments. The novelty of this invention lies in the manner a protective coating is embedded into the lining.

  4. Coated electroactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali


    A process includes suspending an electroactive material in a solvent, suspending or dissolving a carbon precursor in the solvent; and depositing the carbon precursor on the electroactive material to form a carbon-coated electroactive material. Compositions include a graphene-coated electroactive material prepared from a solution phase mixture or suspension of an electroactive material and graphene, graphene oxide, or a mixture thereof.

  5. Coating of graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, G.F.; Dekker, C.


    The present invention is in the field of highly crystalline graphene and coating said graphene with a layer. Said graphene may have further structures, such as nanopores, nanogaps, and nanoribbons. The coated graphene can be used for biomolecular analysis and modification, such as DNA-sequencing, as

  6. Molecular Adsorber Coating (United States)

    Straka, Sharon; Peters, Wanda; Hasegawa, Mark; Hedgeland, Randy; Petro, John; Novo-Gradac, Kevin; Wong, Alfred; Triolo, Jack; Miller, Cory


    A document discusses a zeolite-based sprayable molecular adsorber coating that has been developed to alleviate the size and weight issues of current ceramic puck-based technology, while providing a configuration that more projects can use to protect against degradation from outgassed materials within a spacecraft, particularly contamination-sensitive instruments. This coating system demonstrates five times the adsorption capacity of previously developed adsorber coating slurries. The molecular adsorber formulation was developed and refined, and a procedure for spray application was developed. Samples were spray-coated and tested for capacity, thermal optical/radiative properties, coating adhesion, and thermal cycling. Work performed during this study indicates that the molecular adsorber formulation can be applied to aluminum, stainless steel, or other metal substrates that can accept silicate-based coatings. The coating can also function as a thermal- control coating. This adsorber will dramatically reduce the mass and volume restrictions, and is less expensive than the currently used molecular adsorber puck design.

  7. The Development of Erosion and Impact Resistant Turbine Airfoil Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.


    Thermal barrier coatings are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments and extend component lifetimes. For thermal barrier coatings designed for turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability. Advanced erosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with a current emphasis on the toughness improvements using a combined rare earth- and transition metal-oxide doping approach. The performance of the doped thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in burner rig and laser heat-flux rig simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic durability. The erosion and impact damage mechanisms of the thermal barrier coatings will also be discussed.

  8. Performance Evaluation and Modeling of Erosion Resistant Turbine Engine Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Miller, Robert A.; Zhu, Dongming; Kuczmarski, Maria


    The erosion resistant turbine thermal barrier coating system is critical to the rotorcraft engine performance and durability. The objective of this work was to determine erosion resistance of advanced thermal barrier coating systems under simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments, thus validating a new thermal barrier coating turbine blade technology for future rotorcraft applications. A high velocity burner rig based erosion test approach was established and a new series of rare earth oxide- and TiO2/Ta2O5- alloyed, ZrO2-based low conductivity thermal barrier coatings were designed and processed. The low conductivity thermal barrier coating systems demonstrated significant improvements in the erosion resistance. A comprehensive model based on accumulated strain damage low cycle fatigue is formulated for blade erosion life prediction. The work is currently aiming at the simulated engine erosion testing of advanced thermal barrier coated turbine blades to establish and validate the coating life prediction models.

  9. Article coated with flash bonded superhydrophobic particles (United States)

    Simpson, John T [Clinton, TN; Blue, Craig A [Knoxville, TN; Kiggans, Jr., James O [Oak Ridge, TN


    A method of making article having a superhydrophobic surface includes: providing a solid body defining at least one surface; applying to the surface a plurality of diatomaceous earth particles and/or particles characterized by particle sizes ranging from at least 100 nm to about 10 .mu.m, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of nanopores, wherein at least some of the nanopores provide flow through porosity, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of spaced apart nanostructured features that include a contiguous, protrusive material; flash bonding the particles to the surface so that the particles are adherently bonded to the surface; and applying a hydrophobic coating layer to the surface and the particles so that the hydrophobic coating layer conforms to the nanostructured features.

  10. Fluorine Based Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Denis Brassard


    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic coatings, inspired by nature, are an emerging technology. These water repellent coatings can be used as solutions for corrosion, biofouling and even water and air drag reduction applications. In this work, synthesis of monodispersive silica nanoparticles of ~120 nm diameter has been realized via Stöber process and further functionalized using fluoroalkylsilane (FAS-17 molecules to incorporate the fluorinated groups with the silica nanoparticles in an ethanolic solution. The synthesized fluorinated silica nanoparticles have been spin coated on flat aluminum alloy, silicon and glass substrates. Functionalization of silica nanoparticles with fluorinated groups has been confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR by showing the presence of C-F and Si-O-Si bonds. The water contact angles and surface roughness increase with the number of spin-coated thin films layers. The critical size of ~119 nm renders aluminum surface superhydrophobic with three layers of coating using as-prepared nanoparticle suspended solution. On the other hand, seven layers are required for a 50 vol.% diluted solution to achieve superhydrophobicity. In both the cases, water contact angles were more than 150°, contact angle hysteresis was less than 2° having a critical roughness value of ~0.700 µm. The fluorinated silica nanoparticle coated surfaces are also transparent and can be used as paint additives to obtain transparent coatings.

  11. The effects of RE and Si on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of Zn–6Al–3Mg hot dip coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shiwei [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Gao, Bo, E-mail: [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Yin, Shaohua [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Tu, Ganfeng; Zhu, Guanglin; Sun, Shuchen; Zhu, Xiaoping [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)


    Highlights: • ZAM coating has been prepared by using an experimental hot-dip galvanizing simulator. • The corrosion resistance of ZAM coating can be improved by additions of Si and RE. • Zn–6Al–3Mg–Si–RE coating forms a dense and stabilized corrosion product layer. • Zn–6Al–3Mg–Si–RE coating shows uniform corrosion. - Abstract: The effects of Si and RE on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of Zn–6Al–3Mg coating (ZAM) have been investigated. Surface morphology observations of the coating and corrosion products reveal that the additions of Si and rare earth metals (RES) improve the microstructural homogeneity of ZAMSR coating and stability of corrosion products formed on ZAMSR coating. Moreover, only uniform corrosion occurs in ZAMSR coating during the corrosion test, while intergranular corrosion and pitting occur in ZAM. As a result, the corrosion resistance of ZAM coating is improved by the additions of Si and RES.

  12. Effect of synthesis method on the preparation of lanthanum chromite for using as ceramic pigment; Influencia do metodo de sintese na preparacao de cromita de lantanio para utilizacao como pigmento ceramico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, G.C.B.; Ferreira, K.M.B.; Pimentel, P.M., E-mail: [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido (UFERSA), Mossoro, RN (Brazil); Melo, D.M.A.; Gomes, D.K.S.; Costa, A.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)


    In this paper, LaCrO3 perovskites were synthesized by two synthesis methods, in order to compare these methods in function of microstructure and optical properties. The synthesis routes employed were a method that use gelatin as organic precursor and microwave assisted auto-combustion. The resulting powders were calcined at 800 ° C and 1000 ° C for obtaining the perovskite phase. Then, they were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM); UV-Visible spectroscopy and colorimetric analysis for color identification. No significant changes were observed in the powders synthesized by two routes. The oxides presented orthorhombic perovskite structure. The powders synthesized by the gelatin method were single phase. Chromite lanthanide presented grayish hue being darker in perovskites calcined at higher temperatures. (author)

  13. Environmental barrier coating (United States)

    Pujari, Vimal K.; Vartabedian, Ara; Collins, William T.; Woolley, David; Bateman, Charles


    The present invention relates generally to a multi-layered article suitable for service in severe environments. The article may be formed of a substrate, such as silicon carbide and/or silicon nitride. The substrate may have a first layer of a mixture of a rare earth silicate and Cordierite. The substrate may also have a second layer of a rare earth silicate or a mixture of a rare earth silicate and cordierite.

  14. Aluminum phosphate coatings (United States)

    Sambasivan, Sankar; Steiner, Kimberly A.; Rangan, Krishnaswamy K.


    Aluminophosphate compounds and compositions as can be used for substrate or composite films and coating to provide or enhance, without limitation, planarization, anti-biofouling and/or anti-microbial properties.

  15. Inorganic Coatings Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...

  16. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering - Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Rafi, H. Khalid, E-mail: [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Ram, G.D. Janaki [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Reddy, G. Madhusudhan [Metal Joining Group, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Nagalakshmi, R. [Welding Research Institute, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli 620 014 (India)


    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  17. Spin coating apparatus (United States)

    Torczynski, John R.


    A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

  18. Biocompatibility of Niobium Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Olivares-Navarrete


    Full Text Available Niobium coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering were evaluated as a possible surface modification for stainless steel (SS substrates in biomedical implants. The Nb coatings were deposited on 15 mm diameter stainless steel substrates having an average surface roughness of 2 mm. To evaluate the biocompatibility of the coatings three different in vitro tests, using human alveolar bone derived cells, were performed: cellular adhesion, proliferation and viability. Stainless steel substrates and tissue culture plastic were also studied, in order to give comparative information. No toxic response was observed for any of the surfaces, indicating that the Nb coatings act as a biocompatible, bioinert material. Cell morphology was also studied by immune-fluorescence and the results confirmed the healthy state of the cells on the Nb surface. X-ray diffraction analysis of the coating shows that the film is polycrystalline with a body centered cubic structure. The surface composition and corrosion resistance of both the substrate and the Nb coating were also studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and potentiodynamic tests. Water contact angle measurements showed that the Nb surface is more hydrophobic than the SS substrate.

  19. Hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam


    Hydroxyapatite coatings are of great importance in the biological and biomedical coatings fields, especially in the current era of nanotechnology and bioapplications. With a bonelike structure that promotes osseointegration, hydroxyapatite coating can be applied to otherwise bioinactive implants to make their surface bioactive, thus achieving faster healing and recovery. In addition to applications in orthopedic and dental implants, this coating can also be used in drug delivery. Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications explores developments in the processing and property characteri

  20. Coated microneedles for transdermal delivery


    Gill, Harvinder S.; Prausnitz, Mark R.


    Coated microneedles have been shown to deliver proteins and DNA into the skin in a minimally invasive manner. However, detailed studies examining coating methods and their breadth of applicability are lacking. This study’s goal was to develop a simple, versatile and controlled microneedle coating process to make uniform coatings on microneedles and establish the breadth of molecules and particles that can be coated onto microneedles. First, microneedles were fabricated from stainless steel sh...

  1. Coated particle waste form development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.


    Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes.

  2. Earth and ocean modeling (United States)

    Knezovich, F. M.


    A modular structured system of computer programs is presented utilizing earth and ocean dynamical data keyed to finitely defined parameters. The model is an assemblage of mathematical algorithms with an inherent capability of maturation with progressive improvements in observational data frequencies, accuracies and scopes. The Eom in its present state is a first-order approach to a geophysical model of the earth's dynamics.

  3. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity (United States)

    Oostra, Benjamin


    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  4. Thinking the earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Vincent


    Quentin Meillassoux's call for realism is a call for a new interest in the Earth as un-correlated being in philosophy. Unlike Meillassoux, Martin Heidegger has not been criticized for being a correlationist. To the contrary, his concept of the Earth has to be understood as un-correlated being, as it

  5. Solid Earth: Introduction (United States)

    Rummel, R.


    The principles of the solid Earth program are introduced. When considering the study of solid Earth from space, satellites are used as beacons, inertial references, free fall probes and carrying platforms. The phenomenon measured by these satellites and the processes which can be studied as a result of these measurements are tabulated. The NASA solid Earth program focusses on research into surface kinematics, Earth rotation, land, ice, and ocean monitoring. The ESA solid Earth program identifies as its priority the Aristoteles mission for determining the gravity and magnetic field globally, with high spatial resolution and high accuracy. The Aristoteles mission characteristics and goals are listed. The benefits of the improved gravity information that will be provided by this mission are highlighted. This information will help in the following research: geodesy, orbit mechanics, geodynamics, oceanography, climate sea level, and the atmosphere.

  6. Optical Diagnostics for High-Temperature Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.


    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are typically composed of translucent ceramic oxides that provide thermal protection for metallic components exposed to high-temperature environments, such as in jet turbine engines. Taking advantage of the translucent nature of TBCs, optical diagnostics have been developed that can provide an informed assessment of TBC health that will allow mitigating action to be taken before TBC degradation threatens performance or safety. In particular, rare-earth-doped luminescent sublayers have been integrated into the TBC structure to produce luminescence that monitors TBC erosion, delamination, and temperature gradients. Erosion monitoring of TBC-coated specimens is demonstrated by utilizing visible luminescence that is excited from a sublayer that is exposed by erosion. TBC delamination monitoring is achieved in TBCs with a base rare-earth-doped luminescent sublayer by the reflectance-enhanced increase in luminescence produced in regions containing buried delamination cracks. TBC temperature monitoring is demonstrated using the temperature-dependent decay time for luminescence originating from the specific coating depth associated with a rare-earth-doped luminescent sublayer. The design and implementation of these TBCs with integrated luminescent sublayers is discussed, including co-doping strategies to produce more penetrating near-infrared luminescence. It is demonstrated that integration of the rare-earth-doped sublayers is achieved with no reduction in TBC life. In addition, results for multilayer TBCs designed to also perform as radiation barriers are also presented.

  7. Materials resistance to low earth orbit environmental effects (United States)

    Pippin, H. G.; Torre, L. P.; Linton, R. G.; Whitaker, A. F.


    A number of flexible polymeric materials have been considered as condidates for protective coatings on Kapton film. These coatings have been tested under a variety of environments, each of which simulates one or more aspects of the low earth orbit space environment. Mass loss rates vs fluence and temperatue, optical properties, and surface characteristics under exposure to the various environments will be presented. Kinetics data on Kapton and other materials is interpreted in terms of bond strengths and relative thermodynamic stabilities of potential products. Activation energy for degradation of Kapton by oxygen atoms was determined to be 30 + or - 5 kJ/mol. Materials tested include silicones, fluorosilicones, fluorophosphazenes, fluorocarbons, and hydrocarbons.

  8. Steam initiated hydrotalcite conversion coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Roefzaad, Melanie


    in the following order: K2S2O8 > Na2SO4 > NH4NO3 > KNO3. Post-coating rinsing by Mg(CH3COO)2, in addition to Ce- and La- based salts, is capable of sealing the porous Al-Li HT coatings and increasing the corrosion resistance ability. The Ce modified Al-Li HT coatings show better corrosion protection than the La...... modified coatings, due to a behaviour of “active corrosion protection” that enables precipitation of insoluble Ce(IV) oxides to reinforce the existed HT coatings........ A range of coating processesased on the formation of HT surface layers has been developed to examine its effect on the coating's thicknessnd corrosion resistance properties. These varieties include pre-coating cleaning (grid blasting vs. chemicaltching), metal species in HT compounds (Al-Zn HT coating vs...

  9. Earth as art three (United States)



    For most of us, deserts, mountains, river valleys, coastlines even dry lakebeds are relatively familiar features of the Earth's terrestrial environment. For earth scientists, they are the focus of considerable scientific research. Viewed from a unique and unconventional perspective, Earth's geographic attributes can also be a surprising source of awe-inspiring art. That unique perspective is space. The artists for the Earth as Art Three exhibit are the Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 satellites, which orbit approximately 705 kilometers (438 miles) above the Earth's surface. While studying the images these satellites beam down daily, researchers are often struck by the sheer beauty of the scenes. Such images inspire the imagination and go beyond scientific value to remind us how stunning, intricate, and simply amazing our planet's features can be. Instead of paint, the medium for these works of art is light. But Landsat satellite sensors don't see light as human eyes do; instead, they see radiant energy reflected from Earth's surface in certain wavelengths, or bands, of red, green, blue, and infrared light. When these different bands are combined into a single image, remarkable patterns, colors, and shapes emerge. The Earth as Art Three exhibit provides fresh and inspiring glimpses of different parts of our planet's complex surface. The images in this collection were chosen solely based on their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation only for your viewing pleasure. Enjoy!

  10. Pulsed laser deposition of zinc ferrite coatings on SS316 and characterization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandramohan, P.; Chandran, S.; Srinivasan, M.P.; Rangarajan, S.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V. [BARC Facilities, Water and Steam Chemistry Div., Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Krishnan, R.; Dash, S. [IGCAR, Materials Science Group, Thin Films and Coatings Section, Surface and Nanoscience Div., Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India)


    Primary heat transport system in BWR and PWR releases mainly nickel and iron as the corrosion materials which get deposited on fuel clad and get activated in core and released to ex-core as Co-58 and Co-60 resulting in the incorporation of these on spinals leading to more than 90% activity. A non-radioactive element which is capable of reducing the corrosion release rate and minimize the crud deposits on fuel clad will help to bring down the surface contamination. In BWR and PWR, on PHT SS surfaces, the incorporation of Zn ions in ferrite lattice brings down corrosion rate and {sup 60}Co activity pick up considerably. Zinc, due to its higher stabilization energy, gets preferentially incorporated in the inner chromite layers compared with other elements and make the inner oxide layer more corrosion protective. An attempt has been made to prepare zinc ferrite (used as target) coating by pulse laser deposition technique on AISI 316 SS (substrate) using Nd-YAG laser (λ-1064nm; pulse width - 5 ns; pulse energy- 500 mJ; repetition rate - 10 Hz) at various temperatures ranging from 298K to 973K and at different pressures ranging from 10{sup -6} mbar to 10{sup -1}mbar. The synthesis of zinc ferrite coating by PLD causes a reduction in crystallite size. This is expected to help in better corrosion protection and reduced activity pick up. The coating thickness and surface roughness were measured using a surface profilometer and found to be ∼500nm and ∼40nm, respectively. The zinc ferrite coating prepared at 298K showed characteristic XRD pattern for pure zinc ferrite. The coating developed at higher temperatures showed a mixture of zinc ferrite and iron oxide phases. The Electrochemical impedance studies were carried out on these films at room temperature. Increase in the film deposition temperature shows decrease in the pore resistance R{sub p} and charge transfer resistance R{sub ct} of the films. Film formed with different pressure conditions show decrease in the

  11. Protective Woodcutting Tool Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana D. Latushkina


    Full Text Available The modern woodworking industry applies resource-saving, environmentally appropriate technologies, providing both the metal removal performance enhancement and functioning with the optimal economic factors. Progressive cutting parameters require the application of the high-reliability cutting tools, eliminating machine-tool equipment standstill and increased cost of the expensive tool materials. In this paper it is suggested to increase the wood-cutting tool efficiency by means of the vacuum-arc separated coating deposition process optimization. The droplets are one of the main problems while generating vacuum-arc coatings, and they have a bad influence on the quality and operational coatings characteristics. The application of the separated system, allowing minimize the droplets content, is one of the most promising ways to solve this problem. Vacuum-arc deposition technique was used in this work to generate multicomponent coatings. The coatings deposition was directly carried out on the modernized vacuum-arc plant, equipped by Y-shaped macroparticles separator.

  12. Earth Science Informatics - Overview (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.


    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes over 180 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies.The talk will present an overview of current efforts in ESI, the role members of IEEE GRSS play, and discuss

  13. Earth before life. (United States)

    Marzban, Caren; Viswanathan, Raju; Yurtsever, Ulvi


    A recent study argued, based on data on functional genome size of major phyla, that there is evidence life may have originated significantly prior to the formation of the Earth. Here a more refined regression analysis is performed in which 1) measurement error is systematically taken into account, and 2) interval estimates (e.g., confidence or prediction intervals) are produced. It is shown that such models for which the interval estimate for the time origin of the genome includes the age of the Earth are consistent with observed data. The appearance of life after the formation of the Earth is consistent with the data set under examination.

  14. Project Earth Science

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, Geoff


    Project Earth Science: Astronomy, Revised 2nd Edition, involves students in activities that focus on Earth's position in our solar system. How do we measure astronomical distances? How can we look back in time as we gaze across vast distances in space? How would our planet be different without its particular atmosphere and distance to our star? What are the geometries among Earth, the Moon, and the Sun that yield lunar phases and seasons? Students explore these concepts and others in 11 teacher-tested activities.

  15. The Earth's Magnetic Interior

    CERN Document Server

    Petrovsky, Eduard; Harinarayana, T; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio


    This volume combines review and solicited contributions, related to scientific studies of Division I of IAGA presented recently at its Scientific Assembly in Sopron in 2009. The book is aimed at intermediate to advanced readers dealing with the Earth's magnetic field generation, its historical records in rocks and geological formations - including links to geodynamics and magnetic dating, with magnetic carriers in earth materials, electromagnetic induction and conductivity studies of the Earth interior with environmental applications of rock magnetism and electromagnetism. The aim of the book

  16. A New Coating Process for Production of Coated Magnesium Powders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... In brief, Task 1 involved the construction and assembly of the coating system and supporting infrastructure, which was used for the scale-up and production of 1-lb batches of coated magnesium powder...

  17. Earliest life on earth

    CERN Document Server

    Golding, Suzanne D


    This volume integrates the latest findings on earliest life forms, identified and characterized in some of the oldest rocks on Earth. It places emphasis on the integration of analytical methods with observational techniques and experimental simulations.

  18. Earth retaining structures manual (United States)


    The objectives of this policy are to obtain statewide uniformity, establish standard : procedures and delineate responsibility for the preparation and review of plans, : design and construction control of earth retaining structures. In addition, it i...

  19. Gambling with the earth

    CERN Multimedia

    Muir, H


    The probability that dangerous Earth-devouring particles will be born at a new accelerator in the US may be tiny, but scientists have played down the devastating potential costs in their risk assessments according to a physicist (1 page).

  20. Earth's variable rotation (United States)

    Hide, Raymond; Dickey, Jean O.


    Recent improvements in geodetic data and practical meteorology have advanced research on fluctuations in the earth's rotation. The interpretation of these fluctuations is inextricably linked with studies of the dynamics of the earth-moon system and dynamical processes in the liquid metallic core of the earth (where the geomagnetic field originates), other parts of the earth's interior, and the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Fluctuations in the length of the day occurring on decadal time scales have implications for the topographay of the core-mantle boundary and the electrical, magnetic, ande other properties of the core and lower mantle. Investigations of more rapid fluctuations bear on meteorological studies of interannual, seasonal, and intraseasonal variations in the general circulation of the atmosphere and the response of the oceans to such variations.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


      The section features Earth Island's Dolphin Safe tuna . label (asking readers to look for tuna cans without the Dolphin Safe label and alert us so we can have the cans removed from store shelves...

  2. The Earth's rotation problem (United States)

    Brumberg, V. A.; Ivanova, T. V.


    The aim of the present paper is to find the trigonometric solution of the equations of the Earth's rotation around its centre of mass in the form of polynomial trigonometric series (Poisson series) without secular and mixed therms. For that the techniques of the General Planetary Theory (GPT) ( Brumberg, 1995) and the Poisson Series Processor (PSP) (Ivanova, 1995) are used. The GPT allows to reduce the equations of the translatory motion of the major planets and the Moon and the equations of the Earth's rotation in Euler parameters to the secular system describing the evolution of the planetary and lunar orbits (independent of the Earth's rotation) and the evolution of the Earth's rotation (depending on the planetary and lunar evolution).

  3. Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics


    Herndon, J. Marvin


    The principles of Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics are disclosed leading to a new way to interpret whole-Earth dynamics. Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics incorporates elements of and unifies the two seemingly divergent dominant theories of continential displacement, plate tectonics theory and Earth expansion theory. Whole-Earth decompression is the consequence of Earth formation from within a Jupiter-like protoplanet with subsequent loss of gases and ices and concomitant rebounding. The i...

  4. Superheating in coated niobium


    T. Junginger; Wasserman, W.; Laxdal, R. E.


    Using muon spin rotation it is shown that the field of first flux penetration H_entry in Nb is enhanced by about 30% if coated with an overlayer of Nb_3Sn or MgB_2. This is consistent with an increase from the lower critical magnetic field H_c1 up to the superheating field H_sh of the Nb substrate. In the experiments presented here coatings of Nb_3Sn and MgB_2 with a thickness between 50 and 2000nm have been tested. H_entry does not depend on material or thickness. This suggests that the ener...

  5. Advanced Coating Removal Techniques (United States)

    Seibert, Jon


    An important step in the repair and protection against corrosion damage is the safe removal of the oxidation and protective coatings without further damaging the integrity of the substrate. Two such methods that are proving to be safe and effective in this task are liquid nitrogen and laser removal operations. Laser technology used for the removal of protective coatings is currently being researched and implemented in various areas of the aerospace industry. Delivering thousands of focused energy pulses, the laser ablates the coating surface by heating and dissolving the material applied to the substrate. The metal substrate will reflect the laser and redirect the energy to any remaining protective coating, thus preventing any collateral damage the substrate may suffer throughout the process. Liquid nitrogen jets are comparable to blasting with an ultra high-pressure water jet but without the residual liquid that requires collection and removal .As the liquid nitrogen reaches the surface it is transformed into gaseous nitrogen and reenters the atmosphere without any contamination to surrounding hardware. These innovative technologies simplify corrosion repair by eliminating hazardous chemicals and repetitive manual labor from the coating removal process. One very significant advantage is the reduction of particulate contamination exposure to personnel. With the removal of coatings adjacent to sensitive flight hardware, a benefit of each technique for the space program is that no contamination such as beads, water, or sanding residue is left behind when the job is finished. One primary concern is the safe removal of coatings from thin aluminum honeycomb face sheet. NASA recently conducted thermal testing on liquid nitrogen systems and found that no damage occurred on 1/6", aluminum substrates. Wright Patterson Air Force Base in conjunction with Boeing and NASA is currently testing the laser remOval technique for process qualification. Other applications of liquid

  6. Mechanically Invisible Polymer Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    phase comprises particles, said particles comprising a filler material and an encapsulating coating of a second polymeric material, wherein the backbones of the first and second polymeric materials are the same. The composition may be used in electroactive polymers (EAPs) in order to obtain mechanically......The present invention relates to a composition comprising encapsulated particles in a polymeric material. The composition comprises a continuous phase and a discontinuous phase incorporated therein, wherein the continuous phase comprises a first polymeric material and wherein the discontinuous...... invisible polymer coatings....

  7. Methods and means for coating paper by film coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maarel, Marc; Ter Veer, Arend Berend Cornelis; Vrieling-Smit, Annet; Delnoye, Pierre


    This invention relates to the field of paper coating, more in particular to means and methods for providing paper with at least one layer of pigment using film coating to obtain a well printable surface. Provided is a method for preparing coated paper comprising the steps of: a) providing a

  8. Origins of chromite and magnetite in sedimentary rocks deposited in a shallow water environment in the 3.2 Ga Moodies Group, South Africa (United States)

    Otake, T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Itoh, S.; Yurimoto, H.; Kakegawa, T.


    *Otake, T. Div. of Sustainable Resources Engineering, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan Sakamoto, Y. Dep. of Earth Science, Tohoku Univ., Sendai, Japan Itoh, S. Dep. of Natural History Sciences, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan Yurimoto. H. Dep. of Natural History Sciences, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan Kakegawa, T. Dep. of Earth Science, Tohoku Univ., Sendai, Japan Geochemical data from ferruginous chemical sedimentary rocks (e.g., Banded Iron Formation: BIF) have been used to reconstruct the surface environments of early Earth. However, only a few studies have investigated the geochemical characteristics of BIFs deposited in a shallow water environment during the Archean, which may have differed from those deposited in a deep water environment. Therefore, we investigated geological, petrographic and geochemical characteristics of ferruginous rocks deposited in a shallow water environment in the Moodies group, in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. We obtained ferruginous rock samples in the Moodies group from both an outcrop and underground gold mine, and compared the characteristics of these samples. The 70 sedimentary rock samples were divided into groups based on the dominant Fe minerals they contain: Hematite-rich jaspilite (HM group), Magnetite-rich iron formation/shale/sandstone (MT group), and Siderite-rich sandstone (SD group). Samples in the HM group are predominantly composed of fine-grained quartz (rocks of the Moodies Group. These results suggest that Cr and U were chemically mobile, possibly as oxidized species, in the Earth's surface environment at ~3.2 Ga.

  9. Aesthetic coatings for steel bridge components. (United States)


    The effectiveness of aesthetic coating systems for steel bridges was studied. Twelve 2-coat, 3-coat, and duplex : coating systems were selected and subjected to a series of accelerated weathering and mechanical tests to : determine their performance....

  10. Thermodynamic constraints on Fe and Si carbide stabilities in the Earth's mantle (United States)

    Golubkova, A.; Schmidt, M. W.; Connolly, J. A.


    The ambient Earth mantle is metal saturated at ≥ 250 km, its redox state is buffered close to iron-wustite (IW). At such oxygen fugacity (fO2), oxidized forms of carbon are not stable; thus, the presence of oxidized carbon, as represented by CO2-rich fluid inclusions in diamonds and volatile-rich deep-seated magmas (e.g. kimberlites), indicates a local increase in fO2. Major forms of C within sublithospheric or deep mantle are diamond/graphite or carbides (mostly cementite, Fe3C and moissanite, SiC). Such carbides are reported from mantle-derived rocks and inclusions in diamonds. Furthermore, SiC and associated metallic Fe and Fe-silicides are found in podiform chromitites in ophiolites [Trumbull et al. 2009, Lithos]. Previous experiments on the redox stability of SiC have demonstrated that moissanite becomes stable at fO2 below IW to at least 9 GPa [Ulmer et al. 1998, Neues Jahrb Min]. Since Fe- and C-speciation is strongly fO2 dependent, we calculated ranges of redox conditions allowing for Fe and Si carbides within typical mantle assemblages. We thus added thermodynamic parameters and solution models for alloys (Fe-Si-C and Fe-Cr), stoichiometric compounds (Fe-silicides) and carbides to a thermodynamic database for silicates and oxides [Holland & Powell 2011, J. metamorphic Geol.]. Calculated T-fO2 diagrams indicate that cementite coexists with ol, opx, and gph/diam at ΔlogfO2[IW] ≈ -1 at 2 GPa and ≈ IW at 10 GPa. With decreasing fO2, Fe2+ in mantle silicates is progressively reduced while the XMg of silicates increases, the latter reaching unity at the conditions for SiC stability. Reduced Fe-bearing species occur in the sequence Fe3C → γ-FeSiC alloy → α-FeSiC alloy → ɛ-FeSi. For the dominant α-alloy, Si content increases with decreasing fO2 to XSi ~ 0.3 (molar), thereafter stoichiometric FeSi becomes stable. SiC appears at ΔlogfO2[IW] ≈ -7.5 at 2 GPa and 1300oC and -7.0 at 10 GPa and 1500oC. Chromite solid solution is reduced to

  11. Mechanisms of Military Coatings Degradation (United States)


    volume and bulk film compaction. Coating A is a less sterically and thermally stable biuret trimer of HDI in comparison to the HDI of coating system...developed coatings systems used by the Army, Marine Corps and Air Force. This study has incorporated numerous analytical tools and methods in an effort to...blistering. Peel away was evaluated as per ASTM D 3359, Method A and blistering was evaluated as per ASTM D 714. Coating systems are summarized

  12. Coating method for graphite (United States)

    Banker, J.G.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.


    A method of limiting carbon contamination from graphite ware used in induction melting of uranium alloys is provided. The graphite surface is coated with a suspension of Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ particles in water containing about 1.5 to 4 percent by weight sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

  13. Coatings for transport industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof LUKASZKOWICZ


    Full Text Available The investigations concerned structural analysis, as well as mechanical properties and wear resistant of MeN/DLC double-layer coating deposited by hybrid PVD/PACVD method. In sliding dry friction conditions, after the break-in time, the friction coefficient for the investigated elements is set in the range between 0.03-0.06.

  14. The Spore Coat. (United States)

    Driks, Adam; Eichenberger, Patrick


    Spores of Clostridiales and Bacillales are encased in a complex series of concentric shells that provide protection, facilitate germination, and mediate interactions with the environment. Analysis of diverse spore-forming species by thin-section transmission electron microscopy reveals that the number and morphology of these encasing shells vary greatly. In some species, they appear to be composed of a small number of discrete layers. In other species, they can comprise multiple, morphologically complex layers. In addition, spore surfaces can possess elaborate appendages. For all their variability, there is a consistent architecture to the layers encasing the spore. A hallmark of all Clostridiales and Bacillales spores is the cortex, a layer made of peptidoglycan. In close association with the cortex, all species examined possess, at a minimum, a series of proteinaceous layers, called the coat. In some species, including Bacillus subtilis, only the coat is present. In other species, including Bacillus anthracis, an additional layer, called the exosporium, surrounds the coat. Our goals here are to review the present understanding of the structure, composition, assembly, and functions of the coat, primarily in the model organism B. subtilis, but also in the small but growing number of other spore-forming species where new data are showing that there is much to be learned beyond the relatively well-developed basis of knowledge in B. subtilis. To help summarize this large field and define future directions for research, we will focus on key findings in recent years.

  15. HA-Coated Implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Henrik; Søballe, Kjeld; Bechtold, Joan E


    The goal of osseointegration of orthopedic and dental implants is the rapid achievement of a mechanically stable and long lasting fixation between living bone and the implant surface. In total joint replacements of cementless designs, coatings of calcium phosphates were introduced as a means...

  16. Durable superhydrophobic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, John T.; Polyzos, Georgios; Schaeffer, Daniel A.


    A superhydrophobic coating including a plurality of particles and a resin. The particles covalently bond to the resin and the resin does not fill the pores of the superhydrophobic particles such that the three dimensional surface topology of the superhydrophobic particles is preserved.

  17. Optimal Safety EarthingEarth Electrode Sizing Using A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a deterministic approach in the sizing of earth electrode using the permissible touch voltage criteria is presented. The deterministic approach is effectively applied in the sizing of the length of earth rod required for the safe earthing of residential and facility buildings. This approach ensures that the earthing ...


    Stoddard, S.D.


    Refractory coating for graphite molds used in the casting of uranium is described. The coating is an alumino-silicate refractory composition which may be used as a mold surface in solid form or as a coating applied to the graphite mold. The composition consists of a mixture of ball clay, kaolin, alumina cement, alumina, water, sodium silicate, and sodium carbonate.

  19. Modeling the earth system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojima, D. [ed.


    The 1990 Global Change Institute (GCI) on Earth System Modeling is the third of a series organized by the Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies to look in depth at particular issues critical to developing a better understanding of the earth system. The 1990 GCI on Earth System Modeling was organized around three themes: defining critical gaps in the knowledge of the earth system, developing simplified working models, and validating comprehensive system models. This book is divided into three sections that reflect these themes. Each section begins with a set of background papers offering a brief tutorial on the subject, followed by working group reports developed during the institute. These reports summarize the joint ideas and recommendations of the participants and bring to bear the interdisciplinary perspective that imbued the institute. Since the conclusion of the 1990 Global Change Institute, research programs, nationally and internationally, have moved forward to implement a number of the recommendations made at the institute, and many of the participants have maintained collegial interactions to develop research projects addressing the needs identified during the two weeks in Snowmass.

  20. The Sun and Earth (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk


    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  1. Earth - Moon Conjunction (United States)


    On December 16, 1992, 8 days after its encounter with Earth, the Galileo spacecraft looked back from a distance of about 6.2 million kilometers (3.9 million miles) to capture this remarkable view of the Moon in orbit about Earth. The composite photograph was constructed from images taken through visible (violet, red) and near-infrared (1.0-micron) filters. The Moon is in the foreground; its orbital path is from left to right. Brightly colored Earth contrasts strongly with the Moon, which reacts only about one-third as much sunlight as our world. To improve the visibility of both bodies, contrast and color have been computer enhanced. At the bottom of Earth's disk, Antarctica is visible through clouds. The Moon's far side can also be seen. The shadowy indentation in the Moon's dawn terminator--the boundary between its dark and lit sides--is the South Pole-Aitken Basin, one of the largest and oldest lunar impact features. This feature was studied extensively by Galileo during the first Earth flyby in December 1990.

  2. The earth's hydrological cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, R-M; Calisto, M; Destouni, G; Gurney, R; Johannessen, J; Kerr, Y; Lahoz, WA; Rast, M


    This book gives a comprehensive presentation of our present understanding of the Earth's Hydrological cycle and the problems, consequences and impacts that go with this topic. Water is a central component in the Earth's system. It is indispensable for life on Earth in its present form and influences virtually every aspect of our planet's life support system. On relatively short time scales, atmospheric water vapor interacts with the atmospheric circulation and is crucial in forming the Earth's climate zones. Water vapor is the most powerful of the greenhouse gases and serves to enhance the tropospheric temperature. The dominant part of available water on Earth resides in the oceans. Parts are locked up in the land ice on Greenland and Antarctica and a smaller part is estimated to exist as groundwater. If all the ice over the land and all the glaciers were to melt, the sea level would rise by some 80 m. In comparison, the total amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is small; it amounts to ~ 25 kg/m2, or the ...

  3. Google Earth and Map Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula


    Full Text Available By starting Google Earth, the screen shows Earth from a great distance, e.g. from a satellite rotating around the Earth (Fig. 1. The graticule is drawn by using the Grid function from the View menu. Google Earth is a virtual globe which can be rotated in all directions using a mouse.

  4. Dagik Earth and IUGONET (United States)

    Ebisawa, K.; Koyama, Y.; Saito, A.; Sakamoto, S.; Ishii, M.; Kumano, Y.; Hazumi, Y.


    In this paper we introduce two independent projects in progress in Japan. Dagik Earth is a visualization project of the Earth and planets on a spherical screen using only a standard PC and a projector. Surface images of the Earth or planets (or whatever having spherical shape) in the equirectangular (plate carre) projection are projected on a spherical screen in the orthographic projection. As a result, the spherical screen becomes a virtual digital globe, which can be rotated using mouse or remote controller. Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork (IUGONET) is a collaboration of five Japanese institutes to build a comprehensive database system for the metadata of the upper-atmospheric data taken by these institutes. We explain the IUGONET metadata database and iUgonet Data Analysis Software (UDAS) for upper atmospheric research.

  5. Better Than Earth (United States)

    Heller, René


    Do we inhabit the best of all possible worlds? German mathematician Gottfried Leibniz thought so, writing in 1710 that our planet, warts and all, must be the most optimal one imaginable. Leibniz's idea was roundly scorned as unscientific wishful thinking, most notably by French author Voltaire in his magnum opus, Candide. Yet Leibniz might find sympathy from at least one group of scientists - the astronomers who have for decades treated Earth as a golden standard as they search for worlds beyond our own solar system. Because earthlings still know of just one living world - our own - it makes some sense to use Earth as a template in the search for life elsewhere, such as in the most Earth-like regions of Mars or Jupiter's watery moon Europa. Now, however, discoveries of potentially habitable planets orbiting stars other than our sun - exoplanets, that is - are challenging that geocentric approach.

  6. Methods for Coating Particulate Material (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)


    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  7. How Big is Earth? (United States)

    Thurber, Bonnie B.


    How Big is Earth celebrates the Year of Light. Using only the sunlight striking the Earth and a wooden dowel, students meet each other and then measure the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes did it over 2,000 years ago. In Cosmos, Carl Sagan shared the process by which Eratosthenes measured the angle of the shadow cast at local noon when sunlight strikes a stick positioned perpendicular to the ground. By comparing his measurement to another made a distance away, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth. How Big is Earth provides an online learning environment where students do science the same way Eratosthenes did. A notable project in which this was done was The Eratosthenes Project, conducted in 2005 as part of the World Year of Physics; in fact, we will be drawing on the teacher's guide developed by that project.How Big Is Earth? expands on the Eratosthenes project by providing an online learning environment provided by the iCollaboratory,, where teachers and students from Sweden, China, Nepal, Russia, Morocco, and the United States collaborate, share data, and reflect on their learning of science and astronomy. They are sharing their information and discussing their ideas/brainstorming the solutions in a discussion forum. There is an ongoing database of student measurements and another database to collect data on both teacher and student learning from surveys, discussions, and self-reflection done online.We will share our research about the kinds of learning that takes place only in global collaborations.The entrance address for the iCollaboratory is

  8. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Méndez


    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  9. IR and the Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf; Stevenson, Hayley


    , in the end, one finite interconnected space. Together these two starting points make for the basic conundrum of Inter- national Relations and the Earth: how does a divided world live on a single globe? This introduction first provides an overview of the recent rise of ‘the environment’ in international......, ‘what has the environment ever done for IR?’, before the plan for the rest of the book sketches the content and direction of the ensuing chapters that explore the problematique of International Relations and the Earth....

  10. Effect of surface deposited rare earth oxide gel characteristics on cyclic oxidation behavior of Fe20-Cr alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Maria Cristina Fernandes


    Full Text Available Rare earths have been used to increase high temperature oxidation resistance of many chromium dioxide and alumina forming alloys. These rare earths can be added as elements (or as oxide dispersions to the alloys or applied as an oxide coating to the alloy surface. The sol-gel technique is considered to be very efficient to apply fine oxide particle coatings. Oxide gel coatings of various rare earths such as lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, samarium, gadolinium, dysprosium, yttrium, erbium and ytterbium have been applied to an iron-chromium alloy to determine their influence on the cyclic oxidation behavior (RT-900 °C of the alloy. The morphology and coverage of the rare earth oxide gels varied with the type of rare earth. The cyclic oxidation resistance of the alloy increased with increase in time at temperature required to reach a specific chromium dioxide layer thickness and this in turn was influenced by the rare earth ion radius and characteristics of the rare earth oxide coating such as morphology, stability, coverage, resistance to thermal stresses and consequently adhesion.

  11. Superelastic Orthopedic Implant Coatings (United States)

    Fournier, Eric; Devaney, Robert; Palmer, Matthew; Kramer, Joshua; El Khaja, Ragheb; Fonte, Matthew


    The demand for hip and knee replacement surgery is substantial and growing. Unfortunately, most joint replacement surgeries will fail within 10-25 years, thereby requiring an arduous, painful, and expensive revision surgery. To address this issue, a novel orthopedic implant coating material ("eXalt") has been developed. eXalt is comprised of super elastic nitinol wire that is knit into a three-dimensional spacer fabric structure. eXalt expands in vivo to conform to the implantation site and is porous to allow for bone ingrowth. The safety and efficacy of eXalt were evaluated through structural analysis, mechanical testing, and a rabbit implantation model. The results demonstrate that eXalt meets or exceeds the performance of current coating technologies with reduced micromotion, improved osseointegration, and stronger implant fixation in vivo.

  12. High Solids Coating System (United States)


    36622 Aircraft Gray No, 3� Dark Green No 30219 Tan No 17875 Tnsignia White D. Applicat ion In addition to conventionl . air ,3pray, evaluation of...requirements are 60% for gloss colors and 20% for camouflage colors. Adhesion of the coating to the elongated surfaces was evaluated by placing 250 masking...tape (3M) to the surface, insuring adhesion and then removing with one abrupt pull. Any paintI removal constitutes failure. 2. Heat Resistance Test

  13. Rare Earth Oxide Fluoride Nanoparticles And Hydrothermal Method For Forming Nanoparticles (United States)

    Fulton, John L.; Hoffmann, Markus M.


    A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

  14. for zeolite coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Rambo


    Full Text Available Biotemplating is the processing of microcellular ceramics by reproduction of natural morphologies, where the microstructural features of the biotemplate are maintained in the biomorphic ceramic. Different biotemplates with distinct pore anatomies were used to produce biomorphic supports for the zeolite coating: wood, cardboard, sea-sponge and sisal. The biomorphic ceramics were produced by distinguished processing routes: Al-gas infiltration-reaction, liquid-metal infiltration, dip-coating and sol-gel synthesis, in order to produce nitrides, carbides and oxides, depending on the processing conditions. The zeolite coating was performed by hydrothermal growth of MFI-type (Silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 zeolite crystals onto the internal pore walls of the biomorphic templates. The final biomorphic ceramic-zeolite composites were physically characterized, evaluated in terms of their gas adsorption capabilities and correlated to their microstructure and specific pore anatomy. The combination of the properties of the biomorphic ceramics with the adsorption properties of zeolites results in materials with distinct properties as potential candidates for adsorption and catalytic applications due to their characteristic porosity, molecular sieving capabilities and high thermo-mechanical strength.

  15. DIORAMA Earth Terrain Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werley, Kenneth Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    When simulating near-surface nuclear detonations, the terrain of the Earth can have an effect on the observed outputs. The critical parameter is called the “height of burst”. In order to model the effect of terrain on the simulations we have incorporated data from multiple sources to give 9 km resolution data with global coverage.

  16. "Galileo Calling Earth..." (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This guide presents an activity for helping students understand how data from the Galileo spacecraft is sent to scientists on earth. Students are asked to learn about the concepts of bit-rate and resolution and apply them to the interpretation of images from the Galileo Orbiter. (WRM)

  17. Bones of the Earth (United States)

    Correa, Jose Miguel


    The film "Bones of the Earth" (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014) is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective…

  18. Earth's City Lights (United States)


    This image of Earth's city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region. Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya. The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based on DMSP data

  19. The Earth's Changing Climate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wavelength range between 0.2 and 4.0 microns (p,m). ... from the earth is in the long wavelength range from 4.0 to 80/-Lm. .... turing industry. But, it is removed from the atmosphere by the photosynthesis of plants. The largest reservoirs of carbon are in the deep oceans. Some of this reaches the atmosphere when waters.

  20. Modeling Earth's Climate (United States)

    Pallant, Amy; Lee, Hee-Sun; Pryputniewicz, Sara


    Systems thinking suggests that one can best understand a complex system by studying the interrelationships of its component parts rather than looking at the individual parts in isolation. With ongoing concern about the effects of climate change, using innovative materials to help students understand how Earth's systems connect with each other is…

  1. Understanding Earth's Albedo Effect (United States)

    Fidler, Chuck


    Earth and space science in the middle school classroom are composed of intricately intertwined sets of conceptual systems (AAAS 1993; NRC 1996). Some systems of study, such as the water and rock cycles, are quite explicit and often found as stand-alone middle school science units. Other phenomena are not so apparent, yet they play an extremely…

  2. How life shaped Earth. (United States)

    Gross, Michael


    Earth is much more complex than all the other solar system objects that we know. Thanks to its rich and diverse geology, our planet can offer habitats to a wide range of living species. Emerging insights suggest that this is not just a happy coincidence, but that life itself has in many ways helped to shape the planet.

  3. Earth's Reflection: Albedo (United States)

    Gillette, Brandon; Hamilton, Cheri


    When viewing objects of different colors, you might notice that some appear brighter than others. This is because light is reflected differently from various surfaces, depending on their physical properties. The word "albedo" is used to describe how reflective a surface is. The Earth-atmosphere has a combined albedo of about 30%, a number that is…

  4. Google Earth Science (United States)

    Baird, William H.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Secrest, Jeffery A.


    Google Earth has made a wealth of aerial imagery available online at no cost to users. We examine some of the potential uses of that data in illustrating basic physics and astronomy, such as finding the local magnetic declination, using landmarks such as the Washington Monument and Luxor Obelisk as gnomons, and showing how airport runways get…

  5. Between Earth and Sky

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Adrian


    to rescue architecture from the sterile impasse of late-modernism. In his works the basic elements of lived space become present: the earth, the sky and the `between` of human existence." Jørn Utzon's architecture ranges from the modest to the monumental; from the Kingo courtyard houses, the finest...

  6. Magnetic rare earth superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majkrzak, C.F.; Kwo, J.; Hong, M.


    Advances in molecular beam epitaxy deposition techniques have recently made it possible to grow, an atomic plane at a time, single crystalline superlattices composed of alternating layers of a magnetic rare earth, such as Gd, Dy, Ho, or Er, and metallic Y, which has an identical chemical structure...

  7. Transparent, Conductive Coatings Developed for Arc-Proof Solar Arrays (United States)


    Transparent, conductive thin-film coatings have many potential applications where a surface must be able to dissipate electrical charges without sacrificing its optical properties. Such applications include automotive and aircraft windows, heat mirrors, optoelectronic devices, gas sensors, and solar cell array surfaces for space applications. Many spacecraft missions require that solar cell array surfaces dissipate charges in order to avoid damage such as electronic upsets, formation of pinholes in the protective coatings on solar array blankets, and contamination due to deposition of sputtered products. In tests at the NASA Lewis Research Center, mixed thin-films of sputter-deposited indium tin oxide (ITO) and magnesium fluoride (MgF2) that could be tailored to the desired sheet resistivity, showed transmittance values of greater than 90 percent. The samples evaluated were composed of mixed, thin-film ITO/MgF2 coatings, with a nominal thickness of 650 angstroms, deposited onto glass substrates. Preliminary results indicated that these coatings were durable to vacuum ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen. These coatings show promise for use on solar array surfaces in polar low-Earth-orbit environments, where a sheet resistivity of less than 10(exp 8)/square is required, and in geosynchronous orbit environments, where a resistivity of less than 10(exp 9)/square is required.

  8. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars? (United States)

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.


    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  9. Lotus Dust Mitigation Coating and Molecular Adsorber Coating (United States)

    O'Connor, Kenneth M.; Abraham, Nithin S.


    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed two unique coating formulations that will keep surfaces clean and sanitary and contain contaminants.The Lotus Dust Mitigation Coating, modeled after the self-cleaning, water-repellant lotus leaf, disallows buildup of dust, dirt, water, and more on surfaces. This coating, has been successfully tested on painted, aluminum, glass, silica, and some composite surfaces, could aid in keeping medical assets clean.The Molecular Adsorber Coating is a zeolite-based, sprayable molecular adsorber coating, designed to prevent outgassing in materials in vacuums. The coating works well to adsorb volatiles and contaminates in manufacturing and processing, such as in pharmaceutical production. The addition of a biocide would also aid in controlling bacteria levels.

  10. Nanoparticle/Polymer Nanocomposite Bond Coat or Coating (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.


    This innovation addresses the problem of coatings (meant to reduce gas permeation) applied to polymer matrix composites spalling off in service due to incompatibility with the polymer matrix. A bond coat/coating has been created that uses chemically functionalized nanoparticles (either clay or graphene) to create a barrier film that bonds well to the matrix resin, and provides an outstanding barrier to gas permeation. There is interest in applying clay nanoparticles as a coating/bond coat to a polymer matrix composite. Often, nanoclays are chemically functionalized with an organic compound intended to facilitate dispersion of the clay in a matrix. That organic modifier generally degrades at the processing temperature of many high-temperature polymers, rendering the clay useless as a nano-additive to high-temperature polymers. However, this innovation includes the use of organic compounds compatible with hightemperature polymer matrix, and is suitable for nanoclay functionalization, the preparation of that clay into a coating/bondcoat for high-temperature polymers, the use of the clay as a coating for composites that do not have a hightemperature requirement, and a comparable approach to the preparation of graphene coatings/bond coats for polymer matrix composites.

  11. Dense protective coatings, methods for their preparation and coated articles (United States)

    Tulyani, Sonia; Bhatia, Tania; Smeggil, John G.


    A method for depositing a protective coating on a complex shaped substrate includes the steps of: (1) dipping a complex shaped substrate into a slurry to form a base coat thereon, the slurry comprising an aqueous solution, at least one refractory metal oxide, and at least one transient fluid additive present in an amount of about 0.1 percent to 10 percent by weight of the slurry; (2) curing the dipped substrate; (3) dipping the substrate into a precursor solution to form a top barrier coat thereon; and (4) heat treating the dipped, cured substrate to form a protective coating.

  12. Tablet coating by injection molding technology - Optimization of coating formulation attributes and coating process parameters. (United States)

    Desai, Parind M; Puri, Vibha; Brancazio, David; Halkude, Bhakti S; Hartman, Jeremy E; Wahane, Aniket V; Martinez, Alexander R; Jensen, Keith D; Harinath, Eranda; Braatz, Richard D; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Trout, Bernhardt L


    We developed and evaluated a solvent-free injection molding (IM) coating technology that could be suitable for continuous manufacturing via incorporation with IM tableting. Coating formulations (coating polymers and plasticizers) were prepared using hot-melt extrusion and screened via stress-strain analysis employing a universal testing machine. Selected coating formulations were studied for their melt flow characteristics. Tablets were coated using a vertical injection molding unit. Process parameters like softening temperature, injection pressure, and cooling temperature played a very important role in IM coating processing. IM coating employing polyethylene oxide (PEO) based formulations required sufficient room humidity (>30% RH) to avoid immediate cracks, whereas other formulations were insensitive to the room humidity. Tested formulations based on Eudrajit E PO and Kollicoat IR had unsuitable mechanical properties. Three coating formulations based on hydroxypropyl pea starch, PEO 1,000,000 and Opadry had favorable mechanical (35% elongation, >95×10 4 J/m 3 toughness) and melt flow (>0.4g/min) characteristics, that rendered acceptable IM coats. These three formulations increased the dissolution time by 10, 15 and 35min, respectively (75% drug release), compared to the uncoated tablets (15min). Coated tablets stored in several environmental conditions remained stable to cracking for the evaluated 8-week time period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Visualizing Earth Materials (United States)

    Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A.; Stibbon, E.; Harris, R.


    Earth materials are fundamental to art. They are pigments, they are clay, they provide form and color. Earth scientists, however, rarely attempt to make the physical properties of Earth materials visible through art, and similarly many artists use Earth materials without fully understanding their physical and chemical properties. Here we explore the intersection between art and science through study of the physical properties of Earth materials as characterized in the laboratory, and as transferred to paper using different techniques and suspending media. One focus of this collaboration is volcanic ash. Ash is interesting scientifically because its form provides information on the fundamental processes that drive volcanic eruptions, and determines its transport properties, and thus its potential to affect populations far downwind of the volcano. Ash properties also affect its behavior as an art material. From an aesthetic point of view, ash lends a granular surface to the image; it is also uncontrollable, and thus requires engagement between artist and medium. More fundamentally, using ash in art creates an exchange between the medium and the subject matter, and imparts something of the physical, visceral experience of volcanic landscapes to the viewer. Another component of this work uses powdered rock as a printing medium for geologic maps. Because different types of rock create powders with different properties (grain size distributions and shapes), the geology is communicated not only as color, but also by the physical characteristics of the material as it interacts with the paper. More importantly, the use of actual rocks samples as printing material for geologic maps not only makes a direct connection between the map and the material it represents, but also provides an emotional connection between the map, the viewer and the landscape, its colors, textures and geological juxtapositions. Both case studies provide examples not only of ways in which artists can

  14. Earth Science Multimedia Theater (United States)

    Hasler, A. F.


    The presentation will begin with the latest 1998 NASA Earth Science Vision for the next 25 years. A compilation of the 10 days of animations of Hurricane Georges which were supplied daily on NASA to Network television will be shown. NASA's visualizations of Hurricane Bonnie which appeared in the Sept 7 1998 issue of TIME magazine. Highlights will be shown from the NASA hurricane visualization resource video tape that has been used repeatedly this season on network TV. Results will be presented from a new paper on automatic wind measurements in Hurricane Luis from 1 -min GOES images that will appear in the October BAMS. The visualizations are produced by the Goddard Visualization & Analysis Laboratory, and Scientific Visualization Studio, as well as other Goddard and NASA groups using NASA, NOAA, ESA, and NASDA Earth science datasets. Visualizations will be shown from the "Digital-HyperRes-Panorama" Earth Science ETheater'98 recently presented in Tokyo, Paris and Phoenix. The presentation in Paris used a SGI/CRAY Onyx Infinite Reality Super Graphics Workstation at 2560 X 1024 resolution with dual synchronized video Epson 71 00 projectors on a 20ft wide screen. Earth Science Electronic Theater '999 is being prepared for a December 1 st showing at NASA HQ in Washington and January presentation at the AMS meetings in Dallas. The 1999 version of the Etheater will be triple wide with at resolution of 3840 X 1024 on a 60 ft wide screen. Visualizations will also be featured from the new Earth Today Exhibit which was opened by Vice President Gore on July 2, 1998 at the Smithsonian Air & Space Museum in Washington, as well as those presented for possible use at the American Museum of Natural History (NYC), Disney EPCOT, and other venues. New methods are demonstrated for visualizing, interpreting, comparing, organizing and analyzing immense Hyperimage remote sensing datasets and three dimensional numerical model results. We call the data from many new Earth sensing satellites

  15. Laser clad NiCrBSi alloy wear-resistance coating with RE addition on heavy duty spur gear flank (United States)

    Zhao, N.; Tao, L.; Guo, H.; Zhang, M. Q.


    In this research the wear-resistance composite coating successfully produced on heavy duty gear work surface by laser was reported. The coating containing 99 wt.% NiCrBSi alloy and 1 wt.% RE (rare earth element) oxidation powder. The RE addition coupled with laser operating parameters optimization caused elimination of both cracks and pores meanwhile further enhanced comprehensive properties of the laser layer. The coating microhardness, microstructure, phase construction and wear behaviors were tested by hardness tester, SEM equipped with EDS, XRD and tribometer, respectively. The results reflected the fact that the RE addition enhanced the coating ability of wear resistance and laser clad layer properly bonded with the gear flank. The wear volume loss rate of coating was half of that of the gear flank metal the COF curve of coating kept bellow that of the gear flank steel.

  16. Phase Stability and Thermal Conductivity of Composite Environmental Barrier Coatings on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites (United States)

    Benkel, Samantha; Zhu, Dongming


    Advanced environmental barrier coatings are being developed to protect SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites in harsh combustion environments. The current coating development emphasis has been placed on the significantly improved cyclic durability and combustion environment stability in high-heat-flux and high velocity gas turbine engine environments. Environmental barrier coating systems based on hafnia (HfO2) and ytterbium silicate, HfO2-Si nano-composite bond coat systems have been processed and their stability and thermal conductivity behavior have been evaluated in simulated turbine environments. The incorporation of Silicon Carbide Nanotubes (SiCNT) into high stability (HfO2) and/or HfO2-silicon composite bond coats, along with ZrO2, HfO2 and rare earth silicate composite top coat systems, showed promise as excellent environmental barriers to protect the SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites.

  17. 100% Solids Polyurethane Sequestration Coating (United States)


    section of an aluminum flake loaded thiol-ene coating peeled off of a glass plate after cure. Adsorbents and Reactive Particles Nanoparticulate ...commercially to the oil drilling industry. The incorporation of CaCO3 nanoparticulate into thiol-ene coatings was demonstrated in our Phase I project...Porous, nanoparticulate SiO2 has also been identified and evaluated in coating systems. The effect of high capacity adsorbents on permeation through

  18. Inaugeral lecture - Meteorite impacts on Earth and on the Earth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is some controversial evidence for the theory that the first life on Earth itself may have been transported here on meteorites from Mars. The possibility of a major meteorite impact on Earth in the near future emphasizes the dramatic nature of these recent discoveries, which are having deep impacts in the Earth sciences ...

  19. Towards earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Meijer, R. J.; Smit, F. D.; Brooks, F. D.; Fearick, R. W.; Wortche, H. J.; Mantovani, F.


    The programme Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH) proposes to build ten underground facilities each hosting a telescope. Each telescope consists of many detector modules, to map the radiogenic heat sources deep in the interior of the Earth by utilising direction sensitive geoneutrino detection.

  20. Axisymmetric fretting analysis in coated cylinder

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    erties by coating the surface. There is rather scanty literature available on fretting analysis of coated components. Presence of such coatings has a large influence on the near surface state of stress. The effect of coatings on the severity of fretting is the focus of this paper. Results obtained for both hard and soft coatings are ...

  1. Coatings Technology Integration Office (CTIO) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CTIO serves as the Air Force's central resource for aircraft coating systems and their applications. CTIO's primary objectives are pollution prevention and improved...

  2. Corrosion behavior of duplex coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Raghu Ram Mohan Reddy


    Full Text Available The titanium alloys are used in defense, aerospace, automobile, chemical plants and biomedical applications due to their very high strength and lightweight properties. However, corrosion is a life-limiting factor when Ti alloys are exposed to different chemical environments at high temperatures. In the present paper, duplex NiCrAlY/WC–Co coating is coated onto Ti6Al4V substrate to investigate the corrosion behavior of both coated samples and the substrate. The duplex coating was performed with NiCrAlY as the intermediate coat of 200 μm thickness deposited by HVOF process and WC–Co ceramic top coat with varying thicknesses of 250 μm, 350 μm and 450 μm deposited by DS process. Potentiodynamic polarization tests were employed to investigate the corrosion performance of duplex coated samples and substrate in Ringer’s solution at 37 °C and pH value was set to 5.7. Finally the results reveal that 350 μm thick coated samples showed highest corrosion resistance compared to 250 μm thick samples as well as bare substrate. However, the 450 μm thick coated sample showed poor corrosion resistance compared to the substrate. The scale formed on the samples upon corrosion was characterized by using SEM analysis to understand the degree of corrosion behavior.

  3. Electrochemically switchable polypyrrole coated membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidlich, Claudia, E-mail: weidlich@dechema.d [DECHEMA e.V., Karl-Winnacker-Institut, Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Mangold, Klaus-Michael [DECHEMA e.V., Karl-Winnacker-Institut, Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)


    A method for coating membranes with polypyrrole (PPy) has been developed. Different membranes, such as microfiltration as well as ion exchanger membranes have been coated with PPy to yield electrical conductivity of the membranes. The coated membranes have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy and their permeability and permselectivity have been tested. The results show that PPy can be tailored as cation or anion exchanger and its porosity can be controlled to avoid any impairment of the membrane by the polymer layer. These PPy coated membranes can be applied as electrochemically switchable, functionalised membranes with controllabel and variable separation properties.

  4. Phaethon Near Earth (United States)

    Jewitt, David


    Planet-crossing asteroid (3200) Phaethon, source of the Geminid meteoroid stream, will pass close to Earth in December 2017. Observations with HST are proposed to image debris ejected from this object at 1 AU heliocentric distance, to estimate the ejection velocities as the Earth passes through the orbit plane, and to estimate the dust production rate for comparison with the rates needed to sustain the Geminid stream in steady-state. These measurements will help determine the mechanism behind the ejection of the Geminids, a long-standing puzzle. While the release of micron-sized particles (probably by thermal fracture) has been recorded at Phaethon's perihelion (0.14 AU), mass loss has never been detected otherwise, raising the puzzle of the ejection mechanism and duration. The close approach (0.07 AU) on December 17 gives a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to observe Phaethon at high sensitivity with a resolution of a few kilometers.

  5. Marketing Earth science education (United States)

    Snieder, Roel; Spiers, Chris

    In the 1990s, the Department of Earth Sciences at Utrecht University in the Netherlands was struggling with a declining influx of students. For years, the department had been active in promoting its program, but this was insufficient to stem the decline in interest. To remedy the problem, the school's Earth science faculty carried out, with the help of consultants, a qualitative evaluation of its promotional activities. The faculty feared that their own image of the department might be in conflict with the image held by others; prospective students, in particular. The consultants interviewed secondary school students, parents, teachers, and study advisors in secondary schools. This article is a report on the results of this evaluation.

  6. Life Before Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Sharov, Alexei A


    An extrapolation of the genetic complexity of organisms to earlier times suggests that life began before the Earth was formed. Life may have started from systems with single heritable elements that are functionally equivalent to a nucleotide. The genetic complexity, roughly measured by the number of non-redundant functional nucleotides, is expected to have grown exponentially due to several positive feedback factors: gene cooperation, duplication of genes with their subsequent specialization, and emergence of novel functional niches associated with existing genes. Linear regression of genetic complexity on a log scale extrapolated back to just one base pair suggests the time of the origin of life 9.7 billion years ago. This cosmic time scale for the evolution of life has important consequences: life took ca. 5 billion years to reach the complexity of bacteria; the environments in which life originated and evolved to the prokaryote stage may have been quite different from those envisaged on Earth; there was no...

  7. Conduit Coating Abrasion Testing (United States)

    Sullivan, Mary K.


    During my summer internship at NASA I have been working alongside the team members of the RESTORE project. Engineers working on the RESTORE project are creating ·a device that can go into space and service satellites that no longer work due to gas shortage or other technical difficulties. In order to complete the task of refueling the satellite a hose needs to be used and covered with a material that can withstand effects of space. The conduit coating abrasion test will help the researchers figure out what type of thermal coating to use on the hose that will be refueling the satellites. The objective of the project is to determine whether or not the conduit coating will withstand the effects of space. For the RESTORE project I will help with various aspects of the testing that needed to be done in order to determine which type of conduit should be used for refueling the satellite. During my time on the project I will be assisting with wiring a relay board that connected to the test set up by soldering, configuring wires and testing for continuity. Prior to the testing I will work on creating the testing site and help write the procedure for the test. The testing will take place over a span of two weeks and lead to an informative conclusion. Working alongside various RESTORE team members I will assist with the project's documentation and records. All in all, throughout my internship at NASA I hope to learn a number of valuable skills and be a part of a hard working team of engineers.

  8. Photosynthesis and early Earth. (United States)

    Shih, Patrick M


    Life has been built on the evolution and innovation of microbial metabolisms. Even with our scant understanding of the full diversity of microbial life, it is clear that microbes have become integral components of the biogeochemical cycles that drive our planet. The antiquity of life further suggests that various microbial metabolisms have been core and essential to global elemental cycling for a majority of Earth's history. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Earth Abides Arsenic Biotransformations


    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Rosen, Barry P.


    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic element and causes health problems throughout the world. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are largely determined by its speciation, and arsenic speciation changes are driven, at least to some extent, by biological processes. In this article, biotransformation of arsenic is reviewed from the perspective of the formation of Earth and the evolution of life, and the connection between arsenic geochemistry and biology ...

  10. Life Before Earth


    Sharov, Alexei A; Gordon, Richard


    An extrapolation of the genetic complexity of organisms to earlier times suggests that life began before the Earth was formed. Life may have started from systems with single heritable elements that are functionally equivalent to a nucleotide. The genetic complexity, roughly measured by the number of non-redundant functional nucleotides, is expected to have grown exponentially due to several positive feedback factors: gene cooperation, duplication of genes with their subsequent specialization,...

  11. Testing MOND on Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Ignatiev, A Yu


    MOND is one of the most popular alternatives to Dark Matter (DM). While efforts to directly detect DM in laboratories have been steadily pursued over the years, the proposed Earth-based tests of MOND are still in their infancy. Some proposals recently appeared in the literature are briefly reviewed, and it is argued that collaborative efforts of theorists and experimenters are needed to move forward in this exciting new area. Possible future directions are outlined.

  12. Earth's heat budget: Clairvoyant geoneutrinos (United States)

    Korenaga, Jun


    The quantity of heat generated by radioactive decay in Earth's interior is controversial. Measurements of geoneutrinos emitted from the mantle during this decay indicate that this source contributes only about half of Earth's total outgoing heat flux.

  13. Physics: clairvoyant of the Earth (United States)

    Haworth, R. T.


    The Earth is a vibrant body whose structure and dynamics can be investigated by geophysics. Earth movements not only constitute a hazard, but over many millenia have contributed to the development and location of our natural resources.

  14. Mirador - Earth Surface and Interior (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Science data access made simple. The goal of the Earth Surface and Interior focus area is to assess, mitigate and forecast the natural hazards that affect...

  15. The microstructure of alkaline earth oxide electron emission material (United States)

    Blonski, Robert Peter

    Alkaline earth oxide coatings are used to lower the work-function of thermionic cathodes. Due to their extensive use in electronic vacuum tubes, significant efforts went into the study of their physics and chemistry. Currently, alkaline earth oxide coated tungsten filaments are used as thermionic cathodes in fluorescent discharge lamps. Elizabeth Grey, in 1951, published an emission current phase diagram of the BaO:SrO:CaO system which demonstrated that the central area of this composition space yielded eight times the emission current than compositions nearer the edges of the phase diagram. There has never been an explanation of why the central compositional area of the BaO:SrO:CaO system has a much lower work-function than other compositions. The objective of this thesis was to determine whether there are any microstructural features present in the central area of the BaO:SrO:CaO compositional space that could account for the improved electron emission of these compositions. Triple alkaline earth oxide compositions were examined via transmission electron microscopy of alkaline earth oxide electron emission material from fluorescent discharge lamp cathodes, and via X-ray diffraction from conventionally fired samples. In both cases, ordered phases with cation occupancy similar to hexagonal perovskite phases were identified. The hexagonal structures observed in this thesis study, and the fcc rock-salt structure that was expected, are all the result of ordered stacking of close-packed ions in the hexagonal c-direction. Whereas the fcc structure has a three layer repeat sequence, the ordered alkaline earth oxide phases observed in this study appear to have an eight layer repeat sequence. The effect of the observed super-lattice ordering on the band-structure of the alkaline earth oxide electron emission material may explain the low work-function of mixed akaline earth oxide coated cathodes. The behavior of both barium oxide and strontium oxide was also investigated

  16. Microplasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Arjun


    ""This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the

  17. Durable Hybrid Coatings (United States)


    rich primers at 32% and 42% PVC. PVC Epon 828 (g) Epicure 2353 (g) MEK (g) Mg and Mg alloy Pigments (g) 3820 AM60 AZ91B LNR96 AM503 AZG...vol. ratio. Epon 1001-CX-75 is an epoxide containing 25 wt.% MIBK/xylene (vol. ratio 65/35) solvent mixture, and Epicure 3140 is a solventless...μm. Table 1. Formulation of Mg-rich Primer Coating Ingredients Weight, g Epon 1001-CX-75 67 111 Epicure 3140 9.5 Mg powder 95 Aerosil® R974 1

  18. Multifunctional Ceramic Nanostructured Coatings (United States)


    Stansky D.V., Petrznik M.I., Levashov E.A., Mavrin B.N. // Surf. Coat. Tech. -2007.-V.201.- P . 6143-6147. 7. Kauffmann F., Dehm G., Schier V...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER STCU Registration No: P -253 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Anatolij Tarasovich Pugachov...lead to the increase in crystalline lattice rigidness, hardness, melting temperature and oxidation resistance in Me2B→MeB→ MeB2 line [13]. Boron p

  19. Sun, Earth and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R


    This Second Edition of Sun, Earth and Sky updates the popular text by providing comprehensive accounts of the most recent discoveries made by five modern solar spacecraft during the past decade. Their instruments have used sound waves to peer deep into the Sun’s inner regions and measure the temperature of its central nuclear reactor, and extended our gaze far from the visible Sun to record energetic outbursts that threaten Earth. Breakthrough observations with the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are also included, which explain the new physics of ghostly neutrinos and solve the problematic mismatch between the predicted and observed amounts of solar neutrinos. This new edition of Sun, Earth and Sky also describes our recent understanding of how the Sun’s outer atmosphere is heated to a million degrees, and just where the Sun’s continuous winds come from. As humans we are more intimately linked with our life-sustaining Sun than with any other astronomical object, and the new edition therefore p...

  20. Characterising Super-Earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia D.


    Full Text Available The era of Super-Earths has formally begun with the detection of transiting low-mass exoplanets CoRoT-7b and GJ 1214b. In the path of characterising super-Earths, the first step is to infer their composition. While the discovery data for CoRoT-7b, in combination with the high atmospheric mass loss rate inferred from the high insolation, suggested that it was a rocky planet, the new proposed mass values have widened the possibilities. The combined mass range 1−10 M⊕ allows for a volatile-rich (and requires it if the mass is less than 4 M⊕ , an Earth-like or a super-Mercury-like composition. In contrast, the radius of GJ 1214b is too large to admit a solid composition, thus it necessarily to have a substantial gas layer. Some evidence suggests that within this gas layer H/He is a small but non-negligible component. These two planets are the first of many transiting low-mass exoplanets expected to be detected and they exemplify the limitations faced when inferring composition, which come from the degenerate character of the problem and the large error bars in the data.

  1. Afganistan and rare earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian M. Dobrescu


    Full Text Available On our planet, over a quarter of new technologies for the economic production of industrial goods, are using rare earths, which are also called critical minerals and industries that rely on these precious items being worth of an estimated nearly five trillion dollars, or 5 percent of world gross domestic product. In the near future, competition will increase for the control of rare earth minerals embedded in high-tech products. Rare minerals are in the twenty-first century what oil accounted for in the twentieth century and coal in the nineteenth century: the engine of a new industrial revolution. Future energy will be produced increasingly by more sophisticated technological equipment based not just on steel and concrete, but incorporating significant quantities of metals and rare earths. Widespread application of these technologies will result in an exponential increase in demand for such minerals, and what is worrying is that minerals of this type are almost nowhere to be found in Europe and in other industrialized countries in the world, such as U.S. and Japan, but only in some Asian countries, like China and Afghanistan.

  2. Monitoring of tablet coating processes with colored coatings. (United States)

    Barimani, Shirin; Kleinebudde, Peter


    Endpoints of coating processes for colored tablets were determined using in-line Raman spectroscopy. Coatings were performed with six commercially available formulations of pink, yellow, red, beige, green and blue color. The coatings were comprising pigments and/or dyes, some causing fluorescence and interfering the Raman signal. Using non-contact optics, a Raman probe was used as process analytical technology (PAT) tool, and acquired spectra were correlated to the sprayed mass of aqueous coating suspension. Process endpoints were determined using univariate (UV) data analysis and three multivariate analysis methods, namely Projection to Latent Structures (PLS)-regression, Science-Based Calibration (SBC) and Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR). The methods were compared regarding model performance parameters. The endpoints of all coating experiments could be predicted until a total coating time of 50min corresponding to coating thicknesses between 21 and 38µm, depending on the density of the coat formulation. With the exception of SBC, all calibration methods resulted in R 2 values higher than 0.9. Additionally, the methods were evaluated regarding their capability for in-line process monitoring. For each color, at least two methods were feasible to do this. Overall, PLS-regression led to best model performance parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of SiO2 coating in multiferroic CoCr2O4 nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kamran


    Full Text Available Effect of silica (SiO2 coating concentration on structural and magnetic properties of multiferroic cobalt chromite (CoCr2O4 nanoparticles have been studied. The nanoparticles with average crystallite size in the range 19 to 28 nm were synthesised by sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis has verified the composition of single-phase cubic normal spinel structure of CoCr2O4 nanoparticles. The average crystallite size and cell parameter decreased with increasing SiO2 concentration. TEM image revealed that the shape of nanoparticles was non-spherical. Zero field cooled/field cooled (ZFC/FC curves revealed that nanoparticles underwent a transition from paramagnetic (PM state to collinear short-range ferrimagnetic (FiM state, and this PM–FiM transition temperature decreased from 101 to 95 K with increasing SiO2 concentration or decreasing crystallite size. A conical spin state at Ts = 27 K was also observed for all the samples which decreased with decreasing average crystallite size. Low temperature lock-in transition was also observed in these nanoparticles at 12 K for uncoated nanoparticles which slightly shifted towards low temperature with decreasing average crystallite size. Saturation magnetization (Ms showed decreasing trend with increasing SiO2 concentration, which was due to decrease in average crystallite size of nanoparticles and enhanced surface disorder in smaller nanoparticles. The temperature dependent AC-susceptibility also showed the decrease in the transition temperature (Tc, broadening of the Tc peak and decrease in magnetization with increasing SiO2 concentration or decreasing average crystallite size. In summary, the concentration of SiO2 has significantly affected the structural and magnetic properties of CoCr2O4 nanoparticles.

  4. Superheating in coated niobium (United States)

    Junginger, T.; Wasserman, W.; Laxdal, R. E.


    Using muon spin rotation it is shown that the field of first flux penetration {H}{entry} in Nb is enhanced by about 30% if coated with an overlayer of Nb3Sn or MgB2. This is consistent with an increase from the lower critical magnetic field {H}{{c}1} up to the superheating field {H}{sh} of the Nb substrate. In the experiments presented here coatings of Nb3Sn and MgB2 with a thickness between 50 and 2000 nm have been tested. {H}{entry} does not depend on material or thickness. This suggests that the energy barrier at the boundary between the two materials prevents flux entry up to {H}{sh} of the substrate. A mechanism consistent with these findings is that the proximity effect recovers the stability of the energy barrier for flux penetration, which is suppressed by defects for uncoated samples. Additionally, a low temperature baked Nb sample has been tested. Here a 6% increase of {H}{entry} was found, also pushing {H}{entry} beyond {H}{{c}1}.

  5. Federal Highway Administration 100-year coating study. (United States)


    The Federal Highway Administration 100-Year Coating Study was initiated in August 2009 to search for durable : coating systems at a reasonable cost. The objective of the study was to identify and evaluate coating materials that can : provide 100 year...

  6. Intumescent coatings under fast heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kristian Petersen; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Català, Pere


    Intumescent coatings are widely used to delay or minimise the destructive effects of fire. They are usually tested under conditions that simulate the relatively slow build-up of heat in a normal fire. Here, the effects of damage during a fire causing sudden heating of the coating were studied....

  7. Westinghouse thermal barrier coatings development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goedjen, J.G.; Wagner, G. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)


    Westinghouse, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has embarked upon a program for the development of advanced thermal barrier coatings for industrial gas turbines. Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBC`s) for industrial gas turbines has relied heavily on the transfer of technology from the aerospace industry. Significant differences in the time/temperature/stress duty cycles exist between these two coating applications. Coating systems which perform well in aerospace applications may not been optimized to meet power generation performance requirements. This program will focus on development of TBC`s to meet the specific needs of power generation applications. The program is directed at developing a state-of-the-art coating system with a minimum coating life of 25,000 hours at service temperatures required to meet increasing operating efficiency goals. Westinghouse has assembled a team of university and industry leaders to accomplish this goal. Westinghouse will coordinate the efforts of all program participants. Chromalloy Turbine Technologies, Inc. and Sermatech International, Inc. will be responsible for bond coat and TBC deposition technology. Praxair Specialty Powders, Inc. will be responsible for the fabrication of all bond coat and ceramic powders for the program. Southwest Research Institute will head the life prediction modelling effort; they will also be involved in coordinating nondestructive evaluation (NDE) efforts. Process modelling will be provided by the University of Arizona.

  8. Lignin based controlled release coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Eastham, D.


    Urea is a commonly used fertilizer. Due to its high water-solubility, misuse easily leads to excess nitrogen levels in the soil. The aim of this research was to develop an economically feasible and biodegradable slow-release coating for urea. For this purpose, lignin was selected as coating

  9. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob


    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  10. Pack cementation coatings for alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yi-Rong; Zheng, Minhui; Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)


    The halide-activated pack cementation process was modified to produce a Ge-doped silicide diffusion coating on a Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb alloy in a single processing step. The morphology and composition of the coating depended both on the composition of the pack and on the composition and microstructure of the substrate. Higher Ge content in the pack suppressed the formation of CrSi{sub 2} and reduced the growth kinetics of the coating. Ge was not homogeneously distributed in the coatings. In cyclic and isothermal oxidation in air at 700 and 1050{degrees}C, the Ge-doped silicide coating protected the Cr-Nb alloys from significant oxidation by the formation of a Ge-doped silica film. The codeposition and diffusion of aluminum and chromium into low alloy steel have been achieved using elemental Al and Cr powders and a two-step pack cementation process. Sequential process treatments at 925{degrees}C and 1150{degrees}C yield dense and uniform ferrite coatings, whose compositions are close to either Fe{sub 3}Al or else FeAl plus a lower Cr content, when processed under different conditions. The higher content of Al in the coatings was predicted by thermodynamic calculations of equilibrium in the gas phase. The effect of the particle size of the metal powders on the surface composition of the coating has been studied for various combinations of Al and Cr powders.

  11. On general Earth's rotation theory (United States)

    Brumberg, V.; Ivanova, T.


    This paper dealing with the general problem of the rigid-body rotation of the three-axial Earth represents a straightforward extension of (Brumberg and Ivanova, 2007) where the simplified Poisson equations of rotation of the axially symmetrical Earth have been considered. The aim of the present paper is to reduce the equations of the translatory motion of the major planets and the Moon and the equations of the Earth's rotation around its centre of mass to the secular system describing the evolution of the planetary and lunar orbits (independent of the Earth's rotation) and the evolution of the Earth's rotation (depending on the planetary and lunar evolution).

  12. Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Mark P.; Anderson, Lawrence G.; Post, Gordon L.


    Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings are applied to substrates. The electrically conductive clear coating includes to clear layer having a resinous binder with ultrafine non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide particles dispersed therein. The clear coating may be rapidly cured by subjecting the coating to infrared radiation that heats the tungsten oxide particles and surrounding resinous binder. Localized heating increases the temperature of the coating to thereby thermally cure the coating, while avoiding unwanted heating of the underlying substrate.

  13. Optical Analysis of Coated and Uncoated Soot Particles (United States)

    Bueno, P. A.; Stehr, J. W.; Mulholland, G.; Dickerson, R. R.; Zachariah, M. R.


    Atmospheric aerosols play a fundamental role in Earth's atmospheric chemistry and climate. Soot is an absorbing aerosol, and the magnitude of that absorption has largely been determined by measuring the optical properties of uncoated soot. It has been proposed that coated soot might absorb radiation more efficiently than uncoated soot, thus warming the climate more than previously suspected. For this study, soot was generated in a well-controlled Santoro-Style diffusion flame burner using ethylene as the fuel, and has been successfully coated with dibutyl phthalate (DBP). DBP has a refractive index of 1.490 (real part), which is similar to the refractive index of sulfuric acid (n=1.426) at 589 nm. Sulfate is a common soot coating in the atmosphere. DBP was chosen over sulfuric acid because it will not corrode the stainless steel lines in the experimental setup, and it is safer to handle than pure sulfuric acid. The DBP saturation ratio is controlled via the temperature of a dual bubbler. Two bubblers are placed in series and nitrogen is bubbled through the DBP. By changing the temperature of these bubblers, the vapor pressure of the DBP is changed and consequently the DBP coating thickness on the soot can be changed. The coated and uncoated aerosol are measured with a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) before and after coating so as to know the diameters of the uncoated and coated aerosols. From the second DMA, the aerosols are sent either to a condensation particle counter to measure the size distribution, or to a photoacoustic absorption spectrometer (PAS) to measure absorption. The absorbance cross-sections of coated and uncoated soot particles have been measured using this technique. The change in soot's absorbance with the thickness of the DBP coating will be presented. This study improves upon previous studies of soot by using soot particle sizes that are representative of primary soot particles in the atmosphere, and using a technique that measures the

  14. Functional Plasma-Deposited Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykhaylo Pashechko


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the problem of low adhesion of plasma sprayed coatings to the substrate. The subsequent laser treatment modes and their influence on the coating-substrate interface were studied. This allows to decrease the level of metstability of the coating, thus decreasing its hardness down to 11-12 GPa on the surface and to about 9 GPa on depth of 400 µm. The redistribution of alloying elements through solid and liquid diffusion improves mechanical properties and rises the adhesion up to 450 MPa after remelting and up to 90-110 MPa after laser-aided thermal cycling. At he same time, remelting of coating helps to decrease its porosity down to 1%. Obtained complex of properties also allows to improve wear resistance of coatings and to decrease friction factor.

  15. Foundry Coating Technology: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat


    The importance of foundry coating in improving the surface quality of castings cannot be over emphasized. The appli-cation of mould and core washes creates a high thermal integrity barrier between the metal and the mould resulting in the reduction of the thermal shock experienced by the sand system....... These thermal shock leads to series of surface de-fects such as veining/finning, metal penetration, burn-on/in, scab, rat tail, erosion etc. The use of coatings reduces the tendency of occurrence of these defects. However, the understanding of the coating, its components, characteristics and mechanism of action...... is important. In this review, a detailed description of these topics and examples are provided where necessary. A potential area of research in foundry coating development, using sol-gel process is suggested. The application of sol-gel technology in the development of foundry coatings is a novel approach....

  16. Stovetop Earth Pecan Pie (United States)

    Robin, C. M.


    Many fluid mechanical experiments with direct applications to Earth Science are performed with sugary syrups using conceptually straightforward procedures. Corn syrup has indeed proven to be a godsend for those studying convection and related non-linear phenomena. In addition, however, it gives experimentalists a deep physical intuition for the interior workings of hot planets. The basic concepts behind plate tectonics and mantle convection are not difficult; indeed, although they may not be aware of it, most students probably have a basic intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics gained in their daily life. However, the large size and long time scale of geophysical processes may be quite intimidating to young students. Even a simple geophysical experiment requires a complicated array of coolers, heaters and measuring and recording equipment. It is of interest to introduce students to the geodynamical concepts that can be visualized in a high-tech lab using familiar processes and equipment. Using a homemade apparatus and grocery store supplies, I propose using a 'Stove-top Earth pecan pie' to introduce simple geodynamic concepts to middle- and high-school students. The initially cold syrup heats up and the pecans begin to float (continent formation), the syrup begins to convect (mantle convection), and convection slows down after the heat is removed (secular cooling). Even Wilson cycles can be simulated by moving the pan to one side or the other of the stovetop or heating element. The activity formally introduces students to convection and its application to the earth, and makes them think about plate motion, heat transfer, scaling, and experimental procedures. As an added bonus, they can eat their experiments after recess!

  17. The Solid Earth (United States)

    Fowler, C. M. R.


    The second edition of this acclaimed textbook has been brought fully up-to-date to reflect the latest advances in geophysical research. It is designed for students in introductory geophysics courses who have a general background in the physical sciences, including introductory calculus. New to this edition are a section of color plates and separate sections on the earth's mantle and core. The book also contains an extensive glossary of terms, and includes numerous exercises for which solutions are available to instructors from First Edition Hb (1990): 0-521-37025-6 First Edition Pb (1990): 0-521-38590-3

  18. Bones of the Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Correa


    Full Text Available The film Bones of the Earth (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014 is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective creation is built. A sense of community, on-going inquiry, connections and social commitment inform the creative process. As a result, the video’s nearly five intense minutes are a metaphor for the search for personal meaning, connection with nature and intersubjective positioning in a world that undergoes constant change.

  19. Solid Earth: The priorities (United States)

    Paquet, P.


    The European Space Agency's strategy concerning the solid Earth program is reviewed. Improvement of current knowledge of the global geopotential fields, both gravity and magnetic, was stressed as the highest priority. It was agreed that the objectives and goals of the planned Aristoteles mission correspond to this priority, and the need to realize this part of the program was stated. The interdisciplinary links of the program were identified, and it was decided that this program could make substantial contributions to research of oceans, climate and global change, atmosphere, ice and land surfaces.

  20. Multilayer Microlaminated Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coating

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Charles


    .... Both thermal and mechanical characteristics of the coatings can be potentially optimized, and the coating will be more tolerant towards strain damage, have better thermal insulation and provide...

  1. Coatings to prevent frost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusada, Ricardo; Holberg, Stefan; Bennedsen, Jeanette Marianne Dalgaard


    at temperatures just below 0°C, for example at −4°C, is low. Freezing of a single drop on aluminum leads, however, to instant freezing of the complete surface. On hydrophobic coatings, such a freezing drop is isolated; the frozen area grows slowly. At −4°C surface temperature in a +12°C/90% relative humidity...... environment, on surfaces providing a water contact angle hysteresis of about 10° and receding water contact angles higher than 90°, a rate for the growth of the average radius of the frozen area of about 2 µm/s was observed. Submitting the surface to an airflow of 1 m/s led to faster frost spreading in flow...

  2. Nature Inspired Surface Coatings (United States)

    Rubner, Michael


    Materials Scientists more and more are looking to nature for clues on how to create highly functional surface coatings with exceptional properties. The fog harvesting capabilities of the Namib Desert beetle, the beautiful iridescent colors of the hummingbird, and the super water repellant abilities of the Lotus leaf are but a few examples of the amazing properties developed over many years in the natural world. Nature also makes extensive use of the pH-dependent behavior of weak functional groups such as carboxylic acid and amine functional groups. This presentation will explore synthetic mimics to the nano- and microstructures responsible for these fascinating properties. For example, we have demonstrated a pH-induced porosity transition that can be used to create porous films with pore sizes that are tunable from the nanometer scale to the multiple micron scale. The pores of these films, either nano- or micropores, can be reversibly opened and closed by changes in solution pH. The ability to engineer pH-gated porosity transitions in heterostructured thin films has led to the demonstration of broadband anti-reflection coatings that mimic the anti-reflection properties of the moth eye and pH-tunable Bragg reflectors with a structure and function similar to that found in hummingbird wings and the Longhorn beetle. In addition, the highly textured honeycomb-like surfaces created by the formation of micron-scale pores are ideally suited for the creation of superhydrophobic surfaces that mimic the behavior of the self-cleaning lotus leaf. The development of synthetic "backbacks" on immune system cells that may one day ferry drugs to disease sites will also be discussed.

  3. Earth's surface heat flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Davies


    Full Text Available We present a revised estimate of Earth's surface heat flux that is based upon a heat flow data-set with 38 347 measurements, which is 55% more than used in previous estimates. Our methodology, like others, accounts for hydrothermal circulation in young oceanic crust by utilising a half-space cooling approximation. For the rest of Earth's surface, we estimate the average heat flow for different geologic domains as defined by global digital geology maps; and then produce the global estimate by multiplying it by the total global area of that geologic domain. The averaging is done on a polygon set which results from an intersection of a 1 degree equal area grid with the original geology polygons; this minimises the adverse influence of clustering. These operations and estimates are derived accurately using methodologies from Geographical Information Science. We consider the virtually un-sampled Antarctica separately and also make a small correction for hot-spots in young oceanic lithosphere. A range of analyses is presented. These, combined with statistical estimates of the error, provide a measure of robustness. Our final preferred estimate is 47±2 TW, which is greater than previous estimates.

  4. Diatomaceous Earths - Natural Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Korunić


    Full Text Available The regulatory issues for diatomaceous earth (DE cover three fields: consumer safety,worker safety, and proof of efficacy against pests. For consumer safety, regulatory issuesare similar to those for other additives, and a principal benefit of DEs is their removal bynormal processing methods. For worker safety, regulatory issues are similar to those forother dusts, such as lime. The proof of potential insecticide values of DE may be assessedby using the analysis of physical and chemical properties of DE and its effect on grainproperties and the proof of efficacy may be regulated by bioassay of standard design.Integrated pest management (IPM, a knowledge-based system, is rapidly providing aframework to reduce dependence on synthetic chemical pesticides. The main principleof post-harvest IPM is to prevent problems rather than to react to them. The specificcurative measures using synthetic pesticides should be applied only when infestationoccurs. DE and enhanced diatomaceous earth (EDE formulations hold significant promiseto increase the effectiveness and broaden the adoption of IPM strategies, thereby reducingthe need for synthetic pesticides. By incorporating DE in an effective IPM program,grain is protected against infestation, loss caused by insects is prevented and grain qualityis maintained until the grain is processed. Cases study data on the use of DE for commodityand structural treatment show that DE is already a practical alternative to syntheticpesticides in some applications.

  5. School, Earth and Imagination (United States)

    Merlini, Anna; Grieco, Giovanni; Oneta, Cristina


    Geology needs to be explained and narrated to the people, focusing on the goal of making that big change of mindset that will allow individuals and the entire community to tune into the timing and the ways in which the Earth evolves. In order to achieve these important goals it is necessary to educate children from an early age so that they learn to live an environmentally friendly life. With the project "School, Earth and imagination" we introduce, with a fun and new way, notions and topics in geological and environmental sciences in schools at all levels with the final goal of improving both knowledge and sensibility for these topics into the community. Through this project we start from the children (kindergarten and primary school, ages between 3 and 8 years) because they are the foundation of our society, and without foundations nothing can be built. The "School, Earth and imagination" project wants to give the children a real opportunity to approach reality and in general the surrounding environment, for the first time even before the traditional scholastic experience, with a scientific point of view, experimenting some basic physical concepts like temperature, weight, hardness and so on directly through their body. The project is structured and developed in modules that provide a high flexibility in order to meet needs and requirements of different schools in different situations. Each module is part of the journey of Mariolino, a character that represents a very curious child who introduces basic concepts associating them to geological processes. The Journey of Mariolino, as each module, follows an insistent scheme that starts from the presentation of the problem, follows with its discussion through direct questions and ends with experimentation of the hypotheses that children have proposed to validate the solution of the problem. Each module is independent and never ends without giving children a solution and is always structured with a practical activity

  6. Superoleophilic particles and coatings and methods of making the same (United States)

    Simpson, John T; D& #x27; Urso, Brian


    Superoleophilic particles and surfaces and methods of making the same are described. The superoleophilic particles can include porous particles having a hydrophobic coating layer deposited thereon. The coated porous particles are characterized by particle sizes ranging from at least 100 nm to about 10 .mu.m and a plurality of nanopores. Some of the nanopores provide flow through porosity. The superoleophilic particles also include oil pinned within the nanopores of the porous particles The plurality of porous particles can include (i) particles including a plurality of spaced apart nanostructured features comprising a contiguous, protrusive material, (ii) diatomaceous earth particles, or (iii) both. The surfaces can include the superoleophilic particles coupled to the surface.

  7. Avian Egg and Egg Coat. (United States)

    Okumura, Hiroki


    An ovulated egg of vertebrates is surrounded by unique extracellular matrix, the egg coat or zona pellucida, playing important roles in fertilization and early development. The vertebrate egg coat is composed of two to six zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins that are characterized by the evolutionarily conserved ZP-domain module and classified into six subfamilies based on phylogenetic analyses. Interestingly, investigations of biochemical and functional features of the ZP glycoproteins show that the roles of each ZP-glycoprotein family member in the egg-coat formation and the egg-sperm interactions seemingly vary across vertebrates. This might be one reason why comprehensive understandings of the molecular basis of either architecture or physiological functions of egg coat still remain elusive despite more than 3 decades of intensive investigations. In this chapter, an overview of avian egg focusing on the oogenesis are provided in the first section, and unique features of avian egg coat, i.e., perivitelline layer, including the morphology, biogenesis pathway, and physiological functions are discussed mainly on chicken and quail in terms of the characteristics of ZP glycoproteins in the following sections. In addition, these features of avian egg coat are compared to mammalian zona pellucida, from the viewpoint that the structural and functional varieties of ZP glycoproteins might be associated with the evolutionary adaptation to their reproductive strategies. By comparing the egg coat of birds and mammals whose reproductive strategies are largely different, new insights into the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate egg-sperm interactions might be provided.

  8. Integrated Glass Coating Manufacturing Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor [Enki Technology Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)


    This project aims to enable US module manufacturers to coat glass with Enki’s state of the art tunable functionalized AR coatings at the lowest possible cost and highest possible performance by encapsulating Enki’s coating process in an integrated tool that facilitates effective process improvement through metrology and data analysis for greater quality and performance while reducing footprint, operating and capital costs. The Phase 1 objective was a fully designed manufacturing line, including fully specified equipment ready for issue of purchase requisitions; a detailed economic justification based on market prices at the end of Phase 1 and projected manufacturing costs and a detailed deployment plan for the equipment.

  9. Laser-based coatings removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A. [F2 Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D&D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building. This report describes the use of pulse-repetetion laser systems for the removal of paints and coatings.

  10. One Day on Earth

    CERN Multimedia


    In collaboration with the CineGlobe Film Festival, the One Day on Earth global film project invites you to share your story of scientific inspiration, scientific endeavors and technological advancement on 11 November 2011 (11.11.11).   Technology in the 21st century continuously inspires us to re-imagine the world. From outer-space to cyberspace, new ideas that we hope will improve the lives of future generations keep us in a state of change. However, these new technologies may alter the nature of our shared existence in ways not yet known. On 11.11.11, we invite you to record the exciting ways that science is a part of your life, together with people around the world who will be documenting their lives on this day of global creation. See for details on how to participate.

  11. Telephony Earth Station (United States)

    Morris, Adrian J.; Kay, Stan

    The Telephony Earth Station (TES), a digital full-mesh SCPC (single channel per carrier) system designed for satellite voice and data transmission is described. As compared to companded FM, the advanced speech compression and forward error correction techniques used by TES better achieve the quality, power, and bandwidth ideal for each application. In addition, the TES offers a fully demand-assigned voice call setup, handles point-to-point data channels, supports a variety of signaling schemes, and does not require any separate pilot receivers at the station, while keeping costs low through innovative technology and packaging. The TES can be used for both C-band and Ku-band (domestic or international) applications, and is configurable either as an VSAT (very small aperture terminal) using an SSPA, or as a larger station depending on the capacity requirements. A centralized DAMA processor and network manager is implemented using a workstation.

  12. Earth System Environmental Literacy (United States)

    Lowman, Margaret

    If every citizen could read the above quote and understand its underlying ecological concepts, economic challenges, social services, and spiritual heritage, then it is likely that sustainability education would be achieved. The notion of a tree and its ecosystem services illustrate sustainability in the simplest yet most robust sense. To plant and grow a tree, economists struggle with volatile currencies; ecologists juggle development and conservation; religious leaders advocate stewardship; and social scientists examine equity in a world of declining resources. Sustainability education requires an integrated approach between ecology, risk analyses, economics, social sciences, biological sciences, political sciences, languages, biotechnology, physical sciences, health sciences, and religion. All these practitioners (and many others) contribute to sustainability education, an emerging discipline that requires an interdisciplinary synthesis of knowledge, translated into practice, to insure the future of life on Earth.

  13. Cosmic rays and Earth's climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik


    During the last solar cycle the Earth's cloud cover underwent a modulation in phase with the cosmic ray flux. Assuming that there is a causal relationship between the two, it is expected and found that the Earth's temperature follows more closely decade variations in cosmic ray flux than other...... solar activity parameters. If the relationship is real the state of the Heliosphere affects the Earth's climate....

  14. The earth and the moon

    CERN Document Server

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T


    The moon is the only body in the solar system outside of the Earth that has been visited by humans. More than 440 pounds of lunar material are brought by NASA and Soviet space missions to Earth for study. The information gleaned about the moon from this relatively small pile of rocks is mind-boggling and stands as the greatest proof that Martian planetary science would be greatly enhanced by returning samples to Earth. Compositional studies of lunar rocks show that the moon and the Earth are made of similar material, and because lunar material has not been reworked through erosion and plate te

  15. Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Overview (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt


    The overall objective of the Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics project is to evaluate and test pretreatment coating systems not containing hexavalent chrome in avionics and electronics housing applications. This objective will be accomplished by testing strong performing coating systems from prior NASA and DoD testing or new coating systems as determined by the stakeholders.

  16. Buffer layers for coated conductors (United States)

    Stan, Liliana [Los Alamos, NM; Jia, Quanxi [Los Alamos, NM; Foltyn, Stephen R [Los Alamos, NM


    A composite structure is provided including a base substrate, an IBAD oriented material upon the base substrate, and a cubic metal oxide material selected from the group consisting of rare earth zirconates and rare earth hafnates upon the IBAD oriented material. Additionally, an article is provided including a base substrate, an IBAD oriented material upon the base substrate, a cubic metal oxide material selected from the group consisting of rare earth zirconates and rare earth hafnates upon the IBAD oriented material, and a thick film upon the cubic metal oxide material. Finally, a superconducting article is provided including a base substrate, an IBAD oriented material upon the base substrate, a cubic metal oxide material selected from the group consisting of rare earth zirconates and rare earth hafnates upon the IBAD oriented material, and an yttrium barium copper oxide material upon the cubic metal oxide material.

  17. Protective coatings for commercial particulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindl, B.; Teng, Y.H.; Liu, Y.L.


    SiC/Al composites are in large-scale production with Al-Si alloy matrices. The same composites with pure Al or low Si matrices need diffusion barriers on the SiC reinforcement to control the interfacial reaction. The present paper describes various approaches taken to obtain protective coatings...... of alumina and zirconia on SiC particulates by sol-gel techniques. Aqueous and organic precursors have been used. The extent of the reaction, i.e., the Si and Al4C3 content in the matrix, was determined by differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The reaction rates of some coated particulates...... in liquid Al are decreased by as much as one order of magnitude during the first 15 min of immersion. Pretreatments of the SiC surface, the composition and thickness of the coating interphase and heat treatments of the coated materials have been studied, and are discussed in relation to their effect...

  18. Cementless Hydroxyapatite Coated Hip Prostheses (United States)

    Herrera, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil-Albarova, Jorge; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Ibarz, Elena; Gabarre, Sergio; Más, Yolanda


    More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA), calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality. PMID:25802848

  19. Smart Coatings for Corrosion Protection (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Li, Wendy; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Johnsey, Marissa N.


    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. It is essential to detect corrosion when it occurs, and preferably at its early stage, so that action can be taken to avoid structural damage or loss of function. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it.

  20. Cementless Hydroxyapatite Coated Hip Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Herrera


    Full Text Available More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA, calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality.

  1. Positron studies of polymeric coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean, Y.C. E-mail:; Mallon, P.E.; Zhang, R.; Chen Hongmin; Li Ying; Zhang Junjie; Wu, Y.C.; Sandreczki, T.C.; Suzuki, R.; Ohdaira, T.; Gu, X.; Nguyen, T


    In complicated coating systems, positrons have shown sensitivity in detecting the early stage of deterioration due to weathering, specially, in probing a specific location or depth of coatings from the surface through interfaces and the bulk. Existing extensive experimental positron data show that positron annihilation signals respond quantitatively to the deterioration process due to weathering. Now it is possible to detect the very early stage of coating deterioration at the atomic and molecular scale by using positrons, typically in days as compared to years by conventional methods. This paper summarizes recent positron studies in polymeric coatings. Correlations between positron data and a variety of chemical, physical and engineering data from ESR, AFM, cross-link density, gloss, and cyclic loading are presented.

  2. Healing the Earth - Earth observation supporting international environmental conventions (United States)

    Arino, Olivier; Fernandez-Prieto, Diego; Volden, Espen


    ESA is building long-term relationships with several user communities that can benefit from the Agency's Earth observation programmes. Since 2000, ESA has been working in close collaboration on three international environmental conventions. Here we see how its Earth observation activities are benefiting these conventions.

  3. Method of measuring metal coating adhesion (United States)

    Roper, J.R.

    A method for measuring metal coating adhesion to a substrate material comprising the steps of preparing a test coupon of substrate material having the metal coating applied to one surface thereof, applying a second metal coating of gold or silver to opposite surfaces of the test coupon by hot hollow cathode process, applying a coating to one end of each of two pulling rod members, joining the coated ends of the pulling rod members to said opposite coated surfaces of the test coupon by a solid state bonding technique and finally applying instrumented static tensile loading to the pulling rod members until fracture of the metal coating adhesion to the substrate material occurs.

  4. Microstructure Evolution and Durability of Advanced Environmental Barrier Coating Systems for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Evans, Laura J.; McCue, Terry R.; Harder, Bryan


    Environmental barrier coated SiC-SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) systems will play a crucial role in next generation turbine engines for hot-section component applications because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures with improved efficiency, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. Advanced HfO2 and rare earth silicate environmental barrier coatings (EBCs), along with multicomponent hafnium and rare earth silicide EBC bond coats have been developed. The coating degradation mechanisms in the laboratory simulated engine thermal cycling, and fatigue-creep operating environments are also being investigated. This paper will focus on the microstructural and compositional evolutions of an advanced environmental barrier coating system on a SiC-SiC CMC substrate during the high temperature simulated durability tests, by using a Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS). The effects of Calcium-Magnesium-Alumino-Silicate (CMAS) from road sand or volcano-ash deposits on the degradation mechanisms of the environmental barrier coating systems will also be discussed. The detailed analysis results help understand the EBC-CMC system performance, aiming at the durability improvements to achieve more robust, prime-reliant environmental barrier coatings.

  5. Coating of silicon pore optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Ackermann, M.; Christensen, Finn Erland


    For the International X-ray observatory (IXO), a mirror module with an effective area of 3 m2 at 1.25 keV and at least 0.65 m2 at 6 keV has to be realized. To achieve this goal, coated silicon pore optics has been developed over the last years. One of the challenges is to coat the Si plates...

  6. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings (United States)

    Choi, Jor-Shan [El Cerrito, CA; Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Lee, Chuck K [Hayward, CA; Walker, Jeffrey [Gaithersburg, MD; Russell, Paige [Las Vegas, NV; Kirkwood, Jon [Saint Leonard, MD; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Champagne, Victor [Oxford, PA


    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  7. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings (United States)

    Fontana, Jack J.; Elling, David; Reams, Walter


    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  8. Evaluation of Manganese Phosphate Coatings. (United States)



  9. Coated substrate apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Zhenan; Diao, Ying; Mannsfeld, Stefan Christian Bernhardt; Tee, Chee-Keong; Becerril-Garcia, Hector A.; Zhou, Yan


    A coated substrate is formed with aligned objects such as small molecules, macromolecules and nanoscale particulates, such as inorganic, organic or inorganic/organic hybrid materials. In accordance with one or more embodiments, an apparatus or method involves an applicator having at least one surface patterned with protruded or indented features, and a coated substrate including a solution-based layer of objects having features and morphology attributes arranged as a function of the protruded or indented features.

  10. Silicone nanocomposite coatings for fabrics (United States)

    Eberts, Kenneth (Inventor); Lee, Stein S. (Inventor); Singhal, Amit (Inventor); Ou, Runqing (Inventor)


    A silicone based coating for fabrics utilizing dual nanocomposite fillers providing enhanced mechanical and thermal properties to the silicone base. The first filler includes nanoclusters of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a metal oxide and a second filler of exfoliated clay nanoparticles. The coating is particularly suitable for inflatable fabrics used in several space, military, and consumer applications, including airbags, parachutes, rafts, boat sails, and inflatable shelters.

  11. Modeling Earth Albedo for Satellites in Earth Orbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan; Bak, Thomas


    Many satellite are influences by the Earthøs albedo, though very few model schemes order to predict this phenomenon. Earth albedo is often treated as noise, or ignored completely. When applying solar cells in the attitude hardware, Earth albedo can cause the attitude estimate to deviate......, in which the Earth Probe Satellite has recorded reflectivity data daily since mid 1996. The mean of these data can be used to calculate the Earth albedo given the positions of the satellite and the Sun. Our results show that the albedo varies highly with the solar angle to the satellite's field of view......, and that the longitude of the satellite position is significant to the model output. The results also show that the calculated albedo is generally lower than it would be expected based only on the reflectivity data....

  12. Material Science Smart Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, A. I. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Sabirianov, R. F. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Namavar, Fereydoon [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)


    The contribution of electrostatic interactions to the free energy of binding between model protein and a ceramic implant surface in the aqueous solvent, considered in the framework of the nonlocal electrostatic model, is calculated as a function of the implant low-frequency dielectric constant. We show that the existence of a dynamically ordered (low-dielectric) interfacial solvent layer at the protein-solvent and ceramic-solvent interface markedly increases charging energy of the protein and ceramic implant, and consequently makes the electrostatic contribution to the protein-ceramic binding energy more favorable (attractive). Our analysis shows that the corresponding electrostatic energy between protein and oxide ceramics depends nonmonotonically on the dielectric constant of ceramic, εC. Obtained results indicate that protein can attract electrostatically to the surface if ceramic material has a moderate εC below or about 35 (in particularly ZrO2 or Ta2O5). This is in contrast to classical (local) consideration of the solvent, which demonstrates an unfavorable electrostatic interaction of protein with typical metal oxide ceramic materials (εC>10). Thus, a solid implant coated by combining oxide ceramic with a reduced dielectric constant can be beneficial to strengthen the electrostatic binding of the protein-implant complex.

  13. Graphene: corrosion-inhibiting coating. (United States)

    Prasai, Dhiraj; Tuberquia, Juan Carlos; Harl, Robert R; Jennings, G Kane; Rogers, Bridget R; Bolotin, Kirill I


    We report the use of atomically thin layers of graphene as a protective coating that inhibits corrosion of underlying metals. Here, we employ electrochemical methods to study the corrosion inhibition of copper and nickel by either growing graphene on these metals, or by mechanically transferring multilayer graphene onto them. Cyclic voltammetry measurements reveal that the graphene coating effectively suppresses metal oxidation and oxygen reduction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements suggest that while graphene itself is not damaged, the metal under it is corroded at cracks in the graphene film. Finally, we use Tafel analysis to quantify the corrosion rates of samples with and without graphene coatings. These results indicate that copper films coated with graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition are corroded 7 times slower in an aerated Na(2)SO(4) solution as compared to the corrosion rate of bare copper. Tafel analysis reveals that nickel with a multilayer graphene film grown on it corrodes 20 times slower while nickel surfaces coated with four layers of mechanically transferred graphene corrode 4 times slower than bare nickel. These findings establish graphene as the thinnest known corrosion-protecting coating.

  14. Spray-Deposited Superconductor/Polymer Coatings (United States)

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Tran, Sang Q.; Hooker, Matthew W.


    Coatings that exhibit the Meissner effect formed at relatively low temperature. High-temperature-superconductor/polymer coatings that exhibit Meissner effect deposited onto components in variety of shapes and materials. Simple, readily available equipment needed in coating process, mean coatings produced economically. Coatings used to keep magnetic fields away from electronic circuits in such cryogenic applications as magnetic resonance imaging and detection of infrared, and in magnetic suspensions to provide levitation and/or damping of vibrations.

  15. Switchable antifouling coatings and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Michele L. Baca; Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross Stefan


    The present invention relates to antifouling coatings capable of being switched by using heat or ultraviolet light. Prior to switching, the coating includes an onium cation component having antimicrobial and antibacterial properties. Upon switching, the coating is converted to a conjugated polymer state, and the cationic component is released with any adsorbed biofilm layer. Thus, the coatings herein have switchable and releasable properties. Methods of making and using such coatings are also described.

  16. Polyester based hybrid organic coatings (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojiang

    Polyesters are a class of polymers widely used in organic coatings applications. In this work, four types of organic coatings based on polyester polyols were prepared: UV-curable polyester/poly(meth)acrylate coatings, thermal curable polyester polyurethane-urea coatings, thermal curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings, and UV-curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings. Polyester/poly(meth)acrylate block copolymers are synthesized using a combination of polycondensation and Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP). All block copolymers are characterized by means of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). In the case of unsaturated-polyester-based block copolymers the main chain double bond in the polyester backbone remains almost unaffected during ATRP. The unsaturated block copolymers are crosslinkable and can form networks upon photo-irradiation in the presence of a suitable photoinitiator. These copolymers might be interesting candidates for coatings with better overall properties than those based on neat polyesters. Thermal curable polyester polyol based Polyurethane-Urea (PUU) coatings were formulated using Partially Blocked HDI isocyanurate (PBH), Isophorone Diamine (IPDA), and polyester polyol. As a comparison, the polyurethane coatings (PU) without adding IPDA were also prepared. The mechanical and viscoelastic properties of the PUU and PU coating were investigated by using tensile test and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analyzer (DMTA). It was found that PUU coating exhibited higher crosslink density, Tg, tensile modulus and strength than the corresponding PU coating. Thermal curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings were prepared by using polyamine and cyclic carbonate terminated polyester. Cyclic carbonate terminated polyester was synthesized from the reaction of the carbon dioxide and epoxidized polyester which was prepared from the polyester polyol. The properties of the epoxidized and cyclic carbonate

  17. Ecosystem Health in Mineralized Terrane-Data from Podiform Chromite (Chinese Camp Mining District, California), Quartz Alunite (Castle Peak and Masonic Mining Districts, Nevada/California), and Mo/Cu Porphyry (Battle Mountain Mining District, Nevada) Deposits (United States)

    Blecker, Steve W.; Stillings, Lisa M.; Amacher, Michael C.; Ippolito, James A.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.


    various mineralized terranes. We were also interested in examining these relations in the context of determining appropriate reference conditions with which to compare reclamation efforts. The purpose of this report is to present the data used to develop indices of soil and ecosystem quality associated with mineralized terranes (areas enriched in metal-bearing minerals), specifically podiform chromite, quartz alunite, and Mo/Cu porphyry systems. Within each of these mineralized terranes, a nearby unmineralized counterpart was chosen for comparison. The data consist of soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters, along with vegetation measurements for each of the sites described below. Synthesis of these data and index development will be the subject of future publications.

  18. Heterogeneity of an earth (United States)

    Litvinova, T.; Petrova, A.


    The study of magnetic anomaly field structure of the Barents Sea water area along seismic and extended profiles intersecting known fields is carried out. Geomagnetic and density sections down to 40 km depth are constructed. This allowed the estimation of heterogeneities of the Barents Sea water area deep structure. The analysis of geomagnetic and density sections along extended profiles showed the confinedness of oil-and-gas bearing provinces to deep permeable zones characterized by reduced magnetic and density features. Based on the analysis of permeable zones, regional diagnostic features similar to those obtained earlier in oil-and-gas bearing provinces in other regions, for example, in Timan-Pechora, Volga-Urals and Siberian, as well as in the Northern and Norwegian seas water areas, are revealed. The analysis of magnetic and gravity fields over the region area allowed the delineation of weakened zones as intersection areas of weakly magnetic areals with reduced density. Within the Barents Sea water area, permeable areas with lenticular-laminated structure of the upper and lower Earth's crust containing weakly magnetic areals with reduced rock density within the depth range of 8-12 and 15-20 km are revealed. Such ratio of magnetic and density heterogeneities in the Earth's crust is characteristic for zones with proved oil-and-gas content in the European part of the Atlantic Ocean water area. North Kildin field on 1 AR profile is confined to a trough with thick weakly magnetic stratum discontinuously traced to a depth of 6-10 km. At a depth of approximately 15 km, a lens of weakly magnetic and porous formations is observed. Ludlov field in the North Barents trough is confined to a zone of weakly magnetic rocks with reduced density traced to a depth of 8-9 km. Deeper, at Н=15 km, a lenticular areal of weakly magnetic formations with reduced density is observed. The profile transecting the Stockman field shows that it is located in the central part of a permeable

  19. Coatings and Tints of Spectacle Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zeki Büyükyıldız


    Full Text Available Spectacle lenses are made of mineral or organic (plastic materials. Various coatings and tints are applied to the spectacle lenses according to the characteristic of the lens material, and for the personal needs and cosmetic purpose. The coatings may be classified in seven groups: 1 Anti-reflection coatings, 2 Hard coatings, 3 Clean coat, 4 Mirror coatings, 5 Color tint coating (one of coloring processes, 6 Photochromic coating (one of photochromic processes, and 7 Anti-fog coatings. Anti-reflection coatings reduce unwanted reflections from the lens surfaces and increase light transmission. Hard coatings are applied for preventing the plastic lens surface from scratches and abrasion. Hard coatings are not required for the mineral lenses due to their hardness. Clean coat makes the lens surface smooth and hydrophobic. Thus, it prevents the adherence of dust, tarnish, and dirt particles on the lens surface. Mirror coatings are applied onto the sunglasses for cosmetic purpose. Color tinted and photochromic lenses are used for sun protection and absorption of the harmful UV radiations. Anti-fog coatings make the lens surface hydrophilic and prevent the coalescence of tiny water droplets on the lens surface that reduces light transmission. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 359-69

  20. Polar Misunderstandings: Earth's Dynamic Dynamo (United States)

    DiSpezio, Michael A.


    This article discusses the movement of Earth's north and south poles. The Earth's poles may be a bit more complex and dynamic than what many students and teachers believe. With better understanding, offer them up as a rich landscape for higher-level critical analysis and subject integration. Possible curriculum tie-ins include magnets, Earth…

  1. Flooding Effect on Earth Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Banimahd


    Full Text Available Earth building is a sustainable, environmentally friendly and economical method of construction that has been used worldwide for many centuries. For the past three decades, earth has seen a revival as a building material for a modern construction method due to its benefits in terms of low carbon content, low cost and energy involved during construction, as well as the fact that it is a sustainable technology of building. Climate change is influencing precipitation levels and patterns around the world, and as a consequence, flood risk is increasing rapidly. When flooding occurs, earth buildings are exposed to water by submersion, causing an increase in the degree of saturation of the earth structures and therefore a decrease of the suction between particles. This study investigated the effect of cycles of flooding (consecutive events of flooding followed by dry periods on earth walls. A series of characterization tests were carried out to obtain the physical and mechanical properties of the studied earth material. In a second stage, Flooding Simulation Tests (FST were performed to explore the earth walls’ response to repeated flooding events. The results obtained for the tested earth wall/samples with reinforced material (straw reveal hydraulic hysteresis when wall/samples are subject to cycles of wetting and drying.

  2. Introductory mathematics for earth scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She


    Any quantitative work in earth sciences requires mathematical analysis and mathematical methods are essential to the modelling and analysis of the geological, geophysical and environmental processes involved. This book provides an introduction to the fundamental mathematics that all earth scientists need.

  3. Doped to Rare Earth Ions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, we are interested by studying the spectroscopic properties for optical applications, mainly laser amplification, of MF2 crystals, where M is an alkaline earth (Ba, Sr) or Cadmium (Cd) doped with rare earth ions (Tb3+, Er3+, Ho3+. So far, we present the absorption and emission properties and also the ...

  4. Teaching Waves with Google Earth (United States)

    Logiurato, Fabrizio


    Google Earth is a huge source of interesting illustrations of various natural phenomena. It can represent a valuable tool for science education, not only for teaching geography and geology, but also physics. Here we suggest that Google Earth can be used for introducing in an attractive way the physics of waves. (Contains 9 figures.)

  5. Our sustainable Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orbach, Raymond L, E-mail: [Director Energy Institute, Cockrell Family Regents Chair in Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Flawn Academic Center, FAC 428, 2 West Mall C2400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)


    Recent evidence demonstrates that the Earth has been warming monotonically since 1980. Transient to equilibrium temperature changes take centuries to develop, as oceans are slow to respond to atmospheric temperature changes. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, from ice core and observatory measurements, display consistent increases from historical averages, beginning in about 1880, and can be associated with the industrial revolution. The climactic consequences of this human dominated increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} define a geologic epoch that has been termed the 'Anthropocene.' The issue is whether this is a short term, relatively minor change in global climate, or an extreme deviation that lasts for thousands of years. Eight 'myths' that posit the former are examined in light of known data. The analysis strongly suggests the latter. In order to stabilize global temperatures, sharp reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions are required: an 80% reduction beginning in 2050. Two examples of economically sustainable CO{sub 2} emission reduction demonstrate that technological innovation has the potential to maintain our standard of living while stabilizing global temperatures.

  6. Geodetic Earth Observation (United States)

    Rothacher, Markus


    Mankind is constantly threatened by a variety of natural disasters and global change phenomena. In order to be able to better predict and assess these catastrophic and disastrous events a continuous observation and monitoring of the causative Earth processes is a necessity. These processes may happen in time scales from extremely short (earthquakes, volcano eruptions, land slides, ...) to very long (melting of ice sheets, sea level change, plate tectonics, ...). Appropriate monitoring and early warning systems must allow, therefore, the detection and quantification of catastrophic events in (near) real-time on the one hand and the reliable identification of barely noticeable, but crucial long-term trends (e.g., sea level rise) on the other hand. The Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), established by the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) in 2003, already now contributes in a multitude of ways to meet this challenge, e.g., by providing a highly accurate and stable global reference frame, without which the measurement of a sea level rise of 2-3 mm/y would not be possible; by measuring displacements in near real-time and deformations over decades that offer valuable clues to plate tectonics, earthquake processes, tsunamis, volcanos, land slides, and glaciers dynamics; by observing the mass loss of ice sheets with gravity satellite missions; and by estimating essential variables such as the amount of water vapor in the troposphere relevant for weather predictions and climate and the content of free electrons in the ionosphere crucial for space weather.

  7. Cratering Equations for Zinc Orthotitanate Coated Aluminum (United States)

    Hyde, James; Christiansen, Eric; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Ryan, Shannon


    The final STS-125 servicing mission (SM4) to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in May of 2009 saw the return of the 2nd Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC2) aboard the shuttle Discovery. This hardware had been in service on HST since it was installed during the SM1 mission in December of 1993 yielding one of the longest low Earth orbit exposure times (15.4 years) of any returned space hardware. The WFPC2 is equipped with a 0.8 x 2.2 m radiator for thermal control of the camera electronics (Figure 1). The space facing surface of the 4.1 mm thick aluminum radiator is coated with Z93 zinc orthotitanate thermal control paint with a nominal thickness of 0.1 0.2 mm. Post flight inspections of the radiator panel revealed hundreds of micrometeoroid/orbital debris (MMOD) impact craters ranging in size from less than 300 to nearly 1000 microns in diameter. The Z93 paint exhibited large spall areas around the larger impact sites (Figure 2) and the craters observed in the 6061-T651 aluminum had a different shape than those observed in uncoated aluminum. Typical hypervelocity impact craters in aluminum have raised lips around the impact site. The craters in the HST radiator panel had suppressed crater lips, and in some cases multiple craters were present instead of a single individual crater. Humes and Kinard observed similar behavior after the WFPC1 post flight inspection and assumed the Z93 coating was acting like a bumper in a Whipple shield. Similar paint behavior (spall) was also observed by Bland2 during post flight inspection of the International Space Station (ISS) S-Band Antenna Structural Assembly (SASA) in 2008. The SASA, with similar Z93 coated aluminum, was inspected after nearly 4 years of exposure on the ISS. The multi-crater phenomena could be a function of the density, composition, or impact obliquity angle of the impacting particle. For instance, a micrometeoroid particle consisting of loosely bound grains of material could be responsible for creating the

  8. Spacecraft thermal control coatings (United States)

    Guillaumon, Jean-Claude; Paillous, Alain


    The Experiment AO 138-6 was located on the trailing edge of the Long Duration Exposure Facility as part of the French Cooperative Payload (FRECOPA) Experiment. It was purely passive in nature: material specimens 2 x 2 cm, independently mounted in sample-holders, with their surface in the same reference plane, were exposed to space. Thirty samples were set in a vacuum-tight canister which was opened in space a few days after LDEF deployment and closed while still in orbit ten months later; twenty-four samples were directly exposed to space for the total flight duration (preflight handling, shuttle bay environment, separation from shuttle, shuttle environment, LEO environment, docking, descent, transfer to KSC). Materials included paints (conductive or nonconductive), SSM's, polymeric films, surface coatings, composite materials, and metals. After sample retrieving, inspection and measurements were carried out in atmospheric laboratory conditions on each sample: observation with binocular lenses and scanning electron microscopy, spectral relectance and transmittance using an integrating sphere in the wavelength range 280-2300 nm, emissivity by the means of a Gier & Dunkle portable reflectometer, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis-x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA-XPS), and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) measurements on some selected samples. The results obtained from flight were compared to laboratory data obtained in UV-irradiation tests when these data were available. As a general statement a good spectral concordance is observed for all samples not in the canister so long as air recoveries are taken into account. For one material, the degradation is more important for the sample in the canister than for those of the same material mounted at the surface of the tray; for most samples in the canister the degradation is slightly higher than the one which can be predicted from laboratory standard irradiations. Contamination problems having

  9. Rotation of a Moonless Earth (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Barnes, Jason W.; Chambers, John E.


    We numerically explore the obliquity (axial tilt) variations of a hypothetical moonless Earth. Previous work has shown that the Earth's Moon stabilizes Earth's obliquity such that it remains within a narrow range, between 22.1 deg and 24.5 deg. Without lunar influence, a frequency-map analysis by Laskar et al. showed that the obliquity could vary between 0 deg. and 85 deg. This has left an impression in the astrobiology community that a large moon is necessary to maintain a habitable climate on an Earth-like planet. Using a modified version of the orbital integrator mercury, we calculate the obliquity evolution for moonless Earths with various initial conditions for up to 4 Gyr. We find that while obliquity varies significantly more than that of the actual Earth over 100,000 year timescales, the obliquity remains within a constrained range, typically 20-25 deg. in extent, for timescales of hundreds of millions of years. None of our Solar System integrations in which planetary orbits behave in a typical manner show obliquity accessing more than 65% of the full range allowed by frequency-map analysis. The obliquities of moonless Earths that rotate in the retrograde direction are more stable than those of pro-grade rotators. The total obliquity range explored for moonless Earths with rotation periods shorter than 12 h is much less than that for slower-rotating moonless Earths. A large moon thus does not seem to be needed to stabilize the obliquity of an Earth-like planet on timescales relevant to the development of advanced life.

  10. Coating Carbon Fibers With Platinum (United States)

    Effinger, Michael R.; Duncan, Peter; Coupland, Duncan; Rigali, Mark J.


    A process for coating carbon fibers with platinum has been developed. The process may also be adaptable to coating carbon fibers with other noble and refractory metals, including rhenium and iridium. The coated carbon fibers would be used as ingredients of matrix/fiber composite materials that would resist oxidation at high temperatures. The metal coats would contribute to oxidation resistance by keeping atmospheric oxygen away from fibers when cracks form in the matrices. Other processes that have been used to coat carbon fibers with metals have significant disadvantages: Metal-vapor deposition processes yield coats that are nonuniform along both the lengths and the circumferences of the fibers. The electrical resistivities of carbon fibers are too high to be compatible with electrolytic processes. Metal/organic vapor deposition entails the use of expensive starting materials, it may be necessary to use a furnace, and the starting materials and/or materials generated in the process may be hazardous. The present process does not have these disadvantages. It yields uniform, nonporous coats and is relatively inexpensive. The process can be summarized as one of pretreatment followed by electroless deposition. The process consists of the following steps: The surfaces of the fiber are activated by deposition of palladium crystallites from a solution. The surface-activated fibers are immersed in a solution that contains platinum. A reducing agent is used to supply electrons to effect a chemical reduction in situ. The chemical reduction displaces the platinum from the solution. The displaced platinum becomes deposited on the fibers. Each platinum atom that has been deposited acts as a catalytic site for the deposition of another platinum atom. Hence, the deposition process can also be characterized as autocatalytic. The thickness of the deposited metal can be tailored via the duration of immersion and the chemical activity of the solution.

  11. Fourteen Times the Earth (United States)


    ESO HARPS Instrument Discovers Smallest Ever Extra-Solar Planet Summary A European team of astronomers [1] has discovered the lightest known planet orbiting a star other than the sun (an "exoplanet"). The new exoplanet orbits the bright star mu Arae located in the southern constellation of the Altar. It is the second planet discovered around this star and completes a full revolution in 9.5 days. With a mass of only 14 times the mass of the Earth, the new planet lies at the threshold of the largest possible rocky planets, making it a possible super Earth-like object. Uranus, the smallest of the giant planets of the Solar System has a similar mass. However Uranus and the new exoplanet differ so much by their distance from the host star that their formation and structure are likely to be very different. This discovery was made possible by the unprecedented accuracy of the HARPS spectrograph on ESO's 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, which allows radial velocities to be measured with a precision better than 1 m/s. It is another clear demonstration of the European leadership in the field of exoplanet research. PR Photo 25a/04: The HARPS Spectrograph and the 3.6m Telescope PR Photo 25b/04: Observed Velocity Variation of mu Arae (3.6m/HARPS, 1.2m Swiss/CORALIE, AAT/UCLES) PR Photo 25c/04: Velocity Variation of mu Arae Observed by HARPS (3.6m/HARPS) PR Photo 25d/04: "Velocity Curve" of mu Arae A unique planet hunting machine ESO PR Photo 25a/04 ESO PR Photo 25a/04 The HARPS Spectrograph and the 3.6m Telescope [Preview - JPEG: 602 x 400 pix - 211k] [Normal - JPEG: 1202 x 800 pix - 645k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 25a/04 represents a montage of the HARPS spectrograph and the 3.6m telescope at La Silla. The upper left shows the dome of the telescope, while the upper right illustrates the telescope itself. The HARPS spectrograph is shown in the lower image during laboratory tests. The vacuum tank is open so that some of the high-precision components inside can be seen. Since the first

  12. Development of the M2A1 Container Coatings ECP (United States)


    52891 Acrylic E-Coat Urethane Powder Results APPLICATION Low End One-Coat Dip Enamel High End One-Coat Electrocoat High End One-Coat Top Coat Cure...Properties Data MIL-E-52891 Acrylic E-Coat Urethane Powder Results APPLICATION Low End One-Coat Dip Enamel High End One-Coat Electrocoat High End One-Coat...To complete a finishing cost analysis for painting ammunition containers. Compare equipment, layout and operating costs for Electrocoat and powder

  13. Corrosion Behaviour of a Silane Protective Coating for NdFeB Magnets in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Calabrese


    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of coated and uncoated Ni/Cu/Ni rare earth magnets was assessed at increasing steps with a multilayering silanization procedure. Magnets’ durability was analyzed in Fusayama synthetic saliva solution in order to evaluate their application in dental field. Corrosion performance was evaluated by using polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in synthetic saliva solution up to 72 hours of continuous immersion. The results show that the addition of silane layers significantly improved anticorrosion properties. The coating and aging effects, in synthetic saliva solution, on magnetic field were evaluated by means of cyclic force-displacement curves.

  14. Effects of LDEF flight exposure on selected polymeric films and thermal control coatings (United States)

    Slemp, Wayne S.; Young, Philip R.; Shen, James Y.


    The characterization of polymeric films and thermal control coatings which were exposed for five years and ten months to the low-Earth environment is reported. Changes in solar absorptance, thermal emittance, and transmission are compared to laboratory control specimens. Sputter-deposited metallic coatings are shown to eliminate atomic oxygen erosion of resin matrix composite materials. The effects of long-term atomic oxygen exposure to metallized FEP Teflon film is characterized. Chemical characterization of polymeric films indicates that although surface erosion occurs, the molecular structure of the basic polymeric film has not changed significantly in response to this exposure.

  15. Synthesis of coloured ceramic pigments by using chromite and manganese ores mixtures Síntese de pigmentos cerâmicos coloridos usando misturas de cromita e de minérios de manganês

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H Aly


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is not only the synthesis of black ceramic pigment with spinel structure using local and inexpensive minerals (chromite and manganese ores but also throw some light on the relations between the structure and the colour of obtained pigment. Ultimate utilization spinel solid solution in ceramic materials is mostly due to their structure characteristics, their thermal and chemical stability. In this study colour pigments were ned by calcinations at 1250 ºC starting from a mixture of chromite and manganese oxide. Different compositions were tested containing 30, 40 and 50 wt.% of manganese oxide (low and high content respectively. The phase composition and microstructure characterization of both raw material and obtained pigments were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, polarizing microscope and scanning electron microscope. Furthermore, the colour measurements of the obtained pigments and tiles were evaluated. Composition of all pigments reveal the spinel structure with Cr2FeO4; hematite was also recorded in the mixture of low manganese. The degree of lightness is relatively same in the pigments mixtures of both manganese types. However, tiles could be considered lightness compared with its pigments, especially of the high manganese type. The solid state calcinations reactions are indeed able to form intense brown pigments that can be used as a stain for industrial ceramic applications. The production of less expensive black ceramic pigments from low cost and less pure raw materials that can be utilized in Egypt to substitute for the imported pure oxides or salts is proved superior performance for producing painted pigments.O objetivo deste trabalho é não somente a síntese de pigmento cerâmico negro com estrutura espinélio usando minerais locais e de baixo custo (minérios de cromita e manganês mas também pesquisar as relações entre a estrutura e a cor dos pigmentos obtidos. O porquê da utiliza

  16. Magnetic field of the Earth (United States)

    Popov, Aleksey


    The magnetic field of the Earth has global meaning for a life on the Earth. The world geophysical science explains: - occurrence of a magnetic field of the Earth it is transformation of kinetic energy of movements of the fused iron in the liquid core of Earth - into the magnetic energy; - the warming up of a kernel of the Earth occurs due to radioactive disintegration of elements, with excretion of thermal energy. The world science does not define the reasons: - drift of a magnetic dipole on 0,2 a year to the West; - drift of lithospheric slabs and continents. The author offers: an alternative variant existing in a world science the theories "Geodynamo" - it is the theory « the Magnetic field of the Earth », created on the basis of physical laws. Education of a magnetic field of the Earth occurs at moving the electric charge located in a liquid kernel, at rotation of the Earth. At calculation of a magnetic field is used law the Bio Savara for a ring electric current: dB = . Magnetic induction in a kernel of the Earth: B = 2,58 Gs. According to the law of electromagnetic induction the Faradey, rotation of a iron kernel of the Earth in magnetic field causes occurrence of an electric field Emf which moves electrons from the center of a kernel towards the mantle. So of arise the radial electric currents. The magnetic field amplifies the iron of mantle and a kernel of the Earth. As a result of action of a radial electric field the electrons will flow from the center of a kernel in a layer of an electric charge. The central part of a kernel represents the field with a positive electric charge, which creates inverse magnetic field Binv and Emfinv When ?mfinv = ?mf ; ?inv = B, there will be an inversion a magnetic field of the Earth. It is a fact: drift of a magnetic dipole of the Earth in the western direction approximately 0,2 longitude, into a year. Radial electric currents a actions with the basic magnetic field of a Earth - it turn a kernel. It coincides with laws

  17. Ion Beam Sputtered Coatings of Bioglass (United States)

    Hench, Larry L.; Wilson, J.; Ruzakowski, Patricia Henrietta Anne


    The ion beam sputtering technique available at the NASA-Lewis was used to apply coatings of bioglass to ceramic, metallic, and polymeric substrates. Experiments in vivo and in vitro described investigate these coatings. Some degree of substrate masking was obtained in all samples although stability and reactivity equivalent to bulk bioglass was not observed in all coated samples. Some degree of stability was seen in all coated samples that were reacted in vitro. Both metallic and ceramic substrates coated in this manner failed to show significantly improved coatings over those obtained with existing techniques. Implantation of the coated ceramic substrate samples in bone gave no definite bonding as seen with bulk glass; however, partial and patchy bonding was seen. Polymeric substrates in these studies showed promise of success. The coatings applied were sufficient to mask the underlying reactive test surface and tissue adhesion of collagen to bioglass was seen. Hydrophilic, hydrophobic, charged, and uncharged polymeric surfaces were successfully coated.

  18. Kinetic regulation of coated vesicle secretion

    CERN Document Server

    Foret, Lionel


    The secretion of vesicles for intracellular transport often rely on the aggregation of specialized membrane-bound proteins into a coat able to curve cell membranes. The nucleation and growth of a protein coat is a kinetic process that competes with the energy-consuming turnover of coat components between the membrane and the cytosol. We propose a generic kinetic description of coat assembly and the formation of coated vesicles, and discuss its implication to the dynamics of COP vesicles that traffic within the Golgi and with the Endoplasmic Reticulum. We show that stationary coats of fixed area emerge from the competition between coat growth and the recycling of coat components, in a fashion resembling the treadmilling of cytoskeletal filaments. We further show that the turnover of coat components allows for a highly sensitive switching mechanism between a quiescent and a vesicle producing membrane, upon a slowing down of the exchange kinetics. We claim that the existence of this switching behaviour, also tri...

  19. Insoluble coatings for Stirling engine heat pipe condenser surfaces (United States)

    Dussinger, Peter M.


    The work done by Thermacore, Inc., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, for the Phase 1, 1992 SBIR National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contract, 'Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces' is described. The work was performed between January 1992 and July 1992. Stirling heat engines are being developed for electrical power generation use on manned and unmanned earth orbital and planetary missions. Dish Stirling solar systems and nuclear reactor Stirling systems are two of the most promising applications of the Stirling engine electrical power generation technology. The sources of thermal energy used to drive the Stirling engine typically are non-uniform in temperature and heat flux. Liquid metal heat pipe receivers are used as thermal transformers and isothermalizers to deliver the thermal energy at a uniform high temperature to the heat input section of the Stirling engine. The use of a heat pipe receiver greatly enhances system efficiency and potential life span. One issue that is raised during the design phase of heat pipe receivers is the potential solubility corrosion of the Stirling engine heat input section by the liquid metal working fluid. This Phase 1 effort initiated a program to evaluate and demonstrate coatings, applied to nickel based Stirling engine heater head materials, that are practically 'insoluble' in sodium, potassium, and NaK. This program initiated a study of nickel aluminide as a coating and developed and demonstrated a heat pipe test vehicle that can be used to test candidate materials and coatings. Nickel 200 and nickel aluminide coated Nickel 200 were tested for 1000 hours at 800 C at a condensation heat flux of 25 W/sq cm. Subsequent analyses of the samples showed no visible sign of solubility corrosion of either coated or uncoated samples. The analysis technique, photomicrographs at 200X, has a resolution of better than 2.5 microns (.0001 in). The results indicate that the heat pipe environment is not directly

  20. Chemical earth models (United States)

    Javoy, Marc


    This article presents a critical review of method, concepts and prejudices used bv modelists of the Earth's chemical composition over approximate the last fifty years and of the resulting compositions. Brief descriptions are given of admitted accretion mechanisms, of the starting materials most often considered and of the major parameters and recurrent concepts: 'reduced" state, mantle homogeneity vs heterogeneity, 'low pressure' core formation, 'great impact', refractory, lithophile, siderophile, compatible, incompatible character of elements, depleted and degassed mantle, Urey ratio, as well as the description of a commonly-used instrument, possibly harmful to Iogic, the famous Ockham's razor. Differences between models are now restricted to the lower mantle composition:the 'primary' (before crust differentiation) upper mentle varies little from model to model and the idea of a 10-15% combined Si-O-S concentration as representing the necessary light elements in the core is gaining more and more ground. The dominant type of model derives more or less directly from the CI cabonaceous composition by complete devolatilization and reduction. Its mantle is homogeneous and convecting mainly in a one-level mode, in accordence with dominant geophysicists' views but in rather strong disagreement with geochemical data and models which insist on the strong decoupling between lower and upper mantle. Its low Si excess is generally supposed to have been absorbed by the core, whereas its high refractory lithophile element (RLE) content creates mass balance problems relative to presently observed mantle and crust concentrations. The alternative type is a two-lavel mantle with a Si and Fe-rich, RLE-poor, lower mantle, previously based mainly on seismic and mineral physics data, and now also on geochemical and cosmochemical arguments.

  1. Experiencing Earth's inaudible symphony (United States)

    Marlton, Graeme; Charlton-Perez, Andrew; Harrison, Giles; Robson, Juliet


    Everyday the human body is exposed to thousands of different sounds; smartphones, music, cars and overhead aircraft to name a few. There are some sounds however which we cannot hear as they are below our range of hearing, sound at this level is known as infrasound and is of very low frequency. Such examples of infrasound are the sounds made by glaciers and volcanos, distant mining activities and the sound of the ocean. These sounds are emitted by these sources constantly all over the world and are recorded at infrasound stations, thus providing a recording of Earth's inaudible symphony. The aim of this collaboration between artists and scientists is to create a proof of concept immersive experience in which members of the public are invited to experience and understand infrasound. Participants will sit in an installation and be shown images of natural infrasound sources whilst their seat is vibrated at with an amplitude modulated version of the original infrasound wave. To further enhance the experience, subwoofers will play the same amplitude modulated soundwave to place the feeling of the infrasound wave passing through the installation. Amplitude modulation is performed so that a vibration is played at a frequency that can be felt by the human body but its amplitude varies at the frequency of the infrasound wave. The aim of the project is to see how humans perceive sounds that can't be heard and many did not know were there. The second part of the project is educational in which that this installation can be used to educate the general public about infrasound and its scientific uses. A simple demonstration for this session could be the playing of amplitude modulated infrasound wave that can be heard as opposed to felt as the transport of an installation at this is not possible and the associated imagery.

  2. Near earth propagation: physics revealed (United States)

    Wert, R.; Goroch, A.; Worthington, E.; Wong, V.


    Both the military and consumer sectors are pursuing distributed networked systems and sensors. A major stumbling block to deployment of these sensors will be the radio frequency (RF) propagation environment within a few wavelengths of the earth. Increasing transmit power (battery consumption) is not a practical solution to the problem. This paper will discuss some of the physical phenomena related to the near earth propagation (NEP) problem. When radiating near the earth the communications link is subjected to a list of physical impairments. On the list are the expected Fresnel region encroachment and multipath reflections. Additionally, radiation pattern changes and near earth boundary layer perturbations exist. A significant amount of data has been collected on NEP. Disturbances in the NEP atmosphere can have a time varying attenuation related to the time of day and these discoveries will be discussed. Solutions, or workarounds, to the near earth propagation problem hinge on dynamic adaptive RF elements. Adaptive RF elements will allow the distributed sensor to direct energy, beam form, impedance correct, increase communication efficiency, and decrease battery consumption. Small electrically controllable elements are under development to enable antenna impedance matching in a dynamic environment. Additionally, small dynamic beam forming arrays are under development to focus RF energy in the direction of need. With an increased understanding of the near earth propagation problem, distributed autonomous networked sensors can become a reality within a few centimeters of the earth.

  3. Anti-Adhesion Elastomer Seal Coatings for Ultraviolet and Atomic Oxygen Protection (United States)

    De Groh, Henry C., III; Puleo, Bernadette J.; Waters, Deborah L.; Miller, Sharon K.


    Radiation blocking sunscreen coatings have been developed for the protection of elastomer seals used in low-Earth-orbit (LEO). The coatings protect the seals from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and atomic oxygen (AO) damage. The coatings were developed for use on NASA docking seals. Docking seal damage from the UV and AO present in LEO can constrain mission time-line, flight mode options, and increases risk. A low level of adhesion is also required for docking seals so undocking push-off forces can be low. The coatings presented also mitigate this unwanted adhesion. Greases with low collected volatile condensable materials (CVCM) and low total mass loss (TML) were mixed with slippery and/or UV blocking powders to create the protective coatings. Coatings were applied at rates up to 2 milligrams per square centimeter. Coated seals were exposed to AO and UV in the NUV (near-UV) and UV-C wavelength ranges (300 to 400 nanometers and 254 nanometers, respectively). Ground based ashers were used to simulate the AO of space. The Sun's UV energy was mimicked assuming a nose forward flight mode, resulting in an exposure rate of 2.5 megajoules per square meter per day. Exposures between 0 and 147 megajoules per square meter (UV-C) and 245 megajoules per square meter (NUV) were accomplished. The protective coatings were durable, providing protection from UV after a simulated docking and undocking cycle. The level of protection begins to decline at coverage rates less than 0.9 milligrams per square centimeter. The leakage of seals coated with Braycote plus 20 percent Z-cote ZnO sunscreen increased by a factor of 40 after moderate AO exposure; indicating that this coating might not be suitable due to AO intolerance. Seals coated with DC-7-16.4 percent Z-cote ZnO sunscreen were not significantly affected by combined doses of 2 x 10 (sup 21) atoms per square AO with 73 megajoules per square meter UV-C. Unprotected seals were significantly damaged at UV-C exposures of 0.3 megajoules per

  4. Anodic-modified anticorrosive coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý


    Full Text Available Steel machine parts are exposed to electrochemical corrosion. This applies to many environments including atmosphere, soil, water, and even various fertilizers. High-carbon steel and low-alloyed steel are not stable (in terms of thermo-dynamics, do not feature effective passivation, and even the corrosion products do not form a stable protection layer. As a result, special anti-corrosion protection is critical. In heavy-corrosion environment, paint systems containing Zn have proven to be very effective. Presented text describes verification of paint systems with high Zn content and compares them to galvanic Zn coatings. Steel samples with protective coatings have been tested in condensation chamber with neutral salt-spray. This way, corrosion resistance of Zn-rich paint systems and galvanic Zn coatings has been evaluated and compared. Galvanic Zn-coatings have shown complete decomposition during the chamber exposition. Thus, further testing was adopted for paint systems only with a special attention being paid to gradual degradation of anti-corrosion layer. Final part of the text lists reasons of coating degradation process and outlines possible solutions of the issue.

  5. Chromate conversion coatings and their current application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny


    Full Text Available This paper describes formation, composition and possible production technologies of application chromate coatings. Summation of common examples of applications of these coatings in corrosion protection of metals and alloys is provided. Individual chromate coatings are divided by their dominant anions either with CrVI or CrIII. Restrictions of chromate coatings with dominantly CrVI and related toxicity of hexavalent chromium is discussed in detail. In conclusion, examples of both chromium and other, alternative coatings are summed up. Application of these coatings as a protection for concrete hot-dip galvanized reinforcement is also reviewed.

  6. The earth's shape and gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, G D; Wilson, J T


    The Earth's Shape and Gravity focuses on the progress of the use of geophysical methods in investigating the interior of the earth and its shape. The publication first offers information on gravity, geophysics, geodesy, and geology and gravity measurements. Discussions focus on gravity measurements and reductions, potential and equipotential surfaces, absolute and relative measurements, and gravity networks. The text then elaborates on the shape of the sea-level surface and reduction of gravity observations. The text takes a look at gravity anomalies and structures in the earth's crust; interp

  7. Prototyping iridium coated mirrors for x-ray astronomy (United States)

    Döhring, Thorsten; Probst, Anne-Catherine; Stollenwerk, Manfred; Emmerich, Florian; Stehlíková, Veronika; Inneman, Adolf


    X-ray astronomy uses space-based telescopes to overcome the disturbing absorption of the Earth's atmosphere. The telescope mirrors are operating at grazing incidence angles and are coated with thin metal films of high-Z materials to get sufficient reflectivity for the high-energy radiation to be observed. In addition the optical payload needs to be light-weighted for launcher mass constrains. Within the project JEUMICO, an acronym for "Joint European Mirror Competence", the Aschaffenburg University of Applied Sciences and the Czech Technical University in Prague started a collaboration to develop mirrors for X-ray telescopes. The X-ray telescopes currently developed within this Bavarian- Czech project are of Lobster eye type optical design. Corresponding mirror segments use substrates of flat silicon wafers which are coated with thin iridium films, as this material is promising high reflectivity in the X-ray range of interest. The deposition of the iridium films is based on a magnetron sputtering process. Sputtering with different parameters, especially by variation of the argon gas pressure, leads to iridium films with different properties. In addition to investigations of the uncoated mirror substrates the achieved surface roughness has been studied. Occasional delamination of the iridium films due to high stress levels is prevented by chromium sublayers. Thereby the sputtering parameters are optimized in the context of the expected reflectivity of the coated X-ray mirrors. In near future measurements of the assembled mirror modules optical performances are planned at an X-ray test facility.

  8. Self-Healing anticorrosive coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesterova, Tatyana

    Self-healing anticorrosive coatings are multi-component so-called smart materials, which have been proposed as a way to long-lasting corrosion protection of steel structures. The presently most promising technology route is based on microcapsules, filled with active healing agents, and has been...... to capillary forces. The healing agents then start to react, form a polymer network, and =glue‘ the crack. The approach has been applied to development of an epoxy-based self-healing anticorrosive coating for above water heavy duty corrosion protection. Emphasis has been on investigation of practical issues...... associated with development and testing of this type of coating. A laboratory investigation, to identify the most suitable method for production of mechanically stable (filled with industrially relevant core materials) and forming a free-flowing powder upon drying microcapsules, has been performed. Four...

  9. Mixed zirconia calcium phosphate coatings for dental implants: Tailoring coating stability and bioactivity potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardun, Karoline [University of Bremen, Advanced Ceramics, Am Biologischen Garten 2, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Treccani, Laura, E-mail: [University of Bremen, Advanced Ceramics, Am Biologischen Garten 2, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Volkmann, Eike [University of Bremen, Advanced Ceramics, Am Biologischen Garten 2, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Streckbein, Philipp [University Hospital, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Department of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Klinikstrasse 33, 35385 Giessen (Germany); Heiss, Christian [University Hospital of Giessen-Marburg, Department of Trauma Surgery, Rudolf-Buchheim-Strasse 7, 35385 Giessen, Germany, (Germany); Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Kerkraderstrasse 9, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Destri, Giovanni Li; Marletta, Giovanni [Laboratory for Molecular Surfaces and Nanotechnology (LAMSUN), Department of Chemistry, University of Catania and CSGI, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Rezwan, Kurosch [University of Bremen, Advanced Ceramics, Am Biologischen Garten 2, 28359 Bremen (Germany)


    Enhanced coating stability and adhesion are essential for long-term success of orthopedic and dental implants. In this study, the effect of coating composition on mechanical, physico-chemical and biological properties of coated zirconia specimens is investigated. Zirconia discs and dental screw implants are coated using the wet powder spraying (WPS) technique. The coatings are obtained by mixing yttria-stabilized zirconia (TZ) and hydroxyapatite (HA) in various ratios while a pure HA coating served as reference material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical profilometer analysis confirm a similar coating morphology and roughness for all studied coatings, whereas the coating stability can be tailored with composition and is probed by insertion and dissections experiments in bovine bone with coated zirconia screw implants. An increasing content of calcium phosphate (CP) resulted in a decrease of mechanical and chemical stability, while the bioactivity increased in simulated body fluid (SBF). In vitro experiments with human osteoblast cells (HOB) revealed that the cells grew well on all samples but are affected by dissolution behavior of the studied coatings. This work demonstrates the overall good mechanical strength, the excellent interfacial bonding and the bioactivity potential of coatings with higher TZ contents, which provide a highly interesting coating for dental implants. - Highlights: • Different ratios of zirconia (TZ) and calcium phosphate (CP) were deposited on zirconia substrates. • Enhancement of TZ content in mixed coatings increased coating stability. • Enhancement of CP content in mixed coatings increased bioactivity. • All tested coating compositions were non-toxic.

  10. Nano-Ceramic Coated Plastics (United States)

    Cho, Junghyun


    Plastic products, due to their durability, safety, and low manufacturing cost, are now rapidly replacing cookware items traditionally made of glass and ceramics. Despite this trend, some still prefer relatively expensive and more fragile ceramic/glassware because plastics can deteriorate over time after exposure to foods, which can generate odors, bad appearance, and/or color change. Nano-ceramic coatings can eliminate these drawbacks while still retaining the advantages of the plastic, since the coating only alters the surface of the plastic. The surface coating adds functionality to the plastics such as self-cleaning and disinfectant capabilities that result from a photocatalytic effect of certain ceramic systems. These ceramic coatings can also provide non-stick surfaces and higher temperature capabilities for the base plastics without resorting to ceramic or glass materials. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are the candidates for a nano-ceramic coating to deposit on the plastics or plastic films used in cookware and kitchenware. Both are wide-bandgap semiconductors (3.0 to 3.2 eV for TiO2 and 3.2 to 3.3 eV for ZnO), so they exhibit a photocatalytic property under ultraviolet (UV) light. This will lead to decomposition of organic compounds. Decomposed products can be easily washed off by water, so the use of detergents will be minimal. High-crystalline film with large surface area for the reaction is essential to guarantee good photocatalytic performance of these oxides. Low-temperature processing (plastics. One possible way of processing nanoceramic coatings at low temperatures (plastic materials (silicone, Teflon, PET, etc.) that can possess both photocatalytic oxide properties and flexible plastic properties. Processing cost is low and it does not require any expensive equipment investment. Processing can be scalable to current manufacturing infrastructure.

  11. Is life on Earth unique? (United States)

    Jayawardhana, Ray


    From finding unusual creatures on Earth to spying life's building blocks beyond our solar system, Ray Jayawardhana examines what we know about the nature of life's uniqueness, and the possibility of its existence in faraway realms such as extrasolar planets.

  12. Earth education: a new beginning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Matre, Steve


    .... The goal of this book is to "help people improve upon their cognitive and affective relationship with the earth's natural comunities and life support systems, and begin crafting lifestyles that will...

  13. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.


    NASA's Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Program has evolved over the last two decades, and currently has several core and community components. Core components provide the basic operational capabilities to process, archive, manage and distribute data from NASA missions. Community components provide a path for peer-reviewed research in Earth Science Informatics to feed into the evolution of the core components. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a core component consisting of twelve Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and eight Science Investigator-led Processing Systems spread across the U.S. The presentation covers how the ESDS Program continues to evolve and benefits from as well as contributes to advances in Earth Science Informatics.

  14. Encyclopedia of earth system science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nierenberg, William Aaron


    ... on which it depends. This Encyclopedia brings to all interested in the earth system, whether at the level of the professional scientist and engineer, the student, or the informed public, a snapshot of the present state...

  15. Encyclopedia of earth system science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nierenberg, William Aaron


    .... The very diversity of the articles attests to the complexity of earth system science as a unique interdisciplinary venture to place humanity in a position to move wisely to protect the global habitat...

  16. Explosives detection using nanoporous coatings (United States)

    Pina, María P.; Pellejero, Ismael; Urbiztondo, Miguel; Sesé, Javier; Santamaría, J.


    Zeolite-coated cantilevers provided with internal heating elements have been developed and used for the selective detection of nitroderivates, in particular o-nitrotoluene as an example of an explosive-related molecule. In particular, Co exchanged commercial BEA zeolites have been deployed of rectangular Si cantilevers by microdropping technique. In particular, two different strategies have been demonstrated to increase the zeolite modified cantilevers performance: the sensing coating and the operating temperature. As a result, o-nitrotoluene LOD values below 1 ppm are attained at room temperature conditions; whereas the interference of toluene at concentrations below 1000 ppm is completely suppressed by heating the cantilever.

  17. Testing Cadmium-Free Coatings (United States)


    Metallic Platings • Zinc (Zn) • Nickel (Ni) • Zinc Nickel (ZnNi) • Tin Zinc (SnZn) “ Paint -like” Coatings • Zinc-Rich • Magnesium-Rich • Zinc Aluminum-Rich...None of these match all properties of Cd 6 OPSEC approved for public release Fastener Coating Issues Cont’d Siloxane/Polysiloxane  Silicate ...Polymer-based Zirconium-based These passivation chemistries do not match all properties of Cr6+ Either paint adhesion is reduced Or Corrosion protection

  18. Corrosion-resistant coating development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, D.P.; Kupp, D.M.; Martin, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    SiC-based heat exchangers have been identified as the prime candidate material for use as heat exchangers in advanced combined cycle power plants. Unfortunately, hot corrosion of the SiC-based materials created by alkali metal salts present in the combustion gases dictates the need for corrosion-resistant coatings. The well-documented corrosion resistance of CS-50 combined with its low (and tailorable) coefficient of thermal expansion and low modulus makes CS-50 an ideal candidate for this application. Coatings produced by gelcasting and traditional particulate processing have been evaluated.

  19. Rare-earth elements (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Seal, Robert R.; Long, Keith R.; Gambogi, Joseph; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.


    The rare-earth elements (REEs) are 15 elements that range in atomic number from 57 (lanthanum) to 71 (lutetium); they are commonly referred to as the “lanthanides.” Yttrium (atomic number 39) is also commonly regarded as an REE because it shares chemical and physical similarities and has affinities with the lanthanides. Although REEs are not rare in terms of average crustal abundance, the concentrated deposits of REEs are limited in number.Because of their unusual physical and chemical properties, the REEs have diverse defense, energy, industrial, and military technology applications. The glass industry is the leading consumer of REE raw materials, which are used for glass polishing and as additives that provide color and special optical properties to the glass. Lanthanum-based catalysts are used in petroleum refining, and cerium-based catalysts are used in automotive catalytic converters. The use of REEs in magnets is a rapidly increasing application. Neodymium-iron-boron magnets, which are the strongest known type of magnets, are used when space and weight are restrictions. Nickel-metal hydride batteries use anodes made of a lanthanum-based alloys.China, which has led the world production of REEs for decades, accounted for more than 90 percent of global production and supply, on average, during the past decade. Citing a need to retain its limited REE resources to meet domestic requirements as well as concerns about the environmental effects of mining, China began placing restrictions on the supply of REEs in 2010 through the imposition of quotas, licenses, and taxes. As a result, the global rare-earth industry has increased its stockpiling of REEs; explored for deposits outside of China; and promoted new efforts to conserve, recycle, and substitute for REEs. New mine production began at Mount Weld in Western Australia, and numerous other exploration and development projects noted in this chapter are ongoing throughout the world.The REE-bearing minerals are

  20. Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture (United States)

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Novascone, Stephen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Wright, Jerry P [Idaho Falls, ID


    Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an earth analysis method includes engaging a device with the earth, analyzing the earth in a single substantially lineal direction using the device during the engaging, and providing information regarding a subsurface feature of the earth using the analysis.

  1. Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture (United States)

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Novascone, Stephen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Wright, Jerry P [Idaho Falls, ID


    Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an earth analysis method includes engaging a device with the earth, analyzing the earth in a single substantially lineal direction using the device during the engaging, and providing information regarding a subsurface feature of the earth using the analysis.

  2. Thick ceramic coating technique. Atsuniku ceramic coating gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sata, N. (Government Industrial Reserach Institute, Tohoku, Sendai (Japan))


    This paper describes a thick ceramic coating technique that uses a reactive bonding process. This process coats interior of a metallic cylinder or surface of a metal having optional curvature with thick (2 mm to 3 mm) ceramics composed mainly of alumina. The process features easiness in coating and simplicity of the equipment. Reactive heat generated from thermit reaction melts iron and alumina as the reaction products, and produces molten ceramics which is cooled on the metal surface to deposit and solidify as a ceramics layer, thus completing the synthesis and the coating in one process. Its application fields would include reaction tubes, abrasive fluid tubes, and high-temperature fluid tubes that can utilize the ceramics' resistance to abrasion, corrosion and heat as well as heat insulation. The ceramics layer has a hardness of about Hv 1500 and porosity from 2 to 3%. The bonding strength between the substrate metal and the ceramics layer can achieve 10 MPa to 20 MPa as a result of surface oxidation treatment and cooling treatment given initially to prevent the outer wall temperature from rising. 2 figs.

  3. A global rain of micrometeorites following breakup of the L‐chondrite parent body—Evidence from solar wind‐implanted Ne in fossil extraterrestrial chromite grains from China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    Abstract– Previous studies of limestone beds of mid‐Ordovician age from both Sweden and China show that the Earth saw an at least two orders of magnitude increase in the influx of extraterrestrial material approximately 470...

  4. Rare Earth Optical Temperature Sensor (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip (Inventor)


    A rare earth optical temperature sensor is disclosed for measuring high temperatures. Optical temperature sensors exist that channel emissions from a sensor to a detector using a light pipe. The invention uses a rare earth emitter to transform the sensed thermal energy into a narrow band width optical signal that travels to a detector using a light pipe. An optical bandpass filter at the detector removes any noise signal outside of the band width of the signal from the emitter.

  5. Earth observation for rangeland monitoring

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel


    Full Text Available for the methodology is presented in Figure 1. Figure 1: Conceptual framework for the development of grass nutrient estimation models, using remote sensing at various scales Earth Observation for Rangeland Monitoring DR A RAMOELO, DR M CHO AND DR R MATHIEU CSIR... and canopy N conforms to the underlying geology (Figure 2). ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to thank the Department of Science and Technology which contributed financially to this work through the grant ?Earth Observation Application Development...

  6. Post mortem analysis of burned magnesia-chromite brick used in short rotary furnace of secondary lead smelting Análise post mortem de um refratário de magnésia-cromita usado em um forno rotativo de redução de chumbo secundário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Prestes


    Full Text Available Burned magnesia-chromite bricks are the standard product for the lining of furnaces in lead industry, where the short service life is a great problem. Used sintered magnesia-chromite brick sample from short rotary furnace lining, sent by a secondary lead manufacturer, showed parallel cracks to the hot face due to structural spalling damage. The refractory infiltrated region and slag interface were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive spectroscopy analyzer, and X-ray diffraction powder analysis. Crucible corrosion test was performed to evaluate the influence of slag attack. The results showed that the structural spalling was due to strong Pb-infiltration of the refractory microstructure by bath components of the furnace (metallic lead and lead sulphite during the reduction process and that the slag infiltration had little contribution due to the good resistance of the magnesia-chromite bricks to FeO rich slag attack.Os tijolos refratários queimados de magnésia-cromita são os produtos padrões para emprego no revestimento de fornos na indústria de chumbo, onde o curto tempo de vida desses refratários é um grande problema. Amostras de tijolos de magnésia-cromita sinterizados, utilizados em um forno rotativo de redução de chumbo secundário, mostraram fissuras paralelas à face quente indicando que o desgaste do revestimento ocorreu por termoclase estrutural. As regiões de interface refratário-escória e de infiltração foram analisadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura e espectroscopia de energia dispersiva, e difração de raios X. O teste de corrosão pelo método estático foi feito para avaliar a influência do ataque por escória. Os resultados mostraram que a termoclase estrutural foi devido a forte infiltração do chumbo, proveniente dos componentes do forno (chumbo metálico e sulfeto de chumbo, na microestrutura do refratário durante o processo de redução, e que, a infiltração da

  7. Next-generation Digital Earth. (United States)

    Goodchild, Michael F; Guo, Huadong; Annoni, Alessandro; Bian, Ling; de Bie, Kees; Campbell, Frederick; Craglia, Max; Ehlers, Manfred; van Genderen, John; Jackson, Davina; Lewis, Anthony J; Pesaresi, Martino; Remetey-Fülöpp, Gábor; Simpson, Richard; Skidmore, Andrew; Wang, Changlin; Woodgate, Peter


    A speech of then-Vice President Al Gore in 1998 created a vision for a Digital Earth, and played a role in stimulating the development of a first generation of virtual globes, typified by Google Earth, that achieved many but not all the elements of this vision. The technical achievements of Google Earth, and the functionality of this first generation of virtual globes, are reviewed against the Gore vision. Meanwhile, developments in technology continue, the era of "big data" has arrived, the general public is more and more engaged with technology through citizen science and crowd-sourcing, and advances have been made in our scientific understanding of the Earth system. However, although Google Earth stimulated progress in communicating the results of science, there continue to be substantial barriers in the public's access to science. All these factors prompt a reexamination of the initial vision of Digital Earth, and a discussion of the major elements that should be part of a next generation.

  8. Durable Dust Repellent Coating for Metals Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Durable Dust Repellent Coating (DDRC) consists of nano-phase silica, titania, or other oxide coatings to repel dust in a vacuum environment over a wide range of...

  9. Aesthetic coatings for Wisconsin bridge components : [brief]. (United States)


    Over the past several years, the Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) has : experienced performance-related issues with aesthetic and protective coatings used on : Wisconsin bridges. Public agencies make significant investments in coating ...

  10. Coated woven materials and method of preparation (United States)

    McCreary, W.J.; Carroll, D.W.

    Coating of woven materials so that not only the outer surfaces are coated has been a problem. Now, a solution to that problem is by coating with materials, with metals or with pyrolytic carbon. Materials are deposited in Chemical Vapor Deposition (CND) reactions using a fluidized bed so that the porosity of the woven materials is retained and the tiny filaments which make up the strands which are woven (including inner as well as outer filaments) are substantially uniformly coated.

  11. Thermal barrier coating system having improved adhesion (United States)

    Bill, R. C.; Sovey, J. S. (Inventor)


    The adherence between a ceramic thermal barrier coating and a metal bond coating is improved by ion sputtering a ceramic film on the bond cost. A ceramic thermal barrier coating is then plasma-sprayed onto this primer film. This improves the integrity and strength of the interface between the plasma-sprayed ceramic layer and metallic bond coat which insures stronger adherence between the metal and the ceramic.

  12. Fusion silicide coatings for tantalum alloys. (United States)

    Warnock, R. V.; Stetson, A. R.


    Calculation of the performance of fusion silicide coatings under simulated atmospheric reentry conditions to a maximum temperature of 1810 K (2800 F). Both recently developed and commercially available coatings are included. Data are presented on oxidation rate with and without intentional defecting, the influence of the coatings on the ductile-brittle bend transition temperature, and the mechanical properties. Coatings appear capable of affording protection for at least 100 simulated cycles to 2600 F and 63 cycles to 2800 F.

  13. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region (United States)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus


    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  14. EarthLabs - Investigating Hurricanes: Earth's Meteorological Monsters (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Dahlman, L.; Barstow, D.


    Earth science is one of the most important tools that the global community needs to address the pressing environmental, social, and economic issues of our time. While, at times considered a second-rate science at the high school level, it is currently undergoing a major revolution in the depth of content and pedagogical vitality. As part of this revolution, labs in Earth science courses need to shift their focus from cookbook-like activities with known outcomes to open-ended investigations that challenge students to think, explore and apply their learning. We need to establish a new model for Earth science as a rigorous lab science in policy, perception, and reality. As a concerted response to this need, five states, a coalition of scientists and educators, and an experienced curriculum team are creating a national model for a lab-based high school Earth science course named EarthLabs. This lab course will comply with the National Science Education Standards as well as the states' curriculum frameworks. The content will focus on Earth system science and environmental literacy. The lab experiences will feature a combination of field work, classroom experiments, and computer access to data and visualizations, and demonstrate the rigor and depth of a true lab course. The effort is being funded by NOAA's Environmental Literacy program. One of the prototype units of the course is Investigating Hurricanes. Hurricanes are phenomena which have tremendous impact on humanity and the resources we use. They are also the result of complex interacting Earth systems, making them perfect objects for rigorous investigation of many concepts commonly covered in Earth science courses, such as meteorology, climate, and global wind circulation. Students are able to use the same data sets, analysis tools, and research techniques that scientists employ in their research, yielding truly authentic learning opportunities. This month-long integrated unit uses hurricanes as the story line by

  15. Optical and Spectroscopic Properties of Polymer Layers Doped with Rare Earth Ions


    Prajzler, Vaclav; Lyutakov, Oleksiy; Huttel, Ivan; Oswald, Jiri; Jerabek, Vitezslav


    We report on spectroscopic properties of the Polymethylmethacrylate and Epoxy Novolak Resin polymer doped with Rare Earth ions. Polymer layers were fabricated by a spin coating or by pouring the polymer into a bottomless mould placed on a quartz substrate. The fabricated polymer layers doped with RE ions were examined by infrared spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy of the samples revealed absorption bands corresponding to the O-H vibrations in the region from 3340 cm-1 to 3380 cm-1. Transmission...

  16. On air entrainment in coatings. (United States)

    Simpkins, P G; Kuck, V J


    A series of experiments that clarify how air bubbles become entrained into coatings are described. The contact line dynamics at the air-liquid interface surrounding a fiber is characterized for a typical coating die operating under atmospheric and pressurized conditions. Glycerin and other viscous liquids are used to reveal that a critical fiber speed exists at which air entrainment begins. The observations confirm that the critical capillary number Ca(c) depends on the physical properties of the coating material, in the form of the Morton number. When the liquid supply is pressurized, the experiments show that adjusting the pressure can stabilize the displaced free surface interface at a prescribed location. Controlling the meniscus location in this way eliminates air entrainment. The threshold occurs when the applied pressure balances the shear exerted on the coating by the moving fiber. Using this approach it is possible to eliminate air entrainment and attain stable wetting at very large values of the capillary number, e.g., Ca congruent with 50.

  17. Terahertz antireflection coatings using metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hou-tong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhou, Jiangfeng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Azad, Abul K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Frank [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We demonstrate terahertz metamaterial antireflection coatings (ARCs) that significantly reduce the reflection and enhance the transmission at an interface of dielectric media. They are able to operate over a wide range of incidence angles for both TM and TE polarizations. Experiments and finite-element simulations will be presented and discussed.

  18. Space stable thermal control coatings (United States)

    Harada, Y.


    Efforts to develop an engineering paint were concentrated on inorganic silicate-bonded systems as opposed to the silicone coatings. The UV-vacuum stability of potassium silicate-Zn2TiO4 paints were shown to be quite good. Reflectance optimization of these systems is being studied by maximizing thickness and pigment to binder ratio.

  19. Moisture transport in coated plaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, E.L.J.; Van der Spoel, W.H.; Bancken, E.L.J.


    In the framework of the research project: 'Water balance of water-borne paint systems on plaster substrates in relation to fungal growth', a study is carried out to moisture transport mechanisms in coated gypsum plaster. In this contribution, the set-up of the study is described. Besides a

  20. Polymer-coated quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomczak, N.; Liu, Rongrong; Vancso, Gyula J.


    Quantum Dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals with distinct photophysical properties finding applications in biology, biosensing, and optoelectronics. Polymeric coatings of QDs are used primarily to provide long-term colloidal stability to QDs dispersed in solutions and also as a source of

  1. Industrial Coatings at Extreme Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subramanian, Srinath; Pérez Hornero, Clara; Pedersen, Lars Thorslund

    With the gradual depletion of oil wells operable at relatively lower temperatures and pressures, the upstream oil industry relies on High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT) wells to source crude oil and gas. HPHT well extraction and processing require anticorrosive coatings applied on substrates...

  2. Insulator coating for high temperature alloys method for producing insulator coating for high temperature alloys (United States)

    Park, Jong Hee


    A method for fabricating an electrically insulating coating on a surface is disclosed comprising coating the surface with a metal, and reacting the metal coated surface with a nonmetal so as to create a film on the metal-coated surface. Alternatively, the invention provides for a method for producing a noncorrosive, electrically insulating coating on a surface saturated with a nonmetal comprising supplying a molten fluid, dissolving a metal in the molten fluid to create a mixture, and contacting the mixture with the saturated surface. Lastly, the invention provides an electrically insulative coating comprising an underlying structural substrate coated with an oxide or nitride compound

  3. Absorptive coating for aluminum solar panels (United States)

    Desmet, D.; Jason, A.; Parr, A.


    Method for coating forming coating of copper oxide from copper component of sheet aluminum/copper alloy provides strong durable solar heat collector panels. Copper oxide coating has solar absorption characteristics similar to black chrome and is much simpler and less costly to produce.

  4. Antireflective Coatings for Glass and Transparent Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buskens, P.; Burghoorn, M.; Danho Mourad, M.C.; Vroon, Z.


    Antireflective coatings (ARCs) are applied to reduce surface reflections. We review coatings that reduce the reflection of the surface of the transparent substrates float glass, polyethylene terephthalate, poly(methyl methacrylate), and polycarbonate. Three main coating concepts exist to lower the

  5. Moisture in organic coatings - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, G.K. van der; Adan, O.C.G.


    A review is given on transport and equilibrium sorption of moisture in polymer films and organic coatings. Polymeric material forms the continuous phase of a coating and is therefore important for transport properties. Besides polymer, coatings consist of pigments and fillers and various additives,

  6. Thermal stability of phosphate coatings on steel


    P. Pokorny; P. Szelag; Novak, M; L. Mastny; Brozek, V.


    The work was validated thermal stability of zinc, manganese and tri-cations phosphate coatings on steel, made from commercial phosphating bath type Pragofos. Thermogravimetric data dehydration of scholzite, phosphophylite and hureaulite coatings in the temperature range 160 °C – 400 °C define the conditions for applying paints with higher firing temperature or thermal spraying ceramic coatings.

  7. Applicability of coatings to control metal dusting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermse, C.G.M.; Wortel, J.C. van


    We have performed a long term comparative study between five wrought and three centricast materials, both as-is, and in coated condition. Two commercially available coatings were applied to each different alloy. One coating was aluminum based with a chromium rich intermediate layer. The other

  8. Deposition and Investigation of Hydrophobic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safonov Aleksey


    Full Text Available The fluoropolymer coatings of different morphologies are deposited by the HWCVD (Hot Wire CVD method. The effect of activator filament temperature on the structure of fluoropolymer coating is shown. The results of studying the hydrophobic fluoropolymer coatings with different structures, deposited by the HWCVD method, are presented.

  9. Thermal stability of phosphate coatings on steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny


    Full Text Available The work was validated thermal stability of zinc, manganese and tri-cations phosphate coatings on steel, made from commercial phosphating bath type Pragofos. Thermogravimetric data dehydration of scholzite, phosphophylite and hureaulite coatings in the temperature range 160 °C – 400 °C define the conditions for applying paints with higher firing temperature or thermal spraying ceramic coatings.

  10. Zirconium influence on microstructure of aluminide coatings ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C) are protected by alumina coatings such as nickel aluminide. High temperature coatings based on β-NiAl intermatallic phase are extensively used to protect components against oxidation in gas turbine engines. However, aluminide coatings based on NiAl phase do not fulfil the requirements such as good adhesion of the.

  11. Multispectral Image Analysis for Astaxanthin Coating Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht


    Industrial quality inspection using image analysis on astaxanthin coating in aquaculture feed pellets is of great importance for automatic production control. The pellets were divided into two groups: one with pellets coated using synthetic astaxanthin in fish oil and the other with pellets coated...

  12. Microstructures, hardness and bioactivity of hydroxyapatite coatings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme


    Full Text Available spraying techniques are well founded. In this paper, HAP was coated on Ti–6Al–4V using direct laser melting (DLM) process. This process, unlike the traditional coating processes, is able to achieve coatings with good metallurgical bonding and little...

  13. Development of Diffusion barrier coatings and Deposition Technologies for Mitigating Fuel Cladding Chemical Interactions (FCCI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Cole, James


    The goal of this project is to develop diffusion barrier coatings on the inner cladding surface to mitigate fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). FCCI occurs due to thermal and radiation enhanced inter-diffusion between the cladding and fuel materials, and can have the detrimental effects of reducing the effective cladding wall thickness and lowering the melting points of the fuel and cladding. The research is aimed at the Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in which higher burn-ups will exacerbate the FCCI problem. This project will study both diffusion barrier coating materials and deposition technologies. Researchers will investigate pure vanadium, zirconium, and titanium metals, along with their respective oxides, on substrates of HT-9, T91, and oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels; these materials are leading candidates for ABR fuel cladding. To test the efficacy of the coating materials, the research team will perform high-temperature diffusion couple studies using both a prototypic metallic uranium fuel and a surrogate the rare-earth element lanthanum. Ion irradiation experiments will test the stability of the coating and the coating-cladding interface. A critical technological challenge is the ability to deposit uniform coatings on the inner surface of cladding. The team will develop a promising non-line-of-sight approach that uses nanofluids . Recent research has shown the feasibility of this simple yet novel approach to deposit coatings on test flats and inside small sections of claddings. Two approaches will be investigated: 1) modified electrophoretic deposition (MEPD) and 2) boiling nanofluids. The coatings will be evaluated in the as-deposited condition and after sintering.

  14. Anticorrosion Coatings Based on Assemblies of Superhydrophobic Particles Impregnated with Conductive Oil (United States)


    Amorphous silica nanoparticles were synthesized using sol-gel techniques. The particles were fluorinated to impart them with superhydrophobic properties...coatings based on fluorinated diatomaceous earth: Abrasion resistance versus particle geometry’’ Appl. Surf. Sci. 292, 563–569 (2014). 8. Vlassiouk I...layer graphene by shear exfoliation in liquids” Nature Materials 13, 624-630 (2014). 11. Thermo Scientific Application Note AN52252 “The Raman

  15. Preparation of Metal Coatings on Steel Balls Using Mechanical Coating Technique and Its Process Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Hao


    Full Text Available We successfully applied mechanical coating technique to prepare Ti coatings on the substrates of steel balls and stainless steel balls. The prepared samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The weight increase of the ball substrates and the average thickness of Ti coatings were also monitored. The results show that continuous Ti coatings were prepared at different revolution speeds after different durations. Higher revolution speed can accelerate the formation of continuous Ti coatings. Substrate hardness also markedly affected the formation of Ti coatings. Specifically, the substance with lower surface hardness was more suitable as the substrate on which to prepare Ti coatings. The substrate material plays a key role in the formation of Ti coatings. Specifically, Ti coatings formed more easily on metal/alloy balls than ceramic balls. The above conclusion can also be applied to other metal or alloy coatings on metal/alloy and ceramic substrates.

  16. Failure Mechanisms of the Coating/Metal Interface in Waterborne Coatings: The Effect of Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Wan


    Full Text Available Waterborne coating is the most popular type of coating, and improving its performance is a key point of research. Cathodic delamination is one of the major modes of failure for organic coatings. It refers to the weakening or loss of adhesion between the coating and substrate. Physical and chemical characteristics of coatings have been studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS. Early heterogeneous swelling at the metal-coating interface in non-defective coated metals was elucidated using frequency-dependent alternating-current scanning electrochemical microscopy. Two types of coatings (styrene-acrylic coating and terpolymer coating were compared. The effects of thickness, surface roughness, and chemical bonding on cathodic delamination were investigated.

  17. Failure Mechanisms of the Coating/Metal Interface in Waterborne Coatings: The Effect of Bonding. (United States)

    Wan, Hongxia; Song, Dongdong; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Dawei; Gao, Jin; Du, Cuiwei


    Waterborne coating is the most popular type of coating, and improving its performance is a key point of research. Cathodic delamination is one of the major modes of failure for organic coatings. It refers to the weakening or loss of adhesion between the coating and substrate. Physical and chemical characteristics of coatings have been studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Early heterogeneous swelling at the metal-coating interface in non-defective coated metals was elucidated using frequency-dependent alternating-current scanning electrochemical microscopy. Two types of coatings (styrene-acrylic coating and terpolymer coating) were compared. The effects of thickness, surface roughness, and chemical bonding on cathodic delamination were investigated.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell


    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) deactivated several aging nuclear fuel storage basins. Planners for this effort were greatly concerned that radioactive contamination present on the basin walls could become airborne as the sides of the basins became exposed during deactivation and allowed to dry after water removal. One way to control this airborne contamination was to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls were still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market for marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives were easily applied and adhered well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INL fuel pools. Lab-scale experiments were conducted by applying fourteen different commercial underwater coatings to four substrate materials representative of the storage basin construction materials, and evaluating their performance. The coupons included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The evaluation criteria included ease of application, adherence to the four surfaces of interest, no change on water clarity or chemistry, non-hazardous in final applied form and be proven in underwater applications. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates was selected from the underwater coatings tested for application to all four pools. Divers scrubbed loose contamination off the basin walls and floors using a ship hull scrubber and vacuumed up the sludge. The divers then applied the coating using a special powered roller with two separate heated hoses that allowed the epoxy to mix at the roller surface was used to eliminate pot time concerns. The walls were successfully coated and water was removed from the pools with no detectable airborne contamination releases.

  19. Atomically Bonded Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aytug, Tolga [ORNL


    Maintaining clarity and avoiding the accumulation of water and dirt on optically transparent surfaces such as US military vehicle windshields, viewports, periscope optical head windows, and electronic equipment cover glasses are critical to providing a high level of visibility, improved survivability, and much-needed safety for warfighters in the field. Through a combination of physical vapor deposition techniques and the exploitation of metastable phase separation in low-alkali borosilicate, a novel technology was developed for the fabrication of optically transparent, porous nanostructured silica thin film coatings that are strongly bonded to glass platforms. The nanotextured films, initially structurally superhydrophilic, exhibit superior superhydrophobicity, hence antisoiling ability, following a simple but robust modification in surface chemistry. The surfaces yield water droplet contact angles as high as 172°. Moreover, the nanostructured nature of these coatings provides increased light scattering in the UV regime and reduced reflectivity (i.e., enhanced transmission) over a broad range of the visible spectrum. In addition to these functionalities, the coatings exhibit superior mechanical resistance to abrasion and are thermally stable to temperatures approaching 500°C. The overall process technology relies on industry standard equipment and inherently scalable manufacturing processes and demands only nontoxic, naturally abundant, and inexpensive base materials. Such coatings, applied to the optical components of current and future combat equipment and military vehicles will provide a significant strategic advantage for warfighters. The inherent self-cleaning properties of such superhydrophobic coatings will also mitigate biofouling of optical windows exposed to high-humidity conditions and can help decrease repair/replacement costs, reduce maintenance, and increase readiness by limiting equipment downtime.

  20. Failure Mechanisms of the Coating/Metal Interface in Waterborne Coatings: The Effect of Bonding


    Hongxia Wan; Dongdong Song; Xiaogang Li; Dawei Zhang; Jin Gao; Cuiwei Du


    Waterborne coating is the most popular type of coating, and improving its performance is a key point of research. Cathodic delamination is one of the major modes of failure for organic coatings. It refers to the weakening or loss of adhesion between the coating and substrate. Physical and chemical characteristics of coatings have been studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and s...

  1. Towards Big Earth Data Analytics: The EarthServer Approach (United States)

    Baumann, Peter


    Big Data in the Earth sciences, the Tera- to Exabyte archives, mostly are made up from coverage data whereby the term "coverage", according to ISO and OGC, is defined as the digital representation of some space-time varying phenomenon. Common examples include 1-D sensor timeseries, 2-D remote sensing imagery, 3D x/y/t image timeseries and x/y/z geology data, and 4-D x/y/z/t atmosphere and ocean data. Analytics on such data requires on-demand processing of sometimes significant complexity, such as getting the Fourier transform of satellite images. As network bandwidth limits prohibit transfer of such Big Data it is indispensable to devise protocols allowing clients to task flexible and fast processing on the server. The EarthServer initiative, funded by EU FP7 eInfrastructures, unites 11 partners from computer and earth sciences to establish Big Earth Data Analytics. One key ingredient is flexibility for users to ask what they want, not impeded and complicated by system internals. The EarthServer answer to this is to use high-level query languages; these have proven tremendously successful on tabular and XML data, and we extend them with a central geo data structure, multi-dimensional arrays. A second key ingredient is scalability. Without any doubt, scalability ultimately can only be achieved through parallelization. In the past, parallelizing code has been done at compile time and usually with manual intervention. The EarthServer approach is to perform a samentic-based dynamic distribution of queries fragments based on networks optimization and further criteria. The EarthServer platform is comprised by rasdaman, an Array DBMS enabling efficient storage and retrieval of any-size, any-type multi-dimensional raster data. In the project, rasdaman is being extended with several functionality and scalability features, including: support for irregular grids and general meshes; in-situ retrieval (evaluation of database queries on existing archive structures, avoiding data

  2. Beyond CANLUB: an improvement alternative coating development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahani, M.; Ferrier, G.A; Chan, P.K.; Corcoran, E.C., E-mail:, E-mail: [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Pant, A. [Cameco Fuel Manufacturing Limited, Port Hope/Cobourg, Ontario (Canada)


    The CANLUB graphite coating is exclusively used in CANDU nuclear reactors to protect fuel sheaths from stress corrosion cracking. However, uncertainties regarding its quality control, manufacturing continuity, and performance at high burnups provide sufficient motivation for exploring alternative coating materials. Since the chemistry of polysiloxanes may offer improved protection against stress corrosion cracking, we describe the physical and elemental characterization of CANLUB and three commercial polysiloxane coatings. Preliminary results suggest that the Pyromark coating has the greatest potential to replace the CANLUB coating. (author)

  3. Evaluation of irradiated coating material specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Jin; Nam, Seok Woo; Cho, Lee Moon [RCS Korea Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Evaluation result of irradiated coating material specimens - Coating material specimens radiated Gamma Energy(Co 60) in air condition. - Evaluation conditions was above 1 X 10{sup 4} Gy/hr, and radiated TID 2.0 X 10{sup 6} Gy. - The radiated coating material specimens, No Checking, Cracking, Flaking, Delamination, Peeling and Blistering. - Coating system at the Kori no. 1 and APR 1400 Nuclear power plant, evaluation of irradiated coating materials is in accordance with owner's requirement(2.0 X 10{sup 6} Gy)

  4. Transparent nanocrystalline diamond coatings and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Khan, Adam


    A method for coating a substrate comprises producing a plasma ball using a microwave plasma source in the presence of a mixture of gases. The plasma ball has a diameter. The plasma ball is disposed at a first distance from the substrate and the substrate is maintained at a first temperature. The plasma ball is maintained at the first distance from the substrate, and a diamond coating is deposited on the substrate. The diamond coating has a thickness. Furthermore, the diamond coating has an optical transparency of greater than about 80%. The diamond coating can include nanocrystalline diamond. The microwave plasma source can have a frequency of about 915 MHz.

  5. Earth and Venus: Planetary Evolution and Habitability (United States)

    Laine, P. E.


    What caused Earth and Venus to evolve very differently? Could Venus have evolved to more Earth-like state? Could Earth end up to similar state that Venus is today? This is a review of these questions in the light of astrobiology and Earth's future.

  6. Influence of dipping cycles on physical, optical, and electrical properties of Cu 2 NiSnS 4 : Direct solution dip coating for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokurala, Krishnaiah; Mallick, Sudhanshu; Bhargava, Parag; Siol, Sebastian; Klein, Talysa R.; van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.


    Direct solution coating technique has emerged as a promising economically viable process for earth abundant chalcogenide absorber materials for photovoltaic applications. Here, direct ethanol based dip coating of earth abundant Cu2NiSnS4 (CNTS) films on soda lime glass (SLG), molybdenum coated glass (Mo), and fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass (FTO) substrates is investigated. The structural and morphological properties of pre-annealed and sulfurized CNTS films coated on SLG, FTO, and Mo substrates are reported. The influence of dipping cycles on composition and optoelectronic properties of pre-annealed and sulfurized CNTS films deposited on SLG substrate is presented. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis reveal how changes in thickness and elemental composition affect morphology and optoelectronic properties. The obtained absorption coefficient, optical bandgap, resistivity and mobility of pre - annealed and sulfurized films are found to be 104 cm-1, 1.5 eV, 0.48 Ocm, 3.4 cm2/Vs and 104 cm-1, 1.29 eV, 0.14 Ocm, 11.0 cm2/Vs, respectively. These properties are well suited for photovoltaic applications and lead to the conclusion that the direct ethanol based dip coating can be an alternative economically viable process for the fabrication of earth abundant CNTS absorber layers for thin film solar cells.

  7. A Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott t.


    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it. The multi-functionality of the coating is based on microencapsulation technology specifically designed for corrosion control applications. This design has, in addition to all the advantages of existing microcapsulation designs, the corrosion controlled release function that triggers the delivery of corrosion indicators and inhibitors on demand, only when and where needed. Microencapsulation of self-healing agents for autonomous repair of mechanical damage to the coating is also being pursued. Corrosion indicators, corrosion inhibitors, as well as self-healing agents, have been encapsulated and dispersed into several paint systems to test the corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing properties of the coating. Key words: Corrosion, coating, autonomous corrosion control, corrosion indication, corrosion inhibition, self-healing coating, smart coating, multifunctional coating, microencapsulation.

  8. An Earth Penetrating Modeling Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokes, E; Yarrington, P; Glenn, L


    Documentation of a study to assess the capability of computer codes to predict lateral loads on earth penetrating projectiles under conditions of non-normal impact. Calculations simulated a set of small scale penetration tests into concrete targets with oblique faces at angles of 15 and 30 degrees to the line-of-flight. Predictive codes used by the various calculational teams cover a wide range of modeling approaches from approximate techniques, such as cavity expansion, to numerical methods, such as finite element codes. The modeling assessment was performed under the auspices of the Phenomenology Integrated Product Team (PIPT) for the Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Program (RNEP). Funding for the penetration experiments and modeling was provided by multiple earth penetrator programs.

  9. Diseases of the Earth's skin (United States)

    The German Government's Scientific Advisory Council on Global Climate Change recently diagnosed a score of ailments of the “Earth's skin,” according to the German Research Service. Like numerous viral and bacterial diseases, many of the earthidermal diseases are named for the regions where scientists first discovered them. For some symptoms, the German Council has also recommended therapeutic treatments, such as terracing of slopes near rivers. It remains to be seen whether universities worldwide will start cranking out specialists in Earth dermatology. But judging by the condition of many regions of the world, it appears this field may offer great growth potential for the Earth sciences, which is welcome news in the current tight job market.

  10. Revolutions that made the earth

    CERN Document Server

    Lenton, Tim


    The Earth that sustains us today was born out of a few remarkable, near-catastrophic revolutions, started by biological innovations and marked by global environmental consequences. The revolutions have certain features in common, such as an increase in the complexity, energy utilization, and information processing capabilities of life. This book describes these revolutions, showing the fundamental interdependence of the evolution of life and its non-living environment. We would not exist unless these upheavals had led eventually to 'successful' outcomes - meaning that after each one, at length, a new stable world emerged. The current planet-reshaping activities of our species may be the start of another great Earth system revolution, but there is no guarantee that this one will be successful. This book explains what a successful transition through it might look like, if we are wise enough to steer such a course. This book places humanity in context as part of the Earth system, using a new scientific synthe...

  11. Earth Science Data Grid System (United States)

    Chi, Y.; Yang, R.; Kafatos, M.


    The Earth Science Data Grid System (ESDGS) is a software in support of earth science data storage and access. It is built upon the Storage Resource Broker (SRB) data grid technology. We have developed a complete data grid system consistent of SRB server providing users uniform access to diverse storage resources in a heterogeneous computing environment and metadata catalog server (MCAT) managing the metadata associated with data set, users, and resources. We are also developing additional services of 1) metadata management, 2) geospatial, temporal, and content-based indexing, and 3) near/on site data processing, in response to the unique needs of Earth science applications. In this paper, we will describe the software architecture and components of the system, and use a practical example in support of storage and access of rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) to illustrate its functionality and features.

  12. High efficiency turbine blade coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youchison, Dennis L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gallis, Michail A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600°C and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni2Al3 bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the

  13. Properties of Plasma and HVOF Sprayed Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Żórawski


    Full Text Available The work compares the properties of plasma and HVOF thermally sprayed coatings obtained by blending the NiCrBSi and Fe2O3 powders. The deposition was performed by means of the Plancer PN-120 and the Diamond Jet guns for plasma spraying and HVOF spraying respectively. The SEM (EDS method was employed to study the microstructure of the produced coatings. Although the blended powders differ in particle size, shape, and distribution, it is possible to obtain composite coatings with an NiCrBSi matrix containing iron oxides. Except for a different microstructure, plasma and HVOF coatings have a different phase composition, which was examined using the Bruker D-8 Advance diffractometer. Studies of the coatings wear and scuffing resistance showed that an optimal content of Fe2O3 is about 26 % for plasma sprayed coatings and 22.5 % for HVOF deposited coatings.

  14. Wear performance of laser processed tantalum coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrick, Stanley; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit, E-mail:


    This first generation investigation evaluates the in vitro tribological performance of laser-processed Ta coatings on Ti for load-bearing implant applications. Linear reciprocating wear tests in simulated body fluid showed one order of magnitude less wear rate, of the order of 10{sup -4} mm{sup 3}(N.m){sup -1}, for Ta coatings compared to Ti. Our results demonstrate that Ta coatings can potentially minimize the early-stage bone-implant interface micro-motion induced wear debris generation due to their excellent bioactivity comparable to that of hydroxyapatite (HA), high wear resistance and toughness compared to popular HA coatings. Highlights: {yields} In vitro wear performance of laser processed Ta coatings on Ti was evaluated. {yields} Wear tests in SBF showed one order of magnitude less wear for Ta coatings than Ti. {yields} Ta coatings can minimize early-stage micro-motion induced wear debris generation.

  15. Silane based coating of aluminium mold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A method of preparing an aluminum mold for injection molding is provided, the method comprises the steps of providing an aluminum mold having a least one surface, subjecting the at least one surface to a gas or liquid phase silane to thereby form an anti-stiction coating, the anti-stiction coating...... comprising a chemically bonded monolayer of silane compounds on the at least one surface wherein the silane is a halogenated silane. The at least one surface coated with the anti-stiction coating may be configured to withstand an injection molding process at a pressure above 100 MPa. Furthermore, a mold...... having at least one closed cavity is provided, at least one surface of the at least one cavity being an aluminium surface coated with a silane based coating layer. The silane based anti-stiction coating improves the anti-stiction properties of the mold which may allow for molding and demolding...

  16. Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)


    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  17. Nanostructured thin films and coatings mechanical properties

    CERN Document Server


    The first volume in "The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings" set, this book concentrates on the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, and adhesion, of thin films and coatings. It discusses processing, properties, and performance and provides a detailed analysis of theories and size effects. The book presents the fundamentals of hard and superhard nanocomposites and heterostructures, assesses fracture toughness and interfacial adhesion strength of thin films and hard nanocomposite coatings, and covers the processing and mechanical properties of hybrid sol-gel-derived nanocomposite coatings. It also uses nanomechanics to optimize coatings for cutting tools and explores various other coatings, such as diamond, metal-containing amorphous carbon nanostructured, and transition metal nitride-based nanolayered multilayer coatings.

  18. The Earth We are Creating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Moriarty


    Full Text Available Over the past decade, a number of Earth System scientists have advocated that we need a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene, to describe the changes to Earth that have occurred since the 1800s. The preceding epoch, the Holocene (the period from the end of Earth's last glaciation about 12 millennia ago, has offered an unusually stable physical environment for human civilisations. In the new Anthropocene epoch, however, we can no longer count on this climate stability which we have long taken for granted. Paradoxically, it is our own actions that are undermining this stability—for the first time in history, human civilisation is now capable of decisively influencing the energy and material flows of our planet. Particularly since the 1950s, under the twin drivers of growth in population and per capita income, we have seen unprecedented growth in oil use and energy use overall, vehicle numbers, air travel and so on. This unprecedented growth has resulted in us heading toward physical thresholds or tipping points in a number of areas, points that once crossed could irreversibly lead to structural change in vital Earth systems such as climate or ecosystems. We may have already passed three limits: climate change; rate of biodiversity loss; and alterations to the global nitrogen and phosphorus cycles. The solutions usually proposed for our predicament are yet more technical fixes, often relying on greater use of the Earth's ecosystems, biomass for bioenergy being one example of this, and one we explore in this paper. We argue that these are unlikely to work, and will merely replace one set of problems by another. We conclude that an important approach for achieving a more sustainable and equitable world is to reorient our future toward satisfying the basic human needs of all humanity, and at the same time minimising both our use of non-renewable resources and pollution of the Earth's soil, air and water.

  19. The earth`s resources, its utilisation and protection


    Rybár Pavol


    The article is published to present needs for accessible information on utilisation and protection of Earth resources, which are defined in this article as sources present in the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere, economicaly extracted by previous technologies, and associated with a consumer culture. The article is focused on production and consumption of some selected sources as well as on worlds environmental degradation.

  20. Inaugeral lecture - Meteorite impacts on Earth and on the Earth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These discoveries indicate that large meteorite impacts have had enormous effects on the Earth, perhaps most dramatically illustrated 65 million years ago, when an impact at Chicxulub in the Caribbean may have been responsible for mass extinctions (including the dinosaurs) on a global scale. The evidence for these ...

  1. Astrogeodynamic Studies of Earth Rotation (United States)

    Pacheco, A.; Alonso, E.; Podesta, R.; Actis, E.


    From OAFA's Photoelectric Astrolabe Pa II systematic observations of stellar fundamental groups on period 1992 - 2002 we have determined (UT0-UTC) Time Variation Curve corresponding to Earth Rotation and its comparison with data (UT1-UTC) given by International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) We have obtained values of the curve from the average of observations of each night with their respective weights, and have corrected them by Pole Movement. We have also studied the possibility of relations between anomalies on Time Variation (UT0-UTC) and important earthquakes happened on the neighborhood of the Astrolabe.

  2. Business earth stations for telecommunications (United States)

    Morgan, Walter L.; Rouffet, Denis

    The current status of technology for small commercial satellite-communication earth stations is reviewed on the basis of an application study undertaken in the U.S. and Europe. Chapters are devoted to an overview of satellite communication networks, microterminal design and hardware implementation, microterminal applications, the advantages of microterminals, typical users, services provided, the U.S. market for small earth stations, network operators, and the economics of satellite and terrestrial communication services. Consideration is given to the operation of a microterminal network, standards and regulations, technological factors, space-segment requirements, and insurance aspects. Diagrams, graphs, tables of numerical data, and a glossary of terms are provided.

  3. Physical Processes Controlling Earth's Climate (United States)

    Genio, Anthony Del


    As background for consideration of the climates of the other terrestrial planets in our solar system and the potential habitability of rocky exoplanets, we discuss the basic physics that controls the Earths present climate, with particular emphasis on the energy and water cycles. We define several dimensionless parameters relevant to characterizing a planets general circulation, climate and hydrological cycle. We also consider issues associated with the use of past climate variations as indicators of future anthropogenically forced climate change, and recent advances in understanding projections of future climate that might have implications for Earth-like exoplanets.

  4. Phased-Array Focusing Potential in Pipe with Viscoelastic Coating (United States)

    Van Velsor, J. K.; Zhang, L.; Breon, L. J.; Rose, J. L.


    This work investigates the effectiveness of traditional guided-wave focusing techniques in piping with viscoelastic coating. Focusing results for an uncoated pipe are compared to that of pipe with a fusion-bonded epoxy coating, a coal-tar mastic coating, a coal-tar epoxy coating, a coal-tar tape coating, a wax coating, and an enamel coating. Experimental results are compared to computationally derived models. Results show that, for most coating types, focusing can be achieved without special consideration of the coating. This is significant in that it demonstrates the immediate applicability of traditional focusing techniques to coated pipeline.

  5. Development of Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Path Toward 2700 F Temperature Capability and Beyond (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan; Hurst, Janet B.; Good, Brian; Costa, Gustavo; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Fox, Dennis S.


    Advanced environmental barrier coating systems for SiC-SiC Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) turbine and combustor hot section components are currently being developed to meet future turbine engine emission and performance goals. One of the significant coating development challenges is to achieve prime-reliant environmental barrier coating systems to meet the future 2700F EBC-CMC temperature stability and environmental durability requirements. This presentation will emphasize recent NASA environmental barrier coating system testing and down-selects, particularly the development path and properties towards 2700-3000F durability goals by using NASA hafnium-hafnia-rare earth-silicon-silicate composition EBC systems for the SiC-SiC CMC turbine component applications. Advanced hafnium-based compositions for enabling next generation EBC and CMCs capabilities towards ultra-high temperature ceramic coating systems will also be briefly mentioned.

  6. Earth System Science Education Alliance (United States)

    Myers, R.; Schwerin, T.


    The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) professional development program is providing in-depth geoscience content and teaching methods to pre- and in-service teachers. The program is building and expanding on NASA's successful ESSEA program that was funded from 2000-2005. Now sponsored by NSF, the network has expanded to nearly 40 institutions of higher learning committed to teacher Earth system science education. The program supports participating institutions with funding, training, and standards-aligned courses and resources for pre- and in-service teachers. As a result, teachers are prepared to teach Earth system science using inquiry-based classroom methods, geoscience data and tools. From 1999-2005, the NASA funded ESSEA Program delivered online Earth system science professional development for K-12 teachers through a network of 20 colleges and universities. The program was led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) and based on a trio of 16-week online courses (for elementary, middle, and high school teachers) that had been developed and piloted by NASA's Classroom of the Future at Wheeling Jesuit University. The ESSEA program's mission was to: 1) support universities, colleges, and science education organizations delivering the K-12 online graduate courses; 2) strengthen teachers' understanding of Earth system science; 3) demonstrate the ability to deliver exceptional professional development to a national audience; and 4) create a solid infrastructure to sustain the program. As of spring 2006, the courses had been used by 40 faculty at 20 institutions educating over 1,700 K-12 teachers in Earth system science. Through NSF funding beginning in late 2006, IGES is enhancing and building on the ESSEA foundation by: 1. Introducing extensive use of data, models and existing Earth system educational materials to support the courses; 2. Implementing a rigorous evaluation program designed to demonstrate growth in teachers' Earth

  7. Earth From Space: "Beautiful Earth's" Integration of Media Arts, Earth Science, and Native Wisdom in Informal Learning Environments (United States)

    Casasanto, V.; Hallowell, R.; Williams, K.; Rock, J.; Markus, T.


    "Beautiful Earth: Experiencing and Learning Science in an Engaging Way" was a 3-year project funded by NASA's Competitive Opportunities in Education and Public Outreach for Earth and Space Science. An outgrowth of Kenji Williams' BELLA GAIA performance, Beautiful Earth fostered a new approach to teaching by combining live music, data visualizations and Earth science with indigenous perspectives, and hands-on workshops for K-12 students at 5 science centers. Inspired by the "Overview Effect," described by many astronauts who were awestruck by seeing the Earth from space and their realization of the profound interconnectedness of Earth's life systems, Beautiful Earth leveraged the power of multimedia performance to serve as a springboard to engage K-12 students in hands-on Earth science and Native wisdom workshops. Results will be presented regarding student perceptions of Earth science, environmental issues, and indigenous ways of knowing from 3 years of evaluation data.

  8. Seed coat sculpturing in Halophila


    Japar, Sidik Bujang; Muta, Harah Zakaria; Suzalina, Akma Awing; Nojima, Satoshi; Ogawa, Hisao


    This study furnishes information on external morphology of the seed coats of selected Halophila. Fruiting plants of Halophila beccarii, H. ovalis, H. decipiens, Halophila sp. were collected from various locations around Malaysia and including Halophila stipulacea from Mauritus. Seeds extracted from mature fruits were fixed in 2.5% glutaradehyde. Fixed seeds were washed in 0.1M Sodium cacodylate buffer at 4℃ for 10 minutes. The washing procedure was repeated three times. The seeds were dehydra...

  9. Multiphase-Multifunctional Ceramic Coatings (United States)


    Ceramic Coatings Performing Organization names: Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional – Unidad Queretaro...University of California, Santa Barbara Principal Investigator / Organization: Dr . Luis Gerardo Trápaga Martínez CINVESTAV-Querétaro Principal...Investigator US collaboration / Organization: Dr . Carlos G. Levi University of California, Santa Barbara Reporting Period Final Dates covered

  10. Chrome - Free Aluminum Coating System (United States)

    Bailey, John H.; Gugel, Jeffrey D.


    This slide presentation concerns the program to qualify a chrome free coating for aluminum. The program was required due to findings by OSHA and EPA, that hexavalent chromium, used to mitigate corrosion in aerospace aluminum alloys, poses hazards for personnel. This qualification consisted of over 4,000 tests. The tests revealed that a move away from Cr+6, required a system rather than individual components and that the maximum corrosion protection required pretreatment, primer and topcoat.

  11. Waterjet processes for coating removal (United States)

    Burgess, Fletcher; Cosby, Steve; Hoppe, David


    USBI and NASA have been testing and investigating the use of high pressure water for coating removal for approximately the past 12 years at the Automated TPS (Thermal Protection System - ablative materials used for thermal protection during ascent and descent of the solid rocket boosters) Removal Facility located in the Productivity Enhancement Complex at Marshall Space Flight Center. Originally the task was to develop and automate the removal process and transfer the technology to a production facility at Kennedy Space Center. Since that time more and more applications and support roles for the waterjet technology have been realized. The facility has become a vital part of development activities ongoing at MSFC. It supports the development of environmentally compliant insulations, sealants, and coatings. It also supports bonding programs, test motors, and pressure vessels. The most recent role of the cell is supporting Thiokol Corporation's solid rocket motor program in the development of waterjet degreasing and paint stripping methods. Currently vapor degreasing methods use 500,000 lbs. of ozone depleting chemicals per year. This paper describes the major cell equipment, test methods practiced, and coatings that have been removed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Okovity


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes selection of oxides and describes in details a majority of oxide systems which are applicable for stabilization of zirconium dioxide while obtaining thermal barrier coatings with maximum amount of tetragonal phase. Methodology of investigation is based on a review of analytical information on the current state of thermal barrier coatings on the basis of zirconium dioxide stabilized by oxides of rare-earth metals. The method used for application of  zirconium dioxide thermal barrier coatings is plasma spraying. Positive results have been also obtained while applying e-beam sputtering, ion-plasma deposition and magnetron sputtering. Nevertheless preferred plasma spraying application for thermal barrier coatings still continues due to its high productivity and versatility that permits to deposit metallic and ceramic materials of the ordered chemical and phase composition.Ytterbium and cerium oxides have been selected as oxides for stabilization of zirconium dioxide in order to obtain thermal barrier coatings. The paper also considers аn oxide system of zirconium dioxide: “hafnium oxide – yttrium oxide”, representing in itself the structure which is similar to zirconium dioxide.

  13. Further Analysis of Thermal Control Coatings on MISSE for Aerospace Applications (United States)

    Kenny, Mike; McNulty, Robert; Finckenor, Miria


    Many different passive thermal control materials were flown as part of the Materials on International Space Station Experiment. Engineers and scientists at the Marshall Space Flight Center have analyzed a number of these materials, including Z93P zinc oxide/potassium silicate coating, YB-71P zinc orthotitanate/potassium silicate coating, NZOT, which is a low-cost alternative to YB-71P, several electrically conductive/static dissipative thermal control coatings, as well as black coatings for part marking and automated rendezvous and capture. These were exposed to the low Earth orbital environment of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, and hard vacuum, though atomic oxygen exposure was very limited for some samples. Results from the one-year exposure of MISSE-3 and MISSE-4 are compared to the four-year exposure of MISSE-1 and MISSE-2. Solar absorptance, infrared emittance, and mass measurements indicate the durability of these materials to withstand the space environment. The effect of contamination from an active space station on the performance of white thermal control coatings is discussed.

  14. Satellite Gravity Drilling the Earth (United States)

    vonFrese, R. R. B.; Potts, L. V.; Leftwich, T. E.; Kim, H. R.; Han, S.-H.; Taylor, P. T.; Ashgharzadeh, M. F.


    Analysis of satellite-measured gravity and topography can provide crust-to-core mass variation models for new insi@t on the geologic evolution of the Earth. The internal structure of the Earth is mostly constrained by seismic observations and geochemical considerations. We suggest that these constraints may be augmented by gravity drilling that interprets satellite altitude free-air gravity observations for boundary undulations of the internal density layers related to mass flow. The approach involves separating the free-air anomalies into terrain-correlated and -decorrelated components based on the correlation spectrum between the anomalies and the gravity effects of the terrain. The terrain-decorrelated gravity anomalies are largely devoid of the long wavelength interfering effects of the terrain gravity and thus provide enhanced constraints for modeling mass variations of the mantle and core. For the Earth, subcrustal interpretations of the terrain-decorrelated anomalies are constrained by radially stratified densities inferred from seismic observations. These anomalies, with frequencies that clearly decrease as the density contrasts deepen, facilitate mapping mass flow patterns related to the thermodynamic state and evolution of the Earth's interior.

  15. NASA Earth Science Education Collaborative (United States)

    Schwerin, T. G.; Callery, S.; Chambers, L. H.; Riebeek Kohl, H.; Taylor, J.; Martin, A. M.; Ferrell, T.


    The NASA Earth Science Education Collaborative (NESEC) is led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies with partners at three NASA Earth science Centers: Goddard Space Flight Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Langley Research Center. This cross-organization team enables the project to draw from the diverse skills, strengths, and expertise of each partner to develop fresh and innovative approaches for building pathways between NASA's Earth-related STEM assets to large, diverse audiences in order to enhance STEM teaching, learning and opportunities for learners throughout their lifetimes. These STEM assets include subject matter experts (scientists, engineers, and education specialists), science and engineering content, and authentic participatory and experiential opportunities. Specific project activities include authentic STEM experiences through NASA Earth science themed field campaigns and citizen science as part of international GLOBE program (for elementary and secondary school audiences) and GLOBE Observer (non-school audiences of all ages); direct connections to learners through innovative collaborations with partners like Odyssey of the Mind, an international creative problem-solving and design competition; and organizing thematic core content and strategically working with external partners and collaborators to adapt and disseminate core content to support the needs of education audiences (e.g., libraries and maker spaces, student research projects, etc.). A scaffolded evaluation is being conducted that 1) assesses processes and implementation, 2) answers formative evaluation questions in order to continuously improve the project; 3) monitors progress and 4) measures outcomes.

  16. Earth Day 2012: Greening Government

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast describes sustainability efforts at CDC in relation to Earth Day celebrations and details agency greenhouse gas reduction strategies and successes.  Created: 4/19/2012 by Office of the Chief Operating Officer (OCOO)/ Chief Sustainability Office (CSO).   Date Released: 4/23/2012.

  17. The Volume of Earth's Lakes (United States)

    Cael, B. B.

    How much water do lakes on Earth hold? Global lake volume estimates are scarce, highly variable, and poorly documented. We develop a mechanistic null model for estimating global lake mean depth and volume based on a statistical topographic approach to Earth's surface. The volume-area scaling prediction is accurate and consistent within and across lake datasets spanning diverse regions. We applied these relationships to a global lake area census to estimate global lake volume and depth. The volume of Earth's lakes is 199,000 km3 (95% confidence interval 196,000-202,000 km3) . This volume is in the range of historical estimates (166,000-280,000 km3) , but the overall mean depth of 41.8 m (95% CI 41.2-42.4 m) is significantly lower than previous estimates (62 - 151 m). These results highlight and constrain the relative scarcity of lake waters in the hydrosphere and have implications for the role of lakes in global biogeochemical cycles. We also evaluate the size (area) distribution of lakes on Earth compared to expectations from percolation theory. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. 2388357.

  18. Paleoseismology: evidence of earth activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Lucie


    Roč. 105, č. 5 (2016), 1467-1469 ISSN 1437-3254 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Paleoseismology * Colluvial wedge * White Creek Fault _ * Greendale Fault * San And reas Fault * Paganica Fault Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.283, year: 2016

  19. Boldly go deeper into earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, R.D. van der

    We are ever learning more about the worlds far above Earth, but the rocky world below us remains largely mysterious. Yet Earth’s dynamic interior holds keys to understanding the planet’s early state and how its biology, hydrology and atmosphere evolved and shaped the planet on which we now

  20. Refresher Course on Earth Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 7. Refresher Course on Earth Sciences. Information and Announcements Volume 8 Issue 7 July 2003 pp 105-106. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Resonance ...

  1. Scarcity of rare earth elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, M.A.; Lammertsma, K.


    Rare earth elements (REEs) are important for green and a large variety of high-tech technologies and are, therefore, in high demand. As a result, supply with REEs is likely to be disrupted (the degree of depends on the REE) in the near future. The 17 REEs are divided into heavy and light REEs. Other

  2. The Greatest Show on Earth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The year 2009 was celebrated all over the world as the Darwin bicentennial – and the. 150th anniversary of the publication of the epoch-making book The Origin of Species. The general public learnt from it about a discovery made independently by Charles. Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace: life on earth had evolved from ...

  3. Earth Pressure on Tunnel Crown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars

    Two different analyses have been carried out in order to find the vertical earth pressure, or overburden pressure, at the crown of a tunnel going through a dike. Firstly, a hand calculation is performed using a simple dispersion of the stresses over depth. Secondly, the finite‐element program...

  4. Geotechnical risk and earth structures (United States)

    Vaníček, Ivan; Jirásko, Daniel; Vaníček, Martin


    There is a general acceptance that the complexity of each geotechnical design should correspond to the expected risk. The attention of the paper is therefore focused on the closer specification of the geotechnical risk - risk with which the design and realization of geotechnical structure is connected. The special attention with respect to this geotechnical risk is devoted to the earth structures.

  5. The Dynamic Earth: Recycling Naturally! (United States)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Allison, Elizabeth; Fowler, Lisa; Glaze, Amanda


    This article begins with a thought-provoking question: What do you think of when you hear the term "recycle?" Many think about paper, glass, aluminum cans, landfills, and reducing waste by reusing some of these materials. How many of us ever consider the way the systems of Earth dynamically recycle its materials? In the following…

  6. Earth as an extrasolar planet: Earth model validation using EPOXI earth observations. (United States)

    Robinson, Tyler D; Meadows, Victoria S; Crisp, David; Deming, Drake; A'hearn, Michael F; Charbonneau, David; Livengood, Timothy A; Seager, Sara; Barry, Richard K; Hearty, Thomas; Hewagama, Tilak; Lisse, Carey M; McFadden, Lucy A; Wellnitz, Dennis D


    The EPOXI Discovery Mission of Opportunity reused the Deep Impact flyby spacecraft to obtain spatially and temporally resolved visible photometric and moderate resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic observations of Earth. These remote observations provide a rigorous validation of whole-disk Earth model simulations used to better understand remotely detectable extrasolar planet characteristics. We have used these data to upgrade, correct, and validate the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional line-by-line, multiple-scattering spectral Earth model. This comprehensive model now includes specular reflectance from the ocean and explicitly includes atmospheric effects such as Rayleigh scattering, gas absorption, and temperature structure. We have used this model to generate spatially and temporally resolved synthetic spectra and images of Earth for the dates of EPOXI observation. Model parameters were varied to yield an optimum fit to the data. We found that a minimum spatial resolution of ∼100 pixels on the visible disk, and four categories of water clouds, which were defined by using observed cloud positions and optical thicknesses, were needed to yield acceptable fits. The validated model provides a simultaneous fit to Earth's lightcurve, absolute brightness, and spectral data, with a root-mean-square (RMS) error of typically less than 3% for the multiwavelength lightcurves and residuals of ∼10% for the absolute brightness throughout the visible and NIR spectral range. We have extended our validation into the mid-infrared by comparing the model to high spectral resolution observations of Earth from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, obtaining a fit with residuals of ∼7% and brightness temperature errors of less than 1 K in the atmospheric window. For the purpose of understanding the observable characteristics of the distant Earth at arbitrary viewing geometry and observing cadence, our validated forward model can be

  7. Behaviour of Rare Earth Elements during the Earth's core formation (United States)

    Faure, Pierre; Bouhifd, Mohamed Ali; Boyet, Maud; Hammouda, Tahar; Manthilake, Geeth


    Rare Earth Elements (REE) are classified in the refractory group, which means that they have a high temperature condensation and their volatility-controlled fractionation is limited to high-temperature processes. Anomalies have been measured for Eu, Yb and Sm, which are the REE with the lowest condensation temperatures in CAIs and chondrules (e.g. [1]). REE are particularly abundant in the sulfides of enstatite chondrites, 100 to 1000 times the CI value [e.g. 2,3], proving that these elements are not strictly lithophile under extremely reducing conditions. However by investigating experimentally the impact of Earth's core formation on the behavior of Sm and Nd, we have shown the absence of fractionation between Sm and Nd during the segregation of the metallic phase [4]. Recently, Wohlers and Wood [5] proposed that Nd and Sm could be fractionated in presence of a S-rich alloy phase. However, their results were obtained at pressure and temperature conditions below the plausible conditions of the Earth's core formation. Clearly, large pressure range needs to be covered before well-constrained model can be expected. Furthermore, our preliminary metal-silicate partitioning results show that Ce and Eu have higher metal/silicate partition coefficients than their neighboring elements, and that the presence of sulphur enhances the relative difference between partition coefficients. In this presentation, we will present and discuss new metal-silicate partition coefficients of all REE at a deep magma ocean at pressures ranging from those of the uppermost upper mantle ( 5 GPa) to a maximum pressure expected in the range of 20 GPa, temperatures ranging from 2500 to about 3000 K, and oxygen fugacities within IW-1 to IW-5 (1 to 5 orders of magnitude lower than the iron-wüstite buffer). We will discuss the effect of S, as well as the effect of H2O on the behaviour of REE during the Earth's core formation: recent models suggest that contrary to currently accepted beliefs, the

  8. Joint Interdisciplinary Earth Science Information Center (United States)

    Kafatos, Menas


    The report spans the three year period beginning in June of 2001 and ending June of 2004. Joint Interdisciplinary Earth Science Information Center's (JIESIC) primary purpose has been to carry out research in support of the Global Change Data Center and other Earth science laboratories at Goddard involved in Earth science, remote sensing and applications data and information services. The purpose is to extend the usage of NASA Earth Observing System data, microwave data and other Earth observing data. JIESIC projects fall within the following categories: research and development; STW and WW prototyping; science data, information products and services; and science algorithm support. JIESIC facilitates extending the utility of NASA's Earth System Enterprise (ESE) data, information products and services to better meet the science data and information needs of a number of science and applications user communities, including domain users such as discipline Earth scientists, interdisciplinary Earth scientists, Earth science applications users and educators.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Yu. Tveretinova


    Full Text Available In the Earth's lithosphere, wavy alternation of positive and negative heterochronous structures is revealed; such structures are variable in ranks and separated by vergence zones of fractures and folds. In the vertical profile of the lithosphere, alternating are layers characterized by relatively plastic or fragile rheological properties and distinguished by different states of stress. During the Earth’s evolution, epochs of compression and extension are cyclically repeated, including planetary-scale phenomena which are manifested by fluctuating changes of the planet’s volume. Migration of geological and geophysical (geodynamic processes takes place at the Earth's surface and in its interior. The concept of the wave structure and evolution of the Earth's lithosphere provides explanations to the abovementioned regularities. Wavy nature of tectonic structures of the lithosphere, the cyclic recurrence of migration and geological processes in space and time can be described in terms of the multiple-order wave geodynamics of the Earth's lithosphere that refers to periodical variations of the state of stress. Effects of structure-forming tectonic forces are determined by «interference» of tangential and radial stresses of the Earth. The tangential stresses, which occur primarily due to the rotational regime of the planet, cause transformations of the Earth’s shape, redistributions of its substance in depths, the westward drift of the rock mass in its upper levels, and changes of structural deformation plans. The radial stresses, which are largely impacted by gravity, determine the gravitational differentiation of the substance, vertical flattening and sub-horizontal flow of the rock masses, and associated fold-rupture deformation. Under the uniform momentum geodynamic concept proposed by [Vikulin, Tveritinova, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008], it is possible to provide consistent descriptions of seismic and volcanic, tectonic and geological processes


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Yu. Tveretinova


    Full Text Available In the Earth's lithosphere, wavy alternation of positive and negative heterochronous structures is revealed; such structures are variable in ranks and separated by vergence zones of fractures and folds. In the vertical profile of the lithosphere, alternating are layers characterized by relatively plastic or fragile rheological properties and distinguished by different states of stress. During the Earth’s evolution, epochs of compression and extension are cyclically repeated, including planetary-scale phenomena which are manifested by fluctuating changes of the planet’s volume. Migration of geological and geophysical (geodynamic processes takes place at the Earth's surface and in its interior. The concept of the wave structure and evolution of the Earth's lithosphere provides explanations to the abovementioned regularities. Wavy nature of tectonic structures of the lithosphere, the cyclic recurrence of migration and geological processes in space and time can be described in terms of the multiple-order wave geodynamics of the Earth's lithosphere that refers to periodical variations of the state of stress. Effects of structure-forming tectonic forces are determined by «interference» of tangential and radial stresses of the Earth. The tangential stresses, which occur primarily due to the rotational regime of the planet, cause transformations of the Earth’s shape, redistributions of its substance in depths, the westward drift of the rock mass in its upper levels, and changes of structural deformation plans. The radial stresses, which are largely impacted by gravity, determine the gravitational differentiation of the substance, vertical flattening and sub-horizontal flow of the rock masses, and associated fold-rupture deformation. Under the uniform momentum geodynamic concept proposed by [Vikulin, Tveritinova, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008], it is possible to provide consistent descriptions of seismic and volcanic, tectonic and geological processes

  11. Development of an earth pressure model for design of earth retaining structures in piedmont soil. (United States)


    Anecdotal evidence suggests that earth pressure in Piedmont residual soils is typically over estimated. Such estimates of earth pressure impact the design of earth retaining structures used on highway projects. Thus, the development of an appropriate...

  12. Reflective coating optimization for interferometric detectors of gravitational waves. (United States)

    Principe, Maria


    Brownian fluctuations in the highly reflective test-mass coatings are the dominant noise source, in a frequency band from a few tens to a few hundreds Hz, for Earth-bound detectors of Gravitational Waves. Minimizing such noise is mandatory to increase the visibility distance of these instruments, and eventually reach their quantum-limited sensitivity. Several strategies exist to achieve this goal. Layer thickness and material properties optimization have been proposed and effectively implemented, and are reviewed in this paper, together with other, so far less well developed, options. The former is the simplest option, yielding a sensible noise reduction with limited technological challenges; the latter is more technologically demanding, but is needed for future (cryogenic) detectors.

  13. The ESA earth observation polar platform programme (United States)

    Rast, M.; Readings, C. J.


    The overall scenario of ESA earth observation polar platform program is reviewed with particular attention given to instruments currently being considered for flight on the first European polar platforms. The major objectives of the mission include monitoring the earth's environment on various scales; management and monitoring of the earth's resources; improvement of the service provided to the worldwide operational meteorological community, investigation of the structure and dynamics of the earth's crust and interior. The program encompasses four main elements: an ERS-1 follow-on mission (ERS-2), a solid earth gravity mission (Aristoteles), a Meteosat Second Generation, and a series of polar orbit earth observation missions.

  14. Cyanobacterial Diazotrophy and Earth?s Delayed Oxygenation


    Olson, Stephanie L.; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Lyons, Timothy W.


    The redox landscape of Earth’s ocean-atmosphere system has changed dramatically throughout Earth history. Although Earth’s protracted oxygenation is undoubtedly the consequence of cyanobacterial oxygenic photosynthesis, the relationship between biological O2 production and Earth’s redox evolution remains poorly understood. Existing models for Earth’s oxygenation cannot adequately explain the nearly 2.5 billion years delay between the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis and the oxygenation of th...

  15. The earth`s resources, its utilisation and protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybár Pavol


    Full Text Available The article is published to present needs for accessible information on utilisation and protection of Earth resources, which are defined in this article as sources present in the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere, economicaly extracted by previous technologies, and associated with a consumer culture. The article is focused on production and consumption of some selected sources as well as on world’s environmental degradation.

  16. Sensing Planet Earth - Chalmers' MOOCs on Earth observation (United States)

    Hobiger, Thomas; Stöhr, Christian; Murtagh, Donal; Forkman, Peter; Galle, Bo; Mellquist, Johan; Soja, Maciej; Berg, Anders; Carvajal, Gisela; Eriksson, Leif; Haas, Rüdiger


    An increasing number of universities around the globe produce and conduct Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). In the beginning of 2016, Chalmers University of Technology ran two MOOCs on the topic of Earth observations on the edX platform. Both four week long courses were at introductory level and covered topics related to solid Earth, atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and cryosphere. It was discussed how one can measure and trace global change and use remote sensing tools for disaster monitoring. Research has attempted to assess the learners' motivations to participate in MOOCs, but there is a need for further case studies about motivations, opportunities and challenges for teachers engaging in MOOC development. In our presentation, we are going to report about the experiences gained from both the MOOC production and the actual course run from the instructors' perspective. After brief introduction to MOOCs in general and at Chalmers in particular, we share experiences and challenges of developing lecture and assessment material, the video production and coordination efforts between and within different actors involved in the production process. Further, we reflect upon the actual run of the course including course statistics and feedback from the learners. We discuss issues such as learner activation and engagement with the material, teacher-learner and student-student interaction as well as the scalability of different learning activities. Finally, we will present our lessons-learned and conclusions on the applicability of MOOCs in the field of Earth science teaching.

  17. Mechanical behaviour of hard PVD multilayered coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry, E. [Lyon-1 Univ., Villeurbanne (France). Lab. des Sciences and Ingenierie des Surfaces; Ignat, M.; Pauleau, Y. [ENSEEG, F-38402, Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Rouzaud, A.; Juliet, P. [CEA, F-38054, Grenoble (France)


    The aim of this work was to investigate the cracking behaviour and adhesion of tungsten-carbon-based multilayered coatings deposited on steel substrates by magnetron sputtering. Three-point bending experiments were performed on the coating-on-substrate systems until failure of the film. The systems were also strained uniaxially with a microtensile device adapted to a scanning electron microscope. The mechanical response is analysed from the evolution of the crack density in the coating and the fracture toughness. The results show that the rupture properties of the multilayered coatings are correlated to the film thickness and arrangement of the elementary layers. Scratch experiments on the systems revealed a strong adhesion of the multilayered coatings on steel substrates, and delamination at layer interfaces. Thus, graded coatings appear to be more attractive for mechanical applications. (orig.)

  18. Crystallization of DNA-coated colloids (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yufeng; Zheng, Xiaolong; Ducrot, Étienne; Yodh, Jeremy S.; Weck, Marcus; Pine, David J.


    DNA-coated colloids hold great promise for self-assembly of programmed heterogeneous microstructures, provided they not only bind when cooled below their melting temperature, but also rearrange so that aggregated particles can anneal into the structure that minimizes the free energy. Unfortunately, DNA-coated colloids generally collide and stick forming kinetically arrested random aggregates when the thickness of the DNA coating is much smaller than the particles. Here we report DNA-coated colloids that can rearrange and anneal, thus enabling the growth of large colloidal crystals from a wide range of micrometre-sized DNA-coated colloids for the first time. The kinetics of aggregation, crystallization and defect formation are followed in real time. The crystallization rate exhibits the familiar maximum for intermediate temperature quenches observed in metallic alloys, but over a temperature range smaller by two orders of magnitude, owing to the highly temperature-sensitive diffusion between aggregated DNA-coated colloids. PMID:26078020

  19. Thermal barrier coatings for heat engine components (United States)

    Levine, S. R.; Miller, R. A.; Hodge, P. E.


    A comprehensive NASA-Lewis program of coating development for aircraft gas turbine blades and vanes is presented. Improved ceramic layer compositions are investigated, along the MCrAlY bond films and the methods of uniform deposition of the coatings; the thermomechanical and fuel impurity tolerance limits of the coatings are being studied. Materials include the ZrO2-Y2O3/NiCrAlY system; the effects of the bond coat and zirconia composition on coating life and Mach 1 burner rig test results are discussed. It is concluded that Diesel engines can also utilize thermal barrier coatings; they have been used successfully on piston crowns and exhaust valves of shipboard engines to combat lower grade fuel combustion corrosion.

  20. Crystallization of DNA-coated colloids. (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yufeng; Zheng, Xiaolong; Ducrot, Étienne; Yodh, Jeremy S; Weck, Marcus; Pine, David J


    DNA-coated colloids hold great promise for self-assembly of programmed heterogeneous microstructures, provided they not only bind when cooled below their melting temperature, but also rearrange so that aggregated particles can anneal into the structure that minimizes the free energy. Unfortunately, DNA-coated colloids generally collide and stick forming kinetically arrested random aggregates when the thickness of the DNA coating is much smaller than the particles. Here we report DNA-coated colloids that can rearrange and anneal, thus enabling the growth of large colloidal crystals from a wide range of micrometre-sized DNA-coated colloids for the first time. The kinetics of aggregation, crystallization and defect formation are followed in real time. The crystallization rate exhibits the familiar maximum for intermediate temperature quenches observed in metallic alloys, but over a temperature range smaller by two orders of magnitude, owing to the highly temperature-sensitive diffusion between aggregated DNA-coated colloids.

  1. Coating compositions comprising bismuth-alloyed zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present application discloses (i) a coating composition comprising a particulate zinc-based alloyed material, said material comprising 0.05-0.7% by weight of bismuth (Bi), the D50 of the particulate material being in the range of 2.5-30 µm; (ii) a coated structure comprising a metal structure...... having a first coating of the zinc-containing coating composition applied onto at least a part of the metal structure in a dry film thickness of 5-100 µm; and an outer coating applied onto said zinc-containing coating in a dry film thickness of 30-200 µm; (iii) a particulate zinc-based alloyed material...

  2. Simulation to coating weight control for galvanizing (United States)

    Wang, Junsheng; Yan, Zhang; Wu, Kunkui; Song, Lei


    Zinc coating weight control is one of the most critical issues for continuous galvanizing line. The process has the characteristic of variable-time large time delay, nonlinear, multivariable. It can result in seriously coating weight error and non-uniform coating. We develop a control system, which can automatically control the air knives pressure and its position to give a constant and uniform zinc coating, in accordance with customer-order specification through an auto-adaptive empirical model-based feed forward adaptive controller, and two model-free adaptive feedback controllers . The proposed models with controller were applied to continuous galvanizing line (CGL) at Angang Steel Works. By the production results, the precise and stability of the control model reduces over-coating weight and improves coating uniform. The product for this hot dip galvanizing line does not only satisfy the customers' quality requirement but also save the zinc consumption.

  3. Microneedle Coating Techniques for Transdermal Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Haj-Ahmad


    Full Text Available Drug administration via the transdermal route is an evolving field that provides an alternative to oral and parenteral routes of therapy. Several microneedle (MN based approaches have been developed. Among these, coated MNs (typically where drug is deposited on MN tips are a minimally invasive method to deliver drugs and vaccines through the skin. In this review, we describe several processes to coat MNs. These include dip coating, gas jet drying, spray coating, electrohydrodynamic atomisation (EHDA based processes and piezoelectric inkjet printing. Examples of process mechanisms, conditions and tested formulations are provided. As these processes are independent techniques, modifications to facilitate MN coatings are elucidated. In summary, the outcomes and potential value for each technique provides opportunities to overcome formulation or dosage form limitations. While there are significant developments in solid degradable MNs, coated MNs (through the various techniques described have potential to be utilized in personalized drug delivery via controlled deposition onto MN templates.

  4. Solid-State Interactions at the Core-Coat Interface: Physicochemical Characterization of Enteric-Coated Omeprazole Pellets Without a Protective Sub-Coat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharma, Vishnu Dutt; Akocak, Suleyman; Ilies, Marc A; Fassihi, Reza


    .... This study highlights the use of fluorescence microscopy to investigate the physicochemical stability and coating integrity of the commercially available enteric-coated omeprazole pellets containing...

  5. Biomarkers in white-coat hypertension


    Martin, Catherine Ann


    The introduction of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in the 1960s provided new insights into the nature of high blood pressure disorders. Blood pressure is now categorised into four quadrants:normotension, masked hypertension, hypertension and white-coat hypertension. In white-coat hypertension blood pressure is elevated when taken at the doctor’s office but normal if taken outside the doctor’s office. Several controversies are associated with white-coat hypertension, which are discuss...

  6. Synthesis and coatings production of carbonaceous nanostructures


    Stankevičienė, Inga


    Films and coatings of carbonaceous nanostructures are employed in nanoelectronics, biotechnology and other fields. The aim of the research was to synthesize multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphite oxide and fabricate coatings thereof. Consequently, multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their coatings were synthesized by the catalytic chemical vapour deposition method. As-grown carbon nanotubes inevitably contain remains of metal catalyst particles. A method developed in the laboratory usin...

  7. Impact of coated windows on visual perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kjeld; Dubois, Marie-Claude

    of a pilot study that investigated the impact of six coated glazings on daylight conditions in scale models. The study focused primarily on visual perception. Generally, the pilot study indicated that some types of coated glazings (especially solar protective coatings) significantly affect the perception...... of brightness and other visual aspects such as sharpness, details, character, etc., seem to be a complex function of the intensity and colour of the transmitted light and is not solely and linearly dependent on the glazing light transmittance....

  8. Antibacterial PHAs coating for titanium implants


    Rodriguez Contreras, Alejandra; Garcia, Yolanda; Manero Planella, José María; Rupérez de Gracia, Elisa


    Biomaterial-associated infection is a serious complication of modern implantation surgery. Thus, the improvement of implant surfaces is required to avoid the first stage for biofilm formation, bacterial adhesion. The current research addresses this issue by developing drug delivery systems (DDS) consisting of antibiotic-loaded polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) coatings on titanium implants. Dip-coating technique was used to achieve optimal coatings with biodegradable biopolyesters, polyhydroxybuty...

  9. Method to produce catalytically active nanocomposite coatings (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Urgen, Mustafa; Kazmanli, Kursat


    A nanocomposite coating and method of making and using the coating. The nanocomposite coating is disposed on a base material, such as a metal or ceramic; and the nanocomposite consists essentially of a matrix of an alloy selected from the group of Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt and Re which are catalytically active for cracking of carbon bonds in oils and greases and a grain structure selected from the group of borides, carbides and nitrides.

  10. Confectionery coating with an electrohydrodynamic (EHD) system. (United States)

    Marthina, Kumala; Barringer, Sheryl A


    In the confectionery coating industry, hard butters are frequently used as cocoa butter replacers. An electrohydrodynamic (EHD) system, which forms fine droplets with a relatively narrow size distribution, may be beneficial in confectionery coating to produce more even coverage. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of lecithin content and fat type on electrical resistivity and apparent viscosity, and the effect of these variables under EHD (25kV) and non-EHD coating on droplet size, width of coating area, thickness, and minimum flow rate to produce complete coverage. Total of 3 different types of fat were used: cocoa butter, cocoa butter equivalent, and lauric butter. As lecithin content increased, resistivity and apparent viscosity decreased, except all samples showed a local apparent viscosity minimum at 0.5% lecithin. EHD coating was more efficient than non-EHD as a smaller droplet size and thinner coating was formed. Due to repulsive forces between the like-charges on the droplets during EHD, it spread over wider areas which lead to a higher minimum flow rate to get complete coverage. Under EHD, increasing resistivity significantly increased the droplet size, but only at the highest resistivities. There was no correlation between resistivity and droplet size or width of coating under non-EHD. The width of coating under EHD decreased significantly as resistivity increased. Thickness and minimum flow rate to produce complete coverage, significantly correlated to resistivity, for EHD coating, and to apparent viscosity, for 2 of the 3 fat types during both EHD and non-EHD. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) spraying offers great potential improvement to the food industry especially in the confectionery area. From the quality point of view, EHD offers greater and more complete coverage than non-EHD coating. From the economic point of view, lower cost can be achieved for coated food because during EHD, smaller droplet size and thinner coating is produced.

  11. Method to produce catalytically active nanocomposite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemir, Ali; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Urgen, Mustafa; Kazmanli, Kursat


    A nanocomposite coating and method of making and using the coating. The nanocomposite coating is disposed on a base material, such as a metal or ceramic; and the nanocomposite consists essentially of a matrix of an alloy selected from the group of Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt and Re which are catalytically active for cracking of carbon bonds in oils and greases and a grain structure selected from the group of borides, carbides and nitrides.

  12. Standard practice for characterization of coatings using conformable Eddy-Current sensors without coating reference standards

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This practice covers the use of conformable eddy-current sensors for nondestructive characterization of coatings without standardization on coated reference parts. It includes the following: (1) thickness measurement of a conductive coating on a conductive substrate, (2) detection and characterization of local regions of increased porosity of a conductive coating, and (3) measurement of thickness for nonconductive coatings on a conductive substrate or on a conductive coating. This practice includes only nonmagnetic coatings on either magnetic (μ ≠ μ0) or nonmagnetic (μ = μ0) substrates. This practice can also be used to measure the effective thickness of a process-affected zone (for example, shot peened layer for aluminum alloys, alpha case for titanium alloys). For specific types of coated parts, the user may need a more specific procedure tailored to a specific application.

  13. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Standard Cement Materials, Epoxy Coating 4553 (United States)

    The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553™ (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Ma...

  14. Enhanced Fluoride Over-Coated Al Mirrors for FUV Astronomy (United States)

    Quijada, Manuel A.; DelHoyo, Javier; Rice, Steve; Threat, Felix


    Astronomical observations in the Far Ultraviolet (FUV) spectral region are some of the more challenging due to the very distant and faint objects that are typically searched for in cosmic origin studies such as origin of large scale structure, the formation, evolution, and age of galaxies and the origin of stellar and planetary systems. These challenges are driving the need to improve the performance of optical coatings over a wide spectral range that would increase reflectance in mirrors and reduced absorption in dielectric filters used in optical telescope for FUV observations. This paper will present recent advances in reflectance performance for Al+MgF2 mirrors optimized for Lyman-alpha wavelength by performing the deposition of the MgF2 overcoat at elevated substrate temperatures. We will also present optical characterization of little studied rare-earth fluorides such as GdF3 and LuF3 that exhibit low-absorption over a wide wavelength range and could therefore be used as high refractive index alternatives for dielectric coatings at FUV wavelengths.

  15. Recent Progress on 2012 SAT for UVOIR Coatings (United States)

    Quijada, Manuel A.; Del Hoyo, Javier G.; Rice, Stephen H.


    Astronomical observations in the Far Ultraviolet (FUV) spectral region are some of the more challenging due to the very distant and faint objects that are typically searched for in cosmic origin studies such as origin of large scale structure, the formation, evolution, and age of galaxies and the origin of stellar and planetary systems. These challenges are driving the need to improve the performance of optical coatings over a wide spectral range that would increase reflectance in mirrors and reduced absorption in dielectric filters used in optical telescope for FUV observations. This paper will present recent advances in reflectance performance for Al+MgF2 mirrors optimized for Lyman-alpha wavelength by performing the deposition of the MgF2 overcoat at elevated substrate temperatures. We will also present optical characterization of little studied rare-earth fluorides such as GdF3 and LuF3 that exhibit low-absorption over a wide wavelength range and could therefore be used as high refractive index alternatives fordielectric coatings at FUV wavelengths.

  16. Stresses and Cracks in Surface Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsewell, Andy


    This extended abstract of the talk to be given at the Danish Metallurgical Society, Winter Meeting 1999, gives an outline of the areas of interest in current projects in wear and corrosion resistant coatings at Materials Technology, Technical University of Denmark (IPT, Materialeteknologi, DTU......). It also briefly describes our method of approach in analysing new coating / substrate combinations or new materials processing techniques for producing a given coating. We strive to combine, often in collaboration with others, a fundamental understanding of microstructure, mechanical properties...... and fracture mechanics in order to determine the mechanical stability of engineering coatings for various critical applications....

  17. Silica-Coated Liposomes for Insulin Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Dwivedi


    Full Text Available Liposomes coated with silica were explored as protein delivery vehicles for their enhanced stability and improved encapsulation efficiency. Insulin was encapsulated within the fluidic phosphatidylcholine lipid vesicles by thin film hydration at pH 2.5, and layer of silica was formed above lipid bilayer by acid catalysis. The presence of silica coating and encapsulated insulin was identified using confocal and electron microscopy. The native state of insulin present in the formulation was evident from Confocal Micro-Raman spectroscopy. Silica coat enhances the stability of insulin-loaded delivery vehicles. In vivo study shows that these silica coated formulations were biologically active in reducing glucose levels.

  18. Very High Temperature Sound Absorption Coating Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I demonstrated experimentally a very high temperature acoustically absorbing coating for ducted acoustics applications. High temperature survivability at 3500...

  19. Optical coatings for laser fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.; Milam, D.; Rainer, F.


    Lasers for fusion experiments use thin-film dielectric coatings for reflecting, antireflecting and polarizing surface elements. Coatings are most important to the Nd:glass laser application. The most important requirements of these coatings are accuracy of the average value of reflectance and transmission, uniformity of amplitude and phase front of the reflected or transmitted light, and laser damage threshold. Damage resistance strongly affects the laser's design and performance. The success of advanced lasers for future experiments and for reactor applications requires significant developments in damage resistant coatings for ultraviolet laser radiation.

  20. Method for partially coating laser diode facets (United States)

    Dholakia, Anil R. (Inventor)


    Bars of integral laser diode devices cleaved from a wafer are placed with their p regions abutting and n regions abutting. A thin BeCu mask having alternate openings and strips of the same width as the end facets is used to mask the n region interfaces so that multiple bars can be partially coated over their exposed p regions with a reflective or partial reflective coating. The partial coating permits identification of the emitting facet from the fully coated back facet during a later device mounting procedure.