WorldWideScience

Sample records for early-type dwarf galaxies

  1. Kinematic properties and dark matter fraction of Virgo dwarf early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toloba, E.; Boselli, A.; Peletier, R.; Gorgas, J.

    2012-01-01

    What happens to dwarf galaxies as they enter the cluster potential well is one of the main unknowns in studies of galaxy evolution. Several evidence suggests that late-type galaxies enter the cluster and are transformed to dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs). We study the Virgo cluster to understand

  2. Kinematics and stellar populations of 17 dwarf early-type galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, D.; Bender, R.; Hopp, U.; Maraston, C.; Greggio, L.

    2002-01-01

    We present kinematics and stellar population properties of 17 dwarf early-type galaxies in the luminosity range -14> M_B> -19. Our sample fills the gap between the intensively studied giant elliptical and Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The dwarf ellipticals of the present sample have constant velocity dispersion profiles within their effective radii and do not show significant rotation, hence are clearly anisotropic. The dwarf lenticulars, instead, rotate faster and are, at least part...

  3. Gas-rich dwarfs and accretion phenomena in early-type galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.; Norman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Recent constraints on intergalactic H I clouds suggest that allowable accretion rates by several luminous early-type galaxies are too low to account for their observed H I content. We have therefore developed an alternative model, wherein gas-rich dwarf galaxies are accreted into galactic halos. This process is significant in groups of galaxies only when a sufficiently high density of gas-rich dwarfs (approx.30 Mpc -3 ) is present. The dwarf galaxy gas content plays a crucial role in enabling the galaxy to be trapped in the halo by interaction with a galactic wind or extensive gaseous corona. Gas stripping occurs, resulting in the formation of dwarf spheroidal systems that populate the outer halos of massive galaxies and in the injection of a system of clouds into the halo. If the clouds are initially confined by the pressure of the ambient halo medium, dissipation and continuing infall enable the clouds to accrete into the central regions of galaxies before becoming gravitationally unstable and presumably forming stars. Consequences of this scenario include the production of a radial abundance gradient and infall of adequate amounts of neutral gas to account for the observations of H I in early-type galaxies. This gas accretion rate is also sufficient to feed active nuclei and radio sources. An important cosmological implication of our model is that, because the characteristic time scale of a gas-rich dwarf galaxy to be accreted and lose its gas is comparable to a Hubble time, there many have been a far more extensive primordial distribution of such systems at earlier epochs. This implies that accretion rates were greatly enhanced at relatively recent epochs (z> or approx. =0.5) and could account both for the rapid cosmological evolution inferred for radio galaxies and quasars, and for the observed frequency of occurrence of quasar absorption-line systems

  4. Gas-rich dwarfs and accretion phenomena in early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, J.; Norman, C.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the combined effects of cloud accretion and galactic winds and coronae. An accretion model is developed wherein gas-rich dwarf galaxies are accreted into galactic halos, which provides an adequate source of H I to account for observations of neutral gas in early-type galaxies. Accretion is found to fuel the wind, thereby regulating the accretion flow and yielding a time-dependent model for star formation, enrichment, and nuclear activity. The permissible parameter range for intergalactic gas clouds and galaxy groups is discussed, along with the frequency of gas-rich dwarfs and their large ratios of gas mass to luminosity. Also considered is the occurrence of gas stripping and the consequent formation of dwarf spheroidal systems that remain in the halo, and gas clouds that dissipate and suffer further infall. A cosmological implication of the model is that, because the characteristic time scale of a gas-rich dwarf galaxy to be accreted and lose its gas is comparable to a Hubble time, there may have been a far more extensive primordial distribution of such systems at earlier epochs.

  5. THE CONVERSION OF LATE-TYPE INTO EARLY-TYPE DWARF GALAXIES BY RAM-PRESSURE STRIPPING IN THE FORNAX CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rijcke, S.; Van Hese, E.; Buyle, P.

    2010-01-01

    We put to the test the hypothesis that the Fornax cluster dwarf galaxies are mostly a relatively recently acquired population, of which the star-forming, late-type members are converted into quiescent, early-type ones by ram-pressure stripping while being on orbits that plunge inside the inner few hundred kiloparsecs of the cluster. We construct dynamical models with different anisotropy profiles for the dwarf galaxy population and show that only extremely radially anisotropic orbital distributions are in agreement with the available morphological, positional, and kinematical data, especially with the radially increasing late-to-early-type ratio. This corroborates the idea that the Fornax cluster dwarfs are an infall population and that environmental factors, in this case ram-pressure stripping, play a prominent role in converting late-type dwarfs into early-type ones.

  6. COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATIONS OF EARLY-TYPE DWARF GALAXIES IN THE VIRGO CLUSTER: AN ULTRAVIOLET PERSPECTIVE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suk; Rey, Soo-Chang; Lisker, Thorsten; Sohn, Sangmo Tony

    2010-01-01

    We present ultraviolet (UV) color-magnitude relations (CMRs) of early-type dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster, based on Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) UV and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) optical imaging data. We find that dwarf lenticular galaxies (dS0s), including peculiar dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs) with disk substructures and blue centers, show a surprisingly distinct and tight locus separated from that of ordinary dEs, which is not clearly seen in previous CMRs. The dS0s in UV CMRs follow a steeper sequence than dEs and show bluer UV-optical color at a given magnitude. We also find that the UV CMRs of dEs in the outer cluster region are slightly steeper than that of their counterparts in the inner region, due to the existence of faint, blue dEs in the outer region. We explore the observed CMRs with population models of a luminosity-dependent delayed exponential star formation history. We confirm that the feature of delayed star formation of early-type dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster is strongly correlated with their morphology and environment. The observed CMR of dS0s is well matched by models with relatively long delayed star formation. Our results suggest that dS0s are most likely transitional objects at the stage of subsequent transformation of late-type progenitors to ordinary red dEs in the cluster environment. In any case, UV photometry provides a powerful tool to disentangle the diverse subpopulations of early-type dwarf galaxies and uncover their evolutionary histories.

  7. A near-infrared census of the multicomponent stellar structure of early-type dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.; Lisker, T.; Hansson, K. S. A.; Meyer, H. T.; Paudel, S.; Peletier, R. F.; Den Brok, M.; Niemi, S.-M.; Toloba, E.; Hensler, G.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Ryś, A.; Boselli, A.

    2014-01-01

    The fraction of star-forming to quiescent dwarf galaxies varies from almost infinity in the field to zero in the centers of rich galaxy clusters. What is causing this pronounced morphology-density relation? What do quiescent dwarf galaxies look like when studied in detail, and what conclusions can be drawn about their formation mechanism? Here we study a nearly magnitude-complete sample (–19 < M r < –16 mag) of 121 Virgo cluster early types with deep near-infrared images from the SMAKCED project. We fit two-dimensional models with optional inner and outer components, as well as bar and lens components (in ∼15% of the galaxies), to the galaxy images. While a single Sérsic function may approximate the overall galaxy structure, it does not entirely capture the light distribution of two-thirds of our galaxies, for which multicomponent models provide a better fit. This fraction of complex galaxies shows a strong dependence on luminosity, being larger for brighter objects. We analyze the global and component-specific photometric scaling relations of early-type dwarf galaxies and discuss similarities with bright early and late types. The dwarfs' global galaxy parameters show scaling relations that are similar to those of bright disk galaxies. The inner components are mostly fitted with Sérsic n values close to 1. At a given magnitude, they are systematically larger than the bulges of spirals, suggesting that they are not ordinary bulges. We argue that the multicomponent structures in early-type dwarfs are mostly a phenomenon inherent to the disks and may indeed stem from environmental processing.

  8. Formation and evolution of dwarf early-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster I. Internal kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toloba, E.; Boselli, A.; Cenarro, A. J.; Peletier, R. F.; Gorgas, J.; Gil de Paz, A.; Munoz-Mateos, J. C.

    We present new medium resolution kinematic data for a sample of 21 dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) mainly in the Virgo cluster, obtained with the WHT and INT telescopes at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (La Palma, Spain). These data are used to study the origin of the dwarf elliptical galaxy

  9. The kinematic properties of dwarf early-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toloba, E.; Boselli, A.; Peletier, R. F.; Gorgas, J.; Zapatero Osorio, M.R.; Gorgas, J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Pardo, J.R.; Gil de Paz, A.

    We present new medium resolution kinematic data for a sample of 21 dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) mainly in the Virgo cluster. These data are used to study the origin of dEs inhabiting clusters. Within them we detect two populations: half of the sample (52%) are rotationally supported and the other

  10. The kinematic properties of dwarf early-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toloba, E.; Boselli, A.; Peletier, R. F.; Gorgas, J.; Zapatero Osorio, M.R.; Gorgas, J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Pardo, J.R.; Gil de Paz, A.

    2011-01-01

    We present new medium resolution kinematic data for a sample of 21 dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) mainly in the Virgo cluster. These data are used to study the origin of dEs inhabiting clusters. Within them we detect two populations: half of the sample (52%) are rotationally supported and the other

  11. The hELENa project - II. Abundance distribution trends of early-type galaxies: from dwarfs to giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybilska, A.; Kuntschner, H.; van de Ven, G.; Vazdekis, A.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Peletier, R. F.; Lisker, T.

    2018-06-01

    In this second paper of The role of Environment in shaping Low-mass Early-type Nearby galaxies (hELENa) series we study [Mg/Fe] abundance distribution trends of early-type galaxies (ETGs) observed with the Spectrographic Areal Unit for Research on Optical Nebulae integral field unit, spanning a wide range in mass and local environment densities: 20 low-mass early types (dEs) of Sybilska et al. and 258 massive early types (ETGs) of the ATLAS3D project, all homogeneously reduced and analysed. We show that the [Mg/Fe] ratios scale with velocity dispersion (σ) at fixed [Fe/H] and that they evolve with [Fe/H] along similar paths for all early types, grouped in bins of increasing local and global σ, as well as the second velocity moment Vrms, indicating a common inside-out formation pattern. We then place our dEs on the [Mg/Fe] versus [Fe/H] diagram of Local Group galaxies and show that dEs occupy the same region and show a similar trend line slope in the diagram as the high-metallicity stars of the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud. This finding extends the similar trend found for dwarf spheroidal versus dwarf irregular galaxies and supports the notion that dEs have evolved from late-type galaxies that have lost their gas at a point of their evolution, which likely coincided with them entering denser environments.

  12. TIDAL INTERACTION AS THE ORIGIN OF EARLY-TYPE DWARF GALAXIES IN GROUP ENVIRONMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paudel, Sanjaya; Ree, Chang H.

    2014-01-01

    We present a sample of dwarf galaxies that suffer ongoing disruption by the tidal forces of nearby massive galaxies. By analyzing structural and stellar population properties using the archival imaging and spectroscopic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we find that they are likely a ''smoking gun'' example of the formation through tidal stirring of early-type dwarf galaxies (dEs) in the galaxy group environment. The inner cores of these galaxies are fairly intact and the observed light profiles are well fit by the Sérsic functions while the tidally stretched stellar halos are prominent in the outer parts. They are all located within a sky-projected distance of 50 kpc from the centers of the host galaxies and no dwarf galaxies have relative line-of-sight velocities larger than 205 km s –1 to their hosts. We derive the Composite Stellar Population properties of these galaxies by fitting the SDSS optical spectra to a multiple-burst composite stellar population model. We find that these galaxies accumulate a significant fraction of stellar mass within the last 1 Gyr and contain a majority stellar population with an intermediate age of 2 to 4 Gyr. Based on this evidence, we argue that tidal stirring, particularly through the galaxy-galaxy interaction, might have an important role in the formation and evolution of dEs in the group environment where the influence of other gas stripping mechanism might be limited

  13. The Sizes of Early-Type Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janz, Joachim; Lisker, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    In this letter we present a study of the size luminosity relation of 475 early-type galaxies in the Virgo Cluster with Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging data. The analysis of our homogeneous, model-independent data set reveals that giant and dwarf early-type galaxies do not form one common sequence in this relation. The dwarfs seem to show weak or no dependence on luminosity, and do not fall on the extension of the rather steep relation of the giants. Under the assumption that the light profile shape varies continuously with magnitude, a curved relation of size and magnitude would be expected. While the galaxies do roughly follow this trend overall, we find that the dwarf galaxies are significantly larger and the low-luminosity giants are significantly smaller than what is predicted. We come to the conclusion that in this scaling relation there is not one common sequence from dwarfs to giants, but a dichotomy that cannot be resolved by varying profile shapes. The comparison of our data to a semianalytic model supports the idea of a physical origin for this dichotomy.

  14. The RSA survey of dwarf galaxies, 1: Optical photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vader, J. Patricia; Chaboyer, Brian

    1994-01-01

    We present detailed surface photometry, based on broad B-band charge coupled device (CCD) images, of about 80 dwarf galaxies. Our sample represents approximately 10% of all dwarf galaxies identified in the vicinity of Revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) galaxies on high resolution blue photographic plates, referred to as the RSA survey of dwarf galaxies. We derive global properties and radial surface brightness profiles, and examine the morphologies. The radial surface brightness profiles of dwarf galaxies, whether early or late type, display the same varieties in shape and complexity as those of classical giant galaxies. Only a few are well described by a pure r(exp 1/4) law. Exponential profiles prevail. Features typical of giant disk galaxies, such as exponential profiles with a central depression, lenses, and even, in one case (IC 2041), a relatively prominent bulge are also found in dwarf galaxies. Our data suggest that the central region evolves from being bulge-like, with an r(exp 1/4) law profile, in bright galaxies to a lens-like structure in dwarf galaxies. We prove detailed surface photometry to be a helpful if not always sufficient tool in investigating the structure of dwarf galaxies. In many cases kinematic information is needed to complete the picture. We find the shapes of the surface brightness profiles to be loosely associated with morphological type. Our sample contains several new galaxies with properties intermediate between those of giant and dwarf ellipticals (but no M32-like objects). This shows that such intermediate galaxies exist so that at least a fraction of early-type dwarf ellipticals is structurally related to early-type giants instead of belonging to a totally unrelated, disjunct family. This supports an origin of early-type dwarf galaxies as originally more massive systems that acquired their current morphology as a result of substantial, presumable supernova-driven, mass loss. On the other hand, several early-type dwarfs in our sample are

  15. Stellar Kinematics and Structural Properties of Virgo Cluster Dwarf Early-Type Galaxies from the SMAKCED Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toloba, Elisa; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Peletier, Reynier; Boselli, Alessandro; Lisker, Thorsten; Emsellem, Eric; Simon, Joshua D.; van de Ven, Glenn; Smakced Collaboration, [Unknown

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the stellar kinematics of 39 dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) in the Virgo cluster. This is the largest survey conducted so far on spatially resolved kinematics of dEs. This sample is representative of the early-type population in the absolute magnitude range -19.0

  16. Kinematically Decoupled Cores in Dwarf (Elliptical) Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toloba, E.; Peletier, R. F.; Guhathakurta, P.; van de Ven, G.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; Brok, M. d.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Hensler, G.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Lisker, T.; Paudel, S.; Ryś, A.; Salo, H.

    An overview is given of what we know about the frequency of kinematically decoupled cores in dwarf elliptical galaxies. New observations show that kinematically decoupled cores happen just as often in dwarf elliptical as in ordinary early-type galaxies. This has important consequences for the

  17. Isolated Early-type Galaxies in the 2dFGRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Christopher R.; Lamir, C.

    2014-01-01

    Isolated galaxies are systems that have experienced limited external perturbations, thus the properties of these galaxies are largely due to internal processes. The features of isolated early-type galaxies (IEGs) provide a baseline from which to compare early-type systems residing in higher-density environments. We use the Two-Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) and the NASA Extragalactic Database (NED) to identify IEGs in the nearby universe. Search criteria in the 2dFGRS were chosen to insure that the IEGs have remained separated from neighboring galaxies for the majority of their lifetimes. Isolated galaxies are chosen utilizing a minimum projected physical separation of 1 Mpc from any neighboring non-dwarf galaxy brighter than Mb = -16.5 mags. A minimum redshift separation of 350 km/s between a candidate galaxy and a neighboring was imposed to further insure the candidate’s isolation. Early results of the search for isolated early-type galaxies in the southern sky are presented.

  18. Identification of old tidal dwarfs near early-type galaxies from deep imaging and H I observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Pierre-Alain; Paudel, Sanjaya; McDermid, Richard M.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Serra, Paolo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Cappellari, Michele; Emsellem, Eric

    2014-05-01

    It has recently been proposed that the dwarf spheroidal galaxies located in the Local Group discs of satellites (DoSs) may be tidal dwarf galaxies (TDGs) born in a major merger at least 5 Gyr ago. Whether TDGs can live that long is still poorly constrained by observations. As part of deep optical and H I surveys with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) MegaCam camera and Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope made within the ATLAS3D project, and follow-up spectroscopic observations with the Gemini-North telescope, we have discovered old TDG candidates around several early-type galaxies. At least one of them has an oxygen abundance close to solar, as expected for a tidal origin. This confirmed pre-enriched object is located within the gigantic, but very low surface brightness, tidal tail that emanates from the elliptical galaxy, NGC 5557. An age of 4 Gyr estimated from its SED fitting makes it the oldest securely identified TDG ever found so far. We investigated the structural and gaseous properties of the TDG and of a companion located in the same collisional debris, and thus most likely of tidal origin as well. Despite several Gyr of evolution close to their parent galaxies, they kept a large gas reservoir. Their central surface brightness is low and their effective radius much larger than that of typical dwarf galaxies of the same mass. This possibly provides us with criteria to identify tidal objects which can be more easily checked than the traditional ones requiring deep spectroscopic observations. In view of the above, we discuss the survival time of TDGs and question the tidal origin of the DoSs.

  19. Manganese in Dwarf Galaxies as a Probe of Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Mithi; Kirby, Evan N.

    2018-06-01

    Despite the importance of thermonuclear or Type Ia supernovae (SNe) as standard candles in astrophysics, the physical mechanisms behind Type Ia SNe are still poorly constrained. Theoretically, the nucleosynthetic yields from Type Ia SNe can distinguish among different models of Type Ia explosions. For example, neutron-rich elements such as manganese (Mn) are sensitive probes of the physics of Type Ia SNe because their abundances are correlated to the density of the progenitor white dwarf. Since dwarf galaxies' chemical evolution is dominated by Type Ia SNe at late times, Type Ia nucleosynthetic yields can be indirectly inferred from stellar abundances in dwarf galaxies. However, previous measurements of Mn in dwarf galaxies are too incomplete to draw definitive conclusions on the Type Ia explosion mechanism. In this work, we therefore use medium-resolution stellar spectroscopy from Keck/DEIMOS to measure Mn abundances in red giants in several Milky Way satellite galaxies. We report average Type Ia Mn yields computed from these abundances, and we discuss the implications for Type Ia supernova physics.

  20. Nature vs. nurture in the low-density environment: structure and evolution of early-type dwarf galaxies in poor groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibali, F.; Grützbauch, R.; Rampazzo, R.; Bressan, A.; Zeilinger, W. W.

    2011-04-01

    We present the stellar population properties of 13 dwarf galaxies residing in poor groups (low-density environment, LDE) observed with VIMOS at VLT. Ages, metallicities, and [α/Fe] ratios were derived within an r < re/2 aperture from the Lick indices Hβ, Mgb, Fe5270, and Fe5335 through comparison with our simple stellar population (SSP) models that account for variable [α/Fe] ratios. For a fiducial subsample of 10 early-type dwarfs, we derived median values and scatters around the medians of 5.7 ± 4.4 Gyr, -0.26 ± 0.28, and -0.04 ± 0.33 for age, log Z/Z⊙, and [α/Fe] , respectively. For a selection of bright early-type galaxies (ETGs) from an earlier sample residing in a comparable environment, we derive median values of 9.8 ± 4.1 Gyr, 0.06 ± 0.16, and 0.18 ± 0.13 for the same stellar population parameters. It follows that dwarfs are on average younger, less metal rich, and less enhanced in the α-elements than giants, in agreement with the extrapolation to the low-mass regime of the scaling relations derived for giant ETGs. From the total (dwarf + giant) sample, we find that age ∝ σ0.39 ± 0.22, Z ∝ σ0.80 ± 0.16, and α/Fe ∝ σ0.42 ± 0.22. We also find correlations with morphology, in the sense that the metallicity and the [α/Fe] ratio increase with the Sersic index n or with the bulge-to-total light fraction B/T. The presence of a strong morphology-[α/Fe] relation appears to contradict the possible evolution along the Hubble sequence from low B/T (low n) to high B/T (high n) galaxies. We also investigate the role played by environment by comparing the properties of our LDE dwarfs with those of Coma red passive dwarfs from the literature. We find possible evidence that LDE dwarfs experienced more prolonged star formations than Coma dwarfs, however larger data samples are needed to draw firmer conclusions. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.

  1. Abundance ratios in dwarf elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Ş.; Peletier, R. F.; Boselli, A.; den Brok, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Hensler, G.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Lisker, T.; Mentz, J. J.; Paudel, S.; Salo, H.; Sybilska, A.; Toloba, E.; van de Ven, G.; Vazdekis, A.; Yesilyaprak, C.

    2018-04-01

    We determine abundance ratios of 37 dwarf ellipticals (dEs) in the nearby Virgo cluster. This sample is representative of the early-type population of galaxies in the absolute magnitude range -19.0 originate from late-type dwarfs or small spirals. Na-yields appear to be very metal-dependent, in agreement with studies of giant ellipticals, probably due to the large dependence on the neutron-excess in stars. We conclude that dEs have undergone a considerable amount of chemical evolution, they are therefore not uniformly old, but have extended SFH, similar to many of the Local Group galaxies.

  2. EVOLUTIONARY TRACKS OF TIDALLY STIRRED DISKY DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokas, Ewa L.; Kazantzidis, Stelios; Mayer, Lucio

    2011-01-01

    Using collisionless N-body simulations, we investigate the tidal evolution of late-type, rotationally supported dwarfs inside Milky Way sized host galaxies. Our study focuses on a wide variety of dwarf orbital configurations and initial structures. During the evolution, the disky dwarfs undergo strong mass loss, the stellar disks are transformed into spheroids, and rotation is replaced by random motions of the stars. Thus, the late-type progenitors are transformed into early-type dwarfs as envisioned by the tidal stirring model for the formation of dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies in the Local Group. We determine the photometric properties of the dwarfs, including the total visual magnitude, the half-light radius, and the central surface brightness as they would be measured by an observer near the galactic center. Special emphasis is also placed on studying their kinematics and shapes. We demonstrate that the measured values are biased by a number of observational effects including the increasing angle of the observation cone near the orbital pericenter, the fact that away from the pericenter the tidal tails are typically oriented along the line of sight, and the fact that for most of the evolution the stellar components of the dwarfs are triaxial ellipsoids whose major axis tumbles with respect to the line of sight. Finally, we compare the measured properties of the simulated dwarfs to those of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. The evolutionary tracks of the dwarfs in different parameter planes and the correlations between their different properties, especially the total magnitude and the surface brightness, strongly suggest that present-day dSph galaxies may have indeed formed from late-type progenitors as proposed by the tidal stirring scenario.

  3. The Metallicity of Void Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreckel, K.; Croxall, K.; Groves, B.; van de Weygaert, R.; Pogge, R. W.

    2015-01-01

    The current ΛCDM cosmological model predicts that galaxy evolution proceeds more slowly in lower density environments, suggesting that voids are a prime location to search for relatively pristine galaxies that are representative of the building blocks of early massive galaxies. To test the assumption that void galaxies are more pristine, we compare the evolutionary properties of a sample of dwarf galaxies selected specifically to lie in voids with a sample of similar isolated dwarf galaxies in average density environments. We measure gas-phase oxygen abundances and gas fractions for eight dwarf galaxies (Mr > -16.2), carefully selected to reside within the lowest density environments of seven voids, and apply the same calibrations to existing samples of isolated dwarf galaxies. We find no significant difference between these void dwarf galaxies and the isolated dwarf galaxies, suggesting that dwarf galaxy chemical evolution proceeds independent of the large-scale environment. While this sample is too small to draw strong conclusions, it suggests that external gas accretion is playing a limited role in the chemical evolution of these systems, and that this evolution is instead dominated mainly by the internal secular processes that are linking the simultaneous growth and enrichment of these galaxies.

  4. Confirmation of Faint Dwarf Galaxies in the M81 Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiboucas, Kristin; Jacobs, Bradley A.; Tully, R. Brent; Karachentsev, Igor D.

    2013-11-01

    We have followed up on the results of a 65 deg2 CFHT/MegaCam imaging survey of the nearby M81 Group searching for faint and ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. The original survey turned up 22 faint candidate dwarf members. Based on two-color HST ACS/WFC and WFPC2 photometry, we now confirm 14 of these as dwarf galaxy members of the group. Distances and stellar population characteristics are discussed for each. To a completeness limit of M_{r^{\\prime }} = -10, we find a galaxy luminosity function slope of -1.27 ± 0.04 for the M81 Group. In this region, there are now 36 M81 Group members known, including 4 blue compact dwarfs; 8 other late types including the interacting giants M81, NGC 3077, and M82; 19 early type dwarfs; and at least 5 potential tidal dwarf galaxies. We find that the dSph galaxies in M81 appear to lie in a flattened distribution, similar to that found for the Milky Way and M31. One of the newly discovered dSph galaxies has properties similar to the ultra-faint dwarfs being found in the Local Group with a size Re ~ 100 pc and total magnitude estimates M_{r^{\\prime }} = -6.8 and MI ~ -9.1.

  5. Chemical Evolution and the Formation of Dwarf Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Benoit; JINA-CEE, NuGrid, ChETEC

    2018-06-01

    Stellar abundances in local dwarf galaxies offer a unique window into the nature and nucleosynthesis of the first stars. They also contain clues regarding how galaxies formed and assembled in the early stages of the universe. In this talk, I will present our effort to connect nuclear astrophysics with the field of galaxy formation in order to define what can be learned about galaxy evolution using stellar abundances. In particular, I will describe the current state of our numerical chemical evolution pipeline which accounts for the mass assembly history of galaxies, present how we use high-redshift cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to calibrate our models and to learn about the formation of dwarf galaxies, and address the challenge of identifying the dominant r-process site(s) using stellar abundances.

  6. CONFIRMATION OF FAINT DWARF GALAXIES IN THE M81 GROUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiboucas, Kristin [Gemini Observatory, 670 North A' ohoku Pl, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Jacobs, Bradley A.; Tully, R. Brent [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96821 (United States); Karachentsev, Igor D., E-mail: kchibouc@gemini.edu, E-mail: bjacobs@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: tully@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: ikar@luna.sao.ru [Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnij Arkhyz, Karachai-Cherkessian Republic 369167 (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-01

    We have followed up on the results of a 65 deg{sup 2} CFHT/MegaCam imaging survey of the nearby M81 Group searching for faint and ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. The original survey turned up 22 faint candidate dwarf members. Based on two-color HST ACS/WFC and WFPC2 photometry, we now confirm 14 of these as dwarf galaxy members of the group. Distances and stellar population characteristics are discussed for each. To a completeness limit of M{sub r{sup '}}= -10, we find a galaxy luminosity function slope of –1.27 ± 0.04 for the M81 Group. In this region, there are now 36 M81 Group members known, including 4 blue compact dwarfs; 8 other late types including the interacting giants M81, NGC 3077, and M82; 19 early type dwarfs; and at least 5 potential tidal dwarf galaxies. We find that the dSph galaxies in M81 appear to lie in a flattened distribution, similar to that found for the Milky Way and M31. One of the newly discovered dSph galaxies has properties similar to the ultra-faint dwarfs being found in the Local Group with a size R{sub e} ∼ 100 pc and total magnitude estimates M{sub r{sup '}}= -6.8 and M{sub I} ∼ –9.1.

  7. Star Formation Histories of Dwarf Galaxies from the Colour-Magnitude Diagrams of Their Resolved Stellar Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Cignoni

    2010-01-01

    build synthetic CMDs and to exploit them to derive the SF histories (SFHs are described, as well as the corresponding uncertainties. The SFHs of resolved dwarf galaxies of all morphological types, obtained from the application of the synthetic CMD method, are reviewed and discussed. To summarize: (1 only early-type galaxies show evidence of long interruptions in the SF activity; late-type dwarfs present rather continuous, or gasping, SF regimes; (2 a few early-type dwarfs have experienced only one episode of SF activity concentrated at the earliest epochs, whilst many others show extended or recurrent SF activity; (3 no galaxy experiencing now its first SF episode has been found yet; (4 no frequent evidence of strong SF bursts is found; (5 there is no significant difference in the SFH of dwarf irregulars and blue compact dwarfs, except for the current SF rates. Implications of these results on the galaxy formation scenarios are briefly discussed.

  8. THE ACS LCID PROJECT: ON THE ORIGIN OF DWARF GALAXY TYPES—A MANIFESTATION OF THE HALO ASSEMBLY BIAS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallart, Carme; Monelli, Matteo; Aparicio, Antonio; Battaglia, Giuseppina; Drozdovsky, Igor; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Mayer, Lucio; Bernard, Edouard J.; Cassisi, Santi; Cole, Andrew A.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Navarro, Julio F.; Salvadori, Stefania; Skillman, Evan D.; Stetson, Peter B.; Weisz, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss how knowledge of the whole evolutionary history of dwarf galaxies, including details on the early star formation events, can provide insight on the origin of the different dwarf galaxy types. We suggest that these types may be imprinted by the early conditions of formation rather than only being the result of a recent morphological transformation driven by environmental effects. We present precise star formation histories of a sample of Local Group dwarf galaxies, derived from color–magnitude diagrams reaching the oldest main-sequence turnoffs. We argue that these galaxies can be assigned to two basic types: fast dwarfs that started their evolution with a dominant and short star formation event and slow dwarfs that formed a small fraction of their stars early and have continued forming stars until the present time (or almost). These two different evolutionary paths do not map directly onto the present-day morphology (dwarf spheroidal versus dwarf irregular). Slow and fast dwarfs also differ in their inferred past location relative to the Milky Way and/or M31, which hints that slow dwarfs were generally assembled in lower-density environments than fast dwarfs. We propose that the distinction between a fast and slow dwarf galaxy primarily reflects the characteristic density of the environment where they form. At a later stage, interaction with a large host galaxy may play a role in the final gas removal and ultimate termination of star formation

  9. THE ACS LCID PROJECT: ON THE ORIGIN OF DWARF GALAXY TYPES—A MANIFESTATION OF THE HALO ASSEMBLY BIAS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallart, Carme; Monelli, Matteo; Aparicio, Antonio; Battaglia, Giuseppina; Drozdovsky, Igor; Hidalgo, Sebastian L. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Mayer, Lucio [Institut für Theoretische Physik, University of Zurich, Zürich (Switzerland); Bernard, Edouard J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Cassisi, Santi [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, Teramo (Italy); Cole, Andrew A. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7005 (Australia); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); Navarro, Julio F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, PO Box 1700, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Salvadori, Stefania [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen (Netherlands); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Stetson, Peter B. [Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, National Research Council Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Weisz, Daniel R., E-mail: monelli@iac.es [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We discuss how knowledge of the whole evolutionary history of dwarf galaxies, including details on the early star formation events, can provide insight on the origin of the different dwarf galaxy types. We suggest that these types may be imprinted by the early conditions of formation rather than only being the result of a recent morphological transformation driven by environmental effects. We present precise star formation histories of a sample of Local Group dwarf galaxies, derived from color–magnitude diagrams reaching the oldest main-sequence turnoffs. We argue that these galaxies can be assigned to two basic types: fast dwarfs that started their evolution with a dominant and short star formation event and slow dwarfs that formed a small fraction of their stars early and have continued forming stars until the present time (or almost). These two different evolutionary paths do not map directly onto the present-day morphology (dwarf spheroidal versus dwarf irregular). Slow and fast dwarfs also differ in their inferred past location relative to the Milky Way and/or M31, which hints that slow dwarfs were generally assembled in lower-density environments than fast dwarfs. We propose that the distinction between a fast and slow dwarf galaxy primarily reflects the characteristic density of the environment where they form. At a later stage, interaction with a large host galaxy may play a role in the final gas removal and ultimate termination of star formation.

  10. The ACS LCID Project: On the Origin of Dwarf Galaxy Types—A Manifestation of the Halo Assembly Bias?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallart, Carme; Monelli, Matteo; Mayer, Lucio; Aparicio, Antonio; Battaglia, Giuseppina; Bernard, Edouard J.; Cassisi, Santi; Cole, Andrew A.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Drozdovsky, Igor; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Navarro, Julio F.; Salvadori, Stefania; Skillman, Evan D.; Stetson, Peter B.; Weisz, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss how knowledge of the whole evolutionary history of dwarf galaxies, including details on the early star formation events, can provide insight on the origin of the different dwarf galaxy types. We suggest that these types may be imprinted by the early conditions of formation rather than

  11. REVERSAL OF FORTUNE: INCREASED STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCIES IN THE EARLY HISTORIES OF DWARF GALAXIES?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madau, Piero; Weisz, Daniel R.; Conroy, Charlie

    2014-01-01

    On dwarf galaxy scales, the different shapes of the galaxy stellar mass function and the dark halo mass function require a star-formation efficiency (SFE) in these systems that is currently more than 1 dex lower than that of Milky Way-size halos. Here, we argue that this trend may actually be reversed at high redshift. Specifically, by combining the resolved star-formation histories of nearby isolated dwarfs with the simulated mass-growth rates of dark matter halos, we show that the assembly of these systems occurs in two phases: (1) an early, fast halo accretion phase with a rapidly deepening potential well, characterized by a high SFE; and (2) a late, slow halo accretion phase where, perhaps as a consequence of reionization, the SFE is low. Nearby dwarfs have more old stars than predicted by assuming a constant or decreasing SFE with redshift, a behavior that appears to deviate qualitatively from the trends seen among more massive systems. Taken at face value, the data suggest that at sufficiently early epochs, dwarf galaxy halos above the atomic cooling mass limit can be among the most efficient sites of star formation in the universe

  12. Reversal of Fortune: Increased Star Formation Efficiencies in the Early Histories of Dwarf Galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madau, Piero; Weisz, Daniel R.; Conroy, Charlie

    2014-08-01

    On dwarf galaxy scales, the different shapes of the galaxy stellar mass function and the dark halo mass function require a star-formation efficiency (SFE) in these systems that is currently more than 1 dex lower than that of Milky Way-size halos. Here, we argue that this trend may actually be reversed at high redshift. Specifically, by combining the resolved star-formation histories of nearby isolated dwarfs with the simulated mass-growth rates of dark matter halos, we show that the assembly of these systems occurs in two phases: (1) an early, fast halo accretion phase with a rapidly deepening potential well, characterized by a high SFE; and (2) a late, slow halo accretion phase where, perhaps as a consequence of reionization, the SFE is low. Nearby dwarfs have more old stars than predicted by assuming a constant or decreasing SFE with redshift, a behavior that appears to deviate qualitatively from the trends seen among more massive systems. Taken at face value, the data suggest that at sufficiently early epochs, dwarf galaxy halos above the atomic cooling mass limit can be among the most efficient sites of star formation in the universe.

  13. SURFACE BRIGHTNESS PROFILES OF DWARF GALAXIES. I. PROFILES AND STATISTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Kimberly A.; Hunter, Deidre A.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2013-01-01

    Radial surface brightness profiles of spiral galaxies are classified into three types: (I) single exponential, or the light falls off with one exponential to a break before falling off (II) more steeply, or (III) less steeply. Profile breaks are also found in dwarf disks, but some dwarf Type IIs are flat or increasing out to a break before falling off. Here we re-examine the stellar disk profiles of 141 dwarfs: 96 dwarf irregulars (dIms), 26 Blue Compact Dwarfs (BCDs), and 19 Magellanic-type spirals (Sms). We fit single, double, or even triple exponential profiles in up to 11 passbands: GALEX FUV and NUV, ground-based UBVJHK and Hα, and Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 μm. We find that more luminous galaxies have brighter centers, larger inner and outer scale lengths, and breaks at larger radii; dwarf trends with M B extend to spirals. However, the V-band break surface brightness is independent of break type, M B , and Hubble type. Dwarf Type II and III profiles fall off similarly beyond the breaks but have different interiors and IIs break ∼twice as far as IIIs. Outer Type II and III scale lengths may have weak trends with wavelength, but pure Type II inner scale lengths clearly decrease from the FUV to visible bands whereas Type III inner scale lengths increase with redder bands. This suggests the influence of different star formation histories on profile type, but nonetheless the break location is approximately the same in all passbands. Dwarfs continue trends between profile and Hubble types such that later-type galaxies have more Type II but fewer Type I and III profiles than early-type spirals. BCDs and Sms are over-represented as Types III and II, respectively, compared to dIms

  14. The Westerbork HI survey of spiral and irregular galaxies - I. HI imaging of late-type dwarf galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaters, RA; Van Albada, TS; van der Hulst, JM; Sancisi, R

    Neutral hydrogen observations with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope are presented for a sample of 73 late-type dwarf galaxies. These observations are part of the WHISP project (Westerbork Hi Survey of Spiral and Irregular Galaxies). Here we present Hi maps, velocity fields, global profiles

  15. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies: Keystones of galaxy evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, John S., III; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1994-01-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are the most insignificant extragalactic stellar systems in terms of their visibility, but potentially very significant in terms of their role in the formation and evolution of much more luminous galaxies. We discuss the present observational data and their implications for theories of the formation and evolution of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The putative dark-matter content of these low-surface-brightness systems is of particular interest, as is their chemical evolution. Surveys for new dwarf spheroidals hidden behind the stars of our Galaxy and those which are not bound to giant galaxies may give new clues as to the origins of this unique class of galaxy.

  16. Marvel-ous Dwarfs: Results from Four Heroically Large Simulated Volumes of Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Ferah; Brooks, Alyson; Weisz, Daniel; Bellovary, Jillian; Christensen, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    We present results from high resolution, fully cosmological simulations of cosmic sheets that contain many dwarf galaxies. Together, they create the largest collection of simulated dwarf galaxies to date, with z=0 stellar masses comparable to the LMC or smaller. In total, we have simulated almost 100 luminous dwarf galaxies, forming a sample of simulated dwarfs which span a wide range of physical (stellar and halo mass) and evolutionary properties (merger history). We show how they can be calibrated against a wealth of observations of nearby galaxies including star formation histories, HI masses and kinematics, as well as stellar metallicities. We present preliminary results answering the following key questions: What is the slope of the stellar mass function at extremely low masses? Do halos with HI and no stars exist? What is the scatter in the stellar to halo mass relationship as a function of dwarf mass? What drives the scatter? With this large suite, we are beginning to statistically characterize dwarf galaxies and identify the types and numbers of outliers to expect.

  17. Seeing Baby Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Visible/DSS Click on image for larger version Ultraviolet/GALEX Click on image for larger version Poster Version Click on image for larger version The unique ultraviolet vision of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer reveals, for the first time, dwarf galaxies forming out of nothing more than pristine gas likely leftover from the early universe. Dwarf galaxies are relatively small collections of stars that often orbit around larger galaxies like our Milky Way. The forming dwarf galaxies shine in the far ultraviolet spectrum, rendered as blue in the call-out on the right hand side of this image. Near ultraviolet light, also obtained by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, is displayed in green, and visible light from the blue part of the spectrum here is represented by red. The clumps (in circles) are distinctively blue, indicating they are primarily detected in far ultraviolet light. The faint blue overlay traces the outline of the Leo Ring, a huge cloud of hydrogen and helium that orbits around two massive galaxies in the constellation Leo (left panel). The cloud is thought likely to be a primordial object, an ancient remnant of material that has remained relatively unchanged since the very earliest days of the universe. Identified about 25 years ago by radio waves, the ring cannot be seen in visible light. Only a portion of the Leo Ring has been imaged in the ultraviolet, but this section contains the telltale ultraviolet signature of recent massive star formation within this ring of pristine gas. Astronomers have previously only seen dwarf galaxies form out of gas that has already been cycled through a galaxy and enriched with metals elements heavier than helium produced as stars evolve. The visible data come from the Digitized Sky Survey of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md. The Leo Ring visible image (left

  18. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE PATTERNS AND THE EARLY ENVIRONMENT OF DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlies, Lauren; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Bryan, Greg; Tumlinson, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that abundance pattern differences exist between low metallicity stars in the Milky Way stellar halo and those in the dwarf satellite galaxies. This paper takes a first look at what role the early environment for pre-galactic star formation might have played in shaping these stellar populations. In particular, we consider whether differences in cross-pollution between the progenitors of the stellar halo and the satellites could help to explain the differences in abundance patterns. Using an N-body simulation, we find that the progenitor halos of the main halo are primarily clustered together at z = 10 while the progenitors of the satellite galaxies remain on the outskirts of this cluster. Next, analytically modeled supernova-driven winds show that main halo progenitors cross-pollute each other more effectively while satellite galaxy progenitors remain more isolated. Thus, inhomogeneous cross-pollution as a result of different high-z spatial locations of each system's progenitors can help to explain observed differences in abundance patterns today. Conversely, these differences are a signature of the inhomogeneity of metal enrichment at early times

  19. Feedback by Massive Black Holes in Gas-rich Dwarf Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silk, Joseph [Institut d’Astrophysique, UMR 7095 CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98bis Blvd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/IRFU, CNRS, Univ Paris 7, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Beecroft Institute of Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-10

    Could there be intermediate-mass black holes in essentially all old dwarf galaxies? I argue that current observations of active galactic nuclei in dwarfs allow such a radical hypothesis that provides early feedback during the epoch of galaxy formation and potentially provides a unifying explanation for many, if not all, of the dwarf galaxy anomalies, such as the abundance, core-cusp, “too-big-to-fail,” ultra-faint, and baryon-fraction issues. I describe the supporting arguments, which are largely circumstantial, and discuss a number of tests. There is no strong motivation for modifying the nature of cold dark matter in order to explain any of the dwarf galaxy “problems.”.

  20. Formation of dwarf ellipticals and dwarf irregular galaxies by interaction of giant galaxies under environmental influence

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; Debsarma, Suma; Karmakar, Pradip; Davoust, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    A model is proposed for the formation of gas-rich dwarf irregular galaxies and gas-poor, rotating dwarf elliptical galaxies following the interaction between two giant galaxies as a function of space density. The formation of dwarf galaxies is considered to depend on a random variable, the tidal index theta, an environmental parameter defined by Karachentsev et al. (2004), such that for theta less than zero, the formation of dwarf irregular galaxy is assured whereas for theta greater than zer...

  1. The stellar content of the isolated transition dwarf galaxy DDO210

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McConnachie, Alan W.; Arimoto, Nobuo; Irwin, Mike; Tolstoy, Eline

    2006-01-01

    We use Subaru Suprime-Cam and VLT FORS1 photometry of the dwarf galaxy DDO210 to study the global stellar content and structural properties of a transition-type galaxy (with properties intermediate between dwarf irregular and dwarf spheroidal systems). This galaxy is sufficiently isolated that tidal

  2. The Westerbork HI survey of spiral and irregular galaxies - II. R-band surface photometry of late-type dwarf galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaters, RA; Balcells, M

    R-band surface photometry is presented for 171 late-type dwarf and irregular galaxies. For a subsample of 46 galaxies B-band photometry is presented as well. We present surface brightness profiles as well as isophotal and photometric parameters including magnitudes, diameters and central surface

  3. DARK MATTER HEATING AND EARLY CORE FORMATION IN DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madau, Piero; Shen, Sijing; Governato, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    We present more results from a fully cosmological ΛCDM simulation of a group of isolated dwarf galaxies that has been shown to reproduce the observed stellar mass and cold gas content, resolved star formation histories, and metallicities of dwarfs in the Local Volume. Here we investigate the energetics and timetable of the cusp-core transformation. As suggested by previous work, supernova-driven gas outflows remove dark matter (DM) cusps and create kiloparsec-size cores in all systems having a stellar mass M * > 10 6 M ☉ . The D M core mass removal efficiency — dark mass ejected per unit stellar mass—ranges today from a few to a dozen, and increases with decreasing host mass. Because dwarfs form the bulk of their stars prior to redshift 1 and the amount of work required for DM heating and core formation scales approximately as M vir 5/3 , the unbinding of the DM cusp starts early and the formation of cored profiles is not as energetically onerous as previously claimed. DM particles in the cusp typically migrate to 2-3 core radii after absorbing a few percent of the energy released by supernovae. The present-day slopes of the inner DM mass profiles, Γ ≡ dlog M/dlog R ≅ 2.5-3, of the simulated ''Bashful'' and ''Doc'' dwarfs are similar to those measured in the luminous Fornax and Sculptor dwarf spheroidals. None of the simulated galaxies has a circular velocity profile exceeding 20 km s –1 in the inner 1 kpc, implying that supernova feedback is key to solve the ''too-big-to-fail'' problem for Milky Way subhalos

  4. Satellite dwarf galaxies in a hierarchical universe: the prevalence of dwarf-dwarf major mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deason, Alis; Wetzel, Andrew; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea

    2014-01-01

    Mergers are a common phenomenon in hierarchical structure formation, especially for massive galaxies and clusters, but their importance for dwarf galaxies in the Local Group remains poorly understood. We investigate the frequency of major mergers between dwarf galaxies in the Local Group using the ELVIS suite of cosmological zoom-in dissipationless simulations of Milky Way- and M31-like host halos. We find that ∼10% of satellite dwarf galaxies with M star > 10 6 M ☉ that are within the host virial radius experienced a major merger of stellar mass ratio closer than 0.1 since z = 1, with a lower fraction for lower mass dwarf galaxies. Recent merger remnants are biased toward larger radial distance and more recent virial infall times, because most recent mergers occurred shortly before crossing within the virial radius of the host halo. Satellite-satellite mergers also occur within the host halo after virial infall, catalyzed by the large fraction of dwarf galaxies that fell in as part of a group. The merger fraction doubles for dwarf galaxies outside of the host virial radius, so the most distant dwarf galaxies in the Local Group are the most likely to have experienced a recent major merger. We discuss the implications of these results on observable dwarf merger remnants, their star formation histories, the gas content of mergers, and massive black holes in dwarf galaxies.

  5. Early-type galaxies in the Antlia cluster: catalogue and isophotal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Juan P.; Bassino, Lilia P.; Cellone, Sergio A.; Gómez, Matías

    2018-06-01

    We present a statistical isophotal analysis of 138 early-type galaxies in the Antlia cluster, located at a distance of ˜ 35 Mpc. The observational material consists of CCD images of four 36 × 36 arcmin2 fields obtained with the MOSAIC II camera at the Blanco 4-m telescope at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory. Our present work supersedes previous Antlia studies in the sense that the covered area is four times larger, the limiting magnitude is MB ˜ -9.6 mag, and the surface photometry parameters of each galaxy are derived from Sérsic model fits extrapolated to infinity. In a companion previous study we focused on the scaling relations obtained by means of surface photometry, and now we present the data, on which the previous paper is based, the parameters of the isophotal fits as well as an isophotal analysis. For each galaxy, we derive isophotal shape parameters along the semimajor axis and search for correlations within different radial bins. Through extensive statistical tests, we also analyse the behaviour of these values against photometric and global parameters of the galaxies themselves. While some galaxies do display radial gradients in their ellipticity (ɛ) and/or their Fourier coefficients, differences in mean values between adjacent regions are not statistically significant. Regarding Fourier coefficients, dwarf galaxies usually display gradients between all adjacent regions, while non-dwarfs tend to show this behaviour just between the two outermost regions. Globally, there is no obvious correlation between Fourier coefficients and luminosity for the whole magnitude range (-12 ≳ MV ≳ -22); however, dwarfs display much higher dispersions at all radii.

  6. Early-type galaxies in the Antlia Cluster: Catalogue and isophotal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Juan P.; Bassino, Lilia P.; Cellone, Sergio A.; Gómez, Matías

    2018-03-01

    We present a statistical isophotal analysis of 138 early-type galaxies in the Antlia cluster, located at a distance of ˜ 35 Mpc. The observational material consists of CCD images of four 36 arcmin × 36 arcmin fields obtained with the MOSAIC II camera at the Blanco 4-m telescope at CTIO. Our present work supersedes previous Antlia studies in the sense that the covered area is four times larger, the limiting magnitude is MB ˜ -9.6 mag, and the surface photometry parameters of each galaxy are derived from Sérsic model fits extrapolated to infinity. In a companion previous study we focused on the scaling relations obtained by means of surface photometry, and now we present the data, on which the previous paper is based, the parameters of the isophotal fits as well as an isophotal analysis. For each galaxy, we derive isophotal shape parameters along the semi-major axis and search for correlations within different radial bins. Through extensive statistical tests, we also analyse the behaviour of these values against photometric and global parameters of the galaxies themselves. While some galaxies do display radial gradients in their ellipticity (ɛ) and/or their Fourier coefficients, differences in mean values between adjacent regions are not statistically significant. Regarding Fourier coefficients, dwarf galaxies usually display gradients between all adjacent regions, while non-dwarfs tend to show this behaviour just between the two outermost regions. Globally, there is no obvious correlation between Fourier coefficients and luminosity for the whole magnitude range (-12 ≳ MV ≳ -22); however, dwarfs display much higher dispersions at all radii.

  7. Far-infrared line images of dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poglitsch, A.; Geis, N.; Herrmann, F.; Madden, S. C.; Stacey, G. J.; Townes, C. H.; Genzel, R.

    1993-01-01

    Irregular dwarf galaxies are about ten times more widespread in the universe than regular spiral galaxies. They are characterized by a relatively low metallicity, i.e., lower abundance of the heavier elements (metals) with respect to hydrogen than in the solar neighborhood. These heavier elements in the form of molecules, atoms, or ions, which have radiative transitions in the infrared play a decisive role in the energy balance of the ISM and thereby for the formation of stars. Dwarf galaxies are thus model cases for the physical conditions in the early phase of the universe. Large Magellanic Cloud: 30 Doradus. The two nearest dwarf galaxies are the Magellanic clouds at a distance approximately 50 kpc. The LMC contains 30 Dor, a region with young, extremely massive stars which strongly interact with the surrounding ISM on account of their stellar winds and intense UV radiation. 30 Dor is the brightest object in the LMC at almost all wavelengths.

  8. The unique structural parameters of the underlying host galaxies in blue compact dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janowiecki, Steven; Salzer, John J.

    2014-01-01

    The nature of possible evolutionary pathways between various types of dwarf galaxies is still not fully understood. Blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs) provide a unique window into dwarf galaxy formation and evolution and are often thought of as an evolutionary stage between different classes of dwarf galaxies. In this study we use deep optical and near-infrared observations of the underlying hosts of BCDs in order to study the structural differences between different types of dwarf galaxies. When compared with dwarf irregular galaxies of similar luminosities, we find that the underlying hosts of BCDs have significantly more concentrated light distributions, with smaller scale lengths and brighter central surface brightnesses. We demonstrate here that the underlying hosts of BCDs are distinct from the broad continuum of typical dwarf irregular galaxies, and that it is unlikely that most dwarf irregular galaxies can transform into a BCD or vice versa. Furthermore, we find that the starburst in a BCD only brightens it on average by ∼0.8 mag (factor of two), in agreement with other studies. It appears that a BCD is a long-lived and distinct type of dwarf galaxy that exhibits an exceptionally concentrated matter distribution. We suggest that it is this compact mass distribution that enables the strong star formation events that characterize this class of dwarf galaxy, that the compactness of the underlying host can be used as a distinguishing parameter between BCDs and other dwarf galaxies, and that it can also be used to identify BCDs which are not currently experiencing an intense starburst event.

  9. Metals and ionizing photons from dwarf galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvadori, S.; Tolstoy, E.; Ferrara, A.; Zaroubi, S.

    We estimate the potential contribution of M <10(9)M(circle dot) dwarf galaxies to the reionization and early metal enrichment of the Milky Way environment, or circum-Galactic medium. Our approach is to use the observed properties of ancient stars ()under tilde>12 Gyr old) measured in nearby dwarf

  10. Linking dwarf galaxies to halo building blocks with the most metal-poor star in Sculptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frebel, Anna; Kirby, Evan N; Simon, Joshua D

    2010-03-04

    Current cosmological models indicate that the Milky Way's stellar halo was assembled from many smaller systems. On the basis of the apparent absence of the most metal-poor stars in present-day dwarf galaxies, recent studies claimed that the true Galactic building blocks must have been vastly different from the surviving dwarfs. The discovery of an extremely iron-poor star (S1020549) in the Sculptor dwarf galaxy based on a medium-resolution spectrum cast some doubt on this conclusion. Verification of the iron-deficiency, however, and measurements of additional elements, such as the alpha-element Mg, are necessary to demonstrate that the same type of stars produced the metals found in dwarf galaxies and the Galactic halo. Only then can dwarf galaxy stars be conclusively linked to early stellar halo assembly. Here we report high-resolution spectroscopic abundances for 11 elements in S1020549, confirming its iron abundance of less than 1/4,000th that of the Sun, and showing that the overall abundance pattern follows that seen in low-metallicity halo stars, including the alpha-elements. Such chemical similarity indicates that the systems destroyed to form the halo billions of years ago were not fundamentally different from the progenitors of present-day dwarfs, and suggests that the early chemical enrichment of all galaxies may be nearly identical.

  11. Star formation in globular clusters and dwarf galaxies and implications for the early evolution of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Douglas N. C.; Murray, Stephen D.

    1991-01-01

    Based upon the observed properties of globular clusters and dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, we present important theoretical constraints on star formation in these systems. These constraints indicate that protoglobular cluster clouds had long dormant periods and a brief epoch of violent star formation. Collisions between protocluster clouds triggered fragmentation into individual stars. Most protocluster clouds dispersed into the Galactic halo during the star formation epoch. In contrast, the large spread in stellar metallicity in dwarf galaxies suggests that star formation in their pregenitors was self-regulated: we propose the protocluster clouds formed from thermal instability in the protogalactic clouds and show that a population of massive stars is needed to provide sufficient UV flux to prevent the collapsing protogalactic clouds from fragmenting into individual stars. Based upon these constraints, we propose a unified scenario to describe the early epochs of star formation in the Galactic halo as well as the thick and thin components of the Galactic disk.

  12. Satellite dwarf galaxies in a hierarchical universe: the prevalence of dwarf-dwarf major mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Alis [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Wetzel, Andrew [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Garrison-Kimmel, Shea, E-mail: alis@ucolick.org [Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2014-10-20

    Mergers are a common phenomenon in hierarchical structure formation, especially for massive galaxies and clusters, but their importance for dwarf galaxies in the Local Group remains poorly understood. We investigate the frequency of major mergers between dwarf galaxies in the Local Group using the ELVIS suite of cosmological zoom-in dissipationless simulations of Milky Way- and M31-like host halos. We find that ∼10% of satellite dwarf galaxies with M {sub star} > 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} that are within the host virial radius experienced a major merger of stellar mass ratio closer than 0.1 since z = 1, with a lower fraction for lower mass dwarf galaxies. Recent merger remnants are biased toward larger radial distance and more recent virial infall times, because most recent mergers occurred shortly before crossing within the virial radius of the host halo. Satellite-satellite mergers also occur within the host halo after virial infall, catalyzed by the large fraction of dwarf galaxies that fell in as part of a group. The merger fraction doubles for dwarf galaxies outside of the host virial radius, so the most distant dwarf galaxies in the Local Group are the most likely to have experienced a recent major merger. We discuss the implications of these results on observable dwarf merger remnants, their star formation histories, the gas content of mergers, and massive black holes in dwarf galaxies.

  13. Abundances as Tracers of the Formation and Evolution of (Dwarf) Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Tolstoy, Eline

    2004-01-01

    This aims to be an overview of what detailed observations of individual stars in nearby dwarf galaxies may teach us about galaxy evolution. This includes some early results from the DART (Dwarf Abundances and Radial velocity Team) Large Programme at ESO. This project has used 2.2m/WFI and VLT/FLAMES to obtain spectra of large samples of individual stars in nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies and determine accurate abundances and kinematics. These results can be used to trace the formation and ev...

  14. The Hunt for Missing Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    Theories of galaxy formation and evolution predict that there should be significantly more dwarf galaxies than have been observed. Are our theories wrong? Or are dwarf galaxies just difficult to detect? Recent results from a survey of a galaxy cluster 62 million light-years away suggest there may be lots of undiscovered dwarf galaxies hiding throughout the universe!Hiding in FaintnessThe missing dwarf problem has had hints of a resolution with the recent discovery of Ultra-Diffuse Galaxies (UDGs) in the Coma and Virgo galaxy clusters. UDGs have low masses and large radii, resulting in a very low surface brightness that makes them extremely difficult to detect. If many dwarfs are UDGs, this could well explain why weve been missing them!But the Coma and Virgo galaxy clusters are similar in that theyre both very massive. Are there UDGs in other galaxy clusters as well? To answer this question, an international team of scientists is running the Next Generation Fornax Survey (NGFS), a survey searching for faint dwarf galaxies in the central 30 square degrees of the Fornax galaxy cluster.The NGFS uses near-UV and optical observations from the Dark Energy Camera mounted on the 4m Blanco Telescope in Chile. The survey is still underway, but in a recent publication led by Roberto P. Muoz (Institute of Astrophysics at the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile), the team has released an overview of the first results from only the central 3 square degrees of the NGFS field.Surprising DetectionGalaxy radii vs. their absolute i-band magnitudes, for the dwarfs found in NGFS as well as other stellar systems in the nearby universe. The NGFS dwarfs are similar to the ultra-diffuse dwarfs found in the Virgo and Coma clusters, but are several orders of magnitude fainter. [Muoz et al. 2015]In just this small central field, the team has found an astounding 284 low-surface-brightness dwarf galaxy candidates 158 of them previously undetected. At the bright end of this sample are dwarf

  15. Star Formation Histories of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Grebel, Eva K.

    2000-01-01

    Properties of nearby dwarf galaxies are briefly discussed. Dwarf galaxies vary widely in their star formation histories, the ages of their subpopulations, and in their enrichment history. Furthermore, many dwarf galaxies show evidence for spatial variations in their star formation history; often in the form of very extended old populations and radial gradients in age and metallicity. Determining factors in dwarf galaxy evolution appear to be both galaxy mass and environment. We may be observi...

  16. FCC046: A CANDIDATE GASEOUS POLAR RING DWARF ELLIPTICAL GALAXY IN THE FORNAX CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rijcke, S.; Buyle, P.; Koleva, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2013-06-20

    FCC046 is a Fornax Cluster dwarf elliptical galaxy. Optical observations have shown that this galaxy, besides an old and metal-poor stellar population, also contains a very young centrally concentrated population and is actively forming stars, albeit at a very low level. Here, we report on 21 cm observations of FCC046 with the Australia Telescope Compact Array which we conducted in the course of a small survey of Fornax Cluster early-type dwarf galaxies. We have discovered a {approx}10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} H I cloud surrounding FCC046. We show that the presence of this significant gas reservoir offers a concise explanation for this galaxy's optical morphological and kinematical properties. Surprisingly, the H I gas, as evidenced by its morphology and its rotational motion around the galaxy's optical major axis, is kinematically decoupled from the galaxy's stellar body. This is the first time such a ring of gaseous material in minor-axis rotation is discovered around a dwarf galaxy.

  17. ULTRA-FAINT DWARF GALAXIES AS A TEST OF EARLY ENRICHMENT AND METALLICITY-DEPENDENT STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassis, Konstantinos; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2012-01-01

    The close relation of star formation with molecular gas indicated by observations and assumed in recent models implies that the efficiency with which galaxies convert their gas into stars depends on gas metallicity. This is because abundance of molecular hydrogen is sensitive to abundance of dust, which catalyzes formation of H 2 and helps to shield it from dissociating radiation. In this study, we point out that in the absence of significant pre-enrichment by Population III stars forming out of zero metallicity gas, such H 2 -based star formation is expected to leave an imprint in the form of bi-modality in the metallicity distribution among dwarf galaxies and in the metallicity distribution of stars within individual galaxies. The bi-modality arises because when gas metallicity (and dust abundance) is low, formation of molecular gas is inefficient, the gas consumption timescale is long, and star formation and metal enrichment proceed slowly. When metallicity reaches a critical threshold value star formation and enrichment accelerate, which leads to rapid increase in both stellar mass and metallicity of galaxies. We demonstrate this process both using a simple analytical model and full cosmological simulations. In contrast, the observed metallicity distributions of dwarf galaxies or stars within them are not bi-modal. We argue that this discrepancy points to substantial early stochastic pre-enrichment by Population III stars to levels Z ∼ 10 –2 Z ☉ in dense, star-forming regions of early galaxies.

  18. Morphology and Structures of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Mira; Ann, HongBae

    2015-08-01

    We performed an analysis of the structure of nearby dwarf galaxies based on a 2-dimensional decomposition of galaxy images using GALFIT. The present sample consists of ~1,100 dwarf galaxies with redshift less than z = 0.01, which is is derived from the morphology catalog of the Visually classified galaxies in the local universe (Ann, Seo, and Ha 2015). In this catalog, dwarf galaxies are divided into 5 subtypes: dS0, dE, dSph, dEbc, dEblue with distinction of the presence of nucleation in dE, dSph, and dS0. We found that dSph and dEblue galaxies are fainter than other subtypes of dwarf galaxies. In most cases, single component, represented by the Sersic profile with n=1~1.5, well describes the luminosity distribution of dwarf galaxies in the present sample. However, a significant fraction of dS0, dEbc, and dEbue galaxies show sub-structures such as spiral arms and rings. We will discuss the morphology dependent evolutionary history of the local dwarf galaxies.

  19. Abundances as tracers of the formation and evolution of (Dwarf) galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E.; Randich, S; Pasquini, L

    2006-01-01

    This aims to be an overview of what detailed observations of individual stars in nearby dwarf galaxies may teach us about galaxy evolution. This includes some early results from the DART (Dwarf Abundances and Radial velocity Team) Large Programme at ESO. This project has used 2.2m/WFI and VLT/FLAMES

  20. Observations of Superwinds in Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, A. T.; Heckman, T. M.; Wyse, R.; Schommer, R.

    1993-12-01

    Dwarf galaxies are important in developing our understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies, and of the structure in the universe. The concept of supernova-driven mass outflows is a vital ingredient in theories of the structure and evolution of dwarfs galaxies. We have begun a detailed multi-waveband search for outflows in starbursting dwarf galaxies, and have obtained Fabry-Perot images and Echelle spectra of 20 nearby actively-star-forming dwarf galaxies. In about half the sample, the Fabry-Perot Hα images show loops and filaments with sizes of one to a few kpc. The Echelle spectra taken through the loops and filaments show kinematics consistent with expanding bubble-like structures. We describe these data, and present seven dwarfs in our sample that have the strongest evidence of outflows.

  1. Magnetic field evolution in dwarf and Magellanic-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siejkowski, H.; Soida, M.; Chyży, K. T.

    2018-03-01

    Aims: Low-mass galaxies radio observations show in many cases surprisingly high levels of magnetic field. The mass and kinematics of such objects do not favour the development of effective large-scale dynamo action. We attempted to check if the cosmic-ray-driven dynamo can be responsible for measured magnetization in this class of poorly investigated objects. We investigated how starburst events on the whole, as well as when part of the galactic disk, influence the magnetic field evolution. Methods: We created a model of a dwarf/Magellanic-type galaxy described by gravitational potential constituted from two components: the stars and the dark-matter halo. The model is evolved by solving a three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic equation with an additional cosmic-ray component, which is approximated as a fluid. The turbulence is generated in the system via supernova explosions manifested by the injection of cosmic-rays. Results: The cosmic-ray-driven dynamo works efficiently enough to amplify the magnetic field even in low-mass dwarf/Magellanic-type galaxies. The e-folding times of magnetic energy growth are 0.50 and 0.25 Gyr for the slow (50 km s-1) and fast (100 km s-1) rotators, respectively. The amplification is being suppressed as the system reaches the equipartition level between kinetic, magnetic, and cosmic-ray energies. An episode of star formation burst amplifies the magnetic field but only for a short time while increased star formation activity holds. We find that a substantial amount of gas is expelled from the galactic disk, and that the starburst events increase the efficiency of this process.

  2. Starbursts in Blue compact dwarf galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuan, T.X.

    1987-01-01

    We summarize all the arguments for a bursting mode of star formation in blue compact dwarf galaxies. We show in particular how spectral synthesis of far ultraviolet spectra of Blue compact dwarf galaxy constitutes a powerful way for studying the star formation history in these galaxies. Blue compact dwarf galaxy luminosity functions show jumps and discontinuities. These jumps act like fossil records of the star-forming bursts, helping us to count and date the bursts

  3. Detection of CO (J=1-0) in the dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 185

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklind, Tommy; Rydbeck, Gustaf

    1987-01-01

    The detection of CO (J = 1-0) emission in the dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 185 is reported. The presence of massive molecular clouds in this early-type galaxy supports the idea of recent or ongoing stellar formation indicated by the population of blue stars in the center. The CO was detected in two positions in the galaxy, the center, and a prominent dustcloud. The emission profile has two peaks, roughly centered around the systemic velocity. It is found that NGC 185 is overluminous in blue light for its CO luminosity compared with Sc galaxies. This might indicate a higher star-formation efficiency for NGC 185 than for the late-type galaxies.

  4. Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibata, R.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Sagittarius DWARF GALAXY is the closest member of the Milky Way's entourage of satellite galaxies. Discovered by chance in 1994, its presence had previously been overlooked because it is largely hidden by the most crowded regions of our own Galaxy with which it is merging....

  5. Stellar kinematics and structural properties of virgo cluster dwarf early-type galaxies from the SMAKCED project. I. Kinematically decoupled cores and implications for infallen groups in clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Van de Ven, G. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Boissier, S.; Boselli, A. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille-LAM, Université d' Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR 7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Den Brok, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Falcón-Barroso, J.; Ryś, A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Hensler, G. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstraße 17, 1180 Vienna (Austria); Janz, J.; Lisker, T. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H. [Division of Astronomy, Department of Physics, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Paudel, S. [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CNRS/INSU, Université Paris Diderot, CEA/IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Peletier, R. F., E-mail: toloba@ucolick.org [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-03-10

    We present evidence for kinematically decoupled cores (KDCs) in two dwarf early-type (dE) galaxies in the Virgo cluster, VCC 1183 and VCC 1453, studied as part of the SMAKCED stellar absorption-line spectroscopy and imaging survey. These KDCs have radii of 1.''8 (0.14 kpc) and 4.''2 (0.33 kpc), respectively. Each of these KDCs is distinct from the main body of its host galaxy in two ways: (1) inverted sense of rotation and (2) younger (and possibly more metal-rich) stellar population. The observed stellar population differences are probably associated with the KDC, although we cannot rule out the possibility of intrinsic radial gradients in the host galaxy. We describe a statistical analysis method to detect, quantify the significance of, and characterize KDCs in long-slit rotation curve data. We apply this method to the two dE galaxies presented in this paper and to five other dEs for which KDCs have been reported in the literature. Among these seven dEs, there are four significant KDC detections, two marginal KDC detections, and one dE with an unusual central kinematic anomaly that may be an asymmetric KDC. The frequency of occurrence of KDCs and their properties provide important constraints on the formation history of their host galaxies. We discuss different formation scenarios for these KDCs in cluster environments and find that dwarf-dwarf wet mergers or gas accretion can explain the properties of these KDCs. Both of these mechanisms require that the progenitor had a close companion with a low relative velocity. This suggests that KDCs were formed in galaxy pairs residing in a poor group environment or in isolation whose subsequent infall into the cluster quenched star formation.

  6. Extended dust in dwarf galaxies - solving an energy-budget paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, William C.; Holwerda, Benne; Lintott, Chris; Schawinski, Kevin

    2012-02-01

    The role of dust in shaping the emerging spectral energy distributions of galaxies remains poorly understood; recent Herschel results suggest large amounts of cold dust coupled with only modest optical extinction for much of the galaxy population. Previous work has used the discovery of a silhouetted-galaxy pair of a backlit dwarf galaxy with dust features extending beyond the de Vaucouleurs radius to investigate this question. We propose to examine a larger set of galaxies of this type drawn from the Galaxy Zoo catalog of silhouetted-galaxy pairs, to see whether a significant fraction of dwarfs have such extensive dust distributions. The catalog contains ~ 150 candidate backlit dwarfs; if such dust distributions are common enough to account for the Herschel results, we would see many additional cases of silhouetted dust beyond their stellar disks.

  7. SATELLITE DWARF GALAXIES IN A HIERARCHICAL UNIVERSE: THE PREVALENCE OF DWARF-DWARF MAJOR MERGERS

    OpenAIRE

    Deason, A; Wetzel, A; Garrison-Kimmel, S

    2014-01-01

    Mergers are a common phenomenon in hierarchical structure formation, especially for massive galaxies and clusters, but their importance for dwarf galaxies in the Local Group remains poorly understood. We investigate the frequency of major mergers between dwarf galaxies in the Local Group using the ELVIS suite of cosmological zoom-in dissipationless simulations of Milky Way- and M31-like host halos. We find that ~10% of satellite dwarf galaxies with M_star > 10^6 M_sun that are within the host...

  8. A window on first-stars models from studies of dwarf galaxies and galactic halo stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Aparna

    2018-06-01

    Dwarf galaxies dominate the local universe by number and are predicted to be even more dominant at early times, with many having large star formation rates per unit mass. The cosmological role of dwarf galaxies in the metal enrichment and the reionization of the universe is an important but unresolved problem at present. Nearby low-mass galaxies are much more accessible observationally for detailed study and may be local analogs of the types of galaxies that hosted the first-light sources relevant for reionization. I will share recent results on UV studies of the escaping radiation from nearby low-mass starforming galaxies, as well as the tantalizing similarities in element abundance patterns between local dwarf galaxies and the latest data compilations on extremely metal-poor stars in galactic halos. I will highlight trends of interest in a variety of individual elements at values of [Fe/H] between -7 and -3, including alpha-elements, elements originating mostly in intermediate-mass stars, lithium, titanium, and r-process elements. These trends constrain not only models of the first stars and their supernovae, but provide a window into the physical conditions in early galaxies and when metal-free star formation may have ceased in the early universe.This work was supported by the University of San Francisco Faculty Development Fund, and NSF grant AST-1637339. We thank the Aspen Center for Physics, where some of this work was conducted, and which is supported by National Science Foundation grant PHY-1607611.

  9. Sweating the small stuff: simulating dwarf galaxies, ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, and their own tiny satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Coral; Oñorbe, Jose; Bullock, James S.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Elbert, Oliver D.; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Hopkins, Philip F.; Kereš, Dušan

    2015-10-01

    We present Feedback in Realistic Environment (FIRE)/GIZMO hydrodynamic zoom-in simulations of isolated dark matter haloes, two each at the mass of classical dwarf galaxies (Mvir ≃ 1010 M⊙) and ultra-faint galaxies (Mvir ≃ 109 M⊙), and with two feedback implementations. The resulting central galaxies lie on an extrapolated abundance matching relation from M⋆ ≃ 106 to 104 M⊙ without a break. Every host is filled with subhaloes, many of which form stars. Each of our dwarfs with M⋆ ≃ 106 M⊙ has 1-2 well-resolved satellites with M⋆ = 3-200 × 103 M⊙. Even our isolated ultra-faint galaxies have star-forming subhaloes. If this is representative, dwarf galaxies throughout the Universe should commonly host tiny satellite galaxies of their own. We combine our results with the Exploring the Local Volume in Simulations (ELVIS) simulations to show that targeting ˜ 50 kpc regions around nearby isolated dwarfs could increase the chances of discovering ultra-faint galaxies by ˜35 per cent compared to random pointings, and specifically identify the region around the Phoenix dwarf galaxy as a good potential target. The well-resolved ultra-faint galaxies in our simulations (M⋆ ≃ 3-30 × 103 M⊙) form within Mpeak ≃ 0.5-3 × 109 M⊙ haloes. Each has a uniformly ancient stellar population ( > 10 Gyr) owing to reionization-related quenching. More massive systems, in contrast, all have late-time star formation. Our results suggest that Mhalo ≃ 5 × 109 M⊙ is a probable dividing line between haloes hosting reionization `fossils' and those hosting dwarfs that can continue to form stars in isolation after reionization.

  10. LOW CO LUMINOSITIES IN DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schruba, Andreas; Walter, Fabian; Sandstrom, Karin; Leroy, Adam K.; Bigiel, Frank; Brinks, Elias; De Blok, W. J. G.; Kramer, Carsten; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schuster, Karl; Usero, Antonio; Weiss, Axel; Wiesemeyer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    We present maps of 12 COJ = 2-1 emission covering the entire star-forming disks of 16 nearby dwarf galaxies observed by the IRAM HERACLES survey. The data have 13'' angular resolution, ∼250 pc at our average distance of D = 4 Mpc, and sample the galaxies by 10-1000 resolution elements. We apply stacking techniques to perform the first sensitive search for CO emission in dwarf galaxies outside the Local Group ranging from individual lines of sight, stacking over IR-bright regions of embedded star formation, and stacking over the entire galaxy. We detect five galaxies in CO with total CO luminosities of L CO2-1 = (3-28) × 10 6 K km s –1 pc 2 . The other 11 galaxies remain undetected in CO even in the stacked images and have L CO2-1 ∼ 6 K km s –1 pc 2 . We combine our sample of dwarf galaxies with a large sample of spiral galaxies from the literature to study scaling relations of L CO with M B and metallicity. We find that dwarf galaxies with metallicities of Z ≈ 1/2-1/10 Z ☉ have L CO of 2-4 orders of magnitude smaller than massive spiral galaxies and that their L CO per unit L B is 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller. A comparison with tracers of star formation (FUV and 24 μm) shows that L CO per unit star formation rate (SFR) is 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller in dwarf galaxies. One possible interpretation is that dwarf galaxies form stars much more efficiently: we argue that the low L CO /SFR ratio is due to the fact that the CO-to-H 2 conversion factor, α CO , changes significantly in low-metallicity environments. Assuming that a constant H 2 depletion time of τ dep = 1.8 Gyr holds in dwarf galaxies (as found for a large sample of nearby spirals) implies α CO values for dwarf galaxies with Z ≈ 1/2-1/10 Z ☉ that are more than one order of magnitude higher than those found in solar metallicity spiral galaxies. Such a significant increase of α CO at low metallicity is consistent with previous studies, in particular those of Local Group dwarf

  11. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey : VI. Colour gradients in giant and dwarf early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Brok, M.; Peletier, R. F.; Valentijn, E. A.; Balcells, Marc; Carter, D.; Erwin, P.; Ferguson, H. C.; Goudfrooij, P.; Graham, A. W.; Hammer, D.; Lucey, J. R.; Trentham, N.; Guzman, R.; Hoyos, C.; Kleijn, G. Verdoes; Jogee, S.; Karick, A. M.; Marinova, I.; Mouhcine, M.; Weinzirl, T.

    Using deep, high-spatial-resolution imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS) Coma Cluster Treasury Survey, we determine colour profiles of early-type galaxies in the Coma cluster. From 176 galaxies brighter than M-F814W(AB) = -15 mag that are either

  12. Dwarf Galaxies in the Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civano, Francesca Maria; Mezcua, Mar; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Marchesi, Stefano; Suh, Hyewon; Volonteri, Marta; cyrille

    2018-01-01

    The existence of intermediate mass black holes (100 7. While detecting these seed black holes in the young Universe is observationally challenging, the nuclei of local dwarf galaxies are among the best places where to look for them as these galaxies resemble in mass and metallicity the first galaxies and they have not significantly grown through merger and accretion processes. We present a sample of 40 AGN in dwarf galaxies (107 0.5, our sample constitutes the highest-redshift discovery of AGN in dwarf galaxies. One of the dwarf galaxies is the least massive galaxy (M* = 6.6x107 Msun) found so far to host an active BH. We also present for the first time the evolution of the AGN fraction with stellar mass, X-ray luminosity, and redshift in dwarf galaxies out to z = 0.7, finding that it decreases with X-ray luminosity and stellar mass. Unlike massive galaxies, the AGN fraction is found to decrease with redshift, suggesting that AGN in dwarf galaxies evolve differently than those in high-mass galaxies.

  13. The stellar content of the isolated transition dwarf galaxy DDO210

    OpenAIRE

    McConnachie, Alan W.; Arimoto, Nobuo; Irwin, Mike; Tolstoy, Eline

    2006-01-01

    We use Subaru Suprime-Cam and VLT FORS1 photometry of the dwarf galaxy DDO210 to study the global stellar content and structural properties of a transition-type galaxy (with properties intermediate between dwarf irregular and dwarf spheroidal systems). This galaxy is sufficiently isolated that tidal interactions are not likely to have affected its evolution in any way. The colour-magnitude diagrams of DDO210 show a red giant branch (RGB) population (with an RGB bump), a bright asymptotic gian...

  14. Understanding r-process nucleosynthesis with dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Alexander P.

    2018-06-01

    The Milky Way's faintest dwarf galaxy satellites each sample short, independent bursts of star formation from the first 1-2 Gyr of the universe. Their simple formation history makes them ideal systems to understand how rare events like neutron star mergers contribute to early enrichment of r-process elements. I will focus on the ultra-faint galaxy Reticulum II, which experienced a single prolific r-process event that left ~80% of its stars extremely enriched in r-process elements. I will present abundances of ~40 elements derived from the highest signal-to-noise high-resolution spectrum ever taken for an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy star. Precise measurements of elements from all three r-process peaks reaffirm the universal nature of the r-process abundance pattern from Ba to Ir. The first r-process peak is significantly lower than solar but matches other r-process enhanced stars. This constrains the neutron-richness of r-process ejecta in neutron star mergers. The radioactive element thorium is detected with a somewhat low abundance. Naive application of currently predicted initial production ratios could imply an age >20 Gyr, but more likely indicates that the initial production ratios require revision. The abundance of lighter elements up to Zn are consistent with extremely metal-poor Milky Way halo stars. These elements may eventually provide a way to test for other hypothesized r-process sites, but only after a more detailed understanding of the chemical evolution in this galaxy. Reticulum II provides a clean view of early r-process enrichment that can be used to understand the increasing number of r-process measurements in other dwarf galaxies.

  15. ABOUT THE LINEARITY OF THE COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE VIRGO CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith Castelli, Analia V.; Faifer, Favio R. [Instituto de Astrofisica de La Plata (CCT-La Plata, CONICET-UNLP), Paseo del Bosque s/n, B1900FWA, La Plata (Argentina); Gonzalez, Nelida M. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, La Plata, B1900FWA (Argentina); Forte, Juan Carlos, E-mail: asmith@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: ngonzalez@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: favio@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: forte@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [CONICET-Planetario de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires ' ' Galileo Galilei' ' , Av. Sarmiento y B. Roldan, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-07-20

    We revisit the color-magnitude relation of Virgo Cluster early-type galaxies in order to explore its alleged nonlinearity. To this aim, we reanalyze the relation already published from data obtained within the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey of the Hubble Space Telescope and perform our own photometry and analysis of the images of 100 early-type galaxies observed as part of this survey. In addition, we compare our results with those reported in the literature from data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have found that when the brightest galaxies and untypical systems are excluded from the sample, a linear relation arises in agreement with what is observed in other groups and clusters. The central regions of the brightest galaxies also follow this relation. In addition, we notice that Virgo contains at least four compact elliptical galaxies besides the well-known object VCC 1297 (NGC 4486B). Their locations in the ({mu}{sub eff})-luminosity diagram define a trend different from that followed by normal early-type dwarf galaxies, setting an upper limit in effective surface brightness and a lower limit in the effective radius for their luminosities. Based on the distribution of different galaxy sub-samples in the color-magnitude and ({mu}{sub eff})-luminosity diagrams, we draw some conclusions on their formation and the history of their evolution.

  16. ABOUT THE LINEARITY OF THE COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE VIRGO CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith Castelli, Analía V.; Faifer, Favio R.; González, Nélida M.; Forte, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the color-magnitude relation of Virgo Cluster early-type galaxies in order to explore its alleged nonlinearity. To this aim, we reanalyze the relation already published from data obtained within the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey of the Hubble Space Telescope and perform our own photometry and analysis of the images of 100 early-type galaxies observed as part of this survey. In addition, we compare our results with those reported in the literature from data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have found that when the brightest galaxies and untypical systems are excluded from the sample, a linear relation arises in agreement with what is observed in other groups and clusters. The central regions of the brightest galaxies also follow this relation. In addition, we notice that Virgo contains at least four compact elliptical galaxies besides the well-known object VCC 1297 (NGC 4486B). Their locations in the (μ eff )-luminosity diagram define a trend different from that followed by normal early-type dwarf galaxies, setting an upper limit in effective surface brightness and a lower limit in the effective radius for their luminosities. Based on the distribution of different galaxy sub-samples in the color-magnitude and (μ eff )-luminosity diagrams, we draw some conclusions on their formation and the history of their evolution

  17. Progenitors of type Ia supernovae in elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilfanov, M.; Bogdan, A.

    2011-01-01

    Although there is a nearly universal agreement that type Ia supernovae are associated with the thermonuclear disruption of a CO white dwarf, the exact nature of their progenitors is still unknown. The single degenerate scenario envisages a white dwarf accreting matter from a non-degenerate companion in a binary system. Nuclear energy of the accreted matter is released in the form of electromagnetic radiation or gives rise to numerous classical nova explosions prior to the supernova event. We show that combined X-ray output of supernova progenitors and statistics of classical novae predicted in the single degenerate scenario are inconsistent with X-ray and optical observations of nearby early type galaxies and galaxy bulges. White dwarfs accreting from a donor star in a binary system and detonating at the Chandrasekhar mass limit can account for no more than ∼5% of type Ia supernovae observed in old stellar populations.

  18. Chemical composition of extremely metal-poor stars in the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, W.; Arimoto, N.; Sadakane, K.; Tolstoy, E.; Battaglia, G.; Jablonka, P.; Shetrone, M.; Letarte, B.; Irwin, M.; Hill, V.; Francois, P.; Venn, K.; Primas, F.; Helmi, A.; Kaufer, A.

    2009-01-01

    Context. Individual stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies around the Milky Way Galaxy have been studied both photometrically and spectroscopically. Extremely metal-poor stars among them are very valuable because they should record the early enrichment in the Local Group. However, our understanding of these stars is very limited because detailed chemical abundance measurements are needed from high resolution spectroscopy. Aims. To constrain the formation and chemical evolution of dwarf galaxi...

  19. CORES AND THE KINEMATICS OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, Tod R.

    2012-01-01

    I have combined the Emsellem et al. ATLAS 3D rotation measures of a large sample of early-type galaxies with Hubble Space Telescope based classifications of their central structure to characterize the rotation velocities of galaxies with cores. 'Core galaxies' rotate slowly, while 'power-law galaxies' (galaxies that lack cores) rotate rapidly, confirming the analysis of Faber et al. Significantly, the amplitude of rotation sharply discriminates between the two types in the –19 > M V > –22 domain over which the two types coexist. The slow rotation in the small set of core galaxies with M V > –20, in particular, brings them into concordance with the more massive core galaxies. The ATLAS 3D 'fast-rotating' and 'slow-rotating' early-type galaxies are essentially the same as power-law and core galaxies, respectively, or the Kormendy and Bender two families of elliptical galaxies based on rotation, isophote shape, and central structure. The ATLAS 3D fast rotators do include roughly half of the core galaxies, but their rotation amplitudes are always at the lower boundary of that subset. Essentially, all core galaxies have ATLAS 3D rotation amplitudes λ R e /2 ≤0.25, while all galaxies with λ R e /2 >0.25 and figure eccentricity >0.2 lack cores. Both figure rotation and the central structure of early-type galaxies should be used together to separate systems that appear to have formed from 'wet' versus 'dry' mergers.

  20. The Unexpected Past of a Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    New Light on Cannibalism in the Local Group of Galaxies The Local Group of Galaxies consists of a few large spiral galaxies - for instance the Milky Way galaxy in which we live, and the Andromeda galaxy that is visible to the unaided eye in the northern constellation of the same name - as well as two dozen much smaller galaxies of mostly irregular shape. Whereas the larger galaxies have extended halos of very old stars, no such halos have ever been seen around the smaller ones. Now, however, Dante Minniti and Albert Zijlstra [1], working at the ESO 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT), have found a large halo of old and metal-poor stars around one of the dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. This finding is quite unexpected. It revises our understanding of star formation in these galaxies and provides important information about the past evolution of galaxies [2]. Galaxy halos The Milky Way galaxy is surrounded by a large, roughly spherical halo of old stars. The diameter is about 100,000 light years and the stars therein, known as Population II stars, are among the oldest known, with ages of 10 billion years or even more. They also differ from the younger stars nearer to the main plane of the Milky Way (in which our 4.7 billion year old Sun is located) by being very metal-poor. Many of the halo stars consist almost solely of hydrogen and helium, reflecting the composition of matter in the young Universe. This halo is important for our understanding of the processes that led to the formation of the Milky Way galaxy. It is believed that many of the halo stars and those of the same type found in globular clusters existed already before the Milky Way had fully formed. Galaxy cannibalism Many astronomers suspect that galaxies evolve and gradually grow larger and heavier by practising cannibalism on their own kind. In this picture, when two galaxies collide in space, the stars and nebulae in the smaller one will disperse and soon be taken over by the larger one, which

  1. Surprise: Dwarf Galaxy Harbors Supermassive Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The surprising discovery of a supermassive black hole in a small nearby galaxy has given astronomers a tantalizing look at how black holes and galaxies may have grown in the early history of the Universe. Finding a black hole a million times more massive than the Sun in a star-forming dwarf galaxy is a strong indication that supermassive black holes formed before the buildup of galaxies, the astronomers said. The galaxy, called Henize 2-10, 30 million light-years from Earth, has been studied for years, and is forming stars very rapidly. Irregularly shaped and about 3,000 light-years across (compared to 100,000 for our own Milky Way), it resembles what scientists think were some of the first galaxies to form in the early Universe. "This galaxy gives us important clues about a very early phase of galaxy evolution that has not been observed before," said Amy Reines, a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Virginia. Supermassive black holes lie at the cores of all "full-sized" galaxies. In the nearby Universe, there is a direct relationship -- a constant ratio -- between the masses of the black holes and that of the central "bulges" of the galaxies, leading them to conclude that the black holes and bulges affected each others' growth. Two years ago, an international team of astronomers found that black holes in young galaxies in the early Universe were more massive than this ratio would indicate. This, they said, was strong evidence that black holes developed before their surrounding galaxies. "Now, we have found a dwarf galaxy with no bulge at all, yet it has a supermassive black hole. This greatly strengthens the case for the black holes developing first, before the galaxy's bulge is formed," Reines said. Reines, along with Gregory Sivakoff and Kelsey Johnson of the University of Virginia and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), and Crystal Brogan of the NRAO, observed Henize 2-10 with the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array radio telescope and

  2. Dark Satellites and the Morphology of Dwarf Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmi, Amina; Sales, L. V.; Starkenburg, E.; Starkenburg, T. K.; Vera Ciro, C.; De Lucia, G.; Li, Y. -S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the strongest predictions of the Delta CDM cosmological model is the presence of dark satellites orbiting all types of galaxies. We focus here on the dynamical effects of such satellites on disky dwarf galaxies, and demonstrate that these encounters can be dramatic. Although mergers with

  3. Detection of Enhanced Central Mass-to-light Ratios in Low-mass Early-type Galaxies: Evidence for Black Holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechetti, Renuka; Seth, Anil; Cappellari, Michele; McDermid, Richard; den Brok, Mark; Mieske, Steffen; Strader, Jay

    2017-11-01

    We present dynamical measurements of the central mass-to-light ratio (M/L) of a sample of 27 low-mass early-type {{ATLAS}}3{{D}} galaxies. We consider all {{ATLAS}}3{{D}} galaxies with 9.7 text{}}M/L{{s}} are higher than dynamical {\\text{}}M/L{{s}} derived at larger radii and stellar population estimates of the galaxy centers in ˜80% of galaxies, with a median enhancement of ˜14% and a statistical significance of 3.3σ. We show that the enhancement in the central M/L is best described either by the presence of black holes in these galaxies or by radial initial mass function variations. Assuming a black hole model, we derive black hole masses for the sample of galaxies. In two galaxies, NGC 4458 and NGC 4660, the data suggest significantly overmassive black holes, while in most others only upper limits are obtained. We also show that the level of M/L enhancements we see in these early-type galaxy nuclei are consistent with the larger enhancements seen in ultracompact dwarf galaxies (UCDs), supporting the scenario where massive UCDs are created by stripping galaxies of these masses.

  4. Tidal Dwarf Galaxies and Missing Baryons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Bournaud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tidal dwarf galaxies form during the interaction, collision, or merger of massive spiral galaxies. They can resemble “normal” dwarf galaxies in terms of mass, size, and become dwarf satellites orbiting around their massive progenitor. They nevertheless keep some signatures from their origin, making them interesting targets for cosmological studies. In particular, they should be free from dark matter from a spheroidal halo. Flat rotation curves and high dynamical masses may then indicate the presence of an unseen component, and constrain the properties of the “missing baryons,” known to exist but not directly observed. The number of dwarf galaxies in the Universe is another cosmological problem for which it is important to ascertain if tidal dwarf galaxies formed frequently at high redshift, when the merger rate was high, and many of them survived until today. In this paper, “dark matter” is used to refer to the nonbaryonic matter, mostly located in large dark halos, that is, CDM in the standard paradigm, and “missing baryons” or “dark baryons” is used to refer to the baryons known to exist but hardly observed at redshift zero, and are a baryonic dark component that is additional to “dark matter”.

  5. CCD photometry of apparent dwarf galaxies in Fornax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Grimley, P.L.; Disney, M.J.; Cawson, M.G.M.; Kibblewhite, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Blue and red CCD surface photometry of two apparent dwarf galaxies in the Fornax cluster region is presented. Luminosity profiles are derived and their form discussed. The fainter galaxy resembles an archetypal diffuse dwarf elliptical but the brighter of the pair is either an unusual red dwarf or a background galaxy in chance juxtaposition. (author)

  6. The Stellar Initial Mass Function in Early-type Galaxies from Absorption Line Spectroscopy. I. Data and Empirical Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Conroy, Charlie

    2012-11-01

    The strength of gravity-sensitive absorption lines in the integrated light of old stellar populations is one of the few direct probes of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) outside of the Milky Way. Owing to the advent of fully depleted CCDs with little or no fringing it has recently become possible to obtain accurate measurements of these features. Here, we present spectra covering the wavelength ranges 0.35-0.55 μm and 0.72-1.03 μm for the bulge of M31 and 34 early-type galaxies from the SAURON sample, obtained with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer on Keck. The signal-to-noise ratio is >~ 200 Å-1 out to 1 μm, which is sufficient to measure gravity-sensitive features for individual galaxies and to determine how they depend on other properties of the galaxies. Combining the new data with previously obtained spectra for globular clusters in M31 and the most massive elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster, we find that the dwarf-sensitive Na I λ8183, 8195 doublet and the FeH λ9916 Wing-Ford band increase systematically with velocity dispersion, while the giant-sensitive Ca II λ8498, 8542, 8662 triplet decreases with dispersion. These trends are consistent with a varying IMF, such that galaxies with deeper potential wells have more dwarf-enriched mass functions. In a companion paper, we use a comprehensive stellar population synthesis model to demonstrate that IMF effects can be separated from age and abundance variations and quantify the IMF variation among early-type galaxies.

  7. THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM ABSORPTION LINE SPECTROSCOPY. I. DATA AND EMPIRICAL TRENDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Conroy, Charlie

    2012-01-01

    The strength of gravity-sensitive absorption lines in the integrated light of old stellar populations is one of the few direct probes of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) outside of the Milky Way. Owing to the advent of fully depleted CCDs with little or no fringing it has recently become possible to obtain accurate measurements of these features. Here, we present spectra covering the wavelength ranges 0.35-0.55 μm and 0.72-1.03 μm for the bulge of M31 and 34 early-type galaxies from the SAURON sample, obtained with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer on Keck. The signal-to-noise ratio is ∼> 200 Å –1 out to 1 μm, which is sufficient to measure gravity-sensitive features for individual galaxies and to determine how they depend on other properties of the galaxies. Combining the new data with previously obtained spectra for globular clusters in M31 and the most massive elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster, we find that the dwarf-sensitive Na I λ8183, 8195 doublet and the FeH λ9916 Wing-Ford band increase systematically with velocity dispersion, while the giant-sensitive Ca II λ8498, 8542, 8662 triplet decreases with dispersion. These trends are consistent with a varying IMF, such that galaxies with deeper potential wells have more dwarf-enriched mass functions. In a companion paper, we use a comprehensive stellar population synthesis model to demonstrate that IMF effects can be separated from age and abundance variations and quantify the IMF variation among early-type galaxies.

  8. Infrared Colors of Dwarf-Dwarf Galaxy Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Sandra; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Johnson, Kelsey; Patton, Dave; Kallivayalil, Nitya

    2015-10-01

    We request Spitzer Warm Mission IRAC Channel 1 & 2 imaging for a sample of 60 isolated dwarf galaxy pairs as a key component of a larger, multi-wavelength effort to understand the role low-mass mergers play in galaxy evolution. A systematic study of dwarf-dwarf mergers has never been done, and we wish to characterize the impact such interactions have on fueling star formation in the nearby universe. The Spitzer imaging proposed here will allow us to determine the extent to which the 3.6 and 4.5 mum bands are dominated by stellar light and investigate a) the extent to which interacting pairs show IR excess and b) whether the excess is related to the pair separation. Second, we will use this IR photometry to constrain the processes contributing to the observed color excess and scatter in each system. We will take advantage of the wealth of observations available in the Spitzer Heritage Archive for 'normal' non-interacting dwarfs by comparing the stellar populations of those dwarfs with the likely interacting dwarfs in our sample. Ultimately, we can combine the Spitzer imaging proposed here with our current, ongoing efforts to obtain groundbased optical photometry to model the star formation histories of these dwarfs and to help constrain the timescales and impact dwarf-dwarf mergers have on fueling star formation. The sensitivity and resolution offered by Spitzer are necessary to determine the dust properties of these interacting systems, and how these properties vary as a function of pair separation, mass ratio, and gas fraction.

  9. Suites of dwarfs around Nearby giant galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachentsev, Igor D.; Kaisina, Elena I.; Makarov, Dmitry I.

    2014-01-01

    The Updated Nearby Galaxy Catalog (UNGC) contains the most comprehensive summary of distances, radial velocities, and luminosities for 800 galaxies located within 11 Mpc from us. The high density of observables in the UNGC makes this sample indispensable for checking results of N-body simulations of cosmic structures on a ∼1 Mpc scale. The environment of each galaxy in the UNGC was characterized by a tidal index Θ 1 , depending on the separation and mass of the galaxy's main disturber (MD). We grouped UNGC galaxies with a common MD in suites, and ranked suite members according to their Θ 1 . All suite members with positive Θ 1 are assumed to be physical companions of the MD. About 58% of the sample are members of physical groups. The distribution of suites by the number of members, n, follows a relation N(n) ∼ n –2 . The 20 most populated suites contain 468 galaxies, i.e., 59% of the UNGC sample. The fraction of MDs among the brightest galaxies is almost 100% and drops to 50% at M B = –18 m . We discuss various properties of MDs, as well as galaxies belonging to their suites. The suite abundance practically does not depend on the morphological type, linear diameter, or hydrogen mass of the MD, the tightest correlation being with the MD dynamical mass. Dwarf galaxies around MDs exhibit well-known segregation effects: the population of the outskirts has later morphological types, richer H I contents, and higher rates of star formation activity. Nevertheless, there are some intriguing cases where dwarf spheroidal galaxies occur at the far periphery of the suites, as well as some late-type dwarfs residing close to MDs. Comparing simulation results with galaxy groups, most studies assume the Local Group is fairly typical. However, we recognize that the nearby groups significantly differ from each other and there is considerable variation in their properties. The suites of companions around the Milky Way and M31, consisting of the Local Group, do not

  10. Stars at Low Metallicity in Dwarf Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, Eline; Battaglia, Giuseppina; Cole, Andrew; Hunt, LK; Madden, S; Schneider, R

    2008-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies offer an opportunity to understand the properties of low metallicity star formation both today and at the earliest times at the, epoch of the formation of the first stars. Here we concentrate on two galaxies in the Local Group: the dwarf irregular galaxy Leo A, which has been the

  11. Genesis of dwarf galaxies in interacting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, Pierre-Alain

    1995-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of interacting and merging galaxies, and more particularly the associated stellar formation episodes. The author first reports an analysis of the central regions of these objects by studying a specific class among them, i.e. galaxies discovered by the IRAS satellite which are ultra-luminous in the far infrared. The author presents results obtained by optical and infrared imagery and spectroscopy of a complete sample of objects located in the southern hemisphere. In the second part, the author focusses on outside regions of interacting galaxies, discusses the observation of filaments formed under the influence of tidal forces acting during galactic collisions, and of condensations which are as luminous as dwarf galaxies. Then a multi-wavelength study of several neighbouring systems revealed the existence of a specific class of objects, the tidal dwarf galaxies, which are formed from stellar and gaseous material snatched from the disk of interacting galaxies. Gas-rich tidal dwarf galaxies contain, like dwarf irregular galaxies or blue compact galaxies, newly formed stars. But, in opposition with these ones, they are richer in heavy elements: this is one of the consequences of a specific mode of galactic formation based on a cosmic recycling [fr

  12. n-capture elements in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skúladóttir, Ása

    2018-06-01

    Sculptor is a well studied dwarf galaxy in the Local Group, which is dominated by an old stellar population (>10 Gyr) and is therefore an ideal system to study early chemical evolution. With high-resolution VLT/FLAMES spectra, R~20,000, we are able to get accurate abundances of several n-capture elements in ~100 stars, from both the lighter n-capture elements (Y) as well as the heavier ones, both tracers of the s-process (e.g. Ba) and the r-process (e.g. Eu). I will discuss the similarities and differences in the n-capture elements in Sculptor and the Milky Way, as well as other dwarf galaxies.

  13. Dwarf Galaxies Swimming in Tidal Tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This false-color infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows little 'dwarf galaxies' forming in the 'tails' of two larger galaxies that are colliding together. The big galaxies are at the center of the picture, while the dwarfs can be seen as red dots in the red streamers, or tidal tails. The two blue dots above the big galaxies are stars in the foreground. Galaxy mergers are common occurrences in the universe; for example, our own Milky Way galaxy will eventually smash into the nearby Andromeda galaxy. When two galaxies meet, they tend to rip each other apart, leaving a trail, called a tidal tail, of gas and dust in their wake. It is out of this galactic debris that new dwarf galaxies are born. The new Spitzer picture demonstrates that these particular dwarfs are actively forming stars. The red color indicates the presence of dust produced in star-forming regions, including organic molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These carbon-containing molecules are also found on Earth, in car exhaust and on burnt toast, among other places. Here, the molecules are being heated up by the young stars, and, as a result, shine in infrared light. This image was taken by the infrared array camera on Spitzer. It is a 4-color composite of infrared light, showing emissions from wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange), and 8.0 microns (red). Starlight has been subtracted from the orange and red channels in order to enhance the dust features.

  14. Demise of faint satellites around isolated early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changbom; Hwang, Ho Seong; Park, Hyunbae; Lee, Jong Chul

    2018-02-01

    The hierarchical galaxy formation scenario in the Cold Dark Matter cosmology with a non-vanishing cosmological constant Λ and geometrically flat space (ΛCDM) has been very successful in explaining the large-scale distribution of galaxies. However, there have been claims that ΛCDM over-predicts the number of satellite galaxies associated with massive galaxies compared with observations—the missing satellite galaxy problem1-3. Isolated groups of galaxies hosted by passively evolving massive early-type galaxies are ideal laboratories for identifying the missing physics in the current theory4-11. Here, we report—based on a deep spectroscopic survey—that isolated massive and passive early-type galaxies without any signs of recent wet mergers or accretion episodes have almost no satellite galaxies fainter than the r-band absolute magnitude of about Mr = -14. If only early-type satellites are used, the cutoff is at the somewhat brighter magnitude of about Mr = -15. Such a cutoff has not been found in other nearby satellite galaxy systems hosted by late-type galaxies or those with merger features. Various physical properties of satellites depend strongly on the host-centric distance. Our observations indicate that the satellite galaxy luminosity function is largely determined by the interaction of satellites with the environment provided by their host.

  15. Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, N.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES were first identified by Shapley, who had noticed two very diffuse collections of stars on Harvard patrol plates. Although these systems had about as many stars as a GLOBULAR CLUSTER, they were of much lower density, and hence much larger radius, and thus were considered distinct galaxies. These two, named Fornax and Sculptor after the constellations in which they ap...

  16. An Intermediate-Mass Black Hole in the Dwarf Seyfert 1 Galaxy POX 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, A.; Ho, L.; Sargent, W.

    2004-06-01

    We describe new observations of POX 52, a previously known but nearly forgotten example of a dwarf galaxy with an active nucleus. While POX 52 was originally thought to be a Seyfert 2 galaxy, the new data reveal an emission-line spectrum very similar to that of the dwarf Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4395, with clear broad components to the permitted line profiles. The host galaxy appears to be a dwarf elliptical; this is the only known case of a Seyfert nucleus in a galaxy of this type. Applying scaling relations to estimate the black hole mass from the broad Hβ linewidth and continuum luminosity, we find MBH ≈ 1.6×105 M⊙. The stellar velocity dispersion in the host galaxy is 36 km s-1, also suggestive of a black hole mass of order 105 M⊙. Further searches for AGNs in dwarf galaxies can provide crucial constraints on the demographics of black holes in the mass range below 106 M⊙.

  17. THE NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF YOUNG, EARLY M-TYPE DWARF STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansdell, Megan; Baranec, Christoph; Gaidos, Eric; Mann, Andrew W.; Lépine, Sebastien; James, David; Buccino, Andrea; Mauas, Pablo; Petrucci, Romina; Law, Nicholas M.; Riddle, Reed

    2015-01-01

    Planets orbiting within the close-in habitable zones of M dwarf stars will be exposed to elevated high-energy radiation driven by strong magnetohydrodynamic dynamos during stellar youth. Near-ultraviolet (NUV) irradiation can erode and alter the chemistry of planetary atmospheres, and a quantitative description of the evolution of NUV emission from M dwarfs is needed when modeling these effects. We investigated the NUV luminosity evolution of early M-type dwarfs by cross-correlating the Lépine and Gaidos catalog of bright M dwarfs with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) catalog of NUV (1771-2831 Å) sources. Of the 4805 sources with GALEX counterparts, 797 have NUV emission significantly (>2.5σ) in excess of an empirical basal level. We inspected these candidate active stars using visible-wavelength spectra, high-resolution adaptive optics imaging, time-series photometry, and literature searches to identify cases where the elevated NUV emission is due to unresolved background sources or stellar companions; we estimated the overall occurrence of these ''false positives'' (FPs) as ∼16%. We constructed an NUV luminosity function that accounted for FPs, detection biases of the source catalogs, and GALEX upper limits. We found the NUV luminosity function to be inconsistent with predictions from a constant star-formation rate and simplified age-activity relation defined by a two-parameter power law

  18. THE NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF YOUNG, EARLY M-TYPE DWARF STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansdell, Megan; Baranec, Christoph [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Gaidos, Eric [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Mann, Andrew W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Lépine, Sebastien [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302 (United States); James, David [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603 La Serena (Chile); Buccino, Andrea; Mauas, Pablo; Petrucci, Romina [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Riddle, Reed [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Planets orbiting within the close-in habitable zones of M dwarf stars will be exposed to elevated high-energy radiation driven by strong magnetohydrodynamic dynamos during stellar youth. Near-ultraviolet (NUV) irradiation can erode and alter the chemistry of planetary atmospheres, and a quantitative description of the evolution of NUV emission from M dwarfs is needed when modeling these effects. We investigated the NUV luminosity evolution of early M-type dwarfs by cross-correlating the Lépine and Gaidos catalog of bright M dwarfs with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) catalog of NUV (1771-2831 Å) sources. Of the 4805 sources with GALEX counterparts, 797 have NUV emission significantly (>2.5σ) in excess of an empirical basal level. We inspected these candidate active stars using visible-wavelength spectra, high-resolution adaptive optics imaging, time-series photometry, and literature searches to identify cases where the elevated NUV emission is due to unresolved background sources or stellar companions; we estimated the overall occurrence of these ''false positives'' (FPs) as ∼16%. We constructed an NUV luminosity function that accounted for FPs, detection biases of the source catalogs, and GALEX upper limits. We found the NUV luminosity function to be inconsistent with predictions from a constant star-formation rate and simplified age-activity relation defined by a two-parameter power law.

  19. Intermediate-mass black holes in dwarf galaxies out to redshift ˜ 2.4 in the Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezcua, M.; Civano, F.; Marchesi, S.; Suh, H.; Fabbiano, G.; Volonteri, M.

    2018-05-01

    We present a sample of 40 AGN in dwarf galaxies at redshifts z ≲ 2.4. The galaxies are drawn from the Chandra COSMOS-Legacy survey as having stellar masses 107 ≤ M* ≤ 3 × 109 M⊙. Most of the dwarf galaxies are star-forming. After removing the contribution from star formation to the X-ray emission, the AGN luminosities of the 40 dwarf galaxies are in the range L0.5-10keV ˜ 1039 - 1044 erg s-1. With 12 sources at z > 0.5, our sample constitutes the highest-redshift discovery of AGN in dwarf galaxies. The record-holder is cid_1192, at z = 2.39 and with L0.5-10keV ˜ 1044 erg s-1. One of the dwarf galaxies has M* = 6.6 × 107 M⊙ and is the least massive galaxy found so far to host an AGN. All the AGN are of type 2 and consistent with hosting intermediate-mass black holes (BHs) with masses ˜104 - 105 M⊙ and typical Eddington ratios >1%. We also study the evolution, corrected for completeness, of AGN fraction with stellar mass, X-ray luminosity, and redshift in dwarf galaxies out to z = 0.7. We find that the AGN fraction for 109 < M* ≤ 3 × 109 M⊙ and LX ˜ 1041 - 1042 erg s-1 is ˜0.4% for z ≤ 0.3 and that it decreases with X-ray luminosity and decreasing stellar mass. Unlike massive galaxies, the AGN fraction seems to decrease with redshift, suggesting that AGN in dwarf galaxies evolve differently than those in high-mass galaxies. Mindful of potential caveats, the results seem to favor a direct collapse formation mechanism for the seed BHs in the early Universe.

  20. Dusty Dwarfs Galaxies Occulting A Bright Background Spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwerda, Benne

    2017-08-01

    The role of dust in shaping the spectral energy distributions of low mass disk galaxies remains poorly understood. Recent results from the Herschel Space Observatory imply that dwarf galaxies contain large amounts of cool (T 20K) dust, coupled with very modest optical extinctions. These seemingly contradictory conclusions may be resolved if dwarfs harbor a variety of dust geometries, e.g., dust at larger galactocentric radii or in quiescent dark clumps. We propose HST observations of six truly occulting dwarf galaxies drawn from the Galaxy Zoo catalog of silhouetted galaxy pairs. Confirmed, true occulting dwarfs are rare as most low-mass disks in overlap are either close satellites or do not have a confirmed redshift. Dwarf occulters are the key to determining the spatial extent of dust, the small scale structure introduced by turbulence, and the prevailing dust attenuation law. The recent spectroscopic confirmation of bona-fide low mass occulting dwarfs offers an opportunity to map dust in these with HST. What is the role of dust in the SED of these dwarf disk galaxies? With shorter feedback scales, how does star-formation affect their morphology and dust composition, as revealed from their attenuation curve? The resolution of HST allows us to map the dust disks down to the fine scale structure of molecular clouds and multi-wavelength imaging maps the attenuation curve and hence dust composition in these disks. We therefore ask for 2 orbits on each of 6 dwarf galaxies in F275W, F475W, F606W, F814W and F125W to map dust from UV to NIR to constrain the attenuation curve.

  1. The evolution of early-type galaxies in distant clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanford, S.A.; Eisenhardt, P.R.; Dickinson, M.

    1998-01-01

    We present results from an optical-infrared photometric study of early-type (E+S0) galaxies in 19 galaxy clusters out to z=0.9. The galaxy sample is selected on the basis of morphologies determined from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 images and is photometrically defined in the K band in order to minimize redshift-dependent selection biases. Using new ground-based photometry in five optical and infrared bands for each cluster, we examine the evolution of the color-magnitude relation for early-type cluster galaxies, considering its slope, intercept, and color scatter around the mean relation. New multiwavelength photometry of galaxies in the Coma Cluster is used to provide a baseline sample at z∼0 with which to compare the distant clusters. The optical - IR colors of the early-type cluster galaxies become bluer with increasing redshift in a manner consistent with the passive evolution of an old stellar population formed at an early cosmic epoch. The degree of color evolution is similar for clusters at similar redshift and does not depend strongly on the optical richness or X-ray luminosity of the cluster, which suggests that the history of early-type galaxies is relatively insensitive to environment, at least above a certain density threshold. The slope of the color-magnitude relationship shows no significant change out to z=0.9, which provides evidence that it arises from a correlation between galaxy mass and metallicity, not age. Finally, the intrinsic scatter in the optical - IR colors of the galaxies is small and nearly constant with redshift, which indicates that the majority of giant, early-type galaxies in clusters share a common star formation history, with little perturbation due to uncorrelated episodes of later star formation. Taken together, our results are consistent with models in which most early-type galaxies in rich clusters are old, formed the majority of their stars at high redshift in a well-synchronized fashion, and evolved quiescently

  2. UVES Abundances of Stars in Nearby Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoy, Eline; Venn, Kim; Shetrone, Matt; Primas, Francesca; Hill, Vanessa; Kaufer, Andreas; Szeifert, Thomas

    2002-07-01

    It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a galaxy in possession of a good quantity of gas must want to form stars. It is the details of how and why that baffle us all. The simplest theories either would have this process a carefully self-regulated affair, or one that goes completely out of control and is capable of wrecking the galaxy which hosts it. Of course the majority of galaxies seem to amble along somewhere between these two extremes, and the mean properties tend to favour a quiescent self-regulated evolutionary scenario. But there area variety of observations which require us to invoke transitory ‘bursts’ of star-formation at one time or another in most galaxy types. Several nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies have clearly determined star-formation histories with apparent periods of zero star formation followed by periods of fairly active star formation. If we are able to understand what separated these bursts we would understand several important phenomena in galaxy evolution. Were these galaxies able to clear out their gas reservoir in a burst of star formation? How did this gas return? or did it? Have these galaxies receieved gas from the IGM instead? Could stars from these types of galaxy contribute significantly to the halo population in our Galaxy? To answer these questions we need to combine accurate stellar photometry and Colour-Magnitude Diagram interpretation with detailed metal abundances to combine a star-formation rate versus time with a range of element abundances with time. Different elements trace different evolutionary process (e.g., relative contributions of type I and II supernovae). We often aren't even sure of the abundance spread in these galaxies. We have collected detailed high resolution UVES spectra of four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies (Sculptor, Fornax, Leo I & Carina) to begin to answer these questions. This is a precursor study to a more complete study with FLAMES. We presented at this meeting the initial results for

  3. SURFACE BRIGHTNESS PROFILES OF DWARF GALAXIES. II. COLOR TRENDS AND MASS PROFILES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Kimberly A. [Penn State Mont Alto, 1 Campus Drive, Mont Alto, PA 17237 (United States); Hunter, Deidre A. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Elmegreen, Bruce G., E-mail: kah259@psu.edu, E-mail: dah@lowell.edu, E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In this second paper of a series, we explore the B  −  V , U  −  B , and FUV−NUV radial color trends from a multi-wavelength sample of 141 dwarf disk galaxies. Like spirals, dwarf galaxies have three types of radial surface brightness profiles: (I) single exponential throughout the observed extent (the minority), (II) down-bending (the majority), and (III) up-bending. We find that the colors of (1) Type I dwarfs generally become redder with increasing radius, unlike spirals which have a blueing trend that flattens beyond ∼1.5 disk scale lengths, (2) Type II dwarfs come in six different “flavors,” one of which mimics the “U” shape of spirals, and (3) Type III dwarfs have a stretched “S” shape where the central colors are flattish, become steeply redder toward the surface brightness break, then remain roughly constant beyond, which is similar to spiral Type III color profiles, but without the central outward bluing. Faint (−9 >  M{sub B}  > −14) Type II dwarfs tend to have continuously red or “U” shaped colors and steeper color slopes than bright (−14 >  M{sub B}  > −19) Type II dwarfs, which additionally have colors that become bluer or remain constant with increasing radius. Sm dwarfs and BCDs tend to have at least some blue and red radial color trend, respectively. Additionally, we determine stellar surface mass density (Σ) profiles and use them to show that the break in Σ generally remains in Type II dwarfs (unlike Type II spirals) but generally disappears in Type III dwarfs (unlike Type III spirals). Moreover, the break in Σ is strong, intermediate, and weak in faint dwarfs, bright dwarfs, and spirals, respectively, indicating that Σ may straighten with increasing galaxy mass. Finally, the average stellar surface mass density at the surface brightness break is roughly 1−2  M {sub ⊙} pc{sup −2} for Type II dwarfs but higher at 5.9  M {sub ⊙} pc{sup −2} or 27  M {sub ⊙} pc{sup −2} for

  4. An upper limit on the contribution of accreting white dwarfs to the type Ia supernova rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilfanov, Marat; Bogdán, Akos

    2010-02-18

    There is wide agreement that type Ia supernovae (used as standard candles for cosmology) are associated with the thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars. The nuclear runaway that leads to the explosion could start in a white dwarf gradually accumulating matter from a companion star until it reaches the Chandrasekhar limit, or could be triggered by the merger of two white dwarfs in a compact binary system. The X-ray signatures of these two possible paths are very different. Whereas no strong electromagnetic emission is expected in the merger scenario until shortly before the supernova, the white dwarf accreting material from the normal star becomes a source of copious X-rays for about 10(7) years before the explosion. This offers a means of determining which path dominates. Here we report that the observed X-ray flux from six nearby elliptical galaxies and galaxy bulges is a factor of approximately 30-50 less than predicted in the accretion scenario, based upon an estimate of the supernova rate from their K-band luminosities. We conclude that no more than about five per cent of type Ia supernovae in early-type galaxies can be produced by white dwarfs in accreting binary systems, unless their progenitors are much younger than the bulk of the stellar population in these galaxies, or explosions of sub-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs make a significant contribution to the supernova rate.

  5. DWARF GALAXY CLUSTERING AND MISSING SATELLITES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlberg, R. G.; Sullivan, M.; Le Borgne, D.

    2009-01-01

    At redshifts around 0.1 the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey Deep fields contain some 6 x 10 4 galaxies spanning the mass range from 10 5 to 10 12 M sun . We measure the stellar mass dependence of the two-point correlation using angular measurements to largely bypass the errors, approximately 0.02 in the median, of the photometric redshifts. Inverting the power-law fits with Limber's equation we find that the autocorrelation length increases from a very low 0.4 h -1 Mpc at 10 5.5 M sun to the conventional 4.5 h -1 Mpc at 10 10.5 M sun . The power-law fit to the correlation function has a slope which increases from γ ≅ 1.6 at high mass to γ ≅ 2.3 at low mass. The spatial cross-correlation of dwarf galaxies with more massive galaxies shows fairly similar trends, with a steeper radial dependence at low mass than predicted in numerical simulations of subhalos within galaxy halos. To examine the issue of 'missing satellites' we combine the cross-correlation measurements with our estimates of the low-mass galaxy number density. We find on the average there are 60 ± 20 dwarfs in subhalos with M(total)>10 7 M sun for a typical Local Group M(total)/M(stars) = 30, corresponding to M/L V ≅ 100 for a galaxy with no recent star formation. The number of dwarfs per galaxy is about a factor of 2 larger than currently found for the Milky Way. Nevertheless, the average dwarf counts are about a factor of 30 below lambda cold dark matter (LCDM) simulation results. The divergence from LCDM predictions is one of the slope of the relation, approximately dN/dln M ≅ -0.5 rather than the predicted -0.9, not sudden onset at some characteristic scale. The dwarf galaxy star formation rates span the range from passive to bursting, which suggests that there are few completely dark halos.

  6. POX 186: A Dwarf Galaxy Under Construction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, M. R.; Vacca, W. D.

    2000-12-01

    We have obtained deep images of the ultracompact ( ~ 3'') blue compact dwarf galaxy POX 186 in the F336W, F555W, and F814W filters of the Planetary Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope. We have additionally obtained a low-resolution near ultraviolet spectrum of the object with STIS and combine this with a ground-based spectrum covering the visible continuum and emission lines. Our images confirm this object to be highly compact, with a maximum projected size of only ~ 240 pc, making it one of the smallest galaxies known. We also confirm that the outer regions of the galaxy consist of an evolved stellar population, ruling out earlier speculations that POX 186 is a protogalaxy. However, the PC images reveal the galaxy to have a highly irregular morphology, with a pronounced tidal arm on its western side. This morphology is strongly suggestive of a recent collision between two smaller components which has in turn triggered the central starburst. The F336W image also shows that the material in this tidal stream is actively star forming. Given the very small ( ~ 100 pc) sizes of the colliding components, POX 186 may be a dwarf galaxy in the early stages of formation, which would be consistent with current ``downsizing'' models of galaxy formation in which the least massive objects are the last to form. This work is supported by NASA and the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  7. HOW THE FIRST STARS SHAPED THE FAINTEST GAS-DOMINATED DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbeke, R.; Vandenbroucke, B.; Rijcke, S. De

    2015-01-01

    Low-mass dwarf galaxies are very sensitive test-beds for theories of cosmic structure formation since their weak gravitational fields allow the effects of the relevant physical processes to clearly stand out. Up to now, no unified account has existed of the sometimes seemingly conflicting properties of the faintest isolated dwarfs in and around the Local Group, such as Leo T and the recently discovered Leo P and Pisces A systems. Using new numerical simulations, we show that this serious challenge to our understanding of galaxy formation can be effectively resolved by taking into account the regulating influence of the ultraviolet radiation of the first population of stars on a dwarf’s star formation rate while otherwise staying within the standard cosmological paradigm for structure formation. These simulations produce faint, gas-dominated, star-forming dwarf galaxies that lie on the baryonic Tully–Fisher relation and that successfully reproduce a broad range of chemical, kinematical, and structural observables of real late-type dwarf galaxies. Furthermore, we stress the importance of obtaining properties of simulated galaxies in a manner as close as possible to the typically employed observational techniques

  8. HOW THE FIRST STARS SHAPED THE FAINTEST GAS-DOMINATED DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeke, R.; Vandenbroucke, B.; Rijcke, S. De, E-mail: robbert.verbeke@UGent.be [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S9, 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2015-12-20

    Low-mass dwarf galaxies are very sensitive test-beds for theories of cosmic structure formation since their weak gravitational fields allow the effects of the relevant physical processes to clearly stand out. Up to now, no unified account has existed of the sometimes seemingly conflicting properties of the faintest isolated dwarfs in and around the Local Group, such as Leo T and the recently discovered Leo P and Pisces A systems. Using new numerical simulations, we show that this serious challenge to our understanding of galaxy formation can be effectively resolved by taking into account the regulating influence of the ultraviolet radiation of the first population of stars on a dwarf’s star formation rate while otherwise staying within the standard cosmological paradigm for structure formation. These simulations produce faint, gas-dominated, star-forming dwarf galaxies that lie on the baryonic Tully–Fisher relation and that successfully reproduce a broad range of chemical, kinematical, and structural observables of real late-type dwarf galaxies. Furthermore, we stress the importance of obtaining properties of simulated galaxies in a manner as close as possible to the typically employed observational techniques.

  9. Constraining the Stellar Populations and Star Formation Histories of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies with SED Fits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janowiecki, Steven [International Center for Radio Astronomy Research, M468, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia); Salzer, John J.; Zee, Liese van [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Rosenberg, Jessica L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Skillman, Evan, E-mail: steven.janowiecki@uwa.edu.au [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, SE Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States)

    2017-02-10

    We discuss and test possible evolutionary connections between blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs) and other types of dwarf galaxies. BCDs provide ideal laboratories to study intense star formation episodes in low-mass dwarf galaxies, and have sometimes been considered a short-lived evolutionary stage between types of dwarf galaxies. To test these connections, we consider a sample of BCDs as well as a comparison sample of nearby galaxies from the Local Volume Legacy (LVL) survey for context. We fit the multi-wavelength spectral energy distributions (SED, far-ultra-violet to far-infrared) of each galaxy with a grid of theoretical models to determine their stellar masses and star formation properties. We compare our results for BCDs with the LVL galaxies to put BCDs in the context of normal galaxy evolution. The SED fits demonstrate that the star formation events currently underway in BCDs are at the extreme of the continuum of normal dwarf galaxies, both in terms of the relative mass involved and in the relative increase over previous star formation rates. Today’s BCDs are distinctive objects in a state of extreme star formation that is rapidly transforming them. This study also suggests ways to identify former BCDs whose star formation episodes have since faded.

  10. IC 3475: A stripped dwarf galaxy in the Virgo cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigroux, L.; Thuan, T.X.; Vader, J.P.; Lachieze-Rey, M.

    1986-01-01

    We have obtained B and R CCD and H I observations of the Virgo dwarf galaxy IC 3475. The galaxy is remarkable for its very large diameter (approx.10 kpc for a Virgo distance modulus of 31) and is comparable in size to the large dwarfs discussed by Sandage and Binggeli. Its light profile is best fitted by an exponential law, characteristic of a dwarf Magellanic irregular galaxy. It possesses a central bar with many knots and inclusions concentrated toward the center of the galaxy. These knots and inclusions have the same color (B-Rapprox.1.5) as the rest of the galaxy and are best explained as intermediate-age (1--7 x 10 9 yr) star clusters such as those found in the Magellanic Clouds. Despite possessing the photometric structure of a dwarf Magellanic irregular galaxy, IC 3475 contains less than 5.3 x 10 6 M/sub sun/ of neutral hydrogen. Its hydrogen mass to blue light ratio is less than 0.01, approx.60 times less than the mean value observed for dwarf Magellanic irregulars. It is most likely that IC 3475, which is located near the core of the Virgo cluster, is a stripped dwarf galaxy. The very large size of the galaxy (its diameter is approx.1.8 times larger than that of ''normal'' dwarfs) appears to rule out evolution of IC 3475 from a normal dwarf irregular or to a normal dwarf elliptical

  11. Irregular Dwarf Galaxy IC 1613

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet image (left) and visual image (right) of the irregular dwarf galaxy IC 1613. Low surface brightness galaxies, such as IC 1613, are more easily detected in the ultraviolet because of the low background levels compared to visual wavelengths.

  12. Evidence for dwarf stars at D of about 100 kiloparsecs near the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Andrew; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Richstone, Douglas; Flynn, Chris

    1992-01-01

    A method is presented for detecting individual, metal-poor, dwarf stars at distances less than about 150 kpc - a method specifically designed to filter out stars from among the much more numerous faint background field galaxies on the basis of broad-band colors. This technique is applied to two fields at high Galactic latitude, for which there are deep CCD data in four bands ranging from 3600 to 9000 A. The field in Sextans probably contains more than about five dwarf stars with BJ not greater than 25.5. These are consistent with being at a common distance about 100 kpc and lie about 1.7 deg from the newly discovered dwarf galaxy in Sextans whose distance is about 85 +/- 10 kpc. The stars lie near the major axis of the galaxy and are near or beyond the tidal radius. The second field, toward the south Galactic pole, may contain up to about five extra-Galactic stars, but these show no evidence for being at a common distance. Possible applications of this type technique are discussed, and it is shown that even very low surface brightness star clusters or dwarf galaxies may be detected at distances less than about 1 Mpc.

  13. Evolution of Late-type Galaxies in a Cluster Environment: Effects of High-speed Multiple Encounters with Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeong-Sun; Park, Changbom; Banerjee, Arunima; Hwang, Ho Seong

    2018-04-01

    Late-type galaxies falling into a cluster would evolve being influenced by the interactions with both the cluster and the nearby cluster member galaxies. Most numerical studies, however, tend to focus on the effects of the former with little work done on those of the latter. We thus perform a numerical study on the evolution of a late-type galaxy interacting with neighboring early-type galaxies at high speed using hydrodynamic simulations. Based on the information obtained from the Coma cluster, we set up the simulations for the case where a Milky Way–like late-type galaxy experiences six consecutive collisions with twice as massive early-type galaxies having hot gas in their halos at the closest approach distances of 15–65 h ‑1 kpc at the relative velocities of 1500–1600 km s‑1. Our simulations show that the evolution of the late-type galaxy can be significantly affected by the accumulated effects of the high-speed multiple collisions with the early-type galaxies, such as on cold gas content and star formation activity of the late-type galaxy, particularly through the hydrodynamic interactions between cold disk and hot gas halos. We find that the late-type galaxy can lose most of its cold gas after the six collisions and have more star formation activity during the collisions. By comparing our simulation results with those of galaxy–cluster interactions, we claim that the role of the galaxy–galaxy interactions on the evolution of late-type galaxies in clusters could be comparable with that of the galaxy–cluster interactions, depending on the dynamical history.

  14. Chemical composition of extremely metal-poor stars in the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aoki, W.; Arimoto, N.; Sadakane, K.; Tolstoy, E.; Battaglia, G.; Jablonka, P.; Shetrone, M.; Letarte, B.; Irwin, M.; Hill, V.; Francois, P.; Venn, K.; Primas, F.; Helmi, A.; Kaufer, A.; Tafelmeyer, M.; Szeifert, T.; Babusiaux, C.

    Context. Individual stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies around the Milky Way Galaxy have been studied both photometrically and spectroscopically. Extremely metal-poor stars among them are very valuable because they should record the early enrichment in the Local Group. However, our understanding of

  15. Exploring simulated early star formation in the context of the ultrafaint dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlies, Lauren; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Wise, John H.

    2018-04-01

    Ultrafaint dwarf galaxies (UFDs) are typically assumed to have simple, stellar populations with star formation ending at reionization. Yet as the observations of these galaxies continue to improve, their star formation histories (SFHs) are revealed to be more complicated than previously thought. In this paper, we study how star formation, chemical enrichment, and mixing proceed in small, dark matter haloes at early times using a high-resolution, cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation. The goals are to inform the future use of analytic models and to explore observable properties of the simulated haloes in the context of UFD data. Specifically, we look at analytic approaches that might inform metal enrichment within and beyond small galaxies in the early Universe. We find that simple assumptions for modelling the extent of supernova-driven winds agree with the simulation on average, whereas inhomogeneous mixing and gas flows have a large effect on the spread in simulated stellar metallicities. In the context of the UFDs, this work demonstrates that simulations can form haloes with a complex SFH and a large spread in the metallicity distribution function within a few hundred Myr in the early Universe. In particular, bursty and continuous star formation are seen in the simulation and both scenarios have been argued from the data. Spreads in the simulated metallicities, however, remain too narrow and too metal-rich when compared to the UFDs. Future work is needed to help reduce these discrepancies and advance our interpretation of the data.

  16. THE ACS FORNAX CLUSTER SURVEY. X. COLOR GRADIENTS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengze; Peng, Eric W.; Jordan, Andres; Ferrarese, Laura; Blakeslee, John P.; Cote, Patrick; Mei, Simona

    2011-01-01

    We use the largest homogeneous sample of globular clusters (GCs), drawn from the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey (ACSVCS) and ACS Fornax Cluster Survey (ACSFCS), to investigate the color gradients of GC systems in 76 early-type galaxies. We find that most GC systems possess an obvious negative gradient in (g-z) color with radius (bluer outward), which is consistent with previous work. For GC systems displaying color bimodality, both metal-rich and metal-poor GC subpopulations present shallower but significant color gradients on average, and the mean color gradients of these two subpopulations are of roughly equal strength. The field of view of ACS mainly restricts us to measuring the inner gradients of the studied GC systems. These gradients, however, can introduce an aperture bias when measuring the mean colors of GC subpopulations from relatively narrow central pointings. Inferred corrections to previous work imply a reduced significance for the relation between the mean color of metal-poor GCs and their host galaxy luminosity. The GC color gradients also show a dependence with host galaxy mass where the gradients are weakest at the ends of the mass spectrum-in massive galaxies and dwarf galaxies-and strongest in galaxies of intermediate mass, around a stellar mass of M * ∼10 10 M sun . We also measure color gradients for field stars in the host galaxies. We find that GC color gradients are systematically steeper than field star color gradients, but the shape of the gradient-mass relation is the same for both. If gradients are caused by rapid dissipational collapse and weakened by merging, these color gradients support a picture where the inner GC systems of most intermediate-mass and massive galaxies formed early and rapidly with the most massive galaxies having experienced greater merging. The lack of strong gradients in the GC systems of dwarfs, which probably have not experienced many recent major mergers, suggests that low-mass halos were inefficient at retaining

  17. CHEMODYNAMICS OF COMPACT STELLAR SYSTEMS IN NGC 5128: HOW SIMILAR ARE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS, ULTRA-COMPACT DWARFS, AND DWARF GALAXIES?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Matthew A.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Harris, Gretchen L.; Harris, William E.; Kissler-Patig, Markus; Hilker, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Velocity dispersion measurements are presented for several of the most luminous globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 5128 (Centaurus A) derived from high-resolution spectra obtained with the UVES echelle spectrograph on the 8.2 m ESO/Very Large Telescope. The measurements are made utilizing a penalized pixel-fitting method that parametrically recovers line-of-sight velocity dispersions. Combining the measured velocity dispersions with surface photometry and structural parameter data from the Hubble Space Telescope enables both dynamical masses and mass-to-light ratios to be derived. The properties of these massive stellar systems are similar to those of both massive GCs contained within the Local Group and nuclear star clusters and ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs). The fundamental plane relations of these clusters are investigated in order to fill the apparent gap between the relations of Local Group GCs and more massive early-type galaxies. It is found that the properties of these massive stellar systems match those of nuclear clusters in dwarf elliptical galaxies and UCDs better than those of Local Group GCs, and that all objects share similarly old (∼>8 Gyr) ages, suggesting a possible link between the formation and evolution of nuclear star clusters in dwarf elliptical galaxies (dE,Ns), UCDs, and massive GCs. We find a very steep correlation between dynamical mass-to-light ratio and dynamical mass of the form Υ V dyn ∝ M dyn 0.24±0.02 above M dyn ∼ 2x10 6 M sun . Formation scenarios are investigated with a chemical abundance analysis using absorption-line strengths calibrated to the Lick/IDS index system. The results lend support to two scenarios contained within a single general formation scheme. Old, massive, super-solar [α/Fe] systems are formed on short (∼ 13 -10 15 M sun potential wells of massive galaxies and galaxy clusters.

  18. ON THE SIZE AND COMOVING MASS DENSITY EVOLUTION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Wel, Arjen; Bell, Eric F.; Van den Bosch, Frank C.; Gallazzi, Anna; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2009-01-01

    We present a simple, empirically motivated model that simultaneously predicts the evolution of the mean size and the comoving mass density of massive (>10 11 M sun ) early-type galaxies from z = 2 to the present. First, we demonstrate that some size evolution of the population can be expected simply due to the continuous emergence of early-type galaxies. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data reveal that in the present-day universe more compact early-type galaxies with a given dynamical mass have older stellar populations. This implies that with increasing look-back time, the more extended galaxies will be more and more absent from the population. In contrast, at a given stellar velocity dispersion, SDSS data show that there is no relation between size and age, which implies that the velocity dispersion can be used to estimate the epoch at which galaxies stopped forming stars, turning into early-type galaxies. Based on this, we define an empirically motivated, redshift-dependent velocity dispersion threshold above which galaxies do not form stars at a significant rate, which we associate with the transformation into early-type galaxies. Applying this 'formation' criterion to a large sample of nearby early-type galaxies, we predict the redshift evolution in the size distribution and the comoving mass density. The resulting evolution in the mean size is roughly half of the observed evolution. Then we include a prescription for the merger histories of galaxies between the 'formation' redshift and the present, based on cosmological simulations of the assembly of dark matter halos. Such mergers after the transformation into an early-type galaxy are presumably dissipationless ('dry'), where the increase in size is expected to be approximately proportional to the increase in mass. This model successfully reproduces the observed evolution since z ∼ 2 in the mean size and in the comoving mass density of early-type galaxies with mass M > 10 11 M sun . We conclude that

  19. Implications of the dwarfs spheroidal galaxy mass-metallicity relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of the mass-metallicity relation among dwarf spheroidal galaxies are discussed in terms of a model which assumes that the internal chemical evolution of the dwarf spheroidals was promoted by supernova activity. The model can be used to explain the observed dwarf spheroidal mass-metallicity relation assuming the present mass of these systems M sub s is proportional to their initial masses M as M sub s varies according to a power-law index of exp 7/4. It is inferred from the power-law dependence of M on the proto-cloud radius that the most massive dwarf spheroids were formed from the densest clouds. The observed slope of the mass-metallicity relation for dwarf spheroidal galaxies is found to be significantly different from theoretical estimates of this slope for elliptical galaxies. It is suggested that the difference may imply that spheroidal dwarfs and elliptical galaxies had different formation histories, confirming Kormendy's (1985) observations of differences in the brightness and luminosity trends. 54 references

  20. CHEMODYNAMIC EVOLUTION OF DWARF GALAXIES IN TIDAL FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, David; Martel, Hugo [Département de physique, de génie physique et d’optique, Université Laval, Québec, QC, G1V 0A6 (Canada); Romeo, Alessandro B., E-mail: david-john.williamson.1@ulaval.ca [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    The mass–metallicity relation shows that the galaxies with the lowest mass have the lowest metallicities. As most dwarf galaxies are in group environments, interaction effects such as tides could contribute to this trend. We perform a series of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of dwarf galaxies in external tidal fields to examine the effects of tides on their metallicities and metallicity gradients. In our simulated galaxies, gravitational instabilities drive gas inwards and produce centralized star formation and a significant metallicity gradient. Strong tides can contribute to these instabilities, but their primary effect is to strip the outer low-metallicity gas, producing a truncated gas disk with a large metallicity. This suggests that the effect of tides on the mass–metallicity relation is to move dwarf galaxies to higher metallicities.

  1. THE FORNAX DWARF GALAXY AS A REMNANT OF RECENT DWARF-DWARF MERGING IN THE LOCAL GROUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yozin, C.; Bekki, K.

    2012-01-01

    We present results from the first numerical analysis to support the hypothesis, first proposed in Coleman et al., that the Fornax dwarf galaxy was formed from the minor merging of two dwarfs about 2 Gyr ago. Using orbits for the Fornax dwarf that are consistent with the latest proper motion measurements, our dynamical evolution models show that the observed asymmetric shell-like substructures can be formed from the remnant of a smaller dwarf during minor merging. These models also predict the formation of diffuse stellar streams. We discuss how these stellar substructures depend on model parameters of dwarf-dwarf merging, and how the intermediate-age subpopulations found in the vicinity of these substructures may be formed from gas accretion in past merger events. We also suggest that one of Fornax's globular clusters originates from a merged dwarf companion, and demonstrate where as yet undetected tidal streams or H I gas formed from the dwarf merging may be found in the outer halo of the Galaxy.

  2. Sulphur, zinc and carbon in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skúladóttir, Ása

    2016-01-01

    The Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy is a Milky Way satellite with predominantly old stellar population, and therefore the ideal target to study early chemical evolution. The chemical abundances of photospheres of stars reveal the composition of their birth environment; studying stars of different

  3. Evolution of dwarf galaxies in the Centaurus A group

    OpenAIRE

    Makarova, L.; Makarov, D.

    2007-01-01

    We consider star formation properties of dwarf galaxies in Cen A group observed within our HST/ACS projects number 9771 and 10235. We model color-magnitude diagrams of the galaxies under consideration and measure star formation rate and metallicity dependence on time. We study environmental dependence of the galaxy evolution and probable origin of the dwarf galaxies in the group.

  4. Sulphur, zinc and carbon in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Skúladóttir, Ása

    2016-01-01

    The Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy is a Milky Way satellite with predominantly old stellar population, and therefore the ideal target to study early chemical evolution. The chemical abundances of photospheres of stars reveal the composition of their birth environment; studying stars of different ages, therefore, provides insight into the chemical enrichment history of the galaxy in which they dwell. High-resolution spectra of 100 stars were used to further explore the chemical enrichment hi...

  5. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. VII. THE NGC 4214 STARBURST AND THE EFFECTS OF STAR FORMATION HISTORY ON DWARF MORPHOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Seth, Anil C.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 optical observations obtained as part of the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury as well as early release Wide Field Camera 3 ultraviolet and infrared observations of the nearby dwarf starbursting galaxy NGC 4214. Our data provide a detailed example of how covering such a broad range in wavelength provides a powerful tool for constraining the physical properties of stellar populations. The deepest data reach the ancient red clump at M F814W ∼ - 0.2. All of the optical data reach the main-sequence turnoff for stars younger than ∼300 Myr and the blue He-burning sequence for stars younger than 500 Myr. The full color-magnitude diagram (CMD) fitting analysis shows that all three fields in our data set are consistent with ∼75% of the stellar mass being older than 8 Gyr, in spite of showing a wide range in star formation rates at present. Thus, our results suggest that the scale length of NGC 4214 has remained relatively constant for many gigayears. As previously noted by others, we also find the galaxy has recently ramped up production consistent with its bright UV luminosity and its population of UV-bright massive stars. In the central field we find UV point sources with F336W magnitudes as bright as -9.9. These are as bright as stars with masses of at least 52-56 M sun and ages near 4 Myr in stellar evolution models. Assuming a standard initial mass function, our CMD is well fitted by an increase in star formation rate beginning 100 Myr ago. The stellar populations of this late-type dwarf are compared with those of NGC 404, an early-type dwarf that is also the most massive galaxy in its local environment. The late-type dwarf appears to have a similar high fraction of ancient stars, suggesting that these dominant galaxies may form at early epochs even if they have low total mass and very different present-day morphologies.

  6. Angular momentum of dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurapati, Sushma; Chengalur, Jayaram N.; Pustilnik, Simon; Kamphuis, Peter

    2018-05-01

    Mass and specific angular momentum are two fundamental physical parameters of galaxies. We present measurements of the baryonic mass and specific angular momentum of 11 void dwarf galaxies derived from neutral hydrogen (HI) synthesis data. Rotation curves were measured using 3D and 2D tilted ring fitting routines, and the derived curves generally overlap within the error bars, except in the central regions where, as expected, the 3D routines give steeper curves. The specific angular momentum of void dwarfs is found to be high compared to an extrapolation of the trends seen for higher mass bulge-less spirals, but comparable to that of other dwarf irregular galaxies that lie outside of voids. As such, our data show no evidence for a dependence of the specific angular momentum on the large scale environment. Combining our data with the data from the literature, we find a baryonic threshold of ˜109.1 M⊙ for this increase in specific angular momentum. Interestingly, this threshold is very similar to the mass threshold below which the galaxy discs start to become systematically thicker. This provides qualitative support to the suggestion that the thickening of the discs, as well as the increase in specific angular momentum, are both results of a common physical mechanism, such as feedback from star formation. Quantitatively, however, the amount of star formation observed in our dwarfs appears insufficient to produce the observed increase in specific angular momentum. It is hence likely that other processes, such as cold accretion of high angular momentum gas, also play a role in increasing the specific angular momentum.

  7. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars in dwarf galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Salvadori, Stefania; Skuladottir, Asa; Tolstoy, Eline

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the frequency and origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in Local Group dwarf galaxies by means of a statistical, data-calibrated cosmological model for the hierarchical build-up of the Milky Way and its dwarf satellites. The model self-consistently explains the variation with dwarf galaxy luminosity of the observed: i) frequency and [Fe/H] range of CEMP stars; ii) metallicity distribution functions; iii) star formation histories. We show that if primordial faint sup...

  8. The ACS LCID project. IX. Imprints of the early universe in the radial variation of the star formation history of dwarf galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Monelli, Matteo; Aparicio, Antonio; Gallart, Carme

    2013-01-01

    Based on Hubble Space Telescope observations from the Local Cosmology from Isolated Dwarfs project, we present the star formation histories, as a function of galactocentric radius, of four isolated Local Group dwarf galaxies: two dSph galaxies, Cetus and Tucana, and two transition galaxies (dTrs), LGS-3 and Phoenix. The oldest stellar populations of the dSphs and dTrs are, within the uncertainties, coeval (∼13 Gyr) at all galactocentric radii. We find that there are no significative differences between the four galaxies in the fundamental properties (such as the normalized star formation rate or age-metallicity relation) of their outer regions (radii greater than four exponential scale lengths); at large radii, these galaxies consist exclusively of old (≳ 10.5 Gyr) metal-poor stars. The duration of star formation in the inner regions varies from galaxy to galaxy, and the extended central star formation in the dTrs produces the dichotomy between dSph and dTr galaxy types. The dTr galaxies show prominent radial stellar population gradients: The centers of these galaxies host young (≲ 1 Gyr) populations, while the age of the last formation event increases smoothly with increasing radius. This contrasts with the two dSph galaxies. Tucana shows a similar, but milder, gradient, but no gradient in age is detected Cetus. For the three galaxies with significant stellar population gradients, the exponential scale length decreases with time. These results are in agreement with outside-in scenarios of dwarf galaxy evolution, in which a quenching of the star formation toward the center occurs as the galaxy runs out of gas in the outskirts.

  9. The ACS LCID project. IX. Imprints of the early universe in the radial variation of the star formation history of dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Monelli, Matteo; Aparicio, Antonio; Gallart, Carme, E-mail: shidalgo@iac.es, E-mail: monelli@iac.es, E-mail: aparicio@iac.es, E-mail: carme@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); and others

    2013-12-01

    Based on Hubble Space Telescope observations from the Local Cosmology from Isolated Dwarfs project, we present the star formation histories, as a function of galactocentric radius, of four isolated Local Group dwarf galaxies: two dSph galaxies, Cetus and Tucana, and two transition galaxies (dTrs), LGS-3 and Phoenix. The oldest stellar populations of the dSphs and dTrs are, within the uncertainties, coeval (∼13 Gyr) at all galactocentric radii. We find that there are no significative differences between the four galaxies in the fundamental properties (such as the normalized star formation rate or age-metallicity relation) of their outer regions (radii greater than four exponential scale lengths); at large radii, these galaxies consist exclusively of old (≳ 10.5 Gyr) metal-poor stars. The duration of star formation in the inner regions varies from galaxy to galaxy, and the extended central star formation in the dTrs produces the dichotomy between dSph and dTr galaxy types. The dTr galaxies show prominent radial stellar population gradients: The centers of these galaxies host young (≲ 1 Gyr) populations, while the age of the last formation event increases smoothly with increasing radius. This contrasts with the two dSph galaxies. Tucana shows a similar, but milder, gradient, but no gradient in age is detected Cetus. For the three galaxies with significant stellar population gradients, the exponential scale length decreases with time. These results are in agreement with outside-in scenarios of dwarf galaxy evolution, in which a quenching of the star formation toward the center occurs as the galaxy runs out of gas in the outskirts.

  10. Formation of ultra-compact dwarf galaxies from supergiant molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Morgan; Bekki, Kenji

    2018-05-01

    The origin of ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) is not yet clear. One possible formation path of UCDs is the threshing of a nucleated elliptical dwarf galaxy (dE, N), however, it remains unclear how such massive nuclear stellar systems were formed in dwarf galaxies. To better establish the early history of UCDs, we investigate the formation of UCD progenitor clusters from super giant molecular clouds (SGMCs), using hydrodynamical simulations. In this study we focus on SGMCs with masses 107 - 108 M_{\\odot } that can form massive star clusters that display physical properties similar to UCDs. We find that the clusters have extended star formation histories with two phases, producing multiple distinct stellar populations, and that the star formation rate is dependent on the feedback effects of SNe and AGB stars. The later generations of stars formed in these clusters are more compact, leading to a clearly nested structure, and these stars will be more He-rich than those of the first generation, leading to a slight colour gradient. The simulated clusters demonstrate scaling relations between Reff and M and σv and M consistent with those observed in UCDs and strongly consistent with those of the original SGMC. We discuss whether SGMCs such as these can be formed through merging of self-gravitating molecular clouds in galaxies at high-z.

  11. NGC 5291: Implications for the Formation of Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malphrus, Benjamin K.; Simpson, Caroline E.; Gottesman, S. T.; Hawarden, Timothy G.

    1997-01-01

    the material associated with the system and that this entire complex contains several proto- or young dwarf irregular galaxies in various stages of development. We are therefore witnessing the early evolution of a number of genuinely young galaxies. Given the evident importance of the NGC 5291 system as a 'nursery' for young galaxies, careful modeling is required if we are to understand this remarkable galaxy.

  12. An Intermediate-Mass Black Hole in the Dwarf Galaxy Pox 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron

    Do dwarf elliptical and dwarf spiral galaxies contain central black holes with masses below 106 solar masses? Beyond the Local Group dynamical searches for black holes in this mass range are very difficult but the detection of accretion-powered nuclear activity could be used to infer the presence of a black hole. The nearby dwarf spiral galaxy NGC 4395 hosts a faint Seyfert 1 nucleus with a likely black hole mass in the range 104-105 solar masses and for more than a decade it has been the only known example of a Seyfert 1 nucleus in a dwarf galaxy. I will present new Keck spectra of the dwarf galaxy POX 52 which demonstrate that it has a Seyfert 1 spectrum nearly identical to that of NGC 4395. Its velocity dispersion is 37 km/s suggesting a possible black hole mass of order 105 solar masses. I will discuss the prospects for systematic searches for nuclear activity in dwarf galaxies and the implications for black hole demographics.

  13. A multiparametric analysis of the Einstein sample of early-type galaxies. 1: Luminosity and ISM parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskridge, Paul B.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Kim, Dong-Woo

    1995-01-01

    We have conducted bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis of data measuring the luminosity and interstellar medium of the Einstein sample of early-type galaxies (presented by Fabbiano, Kim, & Trinchieri 1992). We find a strong nonlinear correlation between L(sub B) and L(sub X), with a power-law slope of 1.8 +/- 0.1, steepening to 2.0 +/- if we do not consider the Local Group dwarf galaxies M32 and NGC 205. Considering only galaxies with log L(sub X) less than or equal to 40.5, we instead find a slope of 1.0 +/- 0.2 (with or without the Local Group dwarfs). Although E and S0 galaxies have consistent slopes for their L(sub B)-L(sub X) relationships, the mean values of the distribution functions of both L(sub X) and L(sub X)/L(sub B) for the S0 galaxies are lower than those for the E galaxies at the 2.8 sigma and 3.5 sigma levels, respectively. We find clear evidence for a correlation between L(sub X) and the X-ray color C(sub 21), defined by Kim, Fabbiano, & Trinchieri (1992b), which indicates that X-ray luminosity is correlated with the spectral shape below 1 keV in the sense that low-L(sub X) systems have relatively large contributions from a soft component compared with high-L(sub X) systems. We find evidence from our analysis of the 12 micron IRAS data for our sample that our S0 sample has excess 12 micron emission compared with the E sample, scaled by their optical luminosities. This may be due to emission from dust heated in star-forming regions in S0 disks. This interpretation is reinforced by the existence of a strong L(sub 12)-L(sub 100) correlation for our S0 sample that is not found for the E galaxies, and by an analysis of optical-IR colors. We find steep slopes for power-law relationships between radio luminosity and optical, X-ray, and far-IR (FIR) properties. This last point argues that the presence of an FIR-emitting interstellar medium (ISM) in early-type galaxies is coupled to their ability to generate nonthermal radio continuum, as

  14. An actively accreting massive black hole in the dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reines, Amy E; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Johnson, Kelsey E; Brogan, Crystal L

    2011-02-03

    Supermassive black holes are now thought to lie at the heart of every giant galaxy with a spheroidal component, including our own Milky Way. The birth and growth of the first 'seed' black holes in the earlier Universe, however, is observationally unconstrained and we are only beginning to piece together a scenario for their subsequent evolution. Here we report that the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10 (refs 5 and 6) contains a compact radio source at the dynamical centre of the galaxy that is spatially coincident with a hard X-ray source. From these observations, we conclude that Henize 2-10 harbours an actively accreting central black hole with a mass of approximately one million solar masses. This nearby dwarf galaxy, simultaneously hosting a massive black hole and an extreme burst of star formation, is analogous in many ways to galaxies in the infant Universe during the early stages of black-hole growth and galaxy mass assembly. Our results confirm that nearby star-forming dwarf galaxies can indeed form massive black holes, and that by implication so can their primordial counterparts. Moreover, the lack of a substantial spheroidal component in Henize 2-10 indicates that supermassive black-hole growth may precede the build-up of galaxy spheroids.

  15. DWARF GALAXY STARBURST STATISTICS IN THE LOCAL VOLUME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Janice C.; Kennicutt, Robert C.; Akiyama, Sanae; Funes, S. J. Jose G.; Sakai, Shoko

    2009-01-01

    An unresolved question in galaxy evolution is whether the star formation histories (SFHs) of low-mass systems are preferentially dominated by starbursts or modes that are more quiescent and continuous. Here, we quantify the prevalence of global starbursts in dwarf galaxies at the present epoch and infer their characteristic durations and amplitudes. The analysis is based on the Hα component of the 11 Mpc Hα UV Galaxy Survey (11HUGS), which provides Hα and Galaxy Evolution Explorer UV imaging for an approximately volume-limited sample of ∼ 300 star-forming galaxies within 11 Mpc. We first examine the completeness properties of the sample, and then directly tally the number of bursting dwarfs and compute the fraction of star formation that is concentrated in such systems. To identify starbursting dwarfs, we use an integrated Hα equivalent width (EW) threshold of 100 A, which corresponds to a stellar birthrate of ∼ 2.5, and also explore the use of empirical starburst definitions based on σ thresholds of the observed logarithmic EW distributions. Our results are robust to the exact choice of the threshold, and are consistent with a picture where dwarfs that are currently experiencing massive global bursts are just the ∼ 6% tip of a low-mass galaxy iceberg. Moreover, bursts are only responsible for about a quarter of the total star formation in the overall dwarf population, so the majority of stars in low-mass systems are not formed in this mode today. Spirals and irregulars devoid of Hα emission are rare, indicating that the complete cessation of star formation generally does not occur in such galaxies and is not characteristic of the interburst state, at least for the more luminous systems with M B < -15. The starburst statistics presented here directly constrain the duty cycle and the average burst amplitude under the simplest assumptions where all dwarf irregulars share a common SFH and undergo similar burst cycles with equal probability. Uncertainties

  16. Young stellar populations in early-type galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Louisa A.; Raychaudhury, Somak; Kabán, Ata

    2007-02-01

    We use a purely data-driven rectified factor analysis to identify early-type galaxies with recent star formation in Data Release 4 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Spectroscopic Catalogue. We compare the spectra and environment of these galaxies with those of `normal' early-type galaxies, and a sample of independently selected E+A galaxies. We calculate the projected local galaxy surface density from the nearest five and 10 neighbours (Σ5 and Σ10) for each galaxy in our sample, and find that the dependence on projected local density, of the properties of E+A galaxies, is not significantly different from that of early-type galaxies with young stellar populations, dropping off rapidly towards denser environments, and flattening off at densities ~10 per cent of the stellar mass in these galaxies. This, together with the similarity of the environments in which this `E+F' population and the E+A galaxy sample are found, suggests that E+F galaxies used to be E+A galaxies, but have evolved by a further ~ one to a few Gyr. Our rectified factor analysis is sensitive enough to identify this hidden population, which allows us to study the global and intrinsic properties of early-type galaxies created in major mergers or interactions, and compare them with those early-types which have had the bulk of their stars in place since a much earlier epoch.

  17. Quantitative spectroscopy of blue supergiants in metal-poor dwarf galaxy NGC 3109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosek, Matthew W. Jr.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Bresolin, Fabio; Urbaneja, Miguel A.; Przybilla, Norbert; Evans, Christopher J.; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Carraro, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the low-resolution (∼4.5 Å) spectra of 12 late-B and early-A blue supergiants (BSGs) in the metal-poor dwarf galaxy NGC 3109. A modified method of analysis is presented which does not require use of the Balmer jump as an independent T eff indicator, as used in previous studies. We determine stellar effective temperatures, gravities, metallicities, reddening, and luminosities, and combine our sample with the early-B-type BSGs analyzed by Evans et al. to derive the distance to NGC 3109 using the flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relation (FGLR). Using primarily Fe-group elements, we find an average metallicity of [ Z-bar ] = –0.67 ± 0.13, and no evidence of a metallicity gradient in the galaxy. Our metallicities are higher than those found by Evans et al. based on the oxygen abundances of early-B supergiants ([ Z-bar ] = –0.93 ± 0.07), suggesting a low α/Fe ratio for the galaxy. We adjust the position of NGC 3109 on the BSG-determined galaxy mass-metallicity relation accordingly and compare it to metallicity studies of H II regions in star-forming galaxies. We derive an FGLR distance modulus of 25.55 ± 0.09 (1.27 Mpc) that compares well with Cepheid and tip of the red giant branch distances. The FGLR itself is consistent with those found in other galaxies, demonstrating the reliability of this method as a measure of extragalactic distances.

  18. Quantitative spectroscopy of blue supergiants in metal-poor dwarf galaxy NGC 3109

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosek, Matthew W. Jr.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Bresolin, Fabio [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Urbaneja, Miguel A.; Przybilla, Norbert [Institute for Astro and Particle Physics, A-6020 Innsbruck University (Austria); Evans, Christopher J. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Carraro, Giovanni, E-mail: mwhosek@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: kud@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: bresolin@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: Miguel.Urbaneja-Perez@uibk.ac.at, E-mail: Norbert.Przybilla@uibk.ac.at, E-mail: chris.evans@stfc.ac.uk, E-mail: pietrzyn@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: wgieren@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: gcarraro@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, La Silla Paranal Observatory (Chile)

    2014-04-20

    We present a quantitative analysis of the low-resolution (∼4.5 Å) spectra of 12 late-B and early-A blue supergiants (BSGs) in the metal-poor dwarf galaxy NGC 3109. A modified method of analysis is presented which does not require use of the Balmer jump as an independent T {sub eff} indicator, as used in previous studies. We determine stellar effective temperatures, gravities, metallicities, reddening, and luminosities, and combine our sample with the early-B-type BSGs analyzed by Evans et al. to derive the distance to NGC 3109 using the flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relation (FGLR). Using primarily Fe-group elements, we find an average metallicity of [ Z-bar ] = –0.67 ± 0.13, and no evidence of a metallicity gradient in the galaxy. Our metallicities are higher than those found by Evans et al. based on the oxygen abundances of early-B supergiants ([ Z-bar ] = –0.93 ± 0.07), suggesting a low α/Fe ratio for the galaxy. We adjust the position of NGC 3109 on the BSG-determined galaxy mass-metallicity relation accordingly and compare it to metallicity studies of H II regions in star-forming galaxies. We derive an FGLR distance modulus of 25.55 ± 0.09 (1.27 Mpc) that compares well with Cepheid and tip of the red giant branch distances. The FGLR itself is consistent with those found in other galaxies, demonstrating the reliability of this method as a measure of extragalactic distances.

  19. Dark matter searches with Cherenkov telescopes: nearby dwarf galaxies or local galaxy clusters?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Conde, Miguel A. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Cannoni, Mirco; Gómez, Mario E. [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Zandanel, Fabio; Prada, Francisco, E-mail: masc@stanford.edu, E-mail: mirco.cannoni@dfa.uhu.es, E-mail: fabio@iaa.es, E-mail: mario.gomez@dfa.uhu.es, E-mail: fprada@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), E-18008, Granada (Spain)

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we compare dwarf galaxies and galaxy clusters in order to elucidate which object class is the best target for gamma-ray DM searches with imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). We have built a mixed dwarfs+clusters sample containing some of the most promising nearby dwarf galaxies (Draco, Ursa Minor, Wilman 1 and Segue 1) and local galaxy clusters (Perseus, Coma, Ophiuchus, Virgo, Fornax, NGC 5813 and NGC 5846), and then compute their DM annihilation flux profiles by making use of the latest modeling of their DM density profiles. We also include in our calculations the effect of DM substructure. Willman 1 appears as the best candidate in the sample. However, its mass modeling is still rather uncertain, so probably other candidates with less uncertainties and quite similar fluxes, namely Ursa Minor and Segue 1, might be better options. As for galaxy clusters, Virgo represents the one with the highest flux. However, its large spatial extension can be a serious handicap for IACT observations and posterior data analysis. Yet, other local galaxy cluster candidates with more moderate emission regions, such as Perseus, may represent good alternatives. After comparing dwarfs and clusters, we found that the former exhibit annihilation flux profiles that, at the center, are roughly one order of magnitude higher than those of clusters, although galaxy clusters can yield similar, or even higher, integrated fluxes for the whole object once substructure is taken into account. Even when any of these objects are strictly point-like according to the properties of their annihilation signals, we conclude that dwarf galaxies are best suited for observational strategies based on the search of point-like sources, while galaxy clusters represent best targets for analyses that can deal with rather extended emissions. Finally, we study the detection prospects for present and future IACTs in the framework of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model. We

  20. Dark Matter Searches with Cherenkov Telescopes: Nearby Dwarf Galaxies or Local Galaxy Clusters?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Conde, Miguel A.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /IAC, La Laguna /Laguna U., Tenerife; Cannoni, Mirco; /Huelva U.; Zandanel, Fabio; /IAA, Granada; Gomez, Mario E.; /Huelva U.; Prada, Francisco; /IAA, Granada

    2012-06-06

    In this paper, we compare dwarf galaxies and galaxy clusters in order to elucidate which object class is the best target for gamma-ray DM searches with imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). We have built a mixed dwarfs+clusters sample containing some of the most promising nearby dwarf galaxies (Draco, Ursa Minor, Wilman 1 and Segue 1) and local galaxy clusters (Perseus, Coma, Ophiuchus, Virgo, Fornax, NGC 5813 and NGC 5846), and then compute their DM annihilation flux profiles by making use of the latest modeling of their DM density profiles. We also include in our calculations the effect of DM substructure. Willman 1 appears as the best candidate in the sample. However, its mass modeling is still rather uncertain, so probably other candidates with less uncertainties and quite similar fluxes, namely Ursa Minor and Segue 1, might be better options. As for galaxy clusters, Virgo represents the one with the highest flux. However, its large spatial extension can be a serious handicap for IACT observations and posterior data analysis. Yet, other local galaxy cluster candidates with more moderate emission regions, such as Perseus, may represent good alternatives. After comparing dwarfs and clusters, we found that the former exhibit annihilation flux profiles that, at the center, are roughly one order of magnitude higher than those of clusters, although galaxy clusters can yield similar, or even higher, integrated fluxes for the whole object once substructure is taken into account. Even when any of these objects are strictly point-like according to the properties of their annihilation signals, we conclude that dwarf galaxies are best suited for observational strategies based on the search of point-like sources, while galaxy clusters represent best targets for analyses that can deal with rather extended emissions. Finally, we study the detection prospects for present and future IACTs in the framework of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model. We

  1. Impact of Lyman alpha pressure on metal-poor dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimm, Taysun; Haehnelt, Martin; Blaizot, Jérémy; Katz, Harley; Michel-Dansac, Léo; Garel, Thibault; Rosdahl, Joakim; Teyssier, Romain

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the origin of strong galactic outflows and the suppression of star formation in dwarf galaxies is a key problem in galaxy formation. Using a set of radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of an isolated dwarf galaxy embedded in a 1010 M⊙ halo, we show that the momentum transferred from resonantly scattered Lyman-α (Lyα) photons is an important source of stellar feedback which can shape the evolution of galaxies. We find that Lyα feedback suppresses star formation by a factor of two in metal-poor galaxies by regulating the dynamics of star-forming clouds before the onset of supernova explosions (SNe). This is possible because each Lyα photon resonantly scatters and imparts ˜10-300 times greater momentum than in the single scattering limit. Consequently, the number of star clusters predicted in the simulations is reduced by a factor of ˜5, compared to the model without the early feedback. More importantly, we find that galactic outflows become weaker in the presence of strong Lyα radiation feedback, as star formation and associated SNe become less bursty. We also examine a model in which radiation field is arbitrarily enhanced by a factor of up to 10, and reach the same conclusion. The typical mass-loading factors in our metal-poor dwarf system are estimated to be ˜5-10 near the mid-plane, while it is reduced to ˜1 at larger radii. Finally, we find that the escape of ionizing radiation and hence the reionization history of the Universe is unlikely to be strongly affected by Lyα feedback.

  2. R-process enrichment from a single event in an ancient dwarf galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Alexander P; Frebel, Anna; Chiti, Anirudh; Simon, Joshua D

    2016-03-31

    Elements heavier than zinc are synthesized through the rapid (r) and slow (s) neutron-capture processes. The main site of production of the r-process elements (such as europium) has been debated for nearly 60 years. Initial studies of trends in chemical abundances in old Milky Way halo stars suggested that these elements are produced continually, in sites such as core-collapse supernovae. But evidence from the local Universe favours the idea that r-process production occurs mainly during rare events, such as neutron star mergers. The appearance of a plateau of europium abundance in some dwarf spheroidal galaxies has been suggested as evidence for rare r-process enrichment in the early Universe, but only under the assumption that no gas accretes into those dwarf galaxies; gas accretion favours continual r-process enrichment in these systems. Furthermore, the universal r-process pattern has not been cleanly identified in dwarf spheroidals. The smaller, chemically simpler, and more ancient ultrafaint dwarf galaxies assembled shortly after the first stars formed, and are ideal systems with which to study nucleosynthesis events such as the r-process. Reticulum II is one such galaxy. The abundances of non-neutron-capture elements in this galaxy (and others like it) are similar to those in other old stars. Here, we report that seven of the nine brightest stars in Reticulum II, observed with high-resolution spectroscopy, show strong enhancements in heavy neutron-capture elements, with abundances that follow the universal r-process pattern beyond barium. The enhancement seen in this 'r-process galaxy' is two to three orders of magnitude higher than that detected in any other ultrafaint dwarf galaxy. This implies that a single, rare event produced the r-process material in Reticulum II. The r-process yield and event rate are incompatible with the source being ordinary core-collapse supernovae, but consistent with other possible sources, such as neutron star mergers.

  3. Structure and stellar content of dwarf elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, N.

    1983-01-01

    A small number of low-luminosity elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster and around other prominent galaxies have been studied using photoelectric and photographic techniques. The color-magnitude relation for ellipticals now extends from M/sub v/ = -23 to -15, and is linear over that range with a slope of 0.10 in U-V per visual magnitude. Galaxies which are known to contain a large number of young stars (''extreme cases'') are from 0.10 to 0.20 mag bluer in U-V than the lower envelope of the dwarf elliptical color-magnitude relation. This difference can be accounted for if the dwarf elliptical galaxies are young, but do not contain the massive blue stars that probably exist in the young populations of the extreme cases. Surface brightness profiles of the dwarfs have revealed some interesting distinctions between themselves and the brighter E's. In general, their intensity profiles are shallower than those of the bright E's, meaning they are of lower mean density. These mean densities are also a function of the total luminosity. Unlike the bright E's, the surface brightnesses near the centers are also a strong function of the total luminosity. The presence of a nucleation, which can be as much as 2 mag brighter than what the outer envelope would predict, does not appear to depend on any other measurable property of the galaxies. The variation in surface brightness profiles at the same total luminosity is suggestive that the low-luminosity dwarfs formed in more than one way. The flattening distribution of the dwarfs is like that of the bright ellipticals, and is also similar to the flattening distribution of field irregular galaxies

  4. THE ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF THE FRACTION OF 'UNCONVENTIONAL' GALAXIES: RED LATE TYPES AND BLUE EARLY TYPES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xinfa; He Jizhou; Wu Ping; Ding Yingping

    2009-01-01

    From the Main galaxy sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6, we construct two volume-limited samples with the luminosity -20.0 ≤ M r ≤ -18.5 and -22.40 ≤ M r ≤ -20.16, respectively, to explore the environmental dependence of the fraction of 'unconventional' galaxies: red late types and blue early types. We use the density estimator within the distance to the fifth nearest neighbor, and construct two samples at both extremes of density and perform comparative studies between them for each volume-limited sample. Results of two volume-limited samples show the same conclusions: the fraction of red late-type galaxies rises considerably with increasing local density, and that one of the blue early-type galaxies declines substantially with increasing local density. In addition, we note that bluer galaxies preferentially are late types, but the red galaxies are not dominated by early types.

  5. Gas, Stars, and Star Formation in Alfalfa Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and Hi components of 229 low H i mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H i masses ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M* obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M* approximately less than10(exp 8)M(sub 0) is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper Hi mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M* than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H i depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that Hi disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  6. Chemical evolution of Local Group dwarf galaxies in a cosmological context - I. A new modelling approach and its application to the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Donatella; Starkenburg, Else

    2013-09-01

    We present a new approach for chemical evolution modelling, specifically designed to investigate the chemical properties of dwarf galaxies in a full cosmological framework. In particular, we focus on the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy, for which a wealth of observational data exists, as a test bed for our model. We select four candidate Sculptor-like galaxies from the satellite galaxy catalogue generated by implementation of a version of the Munich semi-analytic model for galaxy formation on the level 2 Aquarius dark matter simulations and use the mass assembly and star formation histories predicted for these four systems as an input for the chemical evolution code. We follow explicitly the evolution of several chemical elements, both in the cold gas out of which the stars form and in the hot medium residing in the halo. We take into account in detail the lifetimes of stars of different initial masses, the distribution of the delay times for Type Ia supernova explosions and the dependence of the stellar yields from the initial metallicity of the stars. We allow large fractions of metals to be deposited into the hot phase, either directly as stars die or through reheated gas flows powered by supernova explosions. We find that, in order to reproduce both the observed metallicity distribution function and the observed abundance ratios of long-lived stars of Sculptor, large fractions of the reheated metals must never re-enter regions of active star formation. With this prescription, all the four analogues to the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy extracted from the simulated satellites catalogue on the basis of luminosity and stellar population ages are found to reasonably match the detailed chemical properties of real Sculptor stars. However, all model galaxies do severely underestimate the fraction of very metal poor stars observed in Sculptor. Our analysis thus sets further constraints on the semi-analytical models and, at large, on possible metal enrichment

  7. Chemical Abundances of Metal-poor stars in Dwarf Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venn, Kim A.; Jablonka, Pascale; Hill, Vanessa; Starkenburg, Else; Lemasle, Bertrand; Shetrone, Matthew; Irwin, Mike; Norris, John; Yong, David; Gilmore, Gerry; Salvadori, Stephania; Skuladottir, Asa; Tolstoy, Eline; Bragaglia, A.; Arnaboldi, M.; Rejkuba, M.; Romano, D.

    2016-01-01

    Stars in low-mass dwarf galaxies show a larger range in their chemical properties than those in the Milky Way halo. The slower star formation efficiency make dwarf galaxies ideal systems for testing nucleosynthetic yields. Not only are alpha-poor stars found at lower metallicities, and a higher

  8. MASSIVE GALAXIES ARE LARGER IN DENSE ENVIRONMENTS: ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF MASS–SIZE RELATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yongmin; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo, E-mail: yymx2@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: mim@astro.snu.ac.kr [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-01

    Under the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological models, massive galaxies are expected to be larger in denser environments through frequent hierarchical mergers with other galaxies. Yet, observational studies of low-redshift early-type galaxies have shown no such trend, standing as a puzzle to solve during the past decade. We analyzed 73,116 early-type galaxies at 0.1 ≤  z  < 0.15, adopting a robust nonparametric size measurement technique and extending the analysis to many massive galaxies. We find for the first time that local early-type galaxies heavier than 10{sup 11.2} M {sub ⊙} show a clear environmental dependence in mass–size relation, in such a way that galaxies are as much as 20%–40% larger in the densest environments than in underdense environments. Splitting the sample into the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and non-BCGs does not affect the result. This result agrees with the ΛCDM cosmological simulations and suggests that mergers played a significant role in the growth of massive galaxies in dense environments as expected in theory.

  9. Initial mass function for early-type stars in starburst galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, K.; Anderson, K.S.

    1987-01-01

    The IMF slope of early-type stars in starburst galaxies is investigated using IUE observations and a technique that utilizes mass-linewidth relations for early-type stars. Fourteen low-resolution IUE spectra of eight starburst galaxies and three H II region galaxies are used to obtain line-strength ratios Si IV(1400 A)/C IV(1550 A). These are compared to model line ratios, and indicate that the average IMF slope for OB stars in these intense star-formation regions is appreciably flatter than that of the solar neighborhood. 46 references

  10. HERSCHEL SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF LITTLE THINGS DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigan, Phil; Young, Lisa; Cormier, Diane; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Madden, Suzanne; Hunter, Deidre; Brinks, Elias; Elmegreen, Bruce; Schruba, Andreas; Heesen, Volker

    2016-01-01

    We present far-infrared (FIR) spectral line observations of five galaxies from the Little Things sample: DDO 69, DDO 70, DDO 75, DDO 155, and WLM. While most studies of dwarfs focus on bright systems or starbursts due to observational constraints, our data extend the observed parameter space into the regime of low surface brightness dwarf galaxies with low metallicities and moderate star formation rates. Our targets were observed with Herschel at the [C ii] 158 μm, [O i] 63 μm, [O iii] 88 μm, and [N ii] 122 μm emission lines using the PACS Spectrometer. These high-resolution maps allow us for the first time to study the FIR properties of these systems on the scales of larger star-forming complexes. The spatial resolution in our maps, in combination with star formation tracers, allows us to identify separate photodissociation regions (PDRs) in some of the regions we observed. Our systems have widespread [C ii] emission that is bright relative to continuum, averaging near 0.5% of the total infrared (TIR) budget—higher than in solar-metallicity galaxies of other types. [N ii] is weak, suggesting that the [C ii] emission in our galaxies comes mostly from PDRs instead of the diffuse ionized interstellar medium (ISM). These systems exhibit efficient cooling at low dust temperatures, as shown by ([O i]+[C ii])/TIR in relation to 60 μm/100 μm, and low [O i]/[C ii] ratios which indicate that [C ii] is the dominant coolant of the ISM. We observe [O iii]/[C ii] ratios in our galaxies that are lower than those published for other dwarfs, but similar to levels noted in spirals

  11. HERSCHEL SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF LITTLE THINGS DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cigan, Phil; Young, Lisa [Physics Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Cormier, Diane [Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Lebouteiller, Vianney; Madden, Suzanne [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM—CNRS—Université Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hunter, Deidre [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Brinks, Elias [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Elmegreen, Bruce [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Hts., NY 10598 (United States); Schruba, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Heesen, Volker, E-mail: pcigan@alumni.nmt.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Collaboration: LITTLE THINGS Team

    2016-01-15

    We present far-infrared (FIR) spectral line observations of five galaxies from the Little Things sample: DDO 69, DDO 70, DDO 75, DDO 155, and WLM. While most studies of dwarfs focus on bright systems or starbursts due to observational constraints, our data extend the observed parameter space into the regime of low surface brightness dwarf galaxies with low metallicities and moderate star formation rates. Our targets were observed with Herschel at the [C ii] 158 μm, [O i] 63 μm, [O iii] 88 μm, and [N ii] 122 μm emission lines using the PACS Spectrometer. These high-resolution maps allow us for the first time to study the FIR properties of these systems on the scales of larger star-forming complexes. The spatial resolution in our maps, in combination with star formation tracers, allows us to identify separate photodissociation regions (PDRs) in some of the regions we observed. Our systems have widespread [C ii] emission that is bright relative to continuum, averaging near 0.5% of the total infrared (TIR) budget—higher than in solar-metallicity galaxies of other types. [N ii] is weak, suggesting that the [C ii] emission in our galaxies comes mostly from PDRs instead of the diffuse ionized interstellar medium (ISM). These systems exhibit efficient cooling at low dust temperatures, as shown by ([O i]+[C ii])/TIR in relation to 60 μm/100 μm, and low [O i]/[C ii] ratios which indicate that [C ii] is the dominant coolant of the ISM. We observe [O iii]/[C ii] ratios in our galaxies that are lower than those published for other dwarfs, but similar to levels noted in spirals.

  12. STRUCTURAL EVOLUTION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES TO z = 2.5 IN CANDELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yu-Yen; Van der Wel, Arjen; Rix, Hans-Walter [Max-Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Holden, Bradford; Faber, S. M.; Mozena, Mark; Guo Yicheng; Kocevski, Dale D. [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); McGrath, Elizabeth J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colby College, Waterville, ME 04901 (United States); Wuyts, Stijn [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, Giessenbachstr., D-85741 Garching (Germany); Haeussler, Boris [Schools of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Barden, Marco [Institute of Astro- and Particle Physics, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Huang, Kuang-Han [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Galametz, Audrey [INAF-Osservatorio di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio (Italy); Dekel, Avishai [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Hathi, Nimish P., E-mail: chang@mpia.de [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA (United States); and others

    2013-08-20

    Projected axis ratio measurements of 880 early-type galaxies at redshifts 1 < z < 2.5 selected from CANDELS are used to reconstruct and model their intrinsic shapes. The sample is selected on the basis of multiple rest-frame colors to reflect low star-formation activity. We demonstrate that these galaxies as an ensemble are dust-poor and transparent and therefore likely have smooth light profiles, similar to visually classified early-type galaxies. Similar to their present-day counterparts, the z > 1 early-type galaxies show a variety of intrinsic shapes; even at a fixed mass, the projected axis ratio distributions cannot be explained by the random projection of a set of galaxies with very similar intrinsic shapes. However, a two-population model for the intrinsic shapes, consisting of a triaxial, fairly round population, combined with a flat (c/a {approx} 0.3) oblate population, adequately describes the projected axis ratio distributions of both present-day and z > 1 early-type galaxies. We find that the proportion of oblate versus triaxial galaxies depends both on the galaxies' stellar mass, and-at a given mass-on redshift. For present-day and z < 1 early-type galaxies the oblate fraction strongly depends on galaxy mass. At z > 1, this trend is much weaker over the mass range explored here (10{sup 10} < M{sub *}/M{sub Sun} < 10{sup 11}), because the oblate fraction among massive (M{sub *} {approx} 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }) was much higher in the past: 0.59 {+-} 0.10 at z > 1, compared to 0.20 {+-} 0.02 at z {approx} 0.1. When combined with previous findings that the number density and sizes of early-type galaxies substantially increase over the same redshift range, this can be explained by the gradual emergence of merger-produced elliptical galaxies, at the expense of the destruction of pre-existing disks that were common among their high-redshift progenitors. In contrast, the oblate fraction among low-mass early-type galaxies (log (M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) < 10

  13. Formation of massive clouds and dwarf galaxies during tidal encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Michele; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Thomasson, Magnus; Elmegreen, Debra M.

    1993-01-01

    Gerola et al. (1983) propose that isolated dwarf galaxies can form during galaxy interactions. As evidence of this process, Mirabel et al. (1991) find 10(exp 9) solar mass clouds and star formation complexes at the outer ends of the tidal arms in the Antennae and Superantennae galaxies. We describe observations of HI clouds with mass greater than 10(exp 8) solar mass in the interacting galaxy pair IC 2163/NGC 2207. This pair is important because we believe it represents an early stage in the formation of giant clouds during an encounter. We use a gravitational instability model to explain why the observed clouds are so massive and discuss a two-dimensional N-body simulation of an encounter that produces giant clouds.

  14. Early Gas Stripping as the Origin of the Darkest Galaxies in the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Lucio; /Zurich, ETH /Zurich U.; Kazantzidis, Stelios; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /KICP, Chicago; Mastropietro, Chiara; /Munich U. Observ.; Wadsley, James; /McMaster U.

    2007-02-28

    The known galaxies most dominated by dark matter (Draco, Ursa Minor and Andromeda IX) are satellites of the Milky Way and the Andromeda galaxies. They are members of a class of faint galaxies, devoid of gas, known as dwarf spheroidals, and have by far the highest ratio of dark to luminous matter. None of the models proposed to unravel their origin can simultaneously explain their exceptional dark matter content and their proximity to a much larger galaxy. Here we report simulations showing that the progenitors of these galaxies were probably gas-dominated dwarf galaxies that became satellites of a larger galaxy earlier than the other dwarf spheroidals. We find that a combination of tidal shocks and ram pressure swept away the entire gas content of such progenitors about ten billion years ago because heating by the cosmic ultraviolet background kept the gas loosely bound: a tiny stellar component embedded in a relatively massive dark halo survived until today. All luminous galaxies should be surrounded by a few extremely dark-matter-dominated dwarf spheroidal satellites, and these should have the shortest orbital periods among dwarf spheroidals because they were accreted early.

  15. Dwarf galaxies : Important clues to galaxy formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E

    2003-01-01

    The smallest dwarf galaxies are the most straight forward objects in which to study star formation processes on a galactic scale. They are typically single cell star forming entities, and as small potentials in orbit around a much larger one they are unlikely to accrete much (if any) extraneous

  16. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY XVI: THE ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF DWARF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM GLOBULAR CLUSTER SATELLITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toloba, Elisa; Guhathakurta, Puragra [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Li, Biao; Peng, Eric W.; Zhang, Hongxin [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; Gwyn, Stephen [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Emsellem, Eric [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Boselli, Alessandro [Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille-LAM, Université d’Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR 7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Cuillandre, Jean-Charles [CEA/IRFU/SAP, Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CNRS/INSU, Université Paris Diderot, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Jordan, Andres [Instituto de Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Liu, Chengze, E-mail: toloba@ucolick.org [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-05-01

    We analyze the kinematics of six Virgo cluster dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) from their globular cluster (GC) systems. We present new Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy for three of them and re-analyze the data found in the literature for the remaining three. We use two independent methods to estimate the rotation amplitude ( V {sub rot}) and velocity dispersion ( σ {sub GC}) of the GC systems and evaluate their statistical significance by simulating non-rotating GC systems with the same number of GC satellites and velocity uncertainties. Our measured kinematics agree with the published values for the three galaxies from the literature and, in all cases, some rotation is measured. However, our simulations show that the null hypothesis of being non-rotating GC systems cannot be ruled out. In the case of VCC 1861, the measured V {sub rot} and the simulations indicate that it is not rotating. In the case of VCC 1528, the null hypothesis can be marginally ruled out, and thus it might be rotating although further confirmation is needed. In our analysis, we find that, in general, the measured V {sub rot} tends to be overestimated and the measured σ {sub GC} tends to be underestimated by amounts that depend on the intrinsic V {sub rot}/ σ {sub GC}, the number of observed GCs ( N {sub GC}), and the velocity uncertainties. The bias is negligible when N {sub GC} ≳ 20. In those cases where a large N {sub GC} is not available, it is imperative to obtain data with small velocity uncertainties. For instance, errors of ≤2 km s{sup −1} lead to V {sub rot} < 10 km s{sup −1} for a system that is intrinsically not rotating.

  17. GAS, STARS, AND STAR FORMATION IN ALFALFA DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Brinchmann, Jarle [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Stierwalt, Sabrina [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Neff, Susan G., E-mail: shan@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: jarle@strw.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: sabrina@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: susan.g.neff@nasa.gov [NASA GSFC, Code 665, Observational Cosmology Lab, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and H I components of 229 low H I mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H I masses <10{sup 7.7} M{sub Sun} and H I line widths <80 km s{sup -1}. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M{sub *}) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M{sub *} obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M{sub *} {approx}< 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper H I mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M{sub *} than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H I depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that H I disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  18. GAS, STARS, AND STAR FORMATION IN ALFALFA DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and H I components of 229 low H I mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H I masses 7.7 M ☉ and H I line widths –1 . Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M * ) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M * obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M * ∼ 8 M ☉ is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper H I mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M * than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H I depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that H I disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  19. Nebular metallicities in two isolated local void dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholls, David C.; Jerjen, Helmut; Dopita, Michael A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Rd., Weston ACT 2611 (Australia); Basurah, Hassan, E-mail: David.Nicholls@anu.edu.au [Astronomy Department, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-01-01

    Isolated dwarf galaxies, especially those situated in voids, may provide insight into primordial conditions in the universe and the physical processes that govern star formation in undisturbed stellar systems. The metallicity of H II regions in such galaxies is key to investigating this possibility. From the SIGRID sample of isolated dwarf galaxies, we have identified two exceptionally isolated objects, the Local Void galaxy [KK98]246 (ESO 461-G036) and another somewhat larger dwarf irregular on the edge of the Local Void, MCG-01-41-006 (HIPASS J1609-04). We report our measurements of the nebular metallicities in these objects. The first object has a single low luminosity H II region, while the second is in a more vigorous star forming phase with several bright H II regions. We find that the metallicities in both galaxies are typical for galaxies of this size, and do not indicate the presence of any primordial gas, despite (for [KK98]246) the known surrounding large reservoir of neutral hydrogen.

  20. Nebular Metallicities in Two Isolated Local Void Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, David C.; Jerjen, Helmut; Dopita, Michael A.; Basurah, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Isolated dwarf galaxies, especially those situated in voids, may provide insight into primordial conditions in the universe and the physical processes that govern star formation in undisturbed stellar systems. The metallicity of H II regions in such galaxies is key to investigating this possibility. From the SIGRID sample of isolated dwarf galaxies, we have identified two exceptionally isolated objects, the Local Void galaxy [KK98]246 (ESO 461-G036) and another somewhat larger dwarf irregular on the edge of the Local Void, MCG-01-41-006 (HIPASS J1609-04). We report our measurements of the nebular metallicities in these objects. The first object has a single low luminosity H II region, while the second is in a more vigorous star forming phase with several bright H II regions. We find that the metallicities in both galaxies are typical for galaxies of this size, and do not indicate the presence of any primordial gas, despite (for [KK98]246) the known surrounding large reservoir of neutral hydrogen.

  1. DWARF GALAXIES AND THE COSMIC WEB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benítez-Llambay, Alejandro; Abadi, Mario G.; Navarro, Julio F.; Gottlöber, Stefan; Steinmetz, Matthias; Yepes, Gustavo; Hoffman, Yehuda

    2013-01-01

    We use a cosmological simulation of the formation of the Local Group of Galaxies to identify a mechanism that enables the removal of baryons from low-mass halos without appealing to feedback or reionization. As the Local Group forms, matter bound to it develops a network of filaments and pancakes. This moving web of gas and dark matter drifts and sweeps a large volume, overtaking many halos in the process. The dark matter content of these halos is unaffected but their gas can be efficiently removed by ram pressure. The loss of gas is especially pronounced in low-mass halos due to their lower binding energy and has a dramatic effect on the star formation history of affected systems. This 'cosmic web stripping' may help to explain the scarcity of dwarf galaxies compared with the numerous low-mass halos expected in ΛCDM and the large diversity of star formation histories and morphologies characteristic of faint galaxies. Although our results are based on a single high-resolution simulation, it is likely that the hydrodynamical interaction of dwarf galaxies with the cosmic web is a crucial ingredient so far missing from galaxy formation models.

  2. Dwarf Galaxies and the Cosmic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Llambay, Alejandro; Navarro, Julio F.; Abadi, Mario G.; Gottlöber, Stefan; Yepes, Gustavo; Hoffman, Yehuda; Steinmetz, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    We use a cosmological simulation of the formation of the Local Group of Galaxies to identify a mechanism that enables the removal of baryons from low-mass halos without appealing to feedback or reionization. As the Local Group forms, matter bound to it develops a network of filaments and pancakes. This moving web of gas and dark matter drifts and sweeps a large volume, overtaking many halos in the process. The dark matter content of these halos is unaffected but their gas can be efficiently removed by ram pressure. The loss of gas is especially pronounced in low-mass halos due to their lower binding energy and has a dramatic effect on the star formation history of affected systems. This "cosmic web stripping" may help to explain the scarcity of dwarf galaxies compared with the numerous low-mass halos expected in ΛCDM and the large diversity of star formation histories and morphologies characteristic of faint galaxies. Although our results are based on a single high-resolution simulation, it is likely that the hydrodynamical interaction of dwarf galaxies with the cosmic web is a crucial ingredient so far missing from galaxy formation models.

  3. DWARF GALAXIES AND THE COSMIC WEB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez-Llambay, Alejandro; Abadi, Mario G. [Observatorio Astronomico, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba X5000BGR (Argentina); Navarro, Julio F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Gottloeber, Stefan; Steinmetz, Matthias [Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Yepes, Gustavo [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Hoffman, Yehuda [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2013-02-01

    We use a cosmological simulation of the formation of the Local Group of Galaxies to identify a mechanism that enables the removal of baryons from low-mass halos without appealing to feedback or reionization. As the Local Group forms, matter bound to it develops a network of filaments and pancakes. This moving web of gas and dark matter drifts and sweeps a large volume, overtaking many halos in the process. The dark matter content of these halos is unaffected but their gas can be efficiently removed by ram pressure. The loss of gas is especially pronounced in low-mass halos due to their lower binding energy and has a dramatic effect on the star formation history of affected systems. This 'cosmic web stripping' may help to explain the scarcity of dwarf galaxies compared with the numerous low-mass halos expected in {Lambda}CDM and the large diversity of star formation histories and morphologies characteristic of faint galaxies. Although our results are based on a single high-resolution simulation, it is likely that the hydrodynamical interaction of dwarf galaxies with the cosmic web is a crucial ingredient so far missing from galaxy formation models.

  4. STAR FORMATION SIGNATURES IN OPTICALLY QUIESCENT EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, Samir; Rich, R. Michael

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, an argument has been made that a high fraction of early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the local universe experience low levels (∼ sun yr -1 ) of star formation (SF) that causes strong excess in UV flux, yet leaves the optical colors red. Many of these studies were based on Galaxy Evolution Explorer imaging of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies (z ∼ 0.1), and were thus limited by its 5'' FWHM. Poor UV resolution left other possibilities for UV excess open, such as the old populations or an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Here, we study high-resolution far-ultraviolet HST/ACS images of optically quiescent early-type galaxies with strong UV excess. The new images show that three-quarters of these moderately massive (∼5 x 10 10 M sun ) ETGs shows clear evidence of extended SF, usually in form of wide or concentric UV rings, and in some cases, striking spiral arms. SDSS spectra probably miss these features due to small fiber size. UV-excess ETGs have on average less dust and larger UV sizes (D > 40 kpc) than other green-valley galaxies, which argues for an external origin for the gas that is driving the SF. Thus, most of these galaxies appear 'rejuvenated' (e.g., through minor gas-rich mergers or intergalactic medium accretion). For a smaller subset of the sample, the declining SF (from the original internal gas) cannot be ruled out. SF is rare in very massive early-types (M * > 10 11 M sun ), a possible consequence of AGN feedback. In addition to extended UV emission, many galaxies show a compact central source, which may be a weak, optically inconspicuous AGN.

  5. Star Formation History of Dwarf Galaxies in Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Nagamine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the past and current work on the star formation (SF histories of dwarf galaxies in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. The results obtained from different numerical methods are still somewhat mixed, but the differences are understandable if we consider the numerical and resolution effects. It remains a challenge to simulate the episodic nature of SF history in dwarf galaxies at late times within the cosmological context of a cold dark matter model. More work is needed to solve the mysteries of SF history of dwarf galaxies employing large-scale hydrodynamic simulations on the next generation of supercomputers.

  6. Solo dwarfs I: survey introduction and first results for the Sagittarius dwarf irregular galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, C. R.; McConnachie, A. W.; Irwin, M.; Bate, N. F.; Lewis, G. F.; Walker, M. G.; Côté, P.; Venn, K.; Battaglia, G.

    2016-05-01

    We introduce the Solitary Local dwarfs survey (Solo), a wide-field photometric study targeting every isolated dwarf galaxy within 3 Mpc of the Milky Way. Solo is based on (u)gi multiband imaging from Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/MegaCam for northern targets, and Magellan/Megacam for southern targets. All galaxies fainter than MV ≃ -18 situated beyond the nominal virial radius of the Milky Way and M31 (≳300 kpc) are included in this volume-limited sample, for a total of 42 targets. In addition to reviewing the survey goals and strategy, we present results for the Sagittarius dwarf irregular galaxy (Sag DIG), one of the most isolated, low-mass galaxies, located at the edge of the Local Group. We analyse its resolved stellar populations and their spatial distributions. We provide updated estimates of its central surface brightness and integrated luminosity, and trace its surface brightness profile to a level fainter than 30 mag arcsec-2. Sag DIG is well described by a highly elliptical (disc-like) system following a single component Sérsic model. However, a low-level distortion is present at the outer edges of the galaxy that, were Sag DIG not so isolated, would likely be attributed to some kind of previous tidal interaction. Further, we find evidence of an extremely low level, extended distribution of stars beyond ˜5 arcmin (>1.5 kpc) that suggests Sag DIG may be embedded in a very low-density stellar halo. We compare the stellar and H I structures of Sag DIG, and discuss results for this galaxy in relation to other isolated, dwarf irregular galaxies in the Local Group.

  7. METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS OF FOUR LOCAL GROUP DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Teresa L.; Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Saha, Abhijit [NOAO, 950 Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States); Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J., E-mail: rosst@nmsu.edu, E-mail: holtz@nmsu.edu, E-mail: bjat@ku.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045-7582 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present stellar metallicities in Leo I, Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix dwarf galaxies derived from medium (F390M) and broad (F555W, F814W) band photometry using the Wide Field Camera 3 instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We measured metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) in two ways, (1) matching stars to isochrones in color–color diagrams and (2) solving for the best linear combination of synthetic populations to match the observed color–color diagram. The synthetic technique reduces the effect of photometric scatter and produces MDFs 30%–50% narrower than the MDFs produced from individually matched stars. We fit the synthetic and individual MDFs to analytical chemical evolution models (CEMs) to quantify the enrichment and the effect of gas flows within the galaxies. Additionally, we measure stellar metallicity gradients in Leo I and II. For IC 1613 and Phoenix our data do not have the radial extent to confirm a metallicity gradient for either galaxy. We find the MDF of Leo I (dwarf spheroidal) to be very peaked with a steep metal-rich cutoff and an extended metal-poor tail, while Leo II (dwarf spheroidal), Phoenix (dwarf transition), and IC 1613 (dwarf irregular) have wider, less peaked MDFs than Leo I. A simple CEM is not the best fit for any of our galaxies; therefore we also fit the “Best Accretion Model” of Lynden-Bell. For Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix we find similar accretion parameters for the CEM even though they all have different effective yields, masses, star formation histories, and morphologies. We suggest that the dynamical history of a galaxy is reflected in the MDF, where broad MDFs are seen in galaxies that have chemically evolved in relative isolation and narrowly peaked MDFs are seen in galaxies that have experienced more complicated dynamical interactions concurrent with their chemical evolution.

  8. Peculiar early-type galaxies with central star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Chong; Gu Qiusheng

    2012-01-01

    Early-type galaxies (ETGs) are very important for understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies. Recent observations suggest that ETGs are not simply old stellar spheroids as we previously thought. Widespread recent star formation, cool gas and dust have been detected in a substantial fraction of ETGs. We make use of the radial profiles of g — r color and the concentration index from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database to pick out 31 peculiar ETGs with central blue cores. By analyzing the photometric and spectroscopic data, we suggest that the blue cores are caused by star formation activities rather than the central weak active galactic nucleus. From the results of stellar population synthesis, we find that the stellar population of the blue cores is relatively young, spreading from several Myr to less than one Gyr. In 14 galaxies with H I observations, we find that the average gas fraction of these galaxies is about 0.55. The bluer galaxies show a higher gas fraction, and the total star formation rate (SFR) correlates very well with the H I gas mass. The star formation history of these ETGs is affected by the environment, e.g. in the denser environment the H I gas is less and the total SFR is lower. We also discuss the origin of the central star formation of these early-type galaxies.

  9. Escape of ionizing radiation from high redshift dwarf galaxies: role of AGN feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebitsch, Maxime; Volonteri, Marta; Dubois, Yohan; Madau, Piero

    2018-05-01

    While low mass, star forming galaxies are often considered as the primary driver of reionization, their actual contribution to the cosmic ultraviolet background is still uncertain, mostly because the escape fraction of ionizing photons is only poorly constrained. Theoretical studies have shown that efficient supernova feedback is a necessary condition to create paths through which ionizing radiation can escape into the intergalactic medium. We investigate the possibility that accreting supermassive black holes in early dwarf galaxies may provide additional feedback and enhance the leakage of ionizing radiation. We use a series of high resolution cosmological radiation hydrodynamics simulations where we isolate the different sources of feedback. We find that supernova feedback prevents the growth of the black hole, thus quenching its associated feedback. Even in cases where the black hole can grow, the structure of the interstellar medium is strongly dominated by supernova feedback. We conclude that, in the dwarf galaxy regime, supermassive black holes do not appear to play a significant role in enhancing the escape fraction and in contributing to the early UV background.

  10. STRUCTURAL EVOLUTION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES TO z = 2.5 IN CANDELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yu-Yen; Van der Wel, Arjen; Rix, Hans-Walter; Holden, Bradford; Faber, S. M.; Mozena, Mark; Guo Yicheng; Kocevski, Dale D.; Bell, Eric F.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Wuyts, Stijn; Häussler, Boris; Barden, Marco; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Huang, Kuang-Han; Galametz, Audrey; Dekel, Avishai; Hathi, Nimish P.

    2013-01-01

    Projected axis ratio measurements of 880 early-type galaxies at redshifts 1 1 early-type galaxies show a variety of intrinsic shapes; even at a fixed mass, the projected axis ratio distributions cannot be explained by the random projection of a set of galaxies with very similar intrinsic shapes. However, a two-population model for the intrinsic shapes, consisting of a triaxial, fairly round population, combined with a flat (c/a ∼ 0.3) oblate population, adequately describes the projected axis ratio distributions of both present-day and z > 1 early-type galaxies. We find that the proportion of oblate versus triaxial galaxies depends both on the galaxies' stellar mass, and—at a given mass—on redshift. For present-day and z 1, this trend is much weaker over the mass range explored here (10 10 * /M ☉ 11 ), because the oblate fraction among massive (M * ∼ 10 11 M ☉ ) was much higher in the past: 0.59 ± 0.10 at z > 1, compared to 0.20 ± 0.02 at z ∼ 0.1. When combined with previous findings that the number density and sizes of early-type galaxies substantially increase over the same redshift range, this can be explained by the gradual emergence of merger-produced elliptical galaxies, at the expense of the destruction of pre-existing disks that were common among their high-redshift progenitors. In contrast, the oblate fraction among low-mass early-type galaxies (log (M * /M ☉ ) 1 to 0.72 ± 0.06 at z = 0. We speculate that this lower incidence of disks at early cosmic times can be attributed to two factors: low-mass, star-forming progenitors at z > 1 were not settled into stable disks to the same degree as at later cosmic times, and the stripping of gas from star-forming disk galaxies in dense environments is an increasingly important process at lower redshifts

  11. CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE FROM THE PALOMAR TRANSIENT FACTORY: INDICATIONS FOR A DIFFERENT POPULATION IN DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcavi, Iair; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Quimby, Robert M.; Ofek, Eran O.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Law, Nicholas; Cooke, Jeff; Nugent, Peter E.; Poznanski, Dovi; Cenko, S. Bradley; Bloom, Joshua S.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Sullivan, Mark; Hook, Isobel; Joensson, Jakob; Blake, Sarah; Howell, D. Andrew; Dekany, Richard; Rahmer, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    We use the first compilation of 72 core-collapse supernovae (SNe) from the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) to study their observed subtype distribution in dwarf galaxies compared to giant galaxies. Our sample is the largest single-survey, untargeted, spectroscopically classified, homogeneous collection of core-collapse events ever assembled, spanning a wide host-galaxy luminosity range (down to M r ∼ -14 mag) and including a substantial fraction (>20%) of dwarf (M r ≥ -18 mag) hosts. We find more core-collapse SNe in dwarf galaxies than expected and several interesting trends emerge. We use detailed subclassifications of stripped-envelope core-collapse SNe and find that all Type I core-collapse events occurring in dwarf galaxies are either SNe Ib or broad-lined SNe Ic (SNe Ic-BL), while 'normal' SNe Ic dominate in giant galaxies. We also see a significant excess of SNe IIb in dwarf hosts. We hypothesize that in lower metallicity hosts, metallicity-driven mass loss is reduced, allowing massive stars that would have appeared as 'normal' SNe Ic in metal-rich galaxies to retain some He and H, exploding as Ib/IIb events. At the same time, another mechanism allows some stars to undergo extensive stripping and explode as SNe Ic-BL (and presumably also as long-duration gamma-ray bursts). Our results are still limited by small-number statistics, and our measurements of the observed N(Ib/c)/N(II) number ratio in dwarf and giant hosts (0.25 +0.3 -0.15 and 0.23 +0.11 -0.08 , respectively; 1σ uncertainties) are consistent with previous studies and theoretical predictions. As additional PTF data accumulate, more robust statistical analyses will be possible, allowing the evolution of massive stars to be probed via the dwarf-galaxy SN population.

  12. The Andromeda Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Armandroff, Taft E.; Da Costa, Gary S.

    1998-01-01

    Our current knowledge of M31's dwarf spheroidal companions is reviewed. Two topics of recent interest constitute the bulk of this review. First, color-magnitude diagrams reaching below the horizontal branch have been constructed for two M31 dwarf spheroidals based on images from HST/WFPC2. The horizontal branches are predominantly red in both galaxies, redder than expected for their metallicity based on Galactic globular clusters. Thus, the second parameter effect is seen in the M31 halo. Sec...

  13. Halo carbon stars associated with dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Den Bergh, S.; Lafontaine, A.

    1984-11-01

    Star counts have been performed for rings centered on the carbon star at 1 69 degrees, b + 55 degrees at a distance of 60 kpc. The counts were performed in order to determine whether halo carbon stars might be situated in dwarf spheroidal galaxies which are too star-poor to have been recognized as galaxies. The counts were made on a IIIa-J plate baked in forming gas that was exposed for 40 minutes through a 2C filter with the Palomar 1.2-m Schmidt telescope. It is shown that the carbon star is not situated in a dwarf spheroidal galaxy brighter than M(V) 5.7.

  14. Star Formation in Dwarf Galaxies: Life in a Rough Neighborhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, S

    2003-10-16

    Star formation within dwarf galaxies is governed by several factors. Many of these factors are external, including ram-pressure stripping, tidal stripping, and heating by external UV radiation. The latter, in particular, may prevent star formation in the smallest systems. Internal factors include negative feedback in the form of UV radiation, winds and supernovae from massive stars. These act to reduce the star formation efficiency within dwarf systems, which may, in turn, solve several theoretical and observational problems associated with galaxy formation. In this contribution, we discuss our recent work being done to examine the importance of the many factors in the evolution of dwarf galaxies.

  15. First stellar abundances in the dwarf irregular galaxy Sextans A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufer, A; Venn, KA; Tolstoy, E; Pinte, C; Kudritzki, RP

    We present the abundance analyses of three isolated A-type supergiant stars in the dwarf irregular galaxy Sextans A (= DDO 75) from high-resolution spectra obtained with the Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on the Kueyen telescope (UT2) of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). Detailed

  16. HOW TO MAKE AN ULTRA-FAINT DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY: TIDAL STIRRING OF DISKY DWARFS WITH SHALLOW DARK MATTER DENSITY PROFILES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Łokas, Ewa L.; Kazantzidis, Stelios; Mayer, Lucio

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the Sloan Digital Sky Survey has unraveled a new population of ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (UFDs) whose origin remains a puzzle in the vicinity of the Milky Way (MW). Using a suite of collisionless N-body simulations, we investigate the formation of UFDs in the context of the tidal stirring model for the formation of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group (LG). Our simulations are designed to reproduce the tidal interactions between MW-sized host galaxies and rotationally supported dwarfs embedded in 10 9 M ☉ dark matter (DM) halos. We explore a variety of inner density slopes ρ∝r –α for the dwarf DM halos, ranging from core-like (α = 0.2) to cuspy (α = 1), and different dwarf orbital configurations. Our experiments demonstrate that UFDs can be produced via tidal stirring of disky dwarfs on relatively tight orbits, consistent with a redshift of accretion by the host galaxy of z ∼ 1, and with intermediate values for the halo inner density slopes (ρ∝r –0.6 ). The inferred slopes are in excellent agreement with those resulting from both the modeling of the rotation curves of dwarf galaxies and recent cosmological simulations of dwarf galaxy formation. Comparing the properties of observed UFDs with those of their simulated counterparts, we find remarkable similarities in terms of basic observational parameters. We conclude that tidal stirring of rotationally supported dwarfs represents a viable mechanism for the formation of UFDs in the LG environment.

  17. Dwarf galaxies in the coma cluster: Star formation properties and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Derek M.

    The infall regions of galaxy clusters are unique laboratories for studying the impact of environment on galaxy evolution. This intermediate region links the low-density field environment and the dense core of the cluster, and is thought to host recently accreted galaxies whose star formation is being quenched by external processes associated with the cluster. In this dissertation, we measure the star formation properties of galaxies at the infall region of the nearby rich cluster of galaxies, Coma. We rely primarily on Ultraviolet (UV) data owing to its sensitivity to recent star formation and we place more emphasis on the properties of dwarf galaxies. Dwarf galaxies are good tracers of external processes in clusters but their evolution is poorly constrained as they are intrinsically faint and hence more challenging to detect. We make use of deep GALEX far-UV and near-UV observations at the infall region of the Coma cluster. This area of the cluster has supporting photometric coverage at optical and IR wavelengths in addition to optical spectroscopic data that includes deep redshift coverage of dwarf galaxies in Coma. Our GALEX observations were the deepest exposures taken for a local galaxy cluster. The depth of these images required alternative data analysis techniques to overcome systematic effects that limit the default GALEX pipeline analysis. Specifically, we used a deblending method that improved detection efficiency by a factor of ˜2 and allowed reliable photometry a few magnitudes deeper than the pipeline catalog. We performed deep measurements of the total UV galaxy counts in our field that were used to measure the source confusion limit for crowded GALEX fields. The star formation properties of Coma members were studied for galaxies that span from starbursts to passive galaxies. Star-forming galaxies in Coma tend to have lower specific star formation rates, on average, as compared to field galaxies. We show that the majority of these galaxies are likely

  18. Early-type galaxy core phase densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlberg, R. G.; Hartwick, F. D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Early-type galaxies have projected central density brightness profile logarithmic slopes, γ', ranging from about 0 to 1. We show that γ' is strongly correlated, r = 0.83, with the coarse grain phase density of the galaxy core, Q 0 ≡ ρ/σ 3 . The luminosity-γ' correlation is much weaker, r = –0.51. Q 0 also serves to separate the distribution of steep core profiles, γ' > 0.5, from shallow profiles, γ' < 0.3, although there are many galaxies of intermediate slope, at intermediate Q 0 , in a volume-limited sample. The transition phase density separating the two profile types is approximately 0.003 M ☉ pc –3 km –3 s 3 , which is also where the relation between Q 0 and core mass shows a change in slope, the rotation rate of the central part of the galaxy increases, and the ratio of the black hole to core mass increases. These relations are considered relative to the globular cluster inspiral core buildup and binary black hole core scouring mechanisms for core creation and evolution. Mass-enhanced globular cluster inspiral models have quantitative predictions that are supported by data, but no single model yet completely explains the correlations.

  19. Difference in Dwarf Galaxy Surface Brightness Profiles as a Function of Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngdae; Park, Hong Soo; Kim, Sang Chul; Moon, Dae-Sik; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kim, Dong-Jin; Cha, Sang-Mok

    2018-05-01

    We investigate surface brightness profiles (SBPs) of dwarf galaxies in field, group, and cluster environments. With deep BV I images from the Korea Microlensing Telescope Network Supernova Program, SBPs of 38 dwarfs in the NGC 2784 group are fitted by a single-exponential or double-exponential model. We find that 53% of the dwarfs are fitted with single-exponential profiles (“Type I”), while 47% of the dwarfs show double-exponential profiles; 37% of all dwarfs have smaller sizes for the outer part than the inner part (“Type II”), while 10% have a larger outer than inner part (“Type III”). We compare these results with those in the field and in the Virgo cluster, where the SBP types of 102 field dwarfs are compiled from a previous study and the SBP types of 375 cluster dwarfs are measured using SDSS r-band images. As a result, the distributions of SBP types are different in the three environments. Common SBP types for the field, the NGC 2784 group, and the Virgo cluster are Type II, Type I and II, and Type I and III profiles, respectively. After comparing the sizes of dwarfs in different environments, we suggest that since the sizes of some dwarfs are changed due to environmental effects, SBP types are capable of being transformed and the distributions of SBP types in the three environments are different. We discuss possible environmental mechanisms for the transformation of SBP types. Based on data collected at KMTNet Telescopes and SDSS.

  20. Enviromental Effects on Internal Color Gradients of Early-Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Barbera, F.; de Carvalho, R. R.; Gal, R. R.; Busarello, G.; Haines, C. P.; Mercurio, A.; Merluzzi, P.; Capaccioli, M.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2007-05-01

    One of the most debated issues of observational and theoretical cosmology is that of how the environment affects the formation and evolution of galaxies. To gain new insight into this subject, we have derived surface photometry for a sample of 3,000 early-type galaxies belonging to 163 clusters with different richness, spanning a redshift range of 0.05 to 0.25. This large data-set is used to analyze how the color distribution inside galaxies depends on several parameters, such as cluster richness, local galaxy density, galaxy luminosity and redshift. We find that the internal color profile of galaxies strongly depends on the environment where galaxies reside. Galaxies in poor and rich clusters are found to follow two distinct trends in the color gradient vs. redshift diagram, with color gradients beeing less steep in rich rather than in poor clusters. No dependence of color gradients on galaxy luminosity is detected both for poor and rich clusters. We find that color gradients strongly depend on local galaxy density, with more shallow gradients in high density regions. Interestingly, this result holds only for low richness clusters, with color gradients of galaxies in rich clusters showing no dependence on local galaxy density. Our results support a reasonable picture whereby young early-type galaxies form in a dissipative collapse process, and then undergo increased (either major or minor) merging activity in richer rather than in poor clusters.

  1. GAS DEPLETION IN LOCAL GROUP DWARFS ON ∼250 kpc SCALES: RAM PRESSURE STRIPPING ASSISTED BY INTERNAL HEATING AT EARLY TIMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, Matthew; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2011-01-01

    A recent survey of the Galaxy and M31 reveals that more than 90% of dwarf galaxies within 270 kpc of their host galaxy are deficient in H I gas. At such an extreme radius, the coronal halo gas is an order of magnitude too low to remove H I gas through ram pressure stripping for any reasonable orbit distribution. However, all dwarfs are known to have an ancient stellar population (∼> 10 Gyr) from early epochs of vigorous star formation which, through heating of H I, could allow the hot halo to remove this gas. Our model looks at the evolution of these dwarf galaxies analytically as the host-galaxy dark matter halo and coronal halo gas build up over cosmic time. The dwarf galaxies-treated as spherically symmetric, smooth distributions of dark matter and gas-experience early star formation, which sufficiently heats the gas, allowing it to be removed easily through tidal stripping by the host galaxy, or ram pressure stripping by a tenuous hot halo (n H = 3 x 10 -4 cm -3 at 50 kpc). This model of evolution is able to explain the observed radial distribution of gas-deficient and gas-rich dwarfs around the Galaxy and M31 if the dwarfs fell in at high redshift (z ∼ 3-10).

  2. THE UBIQUITOUS RADIO CONTINUUM EMISSION FROM THE MOST MASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Michael J. I.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Floyd, David J. E.; Mould, Jeremy R.

    2011-01-01

    We have measured the radio continuum emission of 396 early-type galaxies brighter than K = 9, using 1.4 GHz imagery from the NRAO Very Large Array Sky Survey, Green Bank 300 ft Telescope, and 64 m Parkes Radio Telescope. For M K K < -25.5 early-type galaxies are greater than zero in all cases. It is thus highly likely that the most massive galaxies always host an active galactic nucleus or have recently undergone star formation.

  3. Massive stars in the Sagittarius Dwarf Irregular Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Miriam

    2018-02-01

    Low metallicity massive stars hold the key to interpret numerous processes in the past Universe including re-ionization, starburst galaxies, high-redshift supernovae, and γ-ray bursts. The Sagittarius Dwarf Irregular Galaxy [SagDIG, 12+log(O/H) = 7.37] represents an important landmark in the quest for analogues accessible with 10-m class telescopes. This Letter presents low-resolution spectroscopy executed with the Gran Telescopio Canarias that confirms that SagDIG hosts massive stars. The observations unveiled three OBA-type stars and one red supergiant candidate. Pending confirmation from high-resolution follow-up studies, these could be the most metal-poor massive stars of the Local Group.

  4. DETERMINING THE LARGE-SCALE ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF GAS-PHASE METALLICITY IN DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, Kelly A.; Vogeley, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    We study how the cosmic environment affects galaxy evolution in the universe by comparing the metallicities of dwarf galaxies in voids with dwarf galaxies in more dense regions. Ratios of the fluxes of emission lines, particularly those of the forbidden [O iii] and [S ii] transitions, provide estimates of a region’s electron temperature and number density. From these two quantities and the emission line fluxes [O ii] λ 3727, [O iii] λ 4363, and [O iii] λλ 4959, 5007, we estimate the abundance of oxygen with the direct T e  method. We estimate the metallicity of 42 blue, star-forming void dwarf galaxies and 89 blue, star-forming dwarf galaxies in more dense regions using spectroscopic observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, as reprocessed in the MPA-JHU value-added catalog. We find very little difference between the two sets of galaxies, indicating little influence from the large-scale environment on their chemical evolution. Of particular interest are a number of extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies that are less prevalent in voids than in the denser regions.

  5. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars in dwarf galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvadori, Stefania; Skúladóttir, Ása; Tolstoy, Eline

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the frequency and origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in Local Group dwarf galaxies by means of a statistical, data-calibrated cosmological model for the hierarchical build-up of the Milky Way and its dwarf satellites. The model self-consistently explains the variation

  6. Chemical analysis of the Fornax Dwarf galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letarte, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is entitled “Chemical Analysis of the Fornax Dwarf Galaxy”, and it’s main goal is to determine what are the chemical elements present in the stars of this galaxy in order to try and understand it’s evolution. Galaxies are not “static” objects, they move, form stars and can interact with

  7. The TESIS Project: Revealing Massive Early-Type Galaxies at z > 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracco, P.; Longhetti, M.; Severgnini, P.; Della Ceca, R.; Braito, V.; Bender, R.; Drory, N.; Feulner, G.; Hopp, U.; Mannucci, F.; Maraston, C.

    How and when present-day massive early-type galaxies built up and what type of evolution has characterized their growth (star formation and/or merging) still remain open issues. The different competing scenarios of galaxy formation predict much different properties of early-type galaxies at z > 1. The "monolithic" collapse predicts that massive spheroids formed at high redshift (z > 2.5-3) and that their comoving density is constant at z 1, their comoving density decreases from z = 0 to z ~ 1.5 and they should experience their last burst of star formation at z 1 can be probed observationally once a well defined sample of massive early-types at z > 1 is available. We are constructing such a sample through a dedicated near-IR very low resolution (λ/Δλ≃50) spectroscopic survey (TNG EROs Spectroscopic Identification Survey, TESIS, [6]) of a complete sample of 30 bright (K < 18.5) Extremely Red Objects (EROs).

  8. Detection of a Population of Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Stars in the Sculptor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiti, Anirudh; Simon, Joshua D.; Frebel, Anna; Thompson, Ian B.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I., III; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Walker, Matthew

    2018-04-01

    The study of the chemical abundances of metal-poor stars in dwarf galaxies provides a venue to constrain paradigms of chemical enrichment and galaxy formation. Here we present metallicity and carbon abundance measurements of 100 stars in Sculptor from medium-resolution (R ∼ 2000) spectra taken with the Magellan/Michigan Fiber System mounted on the Magellan-Clay 6.5 m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We identify 24 extremely metal-poor star candidates ([Fe/H] 1.0). The existence of a large number of CEMP stars both in the halo and in Sculptor suggests that some halo CEMP stars may have originated from accreted early analogs of dwarf galaxies. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  9. Bulgeless dwarf galaxies and dark matter cores from supernova-driven outflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governato, F; Brook, C; Mayer, L; Brooks, A; Rhee, G; Wadsley, J; Jonsson, P; Willman, B; Stinson, G; Quinn, T; Madau, P

    2010-01-14

    For almost two decades the properties of 'dwarf' galaxies have challenged the cold dark matter (CDM) model of galaxy formation. Most observed dwarf galaxies consist of a rotating stellar disk embedded in a massive dark-matter halo with a near-constant-density core. Models based on the dominance of CDM, however, invariably form galaxies with dense spheroidal stellar bulges and steep central dark-matter profiles, because low-angular-momentum baryons and dark matter sink to the centres of galaxies through accretion and repeated mergers. Processes that decrease the central density of CDM halos have been identified, but have not yet reconciled theory with observations of present-day dwarfs. This failure is potentially catastrophic for the CDM model, possibly requiring a different dark-matter particle candidate. Here we report hydrodynamical simulations (in a framework assuming the presence of CDM and a cosmological constant) in which the inhomogeneous interstellar medium is resolved. Strong outflows from supernovae remove low-angular-momentum gas, which inhibits the formation of bulges and decreases the dark-matter density to less than half of what it would otherwise be within the central kiloparsec. The analogues of dwarf galaxies-bulgeless and with shallow central dark-matter profiles-arise naturally in these simulations.

  10. The dwarf spheroidal galaxies around the milky way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E.; Battaglia, G.; Helmi, A.; Irwin, M. J.; Hill, V.; Vallenari, A; Tantalo, R; Portinari, L; Moretti, A

    2007-01-01

    We review the progress of ESO/WFI Imaging and VLT/FLAMES spectroscopy of large numbers of individual stars in nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies by the Dwarf Abundances and Radial-velocities Team (DART). These observations have allowed us to show that neither the kinematics nor the abundance nor the

  11. The hELENa project - I. Stellar populations of early-type galaxies linked with local environment and galaxy mass

    OpenAIRE

    Sybilska, A.; Lisker, T.; Kuntschner, H.; Vazdekis, A.; van de Ven, G.; Peletier, R.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Janz, J.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first in a series of papers in T$h$e role of $E$nvironment in shaping $L$ow-mass $E$arly-type $N$earby g$a$laxies (hELENa) project. In this paper we combine our sample of 20 low-mass early types (dEs) with 258 massive early types (ETGs) from the ATLAS$^{\\mathrm{3D}}$ survey - all observed with the SAURON integral field unit (IFU) - to investigate early-type galaxies' stellar population scaling relations and the dependence of the population properties on local environment, exten...

  12. Detailed Studies of the Sculptor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy in the Milky Way halo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, Eline

    In and around the Milky Way halo there are a number of low mass low luminosity dwarf galaxies. Several of these systems have been studied in great detail. I describe recent photometric and spectroscopic studies of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy made as part of the DART survey of nearby dwarf

  13. Environmental Effects on the Metallicities of Early-Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christine; Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    We completed and published two papers in the Astrophysical Journal based on research from grant. In the first paper we analyzed nine X-ray-bright Virgo early-type galaxies observed by both ASCA and ROSAT. Through spatially resolved spectroscopy, we determined the radial temperature profiles and abundances of Mg, Si, and Fe for six galaxies. The temperature profiles are consistent with isothermal temperatures outside of cooler regions at the galaxies' centers. We present new evidence for iron abundance gradients in NGC 4472 and NGC 4649 and confirm the previous results on NGC 4636. Mg and Si abundance gradients on average are flatter than those of iron and correspond to an underabundance of α-process elements at high Fe values, while at low iron the element ratios favor enrichment by Type II supernovae (SNe). We explain the observed trend using the metallicity dependence of SN Ia metal production and present constraints on the available theoretical modeling for low-metallicity inhibition of SNe Ia. In the second paper We analyzed nine X-ray-bright Virgo early-type galaxies observed by both ASCA and ROSAT. Through spatially resolved spectroscopy, we determined the radial temperature profiles and abundances of Mg, Si, and Fe for six galaxies. The temperature profiles are consistent with isothermal temperatures outside of cooler regions at the galaxies' centers. We present new evidence for iron abundance gradients in NGC 4472 and NGC 4649 and confirm the previous results on NGC 4636. Mg and Si abundance gradients on average are flatter than those of iron and correspond to an underabundance of α-process elements at high Fe values, while at low iron the element ratios favor enrichment by Type I1 supernovae (SNe). We explain the observed trend using the metallicity dependence of SN Ia metal production and present constraints on the available theoretical modeling for low-metallicity inhibition of SNe Ia.

  14. MOLECULAR DISK PROPERTIES IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.; Walker, C.; Narayanan, D.

    2010-01-01

    We study the simulated CO emission from elliptical galaxies formed in the mergers of gas-rich disk galaxies. The cold gas not consumed in the merger-driven starburst quickly resettles into a disk-like configuration. By analyzing a variety of arbitrary merger orbits that produce a range of fast- to slow-rotating remnants, we find that molecular disk formation is a fairly common consequence of gas-rich galaxy mergers. Hence, if a molecular disk is observed in an early-type merger remnant, it is likely the result of a 'wet merger' rather than a 'dry merger'. We compare the physical properties from our simulated disks (e.g., size and mass) and find reasonably good agreement with recent observations. Finally, we discuss the detectability of these disks as an aid to future observations.

  15. Prospects of the "WSO-UV" Project for Star Formation Study in Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, L. N.; Makarov, D. I.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work we consider the questions of star formation and evolution of nearby dwarf galaxies. We describe the method of star formation history determination based on multicolor photometry of resolved stars and models of color-magnitude diagrams of the galaxies. We present the results of star formation rate determination and its dependence on age and metallicity for dwarf irregular and dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the two nearby galaxy groups M81 and Cen A. Similar age of the last episode of star formation in the central part of the M81 group and also unusually high level of metal enrichment in the several galaxies of the Cen A group are mentioned. We pay special attention to the consideration of perspectives of star formation study in nearby dwarf galaxies with he new WSO-UV observatory.

  16. Star Formation Histories of Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillman, Evan

    1995-07-01

    We propose to obtain deep WFPC2 `BVI' color-magnitude diagrams {CMDs} for the dwarf irregular {dI} Local Group galaxies GR 8, Leo A, Pegasus, and Sextans A. In addition to resolved stars, we will use star clusters, and especially any globulars, to probe the history of intense star formation. These data will allow us to map the Pop I and Pop II stellar components, and thereby construct the first detailed star formation histories for non-interacting dI galaxies. Our results will bear on a variety of astrophysical problems, including the evolution of small galaxies, distances in the Local Group, age-metallicity distributions in small galaxies, ages of dIs, and the physics of star formation. The four target galaxies are typical dI systems in terms of luminosity, gas content, and H II region abundance, and represent a range in current star forming activity. They are sufficiently near to allow us to reach to stars at M_V = 0, have 0.1 of the luminosity of the SMC and 0.25 of its oxygen abundance. Unlike the SMC, these dIs are not near giant galaxies. This project will allow the extension of our knowledge of stellar populations in star forming galaxies from the spirals in the Local Group down to its smallest members. We plan to take maximum advantage of the unique data which this project will provide. Our investigator team brings extensive and varied experience in studies of dwarf galaxies, stellar populations, imaging photometry, and stellar evolution to this project.

  17. A violent interaction between the dwarf galaxy UGC 7636 and the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 4472

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnamara, Brian R.; Sancisi, Renzo; Henning, Patricia A.; Junor, William

    1994-01-01

    We present new U, B, R, and H I imagery of the Virgo Cluster giant elliptical galaxy NGC 4472 and its interacting dwarf companion galaxy UGC 7636. Using a composite image reconstruction technique, we show that a trail of debris approx. 5 arcmin in length and approx. 1 arcmin in width (30x6 kpc for a Virgo cluster distance of 20 Mpc) is projected northward from the dwarf galaxy. A cloud of H I is projected along the northwest edge of the debris between the dwarf and gE. The dwarf's nuclear morphology is irregular and bow-shaped on what appears to be its leading edge. Apart from a number of isolated blue regions, most of of the trailing debris is similar in color to the dwarf's nucleus. Only a modest enhancement of star formation appears to have been induced by the interaction. Although separated by 15 kpc, the H I and stellar morphologies are remarkably similar. The stars and H I appear to have been tidally distorted in situ, prior to the cloud's removal by ram pressure. If the H I has maintained its shape by magnetic support, a magnetic field strength an order of magnitude larger than the galaxy's is required. Ram pressure deceleration due to the cloud's motion through NGC 4472's x-ray-emitting interstellar medium shold be sufficient for the cloud to become gravitationally bound to NGC 4472. The H I cloud is not self-gravitating and may fragment and be destroyed in the interaction. UGC 7636 will probably be disrupted by NGC 4472's strong tidal forces; the stellar debris will disperse into the Virgo cluster or become bound to NGC 4472's halo on eccentric orbits. The debris captured in the collision will have a negligible impact on NGC 4472's stellar and gaseous content. On the other hand, if similar interactions are common in giant elliptical galaxies, they could alter or deplete surrounding dwarf galaxy populations, fuel bursts of nuclear activity, and perhaps provide a source of magnetic energy to their interstellar media.

  18. EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES WITH TIDAL DEBRIS AND THEIR SCALING RELATIONS IN THE SPITZER SURVEY OF STELLAR STRUCTURE IN GALAXIES (S4G)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taehyun; Sheth, Kartik; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Hinz, Joannah L.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Knapen, Johan H.; Schinnerer, Eva; Ho, Luis C.; Madore, Barry F.; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; De Swardt, Bonita; Comerón, Sébastien; Regan, Michael W.; Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; De Paz, Armando Gil

    2012-01-01

    Tidal debris around galaxies can yield important clues on their evolution. We have identified tidal debris in 11 early-type galaxies (T ≤ 0) from a sample of 65 early types drawn from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S 4 G). The tidal debris includes features such as shells, ripples, and tidal tails. A variety of techniques, including two-dimensional decomposition of galactic structures, were used to quantify the residual tidal features. The tidal debris contributes ∼3%-10% to the total 3.6 μm luminosity of the host galaxy. Structural parameters of the galaxies were estimated using two-dimensional profile fitting. We investigate the locations of galaxies with tidal debris in the fundamental plane and Kormendy relation. We find that galaxies with tidal debris lie within the scatter of early-type galaxies without tidal features. Assuming that the tidal debris is indicative of recent gravitational interaction or merger, this suggests that these galaxies have either undergone minor merging events so that the overall structural properties of the galaxies are not significantly altered, or they have undergone a major merging events but already have experienced sufficient relaxation and phase mixing so that their structural properties become similar to those of the non-interacting early-type galaxies.

  19. The ESO Nearby Abell Cluster Survey. VI. Spatial distribution and kinematics of early- and late-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Theije, P. A. M.; Katgert, P.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of the data obtained in the ESO Nearby Abell Cluster Survey (ENACS) has shown that the space distribution and kinematics of galaxies with detectable emission lines in their spectra differ significantly from those of galaxies without emission lines. This result, and details of the kinematics, were considered as support for the idea that at least the spirals with emission lines are on orbits that are not isotropic. This might indicate that this subset of late-type galaxies either has `first approach'-orbits towards the dense core of their respective clusters, or has orbits that `avoid' the core. The galaxies with emission lines are essentially all late-type galaxies. On the other hand, the emission-line galaxies represent only about a third of the late-type galaxies, the majority of which do not show detectable emission lines. The galaxies without emission lines are therefore a mix of early- and late-type galaxies. In this paper we attempt to separate early- and late-type galaxies, and we study possible differences in distribution and kinematics of the two galaxy classes. For only about 10% of the galaxies in the ENACS, the morphology is known from imaging. Here, we describe our classification on the basis of the ENACS spectrum. The significant information in each spectrum is compressed into 15 Principal Components, which are used as input for an Artificial Neural Network. The latter is `trained' with 150 of the 270 galaxies for which a morphological type is available from Dressler, and subsequently used to classify each galaxy. This yields a classification for two-thirds of the ENACS galaxies. The Artificial Neural Network has two output classes: early-type (E+S0) and late-type (S+I) galaxies. We do not distinguish E and S0 galaxies, because these cannot be separated very robustly on the basis of the spectrum. The success rate of the classification is estimated from the sample of 120 galaxies with Dressler morphologies which were not used to train the ANN

  20. WFPC2 Observations of the URSA Minor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mighell, Kenneth J.; Burke, Christopher J.

    1999-01-01

    We present our analysis of archival Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) observations in F555W (approximately V) and F814W (approximately I) of the central region of the Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. The V versus V - I color-magnitude diagram features a sparsely populated blue horizontal branch, a steep thin red giant branch, and a narrow subgiant branch. The main sequence reaches approximately 2 magnitudes below the main-sequence turnoff (V(sup UMi, sub TO) approximately equals 23.27 +/- 0.11 mag) of the median stellar population. We compare the fiducial sequence of the Galactic globular cluster M92 (NGC 6341). The excellent match between Ursa Minor and M92 confirms that the median stellar population of the UMi dSph galaxy is metal poor ([Fe/H](sub UMi) approximately equals [Fe/H](sub M92) approximately equals -2.2 dex) and ancient (age(sub UMi)approximately equalsage(sub M92) approximately equals 14 Gyr). The B - V reddening and the absorption in V are estimated to be E(B - V) = 0.03 +/- 0.01 mag and A(sup UMi, sub V) = 0.09 +/- 0.03 mag. A new estimate of the distance modulus of Ursa Minor, (m - M)(sup UMi, sub 0) = 19.18 +/- 0.12 mag, has been derived based on fiducial-sequence fitting M92 [DELTA.V(sub UMi - M92) = 4.60 +/- 0.03 mag and DELTA(V - I)(sub UMi - M92) = 0.010 +/- 0.005 mag] and the adoption of the apparent V distance modulus for M92 of (m - M)(sup M92, sub V) = 14.67 +/- 0.08 mag (Pont et al. 1998, A&A, 329, 87). The Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy is then at a distance of 69 +/- 4 kpc from the Sun. These HST observations indicate that Ursa Minor has had a very simple star formation history consisting mainly of a single major burst of star formation about 14 Gyr ago which lasted approximately stars in the central region Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy are ancient. If the ancient Galactic globular clusters, like M92, formed concurrently with the early formation of the Milky Way galaxy itself, then the Ursa Minor

  1. The extent of chemically enriched gas around star-forming dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sean

    2018-01-01

    Supernovae driven winds are often invoked to remove chemically enriched gas from galaxies to match the low metallicities of dwarf galaxies. In such shallow potential wells, outflows may produce massive amounts of enriched halo gas (circum-galactic medium or CGM) and pollute the intergalactic medium (IGM). I will present a survey of the CGM and IGM around 18 star-forming field dwarf galaxies with stellar masses of log M*/M⊙ ≈ 8 ‑ 9 at z ≈ 0.2. Eight of these have CGM probed by quasar absorption spectra at projected distances, d, less than the host virial radius, Rh. Ten are probed at d/Rh = 1 ‑ 3 to study the surrounding IGM. The absorption measurements include neutral hydrogen (H I), the dominant silicon ions for diffuse cool gas (T ∼ 104 K; Si II, Si III, and Si IV), more highly ionized carbon (C IV), and highly ionized oxygen (O VI). The metal absorption from the CGM of the dwarf galaxies is less common and ≈ 4× weaker compared to massive star-forming galaxies though O VI absorption is still common. None of the dwarfs probed at d/Rh = 1 ‑ 3 have definitive metal-line detections. Combining the available silicon ions, we estimate that the cool CGM accounts for only 2 ‑ 6% of the expected silicon budget. CGM absorption from O VI can account for ≈ 8% of the expected oxygen budget. As O VI traces an ion with expected equilibrium ion fractions of 0.2, this highly ionized phase of the CGM may represent a significant metal reservoir even for dwarf galaxies not expected to maintain gravitationally shock heated hot halos.

  2. The hELENa project - I. Stellar populations of early-type galaxies linked with local environment and galaxy mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybilska, A.; Lisker, T.; Kuntschner, H.; Vazdekis, A.; van de Ven, G.; Peletier, R.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Janz, J.

    2017-09-01

    We present the first in a series of papers in The role of Environment in shaping Low-mass Early-type Nearby galaxies (hELENa) project. In this paper, we combine our sample of 20 low-mass early types (dEs) with 258 massive early types (ETGs) from the ATLAS3D survey - all observed with the SAURON integral field unit - to investigate early-type galaxies' stellar population scaling relations and the dependence of the population properties on local environment, extended to the low-σ regime of dEs. The ages in our sample show more scatter at lower σ values, indicative of less massive galaxies being affected by the environment to a higher degree. The shape of the age-σ relations for cluster versus non-cluster galaxies suggests that cluster environment speeds up the placing of galaxies on the red sequence. While the scaling relations are tighter for cluster than for the field/group objects, we find no evidence for a difference in average population characteristics of the two samples. We investigate the properties of our sample in the Virgo cluster as a function of number density (rather than simple clustrocentric distance) and find that dE ages correlate with the local density such that galaxies in regions of lower density are younger, likely because they are later arrivals to the cluster or have experienced less pre-processing in groups, and consequently used up their gas reservoir more recently. Overall, dE properties correlate more strongly with density than those of massive ETGs, which was expected as less massive galaxies are more susceptible to external influences.

  3. Chemical Abundance Measurements of Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxies Discovered by the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Daniel; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Simon, Joshua D.; Hansen, Terese; Li, Ting; Bernstein, Rebecca; Balbinot, Eduardo; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Pace, Andrew; Strigari, Louis; Pellegrino, Craig; DePoy, Darren L.; Suntzeff, Nicholas; Bechtol, Keith; Dark Energy Suvey

    2018-01-01

    We present chemical abundance analysis results derived from high-resolution spectroscopy of ultra-faint dwarfs discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. Ultra-faint dwarf galaxies preserve a fossil record of the chemical abundance patterns imprinted by the first stars in the Universe. High-resolution spectroscopic observations of member stars in several recently discovered Milky Way satellites reveal a range of abundance patterns among ultra-faint dwarfs suggesting that star formation processes in the early Universe were quite diverse. The chemical content provides a glimpse not only of the varied nucleosynthetic processes and chemical history of the dwarfs themselves, but also the environment in which they were formed. We present the chemical abundance analysis of these objects and discuss possible explanations for the observed abundance patterns.

  4. The disk averaged star formation relation for Local Volume dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Lagos, C. D. P.; Young, T.; Jerjen, H.

    2018-05-01

    Spatially resolved H I studies of dwarf galaxies have provided a wealth of precision data. However these high-quality, resolved observations are only possible for handful of dwarf galaxies in the Local Volume. Future H I surveys are unlikely to improve the current situation. We therefore explore a method for estimating the surface density of the atomic gas from global H I parameters, which are conversely widely available. We perform empirical tests using galaxies with resolved H I maps, and find that our approximation produces values for the surface density of atomic hydrogen within typically 0.5 dex of the true value. We apply this method to a sample of 147 galaxies drawn from modern near-infrared stellar photometric surveys. With this sample we confirm a strict correlation between the atomic gas surface density and the star formation rate surface density, that is vertically offset from the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation by a factor of 10 - 30, and significantly steeper than the classical N = 1.4 of Kennicutt (1998). We further infer the molecular fraction in the sample of low surface brightness, predominantly dwarf galaxies by assuming that the star formation relationship with molecular gas observed for spiral galaxies also holds in these galaxies, finding a molecular-to-atomic gas mass fraction within the range of 5-15%. Comparison of the data to available models shows that a model in which the thermal pressure balances the vertical gravitational field captures better the shape of the ΣSFR-Σgas relationship. However, such models fail to reproduce the data completely, suggesting that thermal pressure plays an important role in the disks of dwarf galaxies.

  5. KECK/LRIS SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF COMA CLUSTER DWARF GALAXY MEMBERSHIP ASSIGNMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiboucas, Kristin; Tully, R. Brent; Marzke, Ronald O.; Trentham, Neil; Ferguson, Henry C.; Hammer, Derek; Carter, David; Khosroshahi, Habib

    2010-01-01

    Keck/LRIS multi-object spectroscopy has been carried out on 140 of some of the lowest and highest surface brightness faint (19 < R < 22) dwarf galaxy candidates in the core region of the Coma Cluster. These spectra are used to measure redshifts and establish membership for these faint dwarf populations. The primary goal of the low surface brightness sample is to test our ability to use morphological and surface brightness criteria to distinguish between Coma Cluster members and background galaxies using high resolution Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys images. Candidates were rated as expected members, uncertain, or expected background. From 93 spectra, 51 dwarf galaxy members and 20 background galaxies are identified. Our morphological membership estimation success rate is ∼100% for objects expected to be members and better than ∼90% for galaxies expected to be in the background. We confirm that low surface brightness is a very good indicator of cluster membership. High surface brightness galaxies are almost always background with confusion arising only from the cases of the rare compact elliptical (cE) galaxies. The more problematic cases occur at intermediate surface brightness. Many of these galaxies are given uncertain membership ratings, and these were found to be members about half of the time. Including color information will improve membership determination but will fail for some of the same objects that are already misidentified when using only surface brightness and morphology criteria. cE galaxies with B-V colors ∼0.2 mag redward of the red sequence in particular require spectroscopic follow up. In a sample of 47 high surface brightness, ultracompact dwarf candidates, 19 objects have redshifts which place them in the Coma Cluster, while another 6 have questionable redshift measurements but may also prove to be members. Redshift measurements are presented and the use of indirect means for establishing cluster membership is

  6. HOT GAS HALOS IN EARLY-TYPE FIELD GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulchaey, John S.; Jeltema, Tesla E.

    2010-01-01

    We use Chandra and XMM-Newton to study the hot gas content in a sample of field early-type galaxies. We find that the L X -L K relationship is steeper for field galaxies than for comparable galaxies in groups and clusters. The low hot gas content of field galaxies with L K ∼ * suggests that internal processes such as supernovae-driven winds or active galactic nucleus feedback expel hot gas from low-mass galaxies. Such mechanisms may be less effective in groups and clusters where the presence of an intragroup or intracluster medium can confine outflowing material. In addition, galaxies in groups and clusters may be able to accrete gas from the ambient medium. While there is a population of L K ∼ * galaxies in groups and clusters that retain hot gas halos, some galaxies in these rich environments, including brighter galaxies, are largely devoid of hot gas. In these cases, the hot gas halos have likely been removed via ram pressure stripping. This suggests a very complex interplay between the intragroup/intracluster medium and hot gas halos of galaxies in rich environments, with the ambient medium helping to confine or even enhance the halos in some cases and acting to remove gas in others. In contrast, the hot gas content of more isolated galaxies is largely a function of the mass of the galaxy, with more massive galaxies able to maintain their halos, while in lower mass systems the hot gas escapes in outflowing winds.

  7. Gas clump formation via thermal instability in high-redshift dwarf galaxy mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Shohei; Yajima, Hidenobu; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2018-04-01

    Star formation in high-redshift dwarf galaxies is a key to understand early galaxy evolution in the early Universe. Using the three-dimensional hydrodynamics code GIZMO, we study the formation mechanism of cold, high-density gas clouds in interacting dwarf galaxies with halo masses of ˜3 × 107 M⊙, which are likely to be the formation sites of early star clusters. Our simulations can resolve both the structure of interstellar medium on small scales of ≲ 0.1 pc and the galactic disc simultaneously. We find that the cold gas clouds form in the post-shock region via thermal instability due to metal-line cooling, when the cooling time is shorter than the galactic dynamical time. The mass function of cold clouds shows almost a power-law initially with an upper limit of thermally unstable scale. We find that some clouds merge into more massive ones with ≳104 M⊙ within ˜ 2 Myr. Only the massive cold clouds with ≳ 103 M⊙ can keep collapsing due to gravitational instability, resulting in the formation of star clusters. We find that the clump formation is more efficient in the prograde-prograde merger than the prograde-retrograde case due to the difference in the degree of shear flow. In addition, we investigate the dependence of cloud mass function on metallicity and H2 abundance, and show that the cases with low metallicities (≲10-2 Z⊙) or high H2 abundance (≳10-3) cannot form massive cold clouds with ≳103 M⊙.

  8. Photometric analyses of abundances in dwarf spheroidal galaxies and globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the abundance characteristics of several dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The chemical properties of stars in these galaxies are tracers of the origin and evolution of their stellar populations, and thus can provide constraints on the theories of their formation. To derive this abundance information, photometric observations of stars in a sample of globular clusters, covering a large range in metallicity, were analyzed. Parameters describing the position of the red giant branch were found to correlate very well with cluster metallicity over a large range in abundance. These measurements, made in the Thuan-Gunn photometry system, provide ranking schemes which are, with accurate photometry, more sensitive to changes in metallicity than similar broadband BV parameters. The relations were used to derive an improved estimate of the metallicity of cluster NGC 5053. These metallicity relations were used to analyze the Thuan-Gunn system photometry produced for the Sculptor, Ursa Minor, and Carina galaxies. The excellent agreement between their metallicities and those from other previous studies indicates that globular cluster red giant branch parameters are very useful in ranking dwarf spheroidal populations by metallicity. Together with other galaxian data, strong correlations can be seen between the mean metallicities and dispersions in metallicity and the luminosities of the dwarf spheroidal galaxies. These trends also seem to apply to members of the dwarf elliptical class of galaxies. The ramifications that these correlations and the existence of a metallicity gradient in Sculptor have on the formation of the dwarf spheroidals are discussed

  9. The influence of the merger history of dwarf galaxies in a reionized universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Robbert; Vandenbroucke, Bert; De Rijcke, Sven; Koleva, Mina

    2015-08-01

    In the ΛCDM model, cosmic structure forms in a hierarchical fashion. According to this paradigm, even low-mass dwarf galaxies grow via smooth accretion and mergers. Given the low masses of dwarf galaxies and their even smaller progenitors, the UV background is expected to have a significant influence on their gas content and, consequently, their star formation histories. Generally, cosmological simulations predict that most dwarf systems with circular velocities below ~30 km/s should not be able to form significant amounts of stars or contain gas and be, in effect, "dark" galaxies (Sawala et al. 2013, 2014; Hopkins et al. 2014; Shen et al. 2014). This is in contradiction with the recent discovery of low-mass yet gas-rich dwarf galaxies, such as Leo P (Skillman et al. 2013), Pisces A (Tollerud et al. 2014), and SECCO 1 (Bellazzini et al. 2015). Moreover, Tollerud et al. (2014) point out that most isolated dark-matter halos down to circular velocities of ~15 km/s contain neutral gas, in contradiction with the predictions of current simulations.Based on a suite of simulations of the formation and evolution of dwarf galaxies we show that, by reducing the first peak of star formation by including Pop-III stars in the simulations, the resulting dwarf galaxies have severely suppressed SFRs and can hold on to their gas reservoirs. Moreover, we show that the majority of the zero-metallicity stars are ejected during mergers, resulting in an extended, low-metallicity stellar halo. This results in a marked difference between a galaxy's "total" star-formation history and the one read from the stars in the center of the galaxy at z=0. This mechanism leads to the formation of realistic low-mass, gas-rich dwarfs with a broad range of SFHs and which adhere to the observed scaling relations, such as the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation.In short, the simulations presented here are for the first time able to reproduce the observed properties of low-mass, gas-rich dwarfs such as DDO 210

  10. A supermassive black hole in an ultra-compact dwarf galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anil C; van den Bosch, Remco; Mieske, Steffen; Baumgardt, Holger; den Brok, Mark; Strader, Jay; Neumayer, Nadine; Chilingarian, Igor; Hilker, Michael; McDermid, Richard; Spitler, Lee; Brodie, Jean; Frank, Matthias J; Walsh, Jonelle L

    2014-09-18

    Ultra-compact dwarf galaxies are among the densest stellar systems in the Universe. These systems have masses of up to 2 × 10(8) solar masses, but half-light radii of just 3-50 parsecs. Dynamical mass estimates show that many such dwarfs are more massive than expected from their luminosity. It remains unclear whether these high dynamical mass estimates arise because of the presence of supermassive black holes or result from a non-standard stellar initial mass function that causes the average stellar mass to be higher than expected. Here we report adaptive optics kinematic data of the ultra-compact dwarf galaxy M60-UCD1 that show a central velocity dispersion peak exceeding 100 kilometres per second and modest rotation. Dynamical modelling of these data reveals the presence of a supermassive black hole with a mass of 2.1 × 10(7) solar masses. This is 15 per cent of the object's total mass. The high black hole mass and mass fraction suggest that M60-UCD1 is the stripped nucleus of a galaxy. Our analysis also shows that M60-UCD1's stellar mass is consistent with its luminosity, implying a large population of previously unrecognized supermassive black holes in other ultra-compact dwarf galaxies.

  11. Snapshot Survey of the Globular Cluster Populations of Isolated Early Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Michael

    2017-08-01

    We propose WFC3/UVIS snapshot observations of a sample of 75 isolated early type galaxiesresiding in cosmic voids or extremely low density regions. The primary aim is to usetheir globular cluster populations to reconstruct their evolutionary history, revealingif, how, and why void ellipticals differ from cluster ellipticals. The galaxies span arange of luminosities, providing a varied sample for comparison with the well-documentedglobular cluster populations in denser environments. This proposed WFC3 study of isolatedearly type galaxies breaks new ground by targeting a sample which has thus far receivedlittle attention, and, significantly, this will be the first such study with HST.Characterizing early type galaxies in voids and their GC systems promises to increase ourunderstanding of galaxy formation and evolution of galaxies in general because isolatedobjects are the best approximation to a control sample that we have for understanding theinfluence of environment on formation and evolution. Whether these isolated objects turnout to be identical to or distinct from counterparts in other regions of the Universe,they will supply insight into the formation and evolution of all galaxies. Parallel ACSimaging will help to characterize the near field environments of the sample.

  12. POX 52: A Dwarf Seyfert 1 Galaxy with an Intermediate-Mass Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron J.; Ho, Luis C.; Rutledge, Robert E.; Sargent, Wallace L. W.

    2004-05-01

    We describe new optical images and spectra of POX 52, a dwarf galaxy with an active nucleus that was originally detected in the POX objective-prism survey. While POX 52 was originally thought to be a Seyfert 2 galaxy, the new data reveal an emission-line spectrum very similar to that of the dwarf Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4395, with broad components to the permitted line profiles, and we classify POX 52 as a Seyfert 1 galaxy. The host galaxy appears to be a dwarf elliptical, and its brightness profile is best fit by a Sérsic model with an index of 3.6+/-0.2 and a total magnitude of MV=-17.6. Applying mass-luminosity-line width scaling relations to estimate the black hole mass from the broad Hβ line width and nonstellar continuum luminosity, we find MBH~1.6×105Msolar. The stellar velocity dispersion in the host galaxy, measured from the Ca II λ8498, 8542 lines, is 36+/-5 km s-1, also suggestive of a black hole mass of order 105Msolar. Further searches for active nuclei in dwarf galaxies can provide unique constraints on the demographics of black holes in the mass range below 106Msolar.

  13. Dark influences: imprints of dark satellites on dwarf galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starkenburg, T. K.; Helmi, A.

    Context. In the context of the current Λ cold dark matter cosmological model small dark matter halos are abundant and satellites of dwarf galaxies are expected to be predominantly dark. Since low mass galaxies have smaller baryon fractions, interactions with these satellites may leave particularly

  14. COMPARING THE OBSERVABLE PROPERTIES OF DWARF GALAXIES ON AND OFF THE ANDROMEDA PLANE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Michelle L. M.; Martin, Nicolas F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Rich, R. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Ibata, Rodrigo A. [Observatoire de Strasbourg, 11, Rue de l' Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Chapman, Scott C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Coburg Road, Halifax B3H1A6 (Canada); McConnachie, Alan W. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, British Columbia, Victoria V9E 2E7 (Canada); Ferguson, Annette M. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Irwin, Michael J. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Rise, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Lewis, Geraint F., E-mail: michelle.collins@yale.edu [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2015-01-20

    The thin, extended planes of satellite galaxies detected around both the Milky Way and Andromeda are not a natural prediction of the Λ-cold dark matter paradigm. Galaxies in these distinct planes may have formed and evolved in a different way (e.g., tidally) from their off-plane neighbors. If this were the case, one would expect the on- and off-plane dwarf galaxies in Andromeda to have experienced different evolutionary histories, which should be reflected by the chemistries, dynamics, and star formation histories of the two populations. In this work, we present new, robust kinematic observations for two on-plane M31 dwarf spheroidal galaxies (And XVI and XVII) and compile and compare all available observational metrics for the on- and off-plane dwarfs to search for a signal that would corroborate such a hypothesis. We find that, barring their spatial alignment, the on- and off-plane Andromeda dwarf galaxies are indistinguishable from one another, arguing against vastly different formative and evolutionary histories for these two populations.

  15. COMPARING THE OBSERVABLE PROPERTIES OF DWARF GALAXIES ON AND OFF THE ANDROMEDA PLANE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Michelle L. M.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Rich, R. M.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Chapman, Scott C.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Ferguson, Annette M.; Irwin, Michael J.; Lewis, Geraint F.

    2015-01-01

    The thin, extended planes of satellite galaxies detected around both the Milky Way and Andromeda are not a natural prediction of the Λ-cold dark matter paradigm. Galaxies in these distinct planes may have formed and evolved in a different way (e.g., tidally) from their off-plane neighbors. If this were the case, one would expect the on- and off-plane dwarf galaxies in Andromeda to have experienced different evolutionary histories, which should be reflected by the chemistries, dynamics, and star formation histories of the two populations. In this work, we present new, robust kinematic observations for two on-plane M31 dwarf spheroidal galaxies (And XVI and XVII) and compile and compare all available observational metrics for the on- and off-plane dwarfs to search for a signal that would corroborate such a hypothesis. We find that, barring their spatial alignment, the on- and off-plane Andromeda dwarf galaxies are indistinguishable from one another, arguing against vastly different formative and evolutionary histories for these two populations

  16. The Universal Stellar Mass-Stellar Metallicity Relation for Dwarf Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Cheng, Lucy; Bullock, James S.; Gallazzi, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We present spectroscopic metallicities of individual stars in seven gas-rich dwarf irregular galaxies (dIrrs), and we show that dIrrs obey the same massmetallicity relation as the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellites of both the Milky Way and M31: Z * σ M * 0.30±0. 02 . The uniformity of the relation is in contradiction to previous estimates of metallicity based on photometry. This relationship is roughly continuous with the stellar massstellar metallicity relation for galaxies as massive asM*...

  17. Extended, regular HI structures around early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterloo, T.; Morganti, R.; Sadler, E. M. Van der; Hulst, J. M. van der; Serra, P.

    Abstract: We discuss the morphology and kinematics of the HI of a sample of 30 southern gas-rich early-type galaxies selected from the HI Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS). This is the largest collection of high-resolution HI data of a homogeneously selected sample. Given the sensitivity of HIPASS,

  18. THE COSMOLOGICAL IMPACT OF LUMINOUS TeV BLAZARS. III. IMPLICATIONS FOR GALAXY CLUSTERS AND THE FORMATION OF DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfrommer, Christoph; Chang, Philip; Broderick, Avery E.

    2012-01-01

    spectrum, σ 8 , and may reconcile SZ-inferred values with those by other cosmological probes even after allowing for a contribution due to patchy reionization. (3) Our redshift-dependent entropy floor increases the characteristic halo mass below which dwarf galaxies cannot form by a factor of approximately 10 (50) at mean density (in voids) over that found in models that include photoionization alone. This prevents the formation of late-forming dwarf galaxies (z ∼ 10 to 10 11 M ☉ for redshifts z ∼ 2 to 0, respectively. This may help resolve the 'missing satellite problem' in the Milky Way of the low observed abundances of dwarf satellites compared to cold dark matter simulations and may bring the observed early star formation histories into agreement with galaxy formation models. At the same time, it explains the 'void phenomenon' by suppressing the formation of galaxies within existing dwarf halos of masses 10 M ☉ with a maximum circular velocity –1 for z ∼< 2, hence reconciling the number of dwarfs in low-density regions in simulations and the paucity of those in observations.

  19. The hot and cold interstellar matter of early type galaxies and their radio emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dongwoo; Fabbiano, G.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last few years, the knowledge of the interstellar matter (ISM) of early type galaxies has increased dramatically. Many early type galaxies are now known to have ISM in three different phases: cold (neutral hydrogen (HI), dust and molecular material), warm (ionized) and hot (S-ray emitting) gas. Early type galaxies have smaller masses of cold ISM (10 to the 7th power - 10 to the 8th power solar mass; Jura et al. 1987) than later type spiral galaxies, while they have far more hot gas (10 to the 9th power - 10 to the tenth power solar mass; Forman et al. 1985, Canizares et al. 1987). In order to understand the relationship between the different phases of the ISM and the role of the ISM in fueling radio continuum sources and star formation, researchers compared observational data from a wide range of wavelengths

  20. THE ROLE OF MERGERS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXY EVOLUTION AND BLACK HOLE GROWTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schawinski, Kevin; Dowlin, Nathan; Urry, C. Megan; Thomas, Daniel; Edmondson, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Models of galaxy formation invoke the major merger of gas-rich progenitor galaxies as the trigger for significant phases of black hole growth and the associated feedback that suppresses star formation to create red spheroidal remnants. However, the observational evidence for the connection between mergers and active galactic nucleus (AGN) phases is not clear. We analyze a sample of low-mass early-type galaxies known to be in the process of migrating from the blue cloud to the red sequence via an AGN phase in the green valley. Using deeper imaging from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82, we show that the fraction of objects with major morphological disturbances is high during the early starburst phase, but declines rapidly to the background level seen in quiescent early-type galaxies by the time of substantial AGN radiation several hundred Myr after the starburst. This observation empirically links the AGN activity in low-redshift early-type galaxies to a significant merger event in the recent past. The large time delay between the merger-driven starburst and the peak of AGN activity allows for the merger features to decay to the background and hence may explain the weak link between merger features and AGN activity in the literature.

  1. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF PASSIVE AND STAR-FORMING EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: AN INFRARED COLOR-COLOR SEQUENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temi, Pasquale; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Mathews, William G.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the infrared properties of a large sample of early-type galaxies, comparing data from the Spitzer archive with Ks-band emission from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. While most representations of this data result in correlations with large scatter, we find a remarkably tight relation among colors formed by ratios of luminosities in Spitzer-Multiband Imaging Photometer bands (24, 70, and 160 μm) and the Ks band. Remarkably, this correlation among E and S0 galaxies follows that of nearby normal galaxies of all morphological types. In particular, the tight infrared color-color correlation for S0 galaxies alone follows that of the entire Hubble sequence of normal galaxies, roughly in order of galaxy type from ellipticals to spirals to irregulars. The specific star formation rate (SFR) of S0 galaxies estimated from the 24 μm luminosity increases with decreasing K-band luminosity (or stellar mass) from essentially zero, as with most massive ellipticals, to rates typical of irregular galaxies. Moreover, the luminosities of the many infrared-luminous S0 galaxies can significantly exceed those of the most luminous (presumably post-merger) E galaxies. SFRs in the most infrared-luminous S0 galaxies approach 1-10 solar masses per year. Consistently, with this picture we find that while most early-type galaxies populate an infrared red sequence, about 24% of the objects (mostly S0s) are in an infrared blue cloud together with late-type galaxies. For those early-type galaxies also observed at radio frequencies, we find that the far-infrared luminosities correlate with the mass of neutral and molecular hydrogen, but the scatter is large. This scatter suggests that the star formation may be intermittent or that similar S0 galaxies with cold gaseous disks of nearly equal mass can have varying radial column density distributions that alter the local and global SFRs.

  2. CONSTRAINTS ON FEEDBACK PROCESSES DURING THE FORMATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevisan, M. [Departamento de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo/IAG, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ferreras, I. [MSSL, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); De La Rosa, I. G. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); La Barbera, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Napoli (Italy); De Carvalho, R. R., E-mail: trevisan@astro.iag.usp.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais/MCT, S. J. dos Campos (Brazil)

    2012-06-20

    Galaxies are found to obey scaling relations between a number of observables. These relations follow different trends at the low- and high-mass ends. The processes driving the curvature of scaling relations remain uncertain. In this Letter, we focus on the specific family of early-type galaxies, deriving the star formation histories of a complete sample of visually classified galaxies from Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 over the redshift range 0.01 < z < 0.025, covering a stellar mass interval from 10{sup 9} to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }. Our sample features the characteristic 'knee' in the surface brightness versus mass distribution at M{sub *} {approx} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} . We find a clear difference between the age and metallicity distributions of the stellar populations above and beyond this knee, which suggests a sudden transition from a constant, highly efficient mode of star formation in high-mass galaxies, gradually decreasing toward the low-mass end of the sample. At fixed mass, our early-type sample is more efficient in building up the stellar content at early times in comparison to the general population of galaxies, with half of the stars already in place by redshift z {approx} 2 for all masses. The metallicity-age trend in low-mass galaxies is not compatible with infall of metal-poor gas, suggesting instead an outflow-driven relation.

  3. EXPLORING THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIA OF OPTICALLY COMPACT DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Most, Hans P.; Cannon, John M.; Engstrom, Eric; Fliss, Palmer [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Salzer, John J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Rosenberg, Jessica L., E-mail: hmost@macalester.edu, E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu, E-mail: slaz@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: jrosenb4@gmu.edu [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    We present new Very Large Array H I spectral line, archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and archival Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of eight star-forming blue compact dwarf galaxies that were selected to be optically compact (optical radii <1 kpc). These systems have faint blue absolute magnitudes (M{sub B} {approx}> -17), ongoing star formation (based on emission-line selection by the H{alpha} or [O III] lines), and are nearby (mean velocity = 3315 km s{sup -1} {approx_equal} 45 Mpc). One galaxy in the sample, ADBS 113845+2008, is found to have an H I halo that extends 58 r-band scale lengths from its stellar body. In contrast, the rest of the sample galaxies have H I radii to optical-scale-length ratios ranging from 9.3 to 26. The size of the H I disk in the 'giant disk' dwarf galaxy ADBS 113845+2008 appears to be unusual as compared with similarly compact stellar populations.

  4. GLOBULAR CLUSTER POPULATIONS: FIRST RESULTS FROM S{sup 4}G EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaritsky, Dennis [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Aravena, Manuel [Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Avenida Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Comerón, Sébastien; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki [Astronomy Division, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Knapen, Johan H. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Lácteas, E-38205 La Laguna (Spain); Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Hinz, Joannah L. [MMT Observatory, P.O. Box 210065, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Holwerda, Benne [Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, Niels Bohrweg 4, NL-2333 Leiden (Netherlands); Sheth, Kartik, E-mail: dennis.zaritsky@gmail.com [National Radio Astronomy Observatory/NAASC, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Using 3.6 μm images of 97 early-type galaxies, we develop and verify methodology to measure globular cluster populations from the S{sup 4}G survey images. We find that (1) the ratio, T {sub N}, of the number of clusters, N {sub CL}, to parent galaxy stellar mass, M {sub *}, rises weakly with M {sub *} for early-type galaxies with M {sub *} > 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} when we calculate galaxy masses using a universal stellar initial mass function (IMF) but that the dependence of T {sub N} on M {sub *} is removed entirely once we correct for the recently uncovered systematic variation of IMF with M {sub *}; and (2) for M {sub *} < 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, there is no trend between N {sub CL} and M {sub *}, the scatter in T {sub N} is significantly larger (approaching two orders of magnitude), and there is evidence to support a previous, independent suggestion of two families of galaxies. The behavior of N {sub CL} in the lower-mass systems is more difficult to measure because these systems are inherently cluster-poor, but our results may add to previous evidence that large variations in cluster formation and destruction efficiencies are to be found among low-mass galaxies. The average fraction of stellar mass in clusters is ∼0.0014 for M {sub *} > 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} and can be as large as ∼0.02 for less massive galaxies. These are the first results from the S{sup 4}G sample of galaxies and will be enhanced by the sample of early-type galaxies now being added to S{sup 4}G and complemented by the study of later-type galaxies within S{sup 4}G.

  5. Observations of the impact of starbursts on the interstellar medium in dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Amanda T.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Schommer, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies play a crucial role in our understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies, and the concept of supernova-driven mass outflows is a vital ingredient in theories of the structure and evolution of dwarf galaxies. Despite the theoretical importance of these outflows, there is a very limited amount of direct observational evidence for their existence. We have therefore begun a detailed multi-wave-band search for outflows in dwarf (MB greater than or = -18) galaxies with extensive recent or ongoing centrally concentrated star formation. We report the first results of this search in the present paper. Observations of the ionized gas in dwarf amorphous galaxies with centrally concentrated populations of massive stars provide evidence for the large-scale expansion of their expansion of their ionized interstellar media. Fabry-Perot H alpha images reveal the presence of kiloparsec-scale 'superbubbles' and filaments which tend to be oriented along the galaxy minor axis. These structures are comparable in size to the chracteristic optical sizes of the galaxies, and dominate the morphology of the galaxies at low surface brightness in H alpha. Since expanding structure of this size and velocity are not observed in all low-mass galaxies with recent or ongoing star formation, we suggest that we are witnessing transient events that likely have a relatively low 'duty cycle' in such galaxies. That is, we argue that the particular galaxies in the present paper have had significantly elevated star formation rates over the past 107-108 yr (i.e., these are starburst or young poststarburst systems). This interpretation is consistent with the optical colors and emission-line properties of these galaxies.

  6. The physical properties in the interstellar medium of low-metallicity dwarf galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormier, Diane

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of galaxy evolution, local star-forming dwarf galaxies are ideal laboratories to study star formation processes at low metallicity and the role of metal enrichment on the physical conditions. My thesis has focused on the study of the gas properties of the dwarf galaxies from 'The Herschel Dwarf Galaxy Survey', combining observations and modeling efforts. I have investigated the role of the most important tracers of the multi-phase the interstellar medium (ISM), in the mid-infrared to submillimeter range. Particular attention was paid to the ionized and neutral gas coolants observed with Herschel Space Observatory (e.g. [OIII] 88, [OI] 63, [CII] 157 micron lines), and to the CO molecule, probing the molecular phase, with complementary ground-based observations. The data are interpreted in physical terms (density, radiation field, filling factors) with radiative transfer models. This work has helped elucidate the structure and conditions of the low-metallicity ISM. It highlights the porosity of the ISM of dwarf galaxies, with ultraviolet photons from the massive star-forming regions exciting the gas out to large distances. This results in the presence of large volume filling factor diffuse ionized/neutral gas, clumpy photodissociation regions, and little observed molecular gas due to large-scale photodissociation. (author) [fr

  7. Anomalous evolution of the dwarf galaxy HIPASS J1321-31

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pritzl, BJ; Knezek, PM; Gallagher, JS; Grossi, M; Disney, MJ; Minchin, RF; Freeman, KC; Tolstoy, E; Saha, A

    2003-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 observations of the dwarf galaxy HIPASS J1321-31. This unusual galaxy lies in the direction of the Centaurus A group of galaxies and has a color-magnitude diagram with a distinctive red plume of luminous stars. This feature could arise from (1) a red giant

  8. The Star-forming Main Sequence of Dwarf Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaugh, Stacy S.; Schombert, James M.; Lelli, Federico

    2017-12-01

    We explore the star-forming properties of late-type, low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. The star-forming main sequence ({SFR}-{M}* ) of LSB dwarfs has a steep slope, indistinguishable from unity (1.04 ± 0.06). They form a distinct sequence from more massive spirals, which exhibit a shallower slope. The break occurs around {M}* ≈ {10}10 {M}⊙ , and can also be seen in the gas mass—stellar mass plane. The global Kennicutt-Schmidt law ({SFR}-{M}g) has a slope of 1.47 ± 0.11 without the break seen in the main sequence. There is an ample supply of gas in LSB galaxies, which have gas depletion times well in excess of a Hubble time, and often tens of Hubble times. Only ˜ 3 % of this cold gas needs be in the form of molecular gas to sustain the observed star formation. In analogy with the faint, long-lived stars of the lower stellar main sequence, it may be appropriate to consider the main sequence of star-forming galaxies to be defined by thriving dwarfs (with {M}* {10}10 {M}⊙ ) are weary giants that constitute more of a turn-off population.

  9. Model-independent constraints on dark matter annihilation in dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Boddy, Kimberly K.; Kumar, Jason; Marfatia, Danny; Sandick, Pearl

    2018-01-01

    We present a general, model-independent formalism for determining bounds on the production of photons in dwarf spheroidal galaxies via dark matter annihilation, applicable to any set of assumptions about dark matter particle physics or astrophysics. As an illustration, we analyze gamma-ray data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope to constrain a variety of nonstandard dark matter models, several of which have not previously been studied in the context of dwarf galaxy searches.

  10. Bars in dark-matter-dominated dwarf galaxy discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, A.; Oman, K. A.; Navarro, J. F.; Frenk, C. S.; Oosterloo, T.

    2018-05-01

    We study the shape and kinematics of simulated dwarf galaxy discs in the APOSTLE suite of Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. We find that a large fraction of these gas-rich, star-forming discs show weak bars in their stellar component, despite being dark-matter-dominated systems. The bar pattern shape and orientation reflect the ellipticity of the dark matter potential, and its rotation is locked to the slow figure rotation of the triaxial dark halo. The bar-like nature of the potential induces non-circular motions in the gas component, including strong bisymmetric flows that can be readily seen as m = 3 harmonic perturbations in the H I line-of-sight velocity fields. Similar bisymmetric flows are seen in many galaxies of The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS) and Local Irregulars That Trace Luminosity Extremes THINGS (LITTLE THINGS), although on average their amplitudes are a factor of ˜2 weaker than in our simulated discs. Our results indicate that bar-like patterns may arise even when baryons are not dominant, and that they are common enough to warrant careful consideration when analysing the gas kinematics of dwarf galaxy discs.

  11. A possible formation scenario for dwarf spheroidal galaxies - III. Adding star formation histories to the fiducial model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón Jara, A. G.; Fellhauer, M.; Matus Carrillo, D. R.; Assmann, P.; Urrutia Zapata, F.; Hazeldine, J.; Aravena, C. A.

    2018-02-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are regarded as the basic building blocks in the formation of larger galaxies and are the most dark matter dominated systems in the Universe, known so far. There are several models that attempt to explain their formation and evolution, but they have problems modelling the formation of isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Here, we will explain a possible formation scenario in which star clusters form inside the dark matter halo of a dwarf spheroidal galaxy. These star clusters suffer from low star formation efficiency and dissolve while orbiting inside the dark matter halo. Thereby, they build the faint luminous components that we observe in dwarf spheroidal galaxies. In this paper, we study this model by adding different star formation histories to the simulations and compare the results with our previous work and observational data to show that we can explain the formation of dwarf spheroidal galaxies.

  12. Dwarf Galaxies with Gentle Star Formation and the Counts of Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Ana

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the counts and colors of the faint galaxies observed in the Hubble Deep Field are fitted by means of simple luminosity evolution models that incorporate a numerous population of fading dwarfs. The observed color distribution of the very faint galaxies now allows us to put constraints on the star formation history in dwarfs. It is shown that the star-forming activity in these small systems has to proceed in a gentle way, i.e., through episodes where each one lasts much longer tha...

  13. PAndAS' CUBS: DISCOVERY OF TWO NEW DWARF GALAXIES IN THE SURROUNDINGS OF THE ANDROMEDA AND TRIANGULUM GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Irwin, Mike; Chapman, Scott; Widrow, Lawrence M.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Dubinski, John; Babul, Arif; Navarro, Julio; Fardal, Mark; Lewis, Geraint F.; Rich, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    We present the discovery of two new dwarf galaxies, Andromeda XXI and Andromeda XXII, located in the surroundings of the Andromeda and Triangulum galaxies (M31 and M33). These discoveries stem from the first year data of the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey, a photometric survey of the M31/M33 group conducted with the Megaprime/MegaCam Wide-Field Camera mounted on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Both satellites appear as spatial overdensities of stars which, when plotted in a color-magnitude diagram, follow metal-poor, [Fe/H] = -1.8, red giant branches at the distance of M31/M33. Andromeda XXI is a moderately bright dwarf galaxy (M V = -9.9 ± 0.6), albeit with low surface brightness, emphasizing again that many relatively luminous M31 satellites still remain to be discovered. It is also a large satellite, with a half-light radius close to 1 kpc, making it the fourth largest Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxy after the recently discovered Andromeda XIX, Andromeda II, and Sagittarius around the Milky Way, and supports the trend that M31 satellites are larger than their Milky Way counterparts. Andromeda XXII is much fainter (M V = -6.5 ± 0.8) and lies a lot closer in projection to M33 than it does to M31 (42 versus 224 kpc), suggesting that it could be the first Triangulum satellite to be discovered. Although this is a very exciting possibility in the context of a past interaction of M33 with M31 and the fate of its satellite system, a confirmation will have to await a good distance estimate to confirm its physical proximity to M33. Along with the dwarf galaxies found in previous surveys of the M31 surroundings, these two new satellites bring the number of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in this region to 20.

  14. The outer disks of early-type galaxies. I. Surface-brightness profiles of barred galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erwin, Peter; Pohlen, Michael; Beckman, John E.

    We present a study of 66 barred, early-type (S0-Sb) disk galaxies, focused on the disk surface brightness profile outside the bar region, with the aim of throwing light on the nature of Freeman type I and II profiles, their origins, and their possible relation to disk truncations. This paper

  15. 3He, red dwarf stars and future trillion years of the Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solpiter, Eh.Eh.

    1986-01-01

    Certain problems of red dwarf evolution are considered. On the basis of the observed upper limit of 3 He content in interstellar medium the evaluation of the limit of average rate of a dwarf star mass loss is given. For a typical dwarf of the age approximately equal to half of the Galaxy age the upper limit for the average part of the star mass, which has been lost in 10 10 years by means of stellar wind, constitutes g≤0.04. If g is near its upper limit, equal to 0.04, energy inflow to the interstellar medium from dwarfs is small, as compared with supernovae in the Galaxy, but not negligible

  16. No Assembly Required: Mergers are Mostly Irrelevant for the Growth of Low-mass Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, Alex; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S.; Weisz, Daniel R.; El-Badry, Kareem; Wheeler, Coral; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Quataert, Eliot; Hopkins, Philip F.; Kereš, Dušan; Wetzel, Andrew; Hayward, Christopher C.

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the merger histories of isolated dwarf galaxies based on a suite of 15 high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations, all with masses of Mhalo ≈ 1010 M⊙ (and M⋆ ˜ 105 - 107 M⊙) at z = 0, from the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) project. The stellar populations of these dwarf galaxies at z = 0 are formed essentially entirely "in situ": over 90% of the stellar mass is formed in the main progenitor in all but two cases, and all 15 of the galaxies have >70% of their stellar mass formed in situ. Virtually all galaxy mergers occur prior to z ˜ 3, meaning that accreted stellar populations are ancient. On average, our simulated dwarfs undergo 5 galaxy mergers in their lifetimes, with typical pre-merger galaxy mass ratios that are less than 1:10. This merger frequency is generally comparable to what has been found in dissipationless simulations when coupled with abundance matching. Two of the simulated dwarfs have a luminous satellite companion at z = 0. These ultra-faint dwarfs lie at or below current detectability thresholds but are intriguing targets for next-generation facilities. The small contribution of accreted stars make it extremely difficult to discern the effects of mergers in the vast majority of dwarfs either photometrically or using resolved-star color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). The important implication for near-field cosmology is that star formation histories of comparably massive galaxies derived from resolved CMDs should trace the build-up of stellar mass in one main system across cosmic time as opposed to reflecting the contributions of many individual star formation histories of merged dwarfs.

  17. CHEMICAL DIVERSITY IN THE ULTRA-FAINT DWARF GALAXY TUCANA II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Alexander P.; Frebel, Anna; Ezzeddine, Rana [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Casey, Andrew R., E-mail: alexji@mit.edu [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-20

    We present the first detailed chemical abundance study of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Tucana II, based on high-resolution Magellan/MIKE spectra of four red giant stars. The metallicities of these stars range from [Fe/H] = −3.2 to −2.6, and all stars are low in neutron-capture abundances ([Sr/Fe] and [Ba/Fe] < −1). However, a number of anomalous chemical signatures are present. One star is relatively metal-rich ([Fe/H] = −2.6) and shows [Na, α , Sc/Fe] < 0, suggesting an extended star formation history with contributions from AGB stars and SNe Ia. Two stars with [Fe/H] < −3 are mildly carbon-enhanced ([C/Fe] ∼ 0.7) and may be consistent with enrichment by faint supernovae, if such supernovae can produce neutron-capture elements. A fourth star with [Fe/H] = −3 is carbon-normal, and exhibits distinct light element abundance ratios from the carbon-enhanced stars. This carbon-normal star implies that at least two distinct nucleosynthesis sources, both possibly associated with Population III stars, contributed to the early chemical enrichment of this galaxy. Despite its very low luminosity, Tucana II shows a diversity of chemical signatures that preclude it from being a simple “one-shot” first galaxy yet still provide a window into star and galaxy formation in the early universe.

  18. CHEMICAL DIVERSITY IN THE ULTRA-FAINT DWARF GALAXY TUCANA II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Alexander P.; Frebel, Anna; Ezzeddine, Rana; Casey, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    We present the first detailed chemical abundance study of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Tucana II, based on high-resolution Magellan/MIKE spectra of four red giant stars. The metallicities of these stars range from [Fe/H] = −3.2 to −2.6, and all stars are low in neutron-capture abundances ([Sr/Fe] and [Ba/Fe] < −1). However, a number of anomalous chemical signatures are present. One star is relatively metal-rich ([Fe/H] = −2.6) and shows [Na, α , Sc/Fe] < 0, suggesting an extended star formation history with contributions from AGB stars and SNe Ia. Two stars with [Fe/H] < −3 are mildly carbon-enhanced ([C/Fe] ∼ 0.7) and may be consistent with enrichment by faint supernovae, if such supernovae can produce neutron-capture elements. A fourth star with [Fe/H] = −3 is carbon-normal, and exhibits distinct light element abundance ratios from the carbon-enhanced stars. This carbon-normal star implies that at least two distinct nucleosynthesis sources, both possibly associated with Population III stars, contributed to the early chemical enrichment of this galaxy. Despite its very low luminosity, Tucana II shows a diversity of chemical signatures that preclude it from being a simple “one-shot” first galaxy yet still provide a window into star and galaxy formation in the early universe.

  19. The hELENa project - I. Stellar populations of early-type galaxies linked with local environment and galaxy mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sybilska, A.; Lisker, T.; Kuntschner, H.; Vazdekis, A.; van de Ven, G.; Peletier, R.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Janz, J.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first in a series of papers in The role of Environment in shaping Low-mass Early-type Nearby galaxies (hELENa) project. In this paper, we combine our sample of 20 low-mass early types (dEs) with 258 massive early types (ETGs) from the ATLAS3D survey - all observed with the SAURON

  20. Milky Way red dwarfs in the BoRG survey; galactic scale-height and the distribution of dwarf stars in WFC3 imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holwerda, B. W.; Bouwens, R.; Trenti, M.; Clarkson, W.; Sahu, K.; Bradley, L.; Stiavelli, M.; Pirzkal, N.; Ryan, R.; De Marchi, G.; Andersen, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a tally of Milky Way late-type dwarf stars in 68 Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) pure-parallel fields (227 arcmin 2 ) from the Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies survey for high-redshift galaxies. Using spectroscopically identified M-dwarfs in two public surveys, the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey and the Early Release Science mosaics, we identify a morphological selection criterion using the half-light radius (r 50 ), a near-infrared J – H, G – J color region where M-dwarfs are found, and a V – J relation with M-dwarf subtype. We apply this morphological selection of stellar objects, color-color selection of M-dwarfs, and optical-near-infrared color subtyping to compile a catalog of 274 M-dwarfs belonging to the disk of the Milky Way with a limiting magnitude of m F125W < 24(AB). Based on the M-dwarf statistics, we conclude that (1) the previously identified north-south discrepancy in M-dwarf numbers persists in our sample; there are more M-dwarfs in the northern fields on average than in southern ones, (2) the Milky Way's single disk scale-height for M-dwarfs is 0.3-4 kpc, depending on subtype, (3) the scale-height depends on M-dwarf subtype with early types (M0-4) high scale-height (z 0 = 3-4 kpc) and later types M5 and above in the thin disk (z 0 = 0.3-0.5 kpc), (4) a second component is visible in the vertical distribution, with a different, much higher scale-height in the southern fields compared to the northern ones. We report the M-dwarf component of the Sagittarius stream in one of our fields with 11 confirmed M-dwarfs, seven of which are at the stream's distance. In addition to the M-dwarf catalog, we report the discovery of 1 T-dwarfs and 30 L-dwarfs from their near-infrared colors. The dwarf scale-height and the relative low incidence in our fields of L- and T-dwarfs in these fields makes it unlikely that these stars will be interlopers in great numbers in color-selected samples of high-redshift galaxies

  1. Milky Way red dwarfs in the BoRG survey; galactic scale-height and the distribution of dwarf stars in WFC3 imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holwerda, B. W.; Bouwens, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Trenti, M. [Kavli Institute for Cosmology and Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Clarkson, W. [Department of Natural Sciences College of Arts, Sciences and Letters, University of Michigan-Dearborn 4901 Evergreen Road, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States); Sahu, K.; Bradley, L.; Stiavelli, M.; Pirzkal, N.; Ryan, R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); De Marchi, G. [European Space Agency, ESA-ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Andersen, M., E-mail: holwerda@strw.leidenuniv.nl [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planétologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, F-38041 Grenoble (France)

    2014-06-10

    We present a tally of Milky Way late-type dwarf stars in 68 Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) pure-parallel fields (227 arcmin{sup 2}) from the Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies survey for high-redshift galaxies. Using spectroscopically identified M-dwarfs in two public surveys, the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey and the Early Release Science mosaics, we identify a morphological selection criterion using the half-light radius (r {sub 50}), a near-infrared J – H, G – J color region where M-dwarfs are found, and a V – J relation with M-dwarf subtype. We apply this morphological selection of stellar objects, color-color selection of M-dwarfs, and optical-near-infrared color subtyping to compile a catalog of 274 M-dwarfs belonging to the disk of the Milky Way with a limiting magnitude of m {sub F125W} < 24(AB). Based on the M-dwarf statistics, we conclude that (1) the previously identified north-south discrepancy in M-dwarf numbers persists in our sample; there are more M-dwarfs in the northern fields on average than in southern ones, (2) the Milky Way's single disk scale-height for M-dwarfs is 0.3-4 kpc, depending on subtype, (3) the scale-height depends on M-dwarf subtype with early types (M0-4) high scale-height (z {sub 0} = 3-4 kpc) and later types M5 and above in the thin disk (z {sub 0} = 0.3-0.5 kpc), (4) a second component is visible in the vertical distribution, with a different, much higher scale-height in the southern fields compared to the northern ones. We report the M-dwarf component of the Sagittarius stream in one of our fields with 11 confirmed M-dwarfs, seven of which are at the stream's distance. In addition to the M-dwarf catalog, we report the discovery of 1 T-dwarfs and 30 L-dwarfs from their near-infrared colors. The dwarf scale-height and the relative low incidence in our fields of L- and T-dwarfs in these fields makes it unlikely that these stars will be interlopers in great numbers in color-selected samples of

  2. Black holes at the centers of nearby dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Edward C.; Shahinyan, Karlen; Sugarman, Hannah R.; Vélez, Darik O. [Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Eracleous, Michael [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Using a distance-limited portion of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, we have identified 28 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in nearby (d⩽80 Mpc) low-mass, low-luminosity dwarf galaxies. The accreting objects at the galaxy centers are expected to be intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with M{sub BH}⩽10{sup 6} M{sub ⊙}. The AGNs were selected using several optical emission-line diagnostics after careful modeling of the continuum present in the spectra. We have limited our survey to objects with spectral characteristics similar to those of Seyfert nuclei, excluding emission-line galaxies with ambiguous spectra that could be powered by stellar processes. Thus, as a set, the host galaxies in our sample are the least massive objects in the very local universe certain to contain central black holes. Our sample is dominated by narrow-line (type 2) AGNs, and it appears to have a much lower fraction of broad-line objects than that observed for luminous, optically selected Seyfert galaxies. Given our focus on the nearest objects included in the SDSS, our survey is more sensitive to low-luminosity emission than previous optical searches for AGNs in low-mass galaxies. The [O iii] λ5007 luminosities of the Seyfert nuclei in our sample have a median value of L{sub 5007}=2×10{sup 5} L{sub ⊙} and extend down to ∼10{sup 4} L{sub ⊙}. Using published data for broad-line IMBH candidates, we have derived an [O iii] bolometric correction of log(L{sub bol}/L{sub 5007})=3.0±0.3, which is significantly lower than values obtained for high-luminosity AGNs. Applying this correction to our sample, we obtain minimum black hole mass estimates that fall mainly in the 10{sup 3} M{sub ⊙}–10{sup 4} M{sub ⊙} range, which is roughly where the predicted mass functions for different black hole seed formation scenarios overlap the most. In the stellar mass range that includes the bulk of the AGN host galaxies in our sample, we derive a lower limit on the AGN fraction

  3. The Evolution of Dwarf-Irregular Galaxy NGC 1569: A Kinematic Study of the Stars and Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Megan C.

    2011-12-01

    The evolution and formation of dwarf galaxies has great importance to our knowledge of cosmological history from the Big Bang through the present day structure we observe in our local universe. Dwarf galaxies are believed to be the "building blocks" of larger galaxies, which implies that interactions and mergers of these small systems must have occurred frequently in the early universe. There is a population of starburst dwarf irregular (dIm) galaxies that seem to have characteristics indicative of interactions or mergers. One of these dIm galaxies is the nearby post-starburst NGC 1569. This dissertation project explores the stellar and gas kinematics of NGC 1569 as well as examines a deep neutral Hydrogen (HI) map made using the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). From these observations, this dissertation analyzes the evolution of NGC 1569 by understanding the three-dimensional shape of this dIm system for the first time. The structure of dIm galaxies is an important fundamental, physical property necessary to understand the evolution and formation of these common systems. However, the intrinsic shape of dIm galaxies remains controversial. Projected minor-to-major axis ratios provide insufficient data to determine the shapes of dIm galaxies. Fortunately, there is another method by which accurate structures can be measured. The stellar velocity dispersion, coupled with the maximum rotational velocity derived from HI observations, gives a measure of how kinematically hot a system is, and, therefore, indicates its structure. In this dissertation, we present the stellar kinematics, including the stellar velocity dispersion, of NGC 1569 obtained using the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) Mayall 4-m+Echelle spectrograph. These data are combined with an in depth analysis of high resolution HI data and a discussion of the nature of this starburst dwarf system. The dissertation concludes with a deep HI map of NGC 1569 and three of its nearest neighbors in the

  4. THE NUMBER OF TIDAL DWARF SATELLITE GALAXIES IN DEPENDENCE OF BULGE INDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Corredoira, Martín; Kroupa, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    We show that a significant correlation (up to 5σ) emerges between the bulge index, defined to be larger for a larger bulge/disk ratio, in spiral galaxies with similar luminosities in the Galaxy Zoo 2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the number of tidal-dwarf galaxies in the catalog by Kaviraj et al. In the standard cold or warm dark matter cosmological models, the number of satellite galaxies correlates with the circular velocity of the dark matter host halo. In generalized gravity models without cold or warm dark matter, such a correlation does not exist, because host galaxies cannot capture infalling dwarf galaxies due to the absence of dark-matter-induced dynamical friction. However, in such models, a correlation is expected to exist between the bulge mass and the number of satellite galaxies because bulges and tidal-dwarf satellite galaxies form in encounters between host galaxies. This is not predicted by dark matter models in which bulge mass and the number of satellites are a priori uncorrelated because higher bulge/disk ratios do not imply higher dark/luminous ratios. Hence, our correlation reproduces the prediction of scenarios without dark matter, whereas an explanation is not found readily from the a priori predictions of the standard scenario with dark matter. Further research is needed to explore whether some application of the standard theory may explain this correlation

  5. INSIGHTS INTO PRE-ENRICHMENT OF STAR CLUSTERS AND SELF-ENRICHMENT OF DWARF GALAXIES FROM THEIR INTRINSIC METALLICITY DISPERSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaman, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Star clusters are known to have smaller intrinsic metallicity spreads than dwarf galaxies due to their shorter star formation timescales. Here we use individual spectroscopic [Fe/H] measurements of stars in 19 Local Group dwarf galaxies, 13 Galactic open clusters, and 49 globular clusters to show that star cluster and dwarf galaxy linear metallicity distributions are binomial in form, with all objects showing strong correlations between their mean linear metallicity Z-bar and intrinsic spread in metallicity σ(Z) 2 . A plot of σ(Z) 2 versus Z-bar shows that the correlated relationships are offset for the dwarf galaxies from the star clusters. The common binomial nature of these linear metallicity distributions can be explained with a simple inhomogeneous chemical evolution model, where the star cluster and dwarf galaxy behavior in the σ(Z) 2 - Z-bar diagram is reproduced in terms of the number of enrichment events, covering fraction, and intrinsic size of the enriched regions. The inhomogeneity of the self-enrichment sets the slope for the observed dwarf galaxy σ(Z) 2 - Z-bar correlation. The offset of the star cluster sequence from that of the dwarf galaxies is due to pre-enrichment, and the slope of the star cluster sequence represents the remnant signature of the self-enriched history of their host galaxies. The offset can be used to separate star clusters from dwarf galaxies without a priori knowledge of their luminosity or dynamical mass. The application of the inhomogeneous model to the σ(Z) 2 - Z-bar relationship provides a numerical formalism to connect the self-enrichment and pre-enrichment between star clusters and dwarf galaxies using physically motivated chemical enrichment parameters. Therefore we suggest that the σ(Z) 2 - Z-bar relationship can provide insight into what drives the efficiency of star formation and chemical evolution in galaxies, and is an important prediction for galaxy simulation models to reproduce.

  6. Star Formation Histories of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies. (Ludwig Biermann Award Lecture 1996)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebel, E. K.

    The star formation histories of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group are reviewed. First the question of Local Group membership is considered based on various criteria. The properties of 31 (36) galaxies are consistent with likely (potential) Local Group membership. To study the star formation histories of these galaxies, a multi-parameter problem needs to be solved: Ages, metallicities, population fractions, and spatial variations must be determined, which depend crucially on the knowledge of reddening and distance. The basic methods for studying resolvable stellar populations are summarized. One method is demonstrated using the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. A comprehensive compilation of the star formation histories of dwarf irregulars, dwarf ellipticals, and dwarf spheroidals in the Local Group is presented and visualized through Hodge's population boxes. All galaxies appear to have differing fractions of old and intermediate-age populations, and those sufficiently massive and undisturbed to retain and recycle their gas are still forming stars today. Star formation has occurred either in distinct episodes or continuously over long periods of time. Metallicities and enrichment vary widely. Constraints on merger and remnant scenarios are discussed, and a unified picture based on the current knowledge is presented. Primary goals for future observations are: accurate age determinations based on turnoff photometry, detection of subpopulations distinct in age, metallicity, and/or spatial distribution; improved distances; and astrometric studies to derive orbits and constrain past and future interactions.

  7. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. I. Hubble space telescope/wide field planetary camera 2 observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.

    2014-01-01

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with τ ∼ 5 Gyr; (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs, and dwarf ellipticals can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH (τ ∼ 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages >10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z = 2 ranges considerably (80% for galaxies with M < 10 5 M ☉ to 30% for galaxies with M > 10 7 M ☉ ) and is largely explained by environment; (5) the distinction between 'ultra-faint' and 'classical' dSphs is arbitrary; (6) LG dIrrs formed a significantly higher fraction of stellar mass prior to z = 2 than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies from Leitner and the SFHs from the abundance matching models of Behroozi et al. This may indicate higher than expected star formation efficiencies at early times in low mass galaxies. Finally, we provide all the SFHs in tabulated electronic format for use by the community.

  8. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. I. Hubble space telescope/wide field planetary camera 2 observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, 1320 Frenger Street, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F., E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with τ ∼ 5 Gyr; (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs, and dwarf ellipticals can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH (τ ∼ 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages >10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z = 2 ranges considerably (80% for galaxies with M < 10{sup 5} M{sub ☉} to 30% for galaxies with M > 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉}) and is largely explained by environment; (5) the distinction between 'ultra-faint' and 'classical' dSphs is arbitrary; (6) LG dIrrs formed a significantly higher fraction of stellar mass prior to z = 2 than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies from Leitner and the SFHs from the abundance matching models of Behroozi et al. This may indicate higher than expected star formation efficiencies at early times in low mass galaxies. Finally, we provide all the SFHs in tabulated electronic format for use by the community.

  9. Reconstructing the Dwarf Galaxy Progenitor from Tidal Streams Using MilkyWay@home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberg, Heidi; Shelton, Siddhartha

    2018-04-01

    We attempt to reconstruct the mass and radial profile of stars and dark matter in the dwarf galaxy progenitor of the Orphan Stream, using only information from the stars in the Orphan Stream. We show that given perfect data and perfect knowledge of the dwarf galaxy profile and Milky Way potential, we are able to reconstruct the mass and radial profiles of both the stars and dark matter in the progenitor to high accuracy using only the density of stars along the stream and either the velocity dispersion or width of the stream in the sky. To perform this test, we simulated the tidal disruption of a two component (stars and dark matter) dwarf galaxy along the orbit of the Orphan Stream. We then created a histogram of the density of stars along the stream and a histogram of either the velocity dispersion or width of the stream in the sky as a function of position along the stream. The volunteer supercomputer MilkyWay@home was given these two histograms, the Milky Way potential model, and the orbital parameters for the progenitor. N-body simulations were run, varying dwarf galaxy parameters and the time of disruption. The goodness-of-fit of the model to the data was determined using an Earth-Mover Distance algorithm. The parameters were optimized using Differential Evolution. Future work will explore whether currently available information on the Orphan Stream stars is sufficient to constrain its progenitor, and how sensitive the optimization is to our knowledge of the Milky Way potential and the density model of the dwarf galaxy progenitor, as well as a host of other real-life unknowns.

  10. Stellar Abundances for Galactic Archaeology Database. IV. Compilation of stars in dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Takuma; Hidaka, Jun; Aoki, Wako; Katsuta, Yutaka; Yamada, Shimako; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.; Ohtani, Yukari; Masuyama, Miyu; Noda, Kazuhiro; Wada, Kentaro

    2017-10-01

    We have constructed a database of stars in Local Group galaxies using the extended version of the SAGA (Stellar Abundances for Galactic Archaeology) database that contains stars in 24 dwarf spheroidal galaxies and ultra-faint dwarfs. The new version of the database includes more than 4500 stars in the Milky Way, by removing the previous metallicity criterion of [Fe/H] ≤ -2.5, and more than 6000 stars in the Local Group galaxies. We examined the validity of using a combined data set for elemental abundances. We also checked the consistency between the derived distances to individual stars and those to galaxies as given in the literature. Using the updated database, the characteristics of stars in dwarf galaxies are discussed. Our statistical analyses of α-element abundances show that the change of the slope of the [α/Fe] relative to [Fe/H] (so-called "knee") occurs at [Fe/H] = -1.0 ± 0.1 for the Milky Way. The knee positions for selected galaxies are derived by applying the same method. The star formation history of individual galaxies is explored using the slope of the cumulative metallicity distribution function. Radial gradients along the four directions are inspected in six galaxies where we find no direction-dependence of metallicity gradients along the major and minor axes. The compilation of all the available data shows a lack of CEMP-s population in dwarf galaxies, while there may be some CEMP-no stars at [Fe/H] ≲ -3 even in the very small sample. The inspection of the relationship between Eu and Ba abundances confirms an anomalously Ba-rich population in Fornax, which indicates a pre-enrichment of interstellar gas with r-process elements. We do not find any evidence of anti-correlations in O-Na and Mg-Al abundances, which characterizes the abundance trends in the Galactic globular clusters.

  11. The influence of galaxy environment on the stellar initial mass function of early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosani, Giulio; Pasquali, Anna; La Barbera, Francesco; Ferreras, Ignacio; Vazdekis, Alexandre

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether the stellar initial mass function (IMF) of early-type galaxies depends on their host environment. To this purpose, we have selected a sample of early-type galaxies from the SPIDER catalogue, characterized their environment through the group catalogue of Wang et al., and used their optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra to constrain the IMF slope, through the analysis of IMF-sensitive spectral indices. To reach a high enough signal-to-noise ratio, we have stacked spectra in velocity dispersion (σ0) bins, on top of separating the sample by galaxy hierarchy and host halo mass, as proxies for galaxy environment. In order to constrain the IMF, we have compared observed line strengths and predictions of MIUSCAT/EMILES synthetic stellar population models, with varying age, metallicity, and `bimodal' (low-mass tapered) IMF slope (Γ _b). Consistent with previous studies, we find that Γ _b increases with σ0, becoming bottom-heavy (i.e. an excess of low-mass stars with respect to the Milky Way like IMF) at high σ0. We find that this result is robust against the set of isochrones used in the stellar population models, as well as the way the effect of elemental abundance ratios is taken into account. We thus conclude that it is possible to use currently state-of-the-art stellar population models and intermediate resolution spectra to consistently probe IMF variations. For the first time, we show that there is no dependence of Γb on environment or galaxy hierarchy, as measured within the 3 arcsec SDSS fibre, thus leaving the IMF as an intrinsic galaxy property, possibly set already at high redshift.

  12. Variable Stars in (Not Only) Dwarf Galaxies : Key Tools to Constrain Distances and Stellar Content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiorentino, G.; Koleva, M; Prugniel, P; Vauglin,

    2011-01-01

    The important role of Cepheid and RR Lyrae variable stars and what they teach us about dwarf galaxies is discussed. Despite ever improving star formation histories of Local Group dwarf galaxies uncertainties remain, in particular in the identification and characterisation of the oldest stellar

  13. CEMP Stars in the Halo and Their Origin in Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Timothy C.

    2018-06-01

    The very metal-poor (VMP; [Fe/H] 3.0) stars provide a direct view of Galactic chemical and dynamical evolution; detailed spectroscopic studies of these objects are the best way to identify and distinguish between various scenarios for the enrichment of early star-forming gas clouds soon after the Big Bang. It has been recognized that a large fraction of VMP (15-20%) and EMP stars (30-40%) possess significant over-abundances of carbon relative to iron, [C/Fe] > +0.7. This fraction rises to at least 80% for stars with [Fe/H] 3.0 belong to the CEMP-no sub-class, characterized by the lack of strong enhancements in the neutron-capture elements (e.g., [Ba/Fe] < 0.0). The CEMP-no abundance signature is commonly observed among stars ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies such as SEGUE-1. In addition, kinematic studies of CEMP-no stars strongly suggest an association with the outer-halo population of the Galaxy, which was likely formed from the accretion of low-mass mini-halos. These observations, and other lines of evidence, indicate that the CEMP-no stars of the Milky Way were born in low-mass dwarf galaxies, and later subsumed into the halo.

  14. FORMATION OF ULTRA-COMPACT BLUE DWARF GALAXIES AND THEIR EVOLUTION INTO NUCLEATED DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    We propose that there is an evolutionary link between ultra-compact blue dwarf galaxies (UCBDs) with active star formation and nucleated dwarfs based on the results of numerical simulations of dwarf–dwarf merging. We consider the observational fact that low-mass dwarfs can be very gas-rich, and thereby investigate the dynamical and chemical evolution of very gas-rich, dissipative dwarf–dwarf mergers. We find that the remnants of dwarf–dwarf mergers can be dominated by new stellar populations formed from the triggered starbursts and consequently can have blue colors and higher metallicities (Z ∼ [0.2–1]Z ⊙ ). We also find that the remnants of these mergers can have rather high mass densities (10 4 M ⊙ pc −3 ) within the central 10 pc and small half-light radii (40−100 pc). The radial stellar structures of some merger remnants are similar to those of nucleated dwarfs. Star formation can continue in nuclear gas disks (R < 100 pc) surrounding stellar galactic nuclei (SGNs) so that the SGNs can finally have multiple stellar populations with different ages and metallicities. These very compact blue remnants can be identified as UCBDs soon after merging and as nucleated dwarfs after the young stars fade. We discuss these results in the context of the origins of metal-rich ultra-compact dwarfs and SGNs

  15. FORMATION OF ULTRA-COMPACT BLUE DWARF GALAXIES AND THEIR EVOLUTION INTO NUCLEATED DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, The University of Western Australia 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley Western Australia, 6009 (Australia)

    2015-10-10

    We propose that there is an evolutionary link between ultra-compact blue dwarf galaxies (UCBDs) with active star formation and nucleated dwarfs based on the results of numerical simulations of dwarf–dwarf merging. We consider the observational fact that low-mass dwarfs can be very gas-rich, and thereby investigate the dynamical and chemical evolution of very gas-rich, dissipative dwarf–dwarf mergers. We find that the remnants of dwarf–dwarf mergers can be dominated by new stellar populations formed from the triggered starbursts and consequently can have blue colors and higher metallicities (Z ∼ [0.2–1]Z{sub ⊙}). We also find that the remnants of these mergers can have rather high mass densities (10{sup 4} M{sub ⊙} pc{sup −3}) within the central 10 pc and small half-light radii (40−100 pc). The radial stellar structures of some merger remnants are similar to those of nucleated dwarfs. Star formation can continue in nuclear gas disks (R < 100 pc) surrounding stellar galactic nuclei (SGNs) so that the SGNs can finally have multiple stellar populations with different ages and metallicities. These very compact blue remnants can be identified as UCBDs soon after merging and as nucleated dwarfs after the young stars fade. We discuss these results in the context of the origins of metal-rich ultra-compact dwarfs and SGNs.

  16. Using photometrically selected metal-poor stars to study dwarf galaxies and the Galactic stellar halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youakim, Kris; Starkenburg, Else; Martin, Nicolas; Pristine Team

    2018-06-01

    The Pristine survey is a narrow-band photometric survey designed to efficiently search for extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars. In the first three years of the survey, it has demonstrated great efficiency at finding EMP stars, and also great promise for increasing the current, small sample of the most metal-poor stars. The present sky coverage is ~2500 square degrees in the Northern Galactic Halo, including several individual fields targeting dwarf galaxies. By efficiently identifying member stars in the outskirts of known faint dwarf galaxies, the dynamical histories and chemical abundance patterns of these systems can be understood in greater detail. Additionally, with reliable photometric metallicities over a large sky coverage it is possible to perform a large scale clustering analysis in the Milky Way halo, and investigate the characteristic scale of substructure at different metallicities. This can reveal important details about the process of building up the halo through dwarf galaxy accretion, and offer insight into the connection between dwarf galaxies and the Milky Way halo. In this talk I will outline our results on the search for the most pristine stars, with a focus on how we are using this information to advance our understanding of dwarf galaxies and their contribution to the formation of the Galactic stellar halo.

  17. Evolution of LMC/M33-mass dwarf galaxies in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Shi; Cautun, Marius; Deason, Alis J.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Theuns, Tom

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the population of dwarf galaxies with stellar masses similar to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and M33 in the EAGLE galaxy formation simulation. In the field, galaxies reside in haloes with stellar-to-halo mass ratios of 1.03^{+0.50}_{-0.31}× 10^{-2} (68% confidence level); systems like the LMC, which have an SMC-mass satellite, reside in haloes about 1.3 times more massive, which suggests an LMC halo mass at infall, M_{200}=3.4^{+1.8}_{-1.2}× 10^{11}{ M_⊙ } (68% confidence level). The colour distribution of dwarfs is bimodal, with the red galaxies (g - r > 0.6) being mostly satellites. The fraction of red LMC-mass dwarfs is 15% for centrals, and for satellites this fraction increases rapidly with host mass: from 10% for satellites of Milky Way (MW)-mass haloes to nearly 90% for satellites of groups and clusters. The quenching timescale, defined as the time after infall when half of the satellites have acquired red colours, decreases with host mass from >5 Gyrs for MW-mass hosts to 2.5 Gyrs for cluster mass hosts. The satellites of MW-mass haloes have higher star formation rates and bluer colours than field galaxies. This is due to enhanced star formation triggered by gas compression shortly after accretion. Both the LMC and M33 have enhanced recent star formation that could be a manifestation of this process. After infall into their MW-mass hosts, the g - r colours of LMC-mass dwarfs become bluer for the first 2 Gyrs, after which they rapidly redden. LMC-mass dwarfs fell into their MW-mass hosts only relatively recently, with more than half having an infall time of less than 3.5 Gyrs.

  18. Anomalous Evolution of the Dwarf Galaxy HIPASS J1321-31

    OpenAIRE

    Pritzl, Barton J.; Knezek, Patricia M.; Gallagher III, John S.; Grossi, Marco; Disney, Mike J.; Minchin, Robert F.; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Tolstoy, Eline; Saha, Abi

    2003-01-01

    We present HST/WFPC2 observations of the dwarf galaxy HIPASS J1321-31. This unusual galaxy lies in the direction of the Centaurus A group of galaxies, and has a color-magnitude diagram with a distinctive red plume of luminous stars. This feature could arise from (a) a red giant branch if the galaxy were much nearer than previously recognized, (b) a peculiar asymptotic giant branch, or, (c) an ~1 Gigayear old population of intermediate mass red supergiants, which we find to be the most likely ...

  19. Dark-Matter Content of Early-Type Galaxies with Planetary Nebulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napolitano, N.R.; Romanowsky, A.J.; Coccato, L; Capaccioli, M.; Douglas, N.G.; Noordermeer, E.; Merrifield, M.R.; Kuijken, K.; Arnaboldi, M.; Gerhard, O.; Freeman, K.C.; De Lorenzi, F.; Das, P.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. We examine the dark matter properties of nearby early-type galaxies using plane- tary nebulae (PNe) as mass probes. We have designed a specialised instrument, the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph (PN.S) operating at the William Herschel telescope, with the purpose of measuring PN velocities

  20. A Widespread, Clumpy Starburst in the Isolated Ongoing Dwarf Galaxy Merger dm1647+21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privon, G. C. [Instituto de Astrofśica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Stierwalt, S.; Johnson, K. E.; Kallivayalil, N.; Liss, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Patton, D. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9L 0G2 (Canada); Besla, G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Pearson, S.; Putman, M., E-mail: gprivon@astro.puc.cl [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Collaboration: TiNy Titans

    2017-09-01

    Interactions between pairs of isolated dwarf galaxies provide a critical window into low-mass hierarchical, gas-dominated galaxy assembly and the build-up of stellar mass in low-metallicity systems. We present the first Very Large Telescope/Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (VLT/MUSE) optical integral field unit (IFU) observations of the interacting dwarf pair dm1647+21 selected from the TiNy Titans survey. The H α emission is widespread and corresponds to a total unobscured star formation rate (SFR) of 0.44 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, which is 2.7 times higher than the SFR inferred from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data. The implied specific SFR (sSFR) for the system is elevated by more than an order of magnitude above non-interacting dwarfs in the same mass range. This increase is dominated by the lower-mass galaxy, which has a sSFR enhancement of >50. Examining the spatially resolved maps of classic optical line diagnostics, we find that the interstellar medium (ISM) excitation can be fully explained by star formation. The velocity field of the ionized gas is not consistent with simple rotation. Dynamical simulations indicate that the irregular velocity field and the stellar structure is consistent with the identification of this system as an ongoing interaction between two dwarf galaxies. The widespread, clumpy enhancements in the star formation in this system point to important differences in the effect of mergers on dwarf galaxies, compared to massive galaxies; rather than the funneling of gas to the nucleus and giving rise to a nuclear starburst, starbursts in low-mass galaxy mergers may be triggered by large-scale ISM compression, and thus may be more distributed.

  1. Herschel Spectroscopy of Early-type Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapham, Ryen Carl; Young, Lisa M. [Physics Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Crocker, Alison, E-mail: ryen.lapham@student.nmt.edu, E-mail: lyoung@physics.nmt.edu, E-mail: crockera@reed.edu [Physics Department, Reed College, Portland, OR 97202 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We present Herschel spectroscopy of atomic lines arising in photodissociation regions as well as ionization regions of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs), focusing on the volume-limited Atlas3D sample. Our data include the [C ii], [O i], and [N ii] 122 and 205 μ m lines, along with ancillary data including CO and H i maps. We find that ETGs have [C ii]/FIR ratios slightly lower than spiral galaxies in the KINGFISH sample, and several ETGs have unusually large [N ii] 122/[C ii] ratios. The [N ii] 122/[C ii] ratio is correlated with UV colors and there is a strong anti-correlation of [C ii]/FIR with NUV-K seen in both spirals and ETGs, likely due to a softer radiation field with fewer photons available to ionize carbon and heat the gas. The correlation thus makes a [C ii] deficit in galaxies with redder stellar populations. The high [N ii] 122/[C ii] (and low [C ii]/FIR) line ratios could also be affected by the removal of much of the diffuse, low-density gas, which is consistent with the low H i/H{sub 2} ratios. [C ii] is now being used as a star-formation indicator, and we find that it is just as good for ETGs as in spirals. The [C ii]/CO ratios found are also similar to those found in spiral galaxies. Through the use of the [N ii] 205 μ m line, estimates of the percentage of [C ii] emission arising from ionized gas indicate that a significant portion could arise in ionized regions.

  2. EVIDENCE THAT GAMMA-RAY BURST 130702A EXPLODED IN A DWARF SATELLITE OF A MASSIVE GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Patrick L.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Fox, Ori D.; Zheng Weikang; Clubb, Kelsey I.

    2013-01-01

    GRB 130702A is a nearby long-duration gamma-ray burst (LGRB) discovered by the Fermi satellite whose associated afterglow was detected by the Palomar Transient Factory. Subsequent photometric and spectroscopic monitoring has identified a coincident broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN), and nebular emission detected near the explosion site is consistent with a redshift of z = 0.145. The SN-GRB exploded at an offset of ∼7.''6 from the center of an inclined r = 18.1 mag red disk-dominated galaxy, and ∼0.''6 from the center of a much fainter r = 23 mag object. We obtained Keck-II DEIMOS spectra of the two objects and find a 2σ upper limit on their line-of-sight velocity offset of ∼ –1 . If we calculate the inclination angle of the massive red galaxy from its axis ratio and assume that its light is dominated by a very thin disk, the explosion would have a ∼60 kpc central offset, or ∼9 times the galaxy's half-light radius. A significant bulge or a thicker disk would imply a higher inclination angle and greater central offset. The substantial offset suggests that the faint source is a separate dwarf galaxy. The star-formation rate of the dwarf galaxy is ∼0.05 M ☉ yr –1 , and we place an upper limit on its oxygen abundance of 12 + log(O/H) < 8.16 dex. The identification of an LGRB in a dwarf satellite of a massive, metal-rich primary galaxy suggests that recent detections of LGRBs spatially coincident with metal-rich galaxies may be, in some cases, superpositions

  3. The Horizontal Branch of the Sculptor Dwarf galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salaris, Maurizio; de Boer, Thomas; Tolstoy, Eline; Fiorentino, Giuliana; Cassisi, Santi

    2013-01-01

    We have performed the first detailed simulation of the horizontal branch of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy by means of synthetic modelling techniques, taking consistently into account the star formation history and metallicity evolution as determined from the main sequence and red giant branch

  4. DWARFS GOBBLING DWARFS: A STELLAR TIDAL STREAM AROUND NGC 4449 AND HIERARCHICAL GALAXY FORMATION ON SMALL SCALES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Delgado, David; Rix, Hans-Walter; Macciò, Andrea V.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; Brodie, Jean P.; Jay Gabany, R.; Annibali, Francesca; Fliri, Jürgen; Zibetti, Stefano; Van der Marel, Roeland P.; Aloisi, Alessandra; Chonis, Taylor S.; Carballo-Bello, Julio A.; Gallego-Laborda, J.; Merrifield, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    A candidate diffuse stellar substructure was previously reported in the halo of the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 4449 by Karachentsev et al. We map and analyze this feature using a unique combination of deep integrated-light images from the BlackBird 0.5 m telescope, and high-resolution wide-field images from the 8 m Subaru Telescope, which resolve the nebulosity into a stream of red giant branch stars, and confirm its physical association with NGC 4449. The properties of the stream imply a massive dwarf spheroidal progenitor, which after complete disruption will deposit an amount of stellar mass that is comparable to the existing stellar halo of the main galaxy. The stellar mass ratio between the two galaxies is ∼1:50, while the indirectly measured dynamical mass ratio, when including dark matter, may be ∼1:10-1:5. This system may thus represent a 'stealth' merger, where an infalling satellite galaxy is nearly undetectable by conventional means, yet has a substantial dynamical influence on its host galaxy. This singular discovery also suggests that satellite accretion can play a significant role in building up the stellar halos of low-mass galaxies, and possibly in triggering their starbursts.

  5. Ultracool Subdwarfs: Metal-poor Stars and Brown Dwarfs Extending into the Late-type M, L and T Dwarf Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Lepine, Sebastien

    2004-01-01

    Recent discoveries from red optical proper motion and wide-field near-infrared surveys have uncovered a new population of ultracool subdwarfs -- metal-poor stars and brown dwarfs extending into the late-type M, L and possibly T spectral classes. These objects are among the first low-mass stars and brown dwarfs formed in the Galaxy, and are valuable tracers of metallicity effects in low-temperature atmospheres. Here we review the spectral, photometric, and kinematic properties of recent discov...

  6. Environmental effects on stellar populations of star clusters and dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetto, Stefano; Cropper, Mark; Fujita, Yutaka; Chiosi, Cesare; Grebel, Eva K.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the competitive role of the different dissipative phenomena acting on the onset of star formation of gravitationally bound systems in an external environment. Ram pressure, Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, and tidal forces are accounted for separately in an analytical framework and compared in their role in influencing the star forming regions. We present an analytical criterion to elucidate the dependence of star formation in a spherical stellar system on its surrounding environment. We consider the different signatures of these phenomena in synthetically realized colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of the orbiting system thus investigating the detectability limits of these different effects for future observational projects and their relevance. The developed theoretical framework has direct applications to the cases of massive star clusters, dwarf galaxies in galaxy clusters and dwarf galaxies orbiting our Milky Way system, as well as any primordial gas-rich cluster of stars orbiting within its host galaxy.

  7. Environmental effects on stellar populations of dwarf galaxies and star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetto, Stefano; Cropper, Mark; fujita, Yutaka; Chiosi, Cesare; Grebel, Eva K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the competitive role of the different dissipative phenomena acting on the onset of star formation history of gravitationally bound system in an external environment. Ram pressure, Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, Rayleigh-Taylor, and tidal forces are accounted separately in an analytical framework and compared in their role in influencing the star forming regions. We present an analytical criterion to elucidate the dependence of star formation in a spherical stellar system on its surrounding environment useful in observational applications as well as theoretical interpretations of numerical results.We consider the different signatures of these phenomena in synthetically realized colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of the orbiting system thus investigating the detectability limits of these different effects for future observational projects and their relevance.The theoretical framework developed has direct applications to the cases of dwarf galaxies in galaxy clusters and dwarf galaxies orbiting our Milky Way system, as well as any primordial gas-rich cluster of stars orbiting within its host galaxy.

  8. Dark-ages Reionization and Galaxy Formation Simulation - XIV. Gas accretion, cooling, and star formation in dwarf galaxies at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuxiang; Duffy, Alan R.; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Geil, Paul M.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2018-06-01

    We study dwarf galaxy formation at high redshift (z ≥ 5) using a suite of high-resolution, cosmological hydrodynamic simulations and a semi-analytic model (SAM). We focus on gas accretion, cooling, and star formation in this work by isolating the relevant process from reionization and supernova feedback, which will be further discussed in a companion paper. We apply the SAM to halo merger trees constructed from a collisionless N-body simulation sharing identical initial conditions to the hydrodynamic suite, and calibrate the free parameters against the stellar mass function predicted by the hydrodynamic simulations at z = 5. By making comparisons of the star formation history and gas components calculated by the two modelling techniques, we find that semi-analytic prescriptions that are commonly adopted in the literature of low-redshift galaxy formation do not accurately represent dwarf galaxy properties in the hydrodynamic simulation at earlier times. We propose three modifications to SAMs that will provide more accurate high-redshift simulations. These include (1) the halo mass and baryon fraction which are overestimated by collisionless N-body simulations; (2) the star formation efficiency which follows a different cosmic evolutionary path from the hydrodynamic simulation; and (3) the cooling rate which is not well defined for dwarf galaxies at high redshift. Accurate semi-analytic modelling of dwarf galaxy formation informed by detailed hydrodynamical modelling will facilitate reliable semi-analytic predictions over the large volumes needed for the study of reionization.

  9. Dark-ages Reionization and Galaxy Formation Simulation - XIV. Gas accretion, cooling and star formation in dwarf galaxies at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuxiang; Duffy, Alan R.; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Geil, Paul M.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2018-03-01

    We study dwarf galaxy formation at high redshift (z ≥ 5) using a suite of high-resolution, cosmological hydrodynamic simulations and a semi-analytic model (SAM). We focus on gas accretion, cooling and star formation in this work by isolating the relevant process from reionization and supernova feedback, which will be further discussed in a companion paper. We apply the SAM to halo merger trees constructed from a collisionless N-body simulation sharing identical initial conditions to the hydrodynamic suite, and calibrate the free parameters against the stellar mass function predicted by the hydrodynamic simulations at z = 5. By making comparisons of the star formation history and gas components calculated by the two modelling techniques, we find that semi-analytic prescriptions that are commonly adopted in the literature of low-redshift galaxy formation do not accurately represent dwarf galaxy properties in the hydrodynamic simulation at earlier times. We propose 3 modifications to SAMs that will provide more accurate high-redshift simulations. These include 1) the halo mass and baryon fraction which are overestimated by collisionless N-body simulations; 2) the star formation efficiency which follows a different cosmic evolutionary path from the hydrodynamic simulation; and 3) the cooling rate which is not well defined for dwarf galaxies at high redshift. Accurate semi-analytic modelling of dwarf galaxy formation informed by detailed hydrodynamical modelling will facilitate reliable semi-analytic predictions over the large volumes needed for the study of reionization.

  10. Delayed star formation in isolated dwarf galaxies: Hubble space telescope star formation history of the Aquarius dwarf irregular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Andrew A. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, Tasmania, 7001 Australia (Australia); Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55441 (United States); McConnachie, Alan W. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 Canada (Canada); Brooks, Alyson M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Leaman, Ryan, E-mail: andrew.cole@utas.edu.au, E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu, E-mail: adolphin@raytheon.com, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: alan.mcconnachie@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: abrooks@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: rleaman@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    We have obtained deep images of the highly isolated (d = 1 Mpc) Aquarius dwarf irregular galaxy (DDO 210) with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys. The resulting color-magnitude diagram (CMD) reaches more than a magnitude below the oldest main-sequence turnoff, allowing us to derive the star formation history (SFH) over the entire lifetime of the galaxy with a timing precision of ≈10% of the lookback time. Using a maximum likelihood fit to the CMD we find that only ≈10% of all star formation in Aquarius took place more than 10 Gyr ago (lookback time equivalent to redshift z ≈ 2). The star formation rate increased dramatically ≈6-8 Gyr ago (z ≈ 0.7-1.1) and then declined until the present time. The only known galaxy with a more extreme confirmed delay in star formation is Leo A, a galaxy of similar M {sub H} {sub I}/M {sub *}, dynamical mass, mean metallicity, and degree of isolation. The delayed stellar mass growth in these galaxies does not track the mean dark matter accretion rate from CDM simulations. The similarities between Leo A and Aquarius suggest that if gas is not removed from dwarf galaxies by interactions or feedback, it can linger for several gigayears without cooling in sufficient quantity to form stars efficiently. We discuss possible causes for the delay in star formation including suppression by reionization and late-time mergers. We find reasonable agreement between our measured SFHs and select cosmological simulations of isolated dwarfs. Because star formation and merger processes are both stochastic in nature, delayed star formation in various degrees is predicted to be a characteristic (but not a universal) feature of isolated small galaxies.

  11. Chandra Early Type Galaxy Atals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Anderson, Craig; Burke, Douglas J.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Fruscione, Antonella; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael; Morgan, Douglas; Mossman, Amy; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Paggi, Alessandro; Vrtilek, Saeqa Dil; Trinchieri, Ginevra

    2017-08-01

    The hot gas in early type galaxies (ETGs) plays a crucial role in understanding their formation and evolution. As the hot gas is often extended to the outskirts beyond the optical size, the large scale structural features identified by Chandra (including jets, cavities, cold fronts, filaments and tails) point to key evolutionary mechanisms, e.g., AGN feedback, merging history, accretion, stripping and star formation and its quenching. We have systematically analyzed the archival Chandra data of ~100 ETGs to study the hot ISM. We produce the uniformly derived data products with spatially resolved spectral information and will make them accessible via a public web site. With 2D spectral infomation, we further discuss gas morphology, scaling relations, X-ray based mass profiles and their implications related to various physical mechanisms (e.g., stellar and AGN feedback).

  12. Modelling chemical abundance distributions for dwarf galaxies in the Local Group: the impact of turbulent metal diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escala, Ivanna; Wetzel, Andrew; Kirby, Evan N.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Ma, Xiangcheng; Wheeler, Coral; Kereš, Dušan; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Quataert, Eliot

    2018-02-01

    We investigate stellar metallicity distribution functions (MDFs), including Fe and α-element abundances, in dwarf galaxies from the Feedback in Realistic Environment (FIRE) project. We examine both isolated dwarf galaxies and those that are satellites of a Milky Way-mass galaxy. In particular, we study the effects of including a sub-grid turbulent model for the diffusion of metals in gas. Simulations that include diffusion have narrower MDFs and abundance ratio distributions, because diffusion drives individual gas and star particles towards the average metallicity. This effect provides significantly better agreement with observed abundance distributions in dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, including small intrinsic scatter in [α/Fe] versus [Fe/H] of ≲0.1 dex. This small intrinsic scatter arises in our simulations because the interstellar medium in dwarf galaxies is well mixed at nearly all cosmic times, such that stars that form at a given time have similar abundances to ≲0.1 dex. Thus, most of the scatter in abundances at z = 0 arises from redshift evolution and not from instantaneous scatter in the ISM. We find similar MDF widths and intrinsic scatter for satellite and isolated dwarf galaxies, which suggests that environmental effects play a minor role compared with internal chemical evolution in our simulations. Overall, with the inclusion of metal diffusion, our simulations reproduce abundance distribution widths of observed low-mass galaxies, enabling detailed studies of chemical evolution in galaxy formation.

  13. VLA-ANGST: A HIGH-RESOLUTION H I SURVEY OF NEARBY DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, Jürgen; Stilp, Adrienne M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Warren, Steven R.; Skillman, Evan D.; Walter, Fabian; De Blok, W. J. G.; Koribalski, Bärbel; West, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    We present the 'Very Large Array survey of Advanced Camera for Surveys Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury galaxies (VLA-ANGST)'. VLA-ANGST is a National Radio Astronomy Observatory Large Program consisting of high spectral (0.6-2.6 km s –1 ) and spatial (∼6'') resolution observations of neutral, atomic hydrogen (H I) emission toward 35 nearby dwarf galaxies from the ANGST survey. ANGST is a systematic Hubble Space Telescope survey to establish a legacy of uniform multi-color photometry of resolved stars for a volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies (D ∼ –1 for the majority of the galaxies). The VLA-ANGST data products are made publicly available through a dedicated Web site (https://science.nrao.edu/science/surveys/vla-angst). With available star formation histories from resolved stellar populations and lower resolution ancillary observations from the far-infrared to the ultraviolet, VLA-ANGST will enable detailed studies of the relationship between the ISM and star formation in dwarf galaxies on a ∼100 pc scale.

  14. A VIOLENT INTERACTION BETWEEN THE DWARF GALAXY UGC-7636 AND THE GIANT ELLIPTIC GALAXY NGC-4472

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MCNAMARA, BR; SANCISI, R; HENNING, PA; JUNOR, W

    We present new U, B, R, and H I imagery of the Virgo Cluster giant elliptical galaxy NGC 4472 and its interacting dwarf companion galaxy UGC 7636. Using a composite image reconstruction technique, we show that a trail of debris similar to 5 arcmin in length and similar to 1 arcmin in width (30x6 kpc

  15. Large Binocular Telescope/LUCIFER spectroscopy: kinematics of a compact early-type galaxy at z ≃ 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhetti, M.; Saracco, P.; Gargiulo, A.; Tamburri, S.; Lonoce, I.

    2014-04-01

    We present a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N > 10) medium-resolution (R = 2000) Large Binocular Telescope/LUCIFER spectrum of the early-type galaxy (ETG) S2F1-142 at z ≃ 1.4. By means of the CaT line at 8662 Å, we measured its redshift z = 1.386 ± 0.001 and we estimated its velocity dispersion σ v=340^{-60}_{+120} km s-1. Its corresponding virial mass is 3.9 × 1011 M⊙, compatible with the stellar mass estimates obtained assuming initial mass functions (IMFs) less dwarf rich than the Salpeter one. S2F1-142 is a compact galaxy with Re = 3.1 ± 0.2 kpc, i.e. an effective radius more than three times smaller than the average Re of ETGs with the same mass in the local Universe. At the same time, we found local and high-redshift galaxies with a similar mass content and similar effective radius confirming that it is fully consistent with the already available measures of Re and σv both in the local and in the distant Universe. Considering the distribution of Re and σv as a function of the stellar mass content of ETGs, both in the local and in the distant Universe, we noticed that the measured velocity dispersions of the more compact galaxies are on average slightly lower than expected on the basis of their compactness and the virial theorem, suggesting that (i) their dark matter content is lower than in the more diffuse galaxies and/or (ii) their luminosity profiles are steeper than in the more diffuse galaxies and/or (iii) their larger compactness is an apparent effect caused by the overestimate of their stellar mass content (due to bottom lighter IMF and/or systematic affecting the stellar mass estimates).

  16. Star Formation in Dwarf-Dwarf Mergers: Fueling Hierarchical Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stierwalt, Sabrina; Johnson, K. E.; Kallivayalil, N.; Patton, D. R.; Putman, M. E.; Besla, G.; Geha, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    We present early results from the first systematic study a sample of isolated interacting dwarf pairs and the mechanisms governing their star formation. Low mass dwarf galaxies are ubiquitous in the local universe, yet the efficiency of gas removal and the enhancement of star formation in dwarfs via pre-processing (i.e. dwarf-dwarf interactions occurring before the accretion by a massive host) are currently unconstrained. Studies of Local Group dwarfs credit stochastic internal processes for their complicated star formation histories, but a few intriguing examples suggest interactions among dwarfs may produce enhanced star formation. We combine archival UV imaging from GALEX with deep optical broad- and narrow-band (Halpha) imaging taken with the pre- One Degree Imager (pODI) on the WIYN 3.5-m telescope and with the 2.3-m Bok telescope at Steward Observatory to confirm the presence of stellar bridges and tidal tails and to determine whether dwarf-dwarf interactions alone can trigger significant levels of star formation. We investigate star formation rates and global galaxy colors as a function of dwarf pair separation (i.e. the dwarf merger sequence) and dwarf-dwarf mass ratio. This project is a precursor to an ongoing effort to obtain high spatial resolution HI imaging to assess the importance of sequential triggering caused by dwarf-dwarf interactions and the subsequent affect on the more massive hosts that later accrete the low mass systems.

  17. ALFALFA DISCOVERY OF THE NEARBY GAS-RICH DWARF GALAXY LEO P. III. AN EXTREMELY METAL DEFICIENT GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skillman, Evan D.; Berg, Danielle A.; Olive, Keith A.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W., E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: berg@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: olive@physics.umn.edu, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); and others

    2013-07-01

    We present KPNO 4 m and LBT/MODS spectroscopic observations of an H II region in the nearby dwarf irregular galaxy Leo P discovered recently in the Arecibo ALFALFA survey. In both observations, we are able to accurately measure the temperature sensitive [O III] {lambda}4363 line and determine a ''direct'' oxygen abundance of 12 + log(O/H) = 7.17 {+-} 0.04. Thus, Leo P is an extremely metal deficient (XMD) galaxy, and, indeed, one of the most metal deficient star-forming galaxies ever observed. For its estimated luminosity, Leo P is consistent with the relationship between luminosity and oxygen abundance seen in nearby dwarf galaxies. Leo P shows normal {alpha} element abundance ratios (Ne/O, S/O, and Ar/O) when compared to other XMD galaxies, but elevated N/O, consistent with the ''delayed release'' hypothesis for N/O abundances. We derive a helium mass fraction of 0.2509{sup +0.0184}{sub -0.0123}, which compares well with the WMAP + BBN prediction of 0.2483 {+-} 0.0002 for the primordial helium abundance. We suggest that surveys of very low mass galaxies compete well with emission line galaxy surveys for finding XMD galaxies. It is possible that XMD galaxies may be divided into two classes: the relatively rare XMD emission line galaxies which are associated with starbursts triggered by infall of low-metallicity gas and the more common, relatively quiescent XMD galaxies like Leo P, with very low chemical abundances due to their intrinsically small masses.

  18. GHOSTS I: A new faint very isolated dwarf galaxy at D = 12 ± 2 Mpc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F.; Radburn-Smith, David J.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; De Jong, Roelof S.; Streich, David; Vlajić, Marija; Bailin, Jeremy; Holwerda, Benne W.; Alyson Ford, H.; Zucker, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new faint dwarf galaxy, GHOSTS I, using HST/ACS data from one of our GHOSTS (Galaxy Halos, Outer disks, Substructure, Thick disk, and Star clusters) fields. Its detected individual stars populate an approximately 1 mag range of its luminosity function (LF). Using synthetic color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) to compare with the galaxy's CMD, we find that the colors and magnitudes of GHOSTS I's individual stars are most consistent with being young helium-burning and asymptotic giant branch stars at a distance of ∼12 ± 2 Mpc. Morphologically, GHOSTS I appears to be actively forming stars, so we tentatively classify it as a dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxy, although future Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations deep enough to resolve a larger magnitude range in its LF are required to make a more secure classification. GHOSTS I's absolute magnitude is M V ∼−9.85 −0.33 +0.40 , making it one of the least luminous dIrr galaxies known, and its metallicity is lower than [Fe/H] = –1.5 dex. The half-light radius of GHOSTS I is 226 ± 38 pc and its ellipticity is 0.47 ± 0.07, similar to Milky Way and M31 dwarf satellites at comparable luminosity. There are no luminous massive galaxies or galaxy clusters within ∼4 Mpc from GHOSTS I that could be considered as its host, making it a very isolated dwarf galaxy in the local universe.

  19. EVIDENCE THAT GAMMA-RAY BURST 130702A EXPLODED IN A DWARF SATELLITE OF A MASSIVE GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Patrick L.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Fox, Ori D.; Zheng Weikang; Clubb, Kelsey I., E-mail: pkelly@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    GRB 130702A is a nearby long-duration gamma-ray burst (LGRB) discovered by the Fermi satellite whose associated afterglow was detected by the Palomar Transient Factory. Subsequent photometric and spectroscopic monitoring has identified a coincident broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN), and nebular emission detected near the explosion site is consistent with a redshift of z = 0.145. The SN-GRB exploded at an offset of {approx}7.''6 from the center of an inclined r = 18.1 mag red disk-dominated galaxy, and {approx}0.''6 from the center of a much fainter r = 23 mag object. We obtained Keck-II DEIMOS spectra of the two objects and find a 2{sigma} upper limit on their line-of-sight velocity offset of {approx}<60 km s{sup -1}. If we calculate the inclination angle of the massive red galaxy from its axis ratio and assume that its light is dominated by a very thin disk, the explosion would have a {approx}60 kpc central offset, or {approx}9 times the galaxy's half-light radius. A significant bulge or a thicker disk would imply a higher inclination angle and greater central offset. The substantial offset suggests that the faint source is a separate dwarf galaxy. The star-formation rate of the dwarf galaxy is {approx}0.05 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, and we place an upper limit on its oxygen abundance of 12 + log(O/H) < 8.16 dex. The identification of an LGRB in a dwarf satellite of a massive, metal-rich primary galaxy suggests that recent detections of LGRBs spatially coincident with metal-rich galaxies may be, in some cases, superpositions.

  20. THE ORIGIN OF DUST IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ACCRETION ONTO SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Paul [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Dicken, Daniel [Institut de Astrophysique Spatiale, Paris (France); Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Caixa Postal 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-04-01

    We have conducted an archival Spitzer study of 38 early-type galaxies in order to determine the origin of the dust in approximately half of this population. Our sample galaxies generally have good wavelength coverage from 3.6 {mu}m to 160 {mu}m, as well as visible-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. We use the Spitzer data to estimate dust masses, or establish upper limits, and find that all of the early-type galaxies with dust lanes in the HST data are detected in all of the Spitzer bands and have dust masses of {approx}10{sup 5}-10{sup 6.5} M{sub Sun }, while galaxies without dust lanes are not detected at 70 {mu}m and 160 {mu}m and typically have <10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} of dust. The apparently dust-free galaxies do have 24 {mu}m emission that scales with the shorter-wavelength flux, yet substantially exceeds the expectations of photospheric emission by approximately a factor of three. We conclude this emission is dominated by hot, circumstellar dust around evolved stars that does not survive to form a substantial interstellar component. The order-of-magnitude variations in dust masses between galaxies with similar stellar populations rule out a substantial contribution from continual, internal production in spite of the clear evidence for circumstellar dust. We demonstrate that the interstellar dust is not due to purely external accretion, unless the product of the merger rate of dusty satellites and the dust lifetime is at least an order of magnitude higher than expected. We propose that dust in early-type galaxies is seeded by external accretion, yet the accreted dust is maintained by continued growth in externally accreted cold gas beyond the nominal lifetime of individual grains. The several Gyr depletion time of the cold gas is long enough to reconcile the fraction of dusty early-type galaxies with the merger rate of gas-rich satellites. As the majority of dusty early-type galaxies are also low-luminosity active galactic nuclei and likely fueled

  1. Dark matter annihilations search in dwarf spheroidal galaxies with fermi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnier, C.; Nuss, E.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.

    2011-01-01

    Launched in June 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Telescope includes a pair conversion detector designed for the 20 MeV to ∼300GeV gamma-ray sky study, the Large Area Telescope (LAT). Operating in all-sky survey mode, its excellent sensitivity and angular resolution will allow either to discover or constrain a signal coming through the annihilation of dark matter particles. Predicted by cold dark matter scenarios as the largest clumps, dwarf spheroidal galaxies are amongst the most attractive targets for indirect search of dark matter by gamma-ray experiments. We present here an overview of the Fermi LAT Dark Matter and New Physics Working Group efforts in the searches of gamma-ray fluxes coming from WIMP pair annihilations in dwarf spheroidal galaxies.

  2. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF SEVEN IRREGULAR AND THREE TIDAL DWARF GALAXIES IN THE M81 GROUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croxall, Kevin V.; Van Zee, Liese; Lee, Henry; Miller, Bryan W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Lee, Janice C.; Cote, Stephanie; Kennicutt, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    We have derived nebular abundances for 10 dwarf galaxies belonging to the M81 Group, including several galaxies which do not have abundances previously reported in the literature. For each galaxy, multiple H II regions were observed with GMOS-N at the Gemini Observatory in order to determine abundances of several elements (oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, neon, and argon). For seven galaxies, at least one H II region had a detection of the temperature sensitive [O III] λ4363 line, allowing a 'direct' determination of the oxygen abundance. No abundance gradients were detected in the targeted galaxies, and the observed oxygen abundances are typically in agreement with the well-known metallicity-luminosity relation. However, three candidate 'tidal dwarf' galaxies lie well off this relation: UGC 5336, Garland, and KDG 61. The nature of these systems suggests that UGC 5336 and Garland are indeed recently formed systems, whereas KDG 61 is most likely a dwarf spheroidal galaxy which lies along the same line of sight as the M81 tidal debris field. We propose that these H II regions formed from previously enriched gas which was stripped from nearby massive galaxies (e.g., NGC 3077 and M81) during a recent tidal interaction.

  3. Star-Formation Histories, Abundances, and Kinematics of Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, Eline; Hill, Vanessa; Tosi, Monica; Blandford, R; Kormendy, J; VanDishoeck, E

    2009-01-01

    Within the Local Universe galaxies can be studied in great detail star by star, and here we review the results of quantitative studies in nearby dwarf galaxies. The color-magnitude diagram synthesis method is well established as the most accurate way to determine star-formation histories of galaxies

  4. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Probing the Kinematic Morphology–Density Relation of Early-type Galaxies with MaNGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J. E.; Leauthaud, A.; Emsellem, E.; Goddard, D.; Ge, J.; Andrews, B. H.; Brinkman, J.; Brownstein, J. R.; Greco, J.; Law, D.; Lin, Y.-T.; Masters, K. L.; Merrifield, M.; More, S.; Okabe, N.; Schneider, D. P.; Thomas, D.; Wake, D. A.; Yan, R.; Drory, N.

    2017-12-01

    The “kinematic” morphology–density relation for early-type galaxies posits that those galaxies with low angular momentum are preferentially found in the highest-density regions of the universe. We use a large sample of galaxy groups with halo masses {10}12.5MaNGA) survey to examine whether there is a correlation between local environment and rotational support that is independent of stellar mass. We find no compelling evidence for a relationship between the angular momentum content of early-type galaxies and either local overdensity or radial position within the group at fixed stellar mass.

  5. POX 4 and Tol 35: Two Peculiar Wolf-Rayet Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, David I.; Esteban, César

    1999-12-01

    We present results of narrowband (Hα and adjacent continuum) and broadband (U, B, and V) optical CCD imaging together with high-resolution Hα spectroscopy of the blue compact Wolf-Rayet dwarf galaxies POX 4 and Tol 35. POX 4 has a fainter, irregular, and diffuse companion located 20.5" (4.7 kpc) along the minor axis of the galaxy, which is visible also in the Hα emission. The difference in recession velocity between the galaxy and the companion is about 130 km s-1. The observational results lead us to propose that POX 4 could be interpreted as a low-mass ring galaxy, produced by a head-on intrusion of the fainter companion. Regarding the other object, a spectrum taken along the major axis of Tol 35 shows the coexistence of systems of motion with a velocity difference of about 50 km s-1. Moreover, the deep continuum-subtracted Hα image of the galaxy shows very faint features that resemble the beginning of crossed tidal tails or gaseous filaments powered by the mechanical action of the young stellar population. In this sense, Tol 35 could be interpreted either as an object in an intermediate-stage merging process between two gas-rich dwarf galaxies or as an object suffering the effect of a galactic wind.

  6. The Systemic Velocity and Internal Kinematics of the Dwarf Galaxy LGS 3: An Optical Foray beyond the Milky Way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, K.H.; Mateo, M.; Olszewski, E.W.; Vogt, S.S.; Stubbs, C.; Diercks, A.

    1999-01-01

    We have obtained radial velocities of three K giants and one faint carbon star in LGS 3, a dwarf companion of M31, based on 12 individual spectra obtained with the HIRES spectrograph on the Keck I telescope. The mean precision of these measurements is 3.8 km s -1 . The mean systemic velocity of LGS 3 is -282.2±3.5 km s -1 . Monte Carlo simulations that take into account the individual velocity uncertainties and the maximum observed velocity difference reveal that the central velocity dispersion of LGS 3 is in the range 2.6 - 30.5 km s -1 , with 95% confidence; the most likely value for the central dispersion is 7.9 +5.3 -2.9 km s -1 . These results agree with the kinematics of H i gas in LGS 3. This contrasts with the tendency for the gas and stars in other low-luminosity Local Group dwarfs to exhibit distinct spatial and kinematic properties. Taking into account the relative youth of LGS 3, we conclude that the 'asymptotic' M/L ratio the value the galaxy would exhibit if it were composed only of ancient stars is M/L V,LGS3 ≥11 (at a 97.5% confidence level), with a most probable value of 95 +175 -56 . These values are consistent with the M/L V ratios observed in other well-studied early-type dwarfs of the Local Group. We have also estimated the mass of LGS 3 using modified Newtonian dynamics. These data represent the first moderately high precision optical spectra of giants in a dwarf system beyond the Galactic halo. We suggest future studies that are now feasible to study the dynamics of dwarf galaxies throughout the Local Group and beyond. copyright copyright 1999. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific

  7. Tidal stripping and the structure of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Oman, Kyle A.; Sawala, Till; Schaller, Matthieu

    2018-05-01

    The shallow faint-end slope of the galaxy mass function is usually reproduced in Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) galaxy formation models by assuming that the fraction of baryons that turn into stars drops steeply with decreasing halo mass and essentially vanishes in haloes with maximum circular velocities Vmax value, unless they are small enough to probe only the rising part of the halo circular velocity curve (i.e. half-mass radii, r1/2 ≪ 1 kpc). Many dwarfs have properties in disagreement with this prediction: they are large enough to probe their halo Vmax but their characteristic velocities are well below 20 km s-1. These `cold faint giants' (an extreme example is the recently discovered Crater 2 Milky Way satellite) can only be reconciled with our ΛCDM models if they are the remnants of once massive objects heavily affected by tidal stripping. We examine this possibility using the APOSTLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of the Local Group. Assuming that low-velocity-dispersion satellites have been affected by stripping, we infer their progenitor masses, radii, and velocity dispersions, and find them in remarkable agreement with those of isolated dwarfs. Tidal stripping also explains the large scatter in the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation in the dwarf galaxy regime: tides remove preferentially dark matter from satellite galaxies, lowering their accelerations below the amin ˜ 10-11 m s-2 minimum expected for isolated dwarfs. In many cases, the resulting velocity dispersions are inconsistent with the predictions from Modified Newtonian Dynamics, a result that poses a possibly insurmountable challenge to that scenario.

  8. The red and blue galaxy populations in the GOODS field: evidence for an excess of red dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimbeni, S.; Giallongo, E.; Menci, N.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Grazian, A.; Pentericci, L.; Trevese, D.; Cristiani, S.; Nonino, M.; Vanzella, E.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: We study the evolution of the galaxy population up to z˜ 3 as a function of its colour properties. In particular, luminosity functions and luminosity densities were derived as a function of redshift for the blue/late and red/early populations. Methods: We use data from the GOODS-MUSIC catalogue, which have typical magnitude limits z850≤ 26 and K_s≤ 23.5 for most of the sample. About 8% of the galaxies have spectroscopic redshifts; the remaining have well calibrated photometric redshifts derived from the extremely wide multi-wavelength coverage in 14 bands (from the U band to the Spitzer 8~ μm band). We have derived a catalogue of galaxies complete in the rest-frame B-band, which has been divided into two subsamples according to their rest-frame U-V colour (or derived specific star formation rate) properties. Results: We confirm a bimodality in the U-V colour and specific star formation rate of the galaxy sample up to z˜ 3. This bimodality is used to compute the luminosity functions of the blue/late and red/early subsamples. The luminosity functions of the blue/late and total samples are well represented by steep Schechter functions evolving in luminosity with increasing redshifts. The volume density of the luminosity functions of the red/early populations decreases with increasing redshift. The shape of the red/early luminosity functions shows an excess of faint red dwarfs with respect to the extrapolation of a flat Schechter function and can be represented by the sum of two Schechter functions. Our model for galaxy formation in the hierarchical clustering scenario, which also includes external feedback due to a diffuse UV background, shows a general broad agreement with the luminosity functions of both populations, the larger discrepancies being present at the faint end for the red population. Hints on the nature of the red dwarf population are given on the basis of their stellar mass and spatial distributions.

  9. The mass dependence of dwarf satellite galaxy quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F.

    2014-01-01

    We combine observations of the Local Group with data from the NASA-Sloan Atlas to show the variation in the quenched fraction of satellite galaxies from low-mass dwarf spheroidals and dwarf irregulars to more massive dwarfs similar to the Magellanic Clouds. While almost all of the low-mass (M * ≲ 10 7 M ☉ ) dwarfs are quenched, at higher masses the quenched fraction decreases to approximately 40%-50%. This change in the quenched fraction is large and suggests a sudden change in the effectiveness of quenching that correlates with satellite mass. We combine this observation with models of satellite infall and ram pressure stripping to show that the low-mass satellites must quench within 1-2 Gyr of pericenter passage to maintain a high quenched fraction, but that many more massive dwarfs must continue to form stars today even though they likely fell into their host >5 Gyr ago. We also characterize how the susceptibility of dwarfs to ram pressure must vary as a function of mass if it is to account for the change in quenched fractions. Though neither model predicts the quenching effectiveness a priori, this modeling illustrates the physical requirements that the observed quenched fractions place on possible quenching mechanisms.

  10. Dynamics of Dwarf Galaxies Disfavor Stellar-Mass Black Holes as Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koushiappas, Savvas M; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-07-28

    We study the effects of black hole dark matter on the dynamical evolution of stars in dwarf galaxies. We find that mass segregation leads to a depletion of stars in the center of dwarf galaxies and the appearance of a ring in the projected stellar surface density profile. Using Segue 1 as an example we show that current observations of the projected surface stellar density rule out at the 99.9% confidence level the possibility that more than 6% of the dark matter is composed of black holes with a mass of few tens of solar masses.

  11. POX 186: the ultracompact blue compact dwarf galaxy reveals its nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doublier, V.; Kunth, D.; Courbin, F.; Magain, P.

    2000-01-01

    High resolution, ground based R and I band observations of the ultra compact dwarf galaxy POX 186 are presented. The data, obtained with the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT), are analyzed using a new deconvolution algorithm which allows one to resolve the innermost regions of this stellar-like object into three Super-Star Clusters (SSC). Upper limits to both masses (M ~ 105 Msun) and physical sizes (<=60pc) of the SSCs are set. In addition, and maybe most importantly, extended light emission underlying the compact star-forming region is clearly detected in both bands. The R-I color rules out nebular Hα contamination and is consistent with an old stellar population. This casts doubt on the hypothesis that Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies (BCDG) are young galaxies. based on observations carried out at NTT in La Silla, operated by the European Southern Observatory, during Director's Discretionary Time.

  12. Metallic Winds in Dwarf Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles-Valdez, F.; Rodríguez-González, A.; Hernández-Martínez, L.; Esquivel, A.

    2017-01-01

    We present results from models of galactic winds driven by energy injected from nuclear (at the galactic center) and non-nuclear starbursts. The total energy of the starburst is provided by very massive young stellar clusters, which can push the galactic interstellar medium and produce an important outflow. Such outflow can be a well or partially mixed wind, or a highly metallic wind. We have performed adiabatic 3D N -Body/Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics simulations of galactic winds using the gadget-2 code. The numerical models cover a wide range of parameters, varying the galaxy concentration index, gas fraction of the galactic disk, and radial distance of the starburst. We show that an off-center starburst in dwarf galaxies is the most effective mechanism to produce a significant loss of metals (material from the starburst itself). At the same time, a non-nuclear starburst produces a high efficiency of metal loss, in spite of having a moderate to low mass loss rate.

  13. On The gamma-ray emission from Reticulum II and other dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan; Linden, Tim

    2015-09-01

    The recent discovery of ten new dwarf galaxy candidates by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) could increase the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope's sensitivity to annihilating dark matter particles, potentially enabling a definitive test of the dark matter interpretation of the long-standing Galactic Center gamma-ray excess. In this paper, we compare the previous analyses of Fermi data from the directions of the new dwarf candidates (including the relatively nearby Reticulum II) and perform our own analysis, with the goal of establishing the statistical significance of any gamma-ray signal from these sources. We confirm the presence of an excess from Reticulum II, with a spectral shape that is compatible with the Galactic Center signal. The significance of this emission is greater than that observed from 99.84% of randomly chosen high-latitude blank-sky locations, corresponding to a local detection significance of 3.2σ. We caution that any dark matter interpretation of this excess must be validated through observations of additional dwarf spheroidal galaxies, and improved calculations of the relative J-factor of dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We improve upon the standard blank-sky calibration approach through the use of multi-wavelength catalogs, which allow us to avoid regions that are likely to contain unresolved gamma-ray sources.

  14. Evidence of a Bottom-heavy Initial Mass Function in Massive Early-type Galaxies from Near-infrared Metal Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagattuta, David J.; Mould, Jeremy R.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Monson, Andrew J.; Pastorello, Nicola; Persson, S. Eric

    2017-09-01

    We present new evidence for a variable stellar initial mass function (IMF) in massive early-type galaxies, using high-resolution, near-infrared spectroscopy from the Folded-port InfraRed Echellette spectrograph (FIRE) on the Magellan Baade Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. In this pilot study, we observe several gravity-sensitive metal lines between 1.1 and 1.3 μm in eight highly luminous (L˜ 10{L}* ) nearby galaxies. Thanks to the broad wavelength coverage of FIRE, we are also able to observe the Ca II triplet feature, which helps with our analysis. After measuring the equivalent widths (EWs) of these lines, we notice mild to moderate trends between EW and central velocity dispersion (σ), with some species (K I, Na I, Mn I) showing a positive EW-σ correlation and others (Mg I, Ca II, Fe I) a negative one. To minimize the effects of metallicity, we measure the ratio R = [EW(K I)/EW(Mg I)], finding a significant systematic increase in this ratio with respect to σ. We then probe for variations in the IMF by comparing the measured line ratios to the values expected in several IMF models. Overall, we find that low-mass galaxies (σ ˜ 100 km s-1) favor a Chabrier IMF, while high-mass galaxies (σ ˜ 350 km s-1) are better described with a steeper (dwarf-rich) IMF slope. While we note that our galaxy sample is small and may suffer from selection effects, these initial results are still promising. A larger sample of galaxies will therefore provide an even clearer picture of IMF trends in this regime. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  15. THE UVJ SELECTION OF QUIESCENT AND STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: SEPARATING EARLY- AND LATE-TYPE GALAXIES AND ISOLATING EDGE-ON SPIRALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Shannon G.; Franx, Marijn; Holden, Bradford P.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Kelson, Daniel D.; Van der Wel, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    We utilize for the first time Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging to examine the structural properties of galaxies in the rest-frame U – V versus V – J diagram (i.e., the UVJ diagram) using a sample at 0.6 ☉ >10.25). The use of the UVJ diagram as a tool to distinguish quiescent galaxies from star-forming galaxies (SFGs) is becoming more common due to its ability to separate red quiescent galaxies from reddened SFGs. Quiescent galaxies occupy a small and distinct region of UVJ color space and we find most of them to have concentrated profiles with high Sérsic indices (n > 2.5) and smooth structure characteristic of early-type systems. SFGs populate a broad but well-defined sequence of UVJ colors and are comprised of objects with a mix of Sérsic indices. Interestingly, most UVJ-selected SFGs with high Sérsic indices also display structure due to dust and star formation typical of the n < 2.5 SFGs and late-type systems. Finally, we find that the position of an SFG on the sequence of UVJ colors is determined to a large degree by the mass of the galaxy and its inclination. Systems that are closer to edge-on generally display redder colors and lower [O II]λ3727 luminosity per unit mass as a consequence of the reddening due to dust within the disks. We conclude that the two main features seen in UVJ color space correspond closely to the traditional morphological classes of early- and late-type galaxies.

  16. Quark nugget dark matter: no contradiction with 511 keV line emission from dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, Kyle; Zhitnitsky, Ariel, E-mail: klawson@phas.ubc.ca, E-mail: arz@phas.ubc.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2017-02-01

    The observed galactic 511 keV line has been interpreted in a number of papers as a possible signal of dark matter annihilation within the galactic bulge. If this is the case then it is possible that a similar spectral feature may be observed in association with nearby dwarf galaxies. These objects are believed to be strongly dark matter dominated and present a relatively clean observational target. Recently INTEGRAL observations have provided new constraints on the 511 keV flux from nearby dwarf galaxies [1] motivating further investigation into the mechanism by which this radiation may arise. In the model presented here dark matter in the form of heavy quark nuggets produces the galactic 511 keV emission line through interactions with the visible matter. It is argued that this type of interaction is not strongly constrained by the flux limits reported in [2].

  17. ON THE POPULATION OF H-I DWARF GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEINBERG, DH; SZOMORU, A; GUHATHAKURTA, P; VANGORKOM, JH

    1991-01-01

    We report results from a 21 cm survey of fields in the Perseus-Pisces supercluster and a foreground void, which was designed to find gas-rich dwarf galaxies or optically faint H I clouds with masses M(HI) greater-than-or-similar-to 10(8) M.. We detected 16 objects in the supercluster, nine of them

  18. Galactic chemical evolution in hierarchical formation models - I. Early-type galaxies in the local Universe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrigoni, Matías; Trager, Scott C.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Gibson, Brad K.

    We study the metallicities and abundance ratios of early-type galaxies in cosmological semi-analytic models (SAMs) within the hierarchical galaxy formation paradigm. To achieve this we implemented a detailed galactic chemical evolution model and can now predict abundances of individual elements for

  19. Galactic chemical evolution in hierarchical formation models : I. Early-type galaxies in the local Universe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrigoni, Matias; Trager, Scott C.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Gibson, Brad K.

    2010-01-01

    We study the metallicities and abundance ratios of early-type galaxies in cosmological semi-analytic models (SAMs) within the hierarchical galaxy formation paradigm. To achieve this we implemented a detailed galactic chemical evolution model and can now predict abundances of individual elements for

  20. Constraining the Nature of Dark Matter with the Star-formation History of the Faintest Local Group Dwarf Galaxy Satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, Alice; Mayer, Lucio; Governato, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Λ warm dark matter (ΛWDM), realized by collisionless particles of 1–3 keV, has been proposed as an alternative scenario to Λ-Cold-Dark Matter (ΛCDM) for the dwarf galaxy scale discrepancies. We present an approach to test the viability of such WDM models using star-formation histories (SFHs) of the dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) in the Local Group. We compare their high-time-resolution SFHs with the collapse redshift of their dark halos in CDM and WDM. Collapse redshift is inferred after determining the subhalo infall mass. This is based on the dwarf current mass inferred from stellar kinematics, combined with cosmological simulation results on subhalo evolution. WDM subhalos close to the filtering mass scale, forming significantly later than CDM, are the most difficult to reconcile with early truncation of star formation ( z ≥ 3). The ultra-faint dwarfs (UFDs) provide the most stringent constraints. Using six UFDs and eight classical dSphs, we show that a 1 keV particle is strongly disfavored, consistently with other reported methods. Excluding other models is only hinted for a few UFDs. Other UFDs for which the lack of robust constraints on halo mass prevents us from carrying out our analysis rigorously, show a very early onset of star formation that will strengthen the constraints delivered by our method in the future. We discuss the various caveats, notably the low number of dwarfs with accurately determined SFHs and the uncertainties when determining the subhalo infall mass, most notably the baryonic physics. Our preliminary analysis may serve as a pathfinder for future investigations that will combine accurate SFHs for local dwarfs with direct analysis of WDM simulations with baryons.

  1. Constraining the Nature of Dark Matter with the Star-formation History of the Faintest Local Group Dwarf Galaxy Satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Alice; Mayer, Lucio [Center for Theoretical Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Governato, Fabio [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    Λ warm dark matter (ΛWDM), realized by collisionless particles of 1–3 keV, has been proposed as an alternative scenario to Λ-Cold-Dark Matter (ΛCDM) for the dwarf galaxy scale discrepancies. We present an approach to test the viability of such WDM models using star-formation histories (SFHs) of the dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) in the Local Group. We compare their high-time-resolution SFHs with the collapse redshift of their dark halos in CDM and WDM. Collapse redshift is inferred after determining the subhalo infall mass. This is based on the dwarf current mass inferred from stellar kinematics, combined with cosmological simulation results on subhalo evolution. WDM subhalos close to the filtering mass scale, forming significantly later than CDM, are the most difficult to reconcile with early truncation of star formation ( z ≥ 3). The ultra-faint dwarfs (UFDs) provide the most stringent constraints. Using six UFDs and eight classical dSphs, we show that a 1 keV particle is strongly disfavored, consistently with other reported methods. Excluding other models is only hinted for a few UFDs. Other UFDs for which the lack of robust constraints on halo mass prevents us from carrying out our analysis rigorously, show a very early onset of star formation that will strengthen the constraints delivered by our method in the future. We discuss the various caveats, notably the low number of dwarfs with accurately determined SFHs and the uncertainties when determining the subhalo infall mass, most notably the baryonic physics. Our preliminary analysis may serve as a pathfinder for future investigations that will combine accurate SFHs for local dwarfs with direct analysis of WDM simulations with baryons.

  2. CALIBRATING UV STAR FORMATION RATES FOR DWARF GALAXIES FROM STARBIRDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Mitchell, Noah P. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E., E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Integrating our knowledge of star formation (SF) traced by observations at different wavelengths is essential for correctly interpreting and comparing SF activity in a variety of systems and environments. This study compares extinction corrected integrated ultraviolet (UV) emission from resolved galaxies with color–magnitude diagram (CMD) based star formation rates (SFRs) derived from resolved stellar populations and CMD fitting techniques in 19 nearby starburst and post-starburst dwarf galaxies. The data sets are from the panchromatic Starburst Irregular Dwarf Survey and include deep legacy GALEX UV imaging, Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging, and Spitzer MIPS imaging. For the majority of the sample, the integrated near-UV fluxes predicted from the CMD-based SFRs—using four different models—agree with the measured, extinction corrected, integrated near-UV fluxes from GALEX images, but the far-UV (FUV) predicted fluxes do not. Furthermore, we find a systematic deviation between the SFRs based on integrated FUV luminosities and existing scaling relations, and the SFRs based on the resolved stellar populations. This offset is not driven by different SF timescales, variations in SFRs, UV attenuation, nor stochastic effects. This first comparison between CMD-based SFRs and an integrated FUV emission SFR indicator suggests that the most likely cause of the discrepancy is the theoretical FUV–SFR calibration from stellar evolutionary libraries and/or stellar atmospheric models. We present an empirical calibration of the FUV-based SFR relation for dwarf galaxies, with uncertainties, which is ∼53% larger than previous relations.

  3. Ultracompact Blue Dwarfs: Galaxy Formation in the Local Universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Michael

    2004-07-01

    Recent observations suggest that very low-mass galaxies in the local universe are still in the process of formation. To investigate this issue we propose to obtain deep ACS HRC images in the U, V and I bands of a sample of 11 "ultracompact" blue dwarf galaxies {UCBDs} identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These objects are nearby {z small angular and physical sizes {d POX 186, reveal this tiny object to have a highly disturbed morphlogy indicative of a recent {within 10^8 yr} collision between two small { 100 pc} clumps of stars that could represent the long-sought building blocks predicted by the Press-Schechter model of hierarchical galaxy formation. This collision has also triggered the formation of a "super" star cluster {SSC} at the object's core that may be the progenitor of a globular cluster. POX 186 thus appears to be a very small dwarf galaxy in the process of formation. This exciting discovery strongly motivates HST imaging of a full sample of UCBDs in order to determine if they have morphologies similar to POX 186. HST images are essential for resolving the structure of these objects, including establishing the presence of SSCs. HST also offers the only way to determine their morphologies in the near UV. The spectra of the objects available from the SDSS will also allow us to measure their star formation rates, dust content and metallicities. In addition to potentially providing the first direct evidence of Press-Schechter building blocks, these data could yield insight into the relationship between galaxy and globular cluster formation, and will serve as a test of the recent "downsizing" model of galaxy formation in which the least massive objects are the last to form.

  4. The dynamical and chemical evolution of dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revaz, Y.; Jablonka, P.; Sawala, T.; Hill, V.; Letarte, B.; Irwin, M.; Battaglia, G.; Helmi, A.; Shetrone, M. D.; Tolstoy, E.; Venn, K. A.

    We present a large sample of fully self-consistent hydrodynamical Nbody/Tree-SPH simulations of isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). It has enabled us to identify the key physical parameters and mechanisms at the origin of the observed variety in the Local Group dSph properties. The initial

  5. On the Nature of Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy Candidates. II. The Case of Cetus II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Blair C.; Jerjen, Helmut; Kim, Dongwon; Schirmer, Mischa

    2018-04-01

    We obtained deep Gemini GMOS-S g, r photometry of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy candidate Cetus II with the aim of providing stronger constraints on its size, luminosity, and stellar population. Cetus II is an important object in the size–luminosity plane, as it occupies the transition zone between dwarf galaxies and star clusters. All known objects smaller than Cetus II (r h ∼ 20 pc) are reported to be star clusters, while most larger objects are likely dwarf galaxies. We found a prominent excess of main-sequence stars in the color–magnitude diagram of Cetus II, best described by a single stellar population with an age of 11.2 Gyr, metallicity of [Fe/H] = ‑1.28 dex, an [α/Fe] = 0.0 dex at a heliocentric distance of 26.3 ± 1.2 kpc. As well as being spatially located within the Sagittarius dwarf tidal stream, these properties are well matched to the Sagittarius galaxy’s Population B stars. Interestingly, like our recent findings on the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy candidate Tucana V, the stellar field in the direction of Cetus II shows no evidence of a concentrated overdensity despite tracing the main sequence for over six magnitudes. These results strongly support the picture that Cetus II is not an ultra-faint stellar system in the Milky Way halo, but made up of stars from the Sagittarius tidal stream.

  6. Wide-field kinematic structure of early-type galaxy halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jacob Antony

    2013-12-01

    The stellar halos of nearby galaxies bare the signatures of the mass-assembly processes that have driven galaxy evolution over the last ˜10 Gyr. Finding and interpreting these relict clues in galaxies within and beyond the local group offers one of the most promising avenues for understanding how galaxies accumulate their stars over time. To tackle this problem we have performed a systematic study of the wide-field kinematic structure of nearby (Dspectroscopy out to several effective radii (˜3 R e). The 22 galaxies presented here span a range of environments (field, group, and cluster), intrinsic luminosities (-22.4 infrared Calcium II triplet. For each spectrum, we parameterize the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) as a truncated Gauss-Hermite series convolved with an optimally weighted combination of stellar templates. These kinematic measurements (V, sigma, h3, and h4) are combined with literature values to construct spatially resolved maps of large-scale kinematic structure. A variety of kinematic behaviors are observed beyond ~1 Re, potentially reflecting the stochastic and chaotic assembly of stellar bulges and halos in early-type galaxies. Next, we describe a global analysis (out to 5 Re) of kinematics and metallicity in the nearest S0 galaxy, NGC 3115, along with implications for its assembly history. The data include high-quality wide-field imaging and multi-slit spectra of the field stars and globular clusters (GCs). Within two effective radii, the bulge (as traced by the stars and metal-rich GCs) is flattened and rotates rapidly. At larger radii, the rotation declines dramatically, while the characteristic GC metallicities also decrease with radius. We argue that this pattern is not naturally explained by a binary major merger, but instead by a two-phase assembly process where the inner regions have formed in an early violent, dissipative phase, followed by the protracted growth of the outer parts via minor mergers. To test this hypothesis

  7. LUMINOUS SATELLITES OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES. I. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nierenberg, A. M.; Auger, M. W.; Treu, T.; Marshall, P. J.; Fassnacht, C. D.

    2011-01-01

    We study the spatial distribution of faint satellites of intermediate redshift (0.1 s = 1.7 +0.9 -0.8 ) that is comparable to the number of Milky Way satellites with similar host-satellite contrast. The average projected radial profile of the satellite distribution is isothermal (γ p = -1.0 +0.3 -0.4 ), which is consistent with the observed central mass density profile of massive early-type galaxies. Furthermore, the satellite distribution is highly anisotropic (isotropy is ruled out at a >99.99% confidence level). Defining φ to be the offset between the major axis of the satellite spatial distribution and the major axis of the host light profile, we find a maximum posterior probability of φ = 0 and |φ| less than 42 0 at the 68% confidence level. The alignment of the satellite distribution with the light of the host is consistent with simulations, assuming that light traces mass for the host galaxy as observed for lens galaxies. The anisotropy of the satellite population enhances its ability to produce the flux ratio anomalies observed in gravitationally lensed quasars.

  8. UNDERSTANDING THE STRUCTURE OF THE HOT INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN NORMAL EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Liam; Kim, Dong-Woo; Chandra Galaxy Atlas

    2018-01-01

    The hot interstellar medium (ISM) of early-type galaxies (ETG's) provides crucial insight into the understanding of their formation and evolution. Mechanisms such as type Ia supernovae heating, AGN feedback, deepening potential depth through dark matter assembly and ramp-pressure stripping are known to affect the structure of the ISM. By using temperature maps and radial temperature profiles of the hot ISM from ~70 ETG's with archival Chandra data, it is possible to classify the galaxy's ISM into common structural types. This is extended by using 3D fitting of the radial temperature profile in order to provide models that further constrain the structural types. Five structural types are present, negative (temperature decreases with radii), positive (temperature increases with radii), hybrid-dip (temperature decreases at small radii and increases at large radii), hybrid-bump (inverse of hybrid-dip) and quasi-isothermal (temperature is constant at all radii). This work will be continued by 1) determining which mechanisms are present in which galaxies and 2) analysing the model parameters between galaxies within each structural type to determine whether each type can be described by a single set of model parameters, indicating that the same physical processes are responsible for creating that structural type.

  9. Internal kinematics and dynamical models of dwarf spheroidal galaxies around the Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battaglia, Giuseppina; Helmi, Amina; Breddels, Maarten

    We review our current understanding of the internal dynamical properties of the dwarf spheroidal galaxies surrounding the Milky Way. These are the most dark matter dominated galaxies, and as such may be considered ideal laboratories to test the current concordance cosmological model, and in

  10. THE SLACS SURVEY. VIII. THE RELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENT AND INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treu, Tommaso; Gavazzi, Raphael; Gorecki, Alexia; Marshall, Philip J.; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Bolton, Adam S.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Burles, Scott

    2009-01-01

    We study the relation between the internal structure of early-type galaxies and their environment using 70 strong gravitational lenses from the SLACS Survey. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database is used to determine two measures of overdensity of galaxies around each lens-the projected

  11. Star formation rate in Holmberg IX dwarf galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelić M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use previously determined Hα fluxes for dwarf galaxy Holmberg IX (Arbutina et al. 2009 to calculate star formation rate (SFR in this galaxy. We discuss possible contaminations of Hα flux and, for the first time, we take into account optical emission from supernova remnants (SNRs as a possible source of contamination of Hα flux. Derived SFR for Holmberg IX is 3:4 x 10-4M.yr-1. Our value is lower then in previous studies, due to luminous shock-heated source M&H 9-10, possible hypernova remnant, which we excluded from the total Hα flux in our calculation of SFR.

  12. THE POTENTIAL IMPORTANCE OF BINARY EVOLUTION IN ULTRAVIOLET-OPTICAL SPECTRAL FITTING OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhongmu; Mao, Caiyan; Chen, Li; Zhang, Qian; Li, Maocai

    2013-01-01

    Most galaxies possibly contain some binaries, and more than half of Galactic hot subdwarf stars, which are thought to be a possible origin of the UV-upturn of old stellar populations, are found in binaries. However, the effect of binary evolution has not been taken into account in most works on the spectral fitting of galaxies. This paper studies the role of binary evolution in the spectral fitting of early-type galaxies, via a stellar population synthesis model including both single and binary star populations. Spectra from ultraviolet to optical bands are fitted to determine a few galaxy parameters. The results show that the inclusion of binaries in stellar population models may lead to obvious change in the determination of some parameters of early-type galaxies and therefore it is potentially important for spectral studies. In particular, the ages of young components of composite stellar populations become much older when using binary star population models instead of single star population models. This implies that binary star population models will measure significantly different star formation histories for early-type galaxies compared to single star population models. In addition, stellar population models with binary interactions on average measure larger dust extinctions than single star population models. This suggests that when binary star population models are used, negative extinctions are possibly no longer necessary in the spectral fitting of galaxies (see previous works, e.g., Cid Fernandes et al. for comparison). Furthermore, it is shown that optical spectra have strong constraints on stellar age while UV spectra have strong constraints on binary fraction. Finally, our results suggest that binary star population models can provide new insight into the stellar properties of globular clusters

  13. The Metallicity of Void Dwarf Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreckel, K.; Croxall, K.; Groves, B.; van de Weygaert, R.; Pogge, R. W.

    The current ΛCDM cosmological model predicts that galaxy evolution proceeds more slowly in lower density environments, suggesting that voids are a prime location to search for relatively pristine galaxies that are representative of the building blocks of early massive galaxies. To test the

  14. MULTI-ELEMENT ABUNDANCE MEASUREMENTS FROM MEDIUM-RESOLUTION SPECTRA. II. CATALOG OF STARS IN MILKY WAY DWARF SATELLITE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Rockosi, Constance M.; Simon, Joshua D.; Geha, Marla C.; Sneden, Christopher; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Majewski, Steven R.; Siegel, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We present a catalog of Fe, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti abundances for 2961 stars in eight dwarf satellite galaxies of the Milky Way (MW): Sculptor, Fornax, Leo I, Sextans, Leo II, Canes Venatici I, Ursa Minor, and Draco. For the purposes of validating our measurements, we also observed 445 red giants in MW globular clusters and 21 field red giants in the MW halo. The measurements are based on Keck/DEIMOS medium-resolution spectroscopy (MRS) combined with spectral synthesis. We estimate uncertainties in [Fe/H] by quantifying the dispersion of [Fe/H] measurements in a sample of stars in monometallic globular clusters (GCs). We estimate uncertainties in Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti abundances by comparing to high-resolution spectroscopic abundances of the same stars. For this purpose, a sample of 132 stars with published high-resolution spectroscopy in GCs, the MW halo field, and dwarf galaxies has been observed with MRS. The standard deviations of the differences in [Fe/H] and ([α/Fe]) (the average of [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], and [Ti/Fe]) between the two samples is 0.15 and 0.16, respectively. This catalog represents the largest sample of multi-element abundances in dwarf galaxies to date. The next papers in this series draw conclusions on the chemical evolution, gas dynamics, and star formation histories from the catalog presented here. The wide range of dwarf galaxy luminosity reveals the dependence of dwarf galaxy chemical evolution on galaxy stellar mass.

  15. The population of early-type galaxies: how it evolves with time and how it differs from passive and late-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburri, S.; Saracco, P.; Longhetti, M.; Gargiulo, A.; Lonoce, I.; Ciocca, F.

    2014-10-01

    Aims: There are two aims to our analysis. On the one hand we are interested in addressing whether a sample of morphologically selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) differs from a sample of passive galaxies in terms of galaxy statistics. On the other hand we study how the relative abundance of galaxies, the number density, and, the stellar mass density for different morphological types change over the redshift range 0.6 ≤ z ≤ 2.5. Methods: From the 1302 galaxies brighter than Ks(AB) = 22 selected from the GOODS-MUSIC catalogue, we classified the ETGs, i.e. elliptical (E) and spheroidal galaxies (E/S0), on the basis of their morphology and the passive galaxies on the basis of their specific star formation rate (sSFR ≤ 10-11 yr-1). Since the definition of a passive galaxy depends on the model parameters assumed to fit the spectral energy distribution of the galaxy, in addition to the assumed sSFR threshold, we probed the dependence of this definition and selection on the stellar initial mass function (IMF). Results: We find that spheroidal galaxies cannot be distinguished from the other morphological classes on the basis of their low star formation rate, irrespective of the IMF adopted in the models. In particular, we find that a large fraction of passive galaxies (>30%) are disc-shaped objects and that the passive selection misses a significant fraction (~26%) of morphologically classified ETGs. Using the sample of 1302 galaxies morphologically classified into spheroidal galaxies (ETGs) and non-spheroidal galaxies (LTGs), we find that the fraction of these two morphological classes is constant over the redshift range 0.6 ≤ z ≤ 2.5, being 20-30% the fraction of ETGs and 70-80% the fraction of LTGs. However, at z mass density of the whole population of massive galaxies increase by almost a factor of ~10 between 0.6 ≤ z ≤ 2.5, with a faster increase of these densities for the ETGs than for the LTGs. Finally, we find that the number density of the highest

  16. Disk and dwarf spheroidal galaxies kinematics from general relativity with infrared renormalization group effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Davi C.; Oliveira, Paulo L.C. de; Fabris, Julio C.; Shapiro, Ilya L.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The running of coupling constants is a well known phenomenon within Quantum Field Theory. It is also known that the renormalization group method can be extended to quantum field theory on curved space time. Nonetheless, although we know that the beta function of QED go to zero in the infrared limit fast enough to lead to constant charge at the classical level (in conformity with both the Appelquist-Carazzone theorem and experimental data), no analogous proof exists for General Relativity. Some authors have proposed that the infrared beta function of General Relativity is not trivial, and as such certain small running of the gravitational coupling might take place at astrophysical scales, leading in particular to changes on the role of dark matter in galaxies. We review and extend our contribution to infrared Renormalization Group (RG) effects to General Relativity in the context of galaxies, an approach we call RGGR. We extend our previous results by analyzing a larger sample of galaxies, now also including elliptical and dwarf spheroidal galaxies, besides disk galaxies (both LSB and HSB). We compare our RGGR results to both standard dark matter profiles (NFW, Isothermal, Burkert) and alternative models of gravity (MOND, MSTG), showing that the RGGR results are similar in quality to the best dark matter profiles (the cored ones, e.g., Isothermal and Burkert), while displaying a better fitting to the data than NFW, MOND or MSTG. To the latter, we evaluated both the shape of the rotation curve and the expected stellar mass-to-light ratios. Dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies are small galaxies believed to be dominated by dark matter, with the highest fraction do dark matter per baryonic matter. These galaxies provide a strong test to any theory that mimics either all or part of the dark matter behavior. In particular, this is the only type of galaxy that MOND seems incapable of fitting the data. (author)

  17. Two Cepheid variables in the Fornax dwarf galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, R. M.; Armandroff, T. E.; Zinn, R.

    1986-01-01

    Two fields surrounding globular clusters 2 and 3 in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy have been searched for short-period variable stars that are brighter than the horizontal branch. This survey confirmed as variable the two suspected suprahorizontal-branch variables discovered by Buonanno et al. (1985) in their photometry of the clusters. The observations show that the star in cluster 2 is a W Virginis variable of 14.4 day period. It is the first W Vir variable to be found in a dwarf spheroidal galaxy, and its proximity to the center of cluster 2 suggests that it is a cluster member. The other star appears to be an anomalous Cephpeid of 0.78 day period. It lies outside or very near the boundary of cluster 3, and is therefore probably a member of the field population of Fornax. Although no other suprahorizontal-branch variables were discovered in the survey, it did confirm as variable two of the RR Lyrae candidates of Buonanno et al., which appeared at the survey limit. The implications of these observations for the understanding of the stellar content at Fornax are discussed.

  18. Metal-poor dwarf galaxies in the SIGRID galaxy sample. I. H II region observations and chemical abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, David C.; Dopita, Michael A.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Jerjen, Helmut; Kewley, Lisa J.; Basurah, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of observations of 17 H II regions in thirteen galaxies from the SIGRID sample of isolated gas-rich irregular dwarf galaxies. The spectra of all but one of the galaxies exhibit the auroral [O III] 4363 Å line, from which we calculate the electron temperature, T e , and gas-phase oxygen abundance. Five of the objects are blue compact dwarf galaxies, of which four have not previously been analyzed spectroscopically. We include one unusual galaxy which exhibits no evidence of the [N II] λλ 6548,6584 Å lines, suggesting a particularly low metallicity (< Z ☉ /30). We compare the electron temperature based abundances with those derived using eight of the new strong-line diagnostics presented by Dopita et al. Using a method derived from first principles for calculating total oxygen abundance, we show that the discrepancy between the T e -based and strong-line gas-phase abundances have now been reduced to within ∼0.07 dex. The chemical abundances are consistent with what is expected from the luminosity-metallicity relation. We derive estimates of the electron densities and find them to be between ∼5 and ∼100 cm –3 . We find no evidence for a nitrogen plateau for objects in this sample with metallicities 0.5 > Z ☉ > 0.15.

  19. Metal-poor dwarf galaxies in the SIGRID galaxy sample. I. H II region observations and chemical abundances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholls, David C.; Dopita, Michael A.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Jerjen, Helmut; Kewley, Lisa J. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston ACT 2611 (Australia); Basurah, Hassan, E-mail: David.Nicholls@anu.edu.au [Astronomy Department, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203 Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-05-10

    In this paper we present the results of observations of 17 H II regions in thirteen galaxies from the SIGRID sample of isolated gas-rich irregular dwarf galaxies. The spectra of all but one of the galaxies exhibit the auroral [O III] 4363 Å line, from which we calculate the electron temperature, T{sub e} , and gas-phase oxygen abundance. Five of the objects are blue compact dwarf galaxies, of which four have not previously been analyzed spectroscopically. We include one unusual galaxy which exhibits no evidence of the [N II] λλ 6548,6584 Å lines, suggesting a particularly low metallicity (< Z {sub ☉}/30). We compare the electron temperature based abundances with those derived using eight of the new strong-line diagnostics presented by Dopita et al. Using a method derived from first principles for calculating total oxygen abundance, we show that the discrepancy between the T{sub e} -based and strong-line gas-phase abundances have now been reduced to within ∼0.07 dex. The chemical abundances are consistent with what is expected from the luminosity-metallicity relation. We derive estimates of the electron densities and find them to be between ∼5 and ∼100 cm{sup –3}. We find no evidence for a nitrogen plateau for objects in this sample with metallicities 0.5 > Z {sub ☉} > 0.15.

  20. The Properties of Faint Field Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Simon. P.

    1994-12-01

    One of the current drawbacks of Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) is their restrictive fields of view. The Hitchhiker CCD camera overcomes this limitation by operating in parallel with existing instrumentation and is able to cover a large area as well as large volumes. Hitchhiker is mounted on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope and has been operating for two years. The first use of the Hitchhiker data set has been to study the general properties of faint galaxies. The observed trend of how the differential numbers of galaxies vary with magnitude agrees extremely well with those of other groups and covers, for the first time, all four major optical bandpasses. This multi-band capability has also allowed the study of how the colors of galaxies change with magnitude and how the correlation of galaxies on the sky varies between the optical bandpasses. A dwarf dominated model has been developed to explain these observations and challenges our knowledge of the space-density of dwarf galaxies. The model demonstrates that a simple upward turn in the luminosity distribution of galaxies, similar to that observed in clusters, would remain undetected by the field surveys yet can explain many of the observations without recourse to non-passive galaxy evolution. The conclusion is that the field luminosity distribution is not constrained at faint absolute magnitudes. A combination of a high density of dwarf galaxies and mild evolution could explain all the observations. Continuing work with HST and the Medium Deep Survey Team now reveals the morphological mix of galaxies down to mI ~ 24.0. The results confirm that ellipticals and early-type spirals are well fitted by standard no-evolution models whilst the late-type spirals can only be fitted by strong evolution and/or a significant turn-up in the local field LF.

  1. Extreme Emission Line Galaxies in CANDELS: Broad-Band Selected, Star-Bursting Dwarf Galaxies at Z greater than 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderWel, A.; Straughn, A. N.; Rix, H.-W.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Weiner, B. J.; Wuyts, S.; Bell, E. F.; Faber, S. M.; Trump, J. R.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We identify an abundant population of extreme emission line galaxies (EELGs) at redshift z approx. 1.7 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) imaging from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). 69 EELG candidates are selected by the large contribution of exceptionally bright emission lines to their near-infrared broad-band magnitudes. Supported by spectroscopic confirmation of strong [OIII] emission lines . with rest-frame equivalent widths approx. 1000A in the four candidates that have HST/WFC3 grism observations, we conclude that these objects are galaxies with approx.10(exp 8) Solar Mass in stellar mass, undergoing an enormous starburst phase with M*/M* of only approx. 15 Myr. These bursts may cause outflows that are strong enough to produce cored dark matter profiles in low-mass galaxies. The individual star formation rates and the co-moving number density (3.7x10(exp -4) Mpc(sup -3) can produce in approx.4 Gyr much of the stellar mass density that is presently contained in 10(exp 8) - 10(exp 9) Solar Mass dwarf galaxies. Therefore, our observations provide a strong indication that many or even most of the stars in present-day dwarf galaxies formed in strong, short-lived bursts, mostly at z > 1.

  2. Tidal disruption of dwarf spheroidal galaxies: the strange case of Crater II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jason L.; Evans, N. W.; Dehnen, W.

    2018-05-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group obey a relationship between the line-of-sight velocity dispersion and half-light radius, although there are a number of dwarfs that lie beneath this relation with suppressed velocity dispersion. The most discrepant of these (in the Milky Way) is the `feeble giant' Crater II. Using analytic arguments supported by controlled numerical simulations of tidally-stripped flattened two-component dwarf galaxies, we investigate interpretations of Crater II within standard galaxy formation theory. Heavy tidal disruption is necessary to explain the velocity-dispersion suppression which is plausible if the proper motion of Crater II is (μα*, μδ) = ( - 0.21 ± 0.09, -0.24 ± 0.09)mas yr-1. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the velocity dispersion of tidally-disrupted systems is solely a function of the total mass loss even for weakly-embedded and flattened systems. The half-light radius evolution depends more sensitively on orbital phase and the properties of the dark matter profile. The half-light radius of weakly-embedded cusped systems rapidly decreases producing some tension with the Crater II observations. This tension is alleviated by cored dark matter profiles, in which the half-light radius can grow after tidal disruption. The evolution of flattened galaxies is characterised by two competing effects: tidal shocking makes the central regions rounder whilst tidal distortion produces a prolate tidally-locked outer envelope. After ˜70% of the central mass is lost, tidal distortion becomes the dominant effect and the shape of the central regions of the galaxy tends to a universal prolate shape irrespective of the initial shape.

  3. The Leoncino Dwarf: The Lowest Metallicity Star-Forming Galaxy in the Nearby Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen

    2017-08-01

    Extremely metal-poor (XMP) galaxies are dwarf irregular galaxies with very low metallicities, traced by their gas-phase oxygen abundance. Galaxy evolution scenarios suggest three pathways to form an XMP: (1) secular evolution at low galaxy masses, (2) slow evolution in voids, or (3) dilution of measured abundances from infall of pristine gas. These scenarios have proven challenging to test because, despite concerted efforts, XMP galaxies in the nearby universe have proven hard to find. A notable exception is the recently discovered dwarf galaxy Leoncino. Leoncino has the lowest gas-phase oxygen abundance ever measured in a galaxy in the local Universe. From optical spectroscopy, the oxygen abundance is 12+log(O/H)=7.02+/-0.03, more than 40% lower than the iconic low-metallicity galaxy I Zw 18 and less than 2% Z_sun. Despite a precision oxygen abundance measurement, the evolutionary context of Leoncino remains uncertain without a secure distance. We propose HST WFC3 high-resolution optical imaging of Leoncino to accurately measure the distance to the galaxy using the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method. The distance will determine whether Leoncino is located in a typical field environment or in a void, and whether the galaxy is consistent with the luminosity-metallicity relation at low galaxy masses. The detailed study of Leoncino will provide benchmark results for future XMP discoveries in the nearby Universe, and an exceptionally timely comparison for studies of chemically primitive, high-redshift galaxies that will be observable in the JWST era.

  4. The Importance of Preventive Feedback: Inference from Observations of the Stellar Masses and Metallicities of Milky Way Dwarf Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yu; Benson, Andrew; Wetzel, Andrew; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Tonnesen, Stephanie; Peter, Annika H. G.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2017-01-01

    © 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Dwarf galaxies are known to have remarkably low star formation efficiency due to strong feedback. Adopting the dwarf galaxies of the Milky Way (MW) as a laboratory, we explore a flexible semi-analytic galaxy formation model to understand how the feedback processes shape the satellite galaxies of the MW. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo, we exhaustively search a large parameter space of the model and rigorously show that the general...

  5. THE STELLAR STRUCTURE AND KINEMATICS OF DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES FORMED BY TIDAL STIRRING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokas, Ewa L.; Klimentowski, Jaroslaw; Kazantzidis, Stelios; Mayer, Lucio; Callegari, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Using high-resolution N-body simulations, we study the stellar properties of dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies resulting from the tidally induced morphological transformation of disky dwarfs on a cosmologically motivated eccentric orbit around the Milky Way. The dwarf galaxy models initially consist of an exponential stellar disk embedded in an extended spherical dark matter halo. Depending on the initial orientation of the disk with respect to the orbital plane, different final configurations are obtained. The least evolved dwarf is triaxial and retains a significant amount of rotation. The more evolved dwarfs are prolate spheroids with little rotation. We show that in this scenario the final density distribution of stars can be approximated by a simple modification of the Plummer law. The kinematics of the dwarfs is significantly different depending on the line of sight which has important implications for mapping the observed stellar velocity dispersions of dwarfs to subhalo circular velocities. When the dwarfs are observed along the long axis, the measured velocity dispersion is higher and decreases faster with radius. In the case where rotation is significant, when viewed perpendicular to the long axis, the effect of minor axis rotation is detected, as expected for triaxial systems. We model the velocity dispersion profiles and rotation curves of the dwarfs under the assumption of constant mass-to-light ratio by solving the Jeans equations for spherical and axisymmetric systems and adjusting different sets of free parameters, including the total mass. We find that the mass is typically overestimated when the dwarf is seen along the long axis and underestimated when the observation is along the short or intermediate axis. For the studied cases, the effect of non-sphericity cannot, however, bias the inferred mass by more than 60% in either direction, even for the most strongly stripped dwarf which is close to disruption.

  6. The SLUGGS survey: wide-field stellar kinematics of early-type galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Jacob A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.; Woodley, Kristin A. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S.; Pastorello, Nicola; Pota, Vincenzo; Usher, Christopher [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Spitler, Lee R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Foster, Caroline, E-mail: romanow@ucolick.org [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    2014-08-20

    We present stellar kinematics of 22 nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs), based on two-dimensional (2D) absorption line stellar spectroscopy out to ∼2-4 R {sub e} (effective radii), as part of the ongoing SLUGGS Survey. The galaxies span a factor of 20 in intrinsic luminosity, as well as a full range of environment and ETG morphology. Our data consist of good velocity resolution (σ{sub inst} ∼ 25 km s{sup –1}) integrated stellar-light spectra extracted from the individual slitlets of custom made Keck/DEIMOS slitmasks. We extract stellar kinematics measurements (V, σ, h {sub 3}, and h {sub 4}) for each galaxy. Combining with literature values from smaller radii, we present 2D spatially resolved maps of the large-scale kinematic structure in each galaxy. We find that the kinematic homogeneity found inside 1 R {sub e} often breaks down at larger radii, where a variety of kinematic behaviors are observed. While central slow rotators remain slowly rotating in their halos, central fast rotators show more diversity, ranging from rapidly increasing to rapidly declining specific angular momentum profiles in the outer regions. There are indications that the outer trends depend on morphological type, raising questions about the proposed unification of the elliptical and lenticular (S0) galaxy families in the ATLAS{sup 3D} survey. Several galaxies in our sample show multiple lines of evidence for distinct disk components embedded in more slowly rotating spheroids, and we suggest a joint photometric-kinematic approach for robust bulge-disk decomposition. Our observational results appear generally consistent with a picture of two-phase (in-situ plus accretion) galaxy formation.

  7. The star-formation histories of early-type galaxies from ATLAS3D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Tim A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; Morganti, Rafaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nic; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    We present an exploration of the integrated stellar populations of early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the ATLAS3D survey. We use two approaches: firstly the application of line-indices interpreted through single stellar population (SSP) models, which provide a single value of age, metallicity and

  8. Detailed abundances in stars belonging to ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    François, P.; Monaco, L.; Villanova, S.; Catelan, M.; Bonifacio, P.; Bellazzini, M.; Bidin, C. Moni; Marconi, G.; Geisler, D.; Sbordone, L.

    2012-01-01

    We report preliminary results concerning the detailed chemical composition of metal poor stars belonging to close ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (hereafter UfDSphs). The abundances have been determined thanks to spectra obtained with X-Shooter, a high efficiency spectrograph installed on one of the ESO VLT units. The sample of ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal stars have abundance ratios slightly lower to what is measured in field halo star of the same metallicity.We did not find extreme abundances in...

  9. Main-sequence turnoff of the Draco dwarf galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stetson, P.B.; Mcclure, R.D.; Vandenberg, D.A.; Victoria Univ., Canada)

    1985-01-01

    Deep photometry on the B,V system for 182 stars in the dwarf spheroidal galaxy in Draco was obtained with a CCD camera at the Cassegrain focus of the Canada-France-Hawaii 3.6-m telescope. Draco's main-sequence turnoff if found near V(to) = 23.5, which is about 3.4 magnitudes below the galaxy's horizontal branch. This leads to the interpretation that Draco is not measurably younger than the clusters or Ursa Minor: the age of Draco is about 18 Gyr according to current star-revolution chronologies. No blue stragglers are definitely detected in Draco, and it is concluded that any young population in Draco probably represents less than 10 percent of the total. 30 references

  10. Multiple populations within globular clusters in Early-type galaxies Exploring their effect on stellar initial mass function estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantereau, W.; Usher, C.; Bastian, N.

    2018-05-01

    It is now well-established that most (if not all) ancient globular clusters host multiple populations, that are characterised by distinct chemical features such as helium abundance variations along with N-C and Na-O anti-correlations, at fixed [Fe/H]. These very distinct chemical features are similar to what is found in the centres of the massive early-type galaxies and may influence measurements of the global properties of the galaxies. Additionally, recent results have suggested that M/L variations found in the centres of massive early-type galaxies might be due to a bottom-heavy stellar initial mass function. We present an analysis of the effects of globular cluster-like multiple populations on the integrated properties of early-type galaxies. In particular, we focus on spectral features in the integrated optical spectrum and the global mass-to-light ratio that have been used to infer variations in the stellar initial mass function. To achieve this we develop appropriate stellar population synthesis models and take into account, for the first time, an initial-final mass relation which takes into consideration a varying He abundance. We conclude that while the multiple populations may be present in massive early-type galaxies, they are likely not responsible for the observed variations in the mass-to-light ratio and IMF sensitive line strengths. Finally, we estimate the fraction of stars with multiple populations chemistry that come from disrupted globular clusters within massive ellipticals and find that they may explain some of the observed chemical patterns in the centres of these galaxies.

  11. VLT/UVES abundances in four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies. II. Implications for understanding galaxy evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E; Venn, KA; Shetrone, M; Primas, F; Hill, [No Value; Kaufer, A; Szeifert, T

    We have used the Ultraviolet Visual-Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on Kueyen (UT2) of the Very Large Telescope to take spectra of 15 individual red giant stars in the centers of four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph's) : Sculptor, Fornax, Carina, and Leo I. We measure the abundance variations of

  12. Ultra-faint dwarfs: The living fossils of the first galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvadori, Stefania

    The nature of the faintest dwarf galaxies and their connection with the recently discovered very metal-poor Damped Lyα Absorption systems (DLAs) is investigate in the context of the Milky Way formation. By using a cosmological model I will discuss the theoretical implications of the observed

  13. THE PAndAS VIEW OF THE ANDROMEDA SATELLITE SYSTEM. I. A BAYESIAN SEARCH FOR DWARF GALAXIES USING SPATIAL AND COLOR-MAGNITUDE INFORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Mackey, A. Dougal; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Irwin, Michael J.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Fardal, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a generic algorithm to search for dwarf galaxies in photometric catalogs and apply it to the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS). The algorithm is developed in a Bayesian framework and, contrary to most dwarf galaxy search codes, makes use of both the spatial and color-magnitude information of sources in a probabilistic approach. Accounting for the significant contamination from the Milky Way foreground and from the structured stellar halo of the Andromeda galaxy, we recover all known dwarf galaxies in the PAndAS footprint with high significance, even for the least luminous ones. Some Andromeda globular clusters are also recovered and, in one case, discovered. We publish a list of the 143 most significant detections yielded by the algorithm. The combined properties of the 39 most significant isolated detections show hints that at least some of these trace genuine dwarf galaxies, too faint to be individually detected. Follow-up observations by the community are mandatory to establish which are real members of the Andromeda satellite system. The search technique presented here will be used in an upcoming contribution to determine the PAndAS completeness limits for dwarf galaxies. Although here tuned to the search of dwarf galaxies in the PAndAS data, the algorithm can easily be adapted to the search for any localized overdensity whose properties can be modeled reliably in the parameter space of any catalog

  14. Is Sextans dwarf galaxy in a scalar field dark matter halo?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lora, V.; Magaña, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The Bose-Einstein condensate/scalar field dark matter model, considers that the dark matter is composed by spinless-ultra-light particles which can be described by a scalar field. This model is an alternative model to the Λ-cold dark matter paradigm, and therefore should be studied at galactic and cosmological scales. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies have been very useful when studying any dark matter theory, because the dark matter dominates their dynamics. In this paper we study the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy, embedded in a scalar field dark matter halo. We explore how the dissolution time-scale of the stellar substructures in Sextans, constrain the mass, and the self-interacting parameter of the scalar field dark matter boson. We find that for masses in the range (0.12< m φ <8) ×10 -22 eV, scalar field dark halos without self-interaction would have cores large enough to explain the longevity of the stellar substructures in Sextans, and small enough mass to be compatible with dynamical limits. If the self-interacting parameter is distinct to zero, then the mass of the boson could be as high as m φ ≈2×10 -21 eV, but it would correspond to an unrealistic low mass for the Sextans dark matter halo . Therefore, the Sextans dwarf galaxy could be embedded in a scalar field/BEC dark matter halo with a preferred self-interacting parameter equal to zero

  15. THE LEO IV DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY: COLOR-MAGNITUDE DIAGRAM AND PULSATING STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, Maria Ida; Dall'Ora, Massimo; Ripepi, Vincenzo

    2009-01-01

    We present the first V, B - V color-magnitude diagram of the Leo IV dwarf spheroidal galaxy, a faint Milky Way satellite recently discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have obtained B, V time-series photometry reaching about half a magnitude below the Leo IV turnoff, which we detect at V = 24.7 mag, and have performed the first study of the variable star population. We have identified three RR Lyrae stars (all fundamental-mode pulsators, RRab) and one SX Phoenicis variable in the galaxy. In the period-amplitude diagram the Leo IV RR Lyrae stars are located close to the loci of Oosterhoff type I systems and the evolved fundamental-mode RR Lyrae stars in the Galactic globular cluster M3. However, their mean pulsation period, (Pab) = 0.655 days, would suggest an Oosterhoff type II classification for this galaxy. The RR Lyrae stars trace very well the galaxy's horizontal branch, setting its average magnitude at (V RR ) = 21.48 ± 0.03 mag (standard deviation of the mean). This leads to a distance modulus of μ 0 = 20.94 ± 0.07 mag, corresponding to a distance of 154 ± 5 kpc, by adopting for the Leo IV dSph a reddening E(B - V) = 0.04 ± 0.01 mag and a metallicity of [Fe/H] = -2.31 ± 0.10.

  16. Powerful warm infrared sources in early-type galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressel, L.L.

    1988-01-01

    IRAS far-infrared sources have been identified with 129 S0, Sa, Sb, and Sc galaxies in a statistically complete sample of 738 galaxies brighter than 14.5 mag and smaller than 4.0 arcmin. In most cases, the far-IR colors and the ratios of far-IR flux to radio flux density are those of normal galactic disks and/or starbursts. The most powerful far-IR sources in S0 and Sa galaxies are just as powerful as the strongest far-IR sources in Sb and Sc galaxies. Bright-IR sources in S0 and Sa galaxies are warm; those in Sc galaxies are cool. Sb galaxies have both warm and cool IR sources. Bright warm IR sources occur much more frequently in barred galaxies than in galaxies without bars for types S0, Sa, and Sb. Bright, cool IR sources are found with increasing frequency along the Hubble sequence, regardless of the presence or absence of a bar. At least some S0 galaxies with warm, bright IR sources have peculiar morphologies and ambiguous classifications. 22 references

  17. Fast radio burst tied to distant dwarf galaxy (Image 2)

    National Science Foundation

    2017-06-07

    Full Text Available Radio telescope at Arecibo only localized the fast radio burst to the area inside the two circles in this image, but the Very Large Array was able to pinpoint it as a dwarf galaxy within the square (shown at intersection of cross hairs in enlarged box)

  18. USING M DWARF SPECTRA TO MAP EXTINCTION IN THE LOCAL GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, David O.; West, Andrew A.; Foster, Jonathan B.

    2011-01-01

    We use spectra of more than 56,000 M dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to create a high-latitude extinction map of the local Galaxy. Our technique compares spectra from the stars in the SDSS Data Release 7 M dwarf sample in low-extinction lines of sight, as determined by Schlegel et al., to other SDSS M dwarf spectra in order to derive improved distance estimates and accurate line-of-sight extinctions. Unlike most previous studies, which have used a two-color method to determine extinction, we fit extinction curves to fluxes across the spectral range from 5700 to 9200 A for every star in our sample. Our result is an A V map that extends from a few tens of pc to approximately 2 kpc away from the Sun. We also use a similar technique to create a map of R V values within approximately 1 kpc of the Sun and find that they are consistent with the widely accepted diffuse interstellar medium value of 3.1. Using our extinction data, we derive a dust scale height for the local Galaxy of 119 ± 15 pc and find evidence for a local dust cavity.

  19. OXYGEN METALLICITY DETERMINATIONS FROM OPTICAL EMISSION LINES IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athey, Alex E.; Bregman, Joel N.

    2009-01-01

    We measured the oxygen abundances of the warm (T ∼ 10 4 K) phase of gas in seven early-type galaxies through long-slit observations. A template spectra was constructed from galaxies void of warm gas and subtracted from the emission-line galaxies, allowing for a clean measurement of the nebular lines. The ratios of the emission lines are consistent with photoionization, which likely originates from the ultraviolet flux of postasymototic giant branch stars. We employ H II region photoionization models to determine a mean oxygen metallicity of 1.01 ± 0.50 solar for the warm interstellar medium (ISM) in this sample. This warm ISM 0.5-1.5 solar metallicity is consistent with modern determinations of the metallicity in the hot (T ∼ 10 6 -10 7 K) ISM and the upper range of this warm ISM metallicity is consistent with stellar population metallicity determinations. A solar metallicity of the warm ISM favors an internal origin for the warm ISM such as asymptotic giant branch mass loss within the galaxy.

  20. Evidence for a Sub-Chandrasekhar-mass Type Ia Supernova in the Ursa Minor Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, Andrew; Piro, Anthony L.; Badenes, Carles; Bravo, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    A long-standing problem is identifying the elusive progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), which can roughly be split into Chandraksekhar and sub-Chandrasekhar-mass events. An important difference between these two cases is the nucleosynthetic yield, which is altered by the increased neutron excess in Chandrasekhar progenitors due to their pre-explosion simmering and high central density. Based on these arguments, we show that the chemical composition of the most metal-rich star in the Ursa Minor dwarf galaxy, COS 171, is dominated by nucleosynthesis from a low-metallicity, low-mass, sub-Chandrasekhar-mass SN Ia. Key diagnostic abundance ratios include Mn/Fe and Ni/Fe, which could not have been produced by a Chandrasekhar-mass SN Ia. Large deficiencies of Ni/Fe, Cu/Fe and Zn/Fe also suggest the absence of alpha-rich freeze-out nucleosynthesis, favoring low-mass white dwarf progenitors of SNe Ia, near 0.95 M ⊙, from comparisons to numerical detonation models. We also compare Mn/Fe and Ni/Fe ratios to the recent yields predicted by Shen et al., finding consistent results. To explain the [Fe/H] at ‑1.35 dex for COS 171 would require dilution of the SN Ia ejecta with ∼104 M ⊙ of material, which is expected for an SN remnant expanding into a warm interstellar medium with n ∼ 1 cm‑3. In the future, finding more stars with the unique chemical signatures we highlight here will be important for constraining the rate and environments of sub-Chandrasekhar SNe Ia.

  1. Indirect research of dark matter toward dwarf galaxies with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The first part of this document summarizes the astrophysical arguments to suppose the existence of dark matter. The cosmological model γCDM is presented as well as the concept of cross section of dark matter self-annihilation. Dwarf galaxies satellites of the Milky Way, the sources of our study are introduced into a second chapter. After recalling the large structures that make up the universe, the issues related to dwarf galaxies are addressed: missing satellites problem, distribution of dark matter density within them and tidal forces due to the Milky Way. The second part discusses the modeling of the dark matter density in dwarf galaxies. The methodology, using the Jeans equation and dispersion of projected stars velocities, is presented. Three dark matter profiles are retained: NFW, Burkert and Einasto and fifteen dwarf galaxies. Neutrino production during the self-annihilation of dark matter is then addressed. The energy spectra of neutrinos are generated with PYTHIA software and compared with other results for the galactic center. Twenty-three assumptions of mass dark matter candidates are chosen, ranging from 25 GeV/c 2 100 TeV/c 2 . Five self-annihilation channels are selected for analysis: b - b, W + W - T + T - μ + μ - νμ νμ. The third part includes a presentation of the detector used for the study, the ANTARES neutrino telescope. Three reconstruction algorithms developed and used in collaboration are also detailed: AAFIT, BBFit and GridFit. The analysis of data ANTARES aimed to find a neutrinos excess characteristic of dark matter self-annihilation is summarized in the sixth and final chapter. No excess was observed, a limit on the cross section of dark matter self-annihilation was determined. (author)

  2. Abundance patterns in the interstellar medium of early-type galaxies observed with Suzaku

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konami, Saori; Matsushita, Kyoko; Tamagawa, Toru; Nagino, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    We have analyzed 17 early-type galaxies, 13 ellipticals and 4 S0 galaxies, observed with Suzaku, and investigated metal abundances (O, Mg, Si, and Fe) and abundance ratios (O/Fe, Mg/Fe, and Si/Fe) in the interstellar medium (ISM). The emission from each on-source region, which is four times the effective radius, r e , is reproduced with one-temperature (1T) or two-temperature (2T) thermal plasma models as well as a multi-temperature model, using APEC plasma code version 2.0.1. The multi-temperature model gave almost the same abundances and abundance ratios with the 1T or 2T models. The weighted averages of the O, Mg, Si, and Fe abundances of all the sample galaxies derived from the multi-temperature model fits are 0.83 ± 0.04, 0.93 ± 0.03, 0.80 ± 0.02, and 0.80 ± 0.02 solar, respectively, in solar units according to the solar abundance table by Lodders in 2003. These abundances show no significant dependence on the morphology and environment. The systematic differences in the derived metal abundances between versions 2.0.1 and 1.3.1 of the APEC plasma codes were investigated. The derived O and Mg abundances in the ISM agree with the stellar metallicity within an aperture with a radius of one r e derived from optical spectroscopy. From these results, we discuss the past and present Type Ia supernova rates and star formation histories in early-type galaxies.

  3. Surface brightness and color distributions in blue compact dwarf galaxies. I. Haro 2, an extreme example of a star-forming young elliptical galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loose, H.H.; Thuan, T.X.; Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA)

    1986-01-01

    The first results of a large-scale program to study the morphology and structure of blue compact dwarf galaxies from CCD observations are presented. The observations and reduction procedures are described, and surface brightness and color profiles are shown. The results are used to discuss the morphological type of Haro 2 and its stellar populations. It is found that Haro 2 appears to be an extreme example of an elliptical galaxy undergoing intense star formation in its central regions, and that the oldest stars it contains were made only about four million yr ago. The missing mass problem of Haro 2 is also discussed. 28 references

  4. Structure of the Draco Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Piatek, Slawomir; Pryor, Carlton; Armandroff, Taft E.; Olszewski, Edward W.

    2002-01-01

    This article studies the structure of the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy with an emphasis on the question of whether the spatial distribution of its stars has been affected by the tidal interaction with the Milky Way, using R- and V-band CCD photometry for eleven fields. The article reports coordinates for the center, a position angle of the major axis, and the ellipticity. It also reports the results of searches for asymmetries in the structure of Draco. These results, and searches for a ``br...

  5. Stellar properties of dwarf galaxies and their connections with the Milky Way halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revaz, Yves; Pascale Jablonka

    2018-06-01

    In this talk, relying on recent chemo-dynamical simulations, I will describe the stellar properties and in particular the abundances ratios of dwarf galaxies emerging from a LCDM framework. Faint systems quenched by the UV-background as well as luminous ones exhibiting an extended star formation history nicely reproduce observations, without necessary requiring a strong interaction with the Milky Way. However, dwarf galaxies with complex star formation histories like Carina and Fornax are much more difficult to reproduce. Those systems are often believed to result from an interaction with the Milky Way. I will show that when such interaction is taken into account in our high resolution simulations through ram pressure stripping, a much more complex reality appears.

  6. The galactic population of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napiwotzki, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    The contribution of white dwarfs of the different Galactic populations to the stellar content of our Galaxy is only poorly known. Some authors claim a vast population of halo white dwarfs, which would be in accordance with some investigations of the early phases of Galaxy formation claiming a top-heavy initial- mass- function. Here, I present a model of the population of white dwarfs in the Milky Way based on observations of the local white dwarf sample and a standard model of Galactic structure. This model will be used to estimate the space densities of thin disc, thick disc and halo white dwarfs and their contribution to the baryonic mass budget of the Milky Way. One result of this investigation is that white dwarfs of the halo population contribute a large fraction of the Galactic white dwarf number count, but they are not responsible for the lion's share of stellar mass in the Milky Way. Another important result is the substantial contribution of the - often neglected - population of thick disc white dwarfs. Misclassification of thick disc white dwarfs is responsible for overestimates of the halo population in previous investigations.

  7. Gravitational wave radiation from a double white dwarf system inside our galaxy: a potential method for seeking strange dwarfs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan-Kui Lü; Shi-Wei Wu; Zhi-Cheng Zeng

    2009-01-01

    Like the investigation of double white dwarf (DWD) systems, strange dwarf (SD) - white dwarf (WD) system evolution in Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA)'s absolute amplitude-frequency diagram is investigated. Since there is a strange quark core inside an SD, SDs' radii are significantly smaller than the value predicted by the standard WD model, which may strongly affect the gravitational wave (GW) signal in the mass-transferring phases of binary systems. We study how an SD-WD binary evolves across LISA's absolute amplitude-frequency diagram. In principle, we provide an executable way to detect SDs in the Galaxy's DWD systems by radically new windows offered by GW detectors.

  8. Macho project photometry of RR Lyrae stars in the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)]|[Center for Particle Astrophysics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Allsman, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)]|[Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories, Australian National University, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Alves, D.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Axelrod, T.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)]|[Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories, Australian National University, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Becker, A.C. [Center for Particle Astrophysics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)]|[Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Bennett, D.P.; Cook, K.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)]|[Center for Particle Astrophysics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Freeman, K.C. [Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories, Australian National University, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Griest, K. [Center for Particle Astrophysics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Guern, J.A.; Lehner, M.J. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Marshall, S.L.; Minniti, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Peterson, B.A. [Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories, Australian National University, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Pratt, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    We report the discovery of 30 type a, b RR Lyrae (RRab) stars that are likely members of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (Sgr). Accurate positions, periods, amplitudes, and magnitudes are presented. Their distances are determined with respect to RRab stars in the Galactic bulge found also in the MACHO 1993 data. For R{sub {circle_dot}}=8kpc, the mean distance to these stars is D=22{plus_minus}1kpc, smaller than previous determinations for this galaxy. This indicates that Sgr has an elongated main body extending for more than 10 kpc, which is inclined along the line of sight, with its northern part (in Galactic coordinates) closer to us. The size and shape of Sgr give clues about the past history of this galaxy. If the shape of Sgr follows the direction of its orbit, the observed spatial orientation suggests that Sgr is moving away from the Galactic plane. Also, Sgr stars may be the sources of some of the microlensing events seen toward the bulge. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  9. Environmental effects on star formation in dwarf galaxies and star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetto, Stefano; Cropper, Mark; fujita, Yutaka; Chiosi, Cesare; Grebel, Eva K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the competitive role of the different dissipative phenomena acting on the onset of star formation history of gravitationally bound system in an external environment.Ram pressure, Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, Rayleigh-Taylor, and tidal forces are accounted separately in an analytical framework and compared in their role in influencing the star forming regions. The two-fluids instability at the interface between a stellar system and its surrounding hotter and less dense environment is related to the star formation processes through a set of differential equations. We present an analytical criterion to elucidate the dependence of star formation in a spherical stellar system on its surrounding environment useful in theoretical interpretations of numerical results as well as observational applications. We show how spherical coordinates naturally enlighten the interpretation of the two-fluids instability in a geometry that directly applies to astrophysical case. Finally, we consider the different signatures of these phenomena in synthetically realized colour-magnitude diagrams of the orbiting system thus investigating the detectability limits of these different effects for future observational projects and their relevance.The theoretical framework developed has direct applications to the cases of dwarf galaxies in galaxy clusters and dwarf galaxies orbiting our Milky Way system, as well as any primordial gas-rich cluster of stars orbiting within its host galaxy.

  10. CHANDRA DETECTION OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM ULTRACOMPACT DWARF GALAXIES AND EXTENDED STAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Meicun; Li, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted a systematic study of X-ray emission from ultracompact dwarf (UCD) galaxies and extended star clusters (ESCs), based on archival Chandra observations. Among a sample of 511 UCDs and ESCs complied from the literature, 17 X-ray counterparts with 0.5–8 keV luminosities above ∼5 × 10 36 erg s −1 are identified, which are distributed in eight early-type host galaxies. To facilitate comparison, we also identify X-ray counterparts of 360 globular clusters (GCs) distributed in four of the eight galaxies. The X-ray properties of the UCDs and ESCs are found to be broadly similar to those of the GCs. The incidence rate of X-ray-detected UCDs and ESCs, 3.3% ± 0.8%, while lower than that of the X-ray-detected GCs (7.0% ± 0.4%), is substantially higher than expected from the field populations of external galaxies. A stacking analysis of the individually undetected UCDs/ESCs further reveals significant X-ray signals, which corresponds to an equivalent 0.5–8 keV luminosity of ∼4 × 10 35 erg s −1 per source. Taken together, these provide strong evidence that the X-ray emission from UCDs and ESCs is dominated by low-mass X-ray binaries having formed from stellar dynamical interactions, consistent with the stellar populations in these dense systems being predominantly old. For the most massive UCDs, there remains the possibility that a putative central massive black hole gives rise to the observed X-ray emission

  11. CHANDRA DETECTION OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM ULTRACOMPACT DWARF GALAXIES AND EXTENDED STAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Meicun; Li, Zhiyuan, E-mail: lizy@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2016-03-10

    We have conducted a systematic study of X-ray emission from ultracompact dwarf (UCD) galaxies and extended star clusters (ESCs), based on archival Chandra observations. Among a sample of 511 UCDs and ESCs complied from the literature, 17 X-ray counterparts with 0.5–8 keV luminosities above ∼5 × 10{sup 36} erg s{sup −1} are identified, which are distributed in eight early-type host galaxies. To facilitate comparison, we also identify X-ray counterparts of 360 globular clusters (GCs) distributed in four of the eight galaxies. The X-ray properties of the UCDs and ESCs are found to be broadly similar to those of the GCs. The incidence rate of X-ray-detected UCDs and ESCs, 3.3% ± 0.8%, while lower than that of the X-ray-detected GCs (7.0% ± 0.4%), is substantially higher than expected from the field populations of external galaxies. A stacking analysis of the individually undetected UCDs/ESCs further reveals significant X-ray signals, which corresponds to an equivalent 0.5–8 keV luminosity of ∼4 × 10{sup 35} erg s{sup −1} per source. Taken together, these provide strong evidence that the X-ray emission from UCDs and ESCs is dominated by low-mass X-ray binaries having formed from stellar dynamical interactions, consistent with the stellar populations in these dense systems being predominantly old. For the most massive UCDs, there remains the possibility that a putative central massive black hole gives rise to the observed X-ray emission.

  12. Dark Matter Profiles in Dwarf Galaxies: A Statistical Sample Using High-Resolution Hα Velocity Fields from PCWI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relatores, Nicole C.; Newman, Andrew B.; Simon, Joshua D.; Ellis, Richard; Truong, Phuongmai N.; Blitz, Leo

    2018-01-01

    We present high quality Hα velocity fields for a sample of nearby dwarf galaxies (log M/M⊙ = 8.4-9.8) obtained as part of the Dark Matter in Dwarf Galaxies survey. The purpose of the survey is to investigate the cusp-core discrepancy by quantifying the variation of the inner slope of the dark matter distributions of 26 dwarf galaxies, which were selected as likely to have regular kinematics. The data were obtained with the Palomar Cosmic Web Imager, located on the Hale 5m telescope. We extract rotation curves from the velocity fields and use optical and infrared photometry to model the stellar mass distribution. We model the total mass distribution as the sum of a generalized Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo along with the stellar and gaseous components. We present the distribution of inner dark matter density profile slopes derived from this analysis. For a subset of galaxies, we compare our results to an independent analysis based on CO observations. In future work, we will compare the scatter in inner density slopes, as well as their correlations with galaxy properties, to theoretical predictions for dark matter core creation via supernovae feedback.

  13. White dwarf-red dwarf binaries in the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselaar, E.J.M. van den

    2007-01-01

    This PhD thesis shows several studies on white dwarf - red dwarf binaries. White dwarfs are the end products of most stars and red dwarfs are normal hydrogen burning low-mass stars. White dwarf - red dwarf binaries are both blue (white dwarf) and red (red dwarf). Together with the fact that they are

  14. Type I Shell Galaxies as a Test of Gravity Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakili, Hajar; Rahvar, Sohrab [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kroupa, Pavel, E-mail: vakili@physics.sharif.edu [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen-und Kernphysik, Universität Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2017-10-10

    Shell galaxies are understood to form through the collision of a dwarf galaxy with an elliptical galaxy. Shell structures and kinematics have been noted to be independent tools to measure the gravitational potential of the shell galaxies. We compare theoretically the formation of shells in Type I shell galaxies in different gravity theories in this work because this is so far missing in the literature. We include Newtonian plus dark halo gravity, and two non-Newtonian gravity models, MOG and MOND, in identical initial systems. We investigate the effect of dynamical friction, which by slowing down the dwarf galaxy in the dark halo models limits the range of shell radii to low values. Under the same initial conditions, shells appear on a shorter timescale and over a smaller range of distances in the presence of dark matter than in the corresponding non-Newtonian gravity models. If galaxies are embedded in a dark matter halo, then the merging time may be too rapid to allow multi-generation shell formation as required by observed systems because of the large dynamical friction effect. Starting from the same initial state, the observation of small bright shells in the dark halo model should be accompanied by large faint ones, while for the case of MOG, the next shell generation patterns iterate with a specific time delay. The first shell generation pattern shows a degeneracy with the age of the shells and in different theories, but the relative distance of the shells and the shell expansion velocity can break this degeneracy.

  15. Study of the boxlike dark matter signals from dwarf spheroidal galaxies with Fermi-LAT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shang; Liang, Yun-Feng; Xia, Zi-Qing; Zu, Lei; Duan, Kai-Kai; Shen, Zhao-Qiang; Feng, Lei; Yuan, Qiang; Fan, Yi-Zhong

    2018-04-01

    The observation of a special spectral feature in the gamma-ray data would be one of the best ways to identify dark matter (DM). The box-shaped gamma-ray spectra could be generated by the decay of intermediate particles produced by DM annihilation or decay. It provides another kind of signal that can be relatively easily distinguished from astrophysical backgrounds besides the linelike signals. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are expected to be dominated by DM and may be one of the most promising targets for indirect DM searches. In this paper, we study the box-shaped DM signals with Fermi-LAT observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We analyze 106 months of Fermi-LAT data to derive the upper limits on the annihilation cross section or the decay timescale of DM. In addition, we compare the results for different sample selections and DM density distributions. We expect that more dwarf spheroidal galaxies will be found and the sensitivity of box-shaped gamma-ray signal searches will be significantly improved in the future.

  16. Complexity on dwarf galaxy scales : A bimodal distributionfFunction in sculptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breddels, Maarten A.; Helmi, Amina

    2014-01-01

    In our previous work, we presented Schwarzschild models of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy demonstrating that this system could be embedded in dark matter halos that are either cusped or cored. Here, we show that the non-parametric distribution function recovered through Schwarzschild's method

  17. Nucleosynthesis and the Inhomogeneous Chemical Evolution of the Carina Dwarf Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venn, Kim A.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Irwin, Mike J.; Hill, Vanessa; Jablonka, Pascale; Tolstoy, Eline; Lemasle, Bertrand; Divell, Mike; Starkenburg, Else; Letarte, Bruno; Baldner, Charles; Battaglia, Giuseppina; Helmi, Amina; Kaufer, Andreas; Primas, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The detailed abundances of 23 chemical elements in nine bright red giant branch stars in the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy are presented based on high-resolution spectra gathered at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and Magellan telescopes. A spherical model atmospheres analysis is applied using

  18. Can physical stellar collisions explain the blue stragglers in the dwarf spheroidal galaxies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, P.J.T.

    1993-01-01

    The hypothesis that the blue stragglers in the dwarf spheroidal galaxie have a collisional origin is considered. If all of the dark matter in these galaxies is in the form of low-mass stars and the binary frequency is ≅ 50%, then it is quite possible that ≅ 10% to 20% of their blue stragglers have been produced by physical stellar collisions

  19. A Survey for Low Surface Brightness Dwarf Galaxies Around M31

    OpenAIRE

    Armandroff, Taft E.; Davies, James E.; Jacoby, George H.

    1998-01-01

    By applying a digital filtering technique to 1550 square degrees of the POSS-II in the vicinity of M31, we found two previously unidentified very low surface brightness dwarf galaxies which we designate And V and VI. Follow-up imaging with the KPNO 4-m telescope resolved these into stars easily. The V- and I- band images of And V indicate a distance similar to that of M31, and approximately -1.5. All evidence strongly supports its classification as a dwarf spheroidal companion to M31. Data f...

  20. The metal-poor knee in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, Benjamin; Koch, Andreas [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Königstuhl 12, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Lanfranchi, Gustavo A. [Núcleo de Astrofísica Teórica, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, R. Galvão Bueno 868, Liberdade, 01506-000, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Boeche, Corrado [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120, Heidelberg (Germany); Walker, Matthew [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Johnson, Christian I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-15, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Peñarrubia, Jorge [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Gilmore, Gerard, E-mail: ben.hendricks@lsw.uni-heidelberg.de [Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge University, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-20

    We present α-element abundances of Mg, Si, and Ti for a large sample of field stars in two outer fields of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy, obtained with Very Large Telescope/GIRAFFE (R ∼ 16, 000). Due to the large fraction of metal-poor (MP) stars in our sample, we are able to follow the α-element evolution from [Fe/H] ≈ –2.5 continuously to [Fe/H] ≈ –0.7. For the first time we are able to resolve the turnover from the Type II supernovae (SNe) dominated, α-enhanced plateau down to subsolar [α/Fe] values, due to the onset of SNe Ia, and thus to trace the chemical enrichment efficiency of the galaxy. Our data support the general concept of an α-enhanced plateau at early epochs, followed by a well-defined 'knee' caused by the onset of SNe Ia, and finally a second plateau with sub-solar [α/Fe] values. We find the position of this knee to be at [Fe/H] ≈ –1.9 and therefore significantly more MP than expected from comparison with other dSphs and standard evolutionary models. Surprisingly, this value is rather comparable to the knee in Sculptor, a dSph ∼10 times less luminous than Fornax. Using chemical evolution models, we find that the position of the knee and the subsequent plateau at the sub-solar level can hardly be explained unless the galaxy experienced several discrete star formation (SF) events with a drastic variation in SF efficiency, while a uniform SF can be ruled out. One possible evolutionary scenario is that Fornax experienced one or several major accretion events from gas-rich systems in the past, so that its current stellar mass is not indicative of the chemical evolution environment at ancient times. If Fornax is the product of several smaller buildings blocks, this may also have implications for the understanding of the formation process of dSphs in general.

  1. The chemical composition and age of the blue compact dwarf galaxy Haro 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidge, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations are presented of the central star-forming nebula in the blue compact dwarf galaxy Haro 2 (MrK 33). Using the strengths of various emission lines, it is found that the electron temperature is roughly 9250 K and that the O abundance is comparable with that of the LMC. Weak Mg b 5175-A and Fe I 5335-A absorption lines have also been identified. An effort has been made to investigate the origin of these lines using synthetic spectra. It is concluded that, contrary to the findings of Loose and Thuan (1986), Haro 2 probably contains an old stellar substrate. Finally, it is suggested that Haro 2 may eventually evolve into a nucleated dwarf elliptical galaxy. 44 refs

  2. Multiwavelength Observations of the Dwarf Seyfert 1 Galaxy POX 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Carol E.; Barth, A. J.; Ho, L. C.; Rutledge, R. E.; Greene, J. E.

    2006-12-01

    POX 52 is an unusual narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy, having an estimated black hole mass of order 105 solar masses and a dwarf host galaxy with an absolute magnitude of only MV = -17.6, which gives us a unique opportunity to study black hole-bulge relations in the low-mass regime. We present new observations from a multiwavelength campaign to study its active nucleus and host galaxy. The data include observations from the Chandra and XMM-Newton Observatories, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the Very Large Array. Chandra data show a highly variable point source with a 2.0 10.0 keV luminosity of 0.7 * 1042 ergs/s. We will also describe the X-ray spectral shape, the structure of the host galaxy as determined from GALFIT modeling of the HST ACS/HRC images, and the spectral energy distribution of the active nucleus.

  3. Galactic Outflows, Star Formation Histories, and Timescales in Starburst Dwarf Galaxies from STARBIRDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Heilman, Taryn N.; Mitchell, Noah P.; Kelley, Tyler

    2018-03-01

    Winds are predicted to be ubiquitous in low-mass, actively star-forming galaxies. Observationally, winds have been detected in relatively few local dwarf galaxies, with even fewer constraints placed on their timescales. Here, we compare galactic outflows traced by diffuse, soft X-ray emission from Chandra Space Telescope archival observations to the star formation histories derived from Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the resolved stellar populations in six starburst dwarfs. We constrain the longevity of a wind to have an upper limit of 25 Myr based on galaxies whose starburst activity has already declined, although a larger sample is needed to confirm this result. We find an average 16% efficiency for converting the mechanical energy of stellar feedback to thermal, soft X-ray emission on the 25 Myr timescale, somewhat higher than simulations predict. The outflows have likely been sustained for timescales comparable to the duration of the starbursts (i.e., 100's Myr), after taking into account the time for the development and cessation of the wind. The wind timescales imply that material is driven to larger distances in the circumgalactic medium than estimated by assuming short, 5-10 Myr starburst durations, and that less material is recycled back to the host galaxy on short timescales. In the detected outflows, the expelled hot gas shows various morphologies which are not consistent with a simple biconical outflow structure. The sample and analysis are part of a larger program, the STARBurst IRregular Dwarf Survey (STARBIRDS), aimed at understanding the lifecycle and impact of starburst activity in low-mass systems.

  4. Modelling the gas kinematics of an atypical Ly α emitting compact dwarf galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero-Romero, Jaime E.; Gronke, Max; Remolina-Gutiérrez, Maria Camila; Garavito-Camargo, Nicolás; Dijkstra, Mark

    2018-02-01

    Star-forming compact dwarf galaxies (CDGs) resemble the expected pristine conditions of the first galaxies in the Universe and are the best systems to test models on primordial galaxy formation and evolution. Here, we report on one of such CDGs, Tololo 1214-277, which presents a broad, single peaked, highly symmetric Ly α emission line that had evaded theoretical interpretation so far. In this paper, we reproduce for the first time these line features with two different physically motivated kinematic models: an interstellar medium composed by outflowing clumps with random motions and an homogeneous gaseous sphere undergoing solid body rotation. The multiphase model requires a clump velocity dispersion of 54.3 ± 0.6 km s-1 with outflows of 54.3 ± 5.1 km s-1 , while the bulk rotation velocity is constrained to be 348^{+75}_{-48} km s-1. We argue that the results from the multiphase model provide a correct interpretation of the data. In that case, the clump velocity dispersion implies a dynamical mass of 2 × 109 M⊙, 10 times its baryonic mass. If future kinematic maps of Tololo 1214-277 confirm the velocities suggested by the multiphase model, it would provide additional support to expect such kinematic state in primordial galaxies, opening the opportunity to use the models and methods presented in this paper to constrain the physics of star formation and feedback in the early generation of Ly α -emitting galaxies.

  5. The Merger History, AGN and Dwarf Galaxies of Hickson Compact Group 59

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Gallagher, S. C.; Fedotov, K.; Durrell, P. R.; Tzanavaris, P.; Hill, A. R.; Zabludoff, A. I.; Maier, M. L.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Charlton, J. C.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Compact group galaxies often appear unaffected by their unusually dense environment. Closer examination can, however, reveal the subtle, cumulative effects of multiple galaxy interactions. Hickson Compact Group (HCG) 59 is an excellent example of this situation. We present a photometric study of this group in the optical (HST), infrared (Spitzer) and X-ray (Chandra) regimes aimed at characterizing the star formation and nuclear activity in its constituent galaxies and intra-group medium. We associate five dwarf galaxies with the group and update the velocity dispersion, leading to an increase in the dynamical mass of the group of up to a factor of 10 (to 2.8 x 10(exp 13) Stellar Mass), and a subsequent revision of its evolutionary stage. Star formation is proceeding at a level consistent with the morphological types of the four main galaxies, of which two are star-forming and the other two quiescent. Unlike in some other compact groups, star-forming complexes across HCG 59 closely follow mass-radius scaling relations typical of nearby galaxies. In contrast, the ancient globular cluster populations in galaxies HCG 59A and B show intriguing irregularities, and two extragalactic HII regions are found just west of B. We age-date a faint stellar stream in the intra-group medium at approx. 1 Gyr to examine recent interactions. We detect a likely low-luminosity AGN in HCG 59A by its approx. 10(exp 40) erg/s X-ray emission; the active nucleus rather than star formation can account for the UV+IR SED. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of galaxy evolution in dense environments.

  6. Evidence for a constant IMF in early-type galaxies based on their X-ray binary populations

    OpenAIRE

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Kundu, Arunav; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Lehmer, Bret D.; Maraston, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent studies have proposed that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) of early type galaxies varies systematically as a function of galaxy mass, with higher mass galaxies having bottom heavy IMFs. These bottom heavy IMFs have more low-mass stars relative to the number of high mass stars, and therefore naturally result in proportionally fewer neutron stars and black holes. In this paper, we specifically predict the variation in the number of black holes and neutron stars based ...

  7. Nuclei of dwarf spheroidal galaxies KKs3 and ESO269-66 and their counterparts in our Galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Sharina, M. E.; Shimansky, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.

    2017-01-01

    We present the analysis of medium-resolution spectra obtained at the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) for nuclear globular clusters (GCs) in two dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). The galaxies have similar star formation histories, but they are situated in completely different environments. ESO269-66 is a close neighbour of the giant S0 NGC5128. KKs3 is one of the few truly isolated dSphs within 10 Mpc. We estimate the helium abundance $Y=0.3$, $\\rm age=12.6\\pm1$ Gyr, $[Fe/H]=-1.5,-1.5...

  8. Carbon monoxide in clouds at low metallicity in the dwarf irregular galaxy WLM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G; Rubio, Monica; Hunter, Deidre A; Verdugo, Celia; Brinks, Elias; Schruba, Andreas

    2013-03-28

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the primary tracer for interstellar clouds where stars form, but it has never been detected in galaxies in which the oxygen abundance relative to hydrogen is less than 20 per cent of that of the Sun, even though such 'low-metallicity' galaxies often form stars. This raises the question of whether stars can form in dense gas without molecules, cooling to the required near-zero temperatures by atomic transitions and dust radiation rather than by molecular line emission; and it highlights uncertainties about star formation in the early Universe, when the metallicity was generally low. Here we report the detection of CO in two regions of a local dwarf irregular galaxy, WLM, where the metallicity is 13 per cent of the solar value. We use new submillimetre observations and archival far-infrared observations to estimate the cloud masses, which are both slightly greater than 100,000 solar masses. The clouds have produced stars at a rate per molecule equal to 10 per cent of that in the local Orion nebula cloud. The CO fraction of the molecular gas is also low, about 3 per cent of the Milky Way value. These results suggest that in small galaxies both star-forming cores and CO molecules become increasingly rare in molecular hydrogen clouds as the metallicity decreases.

  9. Cleaning spectroscopic samples of stars in nearby dwarf galaxies : The use of the nIR Mg I line to weed out Milky Way contaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battaglia, G.; Starkenburg, E.

    Dwarf galaxies provide insight into the processes of star formation and chemical enrichment at the low end of the galaxy mass function, as well as into the clustering of dark matter on small scales. In studies of Local Group dwarf galaxies, spectroscopic samples of individual stars are used to

  10. Spectroscopy of superluminous supernova host galaxies. A preference of hydrogen-poor events for extreme emission line galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Leloudas, G.; Schulze, S.; Kruehler, T.; Gorosabel, J.; Christensen, L.; Mehner, A.; Postigo, A. de Ugarte; Amorin, R.; Thoene, C. C.; Anderson, J. P.; Bauer, F. E.; Gallazzi, A.; Helminiak, K. G.; Hjorth, J.; Ibar, E.

    2014-01-01

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) are very bright explosions that were only discovered recently and that show a preference for occurring in faint dwarf galaxies. Understanding why stellar evolution yields different types of stellar explosions in these environments is fundamental in order to both uncover the elusive progenitors of SLSNe and to study star formation in dwarf galaxies. In this paper, we present the first results of our project to study SUperluminous Supernova Host galaxIES, focusi...

  11. CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT IN THE FAINTEST GALAXIES: THE CARBON AND IRON ABUNDANCE SPREADS IN THE BOOeTES I DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY AND THE SEGUE 1 SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, John E.; Yong, David; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Gilmore, Gerard; Belokurov, V.; Zucker, Daniel B.; Frebel, Anna; Wilkinson, Mark I.

    2010-01-01

    We present an AAOmega spectroscopic study of red giants in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Booetes I (M V ∼ -6) and the Segue 1 system (M V ∼ -1.5), either an extremely low luminosity dwarf galaxy or an unusually extended globular cluster. Both Booetes I and Segue 1 have significant abundance dispersions in iron and carbon. Booetes I has a mean abundance of [Fe/H] = -2.55 ± 0.11 with an [Fe/H] dispersion of σ = 0.37 ± 0.08, and abundance spreads of Δ[Fe/H] = 1.7 and Δ[C/H] = 1.5. Segue 1 has a mean of [Fe/H] = -2.7 ± 0.4 with [Fe/H] dispersion of σ = 0.7 ± 0.3, and abundances spreads of Δ[Fe/H] = 1.6 and Δ[C/H] = 1.2. Moreover, Segue 1 has a radial-velocity member at four half-light radii that is extremely metal-poor and carbon-rich, with [Fe/H] = -3.5, and [C/Fe] = +2.3. Modulo an unlikely non-member contamination, the [Fe/H] abundance dispersion confirms Segue 1 as the least-luminous ultra-faint dwarf galaxy known. For [Fe/H] V = -5. The very low mean iron abundances and the high carbon and iron abundance dispersions in Segue 1 and Booetes I are consistent with highly inhomogeneous chemical evolution starting in near zero-abundance gas. These ultra-faint dwarf galaxies are apparently surviving examples of the very first bound systems.

  12. PERSEUS I: A DISTANT SATELLITE DWARF GALAXY OF ANDROMEDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Laevens, Benjamin P. M.; Schlafly, Edward F.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F.; Bernard, Edouard J.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Kaiser, Nicholas; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Magnier, Eugene A.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Tonry, John L.; Draper, Peter W.; Metcalfe, Nigel; Price, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    We present the discovery of a new dwarf galaxy, Perseus I/Andromeda XXXIII, found in the vicinity of Andromeda (M31) in stacked imaging data from the Pan-STARRS1 3π survey. Located 27.°9 away from M31, Perseus I has a heliocentric distance of 785 ± 65 kpc, compatible with it being a satellite of M31 at 374 −10 +14 kpc from its host. The properties of Perseus I are typical for a reasonably bright dwarf galaxy (M V = –10.3 ± 0.7), with an exponential half-light radius of r h = 1.7 ± 0.4 arcmin or r h =400 −85 +105 pc at this distance, and a moderate ellipticity (ϵ=0.43 −0.17 +0.15 ). The late discovery of Perseus I is due to its fairly low surface brightness (μ 0 =25.7 −0.9 +1.0  mag arcsec –2 ), and to the previous lack of deep, high quality photometric data in this region. If confirmed to be a companion of M31, the location of Perseus I, far east from its host, could place interesting constraints on the bulk motion of the satellite system of M31

  13. Distinguishing CDM dwarfs from SIDM dwarfs in baryonic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Emily; Fitts, Alex B.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Dwarf galaxies in the nearby Universe are the most dark-matter-dominated systems known. They are therefore natural probes of the nature of dark matter, which remains unknown. Our collaboration has performed several high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies. We simulate each galaxy in standard cold dark matter (ΛCDM) as well as self-interacting dark matter (SIDM, with a cross section of σ/m ~ 1 cm2/g), both with and without baryons, in order to identify distinguishing characteristics between the two. The simulations are run using GIZMO, a meshless-finite-mass hydrodynamical code, and are part of the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) project. By analyzing both the global properties and inner structure of the dwarfs in varying dark matter prescriptions, we provide a side-by-side comparison of isolated, dark-matter-dominated galaxies at the mass scale where differences in the two models of dark matter are thought to be the most obvious. We find that the edge of classical dwarfs and ultra-faint dwarfs (at stellar masses of ~105 solar masses) provides the clearest window for distinguishing between the two theories. At these low masses, our SIDM galaxies have a cored inner density profile, while their CDM counterparts have “cuspy” centers. The SIDM versions of each galaxy also have measurably lower stellar velocity dispersions than their CDM counterparts. Future observations of ultra faint dwarfs with JWST and 30-m telescopes will be able to discern whether such alternate theories of dark matter are viable.

  14. The fate of accreting white dwarfs: type I supernovae vs. collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    1986-01-01

    The fate of accreting white dwarfs is examined with respect to thermonuclear explosion or collapse. The paper was presented to the conference on ''The early universe and its evolution'', Erice, Italy 1986. Effects of accretion and the fate of white dwarfs, models for type 1a and 1b supernovae, collapse induced by carbon deflagration at high density, and fate of double white dwarfs, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  15. Dark matter identification with gamma rays from dwarf galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perelstein, Maxim; Shakya, Bibhushan

    2010-01-01

    If the positron fraction and combined electron-positron flux excesses recently observed by PAMELA, Fermi and HESS are due to dark matter annihilation into lepton-rich final states, the accompanying final state radiation (FSR) photons may be detected by ground-based atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (ACTs). Satellite dwarf galaxies in the vicinity of the Milky Way are particularly promising targets for this search. We find that current and near-future ACTs have an excellent potential for discovering the FSR photons from dwarfs, although a discovery cannot be guaranteed due to large uncertainties in the fluxes resulting from lack of precise knowledge of dark matter distribution within the dwarfs. We also investigate the possibility of discriminating between different dark matter models based on the measured FSR photon spectrum. For typical parameters, we find that the ACTs can reliably distinguish models predicting dark matter annihilation into two-lepton final states from those favoring four-lepton final states (as in, for example, ''axion portal'' models). In addition, we find that the dark matter particle mass can also be determined from the FSR spectrum

  16. Implications of Stellar Feedback for Dynamical Modeling of the Milky Way and Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    I will present recent results on dynamical modeling of stellar populations from the FIRE cosmological zoom-in baryonic simulations of Milky Way-like and dwarf galaxies. First, I will discuss the dynamical formation of the Milky Way, including the origin of thin+thick stellar disk morphology. I also will discuss the curious origin of metal-rich stars on halo-like orbits near the Sun, as recently measured by Gaia, with new insights from FIRE simulations on stellar radial migration/heating. Next, I will discuss role of stellar feedback in generating non-equilibrium fluctuations of the gravitational potential in low-mass 'dwarf' galaxies, which can explain the origin of cores in their dark-matter density profiles. In particular, we predict significant observable effects on stellar dynamics, including radial migration, size fluctuations, and population gradients, which can provide observational tests of feedback-driven core formation. Finally, this scenario can explain the formation of newly discovered 'ultra-diffuse' galaxies.

  17. THE MOST METAL-POOR DAMPED Lyα SYSTEMS: AN INSIGHT INTO DWARF GALAXIES AT HIGH-REDSHIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Pettini, Max; Jorgenson, Regina A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the kinematics, chemistry, and physical properties of a sample of the most metal-poor damped Lyα systems (DLAs), to uncover their links to modern-day galaxies. We present evidence that the DLA population as a whole exhibits a ''knee'' in the relative abundances of the α-capture and Fe-peak elements when the metallicity is [Fe/H] ≅ –2.0, assuming that Zn traces the buildup of Fe-peak elements. In this respect, the chemical evolution of DLAs is clearly different from that experienced by Milky Way halo stars, but resembles that of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group. We also find a close correspondence between the kinematics of Local Group dwarf galaxies and of high-redshift metal-poor DLAs, which further strengthens this connection. On the basis of such similarities, we propose that the most metal-poor DLAs provide us with a unique opportunity to directly study the dwarf galaxy population more than ten billion years in the past, at a time when many dwarf galaxies were forming the bulk of their stars. To this end, we have measured some of the key physical properties of the DLA gas, including their neutral gas mass, size, kinetic temperature, density, and turbulence. We find that metal-poor DLAs contain a warm neutral medium with T gas ≅ 9600 K predominantly held up by thermal pressure. Furthermore, all of the DLAs in our sample exhibit a subsonic turbulent Mach number, implying that the gas distribution is largely smooth. These results are among the first empirical descriptions of the environments where the first few generations of stars may have formed in the universe

  18. TOO MANY, TOO FEW, OR JUST RIGHT? THE PREDICTED NUMBER AND DISTRIBUTION OF MILKY WAY DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargis, Jonathan R.; Willman, Beth; Peter, Annika H. G.

    2014-01-01

    We predict the spatial distribution and number of Milky Way dwarf galaxies to be discovered in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys, by completeness correcting the observed Sloan Digital Sky Survey dwarf population. We apply most massive in the past, earliest forming, and earliest infall toy models to a set of dark matter-only simulated Milky Way/M31 halo pairs from the Exploring the Local Volume In Simulations project. Inclusive of all toy models and simulations, at 90% confidence we predict a total of 37-114 L ≳ 10 3 L ☉ dwarfs and 131-782 L ≲ 10 3 L ☉ dwarfs within 300 kpc. These numbers of L ≳ 10 3 L ☉ dwarfs are dramatically lower than previous predictions, owing primarily to our use of updated detection limits and the decreasing number of SDSS dwarfs discovered per sky area. For an effective r limit of 25.8 mag, we predict 3-13 L ≳ 10 3 L ☉ and 9-99 L ≲ 10 3 L ☉ dwarfs for DES, and 18-53 L ≳ 10 3 L ☉ and 53-307 L ≲ 10 3 L ☉ dwarfs for LSST. We also show that the observed spatial distribution of Milky Way dwarfs in the LSST-era will discriminate between the earliest infall and other simplified models for how dwarf galaxies populate dark matter subhalos

  19. Dwarfs and Giants in the local flows of galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Emelyanov, N. V.; Karachentsev, I. D.

    We use recent Hubble Space Telescope data on nearby dwarf and giant galaxies to study the dynamical structure and evolutionary trends of the local expansion flows of galaxies. It is found that antigravity of dark energy dominates the force field of the flows and makes them expand with acceleration. It also cools the flows and introduces to them the nearly linear velocity-distance relation with the time-rate close to the global Hubble's factor. There are grounds to expect that this is the universal physical regularity that is common not only for the nearby flows we studied here, but also for all the expansion flows of various spatial scales from the 1 Mpc scale and up to the scale of the global cosmological expansion.

  20. Reconciling Dwarf Galaxies with ΛCDM Cosmology: Simulating A Realistic Population of Satellites Around a Milky Way-Mass Galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Wetzel, Andrew R.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan; Quataert, Eliot

    2016-01-01

    � 2016. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Low-mass "dwarf" galaxies represent the most significant challenges to the cold dark matter (CDM) model of cosmological structure formation. Because these faint galaxies are (best) observed within the Local Group (LG) of the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31), understanding their formation in such an environment is critical. We present first results from the Latte Project: the Milky Way on Feedback in Realistic Environments (FI...

  1. SDSS-IV MaNGA: a distinct mass distribution explored in slow-rotating early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Yu; Li, Hongyu; Wang, Jie; Gao, Liang; Li, Ran; Ge, Junqiang; Jing, Yingjie; Pan, Jun; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Valenzuela, Octavio; Ortíz, Erik Aquino

    2018-06-01

    We study the radial acceleration relation (RAR) for early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the SDSS MaNGA MPL5 data set. The complete ETG sample show a slightly offset RAR from the relation reported by McGaugh et al. (2016) at the low-acceleration end; we find that the deviation is due to the fact that the slow rotators show a systematically higher acceleration relation than the McGaugh's RAR, while the fast rotators show a consistent acceleration relation to McGaugh's RAR. There is a 1σ significant difference between the acceleration relations of the fast and slow rotators, suggesting that the acceleration relation correlates with the galactic spins, and that the slow rotators may have a different mass distribution compared with fast rotators and late-type galaxies. We suspect that the acceleration relation deviation of slow rotators may be attributed to more galaxy merger events, which would disrupt the original spins and correlated distributions of baryons and dark matter orbits in galaxies.

  2. Alfalfa discovery of the nearby gas-rich dwarf galaxy Leo P. IV. Distance measurement from LBT optical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Berg, Danielle [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Salzer, John J.; Rhode, Katherine L. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: berg@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu, E-mail: rhode@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: slaz@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: betsey@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Leo P is a low-luminosity dwarf galaxy discovered through the blind H I Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey. The H I and follow-up optical observations have shown that Leo P is a gas-rich dwarf galaxy with both active star formation and an underlying older population, as well as an extremely low oxygen abundance. Here, we measure the distance to Leo P by applying the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) distance method to photometry of the resolved stellar population from new Large Binocular Telescope V and I band imaging. We measure a distance modulus of 26.19{sub −0.50}{sup +0.17} mag corresponding to a distance of 1.72{sub −0.40}{sup +0.14} Mpc. Although our photometry reaches 3 mag below the TRGB, the sparseness of the red giant branch yields higher uncertainties on the lower limit of the distance. Leo P is outside the Local Group with a distance and velocity consistent with the local Hubble flow. While located in a very low-density environment, Leo P lies within ∼0.5 Mpc of a loose association of dwarf galaxies which include NGC 3109, Antlia, Sextans A, and Sextans B, and 1.1 Mpc away from its next nearest neighbor, Leo A. Leo P is one of the lowest metallicity star-forming galaxies known in the nearby universe, comparable in metallicity to I Zw 18 and DDO 68, but with stellar characteristics similar to dwarf spheriodals (dSphs) in the Local Volume such as Carina, Sextans, and Leo II. Given its physical properties and isolation, Leo P may provide an evolutionary link between gas-rich dwarf irregular galaxies and dSphs that have fallen into a Local Group environment and been stripped of their gas.

  3. A challenge to dSph formation models: are the most isolated Local Group dSph galaxies truly old?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monelli, Matteo

    2017-08-01

    What is the origin of the different dwarf galaxy types? The classification into dwarf irregular (dIrr), spheroidal (dSph), and transition (dT) types is based on their present-day properties. However, star formation histories (SFHs) reconstructed from deep color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) provide details on the early evolution of galaxies of all these types, and indicate only two basic evolutionary paths. One is characterized by a vigorous but brief initial star-forming event, and little or no star formation thereafter (fast evolution), and the other one by roughly continuous star formation until (nearly) the present time (slow evolution). These two paths do not map directly onto the dIrr, dT and dSph types. Thus, the present galaxy properties do not reflect their lifetime evolution. Since there are some indications that slow dwarfs were assembled in lower-density environments than fast dwarfs, Gallart et al (2015) proposed that the distinction between fast and slow dwarfs reflects the characteristic density of the environment where they formed. This scenario, and more generally scenarios where dSph galaxies formed through the interaction with a massive galaxy, are challenged by a small sample of extremely isolated dSph/dT in the outer fringes of the Local Group. This proposal targets two of these objects (VV124, KKR25) for which we will infer their SFH - through a novel technique that combines the information from their RR Lyrae stars and deep CMDs sampling the intermediate-age population - in order to test these scenarios. This is much less demanding on observing time than classical SFH derivation using full depth CMDs.

  4. Two micron spectroscopy of the Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy Haro 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidge, T.J.; Maillard, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of 2-micron spectroscopic observations of the Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy (BCDG) Haro 2, obtained with the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The spectrum contains emission lines of H I, He I, Fe II, and H2 and strong absorption originating from Delta-v = 2 transitions of CO. The strengths of the various features are discussed and the extinction in the 2-micron region is estimated. The spectrum of Haro 2 is compared with those of other BCDGs and the starburst galaxies NGC 253 and M82. It is found that, in many respects, Haro 2 is a typical starburst galaxy and that its blue near-IR colors are not necessarily a sign of youth. 35 refs

  5. Supernova rates, galaxy emission, and Hubble type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Bergh, S.

    1991-01-01

    Supernova discovery frequency is found to correlate with emission-line (H-alpha + forbidden N II line) equivalent width, except for the most active galaxies in which some supernovae might be hidden by dust. SNII occur preferentially in active galaxies with emission-line EW not less than 20 A, whereas SNIa favor less active galaxies with EW less than 20 A. The intrinsic frequency of supernovae is found to be an order of magnitude higher in Sc galaxies than it is in early type spirals. The relatively high frequency of SNIa in late-type galaxies suggests that not all such objects have old progenitors. 13 refs

  6. A study of the H I and optical properties of Low Surface Brightness galaxies: spirals, dwarfs, and irregulars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, M.; van Driel, W.; Das, M.; Martin, J.-M.

    2018-06-01

    We present a study of the H I and optical properties of nearby (z ≤ 0.1) Low Surface Brightness galaxies (LSBGs). We started with a literature sample of ˜900 LSBGs and divided them into three morphological classes: spirals, irregulars, and dwarfs. Of these, we could use ˜490 LSBGs to study their H I and stellar masses, colours, and colour-magnitude diagrams, and local environment, compare them with normal, High Surface Brightness (HSB) galaxies and determine the differences between the three morphological classes. We found that LSB and HSB galaxies span a similar range in H I and stellar masses, and have a similar M_{H I}/M⋆-M⋆ relationship. Among the LSBGs, as expected, the spirals have the highest average H I and stellar masses, both of about 109.8 M⊙. The LSGBs' (g - r) integrated colour is nearly constant as function of H I mass for all classes. In the colour-magnitude diagram, the spirals are spread over the red and blue regions whereas the irregulars and dwarfs are confined to the blue region. The spirals also exhibit a steeper slope in the M_{H I}/M⋆-M⋆ plane. Within their local environment, we confirmed that LSBGs are more isolated than HSB galaxies, and LSB spirals more isolated than irregulars and dwarfs. Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical tests on the H I mass, stellar mass, and number of neighbours indicate that the spirals are a statistically different population from the dwarfs and irregulars. This suggests that the spirals may have different formation and H I evolution than the dwarfs and irregulars.

  7. Differential population synthesis of early-type galaxies. III. Synthesis results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    Synthesis results are presented for 12 elliptical and five lenticular galaxies which cover nearly a 6 mag range of absolute magnitude in the Fornax cluster (V = 1430 km s -1 ). The results of age, metallicity, and mass-to-light ratio (M/L) determinations are presented differentially as functions of galactic luminosity and morphology. Bright elliptical galaxies are well represented by main-sequence turnoff colors of (V-R)/sub c/roughly-equal0.37 and B-Vroughly-equal0.70, in good agreement with O'Connell's results for bright Virgo ellipticals. The relatively young main-sequence turnoff ages, of 6-10 Gyr for ellipticals of all luminosities, indicate that substantial star formation activity occurred in these galaxies for a period of 6dagger10 Gyr after the epoch of globular cluster formation. There is strong evidence for small amounts of current star formation in at least the brightest ellipticals of all luminosities, indicate that substantial star formation in at least the brightest ellipticals, variation in the amount of which may account for significant dispersion in the cluster U-V versus V color-magnitude relation. A metallicity gradient in [Fe/H] of at least 0.16 dex per absolute magnitude is derived, with the brightest ellipticals being 2 to 3 times more metal-rich than solar. The mean metallicities and turnoff ages of the faintest ellipticals are probably dependent on environment. Distance-independent upper limits to galaxy M/L ratios derived from the syntheses conform well with M/L ratios derived from velocity dispersion measurements and give no evidence for unseen mass in the nuclei of early type galaxies of any luminosity

  8. SDSS IV MaNGA: the global and local stellar mass assemby histories of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Medel, Héctor J.; Sánchez, Sebastián F.; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Hernández-Toledo, Héctor M.; González, J. Jesús; Drory, Niv; Bundy, Kevin; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Cano-Díaz, Mariana; Malanushenko, Elena; Pan, Kaike; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Thomas, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Using the fossil record method implemented through Pipe3D, we reconstruct the global and radial stellar mass growth histories (MGHs) of a large sample of galaxies, ranging from dwarf to giant objects, from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at the Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey. We confirm that the main driver of the global MGHs is mass, with more massive galaxies assembling earlier (downsizing), though for a given mass, the global MGHs segregate by colour, specific star formation rate and morphological type. From the inferred radial mean MGHs, we find that at fractions of assembled mass larger than ˜80 per cent, the innermost regions formed stars, on average, in the inside-out mode. At earlier epochs, when the age estimation of the method becomes poor, the MGHs seem to be spatially homogeneous or even in the outside-in mode, especially for the red/quiescent/early-type galaxies. The innermost MGHs are, in general, less scattered around the mean than the outermost MGHs. For dwarf and low-mass galaxies, we do not find evidence of an outside-in formation mode; instead, their radial MGHs are very diverse most of the time, with periods of outside-in and inside-out modes (or strong radial migration), suggesting this is an episodic star formation history. Blue/star-forming/late-type galaxies present, on average, a significantly more pronounced inside-out formation mode than red/quiescent/early-type galaxies, independently of mass. We discuss our results in the light of the processes of galaxy formation, quenching and radial migration. We also discuss the uncertainties and biases of the fossil record method and how these could affect our results.

  9. ULTRAVIOLET COLOR-COLOR RELATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT 0.05 < z < 0.12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ree, Chang H.; Jeong, Hyunjin; Lee, Joon Hyeop; Kim, Sang Chul; Kyeong, Jaemann; Oh, Kyuseok; Chung, Chul

    2012-01-01

    We present the ultraviolet (UV) color-color relation of early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the nearby universe (0.05 < z < 0.12) to investigate the properties of hot stellar populations responsible for the UV excess (UVX). The initial sample of ETGs is selected by the spectroscopic redshift and the morphology parameter from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, and then cross-matched with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) GR6 data. The cross-matched ETG sample is further classified by their emission line characteristics in the optical spectra into quiescent, star-forming, and active galactic nucleus categories. Contaminations from early-type spiral galaxies, mergers, and morphologically disturbed galaxies are removed by visual inspection. By drawing the FUV-NUV (as a measure of UV spectral shape) versus FUV – r (as a measure of UVX strength) diagram for the final sample of ∼3700 quiescent ETGs, we find that the 'old and dead' ETGs consist of a well-defined sequence in UV colors, the 'UV red sequence', so that the stronger UVX galaxies should have a harder UV spectral shape systematically. However, the observed UV spectral slope is too steep to be reproduced by the canonical stellar population models in which the UV flux is mainly controlled by age or metallicity parameters. Moreover, 2 mag of color spreads both in FUV-NUV and FUV – r appear to be ubiquitous among any subsets in distance or luminosity. This implies that the UVX in ETGs could be driven by yet another parameter which might be even more influential than age or metallicity.

  10. Low dark matter content of the nearby early-type galaxy NGC 821

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samurović S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the kinematics and dynamics of the nearby early-type galaxy NGC 821 based on its globular clusters (GCs and planetary nebulae (PNe. We use PNe and GCs to extract the kinematics of NGC 821 which is then used for the dynamical modelling based on the Jeans equation. We apply the Jeans equation using the Newtonian mass-follows-light approach assuming constant mass-to-light ratio and find that using such an approach we can successfully fit the kinematic data. The inferred constant mass-to-light ratio, 4:2 < M=LB < 12:4 present throughout the whole galaxy, implies the lack of significant amount of dark matter. We also used three different MOND approaches and found that we can fit the kinematic data without the need for additional, dark, component. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176021: Visible and invisible matter in nearby galaxies: theory and observations

  11. A new study of stellar substructures in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, T. J. L.; Tolstoy, E.; Saha, A.; Olszewski, E. W.

    Using deep V, B - V wide-field photometry, we have conducted a new study of stellar over-densities in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy by determining detailed star formation histories from colour-magnitude diagram analysis. We have concentrated on the relatively young stellar component ( We have

  12. ASASSN-16ae: A POWERFUL WHITE-LIGHT FLARE ON AN EARLY-L DWARF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Sarah J.; Shappee, Benjamin J.; Seibert, Mark; Gagné, Jonathan; Stanek, K. Z.; Holoien, Thomas W.-S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Prieto, José L.; Chomiuk, Laura; Strader, Jay; Dong, Subo

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery and classification of SDSS J053341.43+001434.1 (SDSS0533), an early-L dwarf first discovered during a powerful Δ V 3.7 × 10"3"4 erg), placing it among the strongest detected M dwarf flares. The presence of this powerful flare on an old L0 dwarf may indicate that stellar-type magnetic activity persists down to the end of the main sequence and on older ML transition dwarfs.

  13. New Views on the Early Evolution of Oxygen in the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolo, R.; Israelian, G.; García López, R. J.

    We have performed a detailed oxygen abundance analysis of 23 metal-poor (-3.0 Abia & Rebolo 1989; Tomkin et al. 1992; Cavallo, Pilachowski, & Rebolo 1997). Contrary to the previously accepted picture, our oxygen abundances, derived from low-excitation OH lines, agree well with those derived from high-excitation lines of the triplet. For nine stars in common with Tomkin et al. we obtain a mean difference of 0.00 plus or minus 0.11dex with respect to the abundances determined from the triplet using the same stellar parameters and model photospheres. Our new results show a smooth extension of the Edvardsson et al.'s (1993) [O/Fe] versus metallicity curve to much lower abundances. The oxygen abundances of unevolved stars when compared with values in the literature for giants of similar metallicity imply that the latter may have suffered a process of oxygen depletion. It appears that unevolved metal-poor stars are better tracers of the early chemical evolution of the Galaxy. The extrapolation of our results to very low metallicities indicates that the ratio of oxygen to iron emerging from the first Type II SNe in the early Galaxy was indeed close to unity. The higher [O/Fe] ratios we find in dwarfs has an impact on the age determination of globular clusters, and suggest that current age estimates have to be reduced by about 1-2 Gyr.

  14. ULTRA-COMPACT HIGH VELOCITY CLOUDS AS MINIHALOS AND DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faerman, Yakov; Sternberg, Amiel [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel); McKee, Christopher F., E-mail: yakovfae@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We present dark matter minihalo models for the Ultra-Compact, High-Velocity H I Clouds (UCHVCs) recently discovered in the 21 cm ALFALFA survey. We assume gravitational confinement of 10{sup 4} K H I gas by flat-cored dark-matter subhalos within the Local Group. We show that for flat cores, typical (median) tidally stripped cosmological subhalos at redshift z = 0 have dark-matter masses of ∼10{sup 7} M{sub ☉} within the central 300 pc (independent of total halo mass), consistent with the 'Strigari mass scale' observed in low-luminosity dwarf galaxies. Flat-cored subhalos also resolve the mass discrepancy between simulated and observed satellites around the Milky Way. For the UCHVCs, we calculate the photoionization-limited hydrostatic gas profiles for any distance-dependent total observed H I mass and predict the associated (projected) H I half-mass radii, assuming the clouds are embedded in distant (d ∼> 300 kpc) and unstripped subhalos. For a typical UCHVC (0.9 Jy km s{sup –1}), we predict physical H I half-mass radii of 0.18 to 0.35 kpc (or angular sizes of 0.'6 to 2.'1) for distances ranging from 300 kpc to 2 Mpc. As a consistency check, we model the gas-rich dwarf galaxy Leo T, for which there is a well-resolved H I column density profile and a known distance (420 kpc). For Leo T, we find that a subhalo with M{sub 300} = 8 (± 0.2) × 10{sup 6} M{sub ☉} best fits the observed H I profile. We derive an upper limit of P{sub HIM} ∼< 150 cm{sup –3} K for the pressure of any enveloping hot intergalactic medium gas at the distance of Leo T. Our analysis suggests that some of the UCHVCs may in fact constitute a population of 21 cm-selected but optically faint dwarf galaxies in the Local Group.

  15. The Variable Stars of the Draco Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy: Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinemuchi, K.; Harris, H. C.; Smith, Horace A.; Silbermann, N. A.; Snyder, L. A.; La Cluyzé, A. P.; Clark, C. L.

    2008-11-01

    We present a CCD survey of variable stars in the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy. This survey, which has the largest areal coverage since the original variable star survey by Baade & Swope, includes photometry for 270 RR Lyrae (RRL) stars, 9 anomalous Cepheids (ACs), 2 eclipsing binaries, and 12 slow, irregular red variables, as well as 30 background QSOs. Twenty-six probable double-mode RRL stars were identified. Observed parameters, including mean V and I magnitudes, V amplitudes, and periods, have been derived. Photometric metallicities of the ab-type RRL stars were calculated according to the method of Jurcsik & Kovacs, yielding a mean metallicity of lang[Fe/H]rang = -2.19 ± 0.03. The well-known Oosterhoff intermediate nature of the RRL stars in Draco is reconfirmed, although the double-mode RRL stars, with one exception, have properties similar to those found in Oosterhoff type II globular clusters. The period-luminosity relation of the ACs is rediscussed with the addition of the new Draco ACs.

  16. POX 186: A Dwarf Galaxy in the Process of Formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Michael R.; Vacca, William D.

    2002-12-01

    We present deep U-, V-, and I-band images of the ``ultracompact'' blue dwarf galaxy POX 186 obtained with the Planetary Camera 2 of the Hubble Space Telescope. We have also obtained a near-ultraviolet spectrum of the object with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and combine this with a new ground-based optical spectrum. The images confirm the galaxy to be extremely small, with a maximum extent of only 300 pc, a luminosity of ~10-4L*, and an estimated mass of ~107 Msolar. Its morphology is highly asymmetric, with a tail of material on its western side that may be tidal in origin. The U-band image shows this tail to be part of a stream of material in which stars have recently formed. Most of the star formation in the galaxy is, however, concentrated in a central, compact (d~10-15 pc) star cluster. We estimate this cluster to have a total mass of ~105 Msolar, to be forming stars at a rate of less than 0.05 yr-1, and to have a maximum age of a few million years. The outer regions of the galaxy are significantly redder than the cluster, with V-I colors consistent with a population dominated by K and M stars. From our analysis of the optical spectrum we find the galaxy to have a metallicity Z~=0.06 Zsolar and to contain a significant amount of internal dust [E(B-V)~=0.28] both values agree with previous estimates. While these results rule out earlier speculation that POX 186 is a protogalaxy, its morphology, mass, and active star formation suggest that it represents a recent (within ~108 yr) collision between two clumps of stars of subgalactic size (~100 pc). POX 186 may thus be a very small dwarf galaxy that, dynamically speaking, is still in the process of formation. This interpretation is supported by the fact that it resides in a void, so its morphology cannot be explained as the result of an encounter with a more massive galaxy. Clumps of stars this small may represent the building blocks required by hierarchical models of galaxy formation, and these results

  17. Cool carbon stars in the halo and in dwarf galaxies: Hα, colours, and variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauron, N.; Gigoyan, K. S.; Berlioz-Arthaud, P.; Klotz, A.

    2014-02-01

    The population of cool carbon (C) stars located far from the galactic plane is probably made of debris of small galaxies such as the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr), which are disrupted by the gravitational field of the Galaxy. We aim to know this population better through spectroscopy, 2MASS photometric colours, and variability data. When possible, we compared the halo results to C star populations in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy, Sgr, and the solar neighbourhood. We first present a few new discoveries of C stars in the halo and in Fornax. The number of spectra of halo C stars is now 125. Forty percent show Hα in emission. The narrow location in the JHK diagram of the halo C stars is found to differ from that of similar C stars in the above galaxies. The light curves of the Catalina and LINEAR variability databases were exploited to derive the pulsation periods of 66 halo C stars. A few supplementary periods were obtained with the TAROT telescopes. We confirm that the period distribution of the halo strongly resembles that of Fornax, and we found that it is very different from the C stars in the solar neighbourhood. There is a larger proportion of short-period Mira/SRa variables in the halo than in Sgr, but the survey for C stars in this dwarf galaxy is not complete, and the study of their variability needs to be continued to investigate the link between Sgr and the cool halo C stars. Based on observations made with the NTT and 3.6 m telescope at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile; programs 084.D-0302 and 070.D-0203), with the TAROT telescopes at La Silla and at Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (France), and on the exploitation of the Catalina Sky Survey and the LINEAR variability databases.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. The Dramatic Size and Kinematic Evolution of Massive Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, A.; Pantoni, L.; Zanisi, L.; Shi, J.; Mancuso, C.; Massardi, M.; Shankar, F.; Bressan, A.; Danese, L.

    2018-04-01

    We aim to provide a holistic view on the typical size and kinematic evolution of massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) that encompasses their high-z star-forming progenitors, their high-z quiescent counterparts, and their configurations in the local Universe. Our investigation covers the main processes playing a relevant role in the cosmic evolution of ETGs. Specifically, their early fast evolution comprises biased collapse of the low angular momentum gaseous baryons located in the inner regions of the host dark matter halo; cooling, fragmentation, and infall of the gas down to the radius set by the centrifugal barrier; further rapid compaction via clump/gas migration toward the galaxy center, where strong heavily dust-enshrouded star formation takes place and most of the stellar mass is accumulated; and ejection of substantial gas amount from the inner regions by feedback processes, which causes a dramatic puffing-up of the stellar component. In the late slow evolution, passive aging of stellar populations and mass additions by dry merger events occur. We describe these processes relying on prescriptions inspired by basic physical arguments and by numerical simulations to derive new analytical estimates of the relevant sizes, timescales, and kinematic properties for individual galaxies along their evolution. Then we obtain quantitative results as a function of galaxy mass and redshift, and compare them to recent observational constraints on half-light size R e , on the ratio v/σ between rotation velocity and velocity dispersion (for gas and stars) and on the specific angular momentum j ⋆ of the stellar component; we find good consistency with the available multiband data in average values and dispersion, both for local ETGs and for their z ∼ 1–2 star-forming and quiescent progenitors. The outcomes of our analysis can provide hints to gauge sub-grid recipes implemented in simulations, to tune numerical experiments focused on specific processes, and to plan

  19. TOO MANY, TOO FEW, OR JUST RIGHT? THE PREDICTED NUMBER AND DISTRIBUTION OF MILKY WAY DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargis, Jonathan R.; Willman, Beth [Department of Astronomy, Haverford College, 370 Lancaster Avenue, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States); Peter, Annika H. G., E-mail: jhargis@haverford.edu [CCAPP and Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    We predict the spatial distribution and number of Milky Way dwarf galaxies to be discovered in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys, by completeness correcting the observed Sloan Digital Sky Survey dwarf population. We apply most massive in the past, earliest forming, and earliest infall toy models to a set of dark matter-only simulated Milky Way/M31 halo pairs from the Exploring the Local Volume In Simulations project. Inclusive of all toy models and simulations, at 90% confidence we predict a total of 37-114 L ≳ 10{sup 3} L {sub ☉} dwarfs and 131-782 L ≲ 10{sup 3} L {sub ☉} dwarfs within 300 kpc. These numbers of L ≳ 10{sup 3} L {sub ☉} dwarfs are dramatically lower than previous predictions, owing primarily to our use of updated detection limits and the decreasing number of SDSS dwarfs discovered per sky area. For an effective r {sub limit} of 25.8 mag, we predict 3-13 L ≳ 10{sup 3} L {sub ☉} and 9-99 L ≲ 10{sup 3} L {sub ☉} dwarfs for DES, and 18-53 L ≳ 10{sup 3} L {sub ☉} and 53-307 L ≲ 10{sup 3} L {sub ☉} dwarfs for LSST. We also show that the observed spatial distribution of Milky Way dwarfs in the LSST-era will discriminate between the earliest infall and other simplified models for how dwarf galaxies populate dark matter subhalos.

  20. Globular clusters in high-redshift dwarf galaxies: a case study from the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Tom O.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2018-06-01

    We present the reconstructed evolution of rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosities of the most massive Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxy, Fornax, and its five globular clusters (GCs) across redshift, based on analysis of the stellar fossil record and stellar population synthesis modelling. We find that (1) Fornax's (proto-)GCs can generate 10-100 times more UV flux than the field population, despite comprising 3. (3) GC formation can introduce order-of-magnitude errors in abundance matching. We also find that some compact HFF objects are consistent with the reconstructed properties of Fornax's GCs at the same redshifts (e.g. surface brightness, star formation rate), suggesting we may have already detected proto-GCs in the early Universe. Finally, we discuss the prospects for improving the connections between local GCs and proto-GCs detected in the early Universe.

  1. X-Ray Scaling Relations of Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babyk, Iu. V.; McNamara, B. R.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Hogan, M. T.; Vantyghem, A. N.; Russell, H. R.; Pulido, F. A.; Edge, A. C.

    2018-04-01

    X-ray luminosity, temperature, gas mass, total mass, and their scaling relations are derived for 94 early-type galaxies (ETGs) using archival Chandra X-ray Observatory observations. Consistent with earlier studies, the scaling relations, L X ∝ T 4.5±0.2, M ∝ T 2.4±0.2, and L X ∝ M 2.8±0.3, are significantly steeper than expected from self-similarity. This steepening indicates that their atmospheres are heated above the level expected from gravitational infall alone. Energetic feedback from nuclear black holes and supernova explosions are likely heating agents. The tight L X –T correlation for low-luminosity systems (i.e., below 1040 erg s‑1) are at variance with hydrodynamical simulations, which generally predict higher temperatures for low-luminosity galaxies. We also investigate the relationship between total mass and pressure, Y X = M g × T, finding M\\propto {Y}X0.45+/- 0.04. We explore the gas mass to total mass fraction in ETGs and find a range of 0.1%–1.0%. We find no correlation between the gas-to-total mass fraction with temperature or total mass. Higher stellar velocity dispersions and higher metallicities are found in hotter, brighter, and more massive atmospheres. X-ray core radii derived from β-model fitting are used to characterize the degree of core and cuspiness of hot atmospheres.

  2. APOGEE Chemical Abundances of the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasselquist, Sten; Holtzman, Jon; Shetrone, Matthew; Smith, Verne; Nidever, David L.; McWilliam, Andrew; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Tang, Baitian; Beers, Timothy C.; Majewski, Steven R.; Anguiano, Borja; Tissera, Patricia B.; Alvar, Emma Fernández; Carigi, Leticia; Delgado Inglada, Gloria; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Battaglia, Giuseppina; García-Hernández, D. A.; Almeida, Andres; Frinchaboy, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment provides the opportunity of measuring elemental abundances for C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni in vast numbers of stars. We analyze thechemical-abundance patterns of these elements for 158 red giant stars belonging to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (Sgr). This is the largest sample of Sgr stars with detailed chemical abundances, and it is the first time that C, N, P, K, V, Cr, Co, and Ni have been studied at high resolution in this galaxy. We find that the Sgr stars with [Fe/H] ≳ −0.8 are deficient in all elemental abundance ratios (expressed as [X/Fe]) relative to the Milky Way, suggesting that the Sgr stars observed today were formed from gas that was less enriched by Type II SNe than stars formed in the Milky Way. By examining the relative deficiencies of the hydrostatic (O, Na, Mg, and Al) and explosive (Si, P, K, and Mn) elements, our analysis supports the argument that previous generations of Sgr stars were formed with a top-light initial mass function, one lacking the most massive stars that would normally pollute the interstellar medium with the hydrostatic elements. We use a simple chemical-evolution model, flexCE, to further support our claim and conclude that recent stellar generations of Fornax and the Large Magellanic Cloud could also have formed according to a top-light initial mass function.

  3. APOGEE Chemical Abundances of the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselquist, Sten; Holtzman, Jon [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Shetrone, Matthew [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, Fort Davis, TX 79734 (United States); Smith, Verne; Nidever, David L. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); McWilliam, Andrew [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Tang, Baitian [Departamento de Astronomía, Casilla 160-C, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Majewski, Steven R.; Anguiano, Borja [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Tissera, Patricia B. [Department of Physics, Universidad Andres Bello, 700 Fernandez Concha (Chile); Alvar, Emma Fernández; Carigi, Leticia; Delgado Inglada, Gloria [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70264, Ciudad de México, 04510 (Mexico); Allende Prieto, Carlos; Battaglia, Giuseppina; García-Hernández, D. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Almeida, Andres [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de La Serena, Cisternas 1200, La Serena (Chile); Frinchaboy, Peter, E-mail: sten@nmsu.edu, E-mail: holtz@nmsu.edu, E-mail: shetrone@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: vsmith@email.noao.edu [Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); and others

    2017-08-20

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment provides the opportunity of measuring elemental abundances for C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni in vast numbers of stars. We analyze thechemical-abundance patterns of these elements for 158 red giant stars belonging to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (Sgr). This is the largest sample of Sgr stars with detailed chemical abundances, and it is the first time that C, N, P, K, V, Cr, Co, and Ni have been studied at high resolution in this galaxy. We find that the Sgr stars with [Fe/H] ≳ −0.8 are deficient in all elemental abundance ratios (expressed as [X/Fe]) relative to the Milky Way, suggesting that the Sgr stars observed today were formed from gas that was less enriched by Type II SNe than stars formed in the Milky Way. By examining the relative deficiencies of the hydrostatic (O, Na, Mg, and Al) and explosive (Si, P, K, and Mn) elements, our analysis supports the argument that previous generations of Sgr stars were formed with a top-light initial mass function, one lacking the most massive stars that would normally pollute the interstellar medium with the hydrostatic elements. We use a simple chemical-evolution model, flexCE, to further support our claim and conclude that recent stellar generations of Fornax and the Large Magellanic Cloud could also have formed according to a top-light initial mass function.

  4. What can Gaia proper motions tell us about Milky Way dwarf galaxies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, S.; Helmi, A.; Breddels, M.

    We present a proper-motion study on models of the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Sculptor, based on the predicted proper-motion accuracy of Gaia measurements. Gaia will measure proper motions of several hundreds of stars for a Sculptor-like system. Even with an uncertainty on the proper motion of order 1.5

  5. From Globular Clusters to Tidal Dwarfs: Structure Formation in the Tidal Tails of Merging Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierman, Karen A.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Charlton, Jane C.; Hunsberger, Sally D.; Whitmore, Bradley; Kundu, Arunav; Hibbard, J. E.; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2003-09-01

    Using V and I images obtained with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) of the Hubble Space Telescope, we investigate compact stellar structures within tidal tails. Six regions of tidal debris in the four classic ``Toomre sequence'' mergers: NGC 4038/39 (``Antennae''), NGC 3256, NGC 3921, and NGC 7252 (``Atoms for Peace'') have been studied in order to explore how the star formation depends on the local and global physical conditions. These mergers sample a range of stages in the evolutionary sequence and tails with and without embedded tidal dwarf galaxies. The six tails are found to contain a variety of stellar structures, with sizes ranging from those of globular clusters up to those of dwarf galaxies. From V and I WFPC2 images, we measure the luminosities and colors of the star clusters. NGC 3256 is found to have a large population of blue clusters (0.2<~V-I<~0.9), particularly in its western tail, similar to those found in the inner region of the merger. In contrast, NGC 4038/39 has no clusters in the observed region of the tail, only less luminous point sources likely to be individual stars. NGC 3921 and NGC 7252 have small populations of clusters along their tails. A significant cluster population is clearly associated with the prominent tidal dwarf candidates in the eastern and western tails of NGC 7252. The cluster-rich western tail of NGC 3256 is not distinguished from the others by its dynamical age or by its total H I mass. However, the mergers that have few clusters in the tail all have tidal dwarf galaxies, while NGC 3256 does not have prominent tidal dwarfs. We speculate that star formation in tidal tails may manifest itself either in small structures like clusters along the tail or in large structures such as dwarf galaxies, but not in both. Also, NGC 3256 has the highest star formation rate of the four mergers studied, which may contribute to the high number of star clusters in its tidal tails. Based in part on observations obtained with the

  6. Two distinct ancient components in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy : First results from the dwarf abundances and radial velocities team

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E; Irwin, MJ; Helmi, A; Battaglia, G; Jablonka, P; Hill, [No Value; Venn, KA; Shetrone, MD; Letarte, B; Cole, AA; Primas, F; Francois, P; Arimoto, N; Sadakane, K; Kaufer, A; Szeifert, T; Abel, T

    2004-01-01

    We have found evidence for the presence of two distinct ancient stellar components (bothgreater than or equal to10 Gyr old) in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. We used the ESO Wide Field Imager in conjunction with the Very Large Telescope/FLAMES spectrograph to study the properties of the

  7. UNCOVERING THE FORMATION OF ULTRACOMPACT DWARF GALAXIES BY MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; Sharina, Margarita; Davoust, Emmanuel; De, Tuli; Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar

    2012-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the properties of a large sample of dynamically hot old stellar systems, from globular clusters (GCs) to giant ellipticals, which was performed in order to investigate the origin of ultracompact dwarf galaxies (UCDs). The data were mostly drawn from Forbes et al. We recalculated some of the effective radii, computed mean surface brightnesses and mass-to-light ratios, and estimated ages and metallicities. We completed the sample with GCs of M31. We used a multivariate statistical technique (K-Means clustering), together with a new algorithm (Gap Statistics) for finding the optimum number of homogeneous sub-groups in the sample, using a total of six parameters (absolute magnitude, effective radius, virial mass-to-light ratio, stellar mass-to-light ratio, and metallicity). We found six groups. FK1 and FK5 are composed of high- and low-mass elliptical galaxies, respectively. FK3 and FK6 are composed of high-metallicity and low-metallicity objects, respectively, and both include GCs and UCDs. Two very small groups, FK2 and FK4, are composed of Local Group dwarf spheroidals. Our groups differ in their mean masses and virial mass-to-light ratios. The relations between these two parameters are also different for the various groups. The probability density distributions of metallicity for the four groups of galaxies are similar to those of the GCs and UCDs. The brightest low-metallicity GCs and UCDs tend to follow the mass-metallicity relation like elliptical galaxies. The objects of FK3 are more metal-rich per unit effective luminosity density than high-mass ellipticals.

  8. UNCOVERING THE FORMATION OF ULTRACOMPACT DWARF GALAXIES BY MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanuka [Department of Applied Mathematics, Calcutta University, 92 A.P.C. Road, Calcutta 700009 (India); Sharina, Margarita [Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, N. Arkhyz, KCh R 369167 (Russian Federation); Davoust, Emmanuel [IRAP, Universite de Toulouse, CNRS, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); De, Tuli; Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar, E-mail: tanuka@iucaa.ernet.in, E-mail: sme@sao.ru, E-mail: davoust@ast.obs-mip.fr, E-mail: akcstat@caluniv.ac.in [Department of Statistics, Calcutta University, 35 B.C. Road, Calcutta 700019 (India)

    2012-05-10

    We present a statistical analysis of the properties of a large sample of dynamically hot old stellar systems, from globular clusters (GCs) to giant ellipticals, which was performed in order to investigate the origin of ultracompact dwarf galaxies (UCDs). The data were mostly drawn from Forbes et al. We recalculated some of the effective radii, computed mean surface brightnesses and mass-to-light ratios, and estimated ages and metallicities. We completed the sample with GCs of M31. We used a multivariate statistical technique (K-Means clustering), together with a new algorithm (Gap Statistics) for finding the optimum number of homogeneous sub-groups in the sample, using a total of six parameters (absolute magnitude, effective radius, virial mass-to-light ratio, stellar mass-to-light ratio, and metallicity). We found six groups. FK1 and FK5 are composed of high- and low-mass elliptical galaxies, respectively. FK3 and FK6 are composed of high-metallicity and low-metallicity objects, respectively, and both include GCs and UCDs. Two very small groups, FK2 and FK4, are composed of Local Group dwarf spheroidals. Our groups differ in their mean masses and virial mass-to-light ratios. The relations between these two parameters are also different for the various groups. The probability density distributions of metallicity for the four groups of galaxies are similar to those of the GCs and UCDs. The brightest low-metallicity GCs and UCDs tend to follow the mass-metallicity relation like elliptical galaxies. The objects of FK3 are more metal-rich per unit effective luminosity density than high-mass ellipticals.

  9. THE EFFECT OF DRY MERGERS ON THE COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelton, Rosalind E.; Bell, Eric F.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the effect of dry merging on the color-magnitude relation (CMR) of galaxies and find that the amount of merging predicted by a hierarchical model results in a red sequence that compares well with the observed low-redshift relation. A sample of ∼ 29,000 early-type galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 shows that the bright end of the CMR has a shallower slope and smaller scatter than the faint end. This magnitude dependence is predicted by a simple toy model in which gas-rich mergers move galaxies onto a 'creation red sequence' (CRS) by quenching their star formation, and subsequent mergers between red, gas-poor galaxies (so-called 'dry' mergers) move galaxies along the relation. We use galaxy merger trees from a semianalytic model of galaxy formation to test the amplitude of this effect and find a change in slope at the bright end that brackets the observations, using gas fraction thresholds of 10%-30% to separate wet and dry mergers. A more realistic model that includes scatter in the CRS shows that dry merging decreases the scatter at the bright end. Contrary to previous claims, the small scatter in the observed CMR thus cannot be used to constrain the amount of dry merging.

  10. On the Scatter of the Present-day Stellar Metallicity–Mass Relation of Cluster Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Christoph; Lisker, Thorsten; Pillepich, Annalisa

    2018-04-01

    We examine the scatter of the relation between stellar mass and stellar metallicity for cluster dwarf galaxies in the cosmological simulation Illustris. The mass-metallicity relation exhibits the smallest intrinsic scatter at the galaxies' times of peak stellar mass, suggesting stellar mass stripping to be the primary effect responsible for the rather broad relation at present. However, for about 40% of galaxies in the high-metallicity tail of the relation, we find mass stripping to coincide with an increased enrichment of stellar metallicity, possibly caused by the stripping of low-metallicity stars in the galaxy outskirts.

  11. AVOCADO: A Virtual Observatory Census to Address Dwarfs Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Sánchez-Janssen

    2011-12-01

    Dwarf galaxies are by far the most abundant of all galaxy types, yet their properties are still poorly understood-especially due to the observational challenge that their intrinsic faintness represents. AVOCADO aims at establishing firm conclusions on their formation and evolution by constructing a homogeneous, multiwavelength dataset for a statistically significant sample of several thousand nearby dwarfs (-18 < Mi < -14). Using public data and Virtual Observatory tools, we have built GALEX+SDSS+2MASS spectral energy distributions that are fitted by a library of single stellar population models. Star formation rates, stellar masses, ages and metallicities are further complemented with structural parameters that can be used to classify them morphologically. This unique dataset, coupled with a detailed characterization of each dwarf's environment, allows for a fully comprehensive investigation of their origins and to track the (potential) evolutionary paths between the different dwarf types.

  12. Early chemical enrichment of the Galactic dwarf satellites from a homogeneous and NLTE abundance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashonkina, Lyudmila; Jablonka, Pascale; Sitnova, Tatyana; Pakhomov, Yuri; North, Pierre

    2018-06-01

    We review recent abundance results for very metal-poor (VMP, -4 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -2) stars in seven dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) and in the Milky Way (MW) halo comparison sample that were obtained based on high-resolution spectroscopic datasets, homogeneous and accurate atmospheric parameters, and the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation for 10 chemical species. A remarkable gain of using such an approach is the reduction, compared to a simple compilation of the literature data, of the spread in abundance ratios at given metallicity within each galaxy and from one to the other. We show that all massive galaxies in our sample, that is, the MW halo and the classical dSphs Sculptor, Ursa Minor, Sextans, and Fornax, reveal a similar plateau at [α/Fe] \\simeq 0.3 for each of the α-process elements: Mg, Ca, and Ti. We put on a firm ground the evidence for a decline in α/Fe with increasing metallicity in the Boötes I ultra-faint dwarf galaxy (UFD), that is most probably due to the ejecta of type Ia supernovae. In our classical dSphs, we observe the dichotomy in the [Sr/Ba] versus [Ba/H] diagram, similarly to the MW halo, calling for two different nucleosynthesis channels for Sr at the earliest evolution stages of these galaxies. Our three UFDs, that is Boötes I, UMa II, and Leo IV, are depleted in Sr and Ba relative to Fe and Mg, with very similar ratios of [Sr/Mg] ≈ -1.3 and [Ba/Mg] ≈ -1 on the entire range of their Mg abundances. The subsolar Sr/Ba ratios of Boötes I and UMa II indicate a common r-process origin of their neutron-capture elements. For Na/Fe, Na/Mg, and Al/Mg, the MW halo and all dSphs reveal indistinguishable trends with metallicity, suggesting that the processes of Na and Al synthesis are identical in all systems, independent of their mass. Sculptor remains the classical dSph, in which the evidence for inhomogeneous mixing in the early evolution stage, at [Fe/H] < -2, is the strongest.

  13. THE SL2S GALAXY-SCALE LENS SAMPLE. V. DARK MATTER HALOS AND STELLAR IMF OF MASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES OUT TO REDSHIFT 0.8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Treu, Tommaso [Physics Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Marshall, Philip J. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, P.O. Box 20450, MS29, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Suyu, Sherry H. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Gavazzi, Raphaël [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS-Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98bis bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Auger, Matthew W. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Nipoti, Carlo, E-mail: sonnen@physics.ucsb.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bologna University, viale Berti-Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2015-02-20

    We investigate the cosmic evolution of the internal structure of massive early-type galaxies over half of the age of the universe. We perform a joint lensing and stellar dynamics analysis of a sample of 81 strong lenses from the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey and Sloan ACS Lens Survey and combine the results with a hierarchical Bayesian inference method to measure the distribution of dark matter mass and stellar initial mass function (IMF) across the population of massive early-type galaxies. Lensing selection effects are taken into account. We find that the dark matter mass projected within the inner 5 kpc increases for increasing redshift, decreases for increasing stellar mass density, but is roughly constant along the evolutionary tracks of early-type galaxies. The average dark matter slope is consistent with that of a Navarro-Frenk-White profile, but is not well constrained. The stellar IMF normalization is close to a Salpeter IMF at log M {sub *} = 11.5 and scales strongly with increasing stellar mass. No dependence of the IMF on redshift or stellar mass density is detected. The anti-correlation between dark matter mass and stellar mass density supports the idea of mergers being more frequent in more massive dark matter halos.

  14. Early-type Galaxy Spin Evolution in the Horizon-AGN Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoseung; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Dubois, Yohan; Kimm, Taysun; Devriendt, Julien. E. G.; Pichon, Christophe

    2018-04-01

    Using the Horizon-AGN simulation data, we study the relative role of mergers and environmental effects in shaping the spin of early-type galaxies (ETGs) after z ≃ 1. We follow the spin evolution of 10,037 color-selected ETGs more massive than {10}10 {M}ȯ that are divided into four groups: cluster centrals (3%), cluster satellites (33%), group centrals (5%), and field ETGs (59%). We find a strong mass dependence of the slow rotator fraction, f SR, and the mean spin of massive ETGs. Although we do not find a clear environmental dependence of f SR, a weak trend is seen in the mean value of the spin parameter driven by the satellite ETGs as they gradually lose their spin as their environment becomes denser. Galaxy mergers appear to be the main cause of total spin changes in 94% of the central ETGs of halos with {M}vir}> {10}12.5 {M}ȯ , but only 22% of satellite and field ETGs. We find that non-merger-induced tidal perturbations better correlate with the galaxy spin down in satellite ETGs than in mergers. Given that the majority of ETGs are not central in dense environments, we conclude that non-merger tidal perturbation effects played a key role in the spin evolution of ETGs observed in the local (z < 1) universe.

  15. Eight luminous early-type galaxies in nearby pairs and sparse groups. I. Stellar populations spatially analysed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, D. A.; Milone, A. C.; Krabbe, A. C.; Rodrigues, I.

    2018-06-01

    We present a detailed spatial analysis of stellar populations based on long-slit optical spectra in a sample of eight luminous early-type galaxies selected from nearby sparse groups and pairs, three of them may have interaction with another galaxy of similar mass. We have spatially measured luminosity-weighted averages of age, [M/H], [Fe/H], and [α /Fe] in the sample galaxies to add empirical data relative to the influence of galaxy mass, environment, interaction, and AGN feedback in their formation and evolution. The stellar population of the individual galaxies were determined through the well-established stellar population synthesis code starlight using semi-empirical simple stellar population models. Radial variations of luminosity- weighted means of age, [M/H], [Fe/H], and [α /Fe] were quantified up to half of the effective radius of each galaxy. We found trends between representative values of age, [M/H], [α /Fe], and the nuclear stellar velocity dispersion. There are also relations between the metallicity/age gradients and the velocity dispersion. Contributions of 1-4 Gyr old stellar populations were quantified in IC 5328 and NGC 6758 as well as 4-8 Gyr old ones in NGC 5812. Extended gas is present in IC 5328, NGC 1052, NGC 1209, and NGC 6758, and the presence of a LINER is identified in all these galaxies. The regions up to one effective radius of all galaxies are basically dominated by α -enhanced metal-rich old stellar populations likely due to rapid star formation episodes that induced efficient chemical enrichment. On average, the age and [α /Fe] gradients are null and the [M/H] gradients are negative, although discordant cases were found. We found no correlation between the stellar population properties and the LINER presence as well as between the stellar properties and environment or gravitational interaction, suggesting that the influence of progenitor mass cannot be discarded in the formation and evolution of early-type galaxies.

  16. A Study of Two Dwarf Irregular Galaxies with Asymmetrical Star Formation Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Deidre A.; Gallardo, Samavarti; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Adamo, Angela; Cook, David O.; Oh, Se-Heon; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Kim, Hwihyun; Kahre, Lauren; Ubeda, Leonardo; Bright, Stacey N.; Ryon, Jenna E.; Fumagalli, Michele; Sacchi, Elena; Kennicutt, R. C.; Tosi, Monica; Dale, Daniel A.; Cignoni, Michele; Messa, Matteo; Grebel, Eva K.; Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Sabbi, Elena; Grasha, Kathryn; Gallagher, John S., III; Calzetti, Daniela; Lee, Janice C.

    2018-03-01

    Two dwarf irregular galaxies, DDO 187 and NGC 3738, exhibit a striking pattern of star formation: intense star formation is taking place in a large region occupying roughly half of the inner part of the optical galaxy. We use data on the H I distribution and kinematics and stellar images and colors to examine the properties of the environment in the high star formation rate (HSF) halves of the galaxies in comparison with the low star formation rate halves. We find that the pressure and gas density are higher on the HSF sides by 30%–70%. In addition we find in both galaxies that the H I velocity fields exhibit significant deviations from ordered rotation and there are large regions of high-velocity dispersion and multiple velocity components in the gas beyond the inner regions of the galaxies. The conditions in the HSF regions are likely the result of large-scale external processes affecting the internal environment of the galaxies and enabling the current star formation there.

  17. Constraints on early-type galaxy structure from spectroscopically selected gravitational lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Adam Stallard

    2005-11-01

    This thesis describes all aspects of a unique spectroscopic survey for strong galaxy-galaxy gravitational lenses: motivation, candidate selection, ground- based spectroscopic follow-up, Hubble Space Telescope imaging, data analysis, and results on the radial density profile of the lens galaxies. The lens candidates are selected from within the spectroscopic database of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) based on the appearance of two significantly different redshifts along the same line of sight, and lenses are confirmed within the candidate sample by follow-up imaging and spectroscopy. The sample of [approximate]20 early-type lenses presented in this thesis represents the largest single strong-lens galaxy sample discovered and published to date. These lenses probe the mass of the lens galaxies on scales roughly equal to one-half effective radius. We find a dynamical normalization between isothermal lens-model velocity dispersions and aperture-corrected SDSS stellar velocity dispersions of f = s lens /s stars = 0.95 +/- 0.03. By combining lens-model Einstein radii and de Vaucouleurs effective radii with stellar velocity dispersions through the Jeans equation, we find that the logarithmic slope [Special characters omitted.] of the density profile in our lens galaxies (r 0 ( [Special characters omitted.] ) is on average slightly steeper than isothermal ([Special characters omitted.] = 2) with a modest intrinsic scatter. Parameterizing the intrinsic distribution in [Special characters omitted.] as Gaussian, we find a maximum-likelihood mean of [Special characters omitted. ] and standard deviation of s[Special characters omitted.] = [Special characters omitted.] (68% confidence, for isotropic velocity-dispersion models). Our results rule out a single universal logarithmic density slope at >99.995% confidence. The success of this spectroscopic lens survey suggests that similar projects should be considered as an explicit science goal of future redshift surveys. (Copies

  18. Dark Matter Cores in the Fornax and Sculptor Dwarf Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    C. Amorisco, Nicola; Zavala Franco, Jesus; J. L. de Boer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We combine the detailed Star Formation Histories of the Fornax and Sculptor dwarf Spheroidals with the mass assembly history of their dark matter halo progenitors to estimate if the energy deposited by Supernova type II (SNeII) is sufficient to create a substantial dark matter core. Assuming...... the efficiency of energy injection of the SNeII into dark matter particles is \\epsilon=0.05, we find that a single early episode, z...

  19. Cold Gas in Quenched Dwarf Galaxies using HI-MaNGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Alaina

    2017-01-01

    MaNGA (Mapping of Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory) is a 6-year Sloan Digital Sky Survey fourth generation (SDSS-IV) project that will obtain integral field spectroscopy of a catalogue of 10,000 nearby galaxies. In this study, we explore the properties of the passive dwarf galaxy sample presented in Penny et al. 2016, making use of MaNGA IFU (Integral Field Unit) data to plot gas emission, stellar velocity, and flux maps. In addition, HI-MaNGA, a legacy radio-survey of MaNGA, collects single dish HI data retrieved from the GBT (Green Bank Telescope), which we use to study the the 21cm emission lines present in HI detections. Studying the HI content of passive dwarves will help us reveal the processes that are preventing star formation, such as possible AGN feedback. This work was supported by the SDSS Research Experience for Undergraduates program, which is funded by a grant from the Sloan Foundation to the Astrophysical Research Consortium.

  20. CENTRAL DARK MATTER TRENDS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM STRONG LENSING, DYNAMICS, AND STELLAR POPULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortora, C.; Jetzer, P.; Napolitano, N. R.; Romanowsky, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the correlations between central dark matter (DM) content of early-type galaxies and their sizes and ages, using a sample of intermediate-redshift (z ∼ 0.2) gravitational lenses from the SLACS survey, and by comparing them to a larger sample of z ∼ 0 galaxies. We decompose the deprojected galaxy masses into DM and stellar components using combinations of strong lensing, stellar dynamics, and stellar populations modeling. For a given stellar mass, we find that for galaxies with larger sizes, the DM fraction increases and the mean DM density decreases, consistently with the cuspy halos expected in cosmological formation scenarios. The DM fraction also decreases with stellar age, which can be partially explained by the inverse correlation between size and age. The residual trend may point to systematic dependencies on formation epoch of halo contraction or stellar initial mass functions. These results are in agreement with recent findings based on local galaxies by Napolitano et al. and suggest negligible evidence of galaxy evolution over the last ∼2.5 Gyr other than passive stellar aging.

  1. The formation of Dwarf Spheroidal galaxies by the dissolving star cluster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, Alex; Theory and Star Formation Group

    2018-01-01

    Dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies are regarded as key object in the formation of larger galaxies and are believed to be the most dark matter dominated systems known. There are several model that attempt to explain their formation, but they have problems to model the formation of isolated dSph. Here we will explain a possible formation scenario in which star clusters form in the dark matter halo of a dSph. these cluster suffer from low star formation efficiency and dissolve while orbiting inside the halo. Thereby they build the faint luminous components that we observe in dSph galaxies. Here we will show the main results of this simulations and how they would be corroborated using observational data.

  2. Spitzer Photometry of WISE-Selected Brown Dwarf and Hyper-Lumninous Infrared Galaxy Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Roger L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Cushing, Michael C.; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie R.; Cohen, Martin; Cutri, Roc M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 micrometer photometry and positions for a sample of 1510 brown dwarf candidates identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky survey. Of these, 166 have been spectroscopically classified as objects with spectral types M(1), L(7), T(146), and Y(12). Sixteen other objects are non-(sub)stellar in nature. The remainder are most likely distant L and T dwarfs lacking spectroscopic verification, other Y dwarf candidates still awaiting follow-up, and assorted other objects whose Spitzer photometry reveals them to be background sources. We present a catalog of Spitzer photometry for all astrophysical sources identified in these fields and use this catalog to identify seven fainter (4.5 m to approximately 17.0 mag) brown dwarf candidates, which are possibly wide-field companions to the original WISE sources. To test this hypothesis, we use a sample of 919 Spitzer observations around WISE-selected high-redshift hyper-luminous infrared galaxy candidates. For this control sample, we find another six brown dwarf candidates, suggesting that the seven companion candidates are not physically associated. In fact, only one of these seven Spitzer brown dwarf candidates has a photometric distance estimate consistent with being a companion to the WISE brown dwarf candidate. Other than this, there is no evidence for any widely separated (greater than 20 AU) ultra-cool binaries. As an adjunct to this paper, we make available a source catalog of 7.33 x 10(exp 5) objects detected in all of these Spitzer follow-up fields for use by the astronomical community. The complete catalog includes the Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 m photometry, along with positionally matched B and R photometry from USNO-B; J, H, and Ks photometry from Two Micron All-Sky Survey; and W1, W2, W3, and W4 photometry from the WISE all-sky catalog.

  3. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Spatially resolved star formation histories in galaxies as a function of galaxy mass and type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, D.; Thomas, D.; Maraston, C.; Westfall, K.; Etherington, J.; Riffel, R.; Mallmann, N. D.; Zheng, Z.; Argudo-Fernández, M.; Lian, J.; Bershady, M.; Bundy, K.; Drory, N.; Law, D.; Yan, R.; Wake, D.; Weijmans, A.; Bizyaev, D.; Brownstein, J.; Lane, R. R.; Maiolino, R.; Masters, K.; Merrifield, M.; Nitschelm, C.; Pan, K.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Schneider, D. P.

    2017-04-01

    We study the internal gradients of stellar population properties within 1.5 Re for a representative sample of 721 galaxies, with stellar masses ranging between 109 M⊙ and 1011.5 M⊙ from the SDSS-IV MaNGA Integral-Field-Unit survey. Through the use of our full spectral fitting code firefly, we derive light- and mass-weighted stellar population properties and their radial gradients, as well as full star formation and metal enrichment histories. We also quantify the impact that different stellar population models and full spectral fitting routines have on the derived stellar population properties and the radial gradient measurements. In our analysis, we find that age gradients tend to be shallow for both early-type and late-type galaxies. Mass-weighted age gradients of early-types arepositive (˜0.09 dex/Re) pointing to 'outside-in' progression of star formation, while late-type galaxies have negative light-weighted age gradients (˜-0.11 dex/Re), suggesting an 'inside-out' formation of discs. We detect negative metallicity gradients in both early- and late-type galaxies, but these are significantly steeper in late-types, suggesting that the radial dependence of chemical enrichment processes and the effect of gas inflow and metal transport are far more pronounced in discs. Metallicity gradients of both morphological classes correlate with galaxy mass, with negative metallicity gradients becoming steeper with increasing galaxy mass. The correlation with mass is stronger for late-type galaxies, with a slope of d(∇[Z/H])/d(log M) ˜ -0.2 ± 0.05 , compared to d(∇[Z/H])/d(log M) ˜ -0.05 ± 0.05 for early-types. This result suggests that the merger history plays a relatively small role in shaping metallicity gradients of galaxies.

  4. Constraining the Distribution of L and T Dwarfs in the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, R. E., Jr.; Hathi, N. P.; Cohen, S. H.; Windhorst, R. A.

    2005-10-01

    We estimate the thin-disk scale height of the Galactic population of L and T dwarfs based on star counts from 15 deep parallel fields from the Hubble Space Telescope. From these observations, we have identified 28 candidate L and T dwarfs based on their i'-z' color and morphology. By comparing these star counts with a simple Galactic model, we estimate the scale height to be 350+/-50 pc, which is consistent with the increase in vertical scale with decreasing stellar mass and is independent of reddening, color-magnitude limits, and other Galactic parameters. With this refined measure, we predict that less than 109 Msolar of the Milky Way can be in the form of L and T dwarfs and confirm that high-latitude, z~=6 galaxy surveys that use the i'-band dropout technique are 97%-100% free of L and T dwarf interlopers. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  5. The Effects of Ram-pressure Stripping and Supernova Winds on the Tidal Stirring of Disky Dwarfs: Enhanced Transformation into Dwarf Spheroidals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantzidis, Stelios; Mayer, Lucio; Callegari, Simone; Dotti, Massimo; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2017-02-01

    A conclusive model for the formation of dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies still remains elusive. Owing to their proximity to the massive spirals Milky Way (MW) and M31, various environmental processes have been invoked to explain their origin. In this context, the tidal stirring model postulates that interactions with MW-sized hosts can transform rotationally supported dwarfs, resembling present-day dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies, into systems with the kinematic and structural properties of dSphs. Using N-body+SPH simulations, we investigate the dependence of this transformation mechanism on the gas fraction, f gas, in the disk of the progenitor dwarf. Our numerical experiments incorporate for the first time the combined effects of radiative cooling, ram-pressure stripping, star formation, supernova (SN) winds, and a cosmic UV background. For a given orbit inside the primary galaxy, rotationally supported dwarfs with gas fractions akin to those of observed dIrrs (f gas ≳ 0.5), demonstrate a substantially enhanced likelihood and efficiency of transformation into dSphs relative to their collisionless (f gas = 0) counterparts. We argue that the combination of ram-pressure stripping and SN winds causes the gas-rich dwarfs to respond more impulsively to tides, augmenting their transformation. When f gas ≳ 0.5, disky dwarfs on previously unfavorable low-eccentricity or large-pericenter orbits are still able to transform. On the widest orbits, the transformation is incomplete; the dwarfs retain significant rotational support, a relatively flat shape, and some gas, naturally resembling transition-type systems. We conclude that tidal stirring constitutes a prevalent evolutionary mechanism for shaping the structure of dwarf galaxies within the currently favored CDM cosmological paradigm.

  6. The Effects of Ram-pressure Stripping and Supernova Winds on the Tidal Stirring of Disky Dwarfs: Enhanced Transformation into Dwarf Spheroidals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazantzidis, Stelios [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Mayer, Lucio [Center for Theoretical Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute for Computational Science, University of Zürich, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Callegari, Simone [Anthropology Institute and Museum, University of Zürich, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Dotti, Massimo [Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Moustakas, Leonidas A., E-mail: skazantzidis@phys.uoa.gr [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-02-10

    A conclusive model for the formation of dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies still remains elusive. Owing to their proximity to the massive spirals Milky Way (MW) and M31, various environmental processes have been invoked to explain their origin. In this context, the tidal stirring model postulates that interactions with MW-sized hosts can transform rotationally supported dwarfs, resembling present-day dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies, into systems with the kinematic and structural properties of dSphs. Using N -body+SPH simulations, we investigate the dependence of this transformation mechanism on the gas fraction, f {sub gas}, in the disk of the progenitor dwarf. Our numerical experiments incorporate for the first time the combined effects of radiative cooling, ram-pressure stripping, star formation, supernova (SN) winds, and a cosmic UV background. For a given orbit inside the primary galaxy, rotationally supported dwarfs with gas fractions akin to those of observed dIrrs ( f {sub gas} ≳ 0.5), demonstrate a substantially enhanced likelihood and efficiency of transformation into dSphs relative to their collisionless ( f {sub gas} = 0) counterparts. We argue that the combination of ram-pressure stripping and SN winds causes the gas-rich dwarfs to respond more impulsively to tides, augmenting their transformation. When f {sub gas} ≳ 0.5, disky dwarfs on previously unfavorable low-eccentricity or large-pericenter orbits are still able to transform. On the widest orbits, the transformation is incomplete; the dwarfs retain significant rotational support, a relatively flat shape, and some gas, naturally resembling transition-type systems. We conclude that tidal stirring constitutes a prevalent evolutionary mechanism for shaping the structure of dwarf galaxies within the currently favored CDM cosmological paradigm.

  7. BIMA CO (1-0) Observations of the Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy NGC 404

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C. L.; Petitpas, G. R.

    2004-12-01

    We present high resolution observations of the CO emission in NGC 404, a nearby dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxy (D = 3.3 Mpc). NGC 404 is only the third dwarf elliptical to have its CO emission mapped by interferometric observations, and is the first outside the Local Group. Our observations show a very concentrated, marginally resolved structure about 9 × 9 arcseconds in diameter. This corresponds to a very small cloud at the center of a much larger distribution of stars. NGC 404 is surrounded by a doughnut shaped distribution of HI gas centered on the stellar component. The CO and HI appear to be kinematically distinct components, suggesting that the HI may be part of the galaxy's original gas distribution, while the CO may be recycled from the products of stellar evolution. C.L.T. has been supported by CSU Sacramento via a Research and Creative Activity Award. G.R.P. has been supported by the Laboratory for Millimeter-Wave Astronomy through NSF grant AST 99-81289

  8. Evidence for a constant initial mass function in early-type galaxies based on their X-ray binary populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Kundu, Arunav; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Lehmer, Bret D.; Maraston, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent studies have proposed that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) of early type galaxies varies systematically as a function of galaxy mass, with higher mass galaxies having bottom-heavy IMFs. These bottom-heavy IMFs have more low-mass stars relative to the number of high mass stars, and therefore naturally result in proportionally fewer neutron stars (NSs) and black holes (BHs). In this paper, we specifically predict the variation in the number of BHs and NSs based on the power-law IMF variation required to reproduce the observed mass-to-light ratio trends with galaxy mass. We then test whether such variations are observed by studying the field low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) populations of nearby early-type galaxies. In these binaries, an NS or BH accretes matter from a low-mass donor star. Their number is therefore expected to scale with the number of BHs and NSs present in a galaxy. We find that the number of LMXBs per K-band light is similar among the galaxies in our sample. These data therefore demonstrate the uniformity of the slope of the IMF from massive stars down to those now dominating the K-band light and are consistent with an invariant IMF. Our results are inconsistent with an IMF which varies from a Kroupa/Chabrier like IMF for low-mass galaxies to a steep power-law IMF (with slope x = 2.8) for high mass galaxies. We discuss how these observations constrain the possible forms of the IMF variations and how future Chandra observations can enable sharper tests of the IMF.

  9. Evidence for a constant initial mass function in early-type galaxies based on their X-ray binary populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Maccarone, Thomas J. [Texas Tech University, Physics Department, Box 41051, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Kundu, Arunav [Eureka Scientific, Inc., 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100 Oakland, CA 94602 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Lehmer, Bret D. [The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Maraston, Claudia, E-mail: mpeacock@msu.edu [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    A number of recent studies have proposed that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) of early type galaxies varies systematically as a function of galaxy mass, with higher mass galaxies having bottom-heavy IMFs. These bottom-heavy IMFs have more low-mass stars relative to the number of high mass stars, and therefore naturally result in proportionally fewer neutron stars (NSs) and black holes (BHs). In this paper, we specifically predict the variation in the number of BHs and NSs based on the power-law IMF variation required to reproduce the observed mass-to-light ratio trends with galaxy mass. We then test whether such variations are observed by studying the field low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) populations of nearby early-type galaxies. In these binaries, an NS or BH accretes matter from a low-mass donor star. Their number is therefore expected to scale with the number of BHs and NSs present in a galaxy. We find that the number of LMXBs per K-band light is similar among the galaxies in our sample. These data therefore demonstrate the uniformity of the slope of the IMF from massive stars down to those now dominating the K-band light and are consistent with an invariant IMF. Our results are inconsistent with an IMF which varies from a Kroupa/Chabrier like IMF for low-mass galaxies to a steep power-law IMF (with slope x = 2.8) for high mass galaxies. We discuss how these observations constrain the possible forms of the IMF variations and how future Chandra observations can enable sharper tests of the IMF.

  10. THE SLOW DEATH (OR REBIRTH?) OF EXTENDED STAR FORMATION IN z ∼ 0.1 GREEN VALLEY EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Jerome J.; Faber, S. M.; Salim, Samir; Graves, Genevieve J.; Rich, R. Michael

    2012-01-01

    UV observations in the local universe have uncovered a population of early-type galaxies with UV flux consistent with low-level recent or ongoing star formation. Understanding the origin of such star formation remains an open issue. We present resolved UV-optical photometry of a sample of 19 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) early-type galaxies at z ∼ 0.1 drawn from the sample originally selected by Salim and Rich to lie in the bluer part of the green valley in the UV-optical color-magnitude diagram as measured by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). Utilizing high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope (HST) far-UV imaging provides unique insight into the distribution of UV light in these galaxies, which we call ''extended star-forming early-type galaxies'' (ESF-ETGs) because of extended UV emission that is indicative of recent star formation. The UV-optical color profiles of all ESF-ETGs show red centers and blue outer parts. Their outer colors require the existence of a significant underlying population of older stars in the UV-bright regions. An analysis of stacked SDSS spectra reveals weak LINER-like emission in their centers. Using a cross-matched SDSS DR7/GALEX GR6 catalog, we search for other green valley galaxies with similar properties to these ESF-ETGs and estimate that ≈13% of dust-corrected green valley galaxies of similar stellar mass and UV-optical color are likely ESF-candidates, i.e., ESF-ETGs are not rare. Our results are consistent with star formation that is gradually declining in existing disks, i.e., the ESF-ETGs are evolving onto the red sequence for the first time, or with rejuvenated star formation due to accreted gas in older disks provided that the gas does not disrupt the structure of the galaxy and the resulting star formation is not too recent and bursty. ESF-ETGs may typify an important subpopulation of galaxies that can linger in the green valley for up to several Gyrs, based on their resemblance to nearby gas-rich green valley

  11. The Taxonomy of Blue Amorphous Galaxies. II. Structure and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Amanda T.; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Heckman, Timothy M.

    1999-09-01

    Dwarf galaxies play an important role in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution, and starbursts are believed to affect the structure and evolution of dwarf galaxies strongly. We have therefore embarked on a systematic study of 12 of the nearest dwarf galaxies thought to be undergoing bursts of star formation. These were selected primarily by their morphological type (blue ``amorphous'' galaxies). We show that these blue amorphous galaxies are not physically distinguishable from dwarfs selected as starbursting by other methods, such as blue compact dwarfs (BCDs) and H II galaxies. All these classes exhibit surface brightness profiles that are exponential in the outer regions (r>~1.5re) but often have a predominantly central blue excess, suggesting a young burst in an older, redder galaxy. Typically, the starbursting ``cores'' are young (~107-108 yr) events compared to the older (~109-1010 yr) underlying galaxy (the ``envelope''). The ratio of the core to envelope in blue light ranges from essentially zero to about 2. These starbursts are therefore modest events involving only a few percent of the stellar mass. The envelopes have surface brightnesses that are much higher than typical dwarf irregular (dI) galaxies, so it is unlikely that there is a straightforward evolutionary relation between typical dIs and dwarf starburst galaxies. Instead we suggest that amorphous galaxies may repeatedly cycle through starburst and quiescent phases, corresponding to the galaxies with strong and weak/absent cores, respectively. Once amorphous galaxies use up the available gas (either through star formation or galactic winds) so that star formation is shut off, the faded remnants would strongly resemble dwarf elliptical galaxies. However, in the current cosmological epoch, this is evidently a slow process that is the aftermath of a series of many weak, recurring bursts. Present-day dE's must have experienced more rapid and intense evolution than this in the distant past.

  12. Teaching the Thrill of Discovery: Student Exploration of Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxies with the NOAO Data Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Knut; Walker, Constance E.; Smith, Blake; NOAO Data Lab Team

    2018-01-01

    We describe an activity aimed at teaching students how ultra-faint Milky Way dwarf galaxies are typically discovered: through filtering of optical photometric catalogs and cross-examination with deep images. The activity, which was developed as part of the Teen Astronomy Café program (https://teensciencecafe.org/cafes/az-teen-astronomy-cafe-tucson/), uses the NOAO Data Lab (http://datalab.noao.edu) and other professional-grade tools to lead high school students through exploration of the object catalog and images from the Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History (SMASH). The students are taught how to use images and color-magnitude diagrams to analyze and interpret stellar populations of increasing complexity, including those of star clusters and the Magellanic Clouds, and culminating with the discovery of the Hydra II ultra-faint dwarf galaxy. The tools and datasets presented allow the students to explore and discover other known stellar systems, as well as unknown candidate star clusters and dwarf galaxies. The ultimate goal of the activity is to give students insight into the methods of modern astronomical research and to allow them to participate in the thrill of discovery.

  13. The Diversity of Atomic Hydrogen in Slow Rotator Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lisa M.; Serra, Paolo; Krajnović, Davor; Duc, Pierre-Alain

    2018-02-01

    We present interferometric observations of H I in nine slow rotator early-type galaxies of the ATLAS3D sample. With these data, we now have sensitive H I searches in 34 of the 36 slow rotators. The aggregate detection rate is 32% ± 8%, consistent with previous work; however, we find two detections with extremely high H I masses, whose gas kinematics are substantially different from what was previously known about H I in slow rotators. These two cases (NGC 1222 and NGC 4191) broaden the known diversity of H I properties in slow rotators. NGC 1222 is a merger remnant with prolate-like rotation and, if it is indeed prolate in shape, an equatorial gas disc; NGC 4191 has two counterrotating stellar discs and an unusually large H I disc. We comment on the implications of this disc for the formation of 2σ galaxies. In general, the H I detection rate, the incidence of relaxed H I discs, and the H I/stellar mass ratios of slow rotators are indistinguishable from those of fast rotators. These broad similarities suggest that the H I we are detecting now is unrelated to the galaxies' formation processes and was often acquired after their stars were mostly in place. We also discuss the H I nondetections; some of these galaxies that are undetected in H I or CO are detected in other tracers (e.g. FIR fine structure lines and dust). The question of whether there is cold gas in massive galaxies' scoured nuclear cores still needs work. Finally, we discuss an unusual isolated H I cloud with a surprisingly faint (undetected) optical counterpart.

  14. The ATLAS3D project : X. On the origin of the molecular and ionized gas in early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Timothy A.; Alatalo, Katherine; Sarzi, Marc; Bureau, Martin; Young, Lisa M.; Blitz, Leo; Serra, Paolo; Crocker, Alison F.; Krajnovic, Davor; McDermid, Richard M.; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Scott, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    We make use of interferometric CO and H i observations, and optical integral-field spectroscopy from the ATLAS3D survey, to probe the origin of the molecular and ionized interstellar medium (ISM) in local early-type galaxies. We find that 36 +/- 5 per cent of our sample of fast-rotating early-type

  15. Variable Stars in the M31 Dwarf Spheroidal Companion Cassiopeia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritzl, Barton J.; Armandroff, T. E.; Jacoby, G. H.; Da Costa, G. S.

    2007-12-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies show very diverse star formation histories. For the Galactic dwarf spheroidal galaxies, a correlation exists between Galactocentric distance and the prominence of intermediate-age ( 2 - 10 Gyr) populations. To test whether this correlation exists for the M31 dwarf spheroidal galaxies, we observed the Cassiopeia (And VII) dwarf galaxy, which is one of the most distant M31 dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We will present the results of a variable star search using HST/ACS data, along with a preliminary color-magnitude diagram. From the RR Lyrae stars we can obtain an independent distance and metallicity estimate for the dwarf galaxy. These results will be compared to those found for the other M31 dwarf spheroidal galaxies.This research is supported in part by NASA through grant number GO-11081.11 from the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  16. The Nature of Turbulence in the LITTLE THINGS Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Erin; Chien, Li-Hsin; Hollyday, Gigja [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, NAU Box 6010, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, New York, NY 10598 (United States); Hunter, Deidre A. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Simpson, Caroline E. [Department of Physics, Florida International University, CP 204, 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, FL 33199 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We present probability density functions and higher order (skewness and kurtosis) analyses of the galaxy-wide and spatially resolved distributions of H i column density in the LITTLE THINGS sample of dwarf irregular galaxies. This analysis follows that of Burkhart et al. for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). About 60% of our sample have galaxy-wide values of kurtosis that are similar to that found for the SMC, with a range up to much higher values, and kurtosis increases with integrated star formation rate. Kurtosis and skewness were calculated for radial annuli and for a grid of 32 pixel × 32 pixel kernels across each galaxy. For most galaxies, kurtosis correlates with skewness. For about half of the galaxies, there is a trend of increasing kurtosis with radius. The range of kurtosis and skewness values is modeled by small variations in the Mach number close to the sonic limit and by conversion of H i to molecules at high column density. The maximum H i column densities decrease with increasing radius in a way that suggests molecules are forming in the weak-field limit, where H{sub 2} formation balances photodissociation in optically thin gas at the edges of clouds.

  17. Mass Modelling of Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies: the Effect of Unbound Stars From Tidal Tails And the Milky Way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimentowski, Jaroslaw; Lokas, Ewa L.; /Warsaw, Copernicus Astron. Ctr.; Kazantzidis, Stelios; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Prada, Francisco; /IAA, Granada; Mayer, Lucio; /Zurich,; Mamon, Gary A.; /Paris, Inst. Astrophys. /Meudon Observ.

    2006-11-14

    We study the origin and properties of the population of unbound stars in the kinematic samples of dwarf spheroidal galaxies. For this purpose we have run a high resolution N- body simulation of a two-component dwarf galaxy orbiting in a Milky Way potential. In agreement with the tidal stirring scenario of Mayer et al., the dwarf is placed on a highly eccentric orbit, its initial stellar component is in the form of an exponential disk and it has a NFW-like dark matter halo. After 10 Gyrs of evolution the dwarf produces a spheroidal stellar component and is strongly tidally stripped so that mass follows light and the stars are on almost isotropic orbits. From this final state, we create mock kinematic data sets for 200 stars by observing the dwarf in different directions.We find that when the dwarf is observed along the tidal tails the kinematic samples are strongly contaminated by unbound stars from the tails.We also study another source of possible contamination by adding stars from the Milky Way. We demonstrate that most of the unbound stars can be removed by the method of interloper rejection proposed by den Hartog & Katgert and recently tested on simulated dark matter haloes. We model the cleaned up kinematic samples using solutions of the Jeans equation with constant mass-to-light ratio and velocity anisotropy parameter. We show that even for such strongly stripped dwarf the Jeans analysis, when applied to cleaned samples, allows us to reproduce the mass and mass-to-light ratio of the dwarf with accuracy typically better than 25 percent and almost exactly in the case when the line of sight is perpendicular to the tidal tails. The analysis was applied to the new data for the Fornax dSph galaxy for which we find a mass-to-light ratio of 11 solar units and isotropic orbits. We demonstrate that most of the contamination in the kinematic sample of Fornax probably originates from the Milky Way.

  18. EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1.3. II. MASSES AND AGES OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS AND THEIR DEPENDENCE ON STELLAR POPULATION MODEL ASSUMPTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Huertas-Company, M.; Nakata, F.; Kodama, T.; Stanford, S. A.; Rettura, A.; Jee, M. J.; Holden, B. P.; Illingworth, G.; Postman, M.; White, R. L.; Rosati, P.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Demarco, R.; Eisenhardt, P.; Tanaka, M.

    2011-01-01

    We have derived masses and ages for 79 early-type galaxies (ETGs) in different environments at z ∼ 1.3 in the Lynx supercluster and in the GOODS/CDF-S field using multi-wavelength (0.6-4.5 μm; KPNO, Palomar, Keck, Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer) data sets. At this redshift the contribution of the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase is important for ETGs, and the mass and age estimates depend on the choice of the stellar population model used in the spectral energy distribution fits. We describe in detail the differences among model predictions for a large range of galaxy ages, showing the dependence of these differences on age. Current models still yield large uncertainties. While recent models from Maraston and Charlot and Bruzual offer better modeling of the TP-AGB phase with respect to less recent Bruzual and Charlot models, their predictions do not often match. The modeling of this TP-AGB phase has a significant impact on the derived parameters for galaxies observed at high redshift. Some of our results do not depend on the choice of the model: for all models, the most massive galaxies are the oldest ones, independent of the environment. When using the Maraston and Charlot and Bruzual models, the mass distribution is similar in the clusters and in the groups, whereas in our field sample there is a deficit of massive (M ∼> 10 11 M sun ) ETGs. According to those last models, ETGs belonging to the cluster environment host on average older stars with respect to group and field populations. This difference is less significant than the age difference in galaxies of different masses.

  19. Variable stars in the Pegasus dwarf galaxy (DDO 216)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoessel, J.G.; Abbott, M.J.; Saha, A.; Mossman, A.E.; Danielson, G.E. (Washburn Observatory, Madison, WI (USA) Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (USA) Palomar Observatory, Pasadena, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Observations obtained over a period of five years of the resolved stars in the Pegasus dwarf irregular galaxy (DDO 216) have been searched for variable stars. Thirty-one variables were found, and periods established for 12. Two of these variable stars are clearly eclipsing variables, seven are very likely Cepheid variables, and the remaining three are probable Cepheids. The period-luminosity relation for the Cepheids indicates a distance modulus for Pegasus of m - M = 26.22 + or - 0.20. This places Pegasus very near the zero-velocity surface of the Local Group. 25 refs.

  20. Testing the Presence of Multiple Photometric Components in Nearby Early-type Galaxies Using SDSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Semyeong; Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Lackner, Claire N., E-mail: semyeong@astro.princeton.edu [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa (Japan)

    2017-02-10

    We investigate two-dimensional image decomposition of nearby, morphologically selected early-type galaxies (ETGs). We are motivated by recent observational evidence of significant size growth of quiescent galaxies and theoretical development advocating a two-phase formation scenario for ETGs. We find that a significant fraction of nearby ETGs show changes in isophotal shape that require multi-component models. The characteristic sizes of the inner and outer component are ∼3 and ∼15 kpc. The inner component lies on the mass–size relation of ETGs at z ∼ 0.25–0.75, while the outer component tends to be more elliptical and hints at a stochastic buildup process. We find real physical differences between single- and double-component ETGs, with double-component galaxies being younger and more metal-rich. The fraction of double-component ETGs increases with increasing σ and decreases in denser environments. We hypothesize that double-component systems were able to accrete gas and small galaxies until later times, boosting their central densities, building up their outer parts, and lowering their typical central ages. In contrast, the oldest galaxies, perhaps due to residing in richer environments, have no remaining hints of their last accretion episode.

  1. Dark Galaxies and Lost Baryons (IAU S244)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jonathan I.; Disney, Michael J.

    2008-05-01

    ; Numerical simulation of the dwarf companions of giant galaxies A. Nelson and P. Williams; Delayed galaxies C. Struck, M. Hancock, B. Smith, P. Appleton, V. Charmandaris and M. Giroux; Probe of dark galaxies via disturbed/lopsided isolated galaxies I. Karachentsev, V. Karachentseva, W. Huchtmeier, D. Makarov and S. Kaisin; Star formation thresholds J. Schaye; Scaling relations of dwarf galaxies without supernova-driven winds K. Tassis, A. Kravtsov and N. Gnedin; Star formation in massive low surface brightness galaxies K. O'Neil; Linking clustering properties and the evolution of low surface brightness galaxies D. Bomans and S. Rosenbaum; Too small to form a galaxy: how the UV background determines the baryon fraction M. Hoeft, G. Yepes and S. Gottlober; Star formation in damped Lyman selected galaxies L. Christensen; Dark-matter content of early-type galaxies with planetary nebulae N. Napolitano et al.; Hunting for ghosts: low surface brightnesses from pixels R. Scaramella and S. Sabatini; Baryonic properties of the darkest galaxies E. Grebel; The dwarf low surface brightness population in different environments of the local universe S. Sabatini, J. Davies, S. Roberts and R. Scaramella; Mass modelling of dwarf spheroidal galaxies J. Klimentowski et al.; Evolution of dwarf galaxies in the Centaurus A Group L. Makarova and D. Makarov; A flat faint end of the Fornax cluster galaxy luminosity function S. Mieske, M. Hilker, L. Infante and C. Mendes de Oliveira; Can massive dark halos destroy the discs of dwarf galaxies? B. Fuchs and O. Esquivel; 'Dark galaxies' and local very metal-poor gas-rich galaxies: possible interrelations S. Pustilnik; Morphology and environment of dwarf galaxies in the local universe H. Ann; Arecibo survey of HI emission from disk galaxies at redshift z 0.2 B. Catinella, M. Haynes, J. Gardner, A. Connolly and R. Giovanelli; AGES observations of

  2. Active Galactic Nuclei in Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Megan; Secrest, N.; Satyapal, S.

    2014-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) one million to a few billion times the mass of our sun are thought to reside in the center of most, if not all, bulge-dominated galaxies. It has been observed that the mass of these SMBHs is strongly correlated with the mass of these bulges, leading to the popular view that these central black holes are formed by galaxy mergers, which induce the growth of the galaxy's bulge and provide matter with which to feed the black hole. Although these properties and their possible consequences have been studied extensively in high mass galaxies and galaxies with large bulges, there is very little research on the possible existence and subsequent properties of SMBHs in low mass galaxies or galaxies with small or no central bulges. This is a significant weakness in the research of these objects as the study of this population of galaxies would allow us to gain valuable insight into SMBH seeds, black holes thought to have formed in the early universe. Strong X-rays are a good indicator of an accreting black hole, because they require more energy to produce and SMBHs are highly energetic, as well as being easier to see due to their ability to penetrate matter more easily than other forms of radiation. In this poster, I will present the results from an X-ray investigation using data matched from the Chandra X-ray observatory to a sample of low mass galaxies (with a mass of log(M) < 9).

  3. Early-Type Galaxy Star Formation Histories in Different Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Patrick; Graves, G.

    2014-01-01

    We use very high-S/N stacked spectra of ˜29,000 nearby quiescent early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to investigate variations in their star formation histories (SFHs) with environment at fixed position along and perpendicular to the Fundamental Plane (FP). We separate galaxies in the three-dimensional FP space defined by galaxy effective radius Re, central stellar velocity dispersion σ, and surface brightness residual from the FP, ΔIe. We use the SDSS group catalogue of Yang et al. to further separate galaxies into three categories by their “identities” within their respective dark matter halos: central “Brightest Group Galaxies” (BGGs); Satellites; and Isolateds (those which are “most massive” in a dark matter halo with no Satellites). Within each category, we construct high-S/N mean stacked spectra to determine mean singleburst ages, [Fe/H], and [Mg/Fe] based on the stellar population synthesis models of R. Schiavon. This allows us to study variations in the stellar population properties (SPPs) with local group environment at fixed structure (i.e., fixed position in FP-space). We find that the SFHs of quiescent ETGs are almost entirely determined by their structural parameters σ and ΔIe. Any variation with local group environment at fixed structure is only slight: Satellites have the oldest stellar populations, 0.02 dex older than BGGs and 0.04 dex older than Isolateds; BGGs have the highest Fe-enrichments, 0.01 dex higher than Isolateds and 0.02 dex higher than Satellites; there are no differences in Mg-enhancement between BGGs, Isolateds, and Satellites. Our observation that, to zeroth-order, the SFHs of quiescent ETGs are fully captured by their structures places important qualitative constraints on the degree to which late-time evolutionary processes (those which occur after a galaxy’s initial formation and main star-forming lifetime) can alter their SFHs/structures.