WorldWideScience

Sample records for earmarks

  1. Earmarking draws fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leath, Audrey T.; Jones, Richard

    Earmarking will be a hotly debated issue in Congress next year. At a time when federal research dollars are scarce, key representatives and senators are turning to earmarking as a guaranteed, no-competition source of federal funding for research activities in their states and districts. Senator Sam Nunn, chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee, is expected to be a leader in renewed efforts to reduce earmarking. During last November's Senate consideration of HR 2521, the Defense Appropriations Bill for FY 1992, Nunn spoke at length about earmarking of funds.“There are numerous earmarkings for defense research money for special projects at specific universities and colleges,” Nunn said. “What makes this most objectionable is the explicit direction by the conferees to waive existing federal statutes that require these types of awards to be made on the basis of a fair and open competition. In fact, the appropriation conference report specifically prohibits competition for $94.6 million in funding that is directed in 16 colleges and universities in 12 states.”

  2. Internal Washington power game adds to earmark controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, J.

    In the ongoing controversy over congressional earmarks, some new bones of contention have surfaced. Late last month, the House Science, Space, and Technology Committee heard testimony that the dynamics of Washington's so-called “iron triangle” are adding to the inequities that many claim are caused by the earmarking of funds for scientific research.Nonetheless, earmarking remains a legitimate part of the appropriations game, and a practice that many still champion. At the hearing, the president of Boston University, John R. Silber, lauded the “excellence” of projects funded by earmarks.

  3. Desirable pork: do voters reward for earmark acquisition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Braidwood

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The overwhelming majority of Congresspersons engage in the acquisition of pork projects, also known as earmarks. In the aggregate, the general public overwhelming opposes pork-barrel spending, yet scholars and Members of Congress both contend that earmarked projects make for grateful constituents. This work attempts to explain this discrepancy. Using experimental data, I show that general discussions of earmarks are not universally beneficial. Recipients are only moved when they are made aware of projects in policy arenas of individual importance. Thus, pork is a nuanced policy tool that must be wielded strategically to gain electoral reward from specific subsets of a constituency.

  4. A choice experiment on fuel taxation and earmarking in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saelen, Haakon; Kallbekken, Steffen

    2010-07-01

    Pigouvian taxes are efficient - but unpopular among voters. Earmarking of revenues has been widely reported to increase support for taxes, but this practice represents a deviation from optimal policy design. This trade-off between efficiency and political feasibility is the inspiration for this paper's attempt to quantify the effect of earmarking on voter support for fuel tax rises. Another aim of the paper is to investigate why earmarking increases support. The study estimates models of voter preferences for fuel taxes based on data are collected through a choice experiment conducted on a sample of 1177 respondents representative of the Norwegian voter population, and fitted using logistic regression models. The results show that earmarking the revenues for environmental measures has a substantial effect on voter support for fuel tax increases, garnering a majority for increases of up to 20 per cent above present levels. Earmarking the additional revenue for income redistribution does not result in a majority for any increase. Further analysis indicates that a prime reason why earmarking for environmental measures is popular is that it increases the perceived environmental effectiveness of the tax, and hence its legitimacy as an environmental rather than a fiscal policy. (Author)

  5. Earmarking and the political support of fat taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Helmuth; Goulão, Catarina; Roeder, Kerstin

    2016-12-01

    An unhealthy good causes health issues in the long run. It creates a misperceived utility loss and increases health care costs. Conversely, a healthy good provides misperceived utility gains and reduces health care costs. Individuals differ in income and in their degree of misperception; they vote over a fat tax according to their misperceived utility. A fraction of the tax proceeds is "earmarked" to reduce health insurance premiums; the remainder finances a subsidy on the healthy good. This earmarking rule is determined to maximize welfare, anticipating the induced political equilibrium. The equilibrium fat tax is always lower than the utilitarian level. This is not necessarily true with a Rawlsian objective. The determination of the earmarking rule is complex. Even in the utilitarian case, it is not just used to boost political support for the fat tax. Instead, it may involve a tradeoff between fat tax and healthy good subsidy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pennies from heaven? Conceptions and earmarking of lottery prize money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenus, Anna

    2014-06-01

    The source of money has been shown to be important for how money is spent. In addition, sudden wealth is often associated with social and psychological risks. This article investigates if conceptions of lottery prize money--as a special kind of money--imply restrictions on how it can be spent. Analysis of interviews with lottery winners shows that interviewees use earmarking of the prize money as a strategy for avoiding the pitfalls associated with a lottery win. Conceptions of lottery prize money as 'a lot' or as 'a little', as shared or personal, and as an opportunity or a risk, influences the ends for which it is earmarked: for self-serving spending, a 'normal' living standard, paying off loans, saving for designated purposes, or for economic security and independence. Clearly defining and earmarking lottery prize money thus helps lottery winners construe their sudden wealth, not as a risk, but as 'pennies from heaven.'

  7. Public opinion regarding earmarked cigarette tax in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chung-Lin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette taxation has been perceived by academics and policy-makers as one of the most effective ways of reducing the use of cigarettes. On January 1 2002, the Taiwan government imposed a New Taiwan (NT $5 per pack tax earmarked for the purpose of tobacco control. This study uses a survey collected prior to taxation to assess public attitudes toward cigarette taxation, public beliefs about the effectiveness of cigarette taxation at reducing cigarette use and public opinions about the allocation of this tax revenue. Methods Data were drawn from a national face-to-face interview on cigarette consumption in 2000. A total of 3,279 adults were aged 18 to 64 years; 49.9% of whom were male and 50.1% female, and with a smoking prevalence of 49.1% and 4.1%, respectively. The attitudes toward cigarette tax were analysed using multi-logit regressions. We analysed by logistic regression the potential changes in smoking behaviour that smokers might make in response to the five NT (New Taiwan dollar earmarked tax on cigarettes per pack. We summarized public opinions about the allocation of earmarked tax revenue using descriptive statistics. Results Current smokers (OR = 0.34 and former smokers (OR = 0.68 were less likely to support the cigarette tax than non-smokers. A favourable attitude toward the tax was positively associated with personal monthly income, especially among females. Among male smokers, the possibility of reducing/quitting smoking in response to the five-NT-dollar tax was negatively associated with the monthly expense for smoking. The two most frequently-suggested areas to receive money from the revenue collected from the earmarked tax were health education and cancer subsidy. Conclusions Smoking status and economic factors determine the attitude and potential responses of people toward the cigarette tax. Taiwan's five NT-dollar earmarked tax for cigarettes may have only a limited effect upon the reduction in cigarette

  8. FY 2005 Congressional Earmark: The Environmental Institute Fellowship Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon Tracey, Co-PI and Richard Taupier, Co-PI

    2007-02-06

    Congressional Earmark Funding was used to create a Postdoctoral Environmental Fellowship Program, interdisciplinary Environmental Working Groups, and special initiatives to create a dialogue around the environment at the University of Massachusetts Amherst to mobilize faculty to work together to respond to emerging environmental needs and to build institutional capacity to launch programmatic environmental activities across campus over time. Developing these networks of expertise will enable the University to more effectively and swiftly respond to emerging environmental needs and assume a leadership role in varied environmental fields. Over the course of the project 20 proposals were submitted to a variety of funding agencies involving faculty teams from 19 academic departments; 4 projects were awarded totaling $950,000; special events were organized including the Environmental Lecture Series which attracted more than 1,000 attendees over the course of the project; 75 University faculty became involved in one or more Working Groups (original three Working Groups plus Phase 2 Working Groups); an expertise database was developed with approximately 275 faculty involved in environmental research and education as part of a campus-wide network of environmental expertise; 12 University centers and partners participated; and the three Environmental Fellows produced 3 publications as well as a number of presentations and papers in progress.

  9. 13 CFR 107.1510 - How a Licensee computes Earmarked Profit (Loss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How a Licensee computes Earmarked Profit (Loss). 107.1510 Section 107.1510 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage)...

  10. 34 CFR 366.30 - What are earmarked funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... purchase personal assistance services or particular types of skills training; (3) State attendant care funds; or (4) Social Security Administration reimbursement funds. (b) For purposes of this subpart...

  11. Earmark Reform Within the 110th Congress: Policy, Transparency and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Longstanding Commitment to Bipartisanship in 2008, Press Release, Office of Senator Russell Feingold, December 28,2007. Retrieved November 3, 2008...Ahead, Across the Aisle in the New Year: Senator to Continue Longstanding Commitment to Bipartisanship in 2008, Press Release, Office of Senator

  12. Final Technical Report for earmark project "Atmospheric Science Program at the University of Louisville"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowling, Timothy Edward [University of Louisville

    2014-02-11

    We have completed a 3-year project to enhance the atmospheric science program at the University of Louisville, KY (est. 2008). The goals were to complete an undergraduate atmospheric science laboratory (Year 1) and to hire and support an assistant professor (Years 2 and 3). Both these goals were met on schedule, and slightly under budget.

  13. 78 FR 23778 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request: Congressional Earmark Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Project (EDI--SP) grantees and Neighborhood Initiative (NI) grantees. The agency has used the application... Initiative--Special Project (EDI--SP) grantees and Neighborhood Initiative (NI) grantees. The agency has...

  14. 76 FR 72210 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request Congressional Earmark Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ...: Economic ] Development Initiative-Special Project (EDI-SP) and Neighborhood Initiative (NI) grants. DATES... Project (EDI-SP) grantees and Neighborhood Initiative (NI) grantees. The agency has used the...

  15. Investment decisions in electricity transmission in Argentina: The role of earmarked funds and gas pipeline expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisari, Omar O. [Universidad Argentina de la Empresa (Argentina); Romero, Carlos A. [Centro de Estudios Economicos de la Regulacion, Universidad Argentina de la Empresa (Argentina)

    2008-07-15

    This paper reexamines the problem of collective decisions of investment in electricity transmission in Argentina in the nineties. We summarize our previous results on the existence of a fundamental flaw in the evaluation of willingness-to-pay and on the need to consider the votes of groups of generators integrated through common ownership rather than individual generators. We discuss the workings of the SALEX account for financing expansions and confirm that the imperfect identification of voters could affect the evaluation of expansion projects. We also study an integrated model that considers two alternatives to electricity transmission: gas transmission and the location of generators; we show that location in the demand node voting against expansions in electricity transmission could be justified to maximize profits. (author)

  16. 76 FR 38175 - Notice of Release of the Exposure Draft Revisions to Identifying and Reporting Earmarked Funds...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Funds: Amending Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standards 27 AGENCY: Federal Accounting... Financial Accounting Standards 27. The Exposure Draft is available on the FASAB home page http://www.fasab... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING...

  17. A Study of Federal Academic Earmarks and Research Funding in Relation to the Institutional Research Culture of Research University/High (RU/H) Institutions in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, James Hubert, III

    2013-01-01

    Nationally, reductions in public funding for higher education, a stagnate economy, looming sequestration, and a divisive political culture present a complex and challenging dynamic for research universities in pursuit of external funding for their research programs and infrastructure needs. These universities and their research initiatives have…

  18. CDC Allocates $184 Million for Zika Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162694.html CDC Allocates $184 Million for Zika Protection Funds are earmarked for states, territories, local ... million has been earmarked to protect Americans against Zika virus infection, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control ...

  19. 专项转移支付与地方财政支出行为——以农村义务教育补助为例%Earmarked Grants and Local Government Spending Behavior——Evidence from China's Rural Compulsory Education Aid Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹振东; 汤玉刚

    2016-01-01

    如何设计专项转移支付制度才能有效引导和矫正地方财政支出行为?本文研究发现,专项转移支付的政策效果取决于转移支付分配规则(“扶弱”还是“奖优”)以及经济发展的阶段.随着经济发展,嵌入某种激励机制的“奖优”规则比事后“扶弱”规则更能引导地方政府合理安排公共支出.进而,本文以2006年全面展开的农村义务教育经费保障机制改革为背景,利用2007年中部五省423县的数据,运用非递归结构方程方法进行了实证检验.结果表明,义务教育专项补助制度设计中较好地嵌入了“奖优”机制,实现了激励地方政府将资源向基础教育倾斜的目标.这一发现对当前构建兼顾公平和效率的专项转移支付制度具有参考价值.

  20. U.S. Budgeting for the United Nations: Process, Policy, and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    injury prevention (OMB, 2006, 52).  The U.S. Treasury Department’s Foreign Operations account contributed over $14 million between FY 2003–FY 205...Office of Management and Budget. (2009). Earmarks. Accessed February 2009: http://www.earmarks.omb.gov Ozmanczyk, E. J., & Mango , A. (Ed.) (2003

  1. Cyberspace Human Capital: Building a Cadre Today to Win Tomorrows War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-28

    Finally, scholarships awardees can be earmarked for outplacement into a specific functional area, providing a tailor-made tool to adjust force of...R6: Develop scholarships which require concentration on areas of study with earmarked outplacement into a specific functional area. UNCLASSIFIED

  2. Public environmental expenditures in Estonia during 1995-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirje Pädam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of earmarking on central government environment protection expenditure. Since central government spending for the environment relies on earmarked revenues, which is not the case of the local government, it is expected that central government expenditure is to a lesser degree affected by macroeconomic developments. The analysis indicates that this is the case because correlation between GDP change and the change in central government expenditure for environment protection is smaller than that of the local government. It is also found that increasing revenues from earmarked environmental charges have contributed to growing expenditure. However, the analysis also suggests that the main driver of this growth is the expansion is EU funds. Reliance on EU expenditure was further reinforced by changes in earmarking rules in 2008-2009

  3. Geographic information system planning and monitoring best ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emeje

    Key words: GIS, Urban Planning, Urban Monitoring, West Africa, Best Practices, Pollution, flooding .... infrastructure and space, evident in cities such as Lagos,. Kano ... earmarked as green belts are being taken over by corner shops, roads ...

  4. A Tax Target Plan--For Choice, Diversity, and Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel J.

    1979-01-01

    The author proposes a tax target plan by which taxpayers could earmark their payments to the local public school of their choice. Several levels of this plan are described and feasibility and costs discussed. (SJL)

  5. Advancing the inclusion of STEM students with disabilities through a residential internship programme.

    CERN Document Server

    Guinot, Genevieve; CERN. Geneva. HR Department

    2017-01-01

    The document proposes introducing earmarked positions for candidates with disability in CERN student programmes. The proposal was submitted to the European Physical Society by CERN’s Diversity Office and has received funding.

  6. Agro 2012 June

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    marketing boards cocoa, palm produce, groundnut, and cotton were reconstituted ... Apart from the traditional quality criteria associated with coffee the human health risk ... informed that they do not benefit from the loan earmarked for farming ...

  7. 2-Year Colleges Step Up Lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evelyn, Jamilah

    2001-01-01

    Describes how increased lobbying by community colleges is yielding payoffs in state legislatures and Congress and significantly more federal earmarks. Discusses how increased financial support may also be due to community colleges' responsiveness to states' economic needs. (EV)

  8. threat or opportunity to distance education throughput at the south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plt

    Its distance education (DE) programme, earmarked to become the main HE ..... applied upon graduation in his field of academic expertise. Disparity in HE .... course material.55 LT connectivity wherever, whenever, augmented by social media.

  9. Environmental Assessment for Construction of Multiple Roadway Improvement Projects MacDill AFB, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    noise constraints). Drainage ditches, culvert, roads and sidewalks occupy another 17 percent. Therefore, less than 3 percent are outside the 100-year...spending legislation. By late Monday, 27 Re- Democrats have cut publican senators and back on earmarks in the senators- elect had gone past. In 2007...House Dem- on record supporting the ocratic leaders cut the ban, including Florida nwnber of earmarks in Sen.- elect Marco Rubio. half and required

  10. Effectiveness of an Intervention Program for Improving School Atmosphere: Some Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, A. M.; Rivas, M. T.; Trianes, M. V.

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the results of the "Programa de Desarrollo Social y Afectivo" [Social and Affective Development Program] (Trianes & Munoz, 1994; Trianes, 1996), under way during four years at a public school in a disadvantaged area Malaga, earmarked for special educational resources. The intervention is meant to improve classroom…

  11. Towards Green Cyclic Carbonate Synthesis : Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Catalyst Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    This PhD research serves to implement both known and novel catalytic systems for the purpose of cyclic carbonate synthesis from biomass-derived substrates. Such products have been earmarked as potential monomers for non-isocyanate polyurethanes (NIPUs), amongst other uses. Particular attention has b

  12. School Finance Reform: Can It Support California's College- and Career-Ready Goal? Report 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mary

    2013-01-01

    For decades, when California's state leaders have wanted to see local school districts respond to shifts in policy and expectations they relied on the state-controlled school finance system to leverage local change. Through the use of categorical programs and earmarked funding, they created incentives for districts that complied and penalties for…

  13. Analysis of the Socio-Economic Factors That Contribute to Children School Dropout in Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mining Communities of Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, Dora Harrison; Ting, Zuo; Pesha, John Chrisostom

    2017-01-01

    In Tanzania, education has been earmarked as a priority area to stimulate socioeconomic development, however; the increasing number of school dropout cases is posing a huge hindrance to achieving this goal. To establish the major causes of school dropouts, this paper investigated different factors that explain the phenomena with special focus on…

  14. Trouble at home: diasporic second homes as leisure space across generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, L.B.

    2014-01-01

    Like migrants from various southern sending countries, many Moroccan post-war guest worker migrants in Belgium and the Netherlands invested part of their foreign earnings in building a house in Morocco. These houses were often earmarked for eventual retirement, but over the course of years of return

  15. More than Bricks and Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Gaythorne Row, a terrace of Victorian back-to-back houses in Great Horton, was earmarked for demolition when, in 1986, Bradford Industrial Museum took possession of the three cottages and transported them, brick by brick, to the museum site four miles away. The houses were built in 1876, a year later than the old worsted spinning mill in which the…

  16. Exploring the Relationships between the Electronic Health Record System Components and Patient Outcomes in an Acute Hospital Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggley, Shirley L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the electronic health record system components and patient outcomes in an acute hospital setting, given that the current presidential administration has earmarked nearly $50 billion to the implementation of the electronic health record. The relationship between the…

  17. Korean Children’s Delegation In Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Invited by the CPAFFC, a 26-member youth delega-tion from the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea visited Beijing from December 9 to 13, 2003.In 2002, British friend Eric Hotung set up the China-Korea (DPRK) Friendly Exchange Fund under the China Friendship Foundation for Peace and Development, which is earmarked for the

  18. Projected changes in soil organic carbon stocks upon adoption of recommended soil and water conservation practices in the upper Tana river catchment, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2014-01-01

    Large areas in the Upper Tana river catchment, Kenya, have been over-exploited, resulting in soil erosion, nutrient depletion and loss of soil organic matter (SOM). This study focuses on sections of the catchment earmarked as being most promising for implementing Green Water Credits, an incentive

  19. Grading Policy and Student Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, Ralph R.; Sawyer, Chris R.; King, Paul E.

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on poor grades, one of the primary reasons students drop out of school. Recommends that borderline students be earmarked for special treatment rather than be held to rigorous academic standards or passed when they are actually failing. Suggests that operational procedures for the implementation of special treatment be pedagogically…

  20. Aligning The Abacus Beads: China’s New European Economic Presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Jones

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chinese premier Wen Jiabao announced in Warsaw on 26 April 2012 China’s intent to increase its Foreign Direct Investment to Central and Eastern Europe by US$ 10 Billion, earmarked for high technology, new technology, and green technology. This paper aims to evaluate this investment’s significance to China itself and Europe.

  1. Don't Cry,Just Pay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FRANCISCO; LITTLE

    2006-01-01

    The Chinese nation woke up on April 1 to a list of new items earmarked for consumption tax and another list increasing existing taxes on other items. One of the more interesting items on this new tax list that caught my eye was disposable wooden chopsticks. I did a double take when I first heard this and decided it

  2. 77 FR 30509 - Fiscal Year 2012 Draft Work Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... the 50% and 20% match requirements for Energy and Water Appropriation funding. Sustainability Policy... build and ensure the operation and maintenance of Alaska's basic infrastructure. By creating the... 2012 no project specific earmarks were directed. The Energy and Water Appropriation is eligible for...

  3. Standards and Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Roy

    1992-01-01

    We need to get clear agreement in the United States on what students should know and be able to do. We also need to invest in education. An initiative filed in Colorado earmarks a one-cent sales tax for education. (MLF)

  4. 76 FR 35426 - Denali Commission Fiscal Year 2011 Draft Work Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    .... These funds are intended to accomplish the specific goal of protecting the Commission's ] infrastructure... general principles: In FY 2011 no project specific earmarks were directed. The Energy and Water... appropriation. All other funds outlined below may be used only for the specific program area and may not be...

  5. "Racing to the Top" to Prepare Turnaround Principals in North Carolina: Homegrown Regional Leadership Academies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    North Carolina's Race to the Top (RttT) grant earmarked approximately $17.5 million to "increase the number of principals qualified to lead transformational change in low-performing schools in both rural and urban areas" (NCDPI, 2010, p.10). To accomplish this, the state established three Regional Leadership Academies (RLAs)…

  6. Ex post evidence on environmental taxes: an assessment of the French tax on air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millock, K. [Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environnement et le Developpement (CIRED-CNRS/EHESS), 94 - Nogent sur Marne (France); Nauges, C. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA-LEERNA), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2003-09-01

    Empirical evidence evaluating the efficiency of economic instruments is still rare despite significant theoretical advances over the last decades. The purpose of the paper is to evaluate one form of environmental taxation: the French tax on air pollution from 1990-99. While starting out in 1985 as a tax levied only on Sulphur emissions, the tax base was subsequently extended to encompass also emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), hydrochloric acid (HCl), and volatile organic compounds (VOC). The revenues of the French tax on air pollution were earmarked for abatement subsidies and the financing of air quality surveillance. We use a plant-level database on emissions, firm characteristics, taxes paid and subsidies received to evaluate the abatement elasticity with regard to the tax and the subsidies. Our ex post analysis also allows for an evaluation of the distributional impact of the earmarked tax on different industry sectors. (author)

  7. Roadmap to sustainable textiles and clothing regulatory aspects and sustainability standards of textiles and the clothing supply chain

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the elements involved in achieving sustainability in textiles and clothing sector. The chapters covered in three volumes of this series title cover all the distinctive areas earmarked for achieving sustainable development in textiles and clothing industry. This third volume highlights the areas pertaining to the regulatory aspects and sustainability standards applicable to textiles and clothing supply chain. There are various standards earmarked for measuring the environmental impacts and sustainability of textile products. There are also plenty of certification schemes available along with the index systems applicable to textile sector. Brands and manufactures are also venturing into new developments to achieve sustainable development in textile sector. This third volume addresses all these important aspects.

  8. Foreign Aid: An Introduction to U.S. Programs and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-09

    microenterprise , basic education, clean water and sanitation. For each of these specific interests, funding has been boosted by Congress in the form of...legislative directives or earmarks in the annual foreign aid appropriations legislation. Funding for microenterprise , for instance, went from $58 million...in FY1988 to $111 million in FY1996 and $216 million in FY2006. Congress mandated a level of $245 million for microenterprise assistance in FY2008

  9. Is the Divided Fiscal Seal a Symbol of Democracy?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Guiye is a small,poor village in Jinping County,in southwest China’s Guizhou Province. It recently became famous across the country because of an unusual fiscal seal local villagers have ad- opted to help them share supervisory power. Every year,Guiye receives 5,000 yuan for administrative expenses and is sometimes earmarked for poverty-reduction funds. However,as the years passed,local villag- ers felt increasingly doubtful about how the

  10. Le financement général des communes : comparaison interrégionale des modes de répartition

    OpenAIRE

    Husson, Jean-François

    2008-01-01

    The Fonds des communes refers to a system of general purpose, non earmarked grants. This paper details and compares the repartition schemes used in the three Regions. The main goals in all three Regions are fiscal equalization and compensation for higher costs and/or higher demand for local public goods – notably the ones resulting from externalities. Therefore, substantial differences remain in terms of implementation. Peer reviewed

  11. Setting up Individual Loan Facilities for University Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XueYong; ZhaoBaohua; DavidKelly

    2004-01-01

    The Chinese state must slash its direct financial allocations to universities and the latter must perform their operations using the annual revenue of tuition fees collected directly from enrolled students. In the same time, state allocations originally earmarked for the campus might be employed to set up a complete loan system to serve students so that each of all qualified enrollees can enjoy an interest-free loan. Students are to be al-

  12. Rémanence des pesticides dans les eaux issues de parcelles agricoles récemment converties à l'Agriculture Biologique

    OpenAIRE

    Schrack, Damien; Coquil, Xavier; Ortar, Agnès; BENOIT, Marc

    2009-01-01

    In Europe, the pervasive use of pesticides in agricultural areas has led to the deterioration of the quality of groundwater and surface water, resources earmarked for human consumption. The aim of the European Water Framework Directive 91/474 is to restore the “good ecological status” of surface water and to protect water that might be used for drinking water production by 2015. Interactions within the soil determine the fate of environmental pesticides. Water resource contamination may persi...

  13. Persistence of pesticides in water from farm plots recently converted to organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    SCHRACK, D.; COQUIL, X.; ORTAR, A.; Benoit, M.

    2009-01-01

    In Europe, the pervasive use of pesticides in agricultural areas has led to the deterioration of the quality of groundwater and surface water, resources earmarked for human consumption. The aim of the European Water Framework Directive 91/474 is to restore the “good ecological status” of surface water and to protect water that might be used for drinking water production by 2015. Interactions within the soil determine the fate of environmental pesticides. Water resource contamination may persi...

  14. USSR Report Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-24

    helminthosporiosis leaf blight and powdery mildew . Of the weeds, the most widespread and damaging are sowthistle, cornbind, field cress, fat hen...hectare) raises the resistance of plants to root rots, rust, powdery mildew and suctorial pests. Infection with root rots decreases by a factor of 2-3...fundozol [Translation unknown] and baytan [Translation unknown] are used to sanitize seed crops against powdery mildew . To treat seed earmarked for

  15. Deployment of United Nations Peace Keeping Forces: The Nature of Transportation and Review of Current Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-06

    the support by the western countries. For example, the Suez Canal is a vital sea lane for trade between the industrialized developed nations of the west...lines Authority: Security Council Size: Maximum 89 Contributing Countries: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Mexico , New...other specific public tasks. 3. Royal Netherlands Air Force (a) Organizacion For peace-keeping operations of the United Nations are earmarked: (1

  16. Astronomy in post-apartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Patricia Ann

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy was one of the sciences earmarked for major support by South Africa's first democratically elected government in 1994. This was a very remarkable decision for a country with serious challenges in poverty, health and unemployment, but shows something of the long term vision of the new government. In this paper I give one astronomer's perception of the reasons behind the decision and some of its consequences.

  17. A comparison of hydrogen storage capacity of commercial and fly ash-derived zeolite X together with their respective templated carbon derivatives

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musyoka, Nicholas M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available –6]. Among the many studied porous materials (such as zeolites, metal organic frameworks (MOFs), activated carbons etc.), templated carbons have been identified and ear-marked as having attractive properties for hydrogen storage [11–15]. Templated carbons... diffraction pattern (SAED) is indicative of scattering from an amorphous material meaning that, unlike the parent zeolite, the templated carbon derivative was amorphous in nature. elsevier_HE_16341 Comparing the XRD pattern of fly ash-derived zeolite X...

  18. The Stress’ Management and Time Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Constantinescu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study has as central objective the introduction of a succession of concrete findings, more precisely the spotlight of the relation between the time budget, stress and behavior (A or B in a military organization. The study's premise lays on the assertion that military environment, a petitioner environment takes to the growth of stress because of the negative disparity between the weight of time destined discharging job tasks and the weight of time earmarked relaxation and other needs.

  19. Worldwide Report, Environmental Quality No. 404.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    located in the northeastern part of Capetown province, the situation has been termed "desperate." Pretoria has earmarked 13 million rands in emergency...the extreme north in January and the mid-section in March. Only the coastal strip running from Capetown to Port Elizabeth receives rain year-round...The western maritime side from Capetown to the Namibian border receives rain in the winter, from May to October. 2National annual water usage is

  20. CTC Sentinel. Volume 3, Issue 9, September 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    naming it the “ Yogurt Project,” but only earmarking a meager $2,000-4,000 for its budget.11 An al-Qa`ida videotape from this period, for example... Production ,” Washington Post, March 23, 2003. 11 Anne Stenersen, Al-Qaida’s Quest for Weapons of Mass Destruction: The History Behind the Hype...publicly, but this is also the thrust of their motivational message imparted to would-be suicide bombers and in their multimedia productions targeted

  1. Development of a Novel Type Catalyst SY-2 for Two-Stage Hydrogenation of Pyrolysis Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Linmei; Zhang Xuejun; Zhang Zhihua; Wang Fucun

    2004-01-01

    By using the group ⅢB or groupⅦB metals and modulating the characteristics of electric charges on carrier surface, improving the catalyst preparation process and techniques for loading the active metal components, a novel type SY-2 catalyst earmarked for two-stage hydrogenation of pyrolysis gasoline has been developed. The catalyst evaluation results have indicated that the novel catalyst is characterized by a better hydrogenation reaction activity to give higher aromatic yield.

  2. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-29

    Accelerated The discovery of perovskite -based superconductivity substances by Müller of IBM Zurich Research Institute in Switzerland created the...intensity of 10 roentgens per hour. For this effort, the Institute is earmarking 69 million yen from this year’s budget. Nuclear power plants have a...development of a basic technology toward the construction of a harsh environment sensor system capable of withstanding a radiation rate of 10 roentgens

  3. Questions that calls for a genius

    CERN Multimedia

    McKie, Robin

    2006-01-01

    "Last week an eccentric Russian was tipped to win a "Maths Nobel" for solving the fiendishly difficult Poincare Conjecture, one of seven major "millennium" mathematical mysteries that have been earmarked for urgent solution. But these problems are just the tip of a scientific iceberg. Other fields are also beset by frustrating theoretical failures. Here Robin McKie highlights the most baffing of those questions and suggests how science will one day provide those elusive answers." (1 page)

  4. Transportation Challenges in the Hampton Roads, VA, Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    public-private partnerships , and special government earmarks. Projects with associated tolls and P3 funds include the following.  Downtown Tunnel...Public-Private Partnerships ( P3 ) $4.10 B Private Tolls $0.27 B Total Revenue for New Construction Projects $7.70 B Table 2. Sources of...investigated the application of other non-traditional funding sources to advance projects, including local funding, tolls, and public-private partnerships

  5. Cost-effectiveness of water interventions: The case for public stand-posts and bore-holes in reducing diarrhoea among urban households in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Barungi, Mildred; Kasirye, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    In Uganda, water-borne diseases, especially diarrhoea still remain a big challenge to attainment of water related Millennium Development Goals. Compared to adults, children below the age of 6 years face a higher burden of diarrhoea, with the incidence estimated at 51 per 1000. Uganda has earmarked large amounts of resources for water related interventions but still the current levels of spending are inadequate to ensure that everyone gets access to improved drinkingwater. Given that funding i...

  6. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 8, Number 3, Fall 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Greenspan Commission and the Social Security Reforms of 1983,” in Triumphs and Tragedies of the Modern Presidency: Seventy-Six Case Studies in Presi...amendments to the bill that would direct money to their districts. Ac - cording to lawmakers, these were not earmarks because recipients would have to...of more than 5,300 tanks, but also the Marine Corps’ more than 400 M1s, in his recommendation to Congress to halt production of the tank. Ac

  7. 自适应光传送网%Adaptive Optical Transport Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王加莹; 赵继军; 刘赛

    2005-01-01

    提出未来光网络的智能化特征,包括连接智能化、业务智能化和传输自适应三个方面.这几个方面的特征将成为未来自适应光传送网的标志.%Intelligent features of future optical transport self-adaptation' ,which will construct an integrated earmark of future self-adaptive optical transport network.

  8. ASSERT Progress Report for Contract N00014-85-J-1240 (Dept. of Integrative Biology, Univ. of California)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-31

    original proposal was submitted. Mauricio Schabes proposed to investigate the hydrodynamic consequences of deploying particle- capturing devices on flexible...in water. M. Schabes completed his project sooner than anticipated. When I asked the Scientific Officer for this AASERT at O.N.R. (R. S. Alberte...what I should do about the funds that had been earmarked for Schabes in the proposal, he instructed me to use those funds to support other graduate

  9. The Stress’ Management and Time Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Constantinescu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study has as central objective the introduction of a succession of concrete findings, more precisely the spotlight of the relation between the time budget, stress and behavior (A or B in a military organization. The study’s premise lays on the assertion that military environment, a petitioner environment takes to the growth of stress because of the negative disparity between the weight of time destined discharging job tasks and the weight of time earmarked relaxation and other needs.

  10. Major National Technical Equipment Development Program On "Hi-Tech, New-Tech, Quality" ships and marine equipment with specific items initiated by National Development And Reform Commission%国家发改委启动实施高新优船舶及配套设备国家重大技术装备研制专项

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ In view of the grave challenges in the competitive world market the Chinese shipbuilding industry is encountering, and in order to increase China's shipbuilding capacity and competitiveness, the National Development and Reform Commission has recently given the go-ahead to the major national technical equipment development program on "hi-tech,new-tech, quality" ships and marine equipment with specific items. The project budget is up to 180 million Yuan. The first earmarked fund is made available, which means the project has been kicked off entirely.

  11. Taxing junk food to counter obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Caroline; Grandi, Sonia M; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2013-11-01

    We examined the advantages and disadvantages of implementing a junk food tax as an intervention to counter increasing obesity in North America. Small excise taxes are likely to yield substantial revenue but are unlikely to affect obesity rates. High excise taxes are likely to have a direct impact on weight in at-risk populations but are less likely to be politically palatable or sustainable. Ultimately, the effectiveness of earmarked health programs and subsidies is likely to be a key determinant of tax success in the fight against obesity.

  12. Rent taxation and its intertemporal effects in a small open economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko; Poutvaara, Panu

    2009-01-01

    Previous literature concludes that replacing wage taxation by taxes on a fixed factor or its rents benefits future generations. However, the effects of such steady-state gains on the transition generations have been left open. In this paper, we show that taxation of rents may also increase utilit...... of the current generation provided tax revenues are earmarked to reduce wage taxes. In particular, a shift in the tax mix may yield an intergenerational Pareto-improvement when the initially prevailing tax mix is sufficiently skewed toward wage taxation....

  13. PEDRO MIRALLES CLAVER: ANÁLISIS Y ESTUDIO DE SU PRODUCCIÓN (1984-1993)

    OpenAIRE

    MELLADO LLUCH, MARÍA PILAR

    2016-01-01

    [EN] This PhD Thesis has been divided into four chapters. The first two have been dedicated to the socio-cultural context that surrounded the designer during his brief career, while the last two have been earmarked for the biographical presentation and projective analysis of Pedro Miralles Claver. The first chapter aims to place the reader in the context of the 80s, through the study and analysis of the social environment in the decade, divided into four conceptual frameworks such as polit...

  14. Developing a Practical Approach to 'Light IWRM' in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Moriarty

    2010-02-01

    The main lesson of the EMPOWERS project is the seemingly simple – in fact, rather complex and time-consuming – work on facilitating dialogue, taking a structured approach to examining problems, collecting and sharing context-specific information, and helping to formulate a shared vision and strategies to achieve it all of which contribute to improved decision making. However, a major limitation to effective action is lack of appropriately decentralised finance, with local authorities reliant on financing from the national level that is often earmarked and over which they had very little control.

  15. Muskox site fidelity and group cohesion in Jameson Land, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing hunting pressure in Greenland demands improved knowledge on Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) biology in general and movement and grouping behaviour in specific to insure their proper management. Improving the exchange of information between hunters and managers is also necessary. Muskox site...... fidelity and group cohesion was examined over a 16-year period using 477 earmarked individuals tagged in 1982 and 1983. Combining information from scientists and hunters, observations of live individuals were primarily made from 1983 to 1990, while the latest tagged muskoxen reported shot was from 1998...... that such cooperation can provide important information for management related to muskox harvesting and monitoring....

  16. The Policy on Gender Equality in Denmark - Update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    Upon request of the FEMM committee, this in-depth analysis updates a previous note published in October 2011 and describes Danish policies, practices and legislation within the area of women's rights and gender equality, covering the period from October 2011, when the Social Democrat-led government...... took office, to April 2015. During this period, the focus has been put on gender-based violence, leave policies, pay statistics, gender segregation in the labour market and in education, as well as sexual and reproductive health and rights. Earmarked leave for fathers and gender quota on company boards...

  17. Measuring Willingness to Pay by Means of the Trade-off between Free Available Cash and Specific-Purpose Vouchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Lieven

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Primarily because of the hypothetical character of interview situations, respondents are often unable to state their true willingness to pay (WTP. This inability results in the so-called hypothetical bias. To address this bias, incentive-compatible methods have been proposed, but such methods are applicable only to real products. We propose a new method for measuring WTP based on disposable cash and specific purpose vouchers that are earmarked for particular goods that, contrary to incentive-compatible methods, can be used for hypothetical products and services that are less affected by the hypothetical bias. Empirical studies show that the new procedure provides WTP results that are equal to the results of alternative incentive-compatible elicitation procedures, such as the Vickrey auction and the Becker–DeGroot–Marschak (BDM procedure.

  18. Advanced policy options to regulate sugar-sweetened beverages to support public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased worldwide. As public health studies expose the detrimental impact of SSBs, consumer protection and public health advocates have called for increased government control. A major focus has been on restricting marketing of SSBs to children, but many innovative policy options--legally defensible ways to regulate SSBs and support public health--are largely unexplored. We describe the public health, economic, and retail marketing research related to SSBs (including energy drinks). We review policy options available to governments, including mandatory factual disclosures, earmarked taxation, and regulating sales, including placement within retail and food service establishments, and schools. Our review describes recent international initiatives and classifies options available in the United States by jurisdiction (federal, state, and local) based on legal viability.

  19. Muskox site fidelity and group cohesion in Jameson Land, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing hunting pressure in Greenland demands improved knowledge on Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) biology in general and movement and grouping behaviour in specific to insure their proper management. Improving the exchange of information between hunters and managers is also necessary. Muskox site...... fidelity and group cohesion was examined over a 16-year period using 477 earmarked individuals tagged in 1982 and 1983. Combining information from scientists and hunters, observations of live individuals were primarily made from 1983 to 1990, while the latest tagged muskoxen reported shot was from 1998....... Muskoxen in this area had a very loose group structure, with mother-young pairs as the only apparent bond between individuals. Furthermore, the tagged muskoxen lacked strong fidelity to the site where they were tagged and roamed within an 11.000-km2 area. Hunters reported tagged muskoxen shot up to 120 km...

  20. Køn, magt og beslutninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchorst, Anette

    The analysis focuses on political decision processes on parental leave in Denmark 1901-2002 with the political meaning of gender as the main perspective. Six key decisions in 1901, 1967, 1980, 1983, 1997 and 2002 are analysed in depth, asking who and what has been influential, and what are the un...... are the underlying assumptions about gender and the care of small children. Apart from the historical approach, the analysis also adopts a comparative approach, comparing negotiations on earmarking parts of the leave for fathers in Sweden, Norway and Denmark.......The analysis focuses on political decision processes on parental leave in Denmark 1901-2002 with the political meaning of gender as the main perspective. Six key decisions in 1901, 1967, 1980, 1983, 1997 and 2002 are analysed in depth, asking who and what has been influential, and what...

  1. Subsidizing Media Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Aske; Hobel, Emil

    2016-01-01

    and economically sustainable activity, the institutionalization of financial support for media innovation constitute one way for policy makers to bring (parts of) the journalistic environment up-to-date with the digital age, thereby improving the conditions for an informed citizenry in the future (Kammer...... analytical approaches (inspired by the methodology of "qualitative media analysis", cf. Altheide & Schneider, 2013), the paper analyzes to what extent the administration reflects a support of the welfare framework the subsidy scheme exists within. It asks (1) which types of news-media innovation gets......When the Danish Parliament revised the media-subsidy framework in 2013/2014, one of the new initiatives was the introduction of a pool of funding earmarked to establishing and developing new news media – the so-called “innovation fund”. So, as the news industry struggles to keep journalism a viable...

  2. Funding of North Carolina Tobacco Control Programs Through the Master Settlement Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alison Snow; Austin, W. David; Beach, Robert H.; Altman, David G.

    2007-01-01

    Changing political and economic forces in 1 tobacco-dependent state, North Carolina, demonstrate how the interplay between these forces and public health priorities has shaped current allocation of Master Settlement Agreement funds. Allocation patterns demonstrate lawmakers’ changing priorities in response to changes in the economic climate; some of the agreement’s funds targeted to tobacco farmers appear to reflect objectives favored by tobacco manufacturers. Funds earmarked for health have underfunded youth tobacco prevention and tobacco control initiatives, and spending for tobacco farmers in North Carolina has not lived up to the rhetoric that accompanied the original agreement. We discuss the implications of these findings for future partnerships between public health advocates and workers as well as tobacco control strategies. PMID:17138928

  3. Domesticizing Financial Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deville, Joe; Lazarus, Jeanne; Luzzi, Mariana

    of research. We use the term “domesticizing financial economies” to collect what we think are four key trajectories. First: “the financialization of the domestic”: certainly debt and finance are more than 5000 years old, but new type of agents and technologies – such as online payday lending, mobile money......, payment cards – characterize the financial ecologies people around the world face. Second; “the domestizisation of finance”: financial technologies do not only financialize the domestic, they are continuously domesticized as many recent studies on ordinary accounting, earmarking, informal circuits of debt...... show. Third, the “domestication of financial economies”: financial literacy programs developed by governmental bodies, international organizations, and banks have become a ubiquitous layer attached to the assemblage of financial economies in many countries. And last but not least, “domesticizing social...

  4. Subsidizing Media Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Aske; Hobel, Emil

    ). Qualitative Media Analysis (2nd Ed.). Los Angeles: Sage. Esping-Andersen, G. (1990). The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Cambridge: Polity Press. Kammer, A. (forthcoming/2016). Market Structure and Innovation Policies in Denmark. In H. v. Kranenburg (Ed.), Innovation Policies in the European News......When the Danish Parliament revised the media-subsidy framework in 2013/2014, one of the new initiatives was the introduction of a pool of funding earmarked to establishing and developing new news media – the so-called “innovation fund”. So, as the news industry struggles to keep journalism a viable...... and economically sustainable activity, the institutionalization of financial support for media innovation constitute one way for policy makers to bring (parts of) the journalistic environment up-to-date with the digital age, thereby improving the conditions for an informed citizenry in the future (Kammer...

  5. Surface enhanced Raman scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Furtak, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    In the course of the development of surface science, advances have been identified with the introduction of new diagnostic probes for analytical characterization of the adsorbates and microscopic structure of surfaces and interfaces. Among the most recently de­ veloped techniques, and one around which a storm of controversy has developed, is what has now been earmarked as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Within this phenomenon, molecules adsorbed onto metal surfaces under certain conditions exhibit an anomalously large interaction cross section for the Raman effect. This makes it possible to observe the detailed vibrational signature of the adsorbate in the ambient phase with an energy resolution much higher than that which is presently available in electron energy loss spectroscopy and when the surface is in contact with a much larger amount of material than that which can be tolerated in infrared absorption experiments. The ability to perform vibrational spectroscopy under these conditions would l...

  6. Needles and Haystacks: Finding Funding for Medical Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, Larry D; Durning, Steven J

    2016-04-01

    Medical education research suffers from a significant and persistent lack of funding. Although adequate funding has been shown to improve the quality of research, there are a number of factors that continue to limit it. The competitive environment for medical education research funding makes it essential to understand strategies for improving the search for funding sources and the preparation of proposals. This article offers a number of resources, strategies, and suggestions for finding funding. Investigators must be able to frame their research in the context of significant issues and principles in education. They must set their proposed work in the context of prior work and demonstrate its potential for significant new contributions. Because there are few funding sources earmarked for medical education research, researchers much also be creative, flexible, and adaptive as they seek to present their ideas in ways that are appealing and relevant to the goals of funders. Above all, the search for funding requires persistence and perseverance.

  7. Designing Green Taxes in a Political Context: From Optimal to Feasible Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    How should green taxation be designed? We argue that to design green taxes which are high enough to have the desired incentive effects, tax revenues must be reimbursed, either by earmarking them for environmental subsidies or by reducing other taxes directed at industry. If green tax schemes can...... financial resources within industry and thus create winners and losers. Still, we demonstrate how green taxation can be used in heterogeneous industries which can be created by operating separate tax schemes for each branch of industry....... be designed this way, industry will have little incentive to mobilise strong opposition to green taxation. However, in practice, the requirement of reimbursement may be difficult to fulfil because, with few exceptions, polluting industries are not homogeneous. This means that reimbursement will redistribute...

  8. Designing Green Taxes in a Political Context: From Optimal to Feasible Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    How should green taxation be designed so that it accommodates producer interests? We argue that to design green taxes which are high enough to have the desired incentive effects, tax revenues must be reimbursed, either by earmarking them for environmental subsidies or by reducing other taxes...... directed at industry. If green tax schemes can be designed this way, industry will have little incentive to mobilise strong opposition to green taxation. However, in practice, the requirement of reimbursement may be difficult to fulfil because, with few exceptions, polluting industries are not homogeneous....... This means that reimbursement will redistribute financial resources within industry and thus create winners and losers. Still, green taxes can be used in heterogeneous industries which can be created by operating separate tax schemes for each branch of industry. The Danish case of pesticide taxation...

  9. Processing of Liaohe Highly Sour Crude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shijie

    2006-01-01

    In order to solve the problems related with processing low-quality Liaohe highly sour crude, the Liaohe Petrochemical Company has explored the possibility in optimizing the processing of highly sour crude by adopting different process schemes depending upon the properties of the highly sour crude. The Liaohe naphthenic-base crude oil with low freezing point is earmarked for manufacture of naphthenic lube oils and heavy traffic paving asphalt, while the extra-heavy Liaohe crude with high acid number is routed directly to delayed coking unit coupled with corresponding corrosion preventing measures, resulting in tackling the problem of equipment corrosion arising from refining of Liaohe highly sour crude to obtain light distillates from Liaohe heavy crude through a short process scheme.

  10. POSSIBILITIES OF FINANCIAL SUPPORT TO SMALL AND MEDIUM HOTEL COMPANIES IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoljub Barjaktarovic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Small and medium hotel companies in the majority of developed tourist countries have dominant role in hotel industry. The same situation is with Serbia. An important precondition for successful business of a hotel is accepting and applying basic pillars of marketing concept i.e. satisfying needs and expectations of guests inorder to achieve profit. Small hotel companies have specific problems in their daily business. Top priority in management and surviving of hotels is cash, because fixed costs are very dominant so hotels earmark more resources for them than for marketing. This means higher engagement and involvement of the state in furtherdevelopment of small and medium hotel companies in Serbia. The state should provide favourable subsidized credit lines for small and medium hotel companies in Serbia, through appropriate support programmes.

  11. Determinants of interstate migration: differences between elderly and nonelderly movers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serow, W J

    1987-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of interstate inmigration and outmigration for persons aged 5 to 54 and for persons aged 55 and over. The paper finds several similarities between the sets of migration determinants, but several potentially important differences emerge as well. Perhaps most striking among these are that states with high earnings of workers tend to have high rates of outmigration of elderly adults and that states with high levels of unemployment have high levels of inmigration of elderly people--these relationships are generally the opposite of those found for the nonelderly. This suggests the possibility of continued divergence in the spatial distribution of younger and older populations and offers the potential for the continued reallocation of resources between states (through the federal government) to pay for programs earmarked for the older population.

  12. Beyond Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovdal, Morten; Campbell, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to the development of the field of ‘schools in extreme settings’ as a specific problem space for research that informs school-focused policies and interventions to support children in adversity. Through a review of articles in this issue of International Journal...... of Education Development, we argue that such a field can facilitate a much needed discussion on the role of schools in supporting and protecting vulnerable children, highlighting how schools both contribute to and actively address disadvantages and hardship facing children. We end the paper by charting out key...... research areas for the field. We caution against earmarking schools and teachers as actors responsible for ameliorating the impacts of complex social problems in the absence of efforts to embed schools in supportive local community, national and global responses to support such a trend....

  13. [Problems of soils pollution with solid industrial waste in Kazakhstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebeneva, O V; Sakiev, K Z; Otarbaeva, M B; Zhanbasinova, N M

    2014-01-01

    The problem of recycling and disposal of solid waste from metallurgical, energy and petrochemical industries is becoming more acute problem for Kazakhstan. Violations of hygiene requirements concerning the placement and operation of landfills increase the area of contaminated soil and can become a threat to environmental safety of the population in industrial centers. The research was aimed to evaluate soil contamination in the cities and towns of Kazakhstan Republic and to mark out health risk areas. Five localities with especially high levels of soil contamination were revealed. Visualization of ecological contamination on individual urban areas gives to ecologists a tool to analyze and solve medical ecology problems. The results of soil contamination mapping can contribute earmarking of funds by local authorities to carry out measures for optimizing the environment.

  14. Structural Characters and Isolated Stability of Phosphorus Polyanions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ping

    2005-01-01

    The optimized geometries at the RHF/6-311++G** level, the relatively stable energy at the MPW1PW91/6-311++G** level and the structural characters of anions have been acquired, indicating the stability is related to the chemical bonding of μ2(P atoms and the distri- bution of negative charges. The configurations of cage units P84- and P95- are stable due to the less torsion, but their ES values are relatively higher than that of P73- with more μ2(P atoms and the isolated stability is lower than that of P73-. They potentially play an important role as intermediate in chemical reaction of producing complicated polyphosphides. Based on the related electronic properties, a stable polyanion must have low valence electron concentration, no (μ2(P)-(μ2-P) bond and a little dispersive charge. The earmark IR frequencies of cage units have been assigned to the vibration models in the end.

  15. Design, development, fabrication, and safety-of-flight testing of a panoramic night vision goggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Timothy W.; Craig, Jeffrey L.

    1999-07-01

    A novel approach to significantly increasing the field of view (FOV) of night vision goggles (NVGs) has been developed. This approach uses four image intensifier tubes instead of the usual two to produce a 100 degree wide FOV. A conceptual demonstrator device was fabricated in November 1995 and limited flight evaluations were performed. Further development of this approach continues with eleven advanced technology demonstrators delivered in March 1999 that feature five different design configurations. Some of the units will be earmarked for ejection seat equipped aircraft due to their low profile design allowing the goggle to be retained safely during and after ejection. Other deliverables will be more traditional in design approach and lends itself to transport and helicopter aircraft as well as ground personnel. Extensive safety-of-flight testing has been accomplished as a precursor to the F-15C operational utility evaluation flight testing at Nellis AFB that began in March 1999.

  16. Open for collaboration: an academic platform for drug discovery and development at SciLifeLab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Per I; Sandberg, Kristian; Forsberg-Nilsson, Karin

    2016-10-01

    The Science for Life Laboratory Drug Discovery and Development (SciLifeLab DDD) platform reaches out to Swedish academia with an industry-standard infrastructure for academic drug discovery, supported by earmarked funds from the Swedish government. In this review, we describe the build-up and operation of the platform, and reflect on our first two years of operation, with the ambition to share learnings and best practice with academic drug discovery centers globally. We also discuss how the Swedish Teacher Exemption Law, an internationally unique aspect of the innovation system, has shaped the operation. Furthermore, we address how this investment in infrastructure and expertise can be utilized to facilitate international collaboration between academia and industry in the best interest of those ultimately benefiting the most from translational pharmaceutical research - the patients.

  17. Reading Homer’s The Iliad in 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafruha Ferdous

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Homer's Iliad refers to an epic story written by the ancient Greek poet Homer, which makes an account of the most significant events that earmarked the very last days which defined the Trojan War and the Greek siege of the city of Troy. Troy was also known as Ilium, Ilion, or Ilois in the past. Having made to center around the events of the Trojan War, Homer’s Iliad is a work of art that paints to all of us interested in literature, what really happened in the past. The paper purposes to provide invaluable insights regarding the significance of Homer’s Iliad today and what it teaches us about poetry and the ancient culture of the Greeks.

  18. Compositional Studies on Tropical Species of Agama agama Lizards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.O. Onibon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess nutrient values of lizards (Agama agama. The samples earmarked for this study were obtained at Federal College of Agriculture, Akure, Nigeria. In male and female Agama agama lizards, anatomical weights, proximate and mineral contents, tannin, oxalate and phytate compositions were determined using standard methods. The samples contained: 54.05-57.69% protein; 2.56-3.01% fat, 1.11-3.18% fibre, 12.91-13.40% ash, 21.38-21.94% NFE, 3.85-4.18% moisture and 328.80-347.5 kcal energy. All the major elements determined were found to be high. The tannin, oxalate, phytate contents were low, meaning that the bioavailability of protein and minerals are high. The values recorded for proximate and minerals compared with other animal sources. It is recommended that nutritional qualities of lizards should be harnessed.

  19. Aboveground biomass and net primary production of semi-evergreen tropical forest of Manipur, north-eastern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.Supriya Devi; P.S Yadava

    2009-01-01

    The aboveground biomass dynamics and net primary productivity were investigated to assess the productive potential of Dipterocarpus forest in Manipur, Northeast India. Two forest stands (stand I and II) were earmarked randomly in the study site for the evaluation of biomass in the different girth classes of tree species by harvest method. The total biomass was 22.50 t·ha-1 and 18.27 t·ha-1 in forest stand I and II respectively. Annual aboveground net primary production varied from 8.86 to 10.43 t·ha-1 respectively in two forest stands (stand I and II). In the present study, the values of production efficiency and the biomass accumulation ratio indicate that the forest is at succession stage with high productive potential.

  20. Experience with LEDS and NAMA Low Carbon Strategies: The Case of Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakhaberi Mdivani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Low Emission Development Strategies (LEDS and National Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs have the potential to support developing countries in attaining low carbon goals. In spite of the evident potential, there is a need to learn from practice. This paper explores the case of Georgia. The main research question discussed is: What experience has been gained with the development of LEDS and NAMAs in Georgia? The study reveals that both LEDS and NAMAs are subject to barriers that considerably slow development processes: there is a lack of institutional capacity, little inter-governmental goal alignment and poor coordination of actions, a lack of experienced staff and insufficient, substantial, earmarked funding. Capacity building depends on support from organizations in donor countries. This paper contributes to a growing body of knowledge of the implementation of LEDS and NAMA.

  1. Innovative financing for health: what are the options for South Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Fryatt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses the options for additional innovative financing that could be considered in South Africa, covering both raising new funds and linking funds to results. New funds could come from: i the private sector, including the mining and mobile phone industry; ii from voluntary sources, through charities and foundations; iii and through further expanding health (sin levies on products such as tobacco, alcohol and unhealthy food and drinks. As in other countries, South Africa could earmark some of these additional sources for investment in interventions and research to reduce unhealthy behaviors and influence the determinants of health. South Africa could also expand innovative linking of funds to improve overall performance of the health sector, including mitigating the risks for non-state investment and exploring different forms of financial incentives for providers and patients. All such innovations would require rigorous monitoring and evaluation to assess whether intended benefits are achieved and to look for unintended consequences.

  2. How should green taxation be designed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    How should green taxation be designed so that it accommodates producer interests? We argue that to design green taxes which are high enough to have the desired incentive effects, tax revenues must be reimbursed, either by earmarking them for environmental subsidies or by reducing other taxes...... directed at industry. If green tax schemes can be designed this way, industry will have little incentive to mobilise strong opposition to green taxation. However, in practice, the requirement of reimbursement may be difficult to fulfil because, with few exceptions, polluting industries are not homogeneous....... This means that reimbursement will redistribute financial resources within industry and thus create winners and losers. Still, green taxes can be used in heterogeneous industries which can be created by operating separate tax schemes for each branch of industry. The Danish case of pesticide taxation...

  3. Intellectual property and financing strategies for technology startups

    CERN Document Server

    Halt, Jr , Gerald B; Stiles, Amber R; Fesnak, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive, easy to understand guide for startup entities and developing companies, providing insight on the various sources of funding that are available, how these funding sources are useful at each stage of a company’s development, and offers a comprehensive intellectual property strategy that parallels each stage of development. The IP strategies offered in this book take into consideration the goals that most startups and companies have at each stage of development, as well as the limitations that exist at each stage (i.e., limited available resources earmarked for intellectual property asset development), and provides solutions that startups and companies can implement to maximize their return on intellectual property investments. This book also includes a number of descriptive examples, case studies and scenarios to illustrate the topics discussed, and is intended for use by startups and companies across all industries. Readers will garner an appreciation for the value that inte...

  4. Optical properties of rare earth doped strontium aluminate (SAO) phosphors: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshatri, D. S.; Khare, A.

    2014-11-01

    After the first news on rare earth (RE) doped strontium aluminate (SAO) phosphors in late 1990s, researchers all over the world geared up to develop stable and efficient persistent phosphors. Scientists studied various features of long lasting phosphors (LLP) and tried to earmark appropriate mechanism. However, about two decades after the discovery of SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+, the number of persistent luminescent materials is not significant. In this review, we present an overview of the optical characteristics of RE doped SAO phosphors in terms of photoluminescence (PL), thermoluminescence (TL) and afterglow spectra. Also, we refresh the work undertaken to study diverse factors like dopant concentration, temperature, surface energy, role of activator, etc. Simultaneously, some of our important findings on SAO are reported and discussed in the end.

  5. Antibiotic resistance – why is the problem so difficult to solve?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sören Höjgård

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance has been increasing along with antibiotic use. At the same time, the supply of new drugs to replace those rendered inefficient by the development has been dwindling, leading to concerns that we may soon lack efficient means to treat bacterial infections. Though the problem has received considerable interest, there are no indications that the situation is about to change. The present review maintains that this is because the two objectives - preserving the efficiency of existing drugs and increasing the supply of new ones - are partly opposing. Hence, creating an incentive structure compatible with both of them is not easy. Nevertheless, it is suggested that levying a fee on the use of antibiotics, and earmarking the proceeds from this fee for subsidizing development of new antibiotics, would be an important step towards increasing incentives for a better antibiotic stewardship while preserving incentives to develop new substances.

  6. Provision of neuropsychiatry services: variability and unmet need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Niruj; Bhattacharya, Rahul; Rickards, Hugh

    2015-12-01

    Aims and method Neuropsychiatry services remain underdeveloped and underprovided. Previous studies have shown variability in service provision in the UK. In this survey we approached all mental health and neuropsychiatric service providers within London to map current neuropsychiatric service provision and explore perceived barriers. Results All the specialist mental health service providers responded. There was huge variability in neuropsychiatric service provision within different parts of London. There was evidence of significant unmet need and variability in service pathways. Lack of earmarked funds for neuropsychiatry and disjointed funding stream for such services were identified by providers as a barrier. Clinical implications This study provides further evidence of an ongoing lack of adequate neuropsychiatric service provision. Reasons for variability and unmet need are discussed. Adoption of a previously proposed hub-and-spoke model of service provision and the removal of commissioning barriers through uniform national commissioning may help deal with this problem.

  7. Synthesis of azido derivatives of mucobromic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mbebe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mucobromic acid is a highly reactive multicentered molecule. It was converted to its corresponding but unstable diazido derivative by reaction with two equivalents of sodium azide. The resultant 3,4-diazido-5-hydroxyfuran-2(5H-one was obtained in moderate yield (42% but decomposed readily even at low temperatures. Its more stable analogue 3,4-diazido-5-methoxyfuran-2(5H-one was obtained in excellent yield after reacting 5-methoxy-3,4-dibromofuranone with two equivalents of sodium azide. The 4,5-dibromopyridazinones which are in effect masked mucobromic acid derivatives, underwent nucleophilic substitution reactions with various nucleophiles, including azides and afforded corresponding azidopyridazinones in good yields. The synthesized azido-furanone and pyridazinone derivatives are earmarked for click reactions.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v27i1.17

  8. The logic of tax-based financing for health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenheimer, T; Sullivan, K

    1997-01-01

    Employment-based health insurance faces serious problems. For the first time, the number of Americans covered by such health insurance is falling. Employers strongly oppose the employer mandate approach to extending health insurance. Employment-based financing is regressive and complex. Serious debate is needed on an alternative solution to financing health care for all Americans. Taxation represents a clear alternative to employment-based health care financing. The major criterion for choosing a tax is equity, with simplicity a second criterion. An earmarked, progressive individual income tax is a fair and potentially simple tax with which to finance health care. The political feasibility of such a tax is greater than that of employer mandate legislation.

  9. Environmental Awareness of Surf Tourists: A Case Study in the Algarve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabia Frank

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Even though surf tourism in Portugal is an economic activity with a steady growth rate, there are not many assessment studies available. Using a survey undertaken in surf camps located in the Vila do Bispo County, this study aims to analyse the environmental awareness of surf tourists in the Algarve. Through the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP scale it is shown that the environmental attitudes of respondents are strongly pro-ecological but also reveal some anthropocentric aspects. Tourists were asked about their willingness to pay for an accommodation tax earmarked for environmental protection in the Algarve. The results show that the large majority (86% would be willing to pay, which indicates a high environmental awareness. It is also found that the willingness to pay is related to the nationality, with respondents from Germany, Austria and Switzerland showing a higher willingness to pay.

  10. The importance of continued engagement during the implementation phase of tobacco control policies in a middle-income country: the case of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Eric; Sosa, Patricia; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-01-01

    To analyse the process of implementing and enforcing smoke-free environments, tobacco advertising, tobacco taxes and health warning labels from Costa Rica's 2012 tobacco control law. Review of tobacco control legislation, newspaper articles and interviewing key informants. Despite overcoming decades of tobacco industry dominance to win enactment of a strong tobacco control law in March 2012 consistent with WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the tobacco industry and their allies lobbied executive branch authorities for exemptions in smoke-free environments to create public confusion, and continued to report in the media that increasing cigarette taxes led to a rise in illicit trade. In response, tobacco control advocates, with technical support from international health groups, helped strengthen tobacco advertising regulations by prohibiting advertising at the point-of-sale (POS) and banning corporate social responsibility campaigns. The Health Ministry used increased tobacco taxes earmarked for tobacco control to help effectively promote and enforce the law, resulting in high compliance for smoke-free environments, advertising restrictions and health warning label (HWL) regulations. Despite this success, government trade concerns allowed, as of December 2015, POS tobacco advertising, and delayed the release of HWL regulations for 15 months. The implementation phase continues to be a site of intensive tobacco industry political activity in low and middle-income countries. International support and earmarked tobacco taxes provide important technical and financial assistance to implement tobacco control policies, but more legal expertise is needed to overcome government trade concerns and avoid unnecessary delays in implementation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Aligning vertical interventions to health systems: a case study of the HIV monitoring and evaluation system in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawonga Mary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like many low- and middle-income countries, South Africa established a dedicated HIV monitoring and evaluation (M&E system to track the national response to HIV/AIDS. Its implementation in the public health sector has however not been assessed. Since responsibility for health services management lies at the district (sub-national level, this study aimed to assess the extent to which the HIV M&E system is integrated with the overall health system M&E function at district level. This study describes implementation of the HIV M&E system, determines the extent to which it is integrated with the district health information system (DHIS, and evaluates factors influencing HIV M&E integration. Methods The study was conducted in one health district in South Africa. Data were collected through key informant interviews with programme and health facility managers and review of M&E records at health facilities providing HIV services. Data analysis assessed the extent to which processes for HIV data collection, collation, analysis and reporting were integrated with the DHIS. Results The HIV M&E system is top-down, over-sized, and captures a significant amount of energy and resources to primarily generate antiretroviral treatment (ART indicators. Processes for producing HIV prevention indicators are integrated with the DHIS. However processes for the production of HIV treatment indicators by-pass the DHIS and ART indicators are not disseminated to district health managers. Specific reporting requirements linked to ear-marked funding, politically-driven imperatives, and mistrust of DHIS capacity are key drivers of this silo approach. Conclusions Parallel systems that bypass the DHIS represent a missed opportunity to strengthen system-wide M&E capacity. Integrating HIV M&E (staff, systems and process into the health system M&E function would mobilise ear-marked HIV funding towards improving DHIS capacity to produce quality and timely HIV

  12. Where will the money come from? Alternative mechanisms to HIV donor funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Itamar; Routh, Subrata; Bitran, Ricardo; Hulme, Alexandra; Avila, Carlos

    2014-09-16

    Donor funding for HIV programs has flattened out in recent years, which limits the ability of HIV programs worldwide to achieve universal access and sustain current progress. This study examines alternative mechanisms for resource mobilization. Potential non-donor funding sources for national HIV responses in low- and middle-income countries were explored through literature review and Global Fund documentation, including data from 17 countries. We identified the source, financing agent, magnitude of resources, frequency of availability, as well as enabling and risk factors. Four non-donor funding sources for HIV programs were identified: earmarked levy for HIV from country budgets; risk-pooling schemes such as health insurance; debt conversion, in which the creditor country reduces the debt of the debtor country and allocates at least a part of that reduction to health; and concessionary loans from international development banks, which unlike grants, must be repaid. The first two are recurring sources of funding, while the latter two are usually one-time sources, and, if very large, might negatively affect the debtor country's economy. Insurance schemes in five African countries covered less than 6.1% of the HIV expenditure, while social health insurance in four Latin American countries covered 8-11% of the HIV expenditure; in Colombia and Chile, it covered 69% and 60%, respectively. Most low-income countries will find concessionary loans hard to repay, as their HIV programs cost 0.5-4% of GDP. Even in a middle-income country like India, a US$255 million concessionary loan to be repaid over 25 years provided only 7.8% of a 5-year HIV budget. Earmarked levies provided only 15% of the annual HIV funding needs in Zimbabwe and Kenya. Debt conversion provided the same share in Indonesia, but in Pakistan it was much higher - the equivalent of 45% of the annual cost of the national HIV program. Domestic sources of funding are important alternatives to consider and might

  13. The Terminology of the Public Relations Field in the Slovenian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kalin Golob

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article includes two starting points: (a the development of the Slovenian (and Croatian language in science and professions is being increasingly limited by the narrow comprehension of internationalised higher education and science; (b in the digital age, the fields of usage being lost in those languages are those not supported enough in terms of language technology. With the case of the Slovenian public relations terminology, we reveal that it is possible to confront both: on the basis of the previously formed corpus of professional texts, KoRP, which is linguistically earmarked and freely available online, and in the TERMIS project. We initially inferred one- or multi-word term candidates with the LUIZ programme, and then acquired the typical text environment and best dictionary examples automatically by means of the Sketch Engine tool and its application Word Sketches together with the GDEX tool. The infrastructure formed during the project will be freely available after the conclusion of the project (June 2013, and the dictionary, which will include 2,000 terms regarding public relations, may be understood as a model for the creation of modern terminology dictionaries of other professions as well.

  14. Capacity building for the effective adoption of renewable energy technologies in rural areas. Experience of India NGOs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myles, R. [Integrated Sustainable Energy and Ecological Development Association (INSEDA), New Delhi (India)

    2002-07-01

    The experience of NGO network in the promotions of biogas and other low cost RET gadgets, devices, equipments and machines in the rural areas of India, for over two decades, have shown that there are serveral problems yet challenging opportunities in the promotion and implementation of renewable energy technologies in villages. First of all, the field and extension organizations should recognise that these technologies are new and aliens to the rural people, therefore like any other technologies, developed outside the rural environment, RETs are first view with skepticism by the rural community. Even if 100 units of a RE technology are successfully demonstrated, failure of even one could create negative impact within a radius of 30-50 KMs, and its shortcomings are spread like a wild fire. The appropriate technology demonstration backed by systematic capacity building of different stakeholders/actors/players (i.e. Energy Producers, Energy Service Providers and the Energy End Users) is a must for the acceptance and large-scale adoption of RETs in rural areas of the developing countries. The programme funds for the promotion and implementation of RETs should have good percentage earmarked for the capacity building as well as supporting infrastructure for awareness, motivation, promotional and post installation services activities by local field level organizations and NGOs on a long term basis. (orig.)

  15. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - A Tool for Acquiring Spatial Data for Research and Commercial Purposes. New Course in the Geography and Cartography Curriculum in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeziorska, J.

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the syllabus for the innovative course "Unmanned aerial observations of Terrain" introduced to the curriculum by the Department of Geoinformatics and Cartography of the University of Wroclaw (Poland). It indicates the objectives of the new subject, its didactic purpose, methods used in the teaching process, specifications of teaching materials, and the knowledge and skills that students are expected to acquire. Finally, it presents the content of the course and description of lesson units. The subject will be obligatory for graduate students majoring in Geography, who are participants in the Geoinformatics and Cartography Master's program. Thirty-eight hours in a summer semester has been earmarked for the course. That includes 30 hours of instructor-guided laboratory and fieldtrip work, and 8 hours of individual work. The course aims to prepare future geographers to conduct a multi-step process that includes defining the purpose of using UAV in light of the chosen research problem, preparation of the mission, flight execution; geoprocessing of acquired aerial imagery; generation of cartomertic final products, and analysis of outcomes in order to answer the initially asked research question. This comprehensive approach will allow students, future experts in the field of geoinformatics and cartography, to gain the skills needed to acquire spatial data using an UAV, process them, and apply the results of their analysis in practice.

  16. Functional evolution of the OAS1 viral sensor: Insights from old world primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Ian; Boissinot, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    Infections with viral pathogens impose considerable selective pressure on host defensive genes. Those genes at the forefront, responsible for identifying and binding exogenous molecular viral components, will carry the hallmarks of this struggle. Oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) enzymes play a major role in the innate defense against a large number of viruses by acting as sensors of viral infections. Following their up-regulation by the interferon pathway, OASs bind viral dsRNA and then signal ribonuclease L (RNase L) to degrade RNA, shutting down viral and host protein synthesis. We have investigated the evolution of OAS1 in twenty-two Old World monkey species. We identified a total of 35 codons with the earmarks of positive selection and we performed a comprehensive analysis of their functional significance using in silico modeling of the OAS1 protein. Subdividing OAS1 into functional domains revealed intense purifying selection in the active domain but significant positive directional selection in the RNA-binding domain (RBD), the region where OAS1 binds viral dsRNA. The modeling analysis revealed a concentration of rapidly evolving residues in one region of the RBD suggestive of the sub-functionalization of different regions of the RBD. This analysis also identified several positively selected residues circumscribing the entry to the active site suggesting adaptive evasion of viral antagonism and/or selection for production of oligoadenylate of different length.

  17. Regions in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Čokert

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The reasons behind the need to prepare a law on regions are both internal and external in nature. We need regions as a second level of local government primarily to counter internal development problems and the need for decentralisation in Slovenia. Developmentaly stagnant and depressed areas account for more than 70% of Slovene territory. The share of founds earmarked directly from central government for regional promotion is falling and is lower than the average in European Union countries. Analyses of population and employment, and of the economic, infrastructure and educational capacities of the Slovene regions reveal serious regional differences. The reasons for the establishment of regions in Slovenia also lie in the diversity of regional problems, which are different in Zasavje, Pomurje, Gorenjska or Primorska. Any restriction to an administrative territorial division would blur the special regional features which, even by Europe-wide comparision, are characteristic of Slovenia. And we cannot simplify the tackling of urgent regional problems as being a matter for relations between the central government and a large number of very diverse municipalities.

  18. An assessment of fiscal space for health in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jayendra

    2016-07-01

    Several factors are expected to put a strain on health financing in Bhutan. In a predominantly public-financed healthcare, ensuring that the health system gains sufficient fiscal space to ensure the sustainability of its financing is a critical policy concern. This fiscal space assessment bases its analysis on national surveys and statistics, international databases and review of official documents and reports. Assuming that the government health spending will continue to respond in the same way to growth as in the period 2002-2012, Bhutan can expect to see a robust increase in government investments in health. If elasticity of health expenditure with respect to GDP does not change significantly, projections indicate that per-capita government spending for health could more than double in the period 2012 to 2019. This increase from Ngultrum 2632 in 2012 to Ngultrum 6724 in 2019 could correspond to government health spending from 2.65% of GDP to 3.98% of GDP in the respective years. The country, however, needs to closely monitor and ensure that government investment in healthcare keeps pace with the growth of the national economy. Along with this, supplementary resources for healthcare could be explored through earmarked taxes and by generating efficiency gains. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Prospective Activities outlined for Regulatory Approval in Ghana Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrefah, R.G.; Odoi, H.C.; Mo, S.C.; Morman, J.A.; Liaw, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) is one of Chinese’s Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) which was purchased under a tripartite agreement between Ghana, China and the IAEA. The reactor was installed in 1994 and has since been in operation without any incident. It has been used chiefly for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Training of students in the field of Nuclear Engineering. The GHARR-1 has been earmarked for the Conversion of Core from HEU to LEU which is in accordance with the GTRI program and other related and/or associated programs. Over the past few years the National Nuclear Research Institute (NNRI), the Operating Organization of the Research Reactor for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), has undertaken various tasks in order to implement the replacement of the reactor core. After completion, of the neutronic calculations, results showed that that an LEU fuel of 12.5% enrichment was desirable. However, recent developments have shown that an LEU fuel with 13% enrichment will be fabricated by the manufacturers, which is captured in a fuel specification document sent to NNRI by the CIAE. It is therefore imperative that all neutronic and thermal hydraulic calculation be done again to help acquire regulatory approval. Furthermore, the radiation exposure to personnel involved in the conversion must be estimated to help convince our regulators. This paper outlines the processes and activities that will enable us meet regulatory requirements.

  20. Radio astronomy in Africa: the case of Ghana

    CERN Document Server

    Asabere, Bernard Duah; Horellou, Cathy; Winkler, Hartmut; Jarrett, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    South Africa has played a leading role in radio astronomy in Africa with the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO). It continues to make strides with the current seven-dish MeerKAT precursor array (KAT-7), leading to the 64-dish MeerKAT and the giant Square Kilometer Array (SKA), which will be used for transformational radio astronomy research. Ghana, an African partner to the SKA, has been mentored by South Africa over the past six years and will soon emerge in the field of radio astronomy. The country will soon have a science-quality 32m dish converted from a redundant satellite communication antenna. Initially, it will be fitted with 5 GHz and 6.7 GHz receivers to be followed later by a 1.4 - 1.7 GHz receiver. The telescope is being designed for use as a single dish observatory and for participation in the developing African Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Network (AVN) and the European VLBI Network. Ghana is earmarked to host a remote station during a possible SKA Phase 2. The loca...

  1. TINJAUAN TERHADAP RENCANA PENERAPAN PAJAK LINGKUNGAN SEBAGAI INSTRUMEN PERLINDUNGAN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahliana Hasan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on “an analysis on Indonesia’s Environmental Tax Planning as an instrument of Environmental Preservation” is a normative research which has objectives to know the concept of environmental tax which is offered by Indonesian Government and to obtain a clear description whether it is a better concept or not which can be used to decrease environmental degradation. Data in this research were obtained through field research and library research. The field research was carried out by using interview guidance, whereas the library research was done by documentary study by way of collecting and analyzing selected laws and regulations, books, articles and other documents which were relevant to the research. All data were analyzed qualitatively. The result showed that the objective of the concept of environmental tax, offered by Indonesian government, is to decrease environmental degradation as a result of production process. Basically, the concept is a better instrument to preserve the environment, however, it should be reviewed especially on determining the taxpayer’s criteria, the tax rate and the budget earmarking in order to be applicable and to have no burden toward the industry itself. Now, it will be wise to rely on other policies to handle the environmental problems in Indonesia such as CSR, performance bonds, AMDAL and UKL-UPL, even though some weaknesses have also found on those policies.

  2. ["I am rather satisfied with this interpretation of my dreams." -- real-life and work-related encounters between psychiatrist Johann Christian August Heinroth and poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmideler, S; Steinberg, H

    2004-09-01

    Apart from being a major pioneer of modern psychiatry, Johann Christian August Heinroth (1773 - 1843) is foremost famous as the first academic teacher, professor of this subject at Leipzig University. Despite his theoretical concepts being thoroughly investigated by medical historians, the fact that his scientific work also brought him in contact with Weimar poet and scientist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749 - 1832) has up to now not been acknowledged. This paper analyses for the first time the manifold points of contact between the two geniuses. Starting off with a retrospective on Goethe's relationship towards psychiatry in his day, this paper investigates the mutual interconnections and influences between the two. This is achieved by an analysis of yet unknown primary sources as well as Goethe's literary and scientific works. A main emphasis is also placed on Heinroth's Textbook of Anthropology of 1822 in which the psychiatrist laid out his understanding of 'relational thinking' (gegenständliches Denken), a key concept for both. This theory developed from Heinroth's dealing with Goethe's concept of "anschauung" and was to gain major importance not only for his way of gaining knowledge in general but also for his psychiatric concept. Goethe's influence on Heinroth is particularly revealed in the latter's holistic views on mental illnesses. Heinroth's visit to Goethe on 15 September 1827 can be earmarked as a sign of their mutual esteem.

  3. US agency for international development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumfrey, R.

    1997-12-01

    The author addresses the following questions in his presentation: what is USAID; where does the money go and who makes the decisions; where does USAID fund energy programs, and especially renewable energy; who are their `partners`; what is the approach to renewable energy; what in summary, has USAID funded that is relevant to village power. USAID is the foreign aid agency of the US Government. Approximately 75 countries receive regular assistance. The fiscal year 97 budget for the agency is approximately $5.8 billion. About half of the total budget goes to Israel, Egypt, and the countries of the former Soviet Union. These budgeting decisions are geopolitical. Congress earmarks total budgets for a few sectors or subjects, such as family planning. The goal of USAID`s renewable energy programs is simple: They are interested in accelerating the market penetration of commercial technologies. They do not engage in technology R&D. Developing countries have energy needs now, and commercial technologies are available now. USAID has taken note of the interest taken by subsidiaries of US utilities in the past couple of years in bringing their expertise and resources to bear on meeting the challenge of rural energy needs in developing countries. They believe that the entry into the market of these players could be one of the most important catalysts for making the rural energy revolution happen.

  4. Systematic Development and Validation of a Thin-Layer Densitometric Bioanalytical Method for Estimation of Mangiferin Employing Analytical Quality by Design (AQbD) Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Rajneet Kaur; Rao, Satish; Beg, Sarwar; Katare, O P; Singh, Bhupinder

    2016-01-01

    The present work aims at the systematic development of a simple, rapid and highly sensitive densitometry-based thin-layer chromatographic method for the quantification of mangiferin in bioanalytical samples. Initially, the quality target method profile was defined and critical analytical attributes (CAAs) earmarked, namely, retardation factor (Rf), peak height, capacity factor, theoretical plates and separation number. Face-centered cubic design was selected for optimization of volume loaded and plate dimensions as the critical method parameters selected from screening studies employing D-optimal and Plackett-Burman design studies, followed by evaluating their effect on the CAAs. The mobile phase containing a mixture of ethyl acetate : acetic acid : formic acid : water in a 7 : 1 : 1 : 1 (v/v/v/v) ratio was finally selected as the optimized solvent for apt chromatographic separation of mangiferin at 262 nm withRf 0.68 ± 0.02 and all other parameters within the acceptance limits. Method validation studies revealed high linearity in the concentration range of 50-800 ng/band for mangiferin. The developed method showed high accuracy, precision, ruggedness, robustness, specificity, sensitivity, selectivity and recovery. In a nutshell, the bioanalytical method for analysis of mangiferin in plasma revealed the presence of well-resolved peaks and high recovery of mangiferin.

  5. Strategic Messaging to Promote Taxation of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Lessons From Recent Political Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Judy; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Barry, Colleen L.; Gollust, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study explored the use of strategic messaging by proponents of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxation to influence public opinion and shape the policy process, emphasizing the experiences in El Monte and Richmond, California, with SSB tax proposals in 2012. Methods. We conducted 18 semistructured interviews with key stakeholders about the use and perceived effectiveness of messages supporting and opposing SSB taxation, knowledge sharing among advocates, message dissemination, and lessons learned from their messaging experiences. Results. The protax messages most frequently mentioned by respondents were reinvesting tax revenue into health-related programs and linking SSB consumption to health outcomes such as obesity and diabetes. The most frequently mentioned antitax messages addressed negative economic effects on businesses and government restriction of personal choice. Factors contributing to perceived messaging success included clearly defining “sugar-sweetened beverage” and earmarking funds for obesity prevention, incorporating cultural sensitivity into messaging, and providing education about the health effects of SSB consumption. Conclusions. Sugar-sweetened beverage taxation has faced significant challenges in gaining political and public support. Future campaigns can benefit from insights gained through the experiences of stakeholders involved in previous policy debates. PMID:24625177

  6. Pred-hERG: A Novel web-Accessible Computational Tool for Predicting Cardiac Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Rodolpho C; Alves, Vinicius M; Silva, Meryck F B; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Lião, Luciano M; Tropsha, Alexander; Andrade, Carolina H

    2015-10-01

    The blockage of the hERG K(+) channels is closely associated with lethal cardiac arrhythmia. The notorious ligand promiscuity of this channel earmarked hERG as one of the most important antitargets to be considered in early stages of drug development process. Herein we report on the development of an innovative and freely accessible web server for early identification of putative hERG blockers and non-blockers in chemical libraries. We have collected the largest publicly available curated hERG dataset of 5,984 compounds. We succeed in developing robust and externally predictive binary (CCR≈0.8) and multiclass models (accuracy≈0.7). These models are available as a web-service freely available for public at http://labmol.farmacia.ufg.br/predherg/. Three following outcomes are available for the users: prediction by binary model, prediction by multi-class model, and the probability maps of atomic contribution. The Pred-hERG will be continuously updated and upgraded as new information became available. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. New tools for weight-loss therapy enable a more robust medical model for obesity treatment: rationale for a complications-centric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, W Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in lifestyle intervention programs, pharmacotherapy, and bariatric surgery have enabled the development of medical models for the treatment of obesity. Regarding pharmacotherapy, in 2012 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved two new effective and safe weight-loss medications, phentermine/topiramate extended release and lorcaserin, which has greatly augmented options for medically assisted weight loss. The rationale for advantages of a complications-centric medical model over current body mass index (BMI)-centric indications for therapy is examined. Currently, the baseline BMI level is the principle determinant of indications for obesity treatment using medication and surgery. However, the BMI-centric approach fails to target therapy to those obese patients who will benefit most from weight loss. In contrast, a complications-centric medical model is proposed that will earmark the modality and intensity of the therapeutic intervention based on the presence and severity of complications that can be ameliorated by weight loss. The complications-centric approach to "medicalizing" obesity care employs weight loss primarily as a tool to treat obesity-related complications and promotes the optimization of health outcomes, the benefit/risk ratio, and the cost-effectiveness of therapy.

  8. Establishing and sustaining a biorepository network in Israel: challenges and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yehudit; Almog, Ronit; Onn, Amir; Itzhaki-Alfia, Ayelet; Meir, Karen

    2013-12-01

    Over the past 5 years, using European and North American biobanks as models, the grass-roots establishment of independently operating biobanks has occurred virtually simultaneously in large Israeli teaching hospitals. The process of establishing a national biorepository network in Israel has progressed slowly, sustained mainly by a few proponents working together on a personal level. Slow progress has been due to limited funding and the lack of a legal framework specific to biobanking activities. Recently, due to increasing pressure from the scientific community, the government has earmarked funds for a national biorepository network, and the structure is now being established. In forming a network, Israel's biobanks face certain difficulties, particularly lack of support. Additional challenges include harmonization of standard operating procedures, database centralization, and use of a common informed consent form. In this article, we highlight some of the issues faced by Israel's biobank managers in establishing and sustaining a functional biobank network, information that could provide guidance for other small countries with limited resources.

  9. Surface Accuracy and Pointing Error Prediction of a 32 m Diameter Class Radio Astronomy Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azankpo, Severin

    2017-03-01

    The African Very-long-baseline interferometry Network (AVN) is a joint project between South Africa and eight partner African countries aimed at establishing a VLBI (Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry) capable network of radio telescopes across the African continent. An existing structure that is earmarked for this project, is a 32 m diameter antenna located in Ghana that has become obsolete due to advances in telecommunication. The first phase of the conversion of this Ghana antenna into a radio astronomy telescope is to upgrade the antenna to observe at 5 GHz to 6.7 GHz frequency and then later to 18 GHz within a required performing tolerance. The surface and pointing accuracies for a radio telescope are much more stringent than that of a telecommunication antenna. The mechanical pointing accuracy of such telescopes is influenced by factors such as mechanical alignment, structural deformation, and servo drive train errors. The current research investigates the numerical simulation of the surface and pointing accuracies of the Ghana 32 m diameter radio astronomy telescope due to its structural deformation mainly influenced by gravity, wind and thermal loads.

  10. Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating Liquid Chromatographic Method for Estimating Olmesartan Medoxomil Using Quality by Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, Sarwar; Sharma, Gajanand; Katare, O P; Lohan, Shikha; Singh, Bhupinder

    2015-08-01

    The current studies entail systematic quality by design (QbD)-based development of a simple, rapid, sensitive and cost-effective stability-indicating method for the estimation of olmesartan medoxomil. Quality target method profile was defined and critical analytical attributes (CAAs) for the reverse-phase liquid chromatography method earmarked. Chromatographic separation accomplished on a C18 column using acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% orthophosphoric acid, pH 3.5) in 40 : 60 (v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 243 nm. Risk assessment studies and screening studies facilitated comprehensive understanding of the factors affecting CAAs. The mobile phase ratio and flow rate were identified as critical method parameters (CMPs) and were systematically optimized using face-centered cubic design, evaluating for CAAs, namely peak area, retention time, theoretical plates and peak tailing. Statistical modelization was accomplished followed by response surface analysis for comprehending plausible interaction(s) among CMPs. Search for optimum solution was conducted through numerical and graphical optimization for demarcating the design space. Analytical method validation and subsequent forced degradation studies corroborated the method to be highly efficient for routine analysis of drug and its degradation products. The studies successfully demonstrate the utility of QbD approach for developing the highly sensitive liquid chromatographic method with enhanced method performance.

  11. QbD-based systematic development of novel optimized solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) of lovastatin with enhanced biopharmaceutical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, Sarwar; Sandhu, Premjeet Singh; Batra, Rattandeep Singh; Khurana, Rajneet Kaur; Singh, Bhupinder

    2015-01-01

    Of late, solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (S-SNEDDS) have been extensively sought-after owing to their superior portability, drug loading, stability and patient compliance. The current studies, therefore, entail systematic development, optimization and evaluation (in vitro, in situ and in vivo) of the solid formulations of (SNEDDS) lovastatin employing rational quality by design (QbD)-based approach of formulation by design (FbD). The patient-centric quality target product profile (QTPP) and critical quality attributes (CQAs) were earmarked. Preformulation studies along with initial risk assessment facilitated the selection of lipid (i.e. Capmul MCM), surfactant (i.e. Nikkol HCO-50) and co-surfactant (i.e. Lutrol F127) as CMAs for formulation of S-SNEDDS. A face-centered cubic design (FCCD) was employed for optimization using Nikkol-HCO50 (X1) and Lutrol-F127 (X2), evaluating CQAs like globule size, liquefaction time, emulsification time, MDT, dissolution efficiency and permeation parameter. The design space was generated using apt mathematical models, and the optimum formulation was located, followed by validation of the FbD methodology. In situ SPIP and in vivo pharmacodynamic studies on the optimized formulation carried out in unisex Wistar rats, corroborated superior drug absorption and enhanced pharmacodynamic potential in regulating serum lipid levels. In a nutshell, the present studies report successful QbD-oriented development of novel oral S-SNEDDS of lovastatin with distinctly improved biopharmaceutical performance.

  12. The Establishment of China’s New Type Rural Social Insurance Pension: A Process Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Stepan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the processes and outcomes of the public policy reforms from 2002 to 2014, targeting income security among the elderly for a segment of the Chinese population that was increasingly marginalised throughout the 1990s: the rural population. The authors reconstruct the policy process from 2002 until 2014 that led to the establishment of the New Type Rural Social Insurance Pension and assess its impact on providing adequate and sustainable old-age income. One particular focus is the study of the influence of international actors. Yet, as key to the success of the initiative, the authors identify the decisive support of the central level leadership, which facilitated the process by announcing a new development model and providing earmarked transfers from the central government. Despite the improvements in the income security of elderly rural Chinese, questions remain about the Chinese pension system’s long-term sustainability and the influence of the system’s fragmentation on social mobility and equality.

  13. The merry-go-round of approval, pricing and reimbursement of drugs against the Hepatitis C virus infection in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo-Artero, Carlos; Garcia-Armesto, Sandra; Bernal-Delgado, Enrique

    2016-09-01

    Given that drug innovation has been largely away from breakthroughs, arguing that a new drug recently approved and reaching the market is downright effective, safe and affordable is actually parlous. The soaring costs of an increasing number of new drugs (specially for cancer and rare diseases) threaten to supersede societal absorbing capacity, competing with other health and outside health sector resources. Some health systems are not making headways towards solving the current conundrum of keeping path with the state of the art regulatory mechanisms in delivering cost-effective, equitable and affordable treatments. The way pricing and reimbursement decisions have been made in Spain regarding the recent wave of new drugs against the hepatitis C virus could be one case in point. This paper analyses the path of decision-making and the positioning of the relevant actors in this case, that has set a cumbersome precedent (earmarked fund) for the Spanish National Health Service. It also stresses the need for current decision-making mechanisms on approval, pricing, coverage and reimbursement in Spain to move to a transparent regulatory system, avoiding improvisation and incorporating the highest regulatory standards that other countries have in place.

  14. Music to whose ears? The effect of social norms on young people's risk perceptions of hearing damage resulting from their music listening behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliver, Megan; Carter, Lyndal; Macoun, Denise; Rosen, Jenny; Williams, Warwick

    2012-01-01

    Professional and community concerns about the potentially dangerous noise levels for common leisure activities has led to increased interest on providing hearing health information to participants. However, noise reduction programmes aimed at leisure activities (such as music listening) face a unique difficulty. The noise source that is earmarked for reduction by hearing health professionals is often the same one that is viewed as pleasurable by participants. Furthermore, these activities often exist within a social setting, with additional peer influences that may influence behavior. The current study aimed to gain a better understanding of social-based factors that may influence an individual's motivation to engage in positive hearing health behaviors. Four hundred and eighty-four participants completed questionnaires examining their perceptions of the hearing risk associated with listening to music listening and asking for estimates of their own and their peer's music listening behaviors. Participants were generally aware of the potential risk posed by listening to personal stereo players (PSPs) and the volumes likely to be most dangerous. Approximately one in five participants reported using listening volumes at levels perceived to be dangerous, an incidence rate in keeping with other studies measuring actual PSP use. However, participants showed less awareness of peers' behavior, consistently overestimating the volumes at which they believed their friends listened. Misperceptions of social norms relating to listening behavior may decrease individuals' perceptions of susceptibility to hearing damage. The consequences of hearing health promotion are discussed, along with suggestions relating to the development of new programs.

  15. Whose waters? Large-scale agricultural development and water grabbing in the Wami-Ruvu River Basin, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia van Eeden

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In Tanzania like in other parts of the global South, in the name of 'development' and 'poverty eradication' vast tracts of land have been earmarked by the government to be developed by investors for different commercial agricultural projects, giving rise to the contested land grab phenomenon. In parallel, Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM has been promoted in the country and globally as the governance framework that seeks to manage water resources in an efficient, equitable and sustainable manner. This article asks how IWRM manages the competing interests as well as the diverse priorities of both large and small water users in the midst of foreign direct investment. By focusing on two commercial sugar companies operating in the Wami-Ruvu River Basin in Tanzania and their impacts on the water and land rights of the surrounding villages, the article asks whether institutional and capacity weaknesses around IWRM implementation can be exploited by powerful actors that seek to meet their own interests, thus allowing water grabbing to take place. The paper thus highlights the power, interests and alliances of the various actors involved in the governance of water resources. By drawing on recent conceptual insights from the water grabbing literature, the empirical findings suggest that the IWRM framework indirectly and directly facilitates the phenomenon of water grabbing to take place in the Wami-Ruvu River Basin in Tanzania.

  16. β-Adrenergic Control of Hippocampal Function: Subserving the Choreography of Synaptic Information Storage and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagena, Hardy; Hansen, Niels; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2016-04-01

    Noradrenaline (NA) is a key neuromodulator for the regulation of behavioral state and cognition. It supports learning by increasing arousal and vigilance, whereby new experiences are "earmarked" for encoding. Within the hippocampus, experience-dependent information storage occurs by means of synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, novel spatial, contextual, or associative learning drives changes in synaptic strength, reflected by the strengthening of long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD). NA acting on β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) is a key determinant as to whether new experiences result in persistent hippocampal synaptic plasticity. This can even dictate the direction of change of synaptic strength.The different hippocampal subfields play different roles in encoding components of a spatial representation through LTP and LTD. Strikingly, the sensitivity of synaptic plasticity in these subfields to β-adrenergic control is very distinct (dentate gyrus > CA3 > CA1). Moreover, NA released from the locus coeruleus that acts on β-AR leads to hippocampal LTD and an enhancement of LTD-related memory processing. We propose that NA acting on hippocampal β-AR, that is graded according to the novelty or saliency of the experience, determines the content and persistency of synaptic information storage in the hippocampal subfields and therefore of spatial memories.

  17. Resource-based View as a Perspective for Public Tourism Management Research: Evidence from Two Brazilian Tourism Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Shizue Massukado-Nakatani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study adopted the Resource-Based View approach to analyse two public organizations located in Curitiba and Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil. The focus was to verify how organizational and tourist resources are being used for planning and public management in these cities. Data collection was made by adopting semi-structured interviews with two groups: public and private sector managers. The insights of these two groups and the use of documentary secondary data made it possible to infer that the main resource for the implementation of public policies was organizational architecture. However, the most influential resource in public tourism management is the existence of tourist resources and organizational resources related to internal and external relationships and organizational culture. The analysis demonstrated that the researched cities do not use or do not know how to use the available resources in value-creating activities for local tourist management. Both cities present imperfections that do not earmark the full exploitation of organizational resources, compromising the exploration of available tourist resources.

  18. The taxation of unhealthy energy-dense foods (EDFs) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs): An overview of patterns observed in the policy content and policy context of 13 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenaars, Luc Louis; Jeurissen, Patrick Paulus Theodoor; Klazinga, Niek Sieds

    2017-08-01

    Taxation of energy-dense foods (EDFs) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is increasingly of interest as a novel public health and fiscal policy instrument. However academic interest in policy determinants has remained limited. We address this paucity by comparing the policy content and policy context of EDF/SSB taxes witnessed in 13 case studies, of which we assume the tax is sufficiently high to induce behavioural change. The observational and non-randomized studies published on our case studies seem to indicate that the EDF/SSB taxes under investigation generally had the desired effects on prices and consumption of targeted products. The revenue collection of EDF/SSB taxes is minimal yet significant. Administrative practicalities in tax levying are important, possibly explaining why a drift towards solely taxing SSBs can be noted, as these can be demarcated more easily, with levies seemingly increasing in more recent case studies. Despite the growing body of evidence suggesting that EDF/SSB taxes have the potential to improve health, fiscal needs more often seem to lay their policy foundation rather than public health advocacy. A remarkable amount of conservative/liberal governments have adopted these taxes, although in many cases revenues are earmarked for benefits compensating regressive income effects. Governments voice diverse policy rationales, ranging from explicitly describing the tax as a public health instrument, to solely explicating revenue raising. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of two controlled release devices: Chlorhexidine chips and indigenous curcumin based collagen as local drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sruthima N. V. S. Gottumukkala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To comparatively evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of chlorhexidine (CHX chips (Periocol-CG and indigenous curcumin (CU based collagen as adjuncts to scaling and root planning in the nonsurgical management of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 sites from 60 patients presenting with chronic periodontitis (age group 25-55 years of both sexes, with pocket depth of ≥5 mm with radiographic evidence of bilateral bone loss were earmarked for the study. A split mouth design was employed, and all the clinical parameters-plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD and clinical attachment levels (CAL were recorded at baseline, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. However, the microbiological parameters, i.e., N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-β-naphthylamide (BANA test and microbial colony count were recorded at baseline, 3 months and 6 months postoperatively. Results: Significant reduction in plaque and gingival index scores were observed in both groups at the end of the study period, i.e., 6 months. The microbiological parameters (BANA test, microbial colony count, PPD and CAL levels also showed significant improvement in both groups. However, at the end of the study period CHX group showed greater improvement in all of these parameters compared to CU collagen group. Conclusion: Future directions of this study should include targeting the beneficial effects of these local drug delivery systems at varied concentrations so that they could be utilized to achieve the maximum beneficial therapeutic effects in the nonsurgical treatment of periodontal disease.

  20. Designing green taxes in a political context: From optimal to feasible environmental regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugbjerg, C.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.

    2001-07-01

    How should green taxation be designed so that it accommodates producer interests? We argue that to design green taxes which are high enough to have the desired incentive effects, tax revenues must be reimbursed, either by earmarking them for environmental subsidies or by reducing other taxes directed at industry. If green tax schemes can be designed this way, industry will have little incentive to mobilise strong opposition to green taxation. However, in practice, the requirement of reimbursement may be difficult to fulfil because, with few exceptions, polluting industries are not homogeneous. This means that reimbursement will redistribute financial resources within industry and thus create winners and losers. Still, green taxes can be used in heterogeneous industries which can be created by operating separate tax schemes for each branch of industry. The Danish case of pesticide taxation demonstrates that relatively high tax levels can be implemented if an equal relationship between the tax object and the object determining the level of refunds exists throughout the sector. This means that revenues can be reimbursed without creating redistribution within producer communities. (au)

  1. Strengthening accountability to citizens on gender and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, R K

    2008-01-01

    Accountability refers to the processes by which those with power in the health sector engage with, and are answerable to, those who make demands on it, and enforce disciplinary action on those in the health sector who do not perform effectively. This paper reviews the practice of accountability to citizens on gender and health, assesses gaps, and recommends strategies. Four kinds of accountability mechanisms have been used by citizens to press for accountability on gender and health. These include international human rights instruments, legislation, governance structures, and other tools, some of which are relevant to all public sector services, some to the health sector alone, some to gender issues alone, and some to gender-specific health concerns of women. However, there are few instances wherein private health sector and donors have been held accountable. Rarely have accountability processes reduced gender inequalities in health, or addressed 'low priority' gender-specific health needs of women. Accountability with respect to implementation and to marginalized groups has remained weak. This paper recommends that: (1) the four kinds of accountability mechanisms be extended to the private health sector and donors; (2) health accountability mechanisms be engendered, and gender accountability mechanisms be made health-specific; (3) resources be earmarked to enable government to respond to gender-specific health demands; (4) mechanisms for enforcement of such policies be improved; and (5) democratic spaces and participation of marginalized groups be strengthened.

  2. Becoming the Citizen Scientist: Opportunities and Challenges in Science Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosler, T. L.

    2007-03-01

    The methodologies, creativity and intellectual capacity of today's physicists are becoming more and more relevant in the world of policy and politics. Some issues such as climate change, alternative energy and avian influenza clearly reveal the relevance of scientific knowledge and research in policy. However, the connection between science and issues such as electronic voting, government earmarks and international cooperation are not as obvious, but the role of scientists in these topics and their effects on science itself are critical. As the world becomes increasingly technological and global, the need for the involvement of scientists in the political process grows. The traditional scientific training of physicists emphasizes intense scrutiny of specific physical phenomena in the natural world but often misses the opportunity to utilize trained scientific minds on some of society's greatest problems. I will discuss the many ways in which scientists can contribute to society far beyond the academic community and the unique opportunities science policy work offers to the socially conscious scientist or even those just looking to get more grant money.

  3. Digital equity in education: A Multilevel examination of differences in and relationships between computer access, computer use and state-level technology policies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D. Becker

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Using data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP state assessment and a survey of state-level technology policies, this study examined digital equity in education as a multilevel organizational phenomenon with data from 70,382 students in 3,479 schools and 40 states. Students in rural schools or schools with higher percentages of African American students were likely to have less access to computers. With respect to computer use, girls and students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch were more likely to use computers more frequently when computers are available in the classroom. With respect to relationships between computer access and computer use, having computers available in a lab increases the likelihood of higher levels of computer use. The results suggested that no more than 5% of the variance in computer access can be attributed to state factors, and less than 1% of the variance in computer use was between states. The findings suggested that where student technology standards are integrated into subject-area standards, computer use was likely lower than in other states. In states where pre-service teachers must meet technology-related requirements to receive their teaching credential and states where funds earmarked for technology are distributed as competitive grants, computer use was likely to be higher.

  4. [Reform in mental health services--from whence and to where].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haver, Eitan; Shani, Mordechai; Kotler, Moshe; Fast, Dov; Elizur, Avner; Baruch, Yehuda

    2005-05-01

    For years the subject of mental health has been neglected in Israel, and reform of mental health services is now of paramount importance. Psychiatric medicine has altered considerably over the years, and emphasis is shifting from treatment in mental health institutions to treatment at the community level. This transition is the result of the awakening of groups in our society advocating civil rights for the mentally ill and their integration into the community. This process is also bolstered by the advent of new anti-psychotic drugs. However, the social and medical infrastructure set up to deal with these issues has been found lacking. Over the past few years the Minister of Health has appointed a number of committees to address this issue, and they have all recommended extensive reform of mental health services in Israel. The recommendations handed down by the committees are for: (1) Restructure of mental health services, with emphasis on community services and gradual reduction of psychiatric beds; (2) Allocation of additional funding specifically ear-marked for the mentally challenged, enabling transfer of stabilized patients out of the hospital setting and often lengthy and unnecessary hospitalization, into community rehabilitation centers; (3) Transfer of responsibility for health insurance for mentally ill people from the State to the Health Funds, enabling integration of psychiatric treatment into the general treatment framework. The reform has already been initiated. This body of work will review the stages, processes and the difficulties that preceded the reform.

  5. REFERENCE MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Potala PalaceConstruction of the Potala Palace began in the mid-7th century for the Tubo King Songtsan Gambo to greet his Han wife, Princess Wencheng. It comprised 999 rooms then, plus one built atop the Red Hill, which, said to have 1,000 rooms, was later destroyed by thunderbolts and wars. What we see today is a structure built during the 17th century.In the mid-17th century, the White House was added to the Potala Palace, which spread along the Red Hill in Lhasa.The palace is a structure of clay, wood and stone. The palace was the residence of the Dalai Lama of various generations. Beginning with the period of the 5th Dalai Lama, major religious and political ceremonies were held there.The palace covers a total area of 360,000 square meters, with major building rising 117 meters high in 13 floors, and extends some 360 meters from east to west.From 1989 to 1994, the State earmarked some 55 million Yuan and large quantities of gold and silver to repair the palace.In December 1994, the palace found its w

  6. 2011 Superconductivity Gordon Research Conference (June 5-10, 2011, Waterville Valley Resort, Waterville Valley, New Hampshire)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. Ali Yazdani

    2011-06-10

    The 2011 Gordon Research Conference on Superconductivity will commemorate the 100th anniversary of the discovery of superconductivity by providing a forum for discussion of the latest experimental and theoretical advances in this field. The conference will bring together experts to address the current challenges in understanding correlated superconductors - from cuprates and pnictides to heavy fermion superconductors. The fundamental mechanisms of superconducting pairing, the underlying explanations for thermodynamic phase diagrams including potential importance of competing phases, the correspondence between these phenomena, and the transport and spectroscopic properties of these materials will be among the themes of the conference. We will also discuss the feasibility of using lessons learned from the study of known superconductors as a guide to the future discovery of novel and higher temperature superconductors. Speakers will be strongly encouraged to present new, unpublished work, which will ensure that discussions evoke and explore new research directions. The participation of young scientists at the graduate student or post-doctoral level will be encouraged by the offering of selected presentations, focused discussions with invited speakers, and poster sessions. In addition, the organizers have earmarked funds to facilitate attendance of members of groups underrepresented in science and engineering.

  7. Disruptive innovation for social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Clayton M; Baumann, Heiner; Ruggles, Rudy; Sadtler, Thomas M

    2006-12-01

    Countries, organizations, and individuals around the globe spend aggressively to solve social problems, but these efforts often fail to deliver. Misdirected investment is the primary reason for that failure. Most of the money earmarked for social initiatives goes to organizations that are structured to support specific groups of recipients, often with sophisticated solutions. Such organizations rarely reach the broader populations that could be served by simpler alternatives. There is, however, an effective way to get to those underserved populations. The authors call it "catalytic innovation." Based on Clayton Christensen's disruptive-innovation model, catalytic innovations challenge organizational incumbents by offering simpler, good-enough solutions aimed at underserved groups. Unlike disruptive innovations, though, catalytic innovations are focused on creating social change. Catalytic innovators are defined by five distinct qualities. First, they create social change through scaling and replication. Second, they meet a need that is either overserved (that is, the existing solution is more complex than necessary for many people) or not served at all. Third, the products and services they offer are simpler and cheaper than alternatives, but recipients view them as good enough. Fourth, they bring in resources in ways that initially seem unattractive to incumbents. And fifth, they are often ignored, put down, or even encouraged by existing organizations, which don't see the catalytic innovators' solutions as viable. As the authors show through examples in health care, education, and economic development, both nonprofit and for-profit groups are finding ways to create catalytic innovation that drives social change.

  8. The APC/C in female mammalian meiosis I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Hayden

    2013-08-01

    The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) orchestrates a meticulously controlled sequence of proteolytic events critical for proper cell cycle progression, the details of which have been most extensively elucidated during mitosis. It has become apparent, however, that the APC/C, particularly when acting in concert with its Cdh1 co-activator (APC/C(Cdh1)), executes a staggeringly diverse repertoire of functions that extend its remit well outside the bounds of mitosis. Findings over the past decade have not only earmarked mammalian oocyte maturation as one such case in point but have also begun to reveal a complex pattern of APC/C regulation that underpins many of the oocyte's unique developmental attributes. This review will encompass the latest findings pertinent to the APC/C, especially APC/C(Cdh1), in mammalian oocytes and how its activity and substrates shape the stop-start tempo of female mammalian first meiotic division and the challenging requirement for assembling spindles in the absence of centrosomes.

  9. The Pattern of Japan’s ODI into ASEAN and New Miyazawa Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yul Kwon

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asian Economies have grown remarkably since the sharp yen appreciations in 1985. And it happened alongside the formation of strong economic linkages in the region. Since the late 1980's, the yen appreciation have induced the increase of Japanese foreign direct Investment (FDI and intra-industry trade in ASEAN, strengthening the so-called 'Asian growth dynamism' with Japanese manufacturer's overseas expansion. However, the rapid growth of South-east Asia countries has suddenly come to halt in 1997, and ASEAN countries faced a difficult economic situation as a result of the financial crisis in the East Asia. Hoping to form closer ties with Southeast Asian economies and become increasingly interdependent, Japanese government has supported more than half of the US$30bn earmarked to ASEAN countries in the first stage of the New Miyazawa Plan. Also, the announcement of a second stage has made it clear that the emphasis has changed from direct financial assistance to indirect assistance for forming regional bond market and wider use of Yen. With a view to this goal, the International Cooperation Bank (ICBwas formed in October, 1999 and would provide a guarantee for bonds that the ASEAN countries would issue. The result of this analysis demonstrates that Japan intend to promote the internationalization of the Yen through the financial assistance of the New Miyazawa Plan to ASEAN although the proposal for an Asian Monetary Fund (AMF had been rejected as a result of US intervention

  10. New treatment paradigms in neonatal metabolic epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, P L

    2009-04-01

    Neonatal seizures represent a major challenge among the epilepsies vis-à-vis seizure classification, electroclinical correlation, inherent excitability of neocortex, ontogenic characteristics of neurotransmitter receptors, and responsiveness to standard antiepileptic drugs. Each of these factors renders neonatal seizures more difficult to treat, and therapy has been a vexing area for recent advances in this seizure category. Conversely, specific metabolic disorders have very special therapeutic considerations in the clinical setting of neonatal seizures which require a high index of clinical suspicion and rapid intervention for a successful outcome. The prototype is pyridoxine dependency, although pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependency is a recently recognized but treatable neonatal epilepsy that deserves earmarked distinction. Clinicians must remain vigilant for these possibilities, including atypical cases where apparent seizure-free intervals may occur. Folinic acid-dependent seizures are allelic with pyridoxine dependency. Serine-dependent seizures and glucose transporter deficiency may present with neonatal seizures and have specific therapy. A vital potassium channel regulated by serum ATP/ADP ratios in the pancreas and brain may be mutated with a resultant neuroendocrinopathy characterized by development delay, epilepsy, and neonatal diabetes (DEND). This requires oral hypoglycaemic therapy, and not insulin, for neurological responsiveness. The startle syndrome of hyperekplexia, which mimics neonatal epilepsy, has been associated with laryngospasm and sudden death but is treated with benzodiazepines.

  11. Lobbying and advocacy for the public's health: what are the limits for nonprofit organizations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, J S

    1999-09-01

    Nonprofit organizations play an important role in advocating for the public's health in the United States. This article describes the rules under US law for lobbying by nonprofit organizations. The 2 most common kinds of non-profits working to improve the public's health are "public charities" and "social welfare organizations." Although social welfare organizations may engage in relatively unlimited lobbying, public charities may not engage in "substantial" lobbying. Lobbying is divided into 2 main categories. Direct lobbying refers to communications with law-makers that take a position on specific legislation, and grassroots lobbying includes attempts to persuade members of the general public to take action regarding legislation. Even public charities may engage in some direct lobbying and a smaller amount of grassroots lobbying. Much public health advocacy, however, is not lobbying, since there are several important exceptions to the lobbying rules. These exceptions include "non-partisan analysis, study, or research" and discussions of broad social problems. Lobbying with federal or earmarked foundation funds is generally prohibited.

  12. Potential active materials for photo-supercapacitor: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C. H.; Lim, H. N.; Hayase, S.; Harrison, I.; Pandikumar, A.; Huang, N. M.

    2015-11-01

    The need for an endless renewable energy supply, typically through the utilization of solar energy in most applications and systems, has driven the expansion, versatility, and diversification of marketed energy storage devices. Energy storage devices such as hybridized dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC)-capacitors and DSSC-supercapacitors have been invented for energy reservation. The evolution and vast improvement of these devices in terms of their efficiencies and flexibilities have further sparked the invention of the photo-supercapacitor. The idea of coupling a DSSC and supercapacitor as a complete energy conversion and storage device arose because the solar energy absorbed by dye molecules can be efficiently transferred and converted to electrical energy by adopting a supercapacitor as the energy delivery system. The conversion efficiency of a photo-supercapacitor is mainly dependent on the use of active materials during its fabrication. The performances of the dye, photoactive metal oxide, counter electrode, redox electrolyte, and conducting polymer are the primary factors contributing to high-energy-efficient conversion, which enhances the performance and shelf-life of a photo-supercapacitor. Moreover, the introduction of compact layer as a primary adherent film has been earmarked as an effort in enhancing power conversion efficiency of solar cell. Additionally, the development of electrolyte-free solar cell such as the invention of hole-conductor or perovskite solar cell is currently being explored extensively. This paper reviews and analyzes the potential active materials for a photo-supercapacitor to enhance the conversion and storage efficiencies.

  13. Sustainable funding of health initiatives in Wonju, Republic of Korea via a tobacco consumption tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Eun Woo; De Leeuw, Evelyne; Moon, Ji Young; Ikeda, Nayu; Dorjsuren, Bayarsaikhan; Park, Myung Bae

    2011-12-01

    Wonju is the first municipality in the Republic of Korea to fund the Healthy City project through municipal revenues from the local tobacco consumption tax. We investigated the process of the local tobacco consumption tax being approved as the main source of financing for the local Healthy City project. We also examined the sustainability and sufficiency of the funding by looking at the pricing policies instituted for cigarettes, smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption and revenues from local tobacco consumption as well as the budgetary allocations among programs in the city. The strong initiative of the mayor of Wonju was one of the factors that enabled the earmarking of the local tobacco consumption tax for the Healthy City Wonju project. He consulted academic counselors and persuaded the municipal government and the City Council to approve the bill. Despite the increasing price of cigarettes in Korea, adequate funding can be sustained to cover the short-term and mid-term programs in Wonju for at least 5 years of the mayor's term, because the smoking rate is persistently high. Analyzing the effects of strong leadership on the part of local authorities and the balance between revenues from the tobacco tax and the prevalence of smoking in the face of anti-smoking policies would be helpful for other countries and communities interested in developing sustainable Healthy Cities projects.

  14. Social Entrepreneurship in India: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemantkumar P. Bulsara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Social Entrepreneurship is an all-encompassing nomenclature, used for depicting the process of, bringing about social change on a major and impactful scale compared to a traditional Non-Governmental Organization (NGO.  It is an increasingly important concept in the study of voluntary, non-profit and not-for -profit organizations. Earlier, organizations addressing key social issues were assumed to be idealistic, philanthropic with entrepreneurial skills. Social Entrepreneurship in India is emerging primarily because the government is very keen on its promotion, not necessarily by funding it or by advising on it but by enabling it. The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR of the private sector with clearly earmarked funds and full-fledged action teams have played an important role in sprucing up the image of Social Entrepreneurship. The focus of the paper is to study the growing trends of Social Entrepreneurship in India and the new initiatives taken by various Social Entrepreneurs. It also gives a brief idea of different Theories of Social Entrepreneurship. Efforts are made to provide information and an exploratory study, related to the support activities of Social Entrepreneurship and Social Entrepreneurial ventures in India. This may be beneficial in future empirical studies of the subject. Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Social Entrepreneurship, Social Entrepreneur, NGO, Corporate Social Responsibility, India.

  15. Identifying predictors of attitudes towards local onshore wind development with reference to an English case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Christopher R.; Eiser, J. Richard [Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TP (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    The threats posed by climate change are placing governments under increasing pressure to meet electricity demand from low-carbon sources. In many countries, including the UK, legislation is in place to ensure the continued expansion of renewable energy capacity. Onshore wind turbines are expected to play a key role in achieving these aims. However, despite high levels of public support for onshore wind development in principle, specific projects often experience local opposition. Traditionally this difference in general and specific attitudes has been attributed to NIMBYism (not in my back yard), but evidence is increasingly calling this assumption into question. This study used multiple regression analysis to identify what factors might predict attitudes towards mooted wind development in Sheffield, England. We report on the attitudes of two groups; one group (target) living close to four sites earmarked for development and an unaffected comparison group (comparison). We found little evidence of NIMBYism amongst members of the target group; instead, differences between general and specific attitudes appeared attributable to uncertainty regarding the proposals. The results are discussed with respect to literature highlighting the importance of early, continued and responsive community involvement in combating local opposition and facilitating the deployment of onshore wind turbines. (author)

  16. Dioxins and furans releases in Iranian mineral industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, E; Farahani, A; Buekens, A; Chen, T; Lu, S Y; Habibinejad, M; Damercheli, F; Andalib Moghadam, S H; Gandomkar, M; Bahmani, A

    2013-05-01

    In this project, emissions of Poly-Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzo-Furans (PCDD/Fs) were investigated and estimated for selected Iranian mining and ore processing industries, such as integrated iron & steel plant, primary production of aluminium and copper metal, and the production of cement. As a first step of this study the annual emission of PCDD/Fs was estimated at 120gTEQannum(-1) on the base of the UNEP standardised Toolkit for identification and quantification of dioxin and furan releases. Steel and cement were identified as major emission sources and earmarked for further scrutiny. For that reason, filter dust arising in these plants was sampled and analysed, as well as all raw materials employed. After extraction and clean-up according to standard methods, the resulting liquid samples were analysed and quantified by HRGC-HRMS. Complementary analyses using methods such as XRF, TGA/DTA were performed and the emission results statistically evaluated, in order to put PCDD/F emissions in perspective. It is concluded that the dioxins load of cement dust is unusually low, following the low carbon in raw materials, the use of natural gas as a fuel and the absence of waste incineration. Also the production of iron by direct reduction of ore is a low dioxins process; dioxin loads in dust are as usual - correlated with the presence of catalytic metals. Loss on ignition and chlorine are anti-correlated with the main earth elements and with sulphur oxides.

  17. CAUSES OF TAX EVASION AND HOW TO REDUCE IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel ȘUVELEA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of taxation is influenced and determined by several factors such as: the performance of the economy at any given time, the effectiveness of financed from taxes public expenditure, property structure, public needs as determined by Government policy and approved by the Parliament, the degree of contributors’ understanding of budgetary needs and adherence to Government policy, the stage of democracy in one country or another, etc. These make that between tax level and its base, represented by the GDP, not to be a strict correlation On the State budget and public finance, the cases of tax evasion or avoidance may not have manifested but negative effects. In reality, even the potentiality of cases of tax evasion by taxpayers, adversely affect public funds through the necessary expenditure to be earmarked for the prevention and monitoring of the tax payers. The higher is the extent of the phenomenon of tax evasion, the more the public finances of a State will suffer. If this phenomenon is joined by a weak economy and a shaky fiscal system, the negative effects are augmented. It should also be pointed out another important aspect of feeble public finances: chances are that fiscal bodies to act in that tough situation under emergency and pressure status and to deceive this tension on the economy, making it more unfit to uphold degraded public finances.

  18. DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR FACILITIES IN GERMANY - STATUS AT BMBF SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, R.; Komorowski, K.

    2002-02-25

    In a period of approximately 40 years prior to 1994, the German Federal Government had spent about {approx} 15 billion to promote nuclear technology. These funds were earmarked for R&D projects as well as demonstration facilities which took up operation between 1960 and 1980. These BMBF (Federal Ministry for Research) facilities were mainly located at the sites of the federal research centers at Juelich and Karlsruhe (the research reactors AVR, FR2, FRJ-1, KNK, and MZFR, the pilot reprocessing plant WAK) but included also the pilot plants SNR-300 and THTR-300 for fast breeder and high-temperature gas-cooled reactor development, respectively, and finally the salt mine Asse which had been used for waste emplacement prior to conversion into an underground research laboratory. In the meantime, almost all of these facilities were shut down and are now in a state of decommissioning and dismantling. This is mainly due to the facts that R&D needs are satisfied or do not exist any more and that, secondly, the lack of political consensus led to the cancellation of advanced nuclear technology.

  19. CAN INDIA AND CHINA CHANGE THE WORLD POLARITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George GEORGESCU

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available India and China are without doubt two superpowers in becoming, as they jointly own 40% of the world’s population and about 20% from the global economy. Their accelerated growth paces (8 – 9 % in the last decade put to hard trials the scenarios of world’s development for a larger time horizon, which, in general, approach them independently. But, since the economic development of states in the globalisation era relies decisively on the evolution of political interests games at planetary scale, the hypothesis of a strategic Indian-Chinese alliance determines another configuration of the future map of world’s economy than the one perceived as predictable in the present. For better evaluation of such a possibility, we present in the following some recent economic earmarks of India’s, respectively China’s development, as well as, in conclusion some considerations with respect to the current fields of joint strategic interest of the two states, and their possible alliance.

  20. The Inspiring Science Education project and the resources for HEP analysis by university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassouliotis, Dimitris; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Vourakis, Stylianos

    2016-11-01

    The Inspiring Science Education outreach project has been running for more than two years, creating a large number of inquiry based educational resources for high-school teachers and students. Its goal is the promotion of science education in schools though new methods built on the inquiry based education techniques, involving large consortia of European partners and implementation of large-scale pilots in schools. Recent hands-on activities, developing and testing the above mentioned innovative applications are reviewed. In general, there is a lack for educational scenaria and laboratory courses earmarked for more advanced, namely university, students. At the University of Athens for the last four years, the HYPATIA on-line event analysis tool has been used as a lab course for fourth year undergraduate physics students, majoring in HEP. Up to now, the course was limited to visual inspection of a few tens of ATLAS events. Recently the course was enriched with additional analysis exercises, which involve large samples of events. The students through a user friendly interface can analyse the samples and optimize the cut selection in order to search for new physics. The implementation of this analysis is described.

  1. Positive Prerequisites for the Use of Reliefs in the Payment of Dues on Social Insurance Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Ofiarski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is permissible to use reliefs in the payment of social security contributions, based either on a definitive waiver by the creditor of the whole or relevant part of the amount due (partial or complete remission or only a temporary waiver of such amounts (payment deferral or payment in installments. The use of such reliefs is possible upon the occurrence of conditions laid down in the Act, for example, in the case of total non-recovery of contributions, for economic or other reasons worth considering, if justified by important interests of the person concerned. The prerequisites mentioned above have a nature of general clauses, allowing for their flexible adjustment to specific situations. Entities authorized to grant reliefs in the payment of social security contributions act within the limits of administrative discretion. But it is not a fully free operation, because the economic impact resulting from the use of such reliefs has a direct impact on the financial balance of earmarked funds which finance social security benefits, in particular pensions, disability allowances and other benefits.

  2. The Inspiring Science Education project and the resources for HEP analysis by university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fassouliotis Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Inspiring Science Education outreach project has been running for more than two years, creating a large number of inquiry based educational resources for high-school teachers and students. Its goal is the promotion of science education in schools though new methods built on the inquiry based education techniques, involving large consortia of European partners and implementation of large-scale pilots in schools. Recent hands-on activities, developing and testing the above mentioned innovative applications are reviewed. In general, there is a lack for educational scenaria and laboratory courses earmarked for more advanced, namely university, students. At the University of Athens for the last four years, the HYPATIA on-line event analysis tool has been used as a lab course for fourth year undergraduate physics students, majoring in HEP. Up to now, the course was limited to visual inspection of a few tens of ATLAS events. Recently the course was enriched with additional analysis exercises, which involve large samples of events. The students through a user friendly interface can analyse the samples and optimize the cut selection in order to search for new physics. The implementation of this analysis is described.

  3. Willingness to Pay for Tourist Tax in Destinations: Empirical Evidence from Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurel Cetin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Revenue generated from tourism taxes constitutes an important financial resource for local governments and tourism authorities to both ensure tourism sustainability and enhance the quality of tourist experiences. In order for tourism policy makers to create an efficient and fair tax system in tourism destinations, it is crucial to understand travelers’ perceptions concerning willingness to pay (WTP, tax rates, and their optimal allocation. The objectives of this paper, therefore, are to evaluate tourism taxes as a compensation tool to cover the costs of tourism and to measure tourists’ WTP. The paper also suggests a fair allocation of tax revenues based on tourists’ perceptions. A qualitative approach was used and data were collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews with international travelers to Istanbul, Turkey. The findings suggest that tourists are more likely to pay an additional amount of tax when this is earmarked for improvements in their experiences, but they are reluctant to take on liability concerning matters relating to destination sustainability. Based on the travelers’ perceptions, the paper also identified areas that need investment to improve tourist experiences. An interesting highlight of this paper is that the majority of surveyed respondents reported that their travel decisions would not be negatively affected even if the total cost of their vacation increased by one third. The findings are expected to offer fresh and much-needed insights into tourist taxation for tourism policy makers and stakeholders.

  4. Strength, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility of ultrafine-grained Mg alloys after different modes of severe plastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobatkin, S. V.; Lukyanova, E. A.; Martynenko, N. S.; Anisimova, N. Yu; Kiselevskiy, M. V.; Gorshenkov, M. V.; Yurchenko, N. Yu; Raab, G. I.; Yusupov, V. S.; Birbilis, N.; Salishchev, G. A.; Estrin, Y. Z.

    2017-05-01

    The effect of severe plastic deformation on the structure, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility of the WE43 (Mg-Y-Nd-Zr) alloy earmarked for applications as bioresorbable material has been studied. The alloy was deformed by rotary swaging (RS), equal channel angular pressing (ECAP), and multiaxial deformation (MAD). The microstructure examination by transmission electron microscopy showed that all SPD modes lead to the formation of ultrafine-grained structure with a structural element size of 0.5-1 µm and the Mg12Nd phase particles 0.3 µm in size. The microstructure refinement by all three treatments resulted in strengthening of the alloy. ECAP and MAD also raised ductility to up to 12-17%, while RS increased the ultimate tensile strength to up to 415 MPa. The study of the corrosion properties showed that SPD does not affect the electrochemical corrosion of the alloy. Its biocompatibility in vitro was estimated after incubation of the samples with red blood cells (hemolysis study), white blood cells (cell viability assay), and mesenchymal stromal cells (cell proliferation analysis). The biodegradation rate in fetal bovine serum was also evaluated. ECAP and MAD were found to cause some deceleration of biodegradation by slowing down the gas formation in the biological fluid and, compared to MSC, to improve the biocompatibility of the WE43 alloy.

  5. Galvanising the NHS to Adopt Innovation: The Feasibility and Practicality of Recommendations from the Interim Report of the Accelerated Access Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, Stuart; Cochrane, Gavin; Marjanovic, Sonja; Ling, Tom; Chataway, Joanna

    2016-06-20

    The Department of Health and the Wellcome Trust, in co-operation with NHS England, asked RAND Europe to conduct a limited consultation with key stakeholders about the practicality of measures and incentives proposed as part of the NHS Accelerated Access Review (AAR), which aims to assess the pathways for the development, assessment, and adoption of innovative medicines and medical technology. Through a focused engagement exercise with key healthcare stakeholders this project explored the implications of selected interim AAR propositions and feasibility of implementation for key actors, in primary and secondary care as well as commissioners and academia. Specifically, the project investigated the feasibility of implementation of three specific propositions including: a new earmarked fund to encourage AHSNs and other key innovation actors to re-design systems to embrace innovation; mobilising the influence of clinical system leaders to champion change; and encouraging secondary care organisations to take on "innovation champion" roles linked to financial incentives and a new emphasis on accountable care organisations. Data was collected on the feasibility of the three AAR propositions from a workshop with AHSN CEOs and Commercial Directors and interviews with senior NHS staff in three AHSN regions (South West, University College London Partners, and North East, North Cumbria). The study concludes with reflections on the feasibility of each recommendation and identifies factors expected to facilitate or challenge their implementation, as well as considering the wider cross cutting issues that may influence the adoption and diffusion of innovation in the NHS.

  6. Ground control stations for unmanned air vehicles (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Natarajan

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available "During the last five decades, the world has witnessed tremendous growth in the military aircraft technology and the air defence weapons technology. Use of manned aircraft for routine reconnaissance/surveillance missions has become a less preferred option due to possible high attrition rate. Currently, the high political cost of human life has practically earmarked the roles of reconnaissance and surveillance missions to the unmanned air vehicles (UAVs. Almost every major country has a UAV program of its own and this interest has spawned intensive research in the field of UAVs. Presently, the UAVs come in all shapes and sizes, from palm top micro UAVs to giant strategic UAVs that can loiter over targets for extended periods of time. Though UAVs are capable of operating at different levels of autonomy, these are generally controlled from a ground control station (GCS. The GCS is the nerve centre of activity during UAV missions and provides necessary capability to plan and execute UAV missions. The GCS incorporates facilities, such as communication, displays, mission planning and data exploitation. The GCS architecture is highly processor-oriented and hence the computer hardware and software technologies play a major role in the realisation of this vital system. This paper gives an overview of the GCS, its architecture and the current state-of-the-art in various subsystem technologies.

  7. How to (or not to) … measure performance against the Abuja target for public health expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Sophie; Jones, Alex; Ensor, Tim

    2014-07-01

    In 2001, African heads of state committed 'to set a target of allocating at least 15% of our annual budget to the improvement of the health sector'. This target has since been used as a benchmark to hold governments accountable. However, it was never followed by a set of guidelines as to how it should be measured in practice. This article sets out some of the areas of ambiguity and argues for an interpretation which focuses on actual expenditure, rather than budgets (which are theoretical), and which captures areas of spending that are subject to government discretion. These are largely domestic sources, but include budget support, which is externally derived but subject to Ministry of Finance sectoral allocation. Theoretical and practical arguments in favour of this recommendation are recommended using a case study from Sierra Leone. It is recommended that all discretionary spending by government is included in the numerator and denominator when calculating performance against the target, including spending by all ministries on health, social health insurance payments, debt relief funds and budget support. Conversely, all forms of private payment and earmarked aid should be excluded. The authors argue that the target, while an important vehicle for tracking political commitment to the sector, should be assessed intelligently by governments, which have legitimate wider public finance objectives of maximizing overall social returns, and should be complemented by a wider range of indicators, to avoid distortions.

  8. Taxing soft drinks in the Pacific: implementation lessons for improving health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Quested, Christine; Juventin, Lisa; Kun, Russ; Khan, A Nisha; Swinburn, Boyd

    2011-03-01

    A tax on soft drinks is often proposed as a health promotion strategy for reducing their consumption and improving health outcomes. However, little is known about the processes and politics of implementing such taxes. We analysed four different soft drink taxes in Pacific countries and documented the lessons learnt regarding the process of policy agenda-setting and implementation. While local social and political context is critically important in determining policy uptake, these case studies suggest strategies for health promotion practitioners that can help to improve policy uptake and implementation. The case studies reveal interaction between the Ministries of Health, Finance and Revenue at every stage of the policy making process. In regard to agenda-setting, relevance to government fiscal priorities was important in gaining support for soft drink taxes. The active involvement of health policy makers was also important in initiating the policies, and the use of existing taxation mechanisms enabled successful policy implementation. While the earmarking of taxes for health has been widely recommended, the revenue may be redirected as government priorities change. Health promotion practitioners must strategically plan for agenda-setting, development and implementation of intersectoral health-promoting policies by engaging with stakeholders in finance at an early stage to identify priorities and synergies, developing cross-sectoral advocacy coalitions, and basing proposals on existing legislative mechanisms where possible.

  9. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A LIPOLYTIC AND PHYTASE PRODUCING PROBIOTIC FOR POTENTIAL APPLICATION IN POULTRY FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. RAZDAN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current study a total of 35 bacterial isolates from 17 food and fecal samples were examined. Five among those were earmarked as putative probiotic candidates. All the selected isolates survived the low pH conditions of 2.0, and resisted the presence of bile salts (0.02-0.25% and NaCl (2-14 %, indicating their ability to survive in the gastrointestinal (GI tract conditions and hence making them suitable candidates for probiotic applications. The selected probiotic isolates showed considerable levels of hydrophobicity indicating their potential adhering properties with the gut epithelium. In addition the five selected probiotic candidates depicted substantial antagonistic action against potent pathogens like Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. alcaligenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sp. The isolates CM-4 and KD-7 were most remarkable as they inhibited all the pathogens tested including S. aureus and Streptococcus sp. Extracellular enzymatic studies showed that all the five strains produced phytase whereas isolate CM-4 and KD-7 were the only lipase producers found. However no amylase protease activity was detected. Isolate CM-4 was found to be the best among all five as it showed all desirable probiotic features viz. bile salt, NaCl and pH tolerance, maximum hydrophobicity, antagonistic action against pathogens, phytase and lipase activity, therefore was identified by using 16S rDNA sequencing and MEGA BLAST.

  10. Habitable planet finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditto, Thomas D.

    2012-09-01

    A notional space telescope configuration is presented that addresses issues of angular resolution, spectral bandwidth and rejection of host star glare by means of a double dispersion architecture. The telescope resolves angle by wavelength. In an earlier embodiment for surveys, a primary objective grating telescope architecture was shown to acquire millions of objects in one observation cycle, one wave length at a time. The proposed HPF can detect exquisite spectral signatures out of millions of wavelengths in albedos - one exoplanetary system at a time. Like its predecessor, the new HPF telescope has a ribbon-shaped flat gossamer membrane primary objective that lends itself to space deployment, but the preferred embodiment uses a holographic optical element rather than a plane grating. The HOE provides an improvement in efficiency at select wavelength bands. The considerable length of the membrane can be in the 100 meter class providing angular resolution sufficient to resolve planets in the habitable zone and also spectral resolution sufficient to earmark habitability. A novel interferometric secondary spectrograph rejects host star glare. However, the architecture cannot disambiguate multiple stellar sources and may require unprecedented focal lengths in the primary objective to isolate one system at a time.

  11. 转移支付增加地方教育支出了吗--基于2001-2009年地级数据的研究%The Effect of Intergovernmental Fiscal Transfer on Local Education Expenditures:Based on Data from 2001 to 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨良松

    2016-01-01

    .Third ,earmarked transfer is suggested to have negative effect on education expenditure in proportion ,but has a positive effect on per capita expenditures . Fourth ,the effect of fiscal transfer varies among different regions :It has better effect in undeveloped regions than in developed regions .Finally ,as suggested by data from 2001 to 2006 ,fiscal transfer mainly has more effect on the education expenditure of county and tow nship government rather than that of city .Consequently , this research implicates that more attention should be offered to earmarked transfers and block grants ,and local governments’ responsibilities should be clearly and precisely stated .

  12. Quality research in healthcare: are researchers getting enough statistical support?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambler Gareth

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reviews of peer-reviewed health studies have highlighted problems with their methodological quality. As published health studies form the basis of many clinical decisions including evaluation and provisions of health services, this has scientific and ethical implications. The lack of involvement of methodologists (defined as statisticians or quantitative epidemiologists has been suggested as one key reason for this problem and this has been linked to the lack of access to methodologists. This issue was highlighted several years ago and it was suggested that more investments were needed from health care organisations and Universities to alleviate this problem. Methods To assess the current level of methodological support available for health researchers in England, we surveyed the 25 National Health Services Trusts in England, that are the major recipients of the Department of Health's research and development (R&D support funding. Results and discussion The survey shows that the earmarking of resources to provide appropriate methodological support to health researchers in these organisations is not widespread. Neither the level of R&D support funding received nor the volume of research undertaken by these organisations showed any association with the amount they spent in providing a central resource for methodological support for their researchers. Conclusion The promotion and delivery of high quality health research requires that organisations hosting health research and their academic partners put in place funding and systems to provide appropriate methodological support to ensure valid research findings. If resources are limited, health researchers may have to rely on short courses and/or a limited number of advisory sessions which may not always produce satisfactory results.

  13. Overcoming barriers to Clean Development Mechanism projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J. [OECD, Paris (France); Kamel, S. [UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development URC, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    The market for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects is continuing to grow rapidly, with the current portfolio expecting to deliver 2 billion tons of CO2-eq greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions by 2012, equivalent to 17% of Annex I Parties' base year GHG emissions. In total, governments and companies have earmarked over USD11 billion for CDM funding to 2012. This study analyses the various barriers to CDM market expansion in developing countries, and makes recommendations on how some of them can be removed or reduced. It also examines the distribution of CDM projects amongst regions and sectors. Different types of barriers can impede the development of CDM projects. These include: National-level barriers not related specifically to the CDM such as the policy or legislative framework within which a CDM project operates, e.g. electricity-related regulations that constrain generation by independent power producers; National-level CDM-related barriers such as institutional capability/effectiveness or lack of awareness about CDM potential. For example, delays in host country approval of CDM projects can dampen interest in CDM project development; Project-related issues including availability (or not) of underlying project finance, or other country or project-related risks that render the performance of the project uncertain; International-level barriers such as constraints on project eligibility (e.g. on land use and forestry projects), available guidance and decisions (e.g. with respect to the inclusion of carbon capture and storage projects), etc. Thus, barriers to CDM development can arise at different parts of the CDM project cycle. The relative importance of particular barriers varies between countries as well as over time. A combination of factors is needed to drive growth in a country's CDM activity. This includes the presence of attractive CDM opportunities, a positive investment climate, and an enabling policy and legislative framework (in

  14. Health spending, macroeconomics and fiscal space in countries of the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Indrani; Mondal, Swadhin

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines the issues around mobilization of resources for the 11 countries of the South-East Asia Region of the World Health Organization (WHO), by analysing their macroeconomic situation, health spending, fiscal space and other determinants of health. With the exception of a few, most of these countries have made fair progress on their own Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets of maternal mortality ratio and mortality rate in children aged under 5 years. However, the achieved targets have been very modest - with the exception of Thailand and Sri Lanka - indicating the continued need for additional efforts to improve these indicators. The paper discusses the need for investment, by looking at evidence on economic growth, the availability of fiscal space, and improvements in "macroeconomic-plus" factors like poverty, female literacy, governance and efficiency of the health sector. The analysis indicates that, overall, the countries of the WHO South-East Asia Region are collectively in a position to make the transition from low public spending to moderate or even high health spending, which is required, in turn, for transition from lowcoverage-high out-of-pocket spending (OOPS) to highcoverage-low OOPS. However, explicit prioritization for health within the overall government budget for low spenders would require political will and champions who can argue the case of the health sector. Additional innovative avenues of raising resources, such as earmarked taxes or a health levy can be considered in countries with good macroeconomic fundamentals. With the exception of Thailand, this is applicable for all the countries of the region. However, countries with adverse macroeconomic-plus factors, as well as inefficient health systems, need to be alert to the possibility of overinvesting - and thereby wasting - resources for modest health gains, making the challenge of increasing health sector spending alongside competing demands for spending on other areas of

  15. QbD-enabled systematic development of gastroretentive multiple-unit microballoons of itopride hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sanjay; Beg, Sarwar; Asthana, Abhay; Garg, Babita; Asthana, Gyati Shilakari; Kapil, Rishi; Singh, Bhupinder

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of present studies were to develop the systematically optimized multiple-unit gastroretentive microballoons, i.e. hollow microspheres of itopride hydrochloride (ITH) employing quality by design (QbD)-based approach. Initially, the patient-centric QTPP and CQAs were earmarked, and preliminary studies were conducted to screen the suitable polymer, solvent, solvent ratio, pH and temperature conditions. Microspheres were prepared by non-aqueous solvent evaporation method employing Eudragit S-100. Risk assessment studies carried out by constructing Ishikawa cause-effect fish-bone diagram, and techniques like risk estimation matrix (REM) and failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) facilitated the selection of plausible factors affecting the drug product CQAs, i.e. percent yield, entrapment efficiency (EE) and percent buoyancy. A 3(3) Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed for optimizing CMAs and CPPs selected during factor screening studies employing Taguchi design, i.e. drug-polymer ratio (X1), stirring temperature (X2) and stirring speed (X3). The hollow microspheres, as per BBD, were evaluated for EE, particle size and drug release characteristics. The optimum formulation was embarked upon using numerical desirability function yielding excellent floatation characteristics along with adequate drug release control. Drug-excipient compatibility studies employing FT-IR, DSC and powder XRD revealed absence of significant interaction among the formulation excipients. The SEM studies on the optimized formulation showed hollow and spherical nature of the prepared microspheres. In vivo X-ray imaging studies in rabbits confirmed the buoyant nature of the hollow microspheres for 8 h in the upper GI tract. In a nutshell, the current investigations report the successful development of gastroretentive floating microspheres for once-a-day administration of ITH.

  16. Evaluating the Role and Contribution of Innovation to Health and Wealth in the UK: A Review of Innovation, Health and Wealth: Phase 1 Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienkowska-Gibbs, Teresa; Exley, Josephine; Saunders, Catherine L; Marjanovic, Sonja; Chataway, Joanna; MacLure, Calum; McDonald, Ruth; Ling, Tom

    2016-06-20

    The Department of Health's Innovation, Health and Wealth (IHW) strategy aimed to introduce a more strategic approach to the spread of innovation across the NHS. This study represents the first phase of a three-year evaluation and aims to map progress towards the IHW strategy and its component actions. This evaluation used a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods: document review, key informant interviews and stakeholder survey. This study also forms the basis for selecting case studies for phase two of the evaluation. Our findings from the interviews and survey suggest broad stakeholder support for the overarching ambitions of the IHW strategy. However, we found variable progress towards the overarching objectives of the eight IHW themes and an ambiguous relationship between many of the themes' objectives and their actions. It was difficult to assess progress on IHW's actions as commitment to the actions, implementation guidance and expected outcomes of the actions were not clearly articulated. The Academic Health Science Networks (AHSNs) and the Small Business Research Initiative (SBRI) were reported to be working well, which may be attributed to their clear structures of accountability and earmarked budgets. However, survey respondents and interviewees raised concerns that budgetary pressures may limit the impact of both AHSNs and the SBRI. The main challenges identified for ongoing action were the resources available for their implementation (e.g. Medtech Briefings), lack of awareness of the initiative (e.g. the NICE Implementation Collaborative) and the design of the actions (e.g. the Innovation Scorecard, web portal and High Impact Innovations).

  17. Rush to judgment: the STI-treatment trials and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Stillwaggon

    2015-05-01

    programmes and to use funds earmarked for HIV prevention to finance those programmes.

  18. The inequity of the Swiss health care system financing from a federal state perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that Swiss health-care financing is particularly regressive. However, as it has been emphasized in the 2011 OECD Review of the Swiss Health System, the inter cantonal variations of income-related inequities are still broadly unexplored. The present paper aims to fill this gap by analyzing the differences in the level of equity of health-care system financing across cantons and its evolution over time using household data. Methods Following the methodology proposed by Wagstaff et al. (JHE 11:361–387, 1992) we use the Kakwani index as a summary measure of regressivity and we compute it for each canton and for each of the sources that have a role in financing the health care system. We graphed concentration curves and performed relative dominance tests, which utilize the full distribution of expenditures. The microdata come from the Swiss Household Income and Expenditure Survey (SHIES) based on a sample of the Swiss population (about 3500 households per year), for the years 1998 - 2005. Results The empirical evidence confirms that the health-care financing in Switzerland has remained regressive since the major reform of 1996 and shows that the variations in equity across cantons are quite significant: the difference between the most and the least regressive canton is about the same as between two extremely different financing systems like the US and Sweden. There is no evidence, instead, of a clear evolution over time of regressivity. Conclusions The significant variation in equity across cantons can be explained by fiscal federalism and the related autonomy in the design of tax and social policies. In particular, the results highlight that earmarked subsidies, the policy adopted to smooth the regressivity of the premiums, appear to be not enough; in the practice of federal states the combination of allowances with mandatory community-rated health insurance premiums might lead to a modest outcome in terms of equity. PMID

  19. QbD-Oriented Development of Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SNEDDS) of Valsartan with Improved Biopharmaceutical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Shantanu; Beg, Sarwar; Katare, O P; Sharma, Gajanand; Singh, Bhupinder

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present studies were to develop the systematically optimized selfnanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) of valsartan employing the holistic QbD approach. The quality profile target product (QTPP) was defined and critical quality attributes (CQAs) earmarked. Preformulation studies including the equilibrium solubility and pseudoternary phase titration studies facilitated the selection of suitable lipids and emulgents for formulation of SNEDDS. Risk assessment and factor screening studies facilitated the selection of Lauroglycol FCC and Capmul MCM L8 (i.e., lipid), Tween 40 and Tween 80 (i.e., emulgent) as the critical material attributes (CMAs) for SNEDDS prepared using medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) and long-chain triglycerides (LCTs). A central composite design (CCD) was employed for systematic optimization of SNEDDS, taking globule size (Dnm), drug release in 10 min (Q10min) and amount permeated in 45 min (%Perm45min) as the CQAs. Design space was generated using apt mathematical models to embark upon the optimized formulations and validation of the QbD. In situ SPIP studies revealed significant improvement in the absorptivity and permeability parameters of SNEDDS owing to the inhibition of P-gp/MRP2 efflux vis-à-vis the conventional marketed formulation and pure drug. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies corroborated marked enhancement in the oral bioavailability drug from SNEDDS vis-à-vis the marketed formulation. Establishment of various levels of in vitro/in vivo correlations (IVIVC) indicated excellent goodness of fit between the in vitro drug release data with the in vivo absorption parameters. In a nutshell, the present studies report successful QbD-based development of MCT and LCT-SNEDDS of valsartan with improved biopharmaceutical performance.

  20. QbD-Enabled Development of Novel Stimuli-Responsive Gastroretentive Systems of Acyclovir for Improved Patient Compliance and Biopharmaceutical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhupinder; Kaur, Anterpreet; Dhiman, Shashi; Garg, Babita; Khurana, Rajneet Kaur; Beg, Sarwar

    2016-04-01

    The current studies entail systematic quality by design (QbD)-based development of stimuli-responsive gastroretentive drug delivery systems (GRDDS) of acyclovir using polysaccharide blends for attaining controlled drug release profile and improved patient compliance. The patient-centric quality target product profile was defined and critical quality attributes (CQAs) earmarked. Risk assessment studies, carried out through Ishikawa fish bone diagram and failure mode, effect, and criticality analysis, helped in identifying the plausible risks or failure modes affecting the quality attributes of the drug product. A face-centered cubic design was employed for systematic development and optimization of the concentration of sodium alginate (X 1) and gellan (X 2) as the critical material attributes (CMAs) in the stimuli-responsive formulations, which were evaluated for CQAs viz. viscosity, gel strength, onset of floatation, and drug release characteristics. Mathematical modeling was carried out for generation of design space, and optimum formulation was embarked upon, exhibiting formulation characteristics marked by excellent floatation and bioadhesion characteristics along with promising drug release control up to 24 h. Drug-excipient compatibility studies through FTIR and DSC revealed absence of any interaction(s) among the formulation excipients. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies in Wistar rats corroborated extension in the drug absorption profile from the optimized stimuli-responsive GR formulations vis-à-vis the marketed suspension (ZOVIRAX®). Establishment of in vitro/in vivo correlation (IVIVC) revealed a high degree of correlation between the in vitro and in vivo data. In a nutshell, the present investigations report the successful development of stimuli-responsive GRDDS of acyclovir, which can be applicable as a platform approach for other drugs too.

  1. QbD based development of proliposome of lopinavir for improved oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Grishma M; Shelat, Pragna K; Lalwani, Anita N

    2016-08-30

    Aim of present work was to apply quality by design (QbD) principles for the development of proliposome of poorly soluble lopinavir (LPV). The patient-centric quality target product profile (QTPP) was defined and critical quality attributes (CQAs) earmarked. Risk assessment studies were carried out to identify the probable risks affecting the CQAs of the product. On the basis of preliminary study, lipid:drug ratio and amount of carrier were selected as critical material attributes (CMAs) and were optimized by face centered central composite design. Liposome vesicle size, drug entrapment efficiency and % drug release after 60min were selected as CQAs and mathematical relationship between CQAs and CMAs was derived using multiple linear regression analysis. Optimum composition of CMAs, identified using numerical optimization and desirability function, demonstrated excellent entrapment efficiency (>90%), drug release characteristics (>95% in 60min) and had vesicle size of 659.7±23.1nm. Solid state characterization studies (Differential Scanning Calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction) were performed for optimized proliposome, suggested transformation of crystalline to amorphous form. Oral bioavailability study in Wistar rats revealed that LPV proliposome exhibited 2.24 and 1.16 fold higher bioavailability than pure LPV and available commercial formulation of LPV/RTV (lopinavir+ritonavir), respectively. Stability study of the optimized LPV loaded proliposome was performed as per ICH guideline and was found to be stable for period of 6months. Overall results of the study indicate that the proliposome offers advantages of enhanced oral bioavailability for poorly soluble LPV.

  2. Prolonged application of high fluid shear to chondrocytes recapitulates gene expression profiles associated with osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive mechanical loading of articular cartilage producing hydrostatic stress, tensile strain and fluid flow leads to irreversible cartilage erosion and osteoarthritic (OA disease. Since application of high fluid shear to chondrocytes recapitulates some of the earmarks of OA, we aimed to screen the gene expression profiles of shear-activated chondrocytes and assess potential similarities with OA chondrocytes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a cDNA microarray technology, we screened the differentially-regulated genes in human T/C-28a2 chondrocytes subjected to high fluid shear (20 dyn/cm(2 for 48 h and 72 h relative to static controls. Confirmation of the expression patterns of select genes was obtained by qRT-PCR. Using significance analysis of microarrays with a 5% false discovery rate, 71 and 60 non-redundant transcripts were identified to be ≥2-fold up-regulated and ≤0.6-fold down-regulated, respectively, in sheared chondrocytes. Published data sets indicate that 42 of these genes, which are related to extracellular matrix/degradation, cell proliferation/differentiation, inflammation and cell survival/death, are differentially-regulated in OA chondrocytes. In view of the pivotal role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in the pathogenesis and/or progression of OA in vivo and regulation of shear-induced inflammation and apoptosis in vitro, we identified a collection of genes that are either up- or down-regulated by shear-induced COX-2. COX-2 and L-prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS induce reactive oxygen species production, and negatively regulate genes of the histone and cell cycle families, which may play a critical role in chondrocyte death. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Prolonged application of high fluid shear stress to chondrocytes recapitulates gene expression profiles associated with osteoarthritis. Our data suggest a potential link between exposure of chondrocytes/cartilage to abnormal mechanical loading and the pathogenesis

  3. Digital Filming of the Seismograms Held in the Jakarta Archives: A Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okal, E. A.; Kirby, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Because of the long duration of most seismic cycles with respect to thehistory of seismological instrumentation,seismograms from the first half of the 20th century constitute an invaluableresource, allowing significant constraints on the regional chronologyof earthquake occurrence as well as the modern quantification of their sizethrough the calculation of seismic moments. This is especially true in theSouthern hemisphere which hosted few seismic stations before the 1930s. In this context, the preservation of seismograms in a digital format allowing their seamless exchange is an important challenge to the scientific community. Under funding from the Earth Observatory of Singapore, we initiated in July2014 a pilotproject, administered by IASPEI, to test the feasibility ofphotographically scanning records of the Wiechert and Bosch instruments operatedat the Jakarta (ex-Batavia) station since 1910 and archivedat the BMKG regional office in Ciputat. We used a 24 MP SONY alphaNEXT 7 camera with a nearly distortion-free wide angle lens mounted on a copystand with underside light-table illumination. We encounteredmany challenges, including the fragility of acidic paper,serious dark-brown age-toning of the paper, as well as many missing records.However, this pilot test showed that this inexpensive systemis effective in providing well-resolved waveforms, and reaped more than 500digital copies of seismograms of earthquakes earmarked for theirglobal or regional importance, going back to 1910.Including the compilation of metadata necessary for futuresearch capability, 15 to 20 seismograms can be scanned per hour.Following successful capacity building through on-site training of BMKG Staff,it is hoped that this project can be pursued at BMKG, and complementsimilar endeavors, especially in the critically important Southern Hemisphere,either ongoing (e.g., at Canberra, Silverton), or desirable (e.g., at Lower Hutt,La Paz).

  4. Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    In 1986, the population of Belize stood at 166,000, with an annual growth rate of 1%. The infant mortality rate was 56/1000, and life expectancy is 60 years. Of the work force of 50,000, 30% are engaged in agriculture, 27% are employed in industry and commerce, 25% are in the services sector, and 16% are government employees. Belize is a parliamentary democracy. Independence was achieved in 1981. The country's gross domestic product was US$156 million in 1985, with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Per capita income is US$938. Forestry was the major economic activity until the timber supply began to dwindle. Sugar is now the principal export, although efforts are underway to expand the production of citrus, rice, beef, bananas, and tropical fruit. Domestic industry is constrained by the relatively high cost of labor and a small domestic market. Membership in the Caribbean community provides Belize with assured access to a large market for potential grain and livestock surpluses and should help stimulate the growth of commercial agriculture. Belize also expects to benefit from its designation for the Caribbean Basin Initiative, a US Government program designed to stimulate investment in Caribbean nations by providing duty free access to the US market for most Caribbean products. Economic growth has been hindered by the lack of infrastructure, especially roads, electricity, and port facilities. The Government recognizes the need to develop the country, and 54% of its 1986-87 budget of US$106.8 million is earmarked for development spending.

  5. Cdh1 inhibits WWP2-mediated ubiquitination of PTEN to suppress tumorigenesis in an APC-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wan, Lixin; Liu, Jing; Yuan, Zhu; Zhang, Jinfang; Guo, Jianfeng; Malumbres, Marcos; Liu, Jiankang; Zou, Weiguo; Wei, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome/Cdh1 is a multi-subunit ubiquitin E3 ligase that drives M to G1 cell cycle progression through primarily earmarking various substrates for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. Notably, emerging evidence suggested that Cdh1 could also function in various cellular processes independent of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. To this end, we recently identified an anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-independent function of Cdh1 in modulating osteoblast differentiation through activating Smurf1, one of the NEDD4 family of HECT domain-containing E3 ligases. However, it remains largely unknown whether Cdh1 could exert its tumor suppressor role through similarly modulating the E3 ligase activities of other NEDD4 family members, most of which have characterized important roles in tumorigenesis. Here we report that in various tumor cells, Cdh1, conversely, suppresses the E3 ligase activity of WWP2, another NEDD4 family protein, in an anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-independent manner. As such, loss of Cdh1 activates WWP2, leading to reduced abundance of WWP2 substrates including PTEN, which subsequently activates PI3K/Akt oncogenic signaling to facilitate tumorigenesis. This study expands the non-anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome function of Cdh1 in regulating the NEDD4 family E3 ligases, and further suggested that enhancing Cdh1 to inhibit the E3 ligase activity of WWP2 could be a promising strategy for treating human cancers.

  6. The Role of Social Media as a Collective Intelligence Platform in Project Implementation: Case in Kenya’s Vision 2030 Flagship Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbai Kennedy Mutua

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Social media is the online tools that people use to share content, profiles, opinions, insights, experiences, perspectives and media itself, thus facilitating conversations and interaction online between groups of people. The role of Social media in the present times is an interesting and captivating to contemplate given the manner in which it has changed the way we live, interact but most importantly influenced organizational culture. Project management has not been left behind, being a relatively new area of research albeit growing immensely. The Kenya’s vision 2030 will be achieved through successful implementation of projects. And this success will depend on how well these projects will be implemented to enhance success rate. The general objective was to establish how social media could be utilized to facilitate project implementation. Specifically, it assessed the role of social media as a platform for collaborative intelligence and gave recommendations on incorporating social media in the implementation of all projects under vision 2030.The target population were project managers and team leaders involved in implementation of projects earmarked under vision 2030.A descriptive study design was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data. Data collected through the questionnaire was analyzed through the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20 and Ms 2007 excel.This study revealed that the vision 2030 project official are embracing social media for work related purposes. Organizations running projects can use the power of social media to foster the culture of learning from each other. If project officials provide a platform and a framework around social computing tools for their people to meaningfully interact and collectively learn, this will become an extremely useful exercise for stakeholders and will contribute immensely to successful project implementation.

  7. Development of flood index by characterisation of flood hydrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Biswa; Suman, Asadusjjaman

    2015-04-01

    In recent years the world has experienced deaths, large-scale displacement of people, billions of Euros of economic damage, mental stress and ecosystem impacts due to flooding. Global changes (climate change, population and economic growth, and urbanisation) are exacerbating the severity of flooding. The 2010 floods in Pakistan and the 2011 floods in Australia and Thailand demonstrate the need for concerted action in the face of global societal and environmental changes to strengthen resilience against flooding. Due to climatological characteristics there are catchments where flood forecasting may have a relatively limited role and flood event management may have to be trusted upon. For example, in flash flood catchments, which often may be tiny and un-gauged, flood event management often depends on approximate prediction tools such as flash flood guidance (FFG). There are catchments fed largely by flood waters coming from upstream catchments, which are un-gauged or due to data sharing issues in transboundary catchments the flow of information from upstream catchment is limited. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling of these downstream catchments will never be sufficient to provide any required forecasting lead time and alternative tools to support flood event management will be required. In FFG, or similar approaches, the primary motif is to provide guidance by synthesising the historical data. We follow a similar approach to characterise past flood hydrographs to determine a flood index (FI), which varies in space and time with flood magnitude and its propagation. By studying the variation of the index the pockets of high flood risk, requiring attention, can be earmarked beforehand. This approach can be very useful in flood risk management of catchments where information about hydro-meteorological variables is inadequate for any forecasting system. This paper presents the development of FI and its application to several catchments including in Kentucky in the USA

  8. A Comparative Study on Changes in the Spatial Industry Agglomeration in Eastern EU Developing Countries: Romania vs. Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina-Stefania Dirzu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Taking a closer look at the spatial distribution of industrial sectors, it becomes quite obvious that there is an increasing disposition for industries to concentrate in certain regions in order to benefit of agglomeration assets. In this context, we consider necessary to analyze how industrial agglomerations have evolved over time and to what extent major transformations have affected agglomeration phenomenon in lagging regions of Eastern countries, finally our paper bringing supportive evidence from Romania and Bulgaria. To what extent, have patterns of industrial agglomeration modified during the transition period? Has relocation of economic activities taken place? What are the main determinants of industrial concentration patterns? These are some crucial questions that we try to find a realistic response through the present paper. Eastern economies are notably challenging from this point of view because they experienced several decades long economic development period which was earmarked by socialist industrialization. Under the planned economy, these countries have faced more barriers to an efficient geographical allocation of economic activities across regions than their peers in the Western Europe especially because they faced the legacy of a planned economy system that determined locations for economic activities based on political decisions, not based on economic efficiency. Thus, our effort can be seen as a contribution to knowledge about agglomeration in the non-Western countries in general, and in developing regions in particular. Focusing our study on two-digit industrial sectors of 14 regions at NUTS2 level, this paper aims to identify and explain the changes regarding the evolution of industrial agglomerations in the last years across Romania compared to Bulgaria. In the end, our analysis will be able to conclude in what manner the effects of transition period influenced the patterns of industrial agglomeration in these two

  9. Barriers over time to full implementation of health information exchange in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Clemens Scott; Regier, Verna; Rheinboldt, Kurt T

    2014-09-30

    Although health information exchanges (HIE) have existed since their introduction by President Bush in his 2004 State of the Union Address, and despite monetary incentives earmarked in 2009 by the health information technology for economic and clinical health (HITECH) Act, adoption of HIE has been sparse in the United States. Research has been conducted to explore the concept of HIE and its benefit to patients, but viable business plans for their existence are rare, and so far, no research has been conducted on the dynamic nature of barriers over time. The aim of this study is to map the barriers mentioned in the literature to illustrate the effect, if any, of barriers discussed with respect to the HITECH Act from 2009 to the early months of 2014. We conducted a systematic literature review from CINAHL, PubMed, and Google Scholar. The search criteria primarily focused on studies. Each article was read by at least two of the authors, and a final set was established for evaluation (n=28). The 28 articles identified 16 barriers. Cost and efficiency/workflow were identified 15% and 13% of all instances of barriers mentioned in literature, respectively. The years 2010 and 2011 were the most plentiful years when barriers were discussed, with 75% and 69% of all barriers listed, respectively. The frequency of barriers mentioned in literature demonstrates the mindfulness of users, developers, and both local and national government. The broad conclusion is that public policy masks the effects of some barriers, while revealing others. However, a deleterious effect can be inferred when the public funds are exhausted. Public policy will need to lever incentives to overcome many of the barriers such as cost and impediments to competition. Process improvement managers need to optimize the efficiency of current practices at the point of care. Developers will need to work with users to ensure tools that use HIE resources work into existing workflows.

  10. The cost-effectiveness of intervening in low and high HIV prevalence areas in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josue Mbonigaba

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This research compared the cost-effectiveness of a set of HIV/AIDS interventions in a low HIV prevalence area (LPA and in a high HIV prevalence area (HPA in South Africa. The rationale for this analysis was to assess the interaction dynamics between a specific HIV/AIDS intervention and an area of implementation and the effects of these dynamics on the cost-effectiveness of such an HIV/AIDS intervention. A pair of Markov models was evaluated for each intervention; one model for a HPA and another for an LPA and the cost-effectiveness of that intervention was compared across an LPA and a HPA. The baseline costs and health outcomes in each area were collected from the literature. To depict interaction dynamics between an HIV/AIDS intervention and an area of implementation, baseline health outcomes collected in each area, were adjusted over time based on the patterns of the projections observed in the AIDS model of the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA2008. The study found that the VCT and treatment of STDs were equally cost-effective in an LPA and in a HPA while PMTCT and HAART were more cost-effective in an LPA than in a HPA. As a policy proposal, resources earmarked to non-ARV based interventions (VCT and treatment of STDs should  be equally shared across an LPA and a HPA while  more of the resources reserved for ARV-based interventions (PMTCT and HAART should go in an LPA in order to increase efficiency.

  11. Inclusión social de los vendedores que ejercen actividades laborales del sector informal en el centro histórico de Barranquilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Rosa Morales Castro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio permitió evaluar, desde el enfoque de derechos, la gestión de la política de inclusión social que se desarrolla en el contexto de los vendedores que laboran de manera informal en el Centro Histórico del distrito de Barranquilla (Colombia. Para la recolección de la información, se utilizaron técnicas cuantitativas y cualitativas. Las unidades de análisis fueron dos: los vendedores estacionarios ubicados en el sector informal y los directivos/administrativos de la Alcaldía Distrital. En conclusión, se estableció que a pesar de que la Alcaldía enmarca su plan de gobierno en el enfoque social de derechos, los vendedores no participan en todos los programas, por ello, se amerita la inclusión de este grupo mediante el diseño de una política social que en realidad los haga partícipes de estos derechos. Abstract This study provides an assessment of the politics involved in the inclusion of street vendors as having the right to be considered part of an informal labor force in the downtown area of Barranquilla. Quantitative and qualitative methods were applied to evaluate the collected data. The areas of analysis were as follows: informal stationary vendors located in the comercial sector and Barranquilla’s labor policies and directives regarding such labor. In conclusion, despite the local government’s approach to include informal street vendors as part of the labor force with their corresponding labor and political social rights, many of these do not take part in any of the programs earmarked as benefits of such due to lack of awareness of such programs.

  12. Biochemical characterization of novel retroviral integrase proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Ballandras-Colas

    . Given their desirable concerted DNA integration profiles, Rev-A and MMTV integrase proteins have been earmarked for structural biology studies.

  13. Towards a sterile insect technique field release of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in Sudan: Irradiation, transportation, and field cage experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Colin A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The work described in this article forms part of a study to suppress a population of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in Northern State, Sudan, with the Sterile Insect Technique. No data have previously been collected on the irradiation and transportation of anopheline mosquitoes in Africa, and the first series of attempts to do this in Sudan are reported here. In addition, experiments in a large field cage under near-natural conditions are described. Methods Mosquitoes were irradiated in Khartoum and transported as adults by air to the field site earmarked for future releases (400 km from the laboratory. The field cage was prepared for experiments by creating resting sites with favourable conditions. The mating and survival of (irradiated laboratory males and field-collected males was studied in the field cage, and two small-scale competition experiments were performed. Results Minor problems were experienced with the irradiation of insects, mostly associated with the absence of a rearing facility in close proximity to the irradiation source. The small-scale transportation of adult mosquitoes to the release site resulted in minimal mortality ( Conclusion It is concluded that although conditions are challenging, there are no major obstacles associated with the small-scale irradiation and transportation of insects in the current setting. The field cage is suitable for experiments and studies to test the competitiveness of irradiated males can be pursued. The scaling up of procedures to accommodate much larger numbers of insects needed for a release is the next challenge and recommendations to further implementation of this genetic control strategy are presented.

  14. Towards a sterile insect technique field release of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in Sudan: irradiation, transportation, and field cage experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helinski, Michelle E H; Hassan, Mo'awia M; El-Motasim, Waleed M; Malcolm, Colin A; Knols, Bart G J; El-Sayed, Badria

    2008-04-25

    The work described in this article forms part of a study to suppress a population of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in Northern State, Sudan, with the Sterile Insect Technique. No data have previously been collected on the irradiation and transportation of anopheline mosquitoes in Africa, and the first series of attempts to do this in Sudan are reported here. In addition, experiments in a large field cage under near-natural conditions are described. Mosquitoes were irradiated in Khartoum and transported as adults by air to the field site earmarked for future releases (400 km from the laboratory). The field cage was prepared for experiments by creating resting sites with favourable conditions. The mating and survival of (irradiated) laboratory males and field-collected males was studied in the field cage, and two small-scale competition experiments were performed. Minor problems were experienced with the irradiation of insects, mostly associated with the absence of a rearing facility in close proximity to the irradiation source. The small-scale transportation of adult mosquitoes to the release site resulted in minimal mortality (insects were recaptured after one night. Only limited information on male competitiveness was obtained due to problems associated with individual egg laying of small numbers of wild females. It is concluded that although conditions are challenging, there are no major obstacles associated with the small-scale irradiation and transportation of insects in the current setting. The field cage is suitable for experiments and studies to test the competitiveness of irradiated males can be pursued. The scaling up of procedures to accommodate much larger numbers of insects needed for a release is the next challenge and recommendations to further implementation of this genetic control strategy are presented.

  15. Climate change finance. If you can't measure it , you can't manage it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clapp, Christa S.

    2012-07-01

    Climate change finance is currently estimated at between approximately USD 70 and 120 billion per year. However, these estimates involve a fair amount of uncertainty. There is no agreed definition of what climate finance includes; moreover, for private sector flows, the range is estimated using mismatched data sources.The significant sums of financing committed in the international climate change negotiations (USD 100 billion per year by 2020) are expected to be earmarked according to the traditional template whereby developed countries provide financing to developing countries. Not only is this an outdated view of how private investment moves in today's global world, it also provides an impractical framework for keeping track of financial flows. Furthermore, the developed/developing country negotiating viewpoints are plagued by disagreement as to which public sector and private sector financial flows should count. Managing limited financial resources effectively requires grasping how financial flows contribute to results in climate mitigation and adaptation. As yet we have little understanding of the tangible results being achieved from these flows, and how public money and instruments drive private investments. Better understanding will require consistent information on a range of indicators of successful financial interventions, including leveraging ratios. We need to consider what financial kinds of information could serve both purposes: to measure progress towards the USD 100 billion commitment, and to measure how effective financial flows are in achieving results. We need a common definition of what types of flows are to be considered 'climate change finance'. Until such a definition has been agreed, governments and organizations must be more transparent as to what account as 'climate finance'. Governments should work with private investor groups and data providers to adapt existing information so as to provide a more comprehensive

  16. HORTICOLA DIVERSITY FOR FOOD SECURITY MARGINALIZED MUNICIPALITIES IN STATE OF PUEBLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Alicia Salcido-Ramos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Backyards for rural households represent a strategy that ensures the production of plant foods and animal come to enrich and supplement their diet. Unfortunately there is no evidence of the contribution made by the horticultural component of biodiversity of species in relation to food, income generation and exchange of vegetables, based on the above plan the need for research aimed was to analyze the subsystem comprising the backyards vegetable operated by the State Program for Food Security (SPFS State establishing productive inputs, economic and social component that obtains horticultural peasant household (UDC, communities of Canoas- Atempan, Tezotepec-Mazatonal-Yaonáhuac Chignautla and the Northeastern Sierra Puebla state. In this northeastern region of 16 municipalities are located high deprivation and 8 highly marginalized state, population is of Náhuatl origin and it is common that women are responsible for the management and operation of the backyard based on their traditional knowledge and survival strategies. Fieldwork was conducted in the months of March to June 2011, with the participation of 37 rural women. Some of the findings are: Canoes and communities Mazatonal, 77% of horticultural production was assigned to food, 15% and 8% marketing to strengthen social relations within the community. In contrast, community of Tezotepec which earmarked 53% to the marketing, 46% to food and only 1% strengthening of social relations. There are also differences between communities in relation to the number of children, the diversity of vegetable grown, and the frequency of seeding and transplanting of vegetables contributing to the food security of the UDC.

  17. Music to whose ears? The effect of social norms on young people′s risk perceptions of hearing damage resulting from their music listening behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Gilliver

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Professional and community concerns about the potentially dangerous noise levels for common leisure activities has led to increased interest on providing hearing health information to participants. However, noise reduction programmes aimed at leisure activities (such as music listening face a unique difficulty. The noise source that is earmarked for reduction by hearing health professionals is often the same one that is viewed as pleasurable by participants. Furthermore, these activities often exist within a social setting, with additional peer influences that may influence behavior. The current study aimed to gain a better understanding of social-based factors that may influence an individual′s motivation to engage in positive hearing health behaviors. Four hundred and eighty-four participants completed questionnaires examining their perceptions of the hearing risk associated with listening to music listening and asking for estimates of their own and their peer′s music listening behaviors. Participants were generally aware of the potential risk posed by listening to personal stereo players (PSPs and the volumes likely to be most dangerous. Approximately one in five participants reported using listening volumes at levels perceived to be dangerous, an incidence rate in keeping with other studies measuring actual PSP use. However, participants showed less awareness of peers′ behavior, consistently overestimating the volumes at which they believed their friends listened. Misperceptions of social norms relating to listening behavior may decrease individuals′ perceptions of susceptibility to hearing damage. The consequences of hearing health promotion are discussed, along with suggestions relating to the development of new programs.

  18. FDM studies at Paradip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, K.K.; Sahoo, P.K.; Rao, A.S. [Regional Research Laboratory, Bhubaneswar (India)

    2000-07-01

    Paradip, the main port of Orissa is the gateway to many minerals, fertilizers, chemicals and other commercial goods. In 1996, the Port wanted RRL to study the impact assessment of air pollution due to handling of twenty million tons of coal in one year. Air pollution essentially is due to the Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) generated while handling dry solid materials like coal, ores etc. The Port was handling 2 million tons at the time. The main sources of pollution was from coal stacks, tippler and railway wagons by which coal was brought, stacked and subsequently loaded to the ships. They form area, point and line sources respectively. The Fugative Dust Model (FMD), which deals with the assessment of these sources was found to be a very effective package to estimate the pollution level. To estimate the impact of coal handling, it was essential to collect data from each of the emission sources at the present level and simulate the results to handling 20 million tons of coal under similar conditions. The results indicated that concentration of SPM increases from 427.3 {mu}g to 23496 {mu}g with the earmarked area source and to 8763 {mu}g when the area of the stack is restricted to 31,5000 sq. meters. It is expected up to 6 Kms down the wind stream will be affected. The model studies also indicated that orientation of the stacks play a major role in the SPM Level. Necessary remedial measures were suggested to the port authority to minimise pollution due to coal handling. 1 ref., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Science-based and practice-based innovativeness and performance of substance abuse treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Preethy; Yu, Fang; Apenteng, Bettye

    2014-01-01

    The fields of mental health and substance abuse treatment lag significantly behind other health care organizational fields in the adoption, implementation, and dissemination of evidence-based practices. Innovative organizational practices may be science based or practice based. The implementation of innovative practices requires considerable organizational resources. Whether this organizational investment actually pays off in terms of superior performance is unclear. This issue in the context of substance abuse treatment facilities (SATFs) in the United States is examined in this study. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of the use of innovative organizational practices, both science based (psychosocial interventions) and practice based, on the organizational performance of SATFs. The study uses cross-sectional data on 13,513 SATFs in the United States, obtained from the National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services 2009 database. Multinomial logistic regression models find a positive association between the use of science-based innovations and practice-based innovations and organizational performance, that is, the provision of comprehensive (core and wraparound) services. SATFs that were located in metropolitan areas, those accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities and Joint Commission, that had a mixed (Substance Abuse and Mental Health) focus or were recipients of earmark funds also had higher organizational performance. The results signify that substance abuse facilities that are high innovators in terms of implementing science based and practice-based innovative practices have higher organizational performance. Organizations that have institutionalized these practices have invested considerable resources in innovation. The shown higher organizational performance provides justification for the organizational investment in innovation.

  20. The effects of global health initiatives on country health systems: a review of the evidence from HIV/AIDS control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesma, Regien G; Brugha, Ruairí; Harmer, Andrew; Walsh, Aisling; Spicer, Neil; Walt, Gill

    2009-07-01

    This paper reviews country-level evidence about the impact of global health initiatives (GHIs), which have had profound effects on recipient country health systems in middle and low income countries. We have selected three initiatives that account for an estimated two-thirds of external funding earmarked for HIV/AIDS control in resource-poor countries: the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria, the World Bank Multi-country AIDS Program (MAP) and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). This paper draws on 31 original country-specific and cross-country articles and reports, based on country-level fieldwork conducted between 2002 and 2007. Positive effects have included a rapid scale-up in HIV/AIDS service delivery, greater stakeholder participation, and channelling of funds to non-governmental stakeholders, mainly NGOs and faith-based bodies. Negative effects include distortion of recipient countries' national policies, notably through distracting governments from coordinated efforts to strengthen health systems and re-verticalization of planning, management and monitoring and evaluation systems. Sub-national and district studies are needed to assess the degree to which GHIs are learning to align with and build the capacities of countries to respond to HIV/AIDS; whether marginalized populations access and benefit from GHI-funded programmes; and about the cost-effectiveness and long-term sustainability of the HIV and AIDS programmes funded by the GHIs. Three multi-country sets of evaluations, which will be reporting in 2009, will answer some of these questions.

  1. Characteristics of RNA silencing in plants: similarities and differences across kingdoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, P; Hohkuri, M; Wahlroos, T; Kilby, N J

    2004-01-01

    RNA silencing is a collective term that encompasses the sequence of events that leads to the targeted degradation of cellular mRNA and thus to the silencing of corresponding gene expression. RNA silencing is initiated after introduction into the host genome of a gene that is homologous to an endogenous gene. Transcription of the introduced gene results in the formation of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that is cut into smaller dsRNA species termed small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) by an RNaseIII-like enzyme called 'Dicer'. siRNAs associate with a protein complex termed the 'RNA-induced silencing complex' (RISC), which mediates the binding of one strand of siRNAs with mRNAs transcribed from the native 'target' gene. The binding of siRNAs with native gene mRNAs earmarks native gene mRNAs for destruction, resulting in gene silencing. In plants, RNA silencing appears to serve as a defence mechanism against viral pathogens and also to suppress the activity of virus-like mobile genetic elements. In an apparent response to RNA silencing, some plant viruses express suppressors of RNA silencing. RNA silencing also is directly implicated in the regulation of the function(s) of microRNAs, which are the key determinants in an additional cellular mechanism related to the translational repression of genes, the effect of which ultimately impinges on development. The high degree of sequence similarity that exists between genes involved in RNA silencing in widely different organisms underscores the conserved nature of many aspects of the RNA silencing mechanism. However, depending (for example) on the precise nature of the target gene involved, there also are significant differences in the silencing pathways that are engaged by various organisms.

  2. Changing roles of women: reproduction to production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachapaetayakom, J

    1988-12-01

    The status of women in the countries included in the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) varies widely from home labor and childbearing to social and political participation. In countries where the total fertility rate is high (over 6), such as Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Nepal, the status of women is low. Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Nepal, along with India, Sri Lanka, and China, also have the lowest levels of per capita income. The education of women is one of the earmarks of social development. Education enables women to delay marriage, reduce fertility, and participate in the economy. Between 1970 and 1980, the female literacy rate increased 10% in Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines; and 5% in Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Nepal. Women's participation in the labor force is determined both by the stage of development of the country and by cultural factors. In Muslim countries the level of women's participation in the labor force is low. In Thailand and China it is very high. Women with the most education are likeliest to work in professional and administrative jobs. Self-employed women tend to have as little status and as many children as unpaid family workers, and women working in agriculture are almost as badly off. In Asia and the Pacific, except for Muslim countries, women have participated actively in family planning programs. In several countries in the region, women have been active in politics, but mostly at the local level. If women are to be integrated into the development process in the countries of Asia and the Pacific, attention must be given to their education and employment, to increasing the role of men in household and child rearing duties, and to research in the interrelations of population processes, women's status, and socioeconomic development.

  3. Captive breeding, reintroduction, and the conservation of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Richard A; Pavajeau, Lissette

    2008-08-01

    The global amphibian crisis has resulted in renewed interest in captive breeding as a conservation tool for amphibians. Although captive breeding and reintroduction are controversial management actions, amphibians possess a number of attributes that make them potentially good models for such programs. We reviewed the extent and effectiveness of captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians through an analysis of data from the Global Amphibian Assessment and other sources. Most captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians have focused on threatened species from industrialized countries with relatively low amphibian diversity. Out of 110 species in such programs, 52 were in programs with no plans for reintroduction that had conservation research or conservation education as their main purpose. A further 39 species were in programs that entailed captive breeding and reintroduction or combined captive breeding with relocations of wild animals. Nineteen species were in programs with relocations of wild animals only. Eighteen out of 58 reintroduced species have subsequently bred successfully in the wild, and 13 of these species have established self-sustaining populations. As with threatened amphibians generally, amphibians in captive breeding or reintroduction programs face multiple threats, with habitat loss being the most important. Nevertheless, only 18 out of 58 reintroduced species faced threats that are all potentially reversible. When selecting species for captive programs, dilemmas may emerge between choosing species that have a good chance of surviving after reintroduction because their threats are reversible and those that are doomed to extinction in the wild as a result of irreversible threats. Captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians require long-term commitments to ensure success, and different management strategies may be needed for species earmarked for reintroduction and species used for conservation

  4. Identifying tree crown delineation shapes and need for remediation on high resolution imagery using an evidence based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckie, Donald G.; Walsworth, Nicholas; Gougeon, François A.

    2016-04-01

    In order to fully realize the benefits of automated individual tree mapping for tree species, health, forest inventory attribution and forest management decision making, the tree delineations should be as good as possible. The concept of identifying poorly delineated tree crowns and suggesting likely types of remediation was investigated. Delineations (isolations or isols) were classified into shape types reflecting whether they were realistic tree shapes and the likely kind of remediation needed. Shape type was classified by an evidence based rules approach using primitives based on isol size, shape indices, morphology, the presence of local maxima, and matches with template models representing trees of different sizes. A test set containing 50,000 isols based on an automated tree delineation of 40 cm multispectral airborne imagery of a diverse temperate-boreal forest site was used. Isolations representing single trees or several trees were the focus, as opposed to cases where a tree is split into several isols. For eight shape classes from regular through to convolute, shape classification accuracy was in the order of 62%; simplifying to six classes accuracy was 83%. Shape type did give an indication of the type of remediation and there were 6% false alarms (i.e., isols classed as needing remediation but did not). Alternately, there were 5% omissions (i.e., isols of regular shape and not earmarked for remediation that did need remediation). The usefulness of the concept of identifying poor delineations in need of remediation was demonstrated and one suite of methods developed and shown to be effective.

  5. A quick scan of economic value of offshore wind versus biomass co-combustion; Quick scan economische waarde van wind op zee versus biomassabijstook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooijers, F.J.; Bennink, D.; Blom, M.J.

    2013-05-15

    Co-combustion of biomass in conventional power stations is currently cheaper than offshore wind power. By the year 2025, though, both forms of renewable energy are expected to be similarly priced. Because offshore wind yields more added value for the Dutch economy and employment than biomass cocombustion, it would seem more logical to earmark more of the funds under the SDE (Dutch renewable energy subsidy scheme) for the former. At the request of the Netherlands Society for Nature and Environment (Natuur en Milieu) CE Delft compared the two generating options to assess how the Netherlands can boost use of renewable energy in the economically wisest manner in the years ahead. This issue is also to be discussed in upcoming consultations under the umbrella of the Netherlands Social and Economic Council (SER), where a new national energy agreement is to be hammered out [Dutch] Biomassabijstook is op dit moment goedkoper dan wind op zee. De verwachting is echter dat tegen 2025 de prijs van beide vormen van hernieuwbare energie vergelijkbaar kunnen zijn. Doordat de toegevoegde waarde voor de Nederlandse economie en werkgelegenheid van wind op zee groter is dan van biomassabijstook, lijkt het logischer dat uit de SDE-gelden meer wind op zee dan biomassa bijstook wordt betaald. Voor Natuur en Milieu heeft CE Delft een vergelijking gemaakt tussen deze twee technieken om de vraag te beantwoorden op welke economisch verstandige manier Nederland de komende jaren het gebruik van hernieuwbare energie kan realiseren. Die vraag is ook aan de orde in het SER-overleg dat de komende maand moet leiden tot een Energieakkoord.

  6. Reserves for nuclear power plant decommissioning and radwaste disposal in Germany. An analysis and evaluation from the angle of energy policy. Energiewirtschaftliche Bewertung der Rueckstellungen fuer die Entsorgung der deutschen Kernkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerger, V. (comp.)

    1998-01-01

    The study, which is the first of its kind in Germany, presents a comprehensive survey of total reserves set up by the German nuclear industry for liabilities and costs for nuclear power plant decommissioning and resulting radwaste disposal, which is a legal and foreseeable responsibility but uncertain in amount. The study looks into the various ways the earmarked money was invested and analyses the funds with respect to their efficiency and reliability to provide financial security for the given tasks and purpose. The question put in this context is: Are the reserves set up so far in line with official cost estimates, i.e. will they cover estimated costs, or do they even exceed the estimated amounts The conclusions drawn and explained in this document are: The reserves for nuclear decommissioning have been used by the nuclear power plant operators and electricity companies as a significant capital source. Some of the capital accrued is being increasingly used at present to cover expenses arising for restructuring of business and diversification into new business segments of interest in the open national and European electricity markets. Companies such as RWE, Preussen Elektra, and Bayernwerk, which until deregulation of the energy sector were just power supply companies, have been transformed into conglomerate companies and international players in the markets, like RWE Holding, VEBA, and VIAG. It can be safely assumed that the companies would not have been able to reach the important positions they currently hold in the German economy without tapping the reserves for nuclear decommissioning. (orig./CB) 27 refs.

  7. Annual Variation in Flowering Phenology, Pollination, Mating System, and Pollen Yield in Two Natural Populations of Schima wallichii (DC. Korth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Prasad Khanduri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Schima wallichii is a highly valuable tree of tropical forest in north-east Himalaya region that grows naturally in a wide range of altitudes between 750 and 2400 m asl with varying environments. Flowering phenology of tropical tree species at population level is generally ignored and therefore a detailed knowledge of flowering and fruiting patterns of important multipurpose tree species is critical to the successful management of forest genetic resources. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted at two different altitudes (i.e., 750 m and 900 m asl in the tropical semideciduous forest of north-east Himalaya. The floral phenology including flowering synchrony in the populations, anthesis, anther dehiscence, stigma receptivity, pollinators visitation frequency, and mating system including index of self-incompatibility were worked out in Schima wallichii according to the ear-marked standard methods given by various scientists for each parameter. Results. The flowering period in Schima wallichii varied from 33 to 42 days with mean synchrony of 0.54 to 0.68 between the populations. The stigma was receptive up to 2.5 days only and showed slightly protandrous type of dichogamy. Average pollen production ranged between 6.90 × 107 pollen per tree in 2007 and 15.49 × 108 pollen per tree in 2011. A three-year masting cycle was noticed in this species. The frequency of visitation of honey bees was fairly high (5.2 ± 1.12 visits/flower/hour as compared to other pollinators. The hand pollination revealed maximum fruit (74.2 ± 5.72% and seed (70.8 ± 7.46% settings. Conclusions. The variation in flowering phenology and pollen yield individually and annually along with temporal separation in anther dehiscence and pollinator’s visitation cause pollen limited reproduction, which ultimately influences the reproductive success in Schima wallichii.

  8. Identification of quiescent, stem-like cells in the distal female reproductive tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyi Wang

    Full Text Available In fertile women, the endometrium undergoes regular cycles of tissue build-up and regression. It is likely that uterine stem cells are involved in this remarkable turn over. The main goal of our current investigations was to identify slow-cycling (quiescent endometrial stem cells by means of a pulse-chase approach to selectively earmark, prospectively isolate, and characterize label-retaining cells (LRCs. To this aim, transgenic mice expressing histone2B-GFP (H2B-GFP in a Tet-inducible fashion were administered doxycycline (pulse which was thereafter withdrawn from the drinking water (chase. Over time, dividing cells progressively loose GFP signal whereas infrequently dividing cells retain H2B-GFP expression. We evaluated H2B-GFP retaining cells at different chase time points and identified long-term (LT; >12 weeks LRCs. The LT-LRCs are negative for estrogen receptor-α and express low levels of progesterone receptors. LRCs sorted by FACS are able to form spheroids capable of self-renewal and differentiation. Upon serum stimulation spheroid cells are induced to differentiate and form glandular structures which express markers of mature műllerian epithelial cells. Overall, the results indicate that quiescent cells located in the distal oviduct have stem-like properties and can differentiate into distinct cell lineages specific of endometrium, proximal and distal oviduct. Future lineage-tracing studies will elucidate the role played by these cells in homeostasis, tissue injury and cancer of the female reproductive tract in the mouse and eventually in man.

  9. THE MAIN DEFICIENCIES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SECTORAL OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pautu Sorina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The absorption of EU funds for Romania is a necessity in the nowadays context. The slow pace of absorption of these structural funds earmarked for Romania as EU member state is a deficiency with negative effects on the economic and social development of our country. Their low absorption shows deficiencies in their coordination and implementation at central level and also at the level of beneficiaries. Their coordinative authorities, in particular the Managing Authority of Structural Instruments, together with its subordinated institutions presents deficiencies in their coordination and implementation as having negative effects on their absorption. The main weaknesses identified on national level mainly consist in the lack of specialized personnel, in excessive bureaucracy and a mismatch of national legislation with the European one. The lack of transparency and change is specific to these structural funds, representing deficiencies that lead to beneficiaries’ discouragement to implement projects financed from structural funds. In the Sectoral Operational Programme, the Human Resources Development Program is a leader in the rate of absorption but it also has the largest number of problems and deficiencies in implementation. Due to the deficiencies identified by the auditing European Commission of the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development, payments were suspended for a period of four months. Following this situation, it was necessary to implement the necessary corrective measures at the level of POSDRU, leading to its release. Taking action and removing the deficiencies at the POSDRU level, and also at the level of other operational programs, it is a necessity and a priority to increase the absorption of these funds. The main measures that need to be taken mainly consist of training the personnel involved in the management of these funds, reimbursements release funds to the final beneficiaries, creating a more transparent

  10. What can developing economies learn from health system reforms of developed countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernichovsky, D

    1995-01-01

    This paper outlines some general lessons developing nations can draw from the health system reform experiences of developed nations. Using the experiences of developed countries, developing countries should be better able to anticipate socio-economic changes and choose an optimal path for their health systems development to accompany those changes. Most developed countries have adopted rather common objectives and principles in their health systems because of market failure in health care; developing countries may start adopting those principles because they do not have market conditions in the first place. It is suggested that developing countries strengthen what is probably the most fundamental initial systemic asset they have: public finance. They should do so by attracting democratically, possibly through earmarked taxes, resources otherwise channelled through the private sector, competing with public finance for limited real resources. This effort can be promoted by giving consumers, mainly of high income groups and in urban areas, more say (through institutions performing the OMCC function) in the nature of care these groups have access to under auspices of public finance. Where feasible, private insurance as a major source of finance should be seen as a transitional phenomenon, giving way to the emergence of OMCC institutions which require similar financial and managerial market infrastructure. Private and competitive provision of care may be unrealistic in many developing areas because of both scarcity of real resources, mainly manpower, and health needs. The challenge of government is, as resources grow, to divest itself from the provision of care and stay involved in activities and facilities that are of 'public nature'--under specific circumstances--that foster private competitive provision. In general, the government should play an enabling role also by investing in health promotions and management skills for health systems.

  11. Development cooperation for health: reviewing a dynamic concept in a complex global aid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Peter S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness, held in Busan, South Korea in November 2011 again promised an opportunity for a "new consensus on development cooperation" to emerge. This paper reviews the recent evolution of the concept of coordination for development assistance in health as the basis from which to understand current discourses. The paper reviews peer-reviewed scientific literature and relevant 'grey' literature, revisiting landmark publications and influential authors, examining the transitions in the conceptualisation of coordination, and the related changes in development assistance. Four distinct transitions in the understanding, orientation and application of coordination have been identified: coordination within the sector, involving geographical zoning, sub-sector specialisation, donor consortia, project co-financing, sector aid, harmonisation of procedures, ear-marked budgetary support, donor agency reform and inter-agency intelligence gathering; sector-wide coordination, expressed particularly through the Sector-Wide Approach; coordination across sectors at national level, expressed in the evolution of Poverty Strategy Reduction Papers and the national monitoring of the Millennium Development Goals; and, most recently, global-level coordination, embodied in the Paris Principles, and the emergence of agencies such as the International Health Partnerships Plus. The transitions are largely but not strictly chronological, and each draws on earlier elements, in ways that are redefined in the new context. With the increasing complexity of both the territory of global health and its governance, and increasing stakeholders and networks, current imaginings of coordination are again being challenged. The High Level Forum in Busan may have been successful in recognising a much more complex landscape for development than previously conceived, but the challenges to coordination remain.

  12. Development cooperation for health: reviewing a dynamic concept in a complex global aid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Peter S; Dodd, Rebecca; Brown, Scott; Haffeld, Just

    2012-03-15

    The 4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness, held in Busan, South Korea in November 2011 again promised an opportunity for a "new consensus on development cooperation" to emerge. This paper reviews the recent evolution of the concept of coordination for development assistance in health as the basis from which to understand current discourses. The paper reviews peer-reviewed scientific literature and relevant 'grey' literature, revisiting landmark publications and influential authors, examining the transitions in the conceptualisation of coordination, and the related changes in development assistance. Four distinct transitions in the understanding, orientation and application of coordination have been identified: coordination within the sector, involving geographical zoning, sub-sector specialisation, donor consortia, project co-financing, sector aid, harmonisation of procedures, ear-marked budgetary support, donor agency reform and inter-agency intelligence gathering; sector-wide coordination, expressed particularly through the Sector-Wide Approach; coordination across sectors at national level, expressed in the evolution of Poverty Strategy Reduction Papers and the national monitoring of the Millennium Development Goals; and, most recently, global-level coordination, embodied in the Paris Principles, and the emergence of agencies such as the International Health Partnerships Plus. The transitions are largely but not strictly chronological, and each draws on earlier elements, in ways that are redefined in the new context. With the increasing complexity of both the territory of global health and its governance, and increasing stakeholders and networks, current imaginings of coordination are again being challenged. The High Level Forum in Busan may have been successful in recognising a much more complex landscape for development than previously conceived, but the challenges to coordination remain.

  13. A Study of the Assistance Mandate of the Trust Fund for Victims Before the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court%《国际刑事法院罗马规约》被害人信托基金援助功能探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲涛; 王小会

    2012-01-01

    《国际刑事法院罗马规约》创建了被害人信托基金,具有非司法性的援助功能是该基金的法定使命。信托基金实行独立的理事会管理体制,并与国际刑事法院开展有效合作。援助资金以自愿捐款为主,包括指定用途的捐款。理事会启动援助功能的决定须接受司法审查,以避免违反规约的有关规定。信托基金援助类型涵盖身体康复、心理康复和物质支持,通过“和平建设与和解计划”在个人与社区层面实施援助。中国应创立犯罪被害人援助基金,以促进构建和谐社会。%The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court established the trust fund for victims (TFV), which should assume the assistance mandate as non-judicial statutory mission. TFV implements an independent council management system, carrying out effective cooperation with the International Criminal Court. The assistance fund relies mainly on voluntary contributions, including earmarked donations. The Council's decision to trigger assistance mandate should be subject to judicial review in order to avoid violation of the relevant provisions of the Statute. TFV assistance mandate consists of physical rehabilitation, psychosocial rehabilitation and material support, and has effects through several " peace-building and reconciliation projects" at the personal, family and community levels. China should establish the crime victims assistance fund so as to promote the construction of harmonious society.

  14. Additionality of global benefits and financial additionality in the context of the AIJ negotiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhl, I.

    1996-12-31

    The Conference of the Party at their first meeting (COP1) took a decision regarding criteria for joint implementation as indicated in Art. 4.2 (a) of the FCCC which established a pilot phase for activities implemented jointly (AIJ) under the pilot phase. Besides some more technical issues this decision specified that such measures should bring about real, measurable and long-term environmental benefits related to the mitigation of climate change that would not have occurred in the absence of such activities. It also established that the financing of AIJ shall be additional to the financial obligations of developed country parties. These two requirements are called the additionality criteria for AIJ. The first refers to the realness of GHG emission abatement (which means reduction compared to a baseline) whereas the second describes that funds earmarked for AIJ have no other objective (i.e. profit making, export promotion) but to reduce GHG emissions to avoid the free-riding of investors and subsequently developed country parties. The reporting framework as well as the reporting requirements under national programs do not specify further the two types of additionality and even though research focuses on issues like baseline determination there has been no attempt so far to identify approaches which contribute towards defining strict and practicable methods and guidelines to frame additionality criteria. The first FCCC assessment of pilot project reporting revealed that in the reporting of activities, emissions additionality often remained unclear, especially in cases where AIJ was only a portion of an existing or already planned project, and that there is a point about how to account for financial additionality. It subsequently proposed to develop a uniform approach to baseline determination and the assessment of emission (reduction) additionality and financial additionality.

  15. The cell cycle regulated transcriptome of Trypanosoma brucei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart K Archer

    Full Text Available Progression of the eukaryotic cell cycle requires the regulation of hundreds of genes to ensure that they are expressed at the required times. Integral to cell cycle progression in yeast and animal cells are temporally controlled, progressive waves of transcription mediated by cell cycle-regulated transcription factors. However, in the kinetoplastids, a group of early-branching eukaryotes including many important pathogens, transcriptional regulation is almost completely absent, raising questions about the extent of cell-cycle regulation in these organisms and the mechanisms whereby regulation is achieved. Here, we analyse gene expression over the Trypanosoma brucei cell cycle, measuring changes in mRNA abundance on a transcriptome-wide scale. We developed a "double-cut" elutriation procedure to select unperturbed, highly synchronous cell populations from log-phase cultures, and compared this to synchronization by starvation. Transcriptome profiling over the cell cycle revealed the regulation of at least 430 genes. While only a minority were homologous to known cell cycle regulated transcripts in yeast or human, their functions correlated with the cellular processes occurring at the time of peak expression. We searched for potential target sites of RNA-binding proteins in these transcripts, which might earmark them for selective degradation or stabilization. Over-represented sequence motifs were found in several co-regulated transcript groups and were conserved in other kinetoplastids. Furthermore, we found evidence for cell-cycle regulation of a flagellar protein regulon with a highly conserved sequence motif, bearing similarity to consensus PUF-protein binding motifs. RNA sequence motifs that are functional in cell-cycle regulation were more widespread than previously expected and conserved within kinetoplastids. These findings highlight the central importance of post-transcriptional regulation in the proliferation of parasitic kinetoplastids.

  16. THE USE OF EU SUPPORT BY ORCHARDS OWNERS IN FARMS IN THE GRÓJEC COUNTY, ON THE BASIS OF THE CONDUCTED SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Olewnicki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the state of fruit producers’ knowledge, as well as methods of EU support application under the various programmes available in both the period before and after Poland’s accession to the EU. Farmers, including gardeners, could apply for funding under the SAPARD programme already before the accession. These grants were the beginning of the support Poland received during this period. EU aid became applied on a large scale just after the accession. A large part of manufacturers began to apply for support i.a. under the Rural Development Programme for 2007–2013 (hereinafter RDP 2007–2013. The survey involved 103 fruit producers from the Grójec County, which is the area of greatest importance in the Polish fruit production. Nearly three quarters of the surveyed respondents claimed that they had benefi ted from the EU support. Those producers who benefi ted from the RDP 2007–2013, the granted funds in 63% invested in modernizing their farms. A lot of producers the received funds earmarked for the purchase of machines. Preferential loans also gained in popularity, especially those that could be applied for after disasters which had destroyed growers’ crops, e.g. spring ground frost, hail etc. 30% of respondents benefi ted from this type of support. It is worth emphasising that almost three quarters of the respondents obtained assistance in making applications from private companies, and not from the state institutions. The biggest obstacle encountered by the producers when applying for EU funds, was the intricate procedure in fi lling in the applications.

  17. Safety Parameter Management in Astrium Based on Ranking of Product Characteristics Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Laurence; Magnin, Cedric

    2013-09-01

    Economic constraints are one of the major drivers in systems development. Because safety is a major constraint that cannot be neglected, industries must find a way to build safe designs without overdesign or superfluous activities and costs.The purpose is to provide sufficient effort on actual safety critical items and not to waste effort (time and money).Via its multi-systems experience in space transportation, space vehicles and satellites, ASTRIUM has developed dedicated processes to optimize safety costs without decreasing the level of safety of its systems.The process is based on an iterative and exhaustive identification of items involved in systems safety thanks to risk analysis right from the beginning of the projects. Safety critical items and their parameters/characteristics that contribute to potential safety issues are ranked depending on the criticality of their failures and their probability of occurrence and these are then treated through the dedicated safety process. Referred to as Ranking Of Product Characteristics (ROPC) in ASTRIUM SPACE TRANSPORTATION or safety Critical Items management in ASTRIUM SA TELLITE, the different terms reflect primarily the divergence between types of safety critical items present on a space vehicle or on a satellite.Each identified safety parameter of a given element of a system is earmarked as such throughout the design, manufacturing, supply, assembly, anomaly control... and end usage and maintenance of the systems. Safety characteristics are controlled and monitored at each step of the development through dedicated checks, keypoints and tests until its last possible test and maintenance plan. The process also deals with systems evolutions and safety non regression. It ensures safety of a system through analysis but also actually verifies that the design is compliant to specified safety parameters: safety built as specified without extra costs due to emphasis put on non-critical parameters.

  18. Environmental and wider implications of political impediments to environmental tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinch, J. Peter [Department of Environmental Studies, Urban Institute of Ireland, University College Dublin, Richview, Clonskeagh, Dublin 14 (Ireland)]. E-mail: peter.clinch@ucd.ie; Dunne, Louise [Department of Environmental Studies, Urban Institute of Ireland, University College Dublin, Richview, Clonskeagh, Dublin 14 (Ireland); Dresner, Simon [Environment Group, Policy Studies Institute, 100 Park Village East, London NW1 3SR (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    The most common notion of environmental tax reform (ETR) is the use of the revenue from environmental taxes to reduce distortionary labour taxes. The PETRAS project has shown that there are a number of social and political impediments to implementing such reform. This paper firstly outlines some of the environmental and economic implications of environmental taxes generally. It goes on to explore three broad approaches to ETR, based on the allocation of the tax revenues, and explores the environmental and economic implications of each approach and the likelihood of political and social acceptance. Particular attention is paid to reducing regressive impacts and impacts on competitiveness. It is concluded that some combination of earmarking a proportion of revenues to environmental projects and diverting rest to reduce labour taxes is probably the best approach in light of the results of the project. The balance should depend upon local labour market and macroeconomic conditions, the extent to which environmental projects are already funded and the extent of government failure, i.e., the problems of resource allocation that occur as a result of government intervention in markets. Funding should only be provided to environmental projects if it can be shown that, in themselves, they are economically efficient. In addition, it is most important that a proportion of the funds be used to ameliorate any regressive impacts. It is also important to bear in mind that hypothecation or recycling of revenue is not the same as a tax shift, which is a reform of the entire system, so some of these approaches may take away from the integrity of ETR. The paper concludes with some of the initiatives that are likely to be necessary to facilitate social and political acceptance of this approach to ETR.

  19. Measures which host countries and countries of origin could adopt to promote the return of migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debart, M H

    1986-03-01

    The immigration wave in the 1960s and 1970s brought scores of migrants to Europe. Most intended to work a few years in a foreign country and return to their homeland; however, poor economies in their own countries discouraged their return. At the same time, jobs became scarcer in their host countries. Several European countries today are resorting to measures designed to promote the return of migrants to their countries of origin. This paper outlines the two major options open to governments in their reintegration efforts. Option 1 requires instituting a definite reintegration policy. Public aid to promote reintegration may be provided. For example, the French give aid contingent upon the return of foreign workers in the labor force to the country of origin and not just upon their departure from the host country. Classical methods pay conpensation to the foreign worker; the problem then is to determine at what point to limit the funds. It must be decided whether or not unemployment benefits should be capitalized and whether or not to reimburse social security and old age contributions. It is also desirable for foreign workers to have access to a specialized organization which is able to advise them on setting up a project or business on their return; ideally, this organization should finance the project. Perhaps the best solution is to enlist participation of the governments of the countries of origin to make job openings known to their nationals desiring to return. Option 2 requires that reintegration be introduced into other economic and social programs. Returning foreign workers would be included as a factor in overall policy planning. Vocational training for return migrants could be proposed to job seekers as well as to dismissed workers. A portion of money used to finance housing projects could be earmarked for construction or reservation of housing in the country of origin. Bilateral vocational training programs can be addressed to nationals who want to

  20. Systematic development of solid self-nanoemulsifying oily formulations (S-SNEOFs) for enhancing the oral bioavailability and intestinal lymphatic uptake of lopinavir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Babita; Katare, O P; Beg, Sarwar; Lohan, Shikha; Singh, Bhupinder

    2016-05-01

    The present studies entail the development of the systematically optimized solid self-nanoemulsifying oily formulations (S-SNEOFs) for enhancing the systemic bioavailability of lopinavir and targeting the same to the sanctuary site, i.e., lymphatic system for complete HIV inhibition. The patient-centric quality target product profile (QTPP) was defined and critical quality attributes (CQAs) earmarked. Risk assessment studies, carried out through failure mode and effect critically analysis (FMECA), helped in identifying the plausible risks or failure modes affecting the quality attributes of the drug product. As per the preliminary studies, viz solubility and phase titration studies, and factor screening studies, Maisine (i.e., lipid), Tween 80 (emulgent), Transcutol HP (i.e., cosolvent) were selected as the critical material attributes (CMAs) of the liquid SNEOFs (L-SNEOFs). D-optimal mixture design was employed for the optimization of aforesaid CMAs and evaluated for in vitro dissolution, globule size, ex vivo permeation studies as the critical quality attributes (CQAs). Optimal composition of CMAs, was embarked through numerical optimization and desirability function, exhibited excellent permeation and drug release characteristics besides possessing globule size in nano range, i.e., 53.16 nm. Further to increase the stability and drug loading, the OPT-L-SNEOFs were then adsorbed onto the porous carrier, i.e., Aeroperl, to prepare the OPT-SNEOF tablets which were finally compressed into the tablet employing MCC as the filler. The performance evaluation through in situ SPIP studies ascribed the significant enhancement in absorptivity parameters of both the SNEOFs vis-à-vis the pure drug. Also, chylomicron flow block SPIP studies revealed lymphatic uptake of lopinavir from the SNEOFs. Overall, in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats revealed significant improvement in the rate and extent of oral bioavailability of the SNEOFs compared to the pure drug. These studies

  1. Support for international agricultural research: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Robert S; Mohanty, Samarendu

    2010-11-30

    The success of the first Green Revolution in the form of abundant food supplies and low prices over the past two decades has diverted the world's attention from agriculture to other pressing issues. This has resulted in lower support for the agricultural research work primarily undertaken by the 15 research centers of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The total support in real dollars for most of the last three decades has been more or less flat although the number of centers increased from 4 to 15. However, since 2000, the funding situation has improved for the CGIAR centers, with almost all the increase coming from grants earmarked for specific research projects. Even for some centers such as the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the downward trend continued as late as 2006 with the budget in real dollars reaching the 1978 level of support. The recent food crisis has renewed the call for a second Green Revolution by revitalizing yield growth to feed the world in the face of growing population and a shrinking land base for agricultural use. The slowdown in yield growth because of decades of neglect in agricultural research and infrastructure development has been identified as the underlying reason for the recent food crisis. For the second Green Revolution to be successful, the CGIAR centers will have to play a complex role by expanding productivity in a sustainable manner with fewer resources. Thus, it is crucial to examine the current structure of support for the CGIAR centers and identify the challenges ahead in terms of source and end use of funds for the success of the second Green Revolution. The objective of this paper is to provide a historical perspective on the support to the CGIAR centers and to examine the current status of funding, in particular, the role of project-specific grants in rebuilding capacity of these centers. The paper will also discuss the nature of the support (unrestricted vs. project

  2. Creation of a special medical service mechanism for large international sport events%重大国际赛事医疗保障专项工作机制的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杨; 宣世英; 韩同钦; 高倩

    2009-01-01

    For medical service provision for the Olympic Games, a special medical service mechanism for important international sport events eventually took shape, based on task analysis and medical services provided in test games for two years including 2006 and 2007 Qingdao Sailing Regatta. This mechanism features the following: First, "7-Special" sport event medical practice - Medical zones, medical teams, service flows, service signs, medical papers, and drug management, all exclusively earmarked for the event; Second, medical services up to international standard; Third, special flows for medical rescue; Fourth, Special system for information reporting. Thanks to this special mechanism, the hospital provided its medical assurance for the Olympic Games successfully, and upgraded its routine medical services as a result.%为完成奥运会这一重大国际赛事的医疗保障任务,通过对面临任务的分析,经过两年测试赛医疗保障工作的探索,形成了参与重大国际赛事医疗保障工作的专项工作机制.专项工作机制内容:一是赛事专用诊疗区域、专职诊疗团队、专项服务流程、专用服务标志、专用医疗文书、专项服务模式和专项药品管理的"七个专项"赛事医疗运行体系;二是诊疗规范的国际标准;三是抢救工作的专项流程;四是信息报告的专项体系.通过专项工作机制的建立,医院成功完成了奥运会的医疗保障任务,并实现医院日常诊疗工作的全面进步.

  3. Energy mix of the future will be a mosaic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, G.

    2000-06-30

    Research into alternative energy sources is being undertaken by several of the large petroleum companies, including PanCanadian Petroleum, PetroCanada, Royal Dutch Shell, BP and Suncor Energy, an indication of the anticipated importance of renewables in the energy mix of the future. Clean electricity generation facilities fuelled by natural gas is one of the areas of interest to PanCanadian Petroleum and TransCanada Pipelines, while PetroCanada is diversifying into biofuels. Worldwide, Royal Dutch Shell has proclaimed renewables as one of its core businesses, budgeting US$500 million for renewable energy research over the next five years. BPSolarex, a subsidiary of British Petroleum, is well on the way to becoming the world's largest manufacturer and marketer of solar technology, while Suncor Energy of Calgary earmarked $100 million over the next five years to research in producing fuel from biomass, conversion of waste to energy, capture of carbon dioxide, and solar and wind power. The driving force behind these efforts is the significant global pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to meet the commitments undertaken at the 1997 Kyoto Climate Change Conference. Equally important is the recognition of the finite character of conventional energy sources, and the the various scenarios designed by diverse organizations to show the impact of new energy technologies on how people live and work, and how people, goods and resources move. For example, the scenarios developed by the Energy Technologies Futures Program of Natural Resources Canada are designed to provoke discussion of strategic directions and to challenge current thinking about energy consumption, efficiency and conservation. These scenarios identifiy a range of possible outcomes, depending on industry and government efforts to balance the pillars of sustainable development, i. e. the economy, society and the environment. Industry is taking an increasing interest in these projections as shown

  4. Os procedimentos adotados pelo tribunal de contas do Piauí para a verificação das receitas e despesas vinculadas à educação The procedures adopted by the audit office (ao of the Brazilian state of Piauí to check the revenues and expenditures linked to education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Davies

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa procedimentos do Tribunal de Contas (TC do Piauí para a verificação da receita e despesa vinculada à educação, constatando a oscilação e pouca clareza e firmeza na definição destes procedimentos. Por exemplo, embora a Constituição Estadual previsse o percentual mínimo de 30% em manutenção e desenvolvimento do ensino (MDE, o TC só passou a exigir este cumprimento a partir de uma resolução sua de 1998. Mesmo assim, admitiu que, no caso de Teresina e outros municípios, esta exigência viesse a ser cumprida gradualmente e só alcançasse os 30% em 2002. Em 2004, no entanto, reduziu esta exigência para 25%. Com relação à contabilização de receitas e despesas, os procedimentos também variaram. A Resolução n. 1.606, de 1998, por exemplo, não detalhou as receitas vinculadas à MDE. Na definição de despesas classificadas como MDE, o TC acrescentou alguns itens não previstos nos artigos 70 e 71 da LDB, confundindo gastos legalmente definidos como MDE com os classificados pela Lei do Orçamento Público.This paper examines the procedures adopted by the Audit Office (AO of the Brazilian State of Piauí to check the revenues and expenditures linked to education. It found that such procedures oscillate and are not very clearly and firmly defined. For example, although the State Constitution of Piauí stipulates that a minimum of 30% of tax revenue be earmarked to the legally-defined concept of maintenance and development of education (MDE, the AO only began to require it be enforced after a resolution issued in 1998. Yet, it allowed the capital city of Teresina and other townships to only gradually comply with it and reach 30% in the year of 2002. In 2004, however, the AO reduced this requirement to 25% (the minimum set by the Federal Constitution. As for the accounting of revenues and expenditures, procedures have also varied. Resolution 1.606 (1998, for example, does not detail the revenues linked to MDE

  5. The effects of inquiry-based science on the social and communicative skills of students with low-incidence disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Heather Hopkins

    This research utilized inquiry based science as a vehicle to implement and maintain social skills training for secondary students, ages 14 to 20, with low-incidence disabilities in a self-contained classroom. This three year action research study examined the effects of an inquiry based science curriculum on the level and quantity of social skills used by students with one or more of the following challenges: significant learning disability (functioning more than two grade levels below grade level), emotional/social disability, mental retardation, Autism, and/or varying degrees of brain damage. Through the use of video recording, the students in the study were analyzed based on the level of social interaction and the amount of socialization that took place during inquiry based science. The skills sought were based on the social and communication skills earmarked in the students' weekly social skills training class and their Individualized Education Plans (IEP). Based on previous research in social skills training it has been determined that where social skills training is lacking are in the areas of transfer and maintenance of skills. Due to the natural social behavior that must take place in inquiry based science this group of students were found to exhibit gains in (1) quantity of social interactions on topic; (2) developing higher levels of social interactions (sharing, taking other's suggestions, listening and responding appropriately, etc.); and (3) maintenance of social skills taught outside of formal social skills training. These gains were seen overall in the amount of student involvement during inquiry based science verses teacher involvement. Such increases are depicted through students' verbal exchanges, excerpts from field notes, and student reflections. The findings of this research is expected to guide special educators, administrators and directors of curriculum as to how to better create curriculum for this specific population where social skills

  6. An analysis of the costs of Uganda's Child Days Plus: do low costs reveal an efficient program or an underfinanced one?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L; Semakula, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Twice annually, Uganda implements Child Days Plus (CDP), a month-long outreach activity that distributes vitamin A capsules to preschool children and deworms children 6 months to 14 years old. Introduced initially as a temporary, interim strategy, CDP is now a decade old. To assess how well CDP is implemented using an activity-based cost analysis. In the absence of a cost-accounting system for CDP, we defined the six major CDP activities as cost centers and identified five important subactivities required to implement a round of CDP. Based on a purposive sample, we conducted a structured interview survey of 59 Ministry of Health facilities, 9 district offices, and national-level CDP staff. Only one-third of the facilities implemented all 11 CDP core activities. The survey revealed that Ministry of Health staff and volunteers are frequently paid substantially less in allowances than they are entitled to for their CDP outreach activities. Viewing these two practices--nonimplementation and less-than-full-reimbursement--as indicators of CDP's underfinancing, we estimate the program is underfinanced by the equivalent of 37% of its 'full implementation" costs. Two-thirds of underfinancing is manifested in nonimplementation and one-third as less-than full-reimbursement. CDP exploits economies of scale and scope and has an average cost per child served of US$0.22. We estimate that it annually saves 367,000 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) at an average cost of US$12.5, making it--despite its underfinancing--highly cost-effective. Increased CDP funding would enable its vitamin A coverage rate of 58% and its deworming coverage rate of 62% to be increased, thereby increasing its effectiveness and efficiency. CDP should be "relaunched," as part of an effort to improve the structure of the program, set expectations about it, and earmark a minimum of resources for CDP. The Ministry of Health should demonstrate its new, greater commitment to CDP by introducing a program

  7. Del trabajo al paro y del paro al subsidio: Cambios en las culturas del trabajo de los jornaleros andaluces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palenzuela, Pablo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the gradual loss of social identity of Andalusian day laborers through the combined effects of the modernization of agradan structures and goverment subsidies for temporary workers. The thread of the author's analysis is the concept of work cultures and their role in the formation of social identities. With this epistemological instrument, he reconstructs the material basis of the work processes (i. e., the knowhow, the technical organization, the control systems as well as the day laborers' representations of their job (i. e., their values, symbols, perceptions, etc. within the context of specific relations of production. As the bases of reproduction of those work cultures disappear, so do the day laborers as a self-conscious social group, who then become no more than an administrative category, earmarked for government handouts. They are made redundant by the mechanization of agriculture, yet have no future in the productive economy.Se analiza el proceso de disolución de la identidad social de los jornaleros andaluces a partir de los efectos combinados de la política de modernización de las estructuras agrarias y las prestaciones asistenciales para los trabajadores eventuales. El hilo conductor del análisis es el concepto de culturas del trabajo y su nivel de determinación en la configuración de las identidades sociales. Con esta herramienta epistemológica se reconstruye la base material (técnicas y saberes, organización técnica y sistemas de control de los procesos de trabajo, así como el conjunto de representaciones (valores, símbolos, percepciones, etc. que los jornaleros han asignado a su trabajo en unas determinadas relaciones sociales de producción. Al desaparecer las bases de reproducción de esas culturas del trabajo, los jornaleros se disuelven como colectivo identitario para transformarse en una simple categoría administrativa, convirtiéndose en asistidos sociales que subsisten de las prestaciones

  8. Late glacial to Holocene water level and climate changes in the Gulf of Gemlik, Sea of Marmara: evidence from multi-proxy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filikci, Betül; Eriş, Kürşad Kadir; Çağatay, Namık; Sabuncu, Asen; Polonia, Alina

    2017-02-01

    Multi-proxy analyses of new piston core M13-08 together with seismic data from the Gulf of Gemlik provide a detailed record of paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic changes with special emphasis on the timing of the connections between the Sea of Marmara (SoM) and the Gulf of Gemlik during the late Pleistocene to Holocene. The deposition of a subaqueous delta sourced from the Armutlu River to the north is attributed to the lowstand lake level at -60 m in the gulf prior to 13.5 cal ka BP. On the basis of the seismic data, it is argued that the higher lake level (-60 m) in the gulf compared to the SoM level (-85 m) attests to its disconnection from the SoM during the late glacial period. Ponto-Caspian assemblages in the lacustrine sedimentary unit covering the time period between 13.5 and 12 cal ka BP represent a relict that was introduced into the gulf by a Black Sea outflow during the marine isotope stage 3 interstadial. Contrary to the findings of previous studies, the data suggest that such an outflow into the Gulf of Gemlik during the late glacial period could have occurred only if the SoM lake level (-85 m) was shallower than the sill depth (-55 m) of the gulf in the west. A robust age model of the core indicates the connection of the gulf with the marine SoM at 12 cal ka BP, consistent with the sill depth (-55 m) of the gulf on the global sea level curve. Strong evidence of a marine incursion into the gulf is well documented by the μ-XRF Sr/Ca data. The available profiles of elemental ratios in core M13-08, together with the age-depth model, imply that a warm and wet climate prevailed in the gulf during the early Holocene (12-10.1 cal ka BP), whereas the longest drought occurred during the middle Holocene (8.2-5.4 cal ka BP). The base of the main Holocene sapropel in the gulf is dated at 10.1 cal ka BP, i.e., 500 years younger than its equivalent in the SoM. The late Holocene is earmarked by warm and wet climate periods (5.0-4.2 and 4.2-2.7 cal ka BP) with some

  9. INTENSITY OF SOIL CONTAMINATION IN INDUSTRIAL CENTERS OF KAZAKHSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanzhol Iztileu

    2013-06-01

    areas puts into the hands of environmentalists a new tool in the analysis of environmental health issues to reduce the carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of soil contamination with heavy metals. The mapping results of soil contamination will contribute earmarking local authorities to carry out administrative measures to optimize the environment in the industrial centers.

  10. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP INITIATIVE IN AZERBAIJAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna GOMOLKA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Azerbaijan established political relations with the EU during the implementation of TACIS Programme projects and signed the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement with the EU in 1996. It joined the European Neighbourhood Policy in 2004 and the Eastern Partnership programme in 2009. Despite the sceptical attitude taken by Azerbaijan's government towards the Eastern Partnership initiative, the EU earmarked further funds for Azerbaijan for 2011–2014 as part of the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument. During the third Eastern Partnership summit in Vilnius in November 2013, Azerbaijan signed only an agreement concerning visa facilitations and readmission. However, it also undertook certain measures as part of the five Eastern Partnership initiatives. In the framework of the Integrated Border Management Programme, Azerbaijan implemented projects connected with improving the access of resettled people to the judicial system, creation of electronic border control systems, social protection, increasing public awareness to eliminate domestic violence, improving assimilation of asylumseekers and immigrants, and supporting occupational health organisations. Activities aimed at supporting SMEs included training for entrepreneurs, promotional conferences and loans to the SME sector. Recommendations of the initiative promoting the creation of regional electrical and renewable energy markets were implemented by Azerbaijan in the form of 33 projects as part of the INOGATE Programme. With respect to environmental management, Azerbaijandeveloped a digital regional atlas of natural disasters, and with respect to natural disaster mitigation it planned population protection measures. Azerbaijan was ranked last but one in the evaluation presented in the annual report prepared by the EU. The transformation process in this country has been slow and illusory in certain aspects. Nevertheless, the EU has continued its

  11. Policy lessons from health taxes: a systematic review of empirical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alexandra; Smith, Katherine E; Hellowell, Mark

    2017-06-19

    goal of any health tax and frame the tax accordingly - not doing so leaves taxes vulnerable to hostile lobbying. Conversely, earmarking health taxes for health spending tends to increase public support so long as policymakers follow through on specified spending commitments. CRD42016048603.

  12. Late glacial to Holocene water level and climate changes in the Gulf of Gemlik, Sea of Marmara: evidence from multi-proxy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filikci, Betül; Eriş, Kürşad Kadir; Çağatay, Namık; Sabuncu, Asen; Polonia, Alina

    2017-10-01

    Multi-proxy analyses of new piston core M13-08 together with seismic data from the Gulf of Gemlik provide a detailed record of paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic changes with special emphasis on the timing of the connections between the Sea of Marmara (SoM) and the Gulf of Gemlik during the late Pleistocene to Holocene. The deposition of a subaqueous delta sourced from the Armutlu River to the north is attributed to the lowstand lake level at -60 m in the gulf prior to 13.5 cal ka BP. On the basis of the seismic data, it is argued that the higher lake level (-60 m) in the gulf compared to the SoM level (-85 m) attests to its disconnection from the SoM during the late glacial period. Ponto-Caspian assemblages in the lacustrine sedimentary unit covering the time period between 13.5 and 12 cal ka BP represent a relict that was introduced into the gulf by a Black Sea outflow during the marine isotope stage 3 interstadial. Contrary to the findings of previous studies, the data suggest that such an outflow into the Gulf of Gemlik during the late glacial period could have occurred only if the SoM lake level (-85 m) was shallower than the sill depth (-55 m) of the gulf in the west. A robust age model of the core indicates the connection of the gulf with the marine SoM at 12 cal ka BP, consistent with the sill depth (-55 m) of the gulf on the global sea level curve. Strong evidence of a marine incursion into the gulf is well documented by the μ-XRF Sr/Ca data. The available profiles of elemental ratios in core M13-08, together with the age-depth model, imply that a warm and wet climate prevailed in the gulf during the early Holocene (12-10.1 cal ka BP), whereas the longest drought occurred during the middle Holocene (8.2-5.4 cal ka BP). The base of the main Holocene sapropel in the gulf is dated at 10.1 cal ka BP, i.e., 500 years younger than its equivalent in the SoM. The late Holocene is earmarked by warm and wet climate periods (5.0-4.2 and 4.2-2.7 cal ka BP) with some

  13. Seniors managing multiple medications: using mixed methods to view the home care safety lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ariella; Macdonald, Marilyn; Marck, Patricia; Toon, Lynn; Griffin, Melissa; Easty, Tony; Fraser, Kimberly; MacKinnon, Neil; Mitchell, Jonathan; Lang, Eddy; Goodwin, Sharon

    2015-12-12

    Patient safety is a national and international priority with medication safety earmarked as both a prevalent and high-risk area of concern. To date, medication safety research has focused overwhelmingly on institutional based care provided by paid healthcare professionals, which often has little applicability to the home care setting. This critical gap in our current understanding of medication safety in the home care sector is particularly evident with the elderly who often manage more than one chronic illness and a complex palette of medications, along with other care needs. This study addresses the medication management issues faced by seniors with chronic illnesses, their family, caregivers, and paid providers within Canadian publicly funded home care programs in Alberta (AB), Ontario (ON), Quebec (QC) and Nova Scotia (NS). Informed by a socio-ecological perspective, this study utilized Interpretive Description (ID) methodology and participatory photographic methods to capture and analyze a range of visual and textual data. Three successive phases of data collection and analysis were conducted in a concurrent, iterative fashion in eight urban and/or rural households in each province. A total of 94 participants (i.e., seniors receiving home care services, their family/caregivers, and paid providers) were interviewed individually. In addition, 69 providers took part in focus groups. Analysis was iterative and concurrent with data collection in that each interview was compared with subsequent interviews for converging as well as diverging patterns. Six patterns were identified that provide a rich portrayal of the complexity of medication management safety in home care: vulnerabilities that impact the safe management and storage of medication, sustaining adequate supports, degrees of shared accountability for care, systems of variable effectiveness, poly-literacy required to navigate the system, and systemic challenges to maintaining medication safety in the home

  14. Realtime Data to Enable Earth-Observing Sensor Web Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seablom, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade NASA's Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) has invested in new technologies for information systems to enhance the Earth-observing capabilities of satellites, aircraft, and ground-based in situ observations. One focus area has been to create a common infrastructure for coordinated measurements from multiple vantage points which could be commanded either manually or through autonomous means, such as from a numerical model. This paradigm became known as the sensor web, formally defined to be "a coherent set of heterogeneous, loosely-coupled, distributed observing nodes interconnected by a communications fabric that can collectively behave as a single dynamically adaptive and reconfigurable observing system". This would allow for adaptive targeting of rapidly evolving, transient, or variable meteorological features to improve our ability to monitor, understand, and predict their evolution. It would also enable measurements earmarked at critical regions of the atmosphere that are highly sensitive to data analysis errors, thus offering the potential for significant improvements in the predictive skill of numerical weather forecasts. ESTO's investment strategy was twofold. Recognizing that implementation of an operational sensor web would not only involve technical cost and risk but also would require changes to the culture of how flight missions were designed and operated, ESTO funded the development of a mission-planning simulator that would quantitatively assess the added value of coordinated observations. The simulator was designed to provide the capability to perform low-cost engineering and design trade studies using synthetic data generated by observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs). The second part of the investment strategy was to invest in prototype applications that implemented key features of a sensor web, with the dual goals of developing a sensor web reference architecture as well as supporting useful science activities that

  15. Evolution of Tonal Organization in Music Optimizes Neural Mechanisms in Symbolic Encoding of Perceptual Reality. Part-2: Ancient to 17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey eNikolsky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals the way in which musical pitch works as a peculiar form of cognition that reflects upon the organization of the surrounding world as perceived by majority of music users within a socio-cultural formation.Part-1 of this paper described the origin of tonal organization from verbal speech, its progress from indefinite to definite pitch, and the emergence of two main harmonic orders: heptatonic and pentatonic, each characterized by its own method of handling tension at both domains, of tonal and social organization. Part-2, here, completes the line of historic development from Antiquity to 17th century. Vast archeological data is used to identify the perception of music structures that tells apart the temple/palace music of urban civilizations and the folk music of village cultures. The mega-pitch-set (MPS organization is found to constitute the principal contribution of a math-based music theory to a new diatonic order. All ramifications for psychology of music are discussed in detail. Non-octave hypermode is identified as a peculiar homogenous type of MPS, typical for plainchant.The origin of chromaticism is thoroughly examined as an earmark of art-music that opposes earlier forms of folk music. The role of aesthetic emotions in formation of chromatic alteration is defined. The development of chromatic system is traced throughout history, highlighting its modern implementation in hemiolic modes.The connection between tonal organization in music and spatial organization in pictorial art is established in the Baroque culture, and then tracked back to prehistoric times. Both are shown to present a form of abstraction of environmental topographic schemes, and music is proposed as the primary medium for its cultivation through the concept of pitch. The comparison of stages of tonal organization and typologies of musical texture is used to define the overall course of tonal evolution. Tonal organization of pitch reflects the culture

  16. Evolution of Tonal Organization in Music Optimizes Neural Mechanisms in Symbolic Encoding of Perceptual Reality. Part-2: Ancient to Seventeenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolsky, Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    This paper reveals the way in which musical pitch works as a peculiar form of cognition that reflects upon the organization of the surrounding world as perceived by majority of music users within a socio-cultural formation. Part-1 of this paper described the origin of tonal organization from verbal speech, its progress from indefinite to definite pitch, and the emergence of two main harmonic orders: heptatonic and pentatonic, each characterized by its own method of handling tension at both domains, of tonal and social organization. Part-2, here, completes the line of historic development from Antiquity to seventeenth century. Vast archeological data is used to identify the perception of music structures that tells apart the temple/palace music of urban civilizations and the folk music of village cultures. The "mega-pitch-set" (MPS) organization is found to constitute the principal contribution of a math-based music theory to a new diatonic order. All ramifications for psychology of music are discussed in detail. "Non-octave hypermode" is identified as a peculiar homogenous type of MPS, typical for plainchant. The origin of chromaticism is thoroughly examined as an earmark of "art-music" that opposes earlier forms of folk music. The role of aesthetic emotions in formation of chromatic alteration is defined. The development of chromatic system is traced throughout history, highlighting its modern implementation in "hemiolic modes." The connection between tonal organization in music and spatial organization in pictorial art is established in the Baroque culture, and then tracked back to prehistoric times. Both are shown to present a form of abstraction of environmental topographic schemes, and music is proposed as the primary medium for its cultivation through the concept of pitch. The comparison of stages of tonal organization and typologies of musical texture is used to define the overall course of tonal evolution. Tonal organization of pitch reflects the culture of

  17. CO2 fluxes in converting a tropical savanna to a managed ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Mila; Hutley, Lindsay; Beringer, Jason; Livesley, Stephen; Arndt, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Clearing and burning of tropical savanna is a globally significant emission of greenhouse gas although there is large uncertainty relating to the magnitude of this flux. Australia's tropical savannas occupy over 25% of the continental land mass and they significantly influence the national greenhouse gas budget. The tropical savanna region is also earmarked as one potential area of agricultural expansion in Australia given predicted rainfall declines across southern agricultural regions. It is currently unknown what impact a conversion of savanna woodlands to agricultural cropping will have on carbon and water budgets. We measured continuous CO2 exchange using eddy covariance flux towers before, during and after a land use change event in a savanna woodland in the Northern Territory of Australia. Our experimental design included flux measurement in an uncleared savanna and at a second savanna site prior to, during clearing and conversion to agricultural land. In addition, we measured the biomass of the savanna vegetation to quantify loss of standing carbon during conversion. The uncleared savanna was a weak net sink annually (~0.5 t C ha-1yr-1). In the 5 months prior to clearing, the late dry season to the early wet season (Oct 2011 to Mar 2012), the analogue savanna site was also a weak sink (mean daily sink ~0.05 t C ha-1 d-1). Clearing shifted the site to a net source of CO2. It remained a permanent CO2 source regardless of subsequent weather events, with pulses of increased respiration associated with rainfall events. The cleared debris (63 t biomass ha-1) was burnt in the late dry season a process that took 10 days (burning, stock piling, re-burning). Using savanna specific fuel emission factors we calculated the emissions from this fire event assuming all above ground, and 90% below-ground biomass was incinerated. The burning released a further 25.1 t C ha-1 from cleared debris, plus 6.3 t C ha-1 as a net emission as measured by the tower, generating huge CO2

  18. Action programme for the collection of mercury. Final report of a government assignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    Mercury is one of the most hazardous toxic substances for the environment. No other metal is as poisonous for microorganisms as mercury. The influence of mercury on our environment must not increase but decrease. Every addition exacerbates the problem. In order to create a good environment for future generations, we have to change the direction of the current development. For our generation, such a strategy entails being responsible for the unconscious pollution of our environment by previous generations. It is therefore vital to collect mercury. Commissioned by the government, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency developed an action programme for a more effective and comprehensive collection of used products and goods containing mercury. This final report describes the action programme. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, the SEPA, received 30 million SEK to carry out the task. This entailed the development of a proposal regarding terminal storage of mercury presented to the Government in December 1997. The SEPA has given aid to projects as well as carried out projects of their own. About SEK 9 million was spent on the terminal storage project and approx. SEK 18 million on information and physical mercury collection. SEK 3 - 3,5 million still has not been used. Within the action programme, the SEPA has financed 49 projects with approx. SEK 10,5 million. The projects dealt with the collection of clinical thermometers, inventories and collection of mercury, information and knowledge. SEK 7 - 7,5 million has been earmarked for the Agency's own projects, investigatory work and communication of results. The SEPA has channelled approx. SEK 5 million of this money into three projects, two of which concerned the clearing out of mercury in schools, universities and colleges. A third project involved the identification of hidden 'technical' mercury within about 70 industries. The work involved tracing mercury with the world's first

  19. Epidemiology of Pediatric Ocular Trauma in the Chaoshan Region, China, 2001–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, He; Li, Liping; Zhang, Mingzhi; Li, Hongni

    2013-01-01

    Background Ocular trauma is the leading cause of monocular visual disability and noncongenital unilateral blindness in children. This study describes the epidemiology and medical care associated with nonfatal pediatric (≤17 years of age) eye injury-related hospitalization in the largest industrial base for plastic toy production in China. Methods A population-based retrospective study of patients hospitalized for ocular and orbital trauma in the ophthalmology departments of 3 major tertiary hospitals from 1st January 2001 to 31st December 2010 was performed. Results The study included 1035 injured eyes from 1018 patients over a 10-year period: 560 (54.1%) eyes exhibited open globe injuries, 402 (38.8%) eyes suffered closed globe injuries, 10 (1.0%) eyes suffered chemical injuries and 8 (0.8%) eyes exhibited thermal injuries, representing an average annual hospitalization rate of 0.37 per 10,000 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36–0.38) due to pediatric eye injury in the Chaoshan region. The mean patient age was 9.2±4.4 years with a male-to-female ratio of 3.3∶1 (P = 0.007). Children aged 6 to 11 years accounted for the highest percentage (40.8%, 416/1018) of hospitalization, 56.7% (236/416) of whom were hospitalized for open globe wounds. Injury occurred most frequently at home (73.1%). Open globe wounds cost the single most expensive financial burden (60.8%) of total charges with $998±702 mean charges per hospitalization. Conclusions Open globe wounds occurred at home are earmarked for the priorities to prevention strategies. Higher public awareness of protecting primary schoolchildren from home-related eye injuries should be strengthened urgently by legislation or regulation since the traditional industrial mode seems to remain the pattern for the foreseeable future. Further research that provide detailed information on the specific inciting agents of pediatric eye injuries are recommended for facilitating the development and targeting of appropriate

  20. Potential effects of ongoing and proposed hydropower development on terrestrial biological diversity in the Indian Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Maharaj K; Grumbine, R Edward

    2012-12-01

    Indian Himalayan basins are earmarked for widespread dam building, but aggregate effects of these dams on terrestrial ecosystems are unknown. We mapped distribution of 292 dams (under construction and proposed) and projected effects of these dams on terrestrial ecosystems under different scenarios of land-cover loss. We analyzed land-cover data of the Himalayan valleys, where dams are located. We estimated dam density on fifth- through seventh-order rivers and compared these estimates with current global figures. We used a species-area relation model (SAR) to predict short- and long-term species extinctions driven by deforestation. We used scatter plots and correlation studies to analyze distribution patterns of species and dams and to reveal potential overlap between species-rich areas and dam sites. We investigated effects of disturbance on community structure of undisturbed forests. Nearly 90% of Indian Himalayan valleys would be affected by dam building and 27% of these dams would affect dense forests. Our model projected that 54,117 ha of forests would be submerged and 114,361 ha would be damaged by dam-related activities. A dam density of 0.3247/1000 km(2) would be nearly 62 times greater than current average global figures; the average of 1 dam for every 32 km of river channel would be 1.5 times higher than figures reported for U.S. rivers. Our results show that most dams would be located in species-rich areas of the Himalaya. The SAR model projected that by 2025, deforestation due to dam building would likely result in extinction of 22 angiosperm and 7 vertebrate taxa. Disturbance due to dam building would likely reduce tree species richness by 35%, tree density by 42%, and tree basal cover by 30% in dense forests. These results, combined with relatively weak national environmental impact assessment and implementation, point toward significant loss of species if all proposed dams in the Indian Himalaya are constructed. ©2012 Society for Conservation

  1. Evolution of Tonal Organization in Music Optimizes Neural Mechanisms in Symbolic Encoding of Perceptual Reality. Part-2: Ancient to Seventeenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolsky, Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    This paper reveals the way in which musical pitch works as a peculiar form of cognition that reflects upon the organization of the surrounding world as perceived by majority of music users within a socio-cultural formation. Part-1 of this paper described the origin of tonal organization from verbal speech, its progress from indefinite to definite pitch, and the emergence of two main harmonic orders: heptatonic and pentatonic, each characterized by its own method of handling tension at both domains, of tonal and social organization. Part-2, here, completes the line of historic development from Antiquity to seventeenth century. Vast archeological data is used to identify the perception of music structures that tells apart the temple/palace music of urban civilizations and the folk music of village cultures. The “mega-pitch-set” (MPS) organization is found to constitute the principal contribution of a math-based music theory to a new diatonic order. All ramifications for psychology of music are discussed in detail. “Non-octave hypermode” is identified as a peculiar homogenous type of MPS, typical for plainchant. The origin of chromaticism is thoroughly examined as an earmark of “art-music” that opposes earlier forms of folk music. The role of aesthetic emotions in formation of chromatic alteration is defined. The development of chromatic system is traced throughout history, highlighting its modern implementation in “hemiolic modes.” The connection between tonal organization in music and spatial organization in pictorial art is established in the Baroque culture, and then tracked back to prehistoric times. Both are shown to present a form of abstraction of environmental topographic schemes, and music is proposed as the primary medium for its cultivation through the concept of pitch. The comparison of stages of tonal organization and typologies of musical texture is used to define the overall course of tonal evolution. Tonal organization of pitch

  2. Reserves for nuclear power plant decommissioning and radwaste disposal in Germany. An analysis and evaluation from the angle of energy policy; Energiewirtschaftliche Bewertung der Rueckstellungen fuer die Entsorgung der deutschen Kernkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerger, V. [comp.

    1998-12-31

    The study, which is the first of its kind in Germany, presents a comprehensive survey of total reserves set up by the German nuclear industry for liabilities and costs for nuclear power plant decommissioning and resulting radwaste disposal, which is a legal and foreseeable responsibility but uncertain in amount. The study looks into the various ways the earmarked money was invested and analyses the funds with respect to their efficiency and reliability to provide financial security for the given tasks and purpose. The question put in this context is: Are the reserves set up so far in line with official cost estimates, i.e. will they cover estimated costs, or do they even exceed the estimated amounts? The conclusions drawn and explained in this document are: The reserves for nuclear decommissioning have been used by the nuclear power plant operators and electricity companies as a significant capital source. Some of the capital accrued is being increasingly used at present to cover expenses arising for restructuring of business and diversification into new business segments of interest in the open national and European electricity markets. Companies such as RWE, Preussen Elektra, and Bayernwerk, which until deregulation of the energy sector were just power supply companies, have been transformed into conglomerate companies and international players in the markets, like RWE Holding, VEBA, and VIAG. It can be safely assumed that the companies would not have been able to reach the important positions they currently hold in the German economy without tapping the reserves for nuclear decommissioning. (orig./CB) 27 refs. [Deutsch] Die Studie gibt erstmals einen vollstaendigen Ueberblick ueber die Summe der in Deutschland gebildeten Rueckstellungen im Kernenergiebereich. Sie geht der Frage nach, wie diese Gelder angelegt sind und ob die praktizierten Anlageformen dem hohen Sicherheitsanspruch entsprechen, den die Gesellschaft an die finanziellen Ressourcen zur Bewaeltigung

  3. Evaluating models for predicting hydraulic characteristics of layered soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavimbela, S. S. W.; van Rensburg, L. D.

    2012-01-01

    well the prismatic and pedo-cutanic horizons. The lognormal distribution model of Kasugi (1996) showed an extraordinary good fit among the Swartland profile horizons especially the saprolite rock layer. It was therefore concluded that in-situ KL-coefficient estimates from SWCC parameters could be acceptable if only rough estimates were required. Optimization of parameters for in-situ conditions especially for HYDRUS 1-D carried much prospects in characterising the hydraulic properties of most of the layered soils earmarked for IRWH in the province.

  4. Evaluating models for predicting hydraulic characteristics of layered soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. W. Mavimbela

    2012-01-01

    and neucutanic horizons while its modified form fitted very well the prismatic and pedo-cutanic horizons. The lognormal distribution model of Kasugi (1996 showed an extraordinary good fit among the Swartland profile horizons especially the saprolite rock layer. It was therefore concluded that in-situ KL-coefficient estimates from SWCC parameters could be acceptable if only rough estimates were required. Optimization of parameters for in-situ conditions especially for HYDRUS 1-D carried much prospects in characterising the hydraulic properties of most of the layered soils earmarked for IRWH in the province.

  5. Policy for Research and Innovation in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Bastos, Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Latin America (LAC) is renewing efforts to build-up research and innovation (R&I) capacities, guided by policies that consider the need to transform the traditional science system into a more dynamic entity. Policies permitted the generation of new spaces to develop science, strengthen scientific communities, improve university-enterprise linkages, establish common agendas between public and private sectors, earmark special budgets, build new infrastructure, and improve the number and quality of scientific publications. In spite of much progress, LAC lags much behind developed countries, their universities rank lower than their international counterparts, the number of researchers is small and funding is below an appropriate threshold. Some countries have innovated in few economic sectors, while others remain technologically underdeveloped and much of the countries' innovative capacities remain untapped. It is believed that policies still have little influence on social and economic development and there exists dissatisfaction in the academic and entrepreneurial sectors with their quality and relevance or with the political will of governments to execute them. On the other hand, in the past decades, the complexity of innovation systems has increased considerably, and has yet to be taken fully into account in LAC policy definitions. The situation calls for decision makers to shape new framework conditions for R&I in a way that both processes co-evolve and are stimulated and guided on solutions to the major problems of society. Considering the main features of complex systems, self- organization, emergence and non-linearity, R&I policy measures need to be seen as interventions in such a system, as the use of traditional leverage effects used in the past for policy decisions are more and more obsolete. Policies must now use ``weak coordination mechanisms,'' foresight, mission statements, and visions. It is obvious that due to nonlinearities in the system, adaptive

  6. European initiatives to develop information systems in oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grand, P.

    2009-04-01

    change scenario simulations. EMODNET will provide the access to raw and processed data necessary to calculate the indicators that Member States are obliged to provide through WISE-Marine to meet the requirements of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Moving to the definitive EMODNET will require significant funding. Given that EMODNET is very much focused on a sea-basin scale and given the impetus accorded to territorial cohesion by the EU maritime policy, discussions will begin to determine whether cohesion funding could support the initiative. At the same time moves will begin to integrate EMODNET with initiatives under the EU's research infrastructure programmes and the Common Fisheries Policy Data Collection Regulation. The objective is to achieve by 2014 an operational and sustainable EMODNET with earmarked funding and an agreed governance structure.

  7. Changes in erosional and depositional processes with time and management of Goa Coast, central west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ganapati; D'Souza, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    with seasonal morphological changes and annual cyclicity. The coastal zone in Goa is exposed to environmental and anthropogenic pressures. Some of the factors attributing to these pressures can be due to demographic settings and population growth, rapid urbanization, migration, recreation and tourism activities, fishery activities, transportation problems, socio-economic shift and transformation in occupation like, fishing, tourism, trade, salt industry; wetlands conversion, degradation of agriculture land and fallow lands. Shoreline changes observed overlapping the data after 32 years showed that all along the coast of Goa, from north to south, there is large variation in depositional and erosional processes. Deposition is specifically observed at Morjim, Baga, Campal, Miramar, Mobor and erosion is specifically observed at Kerim, Anjuna, Velsao. The present study reveals that all along the estuarine systems, there is net deposition. Further change detection study carried out overlapping the data after 38 years showed transformation of Khazan lands, conversion of marshy swampy and water logged areas, increase in Mangrove areas and decrease in salt pans. The present paper has succeeded in delineating various coastal ecosystems, coastal land forms, their resource potentials and transformation, if any. The study has helped earmarking the coastal region into conservation, development and utilization areas.

  8. Challenges that Preventive Conservation poses to the Cultural Heritage documentation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Balen, K.

    2017-08-01

    is for cultural heritage preservation actions, the more those actions will contribute to sustainable development and the more sustainable the preservation of that heritage will be. This reasoning has led to the "upstream approach" which argues that cultural heritage preservation can benefit from a variety of resources which do not necessarily have to be earmarked for it à priori (CHCfE, 2015). It leads to arguing for an holistic and integrated approach for cultural heritage preservation that taps into different kinds of resources, which requires acknowledgement of the complex nature of understanding and managing heritage values into an overall societal development goal (Vandesande, 2017). Challenges in the Cultural Heritage documentation field. Documentation needs in the field of cultural heritage preservation therefor are challenged by the complexity of the sources of information, by the need to integrate them in an holistic tool and by the way they are able to dialogue with society. 1. The proper analysis of heritage requires increasing efforts by the diversity of sources and the complexity of their interaction.This (complexity acknowledging) analysis should be linked to monitoring tools which eventually contribute to monitor culturalheritage values. This monitoring is also a documentation challenge as it has to be pertinent and dynamic. Analysis andmonitoring are important as they are the basis for understand threats that impact heritage values. 2. As resources for heritage development or heritage guided development can have a variety of origins, their documentation andanalysis -compared to the traditional curative object oriented preservation- should be extended to include many more possibleresources. Experiences exist with documentation of the physical environment of heritage sites but the upstream approachpoints toward a larger number of development resources that can be tapped into. This implies the need to identify newapproaches, to document them and to

  9. Funding for self-employment of people with disabilities. Grants, loans, revolving funds or linkage with microfinance programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Klerk, Ton

    2008-03-01

    exchange between both parties respectively on disability for MFIs and the characteristics of microfinance for programmes for PWDs. Other programmes experiment with special credit lines or guarantee funds, placed at the disposal of MFls and earmarked for loan disbursement for PWDs, to facilitate their inclusion. Another reason for non-inclusion is the vulnerability of many PWDs. Many of them have no prior business experience, while many MFIs only provide loans to clients with an existing business. Vocational and/or business training and raising of their self-confidence, to be assured by a programme for PWDs, is often required prior to setting-up of a self-employment activity and taking a loan. If not prepared to run a 'business' successfully, taking a loan will present a too great a risk for themselves, getting indebted, and for the MFI. 'Start-up' grants for business-starters and revolving funds managed by PWD programmes, are other approaches practised by PWD programmes, of which the pros and cons are discussed in the study. A major weakness of many MFIs is that they do not reach the most vulnerable clients, including many of the PWDs, and their weak presence in rural areas especially in Africa. MFls have to look for innovative approaches to deepen their outreach. The self-help group approach in India, starting with the clients' own savings from which loans can be disbursed to the group members while linking the well-performing groups to banks for access to bank loans, is such a new approach. It is practised by The Leprosy Mission Trust in India. In Africa, some international NGOs started with similar 'community based saving and lending groups'.

  10. Students Collecting Real time Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P.

    2006-05-01

    . Students are also building traditional Hawaiian modules, these being piles of rocks and attaching seaweeds to the rocks with natural fibers. The purpose of all these is to help restore habitat to the fishpond. Monitoring the Fishpond; The fishpond wall is presently being rebuilt. The new wall stands about eight feet high and twelve feet wide. The rocks to rebuild the wall are all being located underwater where the old wall stood. The state has required different information collected as the wall is reconstructed. Students GPS mapped the rock edges of the fallen wall, and will continue to map the progress of the new wall. Other students are monitoring the erosion of the sand dunes that front the edges of the wall and are also looking at the new deposition of sand in the pond. Students are snorkeling, running transects and collecting data on the changing populations of fish, invertebrates and seaweeds in the pond. The wall is only about a forth built and already we are seeing growth in the populations. Students and teachers work with the sanctuary staff to develop projects. The sanctuary loans the equipment to the students and the students collect the data for the sanctuary. It is a great partnership with the schools. The Sanctuary has been given a Congressional Earmark this year to develop marine curriculum for the Department of Education. Projects listed above are part of this curriculum with hopes of many more to be developed. By 2008, all seniors must participate in some type of research project to graduate. The goal is to offer opportunities for many of these projects to become marine science related projects and thus develop a budding new group of marine scientists.

  11. Assessing the use of an essential health package in a sector wide approach in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwase Takondwa

    2011-01-01

    funding paid by SWAp partners including the government of Malawi to fund the EHP was at US$13.5 per capita per annum, which was almost half of the revised EHP estimated required expenditure per capita per annum. Discussion The SWAp had invested in some very cost-effective health interventions. In terms of numbers of patients treated, the EHP had delivered two thirds of the services required. This was despite serious under-funding of the EHP, an increase in the population and shortage of staff. Conclusions The identification of interventions of proven effectiveness and good value for money and earmarked funding through a SWAp process can produce measurable improvement in health service delivery at extremely low cost.

  12. Sociodemographic characteristics of the elderly forced migrants in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Vesna

    2015-01-01

    economically active to a lesser extent compared to the domicile elderly population, while the major differences between the two subgroups of the population are observed among the economically inactive persons. There is a noticeable smaller share of pensioners and a significantly higher share of persons who perform only housework in their households of elderly forced migrants than for the domicile aging population, largely owing to the female population. This can be explained by the lower level of female employment of forced migrants in countries of origin but could also result from the circumstances of exile. Single person elderly households of forced migrants are twice as vulnerable in economic terms than the domicile one, which confirms the high dependence of these groups of older migrants on financial aid. The lack of income of one part of the elderly forced migrants is a consequence of the unresolved issue of pension payments from Croatia, as most of the older forced migrants in Serbia are people from that former republic of Yugoslavia. The older forced migrants in Serbia from the former Yugoslav republics are relatively few in number, but a sensitive population that has legally integrated into the community since 2001 and is facing the same challenges as the local elderly population. Due to the circumstances of refugeeism in Serbia, these persons, as opposed to older migrants in other countries, have no linguistic or cultural barriers that could potentially hinder their integration within society but also within the social welfare and health care. However, although they have all legal rights as the local population, refugeeism gives a specific earmark to the social aspects of aging of these persons, and hinders their integration into economic and social life.

  13. Implementation and management of e-marketing in the Croatian publishing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Dukić

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available E-marketing started to develop as a result of an extensive advancement of information and communication technology, i.e., changes prompted by that process in the field of electronic media in particular over the last decade. As a contemporary concept, e-marketing offered answers to questions organisations were dealing with in seeking to bring their products and services closer to as many customers as possible in the new circumstances. Taking the importance that e-marketing already has as a starting point, the authors conducted an investigation with an aim to establish to what extent Croatian publishers use e-marketing in their operations and how they manage its implementation. As part of the research, the perception that marketing staff employed by Croatian publishing companies have of e-marketing was also investigated. In spite of its importance, this issue has not been adequately studied until now, which was an additional motive to carry out the research.The research was conducted among a sample of 61 publishing companies in the Republic of Croatia. It was precisely the unwillingness of some publishers to cooperate combined with insufficient number of scientific papers in the field of use of e-marketing in the publishing trade that can be underlined as the most significant problem in this research. In addition to descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to analyse the data.The results have shown that last year almost one third of interviewed companies did not earmark funds for e-marketing. On the other hand, there were few publishers who spent more than half of the total funds, allocated for marketing activities, for that purpose. Along those lines is also the fact that respondents are not particularly satisfied with effects of e-marketing. Significantly more favourable results were obtained when it comes to publishing company web sites, i.e., the use of such a form of promotion. Namely, a large proportion of

  14. Veneto Region, Italy. Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniolo, Franco; Mantoan, Domenico; Maresso, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. This HiT is one of the first to be written on a subnational level of government and focuses on the Veneto Region of northern Italy. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The Veneto Region is one of Italy's richest regions and the health of its resident population compares favourably with other regions in Italy. Life expectancy for both men and women, now at 79.1 and 85.2 years, respectively, is slightly higher than the national average, while mortality rates are comparable to national ones. The major causes of death are tumours and cardiovascular diseases. Under Italy's National Health Service, the organization and provision of health care is a regional responsibility and regions must provide a nationally defined (with regional input) basic health benefit package to all of their citizens; extra services may be provided if budgets allow. Health care is mainly financed by earmarked central and regional taxes, with regions receiving their allocated share of resources from the National Health Fund. Historically, health budget deficits have been a major problem in most Italian regions, but since the early 2000s the introduction of efficiency measures and tighter procedures on financial management have contributed to a significant decrease in the Veneto Regions health budget deficit.The health system is governed by the Veneto Region government (Giunta) via the Departments of Health and Social Services, which receive technical support from a single General Management Secretariat. Health care is

  15. When the Safety System Fails the Worker: Did We Do Our Job?...A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, S

    2006-02-03

    facilitator. We observe systems, processes and work activities, and then convey our findings and observations to line management. We advise them with regard to what they need to do, and then we help them find workable methods to implement those solutions. Line management owns the responsibility to implement the process and to monitor safety on a daily basis. Safety professionals advocate safety and facilitate process implementation. We help line management meet their responsibilities with regard to safety. Maximizing safety performance is achieved by maximizing the safety process. Robust safety processes serve as the model and are earmarked by vigorous support of both labor and management. Where a robust safety process exists, the safety professional enjoys interest and support on the part of management and workers. People are motivated to achieve success and willingly accept their roles and responsibilities. Work activities are appropriately planned. Hazards are identified and controlled to safeguard the worker. Work activities are reviewed on a regular basis to avoid the process becoming stale. Goals are established and communicated and serve as a basis on which performance can be measured. People throughout the organization understand their role and responsibilities and are accountable for meeting them.

  16. France: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevreul, Karine; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Bahrami, Stéphane Bahrami; Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina; Mladovsky, Philipa

    2010-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The French health care system is a mix of public and private providers and insurers. Public insurance, financed by both employees and employer contributions and earmarked taxes, is compulsory and covers almost the whole population, while private insurance is of a complementary type and voluntary. Providers of outpatient care are largely private. Hospital beds are predominantly public or private non-profit-making. The French population enjoys good health and a high level of choice of providers. It is relatively satisfied with the health care system. However, as in many other countries, the rising cost of health care is of concern with regards to the objectives of the health care system. Many measures were or are being implemented in order to contain costs and increase efficiency. These include, for example, developing pay-for-performance for both hospitals and self-employed providers and increasing quality of professional practice; refining patient pathways; raising additional revenue for statutory health insurance (SHI); and increasing the role of voluntary health insurance (VHI). Meanwhile, socioeconomic disparities and geographic inequality in the density of health care professionals remain considerable challenges to providing a good level of equity in access to health care. Organizational changes at the regional level are important in attempting to tackle both equity and efficiency-related challenges. While the organizational structure of the system

  17. Indonesia country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murni Soedyartomo Soentono, Tri [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia - Batan, Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals Development Centre, Pasar Jum' at, Cinere Raya, 12570 Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2008-07-01

    Several nuclear research are currently operation in Serpong, Jakarta, Bandung and Yogyakarta; these facilities has been in operation step wisely and having strong link with various universities and laboratories within the country (30 MW in Serpong, 2 MW in Bandung, Cyclotron CS-30 Serpong, Accelerator Yogyakarta, Irradiator Co-60). Public Acceptance: Further more the routine activities of the public information by WiN regarding the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, especially to the immediate environment of the NPP candidate site are indeed of important steps. Future of nuclear power: Since 1990's, Indonesia planned to build NPP station in Jepara to anticipate future energy crisis. Indonesia National Energy Policy has four main objectives: - Securing the continuity of energy supply for domestic use at price affordable to the public, - Enhancing the life quality of the people, - Stimulating economic growth, and, - Reserving an adequate supply of oil and gas for expert to provide source of foreign exchange to fund the national development program. Nuclear Waste Management Policy: Law no 10/1997 on nuclear power became the basic policy in management of radioactive waste The only national agency dealing with radioactive substances, BATAN possesses all data and information concerning the use of nuclear power. Radioactive waste management is particularly earmarked for maximum protection of living creatures, the environment and its ecosystems. In order to guarantee maximum safety and protection, all parties involved in the acquisition of radioactive materials should abide by the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle. In order to achieve radioactive waste management that complies with the principle of sustainable development, technological applications should be technically and economically viable for maximum protection of the environment and safety from any potential nuclear hazards, now and in future. The application must also be accepted by the community

  18. IRIS/USGS Plans for Upgrading the Global Seismograph Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jon; Hutt, Charles R.

    1989-01-01

    demonstrate, the IRIS broadband seismograph system combines the very latest data acquisition and computer technology to produce seismic data with unprecedented bandwidth and dynamic range. Moreover, the system has been designed so that the high-quality digital data are accessible for local display and analysis. The functional design of the new system, which uses off-the-shelf modules and a standard computer bus, will make it much easier than it has been in the past to modify and upgrade the data acquisition system as improvements in technology become available. With adequate support for the program, the new IRIS seismograph system need never become obsolete. We want you to be aware of our plans and the possibility that you may be asked to participate in this ,program. The schedule for upgrading WWSSN and GDSN stations depends on the level of funding earmarked for the program by our National Science Foundation. We hope to deploy at least ten new GSN data systems each year. If you have any questions concerning this program, please contact the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory, U.S. Geological Survey, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87115-5000. This report was revised in February 1992 in order to update information concerning the current program and instrumentation. The amp in Figure 1 was revised in June 1993, April 1994, December 1994, and September 1996 to reflect updated siting information. In September 1996 a composite photo of standard and optional components of the IRIS-2 GSN system hardware was added as a separate page between Figures 9 and 10.

  19. Calf mortality of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in the Finnish reindeer-herding area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Nieminen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} During 1999-2008 calf mortality was studied in six reindeer-herding cooperatives in Northern Finland, where 3942 semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus calves were equipped with radio mortality collars. The calves were weighed and earmarked mostly at 2-5 days of age, or at 2-8 weeks of age. Altogether 460 dead radio-collared calves were found from calving in May until winter round-ups in October-January. In northern mountain herding cooperatives, the average mortality of calves varied between 7-12%. On average, 39-54% of calves found dead were attributed to predation. Golden eagles killed 0-3.5% of calves in different years and areas in Ivalo and Käsivarsi cooperatives. Golden eagles were responsible for 33-43% of the cases and 84-93% of all identified predation. Most calves killed by golden eagles were found in July-August and in open areas. Calves killed by golden eagles were significantly (P<0.01 lighter than those not predated. No predation occurred in the Poikajärvi cooperative, but the annual mortality of calves varied between 0-35% in cooperatives near the Russian border. In Oivanki cooperative brown bears killed on average 2% of the radio-collared calves. Most predation (87% occurred at the end of May and in early June. In the Kallioluoma cooperative, predator-killed calves found

  20. Systematic analysis of KPIs for general hospitals in China%综合医院医疗质量关键评价指标的系统分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛有清; 张桂林; 潘习龙; 聂广孟; 王乔

    2011-01-01

    Objective By systematically analyzing the past literature on medical quality evaluation and the principles of selecting indicators and establishing the evaluate system in comprehensive hospitals in China,we offered valuable references for the establishment of the indicator system for evaluating medical quality.Methods According to the requirements of systematic analysis,we searched all the literatures published in the past decades within CNKI and analyzed them in accord with the inclusive criteria.Results It established 13 items medical quality key evaluation indications including the bed utilization ratio,the average hospitalization days of patients,the yearly average rate of in-patient cares per doctor,the turnover of beds,the degree of nursing effect,the success rate in rescuing critically ill patients,the incidence of nosocomial infections,the curing and improvement rate,the accordant diagnostic rate,the eligibility of basic nursing,the satisfactory ratio of patients,the income per capita,the ratio of drug income in the total revenues,the average medical expense per inpatient.Conclusion China's general hospitals already have in place their principles of KPI selection and their indicator systerm.The methodology to screen quality indicators has also taken shape.This study earmarked 13 key performance indicators for quality of care in its analysis,yet roadblocks still remain in building China' s KPIs for quality of care.%目的 了解我国综合医院医疗质量关键评价指标的研究现状、选择原则和体系建立原则,分析指标体系建立中存在的一些问题,为我国综合医院医疗质量关键评价指标的科学选择及建立统一、规范、实用的医疗质量评价指标体系提供依据.方法 按照系统评价的要求,在中国期刊全文数据库(CNKI)中检索近10年的文献,对符合纳入标准的文献进行分析.结果 确定了病床使用率、出院者平均住院日、平均每医生年门诊人次数、病床

  1. Missouri Soybean Association Biodiesel Demonstration Project: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Dale [Missouri Soybean Association, Jefferson City, MO (United States); Hamilton, Jill [Sustainable Energy Strategies, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2011-10-27

    The Missouri Soybean Association (MSA) and the National Biodiesel Board (NBB) partnered together to implement the MSA Biodiesel Demonstration project under a United States Department of Energy (DOE) grant. The goal of this project was to provide decision makers and fleet managers with information that could lead to the increased use of domestically produced renewable fuels and could reduce the harmful impacts of school bus diesel exhaust on children. This project was initiated in September 2004 and completed in April 2011. The project carried out a broad range of activities organized under four areas: 1. Petroleum and related industry education program for fuel suppliers; 2. Fleet evaluation program using B20 with a Missouri school district; 3. Outreach and awareness campaign for school district fleet managers; and 4. Support of ongoing B20 Fleet Evaluation Team (FET) data collection efforts with existing school districts. Technical support to the biodiesel industry was also provided through NBB’s Troubleshooting Hotline. The hotline program was established in 2008 to troubleshoot fuel quality issues and help facilitate smooth implementation of the RFS and is described in greater detail under Milestone A.1 - Promote Instruction and Guidance on Best Practices. As a result of this project’s efforts, MSA and NBB were able to successfully reach out to and support a broad spectrum of biodiesel users in Missouri and New England. The MSA Biodiesel Demonstration was funded through a FY2004 Renewable Energy Resources Congressional earmark. The initial focus of this project was to test and evaluate biodiesel blends coupled with diesel oxidation catalysts as an emissions reduction technology for school bus fleets in the United States. The project was designed to verify emissions reductions using Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protocols, then document – with school bus fleet experience – the viability of utilizing B20 blends. The fleet experience was expected to

  2. Desempenho mecânico de misturas asfálticas confeccionadas com agregados sintéticos de argila calcinada Mechanical performance of asphalt mixtures composed of synthetic calcinated clay aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Frota

    2007-09-01

    .A substantial number of municipal districts in the State of Amazonas are located in areas which are poor in stony materials. And this has led pavement builders into adopting alternatives which have historically produced pavements with low mechanical strength. Whist more effective and appropriate from a technical standpoint, the asphalt concrete has been usually left aside due to the referred lack of stony materials. Because of the specific situation in the State of Amazonas the adoption of synthetic calcinated clay aggregates (SCCA, with an abundant raw material (clay in the State of Amazonas is recommended in lieu of the traditional practice. Previous works carried out by the Federal University of Amazonas Geotechny Group have demonstrated that the clay soil commonly used in the production of ceramic materials can yield synthetic aggregates with adequate mechanical properties. In this research work, samples featuring similar characteristics as those of the soils in question have been found along the BR-319 highway connecting the Manaus (AM city to Porto Velho (RO city. The transportation structure in general is in deplorable conditions. Justifiably so, the recovery of this highway has been earmarked as one of the targets for the Ministry of Transportation. In this study, asphalt mixtures were blended with synthetic aggregates and pebbles taken from the river bed in order to compare the mechanical performance of such mixtures by means of the determination of the resilient modulus (RM. The results, as a rule, have shown that the asphalt mixtures comprising synthetic calcinated clay aggregates when compared with those comprising the naturally-found material (river bed pebbles have shown: (a greater tensile and resilient modulus strengths; (b low deformation tendency, as well as a considerable elastic recovery and (c less susceptibility to permanent deformation.

  3. Labor del Médico Veterinario en transferencia tecnológica en tres sectores de la comuna de Rio Bueno, Chile (1984-1994 Role of the veterinarian in Technological Transfer in three areas of Chile (1984-1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. MARQUEZ

    1999-01-01

    con el agricultor, estrategias de manejo del predioAn analysis of the practitioner veterinarians services provided to 57 small farmers of the Cachillahue, Cayurruca and Pindaco areas, of the Río Bueno County was made. To achieve this objetive, the information contained in two documents were used. One, which corresponds to "the veterinarian visit reports" gathered during the period of 1991 to 1994, and the second one to the repor written by the veterinarian on each visit, during the ten years analysed periods. The rutine activities were gestation diagnosis and post partum inspection. The practitioner palpates more cows than the farmer possesses and the porcentage of pregnancies and post delivery inspections are deficienty calculated. The professional remain in contact with the small farmer for a very short period of time, around two seasons. The notes which the veterinarian does make, lack arrangement and does not follow any preestablished model. It is true that the identification of animals is very rarely done using earmarkers, but the professional does not insist on the difusion of this practice by the small farmer. The prescription of drugs is very widespread, with vaccines being the most populary used (30.5% together with antiparasitic treatment both of internal (29.1% and external (16.4% use. The prescription is done incompletely, deficient in an important quantity of components, making its comprehension dificult for the small farmer. The maximum advantage of the veterinarian visit is not reached, while he remain on the farm dedicate his time in solving punctual problems of the herd, leaving only a short period of time for planning management strategies with the small farmer

  4. Cooperation in Nuclear Waste Management, Radiation Protection, Emergency Preparedness, Reactor Safety and Nuclear Non-Proliferation in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassen, Lars van; Delalic, Zlatan; Ekblad, Christer; Keyser, Peter; Turner, Roland; Rosengaard, Ulf; German, Olga; Grapengiesser, Sten; Andersson, Sarmite; Sandberg, Viviana; Olsson, Kjell; Stenberg, Tor

    2009-10-15

    INSC. TACIS focussed on the former Soviet Union states while the INSC will have a global scope - including substantial f unds earmarked for projects in Eastern Europe

  5. Science data archives of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO): Chandrayaan-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopala Krishna, Barla; Singh Nain, Jagjeet; Moorthi, Manthira

    The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has started a new initiative to launch dedicated scientific satellites earmarked for planetary exploration, astronomical observation and space sciences. The Chandrayaan-1 mission to Moon is one of the approved missions of this new initiative. The basic objective of the Chandrayaan-1 mission, scheduled for launch in mid 2008, is photoselenological and chemical mapping of the Moon with better spatial and spectral resolution. Consistent with this scientific objective, the following baseline payloads are included in this mission: (i) Terrain mapping stereo camera (TMC) with 20 km swath (400-900 nm band) for 3D imaging of lunar surface at a spatial resolution of 5m. (ii) Hyper Spectral Imager in the 400- 920 nm band with 64 channels and spatial resolution of 80m (20 km swath) for mineralogical mapping. (iii) High-energy X-ray (30-270 keV) spectrometer having a footprint of 40 km for study of volatile transport on Moon and (iv) Laser ranging instrument with vertical resolution of 5m. ISRO offered opportunity to the international scientific community to participate in Chandrayaan- 1 mission and six payloads that complement the basic objective of the Chandrayaan-1 mission have been selected and included in this mission viz., (i) a miniature imaging radar instrument (Mini-SAR) from APL, NASA to look for presence of ice in the polar region, (ii) a near infrared spectrometer (SIR-2) from Max Plank Institute, Germany, (iii) a Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) from JPL, NASA for mineralogical mapping in the infra-red regions (0.7 - 3.0 micron), (iv) a sub-keV atom reflecting analyzer (SARA) from Sweden, India, Switzerland and Japan for detection of low energy neutral atoms emanated from the lunar surface,(v) a radiation dose monitor (RADOM) from Bulgaria for monitoring energetic particle flux in the lunar environment and (vi) a collimated low energy (1-10keV) X-ray spectrometer (C1XS) with a field of view of 20 km for chemical mapping of

  6. A study on the Phytoremediation Potential of Azolla pinnata under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upekha Mandakini Lenaduwa Lokuge

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination in aquatic environments has become one of the major environmental problems all over the world. Phytoremediation is a plant based technology that utilizes special plants known as hyperaccumulators to purify heavy metal contaminated sites. Hyperaccumulators are capable of absorbing heavy metals in greater concentrations.  Azolla pinnata is an aquatic macrophyte that has been earmarked for its hyperaccumulation ability. This green technology is often more favoured over conventional methods due to its low cost, low environmental impacts and wider public acceptance.This study was conducted under laboratory conditions to assess the ability of A. pinnata for the removal of Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb through rhizofiltration, which is one of the phytoremediation strategies under laboratory conditions. Under three main experiments, the fern’s phytoremediation ability was investigated. In the first experiment, A. pinnata was exposed to prepared solutions of Cr, Ni and Pb of 2ppm, 4ppm, 6ppm, 8ppm and 10ppm and of Cd solutions of 0.5ppm, 1.0ppm, 1.5ppm, 2.0ppm, 2.5ppm and 3.0ppm respectively. Experiments were carried out separately for Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb concentrations for 7 days. The concentrations of heavy metals used in the experiments largely agreed with the environmentally measured values, although in certain experiments, the initial concentrations exceeded the environmental pollution levels.The presence of Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb caused a maximum inhibition of A.pinnata growth by 47%, 54%, 52% and 45% respectively while the highest removal percentages of Cr- 98%, Ni- 57%, Cd- 88% and Pb- 86% were recorded in 2ppm, 2ppm, 0.5ppm and 8ppm treatments respectively. The highest Bio Concentration Factor (BCF for Cr was 1376.67 when treated with 6ppm, 684.95 at 4ppm for Ni, 1120.06 at 0.5ppm for Cd and 1332.53 at 8ppm for Pb respectively. At the end of the experiments toxic symptoms were observed in plats exposed to Cd and Ni. The findings of

  7. Challenges that Preventive Conservation poses to the Cultural Heritage documentation field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Van Balen

    2017-08-01

    more diverse the support is for cultural heritage preservation actions, the more those actions will contribute to sustainable development and the more sustainable the preservation of that heritage will be. This reasoning has led to the “upstream approach” which argues that cultural heritage preservation can benefit from a variety of resources which do not necessarily have to be earmarked for it à priori (CHCfE, 2015. It leads to arguing for an holistic and integrated approach for cultural heritage preservation that taps into different kinds of resources, which requires acknowledgement of the complex nature of understanding and managing heritage values into an overall societal development goal (Vandesande, 2017. Challenges in the Cultural Heritage documentation field. Documentation needs in the field of cultural heritage preservation therefor are challenged by the complexity of the sources of information, by the need to integrate them in an holistic tool and by the way they are able to dialogue with society. 1. The proper analysis of heritage requires increasing efforts by the diversity of sources and the complexity of their interaction.This (complexity acknowledging analysis should be linked to monitoring tools which eventually contribute to monitor culturalheritage values. This monitoring is also a documentation challenge as it has to be pertinent and dynamic. Analysis andmonitoring are important as they are the basis for understand threats that impact heritage values. 2. As resources for heritage development or heritage guided development can have a variety of origins, their documentation andanalysis –compared to the traditional curative object oriented preservation- should be extended to include many more possibleresources. Experiences exist with documentation of the physical environment of heritage sites but the upstream approachpoints toward a larger number of development resources that can be tapped into. This implies the need to identify newapproaches, to

  8. Subpolítica Reflexiva no Contexto da Mundialização Informativa aplicada à Regulação Supranacional da Internet / Reflexive Sub-Politics in the context of Globalization of Information and the Internet Supranational Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Pinotti Garcia

    2016-05-01

    em espaços virtuais no campo da regulação supranacional das novas tecnologias da informação, apresentando um panorama teórico-fático desses processos de interação subjetiva. Originalidade/Relevância – Os termos globalização e mundialização possuem múltiplos significados, o que não diminui a importância de compreendê-los cientificamente. Por seu turno, evidencia-se que o fenômeno da mundialização impõe o reconhecimento de que não cabe falar na política – e na atividade de regulação – como algo restrito aos Estados. A relevância do tema a ser pesquisado não é acompanhada de uma produção científica suficiente na área, eis que raríssimas são as abordagens sobre a governança digital na regulação da rede em âmbito supranacional. ABSTRACT Purpose – The World Wide Web is emerging not only as a mean of communication but serves as instrumental to the exercise of rights, including participation in sub-politics, so that becomes the interest of the individual put up as participatory actor in the process of discussion of its regulation. In this way, this paper addresses the following research question: Can reflective sub-politics be identified in the comparative scenario of multiple players acting in the regulation of Internet features? Methodology/approach/design – From the outset, the paper earmarks as relevant the understanding of the position of multiple players in the scenario of Internet regulation, which is possible only by supranational law comparative study contextualized with regard to sub-politics. The empirical basis of this paper lies in conferences of the United Nations, the Organization of American States, the European Union and the European Council. Its theoretical basis is focused on Ulrich Beck and Anthony Giddens and the concept of reflexive modernity associated with the policy, forming what is called reflexive sub-politics. Findings – The paper has proved the hypothesis that, regarding regulation of Internet

  9. Os procedimentos adotados pelos Tribunais de Contas da Bahia para a verificação das receitas e despesas vinculadas à educação Los procedimientos adoptados por los Tribunales de Cuentas del estado brasileño de Bahia para la verificación de ingresos y despesas vinculadas a la educación The procedures adopted by the Audit Courts of Bahia for checking revenue and expenses linked to education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Davies

    2010-03-01

    otros programas u operaciones de crédito vinculadas a la educación, significativas en Bahia. Adicionalmente, los informes contienen dados discrepantes y confunden gastos en la función presupuestaria Educación con los realizados en manutención y desarrollo de enseñanza, dos conceptos diferentes. También el TCM ha cometido muchos equívocos en sus resoluciones, a empezar por la terminología. Ha utilizado 'ensino básico' en el lugar de 'educación infantil' y confundido despesas en la enseñanza (una categoría más amplia con despesas en Fundef (una categoría más restricta. Ha cometido una ilegalidad al aceptar que parte de los 40% delos fondos de Fundef (o Fundeb fuesen destinados a escuelas comunitarias, confesionales o filantrópicas.The article examined, on the basis of resolutions and/or reports, the procedures adopted by the Audit Offices of the State (TCE and Municipalities (TCM of Bahia, to check the revenue and expenditure linked to education and found a number of omissions, inconsistencies and mistakes which most likely have reduced the amount of funds earmarked to education. The State Audit Office, for example, has only taken into account the 25% minimum percentage of taxes (as provided in the Brazilian Federal Constitution and never mentioned extra revenue to this minimum, such as payroll-linked contribution, federal transfers for programmes such as school meals or credit operations linked to education. In addition, the reports contain inconsistent data and confuse two different concepts, that of expenditure on the budgetary notion of education with the concept of maintenance and development of education. The Audit Office of the Municipalities has also made a number of mistakes in its resolutions. It employed the term 'basic education' (a much broader term instead of 'education for children prior to 6 years old' and confused expenses on education (a broader term with expenses on Fundef (a more restricted category, as it refers to part of the

  10. Noor-Eesti tähendust otsides: vanu ja uusi mõtteid. In Quest of the Meaning of Young Estonia: Old and New Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Kivimäe

    2012-04-01

    educated people, who according to their birth year belonged to the generational cohort of 1886, which made them 20 years old in 1905. This generational concentration explains the mutual solidarity of these young intellectuals and the spread of their radical ideas. Young Estonia’s emergence dovetailed with the Russian Revolution of 1905, but the Young Estonians who rallied to the movement of liberation formed neither a political fighting band nor a party; rather they remained a group of like-minded intellectuals. The achievements of Young Estonia should be seen in terms of their cultural and aesthetic revolution, which found expression in their publications (the Young Estonia albums, the journal Free Word, in book design, a programme for language reform, and efforts toward the renewal of style and rhetoric. An earmark of the Young Estonia movement was the furtherance of public discussion of the women’s movement and women’s education; indeed, the discussion of the ”woman question” in the works of male authors created widespread polemic. Works of literature and scholarship translated by the Young Estonians markedly enriched Estonian intellectual life on the eve of the First World War. The writings and ideas of the Young Estonians came under criticism from their contemporaries ideologically situated on both the right and the left, from conservatives on the one hand, to left-wing socialists on the other. Reviewers saw the neoromanticist thought to be characteristic of the group’s literary works as the fruit of German and French literary and philosophical influences. Young Estonians were faulted for their decadence, ”aristocratism”, eroticism, egoism, skepticism, individualism, aestheticism, etc. The leftleaning tendency of many of the members of the group was in keeping with the temper of the age; often it was a matter of conviction, though for the most part knowledge of the teachings of Marxism and socialism remained rather superficial and eclectic. The basic