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Sample records for early-onset spontaneous aa

  1. Lack of MEF2A Delta7aa mutation in Irish families with early onset ischaemic heart disease, a family based study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horan, Paul G

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is a complex disease due to the combination of environmental and genetic factors. Mutations in the MEF2A gene have recently been reported in patients with IHD. In particular, a 21 base pair deletion (Delta7aa) in the MEF2A gene was identified in a family with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance of IHD. We investigated this region of the MEF2A gene using an Irish family-based study, where affected individuals had early-onset IHD. METHODS: A total of 1494 individuals from 580 families were included (800 discordant sib-pairs and 64 parent-child trios). The Delta7aa region of the MEF2A gene was investigated based on amplicon size. RESULTS: The Delta7aa mutation was not detected in any individual. Variation in the number of CAG (glutamate) and CCG (proline) residues was detected in a nearby region. However, this was not found to be associated with IHD. CONCLUSION: The Delta7aa mutation was not detected in any individual within the study population and is unlikely to play a significant role in the development of IHD in Ireland. Using family-based tests of association the number of tri-nucleotide repeats in a nearby region of the MEF2A gene was not associated with IHD in our study group.

  2. Early-onset schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Hojka Gregorič Kumperščak

    2013-01-01

    Early-onset schizophrenia is defined as schizophrenia with onset before the age of 18 years. While schizophrenia is a very rare disorder in childhood, it becomes increasingly common during adolescence and peaks in early adulthood. Even though childhood and adolescent schizophrenia lie on a continuum with adult schizophrenia and show roughly the same clinical picture, they both have some developmental specifics. They display greater symptom variability making the ...

  3. Early-Onset Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konijnenberg, Elles; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Kate, Mara Ten

    2017-01-01

    of this study was to investigate quality-of-care indicators in subjects with EOD from 3 tertiary memory clinics in 3 European countries. METHODS: We included 1325 newly diagnosed EOD patients, ages 65 years or younger, between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2013, from the Danish Dementia Registry......BACKGROUND: Early-onset dementia (EOD) is a rare condition, with an often atypical clinical presentation, and it may therefore be challenging to diagnose. Specialized memory clinics vary in the type of patients seen, diagnostic procedures applied, and the pharmacological treatment given. The aim...... (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen), the Swedish Dementia Registry ("SveDem", Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm), and the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (VU University Medical Center). RESULTS: The frequency of EOD among all dementia patients was significantly lower in Copenhagen (410, 20%) and Stockholm (284, 21...

  4. Early onset dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadil, Halim; Borazanci, Aimee; Ait Ben Haddou, Elhachmia; Yahyaoui, Mohamed; Korniychuk, Elena; Jaffe, Stephen L; Minagar, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Dementia is characterized by a decline in cognitive faculties and occurrence of behavioral abnormalities which interfere with an individual's activities of daily living. Dementing disorders usually affect elderly individuals but may occur in individuals younger than 65 years (early-onset dementia or EOD). EOD is often misdiagnosed or its diagnosis is delayed due to the fact that it has a more varied differential diagnosis than late-onset dementia. EOD affects individuals at the height of their career and productivity and produces devastating consequences and financial loss for the patient's family as well as society. EOD is not uncommon and is diagnosed in up to a third of patients presenting with dementia. Most importantly, some of the causes of EOD are curable which makes the need for a specific and timely diagnosis crucial. The present chapter presents a systematic approach to the differential diagnosis of EOD and provides readers with the clinical and neuroimaging features of these disorders as well as important considerations for their diagnostic evaluation. Specifically, the nuances of assessing the history and examination are discussed with careful attention to the various methods of cognitive and behavioral evaluation. A step-wise approach to diagnostic testing is followed by a discussion of anatomical localization, which often aids in identifying specific etiologies. Finally, in order to organize the subject for the reader, the various etiologies are grouped under the general categories of vascular, infectious, toxic-metabolic, immune-mediated, neoplastic/metastatic, and neurodegenerative.

  5. Early Onset Werner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna İmge Aydoğan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Werner syndrome (WS is a rare autosomal recessive adult-onset progeroid disorder characterized by the early onset of aged-appearance and age-related metabolic disorders. Symptoms of premature aging usually first develop in the second-third decades of life. We report a 27-year-old female who was admitted to our clinic at the age of eighteen with hyperglycemia. She was diagnosed with diabetes and type 4 dyslipidemia at the age of seven. In her family history, her parents were first cousins and she had three healthy brothers. On her first physical examination; she had bird-like face appearance, global hair loss, beaked nose, short stature and she was overweight. She had global hair loss with gray and thin hair. Hoarseness of voice and hyperkeratosis of skin were observed. She had bilateral cataracts and moderate sensorineural hearing loss. On psychiatric examination, borderline mental retardation was detected. She had severe insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia despite levothyroxine, gemfibrozil, omega-3 and intensive insulin treatment. Routine lipid apheresis was performed to lower the triglyceride levels reaching 5256 mg/dL. She also had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, hepatosteatosis, osteoporosis and epilepsy. Disease was accompanied by several congenital deformities, such as Rathke’s cleft cyst, angiomyolipoma and femoral neck hypoplasia. WS is a rare genetic disorder characterized by multiple endocrine manifestations as well as soft tissue changes. We present a case of early disturbances that were diagnosed before typical clinical signs and symptoms. We propose that WS should be kept in mind when type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia are diagnosed early in childhood. Turk Jem 2015; 19: 99-104

  6. Early onset type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, A; Thomsen, R W; Nielsen, J S

    2017-01-01

    was more frequent and meeting physical activity recommendations less likely in persons with early-onset type 2 DM. CONCLUSIONS: We found a clear age-gradient, with increasing prevalence of clinical and behavioural risk factors the younger the onset age of type 2 DM. Younger persons with early-onset type 2......AIM: To examine the association between early onset of type 2 diabetes (DM) and clinical and behavioural risk factors for later diabetes complications. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5115 persons with incident type 2 DM enrolled during 2010-2015 in the Danish Centre for Strategic...... Research in Type 2 Diabetes-cohort. We compared risk factors at time of diagnosis among those diagnosed at ≤45 years (early-onset) with diagnosis age 46-55, 56-65 (average-onset = reference), 66-75, and >75 years (late-onset). Prevalence ratios (PRs) were computed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Poor...

  7. What is 'early onset dementia'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Koho

    2009-06-01

    There are two types of dementia with early onset: (i) presenile dementias; and (ii) senile dementias with early onset. Most patients who develop dementia before 65 years of age have Alzheimer's disease (AD). The remainder are likely to have vascular dementia (VaD), frontotemporal dementia, head injury, alcohol intoxication, or metabolic disorder. Presenile dementias, caused by frontotemporal lobar degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal degeneration, usually occur in patients of presenile and are rarely seen in patients of senile age. Although the factors responsible for the accelerated onset of the illness are not fully known, genetic abnormalities appear to be important in some types of presenile dementia, such as frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17. Conversely, senile dementias such as sporadic AD and VaD commonly occur in patients of senile age. These disorders may also occur in patients of presenile age, although less frequently. Alzheimer's disease was originally classified as a 'presenile dementia'. Since the 1980s, 'senile dementia of Alzheimer type' (SDAT) and 'Alzheimer's disease' have been considered to belong to the same pathological entity and both are now known as 'dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT)' or merely 'Alzheimer's disease'. Rapid progression of cognitive impairment with neuropsychological syndromes and neurological symptoms has been considered a characteristic of early onset AD. However, recently, neurological symptoms such as spastic paraparesis, seizures, and myoclonic convulsions have been reported to occur infrequently in early onset AD, although language problems and visuospatial dysfunctions are common. There are at least three dominant genes that have been identified in cases of familial Alzheimer's disease with early onset, namely the amyloid precursor gene (APP), and the genes encoding presenilin 1 (PSEN1) and presenilin 2 (PSEN2). Therefore, genetic abnormalities are important

  8. Genetics Home Reference: early-onset glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Early-onset glaucoma Early-onset glaucoma Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Glaucoma is a group of eye disorders in which ...

  9. Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Kari A.; Anderson-Berry, Ann L.; Delair, Shirley F.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Early-onset sepsis remains a common and serious problem for neonates, especially preterm infants. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the most common etiologic agent, while Escherichia coli is the most common cause of mortality. Current efforts toward maternal intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis have significantly reduced the rates of GBS disease but have been associated with increased rates of Gram-negative infections, especially among very-low-birth-weight infants. The diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is based on a combination of clinical presentation; the use of nonspecific markers, including C-reactive protein and procalcitonin (where available); blood cultures; and the use of molecular methods, including PCR. Cytokines, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and cell surface antigens, including soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) and CD64, are also being increasingly examined for use as nonspecific screening measures for neonatal sepsis. Viruses, in particular enteroviruses, parechoviruses, and herpes simplex virus (HSV), should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Empirical treatment should be based on local patterns of antimicrobial resistance but typically consists of the use of ampicillin and gentamicin, or ampicillin and cefotaxime if meningitis is suspected, until the etiologic agent has been identified. Current research is focused primarily on development of vaccines against GBS. PMID:24396135

  10. [Early-onset sarcoidosis/Blau syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Naotomo; Satoh, Takashi; Nakano, Michiyo; Nakamura, Yuumi; Matsue, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Familial Blau syndrome and sporadic early-onset sarcoidosis (EOS) are both systemic granulomatous diseases evoked by the spontaneous activation of mutated NOD2. In Japan, the R334W amino acid substitution is more frequently identified, whereas the R334Q mutation is rare and, in contrast to western countries where disease causing mutations are typically hereditary, most Japanese cases derive from sporadic mutations. Recently, a case with a six-base deletion in the NOD2 gene was reported. This Blau syndrome/EOS patient presented with the unpainful soft swelling of the dorsal side of the wrist and ankles, as well as flexion contracture at the proximal interphalangeal joint that gradually appeared during their clinical course. These features are useful for the differential diagnosis of Blau syndrome/EOS from juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Owing to their characteristic clinical symptoms, Blau and EOS patients can be identified earlier if medical experts become more acquainted with these distinctions. Even though specific treatment based on pathophysiologic mechanism has not been explored yet, early diagnosis will prevent the progression to severe impairment, which can severely affect patients' lives.

  11. Spontaneous, Experimentally Induced, and Transmissible AA Amyloidosis in Japanese Quail ( Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yumi; Kamiie, Junichi; Watanabe, Gen; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Murakami, Tomoaki

    2017-11-01

    The authors describe a spontaneous case of amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis in an adult female Japanese quail ( Coturnix japonica). The bird developed AA amyloidosis secondary to chronic peritonitis caused by a Gram-negative bacillus infection. Mild amyloid deposition was also identified in the intestinal tract of apparently healthy adult individuals, suggesting that quail may develop intestinal amyloidosis with age. Based on these observations, it was hypothesized that quail can develop AA amyloidosis following inflammatory stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Therefore, adult quail were repeatedly injected with LPS and the development of AA amyloidosis was confirmed. The amyloid deposition in this model increased when quail amyloid was intravenously injected as an amyloid-enhancing factor. The experiments were repeated with young quail, but amyloid deposits were not observed following LPS injections. However, AA amyloidosis did develop when quail amyloid was injected in addition to LPS. These results indicated that adult quail develop AA amyloidosis after inflammatory stimulation with LPS. Furthermore, quail AA amyloidosis was shown to have transmissibility regardless of age. Interestingly, the authors found that administration of chicken amyloid fibrils also induced AA amyloidosis in young quail. This is the first report of cross-species transmission of avian AA amyloidosis.

  12. The link between early onset drinking and early onset alcohol-impaired driving in young males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F; Welte, John W

    2014-05-01

    Young drivers represent a disproportionate number of the individuals involved in alcohol-impaired driving. Although there is a known association between drinking and alcohol-impaired driving in young drivers, the link between early onset drinking and early onset alcohol-impaired driving has not been explored. The present study aimed to assess this link along with potentially confounding factors. The assessment used a proportional hazards model with data collected from the Buffalo Longitudinal Study of Young Men, a population-based sample of 625 males at aged 16-19. Controlling for the effects of potentially relevant confounds, the early onset of drinking was the most influential factor in predicting the early onset of alcohol-impaired driving. Race and the early onset of other forms of delinquency also played a significant role in the early onset of alcohol-impaired driving. Preventing an early start of drinking among adolescents may be the most critical factor to address in preventing an early start of alcohol-impaired driving.

  13. Early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (EOFAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liyong; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek R; Sadovnick, A Dessa; Masellis, Mario; Black, Sandra E; Jia, Jianping; Gauthier, Serge

    2012-07-01

    Early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (EOFAD) is a condition characterized by early onset dementia (age at onset family history for dementia. To date, 230 mutations in presenilin (PS1, PS2) and amyloid precursor protein (APP) genes have been identified in EOFAD. The mutations within these three genes (PS1/PS2/APP) affect a common pathogenic pathway in APP synthesis and proteolysis, which lead to excessive production of amyloid β. Compared with sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), EOFAD has some distinctive features including early age at onset, positive familial history, a variety of non-cognitive neurological symptoms and signs, and a more aggressive course. There is marked phenotypic heterogeneity among different mutations of EOFAD. Studies in presymptomatic mutation carriers reveal biomarkers abnormalities. EOFAD diagnosis is based on clinical and family history, neurological symptoms and examination, biomarker features, as well as genotyping in some cases. New therapeutic agents targeting amyloid formation may benefit EOFAD individuals.

  14. Risk assessment in neonatal early onset sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sagori; Puopolo, Karen M

    2012-12-01

    The incidence of neonatal early onset sepsis has declined with the widespread use of intrapartum antibiotic therapies, yet early onset sepsis remains a potentially fatal condition, particularly among very low birth-weight infants. Clinical signs of neonatal infection are nonspecific and may be absent in the immediate postnatal period. Maternal and infant clinical characteristics, as well as infant laboratory values, have been used to identify newborns at risk and to administer empiric antibiotic therapy to prevent progression to more severe illness. Such approaches result in the evaluation of approximately 15% of asymptomatic term and late preterm infants and of nearly all preterm infants. The development of multivariate predictive models may provide more accurate methods of identifying newborns at highest risk and allow for more limited newborn antibiotic exposures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cockayne syndrome with early onset of manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, D B; Marquis, P; Shertzer, M E; Burton, B K

    1982-10-01

    The Cockayne syndrome is an autosomal recessive syndrome of growth failure and characteristic physical and pathological changes. Typically the disorder becomes manifest in the second year of life; growth and development are normal during the first year. We report presumably monozygotic twins with otherwise classic Cockayne syndrome but with a prenatal onset. Several previously described cases seem to represent a similar form of Cockayne syndrome with early onset of growth failure and development delay.

  16. A cluster analysis of early onset in common anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schat, A.; van Noorden, M.S.; Noom, M. J.; Giltay, E.J.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; de Graaf, R.; ten Have, M.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.M.; Zitman, F.G.

    2016-01-01

    Early onset is regarded as an important characteristic of anxiety disorders, associated with higher severity. However, previous findings diverge, as definitions of early onset vary and are often unsubstantiated. We objectively defined early onset in social phobia, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and

  17. Genomes of early onset prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Korbel, Jan O.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Prostate cancer is a disease of the elderly but a clinically relevant subset occurs early in life. In the current review, we discuss recent findings and the current understanding of the molecular underpinnings associated with early-onset prostate cancer (PCa) and the evidence...... supporting age-specific differences in the cancer genomes. Recent findings Recent surveys of PCa patient cohorts have provided novel age-dependent links between germline and somatic aberrations which points to differences in the molecular cause and treatment options. Summary Identifying the earliest...

  18. Fusionless surgery in early-onset scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odent, T; Ilharreborde, B; Miladi, L; Khouri, N; Violas, P; Ouellet, J; Cunin, V; Kieffer, J; Kharrat, K; Accadbled, F

    2015-10-01

    Surgical treatment of early-onset scoliosis has greatly developed in recent years. Early-onset scoliosis covers a variety of etiologies (idiopathic, neurologic, dystrophic, malformative, etc.) with onset before the age of 5 years. Progression and severity threaten respiratory development and may result in respiratory failure in adulthood. Many surgical techniques have been developed in recent years, aiming to protect spinal and thoracic development. Present techniques are based on one of two main principles. The first consists in posterior distraction of the spine in its concavity (single growing rod, or vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib [VEPTR]), or on either side (dual rod); this requires iterative surgery, for lengthening, unless motorized using energy provided by a magnetic system. The second option is to use spinal growth force to lengthen the assembly; these techniques (Luque Trolley, Shilla), using a sliding assembly, are known as growth guidance. These techniques are effective in controlling early scoliotic deformity, and to some extent restore spinal growth. However, they show a high rate of complications: infection, rod breakage, spinal fixation pull out and, above all, progressive spinal stiffness, reducing long-term efficacy. Respiratory gain is harder to assess, as thoracic expansion does not systematically improve respiratory function, particularly due to impaired compliance of the thoracic cage. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. A cluster analysis of early onset in common anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schat, A; van Noorden, M S; Noom, M J; Giltay, E J; van der Wee, N J A; de Graaf, R; Ten Have, M; Vermeiren, R R J M M; Zitman, F G

    2016-12-01

    Early onset is regarded as an important characteristic of anxiety disorders, associated with higher severity. However, previous findings diverge, as definitions of early onset vary and are often unsubstantiated. We objectively defined early onset in social phobia, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and generalised anxiety disorder, using cluster analysis with data gathered in the general population. Resulting cut-off ages for early onset were ≤22 (social phobia), ≤31 (panic disorder), ≤21 (agoraphobia), and ≤27 (generalised anxiety disorder). Comparison of psychiatric comorbidity and general wellbeing between subjects with early and late onset in the general population and an outpatient cohort, demonstrated that among outpatients anxiety comorbidity was more common in early onset agoraphobia, but also that anxiety- as well as mood comorbidity were more common in late onset social phobia. A major limitation was the retrospective assessment of onset. Our results encourage future studies into correlates of early onset of psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The nosological status of early onset anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, P J; Watkins, B; Bryant-Waugh, R; Lask, B

    2002-07-01

    Although cases of early onset anorexia nervosa have been described, there has been no systematic comparison of early onset cases with classic cases of later onset, or with other forms of early onset eating disturbance. A consecutive series of patients referred to two specialist child and adolescent eating disorder services with a clinical diagnosis of eating disorder (N = 126) was systematically assessed using a child version of the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) and the K-SADS interview. Of 86 patients with a diagnosis of eating disorder of early onset, 38 received a clinical diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (AN). The remainder were mainly diagnosed as having food avoidance emotional disorder (25 patients) and selective eating (17 patients). Six received other diagnoses (bulimia nervosa, or functional dysphasia). These 48 patients were combined to form a group of early onset non-AN eating disturbance. In terms of specific eating disorder psychopathology and general psychopathology, the early onset AN group was very similar to the late onset AN sample. When the two early onset groups were compared, there was a marked difference between them in terms of eating disorder psychopathology. A discriminant function analysis using the EDE information produced a clear discrimination, with the EDE restraint and shape concern subscales doing most of the discrimination work. The specific psychopathology of AN of early onset is very similar to that of classic adolescent onset AN. Other forms of early onset eating disorder do not evidence this specific psychopathology.

  1. Early onset preeclampsia in subsequent pregnancies correlates with early onset preeclampsia in first pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X L; Chen, T T; Dong, X; Gou, W L; Lau, S; Stone, P; Chen, Q

    2014-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a major complication of pregnancy and its occurrence in a first pregnancy is a major risk factor for recurrence in subsequent pregnancies. Whether the time of onset or the severity of preeclampsia in a first pregnancy is associated with the incidence of recurrent preeclampsia is not clear. We performed a retrospective study to analyse the incidence of recurrent preeclampsia and associations of the time of onset and the severity of preeclampsia between first preeclampsia and recurrent preeclampsia. Ninety-two women with previous preeclampsia who had a second pregnancy in a 4 year period were included. Data on the first and second pregnancies were obtained and included maternal age, maternal height and weight, gestation week at onset of preeclampsia and at delivery, blood pressure, proteinuria, interval between pregnancies and birth weights. Fifty-five women with previous preeclampsia developed recurrent preeclampsia (59.8%). The difference in the incidence of recurrent early and late onset preeclampsia was not significant different (65.3% versus 53.4%, p>0.05). The difference in the incidence of mild or severe disease in those who experienced recurrent preeclampsia was also not significant (59.6% versus 60%, p>0.05). The severity of preeclampsia in second pregnancy was not associated with the severity of preeclampsia in first pregnancy. However 93.7% women with previous early onset preeclampsia developed early onset preeclampsia in second pregnancy and 56.5% women with previous late onset preeclampsia developed early onset preeclampsia in second pregnancy. In addition, 76.2% women with previous mild preeclampsia developed severe preeclampsia in second pregnancy. The baby weight in recurrent preeclampsia was significantly decreased compared to that in first pregnancy with preeclampsia. Our data demonstrate that there was no association between the incidence of recurrent preeclampsia and the time of onset or severity of preeclampsia in first pregnancy

  2. [Early onset scoliosis. What are the options?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, D M; Tatay-Díaz, A

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis of children with progressive early onset scoliosis has improved considerably due to recent advances in surgical and non-surgical techniques and the understanding of the importance of preserving the thoracic space. Improvements in existing techniques and development of new methods have considerably improved the management of this condition. Derotational casting can be considered in children with documented progression of a <60° curve without previous surgical treatment. Both single and dual growing rods are effective, but the latter seem to offer better results. Hybrid constructs may be a better option in children who require a low-profile proximal anchor. The vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR(®)) appears to be beneficial for patients with congenital scoliosis and fused ribs, and thoracic Insufficiency Syndrome. Children with medical comorbidities who may not tolerate repeated lengthenings should be considered for Shilla or Luque Trolley technique. Growth modulation using shape memory alloy staples or other tethers seem promising for mild curves, although more research is required to define their precise indications. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Hippocampal volume in early onset depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacMaster Frank P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormalities in limbic structures have been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD. Although MDD is as common in adolescence as in adulthood, few studies have examined youth near illness onset in order to determine the possible influence of atypical development on the pathophysiology of this disorder. Methods Hippocampal volumes were measured in 17 MDD subjects (age = 16.67 ± 1.83 years [mean ± SD]; range = 13 – 18 years and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (16.23 ± 1.61 years [mean ± SD]; 13 – 18 years using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Results An analysis of covariance revealed a significant difference between MDD and control subjects (F = 8.66, df = 1, 29, P = 0.006. This was more strongly localized to the left hippocampus (P = 0.001 than the right hippocampus (P = 0.047. Conclusions Our findings provide new evidence of abnormalities in the hippocampus in early onset depression. However, our results should be considered preliminary given the small sample size studied.

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Crijnen, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based, randomized

  5. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Huizink (Anja); P.A.C. van Lier (Pol); A.A.M. Crijnen (Alfons)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based,

  6. Reproductive outcome after early-onset pre-eclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, Jelle M.; Bruinse, Hein W.; van der Leeuw-Harmsen, Loes; Groeneveld, Els; Koopman, Corine; Franx, Arie; van Rijn, Bas B.

    2011-01-01

    Early-onset pre-eclampsia is an important cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and is believed to have a significant impact on future maternal physical and psychological health. However, structured follow-up data of women with a history of early-onset pre-eclampsia are lacking.

  7. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Mediate Early-Onset Smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Lier, P.A.C. van; Crijnen, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based, randomized

  8. Nearwork in early-onset myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Seang-Mei; Chua, Wei-Han; Hong, Ching-Ye; Wu, Hui-Min; Chan, Wai-Ying; Chia, Kee-Seng; Stone, Richard A; Tan, Donald

    2002-02-01

    To determine the relationship of nearwork and myopia in young elementary school-age children in Singapore. A cross-sectional study of 1005 school children aged 7 to 9 years was conducted in two schools in Singapore. Cycloplegic autorefraction, keratometry, and biometry measurements were performed. In addition, the parents completed a detailed questionnaire on nearwork activity (books read per week, reading in hours per day and diopter hours [addition of three times reading, two times computer use, and two times video games use in hours per day]). Other risk factors, such as parental myopia, socioeconomic status, and light exposure history, were assessed. In addition to socioeconomic factors, several nearwork indices were associated with myopia in these young children. The multivariate adjusted odds ratio of higher myopia (at least -3.0 D) for children who read more than two books per week was 3.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.80-5.18). However, the odds ratios of higher myopia for children who read more than 2 hours per day or with more than 8 diopter hours (1.50; 95% CI, 0.87-2.55 and 1.04; 95% CI, 0.61-1.78, respectively) were not significant, after controlling for several factors. Children aged 7 to 9 years with a greater current reading exposure were more likely to be myopic. This association of reading and myopia in a young age cohort was greater than the strength of the reading association generally found in older myopic subjects. Whether these results identify an association of early-onset myopia with nearwork activity or other potentially confounding factors is discussed.

  9. Adverse Housing Conditions and Early-Onset Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Newsome, Jamie; Lynch, Kellie R

    2017-09-01

    Housing constitutes an important health resource for children. Research has revealed that, when housing conditions are unfavorable, they can interfere with child health, academic performance, and cognition. Little to no research, however, has considered whether adverse housing conditions and early-onset delinquency are significantly associated with one another. This study explores the associations between structural and non-structural housing conditions and delinquent involvement during childhood. Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS) were employed in this study. Each adverse housing condition was significantly associated with early-onset delinquency. Even so, disarray and deterioration were only significantly linked to early delinquent involvement in the presence of health/safety hazards. The predicted probability of early-onset delinquency among children exposed to housing risks in the presence of health/safety hazards was nearly three times as large as the predicted probability of early-onset delinquency among children exposed only to disarray and/or deterioration, and nearly four times as large as the predicted probability of early-onset delinquency among children exposed to none of the adverse housing conditions. The findings suggest that minimizing housing-related health/safety hazards among at-risk subsets of the population may help to alleviate other important public health concerns-particularly early-onset delinquency. Addressing household health/safety hazards may represent a fruitful avenue for public health programs aimed at the prevention of early-onset delinquency. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  10. Cataract in early onset and classic Cockayne syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R C; Roeder, E R; Bateman, J B

    1997-12-01

    To describe cataracts in classic and early onset Cockayne syndrome (CS). Classic CS typically has an onset after the first year of life; intrauterine growth failure and severe neurologic dysfunction from birth distinguishes the less common early onset CS from the classic form. A complete ophthalmic evaluation was performed in four affected patients, one with the early onset and three with classic CS. We report cataract in all patients and glaucoma in one, the latter never previously reported in CS. CS should be considered in babies with low birth weight and congenital cataract.

  11. Early-onset Coronary Artery Disease: Clinical and Hereditary Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Morten Krogh

    2017-01-01

    the advances in genetic techniques has led to an increased understanding of the genetic background of CAD, which may potentially be translated into clinical use. The studies of this thesis aimed to investigate the burden of conventional risk factors and control in early-onset CAD (i.e. ... component of coronary atherosclerosis and underpin the need for risk factor optimization in early-onset CAD. Furthermore, our data support that yet identified common risk variants may have little clinical relevance in the clinical setting of early-onset CAD....

  12. Relationship of Early Onset Baldness to Prostate Cancer in African-American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita; Morales, Knashawn H.; Spangler, Elaine; Chang, Bao-Li; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Early onset baldness has been linked to prostate cancer (CaP), however, little is known about this relationship in African Americans (AA) who are at elevated CaP risk. Methods We recruited 219 AA controls and 318 AA CaP cases. We determined age-stratified associations of baldness with CaP occurrence and severity defined by high stage (T3/T4) or high grade (Gleason 7+.) Associations of androgen metabolism genotypes (CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A43, AR-CAG, SRD5A2 A49T, and SRD5A2 V89L), family history, alcohol intake, and smoking were examined by baldness status and age group by using multivariable logistic regression models. Results Baldness was associated with odds of CaP (OR=1.69, 95% CI=1.05–2.74). Frontal baldness was associated with high stage (OR=2.61, 95% CI=1.10–6.18) and high grade (OR=2.20, 95% CI=1.05–4.61) tumors. For men diagnosed less than age 60, frontal baldness was associated with high stage (OR=6.51, 95% CI=2.11–20.06) and high grade (OR=4.23, 95% CI=1.47–12.14). We also observed a suggestion of an interaction among smoking, median age and any baldness (p=0.02). Conclusions We observed significant associations between early onset baldness and CaP in AA men. Interactions with age and smoking were suggested in these associations. Studies are needed to investigate the mechanisms influencing the relationship between baldness and CaP in AA. Impact AA men present with unique risk factors including baldness patterns that may contribute to CaP disparities. PMID:23532004

  13. Early-onset Alzheimer's Disease Phenotypes: Neuropsychology and Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-11

    Alzheimer Disease, Early Onset; Alzheimer Disease; Alzheimer Disease, Late Onset; Dementia, Alzheimer Type; Logopenic Progressive Aphasia; Primary Progressive Aphasia; Visuospatial/Perceptual Abilities; Posterior Cortical Atrophy; Executive Dysfunction; Corticobasal Degeneration; Ideomotor Apraxia

  14. Genetics Home Reference: early-onset primary dystonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as seizures or a loss of intellectual function (dementia). Early-onset primary dystonia does not affect a person's intelligence. ... Diagnosis & Management Resources Genetic Testing (1 link) ... Isolated Dystonia MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Movement - uncontrolled or slow ...

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based, randomized controlled intervention trial, we examined whether intervention-induced reductions in ADHD symptoms at age 9 mediated the reduced risk of tobacco use onset among these children at age 10...

  16. Normal gastric antral myoelectrical activity in early onset anorexia nervosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Ravelli, A M; Helps, B. A.; Devane, S P; Lask, B. D.; Milla, P J

    1993-01-01

    Anorexia, epigastric discomfort, nausea, and vomiting may result from disordered gastric motility and emptying. These features have been found in many adults with anorexia nervosa, but have never been investigated in early onset anorexia nervosa. In 14 patients with early onset anorexia nervosa (eight of whom had upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms), six children with other eating disorders, four children with non-ulcer dyspepsia, and 10 controls matched for age and sex, the non-invasive te...

  17. Differential Patterns of Risk Factors for Early-Onset Breast Cancer by ER Status in African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Kimberly A; Bethea, Traci N; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R

    2017-02-01

    Given the disproportionately high incidence of early-onset breast cancer and aggressive subtypes, such as estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors, in African American (AA) women, elucidation of risk factors for early onset of specific subtypes of breast cancer is needed. We evaluated associations of reproductive, anthropometric, and other factors with incidence of invasive breast cancer by age at onset (breast cancers among women parity, older age at first birth, never having breastfed, and abdominal adiposity were associated with increased risk of early-onset ER- breast cancer: HRs were 1.71 for ≥3 births versus one birth; 2.29 for first birth after age 25 versus cancer in older women or with ER+ cancer regardless of age. Differences in risk factors by ER subtype were observed for breast cancer diagnosed before the age of 45 years. Etiological heterogeneity by tumor subtype in early-onset breast cancer, in combination with a higher prevalence of the risk factors in AA women, may explain, in part, racial disparities in breast cancer incidence. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(2); 270-7. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Complications of growth-sparing surgery in early onset scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarnia, Behrooz A; Emans, John B

    2010-12-01

    Review of available literature, authors' opinion. To describe complications associated with growth-sparing surgical treatment of early onset scoliosis (EOS). EOS has many potential etiologies and is often associated with thoracic insufficiency syndrome. The growth of the spine, thorax, and lungs are interrelated, and severe EOS typically involves disturbance of the normal development of all 3. Severe EOS may be treated during growth with surgical techniques, intended to preserve growth while controlling deformity, the most common of which are spinal "growing rods" (GR) or "vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib" (VEPTR). Although presently popular, there is minimal long-term data on the outcome of growth-sparing surgical techniques on EOS. Review. Potential adverse outcomes of GR or VEPTR treatment of EOS include failure to prevent progressive deformity or thoracic insufficiency syndrome, an unacceptably short or stiff spine or deformed thorax, increased family burden of care, and potentially negative psychological consequences from repeated surgical interventions. Neither technique reliably controls all deformity over the entirety of growth period. Infections are common to both GR and VEPTR. Rod breakage and spontaneous premature spinal fusion beneath rods are troublesome complications in GR, whereas drift of rib attachments and chest wall scarring are anticipated complications in VEPTR treatment. Indications for GR and VEPTR overlap, but thoracogenic scoliosis and severe upper thoracic kyphosis are best treated by VEPTR and GR, respectively. Surgeons planning treatment of EOS should anticipate the many complications common to growth-sparing surgery, share their knowledge with families, and use complications as one factor in the complex decision as to when and whether to initiate the repetitive surgeries associated with GR or VEPTR in the treatment of severe EOS.

  19. Fatal early-onset neonatal sepsis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallusamy, R

    1998-12-01

    Two cases of invasive early-onset neonatal pneumococcal sepsis are reported. One neonate was born at term with no risk factors and the other preterm at 35 weeks. Sepsis was not detected at birth for either of these babies and diagnosis was made at the stage of severe sepsis. A fatal outcome resulted despite treatment. Pneumococcal sepsis was confirmed after death in both these cases. Although maternal carriage was not documented in either case, the ages at presentation and progression suggested perinatal acquisition of infection. Early onset neonatal pneumococcal sepsis presents similarly as early onset neonatal Group B streptococcal (GBS) sepsis. Vaginal carriage of pneumococcus is rare but the micro-organism may have a higher invasion to colonisation ratio (attack rate) than GBS. Risk factors for invasive disease are similar to GBS.

  20. Early-onset type 2 diabetes in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Eduardo; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Rull-Rodrigo, Juan Antonio

    2002-06-01

    This review summarizes the clinical, metabolic and genetic characteristics of early-onset type 2 diabetes in Mexico. Early-onset type 2 diabetes is both a clinical challenge and a public health problem. It is calculated that almost 300,000 Mexican diabetics are diagnosed between the ages of 20 and 40. The large Mexican family structure and the high prevalence of the disease provide a unique opportunity to identify the genes and the metabolic abnormalities involved in this form of the disease. In a hospital-based population, our group found that insulin deficiency was the main defect in this form of diabetes. Mutations in the NHF-1 alpha or HNF-4 alpha genes or autoimmunity to the beta cell were found in a small proportion of cases, leaving unexplained the majority of cases. Also discussed are the epidemiologic and therapeutic implications of early-onset type 2 diabetes, and the possible role of genetic testing for prevention.

  1. Markers of neurodevelopmental impairments in early-onset psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petruzzelli MG

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Maria Giuseppina Petruzzelli,1 Lucia Margari,1 Francesco Craig,1 Maria Gloria Campa,1 Domenico Martinelli,2 Adriana Pastore,3 Marta Simone,1 Francesco Margari3 1Child and Adolescence Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University “Aldo Moro” of Bari, 2Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences; University of Foggia, Foggia, 3Psychiatry Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organ, University “Aldo Moro” of Bari, Bari, Italy Background: The aim of this study was to assess the association between the clinical and neurobiological markers of neurodevelopmental impairments and early-onset schizophrenia spectrum psychosis. Methods: A sample of 36 patients with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum psychosis was compared to a control sample of 36 patients with migraine. We assessed early childhood neurodevelopmental milestones using a modified version of the General Developmental Scale, general intellectual ability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Revised or Leiter International Performance Scale–Revised for patients with speech and language abnormalities, and neurological soft signs with specific regard to subtle motor impairment. Results: Subjects with early-onset psychosis had a higher rate of impaired social development (P=0.001, learning difficulties (P=0.04, enuresis (P=0.0008, a lower intelligence quotient (P<0.001, and subtle motor impairments (P=0.005 than control subjects. Conclusion: We suggest that neurodevelopment in early-onset psychosis is characterized by a global impairment of functional and adaptive skills that manifests from early childhood, rather than a delay or limitation in language and motor development. The current evidence is based on a small sample and should be investigated in larger samples in future research. Keywords: early-onset psychosis, early-onset schizophrenia, neurodevelopment, social cognition

  2. Novel Therapy for the Treatment of Early-Onset Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornaghi, Sara; Paidas, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder affecting 2% to 8% of pregnancies and a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent investigations have improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of this potentially life-threatening disease, especially in its early-onset form of manifestation. Despite these advances, therapeutic options are still limited and no effective pharmacologic interventions are currently available. Ongoing lines of research indicate some potential novel treatments targeting specific pathogenic steps. In this article we provide an updated overview of the multiple therapeutic approaches under preclinical and clinical assessment for the treatment of early-onset preeclampsia.

  3. Severe early onset ethylmalonic encephalopathy with West syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papetti, Laura; Garone, Giacomo; Schettini, Livia; Giordano, Carla; Nicita, Francesco; Papoff, Paola; Zeviani, Massimo; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Spalice, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early onset encephalopathy, chronic diarrhoea, petechiae, orthostatic acrocyanosis and defective cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in muscle and brain. High levels of lactic, ethylmalonic and methylsuccinic acids are detected in body fluids. EE is caused by mutations in ETHE1 gene, a mitochondrial sulfur dioxygenase. Neurologic signs and symptoms include progressively delayed development, hypotonia, seizures, and abnormal movements. We report on the clinical, electroencephalographic and MRI findings of a baby with a severe early onset encephalopathy associated with novel ETHE1 gene mutation. This is the first case described in literature with an early pure epileptic onset, presenting with West syndrome.

  4. Early onset pregnancy induced hypertension/eclampsia in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregnancy induced hypertension/eclampsia is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. There have been very few studies focussed on early onset pregnancy induced hypertension/eclampsia in Nigerian women To determine the incidence, clinical features and outcome of cases of early ...

  5. LRBA deficiency with autoimmunity and early onset chronic erosive polyarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, Eva; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Bruneau, Julie; Breton, Sylvain; Neven, Bénédicte; Sauvion, Sylvie; Zarhrate, Mohammed; Nitschké, Patrick; Fischer, Alain; Magérus-Chatinet, Aude; Quartier, Pierre; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric

    2016-07-01

    LRBA (lipopolysaccharide-responsive and beige-like anchor protein) deficiency associates immune deficiency, lymphoproliferation, and various organ-specific autoimmunity. To date, prevalent symptoms are autoimmune cytopenias and enteropathy, and lymphocytic interstitial lung disease. In 2 siblings from a consanguineous family presenting with early onset polyautoimmunity, we presumed autosomal recessive inheritance and performed whole exome sequencing. We herein report the first case of early-onset, severe, chronic polyarthritis associated with LRBA deficiency. A novel 1bp insertion in the LRBA gene, abolishing protein expression, was identified in this family. Among the 2 brothers homozygous for LRBA mutation, one developed Evans syndrome and deceased at age 8.5 from complications of severe autoimmune thrombocytopenia. His brother, who carried the same homozygous LRBA mutation, early-onset erosive polyarthritis associated with chronic, bilateral, anterior uveitis and early onset type 1 diabetes mellitus. This report widens the clinical spectrum of LRBA deficiency and, in lights of the variable phenotypes described so far, prompts us to screen for this disease in patients with multiple autoimmune symptoms in the family, including severe, erosive, polyarticular juvenile arthritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Familial risk assessment for early-onset coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuner, Maren T; Whitworth, William C; McGruder, Henraya; Yoon, Paula W; Khoury, Muin J

    2006-08-01

    We examined the performance of a familial risk assessment method that stratifies risk for early-onset coronary heart disease by considering the number of relatives with coronary disease, degree of relationship, lineage, and age at diagnosis. By using data from the HealthStyles 2003 survey, we assessed the associations between familial risk and early-onset coronary heart disease, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and obesity. By using area under the curve statistics, we evaluated the discriminatory ability of various risk assessment models. Of 4,035 respondents, 60% were female and 72% were white, with a mean age of 48.8 years. After adjustment for demographics, strong and moderate risk were significantly associated with approximately a five- and twofold risk of early-onset coronary disease, respectively. After adjustment for demographics and personal history of cardiovascular disease, strong familial risk was also significantly associated with diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and obesity. A risk assessment model that included familial risk, demographics, and personal history of diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and obesity was most optimal with an area under the curve statistic of 87.2% Familial risk assessment can stratify risk for early-onset coronary heart disease. Several conditions associated with increased familial risk can be prevented. These results have important implications for risk assessment and risk-reducing interventions.

  7. Early-onset stargardt disease: phenotypic and genotypic characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambertus, S.; Huet, R.A.C. van; Bax, N.M.; Hoefsloot, L.H.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Boon, C.J.F.; Klevering, B.J.; Hoyng, C.B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the phenotype and genotype of patients with early-onset Stargardt disease. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-one Stargardt patients with age at onset

  8. Operational Thought in Alzheimer's Disease Early Onset and SDAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Olga B.; Breslau, Lawrence D.

    For more than a decade it has been convention to assume that senile dementia Alzheimer's type (SDAT) and Alzheimer's disease early onset represent a unitary disease process with only an onset difference. This assumption has been neither confirmed nor disconfirmed. To address this issue, a study was conducted which analyzed the dissolution of…

  9. Early-Onset Psychosis in Youth with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, R. I.; Donnelly, T.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of psychotic disorders may be very difficult in youth with intellectual disabilities. The authors reviewed the assessment, treatment and follow-up of 21 youths with ID referred because of early onset of psychotic symptoms. Just over one half of the patients had a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder. One third…

  10. Is prophylaxis of early-onset group B streptococcal disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) disease in neonates can be prevented by the use of intrapartum chemoprophylaxis. There are two prevention strategies, one based on risk factors and the other on culture screening for GBS. This study sought to establish whether GBS chemoprophylaxis is appropriate ...

  11. Functional neuroimaging in early-onset anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lask, Bryan; Gordon, Isky; Christie, Deborah; Frampton, Ian; Chowdhury, Uttom; Watkins, Beth

    2005-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies in early-onset anorexia nervosa provide evidence of limbic system dysfunction. The current study adds support to the possibility by revealing a significant association between unilateral reduction of blood flow in the temporal region and impaired visuospatial ability, impaired visual memory, and enhanced speed of information processing. 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Neurocognition in Early-Onset Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Frazier, Jean A.; Findling, Robert L.; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We examined the neuropsychological functioning of youth enrolled in the NIMH funded trial, Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). We compared the baseline neuropsychological functioning of youth with schizophrenia (SZ, n = 79) to those with schizoaffective disorder (SA, n = 40), and examined the relationship…

  13. Loss of the chromatin modifier Kdm2aa causes BrafV600E-independent spontaneous melanoma in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Scahill

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available KDM2A is a histone demethylase associated with transcriptional silencing, however very little is known about its in vivo role in development and disease. Here we demonstrate that loss of the orthologue kdm2aa in zebrafish causes widespread transcriptional disruption and leads to spontaneous melanomas at a high frequency. Fish homozygous for two independent premature stop codon alleles show reduced growth and survival, a strong male sex bias, and homozygous females exhibit a progressive oogenesis defect. kdm2aa mutant fish also develop melanomas from early adulthood onwards which are independent from mutations in braf and other common oncogenes and tumour suppressors as revealed by deep whole exome sequencing. In addition to effects on translation and DNA replication gene expression, high-replicate RNA-seq in morphologically normal individuals demonstrates a stable regulatory response of epigenetic modifiers and the specific de-repression of a group of zinc finger genes residing in constitutive heterochromatin. Together our data reveal a complex role for Kdm2aa in regulating normal mRNA levels and carcinogenesis. These findings establish kdm2aa mutants as the first single gene knockout model of melanoma biology.

  14. Genetic Determinism of Primary Early-Onset Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aury-Landas, Juliette; Marcelli, Christian; Leclercq, Sylvain; Boumédiene, Karim; Baugé, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease worldwide. A minority of cases correspond to familial presentation characterized by early-onset forms which are genetically heterogeneous. This review brings a new point of view on the molecular basis of OA by focusing on gene mutations causing early-onset OA (EO-OA). Recently, thanks to whole-exome sequencing, a gain-of-function mutation in the TNFRSF11B gene was identified in two distant family members with EO-OA, opening new therapeutic perspectives for OA. Indeed, unraveling the molecular basis of rare Mendelian OA forms will improve our understanding of molecular processes involved in OA pathogenesis and will contribute to better patient diagnosis, management, and therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Familial early onset sarcoidosis with bone cysts and erosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, Norbert; Max, Regina; Lorenz, Hanns-Martin [University of Heidelberg, Department of Internal Medicine V, Division of Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); Autschbach, Frank [University of Heidelberg, Department of Pathology, Heidelberg (Germany); Libicher, Martin [University of Cologne, Department of Radiology, Cologne (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    Early onset sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease which is characterized by synovitis, polyarthritis, skin and eye involvement. We report the skeletal features of one patient with a family history and clinical symptoms suggestive of early onset sarcoidosis (EOS) which was confirmed by skin biopsy. Radiographs reveal postarthritic deformities of the MCP joints, contractures, a coarsened trabecular pattern at the PIP joints and small bone cysts resembling osteitis cystoides multiplex. Similar lesions were described in radiographs of the older sister and an uncle of our patient. This is the first report demonstrating bone cysts and erosions which could be a diagnostic feature in this rare disease and may help to differentiate other rheumatoid disorders. (orig.)

  16. Risk Assessment in Neonatal Early-Onset Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sagori; Puopolo, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of neonatal early-onset sepsis has declined with the widespread use of intrapartum antibiotic therapies, yet early-onset sepsis remains a potentially fatal condition, particularly among very low-birth weight infants. Clinical signs of neonatal infection are non-specific and may be absent in the immediate postnatal period. Maternal and infant clinical characteristics, as well as infant laboratory values, have been used to identify newborns at risk, and to administer empiric antibiotic therapy to prevent progression to more severe illness. Such approaches result in the evaluation of approximately 15% of asymptomatic term and late preterm infants and of nearly all preterm infants. The development of multivariate predictive models may provide more accurate methods of identifying newborns at highest risk and allow for more limited newborn antibiotic exposures. PMID:23177799

  17. Early-onset androgenetic alopecia and endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Guarrera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenetic alopecia (AGA is the most common acquired non scarring alopecia in humans caused by androgen hormones in the setting of a genetic predisposition. Usually AGA starts after puberty, but recently it has been observed also in adolescents. Their mean age was 13 years with a slight prevalence in males. The premature AGA may be caused by environmental, alimentary (meat and milk or cosmetics overexposure to sexual hormones or to endocrine disrupters (EDs. EDs are "exogenous substances that interfere with the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, action, or elimination of natural hormones in the body causing adverse effects to human health" and they are able bind to the steroid hormone receptors. Early onset AGA may be linked to the well known phenomenon of early puberty caused in some cases by hormones contained in food or by environmental chemicals. Therefore it is likely that the EDs may play a role also in the pathogenesis of early-onset AGA.

  18. Early Onset Marfan Syndrome: Atypical Clinical Presentation of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozyurt Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Early onset Marfan Syndrome (eoMFS is a rare, severe form of Marfan Syndrome (MFS. The disease has a poor prognosis and most patients present with resistance to heart failure treatment during the newborn period. This report presents two cases of eoMFS with similar clinical features diagnosed in the newborn period and who died at an early age due to the complications related to the involvement of the cardiovascular system.

  19. Whole Exome Analysis of Early Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    variants of significant effect contributing to AD risk, however, with the advent of new genomic technologies such as high-throughput sequencing... technology , small family aggregates and isolated cases, particularly those with an extreme phenotype of the disorder (such as early onset) can be used . Thus... dementia and age at onset (AAO) among these individuals. For this study, we examined well-characterized EOAD families using WES to discover AD risk

  20. Early-onset dementias: diagnostic and etiological considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Masellis, Mario; Sherborn, Kayla; Neto, Pedro Rosa; Sadovnick, Dessa A; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek R.; Black, Sandra E.; Prasad, Sadhana; Williams, Meghan; Gauthier, Serge

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the body of literature about early-onset dementia (EOD) that led to recommendations from the Fourth Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia. A broader differential diagnosis is required for EOD compared with late-onset dementia. Delays in diagnosis are common, and the social impact of EOD requires special care teams. The etiologies underlying EOD syndromes should take into account family history and comorbid diseases, such as cerebrovascu...

  1. Intraspinal anomalies in early-onset idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, E A C; Oxenham, M; Lam, K S

    2017-06-01

    In the United Kingdom, lower incidences of intraspinal abnormalities in patients with early onset idiopathic scoliosis have been observed than in studies in other countries. We aimed to determine the rates of these abnormalities in United Kingdom patients diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis before the age of 11 years. This retrospective study of patients attending an urban scoliosis clinic identified 71 patients satisfying a criteria of: clinical diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis; age of onset ten years and 11 months or less; MRI screening for intraspinal abnormalities. United Kingdom census data combined with patient referral data was used to calculate incidence. Mean age at diagnosis was six years with 39 right-sided and 32 left-sided curves. Four patients (5.6%) were found to have intraspinal abnormalities on MRI. These consisted of: two combined Arnold-Chiari type 1 malformations with syrinx; one syrinx with a low lying conus; and one isolated syrinx. Overall annual incidence of early onset idiopathic scoliosis was one out of 182 000 (0.0006%). This study reports the lowest rates to date of intraspinal anomalies in patients with early onset idiopathic scoliosis, adding to knowledge regarding current incidences of these abnormalities as well as any geographical variation in the nature of the disease. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:829-33. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  2. Blau syndrome mutation of CARD15/NOD2 in sporadic early onset granulomatous arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosé, Carlos D; Doyle, Trudy M; McIlvain-Simpson, Gail; Coffman, Jessica E; Rosenbaum, James T; Davey, Michael P; Martin, Tammy M

    2005-02-01

    Patients with sporadic early-onset granulomatous arthritis are clinically identical to Blau syndrome, but without the family history. Blau syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited disease and is known to be caused by mutations in the CARD15 gene (also called NOD2). We investigated the hypothesis that an individual with sporadic early onset granulomatous arthritis may have a Blau syndrome mutation in CARD15/NOD2. Our patient's genomic DNA isolated from a buccal swab sample was subjected to amplification to include the region of exon 4 from the CARD15/NOD2 gene that contains known mutations that cause Blau syndrome. This region was screened for mutations by direct DNA sequencing in both directions. One of the mutations in CARD15/NOD2 attributed to Blau syndrome was found in the DNA sample. The nucleotide change encodes an amino acid substitution from arginine to tryptophan at position 334 of the protein. This mutation has been found in some Blau syndrome pedigrees reported in the literature. These data suggest that sporadic granulomatous arthritis may in fact be the sporadic form of Blau syndrome, but arising from a spontaneous neomutation. This would explain the profound clinical identity and the lack of disease history in the parents.

  3. Early onset obsessive-compulsive disorder with and without tics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mathis, Maria Alice; Diniz, Juliana B; Shavitt, Roseli G; Torres, Albina R; Ferrão, Ygor A; Fossaluza, Victor; Pereira, Carlos; Miguel, Eurípedes; do Rosario, Maria Conceicão

    2009-07-01

    Research suggests that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is not a unitary entity, but rather a highly heterogeneous condition, with complex and variable clinical manifestations. The aims of this study were to compare clinical and demographic characteristics of OCD patients with early and late age of onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS); and to compare the same features in early onset OCD with and without tics. The independent impact of age at onset and presence of tics on comorbidity patterns was investigated. Three hundred and thirty consecutive outpatients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for OCD were evaluated: 160 patients belonged to the "early onset" group (EOG): before 11 years of age, 75 patients had an "intermediate onset" (IOG), and 95 patients were from the "late onset" group (LOG): after 18 years of age. From the 160 EOG, 60 had comorbidity with tic disorders. The diagnostic instruments used were: the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS), Yale Global Tics Severity Scale, and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-patient edition. Statistical tests used were: Mann-Whitney, full Bayesian significance test, and logistic regression. The EOG had a predominance of males, higher frequency of family history of OCS, higher mean scores on the "aggression/violence" and "miscellaneous" dimensions, and higher mean global DY-BOCS scores. Patients with EOG without tic disorders presented higher mean global DY-BOCS scores and higher mean scores in the "contamination/cleaning" dimension. The current results disentangle some of the clinical overlap between early onset OCD with and without tics.

  4. INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE WITH A VERY EARLY ONSET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Kornienko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis has a tendency to manifest at earlier age. In childhood (< 6 years of age it has an especially severe course and is characterized by high grade inflammation, predominantly in the colon, by complication and extra-intestinal autoimmune injury. At younger age, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis require more aggressive treatment with frequently poor results. From genetic point of view, monogenic mutations controlling the immune response are characteristic for these diseases with an early onset; therefore, they are frequently associated with primary immunodeficiency. This implies various immunologic deficits, such as breakdown of the epithelial barrier, phagocytic dysfunction and dysfunction of Т and В lymphocytes and regulatory Т cells. Depending on this, a number of primary immunodeficiencies are identified associated with monogenic mutations of more than 50 genes. There some age-related specific features at manifestation. Thus, defects in interleukin 10 and FOXP3 manifest in the first months of life, whereas severe combined immunodeficiencies and phagocytosis defects become evident somewhat later. Virtually all 24 children with very early onset of inflammatory bowel disease, whom we examined, had immunologic defects and one child had a XIAP gene mutation. After identification of a specific immunologic defect, one can understand the mechanism of the disease and suspect one or another genetic defect with subsequent reasonable assessment of mutations in candidate genes. Detection of immunologic and genetic defects in children with a very early onset of inflammatory bowel disease allows for choosing an adequate strategy of non-conventional treatment that may differ depending on the mechanism of the disease.

  5. Early-onset anorexia nervosa in girls with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudova I

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Iva Dudova, Jana Kocourkova, Jiri Koutek Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Eating disorders frequently occur in conjunction with autism spectrum disorders, posing diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. The comorbidity of anorexia nervosa and Asperger syndrome is a significant clinical complication and has been associated with a poorer prognosis. The authors are presenting the cases of an eleven-year-old girl and a five-and-a-half-year-old girl with comorbid eating disorders and Asperger syndrome. Keywords: eating disorders, early-onset anorexia nervosa, autism spectrum disorders, Asperger syndrome, diagnostics, therapy

  6. Early onset neonatal sepsis: diagnostic dilemmas and practical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford Russell, A R; Kumar, R

    2015-07-01

    Early onset neonatal sepsis is persistently associated with poor outcomes, and incites clinical practice based on the fear of missing a treatable infection in a timely fashion. Unnecessary exposure to antibiotics is also hazardous. Diagnostic dilemmas are discussed in this review, and suggestions offered for practical management while awaiting a more rapidly available 'gold standard' test; in an ideal world, this test would be 100% sensitive and 100% specific for the presence of organisms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Early Onset Childhood Obesity and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-10-09

    This podcast features Lorena Pacheco, a doctoral student at the University of California San Diego and one of the winners of PCD’s 2017 Student Research Paper Contest. Lorena answers questions about her winning research, which focuses on the relationship between early onset obesity as a risk factor for increased metabolic syndrome in Chilean children.  Created: 10/9/2017 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/9/2017.

  8. Atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of early-onset schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrdlicka M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Michal Hrdlicka, Iva Dudova Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs have been successfully used in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS. This review summarizes the randomized, double-blind, controlled studies of AAPs in EOS, including clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, aripiprazole, paliperidone, quetiapine, and ziprasidone. No significant differences in efficacy between AAPs were found, with the exception of clozapine and ziprasidone. Clozapine demonstrated superior efficacy in treatment-resistant patients with EOS, whereas ziprasidone failed to demonstrate efficacy in the treatment of EOS. Our review also focuses on the onset of action and weight gain associated with AAPs. The data on onset of action of AAPs in pediatric psychiatry are scanty and inconsistent. Olanzapine appears to cause the most significant weight gain in patients with EOS, while ziprasidone and aripiprazole seem to cause the least. Keywords: early-onset schizophrenia, atypical antipsychotics, efficacy, onset of action, weight gain

  9. The genetics of very early onset Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filley, Christopher M; Rollins, Yvonne D; Anderson, C Alan; Arciniegas, David B; Howard, Katherine L; Murrell, Jill R; Boyer, Philip J; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, Belte K; Ghetti, Bernardino

    2007-09-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify the genetics of very early onset Alzheimer disease (VEOAD), defined as AD beginning before age 35. Early onset AD (EOAD) is defined by onset of symptoms before age 65, and affected individuals may harbor a mutation in presenilin 1 (PSEN1), presenilin 2 (PSEN2), or amyloid precursor protein. VEOAD is exceedingly rare, and PSEN1 mutations have been implicated. We encountered a man with phenotypic frontotemporal dementia beginning at age 32 and a strong family history of an autosomal dominant dementia who was found at autopsy to have AD. Histologic and genetic analyses of the patient's brain were undertaken, and a review of all published VEOAD cases was performed. Histologic findings were diagnostic of advanced stage AD. Genetic evaluation of brain tissue identified an intronic PSEN1 polymorphism; no known pathogenic mutation was found. Literature review (1934 to 2007) disclosed 101 cases of VEOAD; the youngest age of dementia onset was 24 years. In all cases in which definitive genetic analysis was available, either a PSEN1 mutation or linkage to chromosome 14 was found. VEOAD can present with atypical clinical features, including findings suggestive of frontotemporal dementia. All reported cases of VEOAD with conclusive genetic analysis seem to be associated with PSEN1 mutations. Genetic testing in adults younger than 35 with dementia can identify the genetic defect and assist in diagnosis and family counseling.

  10. The External Limiting Membrane in Early-Onset Stargardt Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Winston; Nõupuu, Kalev; Oll, Maris; Duncker, Tobias; Burke, Tomas; Zernant, Jana; Bearelly, Srilaxmi; Tsang, Stephen H.; Sparrow, Janet R.; Allikmets, Rando

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To describe pathologic changes of the external limiting membrane (ELM) in young patients with early-onset Stargardt (STGD1) disease. Methods. Twenty-six STGD1 patients aged younger than 20 years with confirmed disease-causing adenosine triphosphate–binding cassette, subfamily A, member 4 (ABCA4) alleles and 30 age-matched unaffected individuals were studied. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), fundus autofluorescence (AF), and color fundus photography (CFP) images, as well as full-field electroretinograms were obtained and analyzed for one to four visits in each patient. Results. The ELM in all patients exhibited a distinct thickening that was not observed in unaffected individuals. In addition, accumulations of reflective deposits were noted in the outer nuclear layer in every patient. Four patients exhibited a concave protuberance or bulging of a thickened and hyperreflective ELM band within the fovea containing preserved photoreceptors. Longitudinal SD-OCT data in several patients revealed the persistence of this ELM abnormality over a period of time (1–4 years). Furthermore, the edges of the inner segment ellipsoid band appeared to recede earlier than the ELM band in active lesions. Conclusions. Structural changes seen in the ELM of this cohort may reflect a gliotic response to cellular stress at the photoreceptor level in early-onset STGD1. PMID:25139735

  11. [Early-onset eating disorders: a review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, I; Simons, A; Glazemakers, I; Van West, D

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of anorexia nervosa (AN) in adolescents has increased significantly in recent years. In several studies and in the media it has been suggested that AN has recently become more prevalent in the pre-adolescence. In view of the impact that an eating disorder can have on a child, it is important to diagnose and start treating the illness as early as possible. To review the literature on the characteristics and susceptibilities of patients with eating disorders because this information can be important for early diagnosis, prevention and identification of susceptibilities to early-onset eating disorders. We searched the literature for articles relating to early-onset eating disorders. We based our search on PubMed and on related relevant articles listed in the references. We selected 34 relevant articles published between 1987 and 2014. The literature lists characteristics and susceptibilities at various levels. Many types of factors are involved; examples of 'biological' factors are prior streptococcal infection, previous consultations with GP and a patients medical history; psychological factors include comorbidity, temperament, a particular personality profile, maturation-anxiety; environmental factors such as family history, family functioning and/or stressful events can play a role in the development of eating disorders. CONCLUSION The literature indicates that the early development of AN in children is related to a complex combination of etiological factors. However, there is a need for more research into this group of patients.

  12. Early onset of treatment effects with oral risperidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naber Dieter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dogma of a delayed onset of antipsychotic treatment effects has been maintained over the past decades. However, recent studies have challenged this concept. We therefore performed an analysis of the onset of antipsychotic treatment effects in a sample of acutely decompensated patients with schizophrenia. Methods In this observational study, 48 inpatients with acutely decompensated schizophrenia were offered antipsychotic treatment with oral risperidone. PANSS-ratings were obtained on day 0, day 1, day 3, day 7 and day 14. Results Significant effects of treatment were already present on day 1 and continued throughout the study. The PANSS positive subscore and the PANSS total score improved significantly more than the PANSS negative subscore. Conclusion Our results are consistent with the growing number of studies suggesting an early onset of antipsychotic treatment effects. However, non-pharmacological effects of treatment also need to be taken into consideration.

  13. Assessment, Management, and Health Implications of Early-Onset Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Cathi; Boyd, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Early-onset preeclampsia is a serious condition of pregnancy with the potential for adverse maternal and fetal health outcomes. A strong body of evidence supports the need for postpartum follow-up and health counseling, because these women and their offspring are at risk for future cardiovascular disease; nurses play a key role in this education. An understanding of the diagnosis, risk screening for, pathogenesis, and management of severe preeclampsia and its sequelae, such as intrauterine growth restriction and pulmonary edema, enables nurses to develop a comprehensive plan of care that will support women and their families through this challenging and dynamic complication of pregnancy. © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  14. Expanding the definition of a positive family history for early-onset coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuner, Maren T; Whitworth, William C; McGruder, Henraya; Yoon, Paula W; Khoury, Muin J

    2006-08-01

    Assessing familial risk for early-onset coronary heart disease (CHD) is typically limited to first-degree relatives with early-onset CHD. To evaluate the impact of additional family history, we examined the associations between various family history definitions and early-onset CHD. By using the national HealthStyles 2003 survey data, we assessed associations between self-reported family history and personal history of early-onset CHD (diagnosed at or before age 60 years), adjusting for demographics, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and obesity. Of 4,035 respondents, 60% were female and 72% were white, with a mean age of 48.8 years; 4.4% had early-onset CHD. In addition to having at least one first-degree relative with early-onset CHD, other significant associations included having at least one first-degree relative with late-onset CHD, at least one second-degree relative with early-onset CHD, and two or more affected second-degree relatives regardless of age of onset of CHD. Early-onset stroke in at least one first-degree relative and, in women, having at least one first-degree relative with diabetes were also significantly associated with early-onset CHD. Family history beyond early-onset CHD in first-degree relatives is significantly associated with prevalent CHD diagnosed at or before age 60 years.

  15. Spontaneous abdominal hemorrhage with AA-amyloidosis and vasculitis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardene, S A; Sheerin, N; Pattison, J M; Hartley, B; Goldsmith, D J

    2001-04-01

    Both rheumatoid vasculitis and amyloidosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are uncommon. We describe a patient in whom they occurred together and were associated with fatal intra-abdominal hemorrhage. A 56-year-old Caucasian woman was referred because of increasing lethargy, edema, and proteinuria. She had suffered from seropositive, erosive, nodular RA for 14 years. Previously, she had undergone numerous joint replacements, a thyroidectomy for amyloid-associated (AA) amyloidosis of the thyroid that caused a large goiter and a renal biopsy that showed renal AA-amyloidosis in the context of nephrotic syndrome. As her condition deteriorated, this patient became increasingly reluctant to go to the hospital and to take drugs beyond analgesics. Thus, her RA was chronically under treated. While in the hospital for evaluation, this patient suddenly developed hypotension, tachycardia, and a severe colicky left-sided abdominal pain radiating from the left upper quadrant/epigastric region to the left iliac fossa. Computed tomography (CT) showed a large amount of echogenic free fluid within the abdomen and marked thickening of the omentum. At laparotomy, 2 liters of free blood was found adjacent to a hematoma of the greater omentum, and it was evacuated without identification of a discrete bleeding point. All solid and hollow organs were normal. The omentum was noted to be very friable. She developed a more disseminated bleeding diathesis and persistent peritoneal hemorrhage via her abdominal drains. She succumbed shortly afterward. Histology revealed extensive omental hemorrhage and one large vessel within the area of hemorrhage showed a severe necrotizing vasculitis. Extensive amyloid deposition was also found within the walls of the smaller omental arterioles. Vasculitis in the context of RA is relatively rare and is associated with under treated, seropositive disease. Skin and nerve involvement are most common, but bowel involvement has been reported, with a highly

  16. Key Goals and Indicators for Successful Aging of Adults with Early-onset Disability

    OpenAIRE

    LaPlante, Mitchell P.

    2013-01-01

    Substantial improvements have occurred in the longevity of several groups of individuals with early-onset disabilities, with many now surviving to advanced ages. This paper estimates the population of adults aging with early-onset disabilities at 12-15 million persons. Key goals for the successful aging of adults with early-onset disabilities are discussed, emphasizing reduction in risks for aging-related chronic disease and secondary conditions, while promoting social participation and indep...

  17. Early Onset Alzheimer’s Disease and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Meraz-Ríos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common cause of dementia in elderly adults. It is estimated that 10% of the world’s population aged more than 60–65 years could currently be affected by AD, and that in the next 20 years, there could be more than 30 million people affected by this pathology. One of the great challenges in this regard is that AD is not just a scientific problem; it is associated with major psychosocial and ethical dilemmas and has a negative impact on national economies. The neurodegenerative process that occurs in AD involves a specific nervous cell dysfunction, which leads to neuronal death. Mutations in APP, PS1, and PS2 genes are causes for early onset AD. Several animal models have demonstrated that alterations in these proteins are able to induce oxidative damage, which in turn favors the development of AD. This paper provides a review of many, although not all, of the mutations present in patients with familial Alzheimer’s disease and the association between some of these mutations with both oxidative damage and the development of the pathology.

  18. Structural brain abnormalities in early onset first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, A K; Baaré, W F C; Raabjerg Christensen, A M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain morphometry in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis offer a unique opportunity for pathogenetic investigations. METHODS: We compared high-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain in 29 patients (schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, delusi...... already at illness onset in young schizophrenia spectrum patients, suggests aberrant neurodevelopmental processes in the pathogenesis of these disorders. Gray matter volume changes, however, appear not to be a key feature in early onset first-episode psychosis.......BACKGROUND: Brain morphometry in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis offer a unique opportunity for pathogenetic investigations. METHODS: We compared high-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain in 29 patients (schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder......, delusional disorder or other non-organic psychosis), aged 10-18 to those of 29 matched controls, using optimized voxel-based morphometry. RESULTS: Psychotic patients had frontal white matter abnormalities, but expected (regional) gray matter reductions were not observed. Post hoc analyses revealed...

  19. Herpes viruses and periodontopathic bacteria in early-onset periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamma, J J; Contreras, A; Slots, J

    2001-09-01

    This study examined the occurrence of human herpes viruses and suspected periodontopathic bacteria in early-onset periodontitis patients who experienced progressive disease in at least 2 periodontal sites during the maintenance phase of therapy. In each of 16 individuals (9 male and 7 female; mean age 33.1+/-2.6 years), subgingival plaque samples were collected from 2 deteriorating and 2 stable periodontitis sites. A nested polymerase chain reaction method determined the presence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), Epstein-Barr virus type 1 (EBV-1) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). A 16s rRNA polymerase chain reaction method identified Porphyromonas gingivalis, Dialister pneumosintes, Bacteroides forsythus and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. HCMV was detected in 59.4% of active and in 12.5% of stable sites (pperiodontitis sites showing herpesvirus co-infection and all but one site showing P. gingivalis and D. pneumosintes co-infection revealed bleeding upon probing. HCMV, EBV-1, HSV and herpesvirus co-infection, as well as P. gingivalis, D. pneumosintes and P. gingivalis-D. pneumosintes co-infection were statistically associated with active periodontitis. Herpesviruses are immunosuppressive and may set the stage for overgrowth of subgingival P. gingivalis, D. pneumosintes and other periodontopathic bacteria. Understanding the significance of herpesviruses in human periodontitis may allow for improved diagnosis, more specific therapy and, ultimately, disease prevention.

  20. HLA region excluded by linkage analyses of early onset periodontitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, C.; Wang, S.; Lopez, N.

    1994-09-01

    Previous studies suggested that HLA genes may influence susceptibility to early-onset periodontitis (EOP). Segregation analyses indicate that EOP may be due to a single major gene. We conducted linkage analyses to assess possible HLA effects on EOP. Fifty families with two or more close relatives affected by EOP were ascertained in Virginia and Chile. A microsatellite polymorphism within the HLA region (at the tumor necrosis factor beta locus) was typed using PCR. Linkage analyses used a donimant model most strongly supported by previous studies. Assuming locus homogeneity, our results exclude a susceptibility gene within 10 cM on either side of our marker locus. This encompasses all of the HLA region. Analyses assuming alternative models gave qualitatively similar results. Allowing for locus heterogeneity, our data still provide no support for HLA-region involvement. However, our data do not statistically exclude (LOD <-2.0) hypotheses of disease-locus heterogeneity, including models where up to half of our families could contain an EOP disease gene located in the HLA region. This is due to the limited power of even our relatively large collection of families and the inherent difficulties of mapping genes for disorders that have complex and heterogeneous etiologies. Additional statistical analyses, recruitment of families, and typing of flanking DNA markers are planned to more conclusively address these issues with respect to the HLA region and other candidate locations in the human genome. Additional results for markers covering most of the human genome will also be presented.

  1. Early-onset arthritis in retired National Football League players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golightly, Yvonne M; Marshall, Stephen W; Callahan, Leigh F; Guskiewicz, Kevin

    2009-09-01

    Injury has been identified as a potential risk factor for osteoarthritis. However, no previous study has addressed playing-career injuries and subsequent osteoarthritis in a large sample of former athletes. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and determinants of arthritis and osteoarthritis in retired professional football players. Self-reported arthritis prevalence and retrospectively-recalled injury history were examined in a cross-sectional survey of 2,538 retired football players. Football players reported a high incidence of injury from their professional playing days (52.8% reported knee injuries, 74.1% reported ligament/tendon injuries, and 14.2% reported anterior cruciate ligament tears). For those under 60 years, 40.6% of retired NFL players reported arthritis, compared with 11.7% of U.S. males (prevalence ratio = 3.5, 95% CI: 3.3 to 3.7). Within the retired NFL player cohort, osteoarthritis was more prevalent in those with a history of knee injury (prevalence ratio = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5 to 1.9) and ligament/tendon injury (prevalence ratio = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4 to 1.9). In males under the age of 60, arthritis is over 3 times more prevalent in retired NFL players than in the general U.S. population. This excess of early-onset arthritis may be due to the high incidence of injury in football.

  2. Early-onset dementias: diagnostic and etiological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masellis, Mario; Sherborn, Kayla; Neto, Pedro; Sadovnick, Dessa A; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek R; Black, Sandra E; Prasad, Sadhana; Williams, Meghan; Gauthier, Serge

    2013-07-31

    This paper summarizes the body of literature about early-onset dementia (EOD) that led to recommendations from the Fourth Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia. A broader differential diagnosis is required for EOD compared with late-onset dementia. Delays in diagnosis are common, and the social impact of EOD requires special care teams. The etiologies underlying EOD syndromes should take into account family history and comorbid diseases, such as cerebrovascular risk factors, that may influence the clinical presentation and age at onset. For example, although many EODs are more likely to have Mendelian genetic and/or metabolic causes, the presence of comorbidities may drive the individual at risk for late-onset dementia to manifest the symptoms at an earlier age, which contributes further to the observed heterogeneity and may confound diagnostic investigation. A personalized medicine approach to diagnosis should therefore be considered depending on the age at onset, clinical presentation, and comorbidities. Genetic counseling and testing as well as specialized biochemical screening are often required, especially in those under the age of 40 and in those with a family history of autosomal dominant or recessive disease. Novel treatments in the drug development pipeline for EOD, such as genetic forms of Alzheimer's disease, should target the specific pathogenic cascade implicated by the mutation or biochemical defect.

  3. Psychosocial impact of early onset dementia among caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália R. S. Kimura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is growing recognition of early onset dementia (EOD as a significant clinical and social problem because of its effects on physical and mental health of people with dementia (PWD and their caregivers. Objective: To analyze the psychosocial impact of EOD in family caregivers. Methods: The study design was qualitative. Nine EOD caregivers (7 women were recruited at a service for Alzheimer's disease and assessed using semi-structured interviews. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze caregivers' reports. Results: Five themes emerged from the narratives: psychological and emotional impact; physical impact; financial and professional impact; social impact and need for support services. The majority of the caregivers of people with EOD perceived their emotional wellbeing as poor or extremely poor. Carers reported poor physical health, which tends to be longer-lasting than mental health problems. Two caregivers had to retire after the disclosure of the dementia diagnosis, and seven reduced their work loads because they had to look after PWD. Preserving the abilities of PWD is essential to maintain their self-esteem, dignity and sense of utility. For the caregivers, interventions and stimulating activities make PWD feel worthwhile and contribute to improving life. Conclusion: The caregivers of people with EOD assume the role of caregiver prematurely and need to balance this activity with other responsibilities. There is a need for more studies of EOD in order to improve understanding of the impact of this disease and to enable development of adequate services for PWD and their caregivers.

  4. Early-Onset Friedreich's Ataxia With Oculomotor Apraxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amene Saghazadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA is a rare autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia which in the majority of cases is associated with a GAA-trinucleotide repeat expansion in the first intron of Frataxin gene located on chromosome 9. The clinical features include progressive gait and limb ataxia, cerebellar dysarthria, neuropathy, optic atrophy, and loss of vibration and proprioception. Ataxia with ocular motor apraxia type 1 (AOA1 is another autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia which is associated with oculomotor apraxia, hypoalbuminaemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Here we describe two siblings (13- and 10-year-old display overlapping clinical features of both early-onset FRDA and AOA1. Almost all of laboratory test (including urinary analysis/culture, biochemistry, peripheral blood smear, C-reactive protein level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate-1h results were within the normal range for both patients. Due to the normal laboratory test results; we concluded that the diagnosis was more likely to be FRDA than AOA1. Therefore, neurologists should bear in mind that clinical presentations of FRDA may vary widely from the classical phenotype of gait and limb ataxia to atypical manifestations such as oculomotor apraxia.

  5. Early-onset metabolic syndrome in mice lacking the intestinal uric acid transporter SLC2A9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBosch, Brian J; Kluth, Oliver; Fujiwara, Hideji; Schürmann, Annette; Moley, Kelle

    2014-08-07

    Excess circulating uric acid, a product of hepatic glycolysis and purine metabolism, often accompanies metabolic syndrome. However, whether hyperuricaemia contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome or is merely a by-product of other processes that cause this disorder has not been resolved. In addition, how uric acid is cleared from the circulation is incompletely understood. Here we present a genetic model of spontaneous, early-onset metabolic syndrome in mice lacking the enterocyte urate transporter Glut9 (encoded by the SLC2A9 gene). Glut9-deficient mice develop impaired enterocyte uric acid transport kinetics, hyperuricaemia, hyperuricosuria, spontaneous hypertension, dyslipidaemia and elevated body fat. Allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, can reverse the hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. These data provide evidence that hyperuricaemia per se could have deleterious metabolic sequelae. Moreover, these findings suggest that enterocytes may regulate whole-body metabolism, and that enterocyte urate metabolism could potentially be targeted to modulate or prevent metabolic syndrome.

  6. The association of with severe early-onset pre-eclampsia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antibodies with early onset of severe pre-eclampsia before ... early-onset severe pre-eclampsia it is unlikely that they are .... HELLP syndrome. 33. 26. 3. 160/120. 12,6. 2,1. Preterm. Severe uncontrollable hypertension. ACA anticardiolipin antibody; LAC. lUpus anticoagulant; IUD - intra·uterine death; HELLP - haemolysis.

  7. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and early onset of cannabis use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, Anja C.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2006-01-01

    Aims To identify early onset cannabis users by measuring basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, which may be a risk factor for early onset substance use when showing low activity. Design In a prospective cohort study, adolescents who initiated cannabis use at an early age (9-12

  8. Clinical correlates of first episode early onset psychosis in KwaZulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The study of first episode early onset psychosis can yield many clues to understanding the early development of psychosis and guide interventions to decrease psychosis risk and improve outcome. The aim of the study was to investigate the socio-demographic profile and clinical correlates in early onset ...

  9. Verbal and Academic Skills in Children with Early-Onset Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Basic verbal and academic skills can be adversely affected by early-onset diabetes, although these skills have been studied less than other cognitive functions. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of learning deficits in children with diabetes by assessing basic verbal and academic skills in children with early-onset diabetes and in…

  10. Child and Adolescent (Early Onset) Schizophrenia: A Review in Light of DSM-III-R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werry, John S.

    1992-01-01

    This review of studies of early onset schizophrenia examines the nosological similarity between adult and early onset schizophrenia, differential diagnosis, treatment, and the extent to which children and adolescents diagnosed as having schizophrenia using adult criteria have the characteristic adult correlates. The paper discusses gender…

  11. Strategy to prevent neonatal early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) disease in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijbels-Smeulders, MAJM; Adriaanse, AH; Gerards, LJ; Kimpen, JLL

    Early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) infection can be prevented by intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. In the USA the effectiveness of this strategy was demonstrated after the introduction of formal guidelines in 1996. In Europe prevention strategies for early-onset GBS infection have not been

  12. Social Status of Adolescents with an Early Onset of Externalizing Behavior: The SNARE Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Aart; Harakeh, Zeena; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the social status (i.e., popularity, likeability, and friendships) of adolescents with an early onset of externalizing behavior (i.e., alcohol use, tobacco use, and antisocial behavior). Building on Moffitt's dual-taxonomy model, it was hypothesized that early onset adolescents were more popular, but not necessarily more…

  13. Early onset cannabis use and progression to other drug use in a sample of Dutch twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynskey, M.T.; Vink, J.M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2006-01-01

    One possible explanation of the commonly reported associations between early onset cannabis use and elevated risks of other illicit drug use is that early onset cannabis use increases access and availability to other drugs. It was this argument that in part motivated policy changes in the

  14. Children with Very Early Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Clinical Features and Treatment Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Eriko; Krebs, Georgina; Micali, Nadia; Turner, Cynthia; Heyman, Isobel; Mataix-Cols, David

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is emerging evidence that early onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be a phenomenologically distinct subtype of the disorder. Previous research has shown that individuals who report an early onset display greater severity and persistence of symptoms, and they may be less responsive to treatment. To date, this question…

  15. Parental and Child Characteristics Related to Early-Onset Disordered Eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    characteristics related to early-onset disordered eating. Systematic searches were conducted in PubMED/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycInfo using the following search terms: eating disorder, disordered eating, problem eating, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating, child, preadolescent, and early onset. Studies...

  16. Follow up of intima-media thickness after severe early-onset preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, Judith; Souwer, Esteban T D; Coffeng, Sophie M; Smit, Andries J; van Doormaal, Jasper J; Faas, Marijke M; van Pampus, Maria G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Early-onset preeclampsia is associated with premature cardiovascular disease. We previously demonstrated that femoral intima-media thickness (IMT) and markers of cardiovascular disease were increased in women 1 year after early-onset preeclampsia. The current study measured (progression

  17. Early Onset Recurrent Subtype of Adolescent Depression: Clinical and Psychosocial Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Herr, Nathaniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Evaluated trajectories of adolescent depression and their correlates in a longitudinal study of a community sample: early onset (by age 15) with major depression (MDE) recurrence between 15 and 20; early onset with no recurrence; later onset of major depression after age 15 with and without recurrence by 20; and never-depressed.…

  18. Early-onset preeclampsia : Constitutional factors and consequences for future pregnancy outcome and cardiovascular health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, B.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304816582

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, maternal constitutional factors related to long-term cardiovascular health and subsequent pregnancy outcome in women with early-onset preeclampsia is addressed. Aims of the thesis: To evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome in women with a first pregnancy complicated by early-onset

  19. Gender effects on brain changes in early-onset psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapado-Castro, Marta; Bartholomeusz, Cali F; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; González-Pinto, Ana; Otero, Soraya; Baeza, Inmaculada; Moreno, Carmen; Graell, Montserrat; Janssen, Joost; Bargalló, Nuria; Pantelis, Christos; Desco, Manuel; Arango, Celso

    2015-10-01

    Progressive loss of cortical gray matter (GM) and increase of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been reported in early-onset psychosis (EOP). EOP typically begins during adolescence, a time when developmental brain trajectories differ by gender. This study aimed to determine gender differences in progression of brain changes in this population. A sample of 61 (21 females) adolescents with a first psychotic episode and a matched sample of 70 (23 females) controls underwent both baseline and 2-year follow-up anatomical brain imaging assessments. Regional GM and CSF volumes were obtained using automated methods based on the Talairach's proportional grid system. At baseline, only male patients showed a clear pattern of alterations in the frontal lobe relative to controls (smaller GM and larger CSF volumes). However, parallel longitudinal changes for male and female patients relative to controls were observed, resulting in a common pattern of brain changes across both genders: rate of left frontal lobe GM volume loss was larger in male (-3.8%) and female patients (-4.2%) than in controls (-0.7% males; -0.4% females). The reverse was found for the CSF volume in the left frontal lobe. While the GM and CSF volumes of females with EOP appear to be within the normal range at initial illness onset, our results point to a similar trajectory of increased/accelerated brain changes in both male and female patients with EOP. The pattern of progression of brain changes in psychosis appears to be independent of gender or structural alterations on appearance of psychotic symptoms.

  20. Reduced systemic microvascular density and reactivity in individuals with early onset coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibirica, Eduardo; Souza, Elaine G; De Lorenzo, Andrea; Oliveira, Glaucia M M

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to test whether patients with early-onset coronary artery disease (EOCAD, n=30) showed systemic microvascular rarefaction and endothelial dysfunction in comparison to age- and sex-matched healthy controls (CTL, n=30), as evaluated by skin video-capillaroscopy. Functional capillary density (FCD) was defined as the number of spontaneously perfused capillaries per square millimeter of skin area and assessed by high-resolution intra-vital color microscopy in the dorsum of the middle phalanx. Capillary recruitment (capillary reserve) was evaluated using post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) after arm ischemia for 3min. The mean capillary density at rest was significantly reduced in patients with EOCAD compared to controls (CTL 95±20 and EOCAD 80±18capillaries/mm(2), P=0.0040). During PORH, capillary density was also markedly reduced in EOCAD patients (CTL 96±18 and EOCAD 71±20capillaries/mm(2), Pmicrovascular endothelial function. Thus, the early detection of these microvascular alterations in young adults at an increased risk of coronary artery disease could be useful as a surrogate marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Deborah; Allen, Victoria M

    2013-10-01

    reduced with induction of labour. (I) There is no evidence to support safe neonatal outcomes with expectant management in this clinical situation. 1. Offer all women screening for colonization with group B streptococcus at 35 to 37 weeks' gestation with culture taken from one swab first to the vagina and then to the rectum (through the anal sphincter). (II-1A) This includes women with planned Caesarean delivery because of their risk of labour or ruptured membranes earlier than the scheduled Caesarean delivery. (II-2B) 2. Because of the association of heavy colonization with early onset neonatal disease, provide intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis for group B streptococcus at the onset of labour or rupture of the membranes to: • any woman positive for group B streptococcus by vaginal/rectal swab culture screening done at 35 to 37 weeks' gestation (II-2B); • any woman with an infant previously infected with group B streptococcus (II-3B); • any woman with documented group B streptococcus bacteriuria (regardless of level of colony-forming units) in the current pregnancy. (II-2A) 3. Manage all women who are disease, administer intravenous group B streptococcus antibiotic prophylaxis. Immediate obstetrical delivery (such as induction of labour) is indicated, as described in the Induction of Labour guideline published by the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologist in September 2013. (II-2B) 7. At ≥ 37 weeks' gestation, if group B streptococcus colonization status is unknown and the 35- to 37-week culture was not performed or the result is unavailable and the membranes have been ruptured for greater than 18 hours, administer intravenous group B streptococcus antibiotic prophylaxis. (II-2B) 8. If a woman with pre-labour rupture of membranes at < 37 weeks' gestation has an unknown or positive group B streptococcus culture status, administer intravenous group B streptococcus prophylaxis for 48 hours, as well as other antibiotics if indicated, while awaiting spontaneous or

  2. Burn injury in patients with early-onset neurological impairments: 2002 ABA paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, N E; Rabbitts, A; Rolls, J A; Bessey, P Q; Yurt, R W

    2004-01-01

    Many patients suffer from sensorimotor deficits that may contribute to burn injury. This retrospective study examines burn injuries in the subgroup of patients that suffer from the early onset neurological impairments of mental retardation, cerebral palsy, spina bifida, autism, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Fifty-one patients who suffered from the above-mentioned early-onset neurological impairments were admitted to our burn center during a 4-year period. The average TBSA burned was 8.9% yet resulted in prolonged hospitalizations. This study describes our burn center's experience in treating patients admitted with early-onset neurological impairments.

  3. Early onset epileptic encephalopathy caused by de novo SCN8A mutations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ohba, Chihiro; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Takahashi, Satoru; Lerman‐Sagie, Tally; Lev, Dorit; Terashima, Hiroshi; Kubota, Masaya; Kawawaki, Hisashi; Matsufuji, Mayumi; Kojima, Yasuko; Tateno, Akihiko; Goldberg‐Stern, Hadassa; Straussberg, Rachel; Marom, Dafna; Leshinsky‐Silver, Esther; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Nishiyama, Kiyomi; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Miyake, Noriko; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Saitsu, Hirotomo

    2014-01-01

    ... (target capture or whole-exome sequencing) for early onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEEs). A total of 163 patients with EOEEs without mutations in known genes, including 6 with malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy...

  4. Assessing racial/ethnic differences in the social consequences of early-onset psychiatric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lê Cook, Benjamin; Carson, Nicholas; Alegria, Margarita

    2010-05-01

    Individuals with early onset of psychiatric disorder have worse social outcomes than individuals with adult onset. It is unknown whether this association varies by racial/ ethnic group. Identifying groups at risk for poor social outcomes is important for improving clinical and policy interventions. We compared unemployment, high school dropout, arrest, and welfare participation by race/ethnicity and time of onset using a nationally representative sample of Whites, Blacks, Asians, and Latinos with lifetime psychiatric disorder. Early onset was associated with worse social outcomes than adult onset. Significant Black-White and Latino-White differences in social outcomes were identified. The association between early onset and negative social outcomes was similar across Whites, Latinos, and Blacks. For Asians, the association between unemployment and early onset was opposite that of Whites. Increasing early detection and treatment of psychiatric illness should be prioritized. Further study will clarify the association between onset and social outcomes among sub-ethnic populations.

  5. Mutational Analysis in Early-Onset Familial Dementia in the Japanese Population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Miyashita, Akinori; Nozaki, Hiroaki; Kasuga, Kensaku; Tsukie, Tamao; Tsuchiya, Miyuki; Imamura, Toru; Ishizu, Hideki; Aoki, Kenju; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Onodera, Osamu; Kuwano, Ryozo; Nishizawa, Masatoyo

    2008-01-01

    ... families with early-onset dementia clinically diagnosed as probable Alzheimer's disease. Results: In 4 index patients, we identified 4 missense PSEN1 mutations, namely, L286V, G378E, L381V, and L392V...

  6. Early Onset Squamous Cell Carcinoma In A Case Of Lichen Planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Shri Nath

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus, which is a very common condition, is being presented. However, the uncommon feature in this cases is its early onset and equally early development of squamous cell carcinoma on a lesion on the right thigh.

  7. Early onset Cockayne's syndrome: case reports with neuropathological and fibroblast studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, M A; Giannelli, F; Francis, A J; Baraitser, M; Harding, B; Williams, A J

    1989-01-01

    Two patients with early onset Cockayne's syndrome are presented. In each case there was a striking failure of growth and developmental deterioration around six months of age. It has been suggested that early onset Cockayne's syndrome is a syndrome distinct from Cockayne's syndrome, but when the first patient died aged two years 10 months, examination of the brain showed a leucodystrohy with 'tigroid' demyelination similar to that reported in later onset cases of Cockayne's syndrome. Studies o...

  8. A new early-onset neuromuscular disorder associated with kyphoscoliosis peptidase (KY) deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg-Oldfors, Carola; Darin, Niklas; Olsson Engman, Mia; Orfanos, Zacharias; Thomsen, Christer; van der Ven, Peter F M; Oldfors, Anders

    2016-12-01

    We describe a new early-onset neuromuscular disorder due to a homozygous loss-of-function variant in the kyphoscoliosis peptidase gene (KY). A 7.5-year-old girl with walking difficulties from 2 years of age presented with generalized muscle weakness; mild contractures in the shoulders, hips and feet; cavus feet; and lordosis but no scoliosis. She had previously been operated with Achilles tendon elongation. Whole-body MRI showed atrophy and fatty infiltration in the calf muscles. Biopsy of the vastus lateralis muscle showed variability in fiber size, with some internalized nuclei and numerous very small fibers with variable expression of developmental myosin heavy chain isoforms. Some small fibers showed abnormal sarcomeres with thickened Z-discs and small nemaline rods. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a homozygous one-base deletion (c.1071delG, p.(Thr358Leufs*3)) in KY, predicted to result in a truncated protein. Analysis of an RNA panel showed that KY is predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle in humans. A recessive variant in the murine ortholog Ky was previously described in a spontaneously generated mouse mutant with kyphoscoliosis, which developed postnatally and was caused by dystrophy of postural muscles. The abnormal distribution of Xin and Ky-binding partner filamin C in the muscle fibers of our patient was highly similar to their altered localization in ky/ky mouse muscle fibers. We describe the first human case of disease associated with KY inactivation. As in the mouse model, the affected child showed a neuromuscular disorder - but in contrast, no kyphoscoliosis.

  9. Different alterations of cerebral regional homogeneity in early-onset and late-onset Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: Early-onset Parkinson’s disease (EOPD is distinct from late-onset PD (LOPD as it relates to the clinical profile and response to medication. The objective is to investigate whether characteristics of spontaneous brain activity in the resting state are associated with the age of disease onset. Methods: We assessed the correlation between neural activity and age-at-onset in a sample of 39 PD patients (18 EOPD and 21 LOPD and 37 age-matched normal control subjects. Regional homogeneity (ReHo approaches were employed using ANOVA with two factors: PD and age.Results: In the comparisons between LOPD and EOPD, EOPD revealed lower ReHo values in the right putamen gyrus and higher ReHo values in the left superior frontal gyrus. Compared with age-matched control subjects, EOPD exhibited lower ReHo values in the right putamen and higher ReHo values in the left inferior temporal gyrus; however, LOPD showed lower ReHo values in the right putamen and left insula. The ReHo values were negatively correlated with the UPDRS total scores in the right putamen in LOPD, but a correlation between the ReHo value and UPDRS score was not detected in EOPD. Conclusions: Our findings support the notion that age at onset is associated with the distribution of cerebral regional homogeneity in the resting state and suggest that disproportionate putamen alterations are more prominent in patients with a younger age of onset.

  10. Segregation analysis of Alzheimer pedigrees: Rare Mendelian dominant mutation(s) explain a minority of early-onset cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.; Campion, D.; Babron, M.C.; Darpoux, F.C. [INSERM, Paris (France)] [and others

    1996-02-16

    Segregation analysis of Alzheimer disease (AD) in 92 families ascertained through early-onset ({le}age 60 years) AD (EOAD) probands has been carried out, allowing for a mixture in AD inheritance among probands. The goal was to quantify the proportion of probands that could be explained by autosomal inheritance of a rare disease allele {open_quotes}a{close_quotes} at a Mendelian dominant gene (MDG). Our data provide strong evidence for a mixture of two distributions; AD transmission is fully explained by MDG inheritance in <20% of probands. Male and female age-of-onset distributions are significantly different for {open_quotes}AA{close_quote} but not for {open_quotes}aA{close_quote} subjects. For {open_quotes}aA{close_quote} subjects the estimated penetrance value was close to 1 by age 60. For {open_quotes}AA{close_quotes} subjects, it reaches, by age 90, 10% (males) and 30% (females). We show a clear cutoff in the posterior probability of being an MDG case. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Loss of Nfkb1 leads to early onset aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Giovanna M; Wahlstrom, Joshua S; Crawley, Clayton D; Cahill, Kirk E; Pytel, Peter; Liang, Hua; Kang, Shijun; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Yamini, Bakhtiar

    2014-11-01

    NF-κB is a major regulator of age-dependent gene expression and the p50/NF-κB1 subunit is an integral modulator of NF-κB signaling. Here, we examined Nfkb1-/- mice to investigate the relationship between this subunit and aging. Although Nfkb1-/- mice appear similar to littermates at six months of age, by 12 months they have a higher incidence of several observable age-related phenotypes. In addition, aged Nfkb1-/- animals have increased kyphosis, decreased cortical bone, increased brain GFAP staining and a decrease in overall lifespan compared to Nfkb1+/+. In vitro, serially passaged primary Nfkb1-/- MEFs have more senescent cells than comparable Nfkb1+/+ MEFs. Also, Nfkb1-/- MEFs have greater amounts of phospho-H2AX foci and lower levels of spontaneous apoptosis than Nfkb1+/+, findings that are mirrored in the brains of Nfkb1-/- animals compared to Nfkb1+/+. Finally, in wildtype animals a substantial decrease in p50 DNA binding is seen in aged tissue compared to young. Together, these data show that loss of Nfkb1 leads to early animal aging that is associated with reduced apoptosis and increased cellular senescence. Moreover, loss of p50 DNA binding is a prominent feature of aged mice relative to young. These findings support the strong link between the NF-κB pathway and mammalian aging.

  12. 1:4 matched case-control study on influential factor of early onset neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z; Ye, G-Y

    2013-09-01

    Bacteria, funghi, viruses and protozoa can lead to neonatal sepsis. Neonatal sepsis is the leading cause of infectious disease onset and death in many neonates. To explore the major risk factors of early-onset neonatal sepsis and provide a scientific basis for strategies of early-onset neonatal sepsis prevention. A 1:4 matched case-control study was adopted and 147 cases of early-onset neonatal sepsis were enrolled. Conditional logistic regression model was used to analyze the univariate and multivariate data to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Univariate analysis shows that the impact factors on the occurrence of early-onset neonatal sepsis include the following: Maternal age > 35, mother having fixed occupation, mother of urban residence, abnormal fetal position, fetal times, parity, caesarean section, premature rupture of membranes, amniotic fluid volume abnormalities, pregnancy-induced hypertension, placental abnormalities, fetal distress, newborn gender, low birth weight infants, neonatal Apgar scoring at one and five minutes, neonatal jaundice, wet lung, anemia, IVH, and premature infant. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that maternal age > 35 (OR = 4.835, OR 95% CI = 1.170-19.981), cesarean section (OR = 0.103, OR 95% CI = 0.041-0.258), premature rupture of membranes (OR = 0.207, OR 95% CI = 0.078-0.547), premature infants (OR = 0.059, OR 95% CI = 0.010-0.329) and newborn jaundice (OR = 0.092, OR 95% CI = 0.021-0.404) were the factors of early-onset neonatal sepsis. Early-onset neonatal sepsis could be affected by multi-factors, and targeted prevention may reduce the incidence of early-onset neonatal sepsis rates.

  13. Early-onset preeclampsia appears to discourage subsequent pregnancy but the risks may be overestimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeho, Sean K; Algert, Charles S; Roberts, Christine L; Ford, Jane B

    2016-12-01

    Early-onset preeclampsia is associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. For women who consider another pregnancy after one complicated by early-onset preeclampsia, the likelihood of recurrence and the subsequent pregnancy outcome for themselves and their babies are pertinent considerations. The purpose of this study was to determine the subsequent pregnancy rate after a nulliparous pregnancy that was complicated by early-onset preeclampsia and among those who have a subsequent pregnancy, the risk of recurrence by gestational week, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. This was a population-based record linkage cohort study. The study population included nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy and early-onset preeclampsia (Early-onset in the index birth was further categorized as pregnancy outcomes that were assessed included the pregnancy rate, preeclampsia recurrence, and maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality rates. The risk of preeclampsia necessitating delivery at each gestational week for women who were at risk was plotted, and the net gain or loss of gestational age when comparing the index with the subsequent pregnancy was calculated. Among 361,031 nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies, 1473 (0.4%) had early-onset preeclampsia. Women with early-onset preeclampsia in their first pregnancy had a lower subsequent pregnancy rate (59.7%) than women without preeclampsia (67.7%). Of the 758 women with a subsequent singleton birth, 256 (33.8%) experienced preeclampsia in the next pregnancy; 57 women (7.5%) with recurrent early-onset preeclampsia were included. Cumulative rates of preeclampsia in the subsequent pregnancy were higher at every gestation from 23 weeks gestation when the index birth was age in their subsequent pregnancy. The median overall increase in gestational age at delivery was 6 weeks (interquartile range, 4-8); among women with recurrent preeclampsia, the median increase was 5 weeks (interquartile range, 2-7). Women with

  14. Early onset mood disorders and first alcohol use in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrell, Louise; Newton, Nicola C; Teesson, Maree; Slade, Tim

    2016-08-01

    Mood disorders and alcohol use are common in the general population and often occur together. This study explored how early onset mood disorders relate to age of first alcohol use in the Australian general population. Discrete time survival analysis modelled the odds of first alcohol use among those with, versus without, an early onset DSM-IV mood disorders (major depression, dysthymia or bipolar disorder). Data came from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (N=8841). Early onset mood disorders as an overall class were not significantly related to the odds of first alcohol use in any given year. On examining the different types of mood disorders individually early onset bipolar disorder was a significant predictor of first alcohol use. The analysis then looked at interactions with time and found that after the age of 14 years the presence of an early onset mood disorder significantly increased the odds of first alcohol use by 32%. Retrospective recall was used to determine age of onset data which is subject to known biases and replication is recommended in some subgroup analysis due to smaller sample sizes. Mood disorders, particularly bipolar disorder, act as unique risk factors for first alcohol use in the general population and show significant interactions with developmental timing. The findings point to the potential utility of prevention programs that target alcohol use and mood disorders together from early adolescence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Key goals and indicators for successful aging of adults with early-onset disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Mitchell P

    2014-01-01

    Substantial improvements have occurred in the longevity of several groups of individuals with early-onset disabilities, with many now surviving to advanced ages. This paper estimates the population of adults aging with early-onset disabilities at 12-15 million persons. Key goals for the successful aging of adults with early-onset disabilities are discussed, emphasizing reduction in risks for aging-related chronic disease and secondary conditions, while promoting social participation and independence. However, indicators suggest that elevated risk factors for aging-related chronic diseases, including smoking, obesity, and inactivity, as well as barriers to prevention and the diminished social and economic situation of adults with disabilities are continuing impediments to successful aging that must be addressed. Increased provider awareness that people with early-onset disabilities are aging and can age successfully and the integration of disability and aging services systems are transformative steps that will help adults with early-onset disability to age more successfully. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Factor analysis of symptom profile in early onset and late onset OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Sarkar, Siddharth; Gupta, Gourav; Kate, Natasha; Ghosh, Abhishek; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit

    2017-10-02

    This study aimed to assess the factor structure of early and late onset OCD. Additionally, cluster analysis was conducted in the same sample to assess the applicability of the factors. 345 participants were assessed with Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale symptom checklist. Patients were classified as early onset (onset of symptoms at age ≤ 18 years) and late onset (onset at age > 18 years) OCD depending upon the age of onset of the symptoms. Factor analysis and cluster analysis of early-onset and late-onset OCD was conducted. The study sample comprised of 91 early onset and 245 late onset OCD subjects. Males were more common in the early onset group. Differences in the frequency of phenomenology related to contamination related, checking, repeating, counting and ordering/arranging compulsions were present across the early and late onset groups. Factor analysis of YBOCS revealed a 3 factor solution for both the groups, which largely concurred with each other. These factors were named as hoarding and symmetry (factor-1), contamination (factor-2) and aggressive, sexual and religious factor (factor-3). To conclude this study shows that factor structure of symptoms of OCD seems to be similar between early-onset and late-onset OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Converging approaches to understanding early onset familial Alzheimer disease: A First Nation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Laura Y; Beattie, B Lynn; Dwosh, Emily; Illes, Judy

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, a novel pathogenic genetic mutation associated with early onset familial Alzheimer disease was identified in a large First Nation family living in communities across British Columbia, Canada. Building on a community-based participatory study with members of the Nation, we sought to explore the impact and interplay of medicalization with the Nation's knowledge and approaches to wellness in relation to early onset familial Alzheimer disease. We performed a secondary content analysis of focus group discussions and interviews with 48 members of the Nation between 2012 and 2013. The analysis focused specifically on geneticization, medicalization, and traditional knowledge of early onset familial Alzheimer disease, as these themes were prominent in the primary analysis. We found that while biomedical explanations of disease permeate the knowledge and understanding of early onset familial Alzheimer disease, traditional concepts about wellness are upheld simultaneously. The analysis brings the theoretical framework of "two-eyed seeing" to the case of early onset familial Alzheimer disease for which the contributions of different ways of knowing are embraced, and in which traditional and western ways complement each other on the path of maintaining wellness in the face of progressive neurologic disease.

  18. Treatment of Early Onset Spinal Deformity (EOSD) with VEPTR: A Challenge for the Final Correction Spondylodesis: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattig, Friederike; Taurman, Rita; Hell, Anna K

    2012-08-18

    STUDY DESIGN:: Case Series. OBJECTIVE:: To describe the post VEPTR (vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib) treatment changes in early onset spinal deformity (EOSD), which may influence the final correction spondylodesis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:: The VEPTR device, originally developed for the treatment of congenital rib cage malformation, is nowadays more widely used in the treatment of early onset spinal deformity. Up to now only a few reports describe the possible complications, which may occur with repeated lengthening procedures of the VEPTR thereby making the final spondylodesis more complicated and less satisfactory. METHODS:: X-Rays of five children treated for EOSD with two unilateral VEPTR (each rib to rib and rib to lumbar lamina) were analyzed for curve patterns and Cobb angles pre, during and at the end of VEPTR- treatment as well as after the final spondylodesis. Intraoperative observations during the sponylodesis, which influenced the possibilies of the curve correction, were documented. RESULTS:: All patients showed a marked decompensation of the frontal balance and a high degree of rigidity of the main curve as well as the compensatory curves after treatment with the VEPTR device. Due to this spontaneous autofusion of spinal segments, migration of the rib cradles and/or the laminar hook and a change of the curve patterns the final fusion had to be longer in all patients than the primary deformity would have intended. CONCLUSIONS:: If an EOSD is treated with VEPTR, the curve progression and in particular the development of a high thoracic hyperkyphosis or rotation of the main curve should be critically observed. Autofusion of ribs and vertebral bodies may make the final correction spondylodesis even more challenging and risky for the patient and the end result less satisfactory.

  19. Exercise and Early-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease: Theoretical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid M. Hooghiemstra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Although studies show a negative relationship between physical activity and the risk for cognitive impairment and late-onset Alzheimer’s disease, studies concerning early-onset Alzheimer’s disease (EOAD are lacking. This review aims to justify the value of exercise interventions in EOAD by providing theoretical considerations that include neurobiological processes. Methods: A literature search on key words related to early-onset dementia, exercise, imaging, neurobiological mechanisms, and cognitive reserve was performed. Results/Conclusion: Brain regions and neurobiological processes contributing to the positive effects of exercise are affected in EOAD and, thus, provide theoretical support for exercise interventions in EOAD. Finally, we present the design of a randomized controlled trial currently being conducted in early-onset dementia patients.

  20. Study protocol: EXERcise and Cognition In Sedentary adults with Early-ONset dementia (EXERCISE-ON)

    OpenAIRE

    Hooghiemstra Astrid M; Eggermont Laura HP; Scheltens Philip; van der Flier Wiesje M; Bakker Jet; de Greef Mathieu HG; Koppe Peter A; Scherder Erik JA

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although the development of early-onset dementia is a radical and invalidating experience for both patient and family there are hardly any non-pharmacological studies that focus on this group of patients. One type of a non-pharmacological intervention that appears to have a beneficial effect on cognition in older persons without dementia and older persons at risk for dementia is exercise. In view of their younger age early-onset dementia patients may be well able to partic...

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging studies in early onset bipolar disorder: an updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Janine; Lopez-Larson, Melissa; Frazier, Jean A

    2009-04-01

    Over the past 5-10 years, advances in neuroimaging methods and study designs have begun to appear in the literature of early-onset bipolar disorder (onset before 18 years of age). This article contains an updated review of the literature regarding neuroimaging in youths with bipolar disorder (BPD), highlighting important new study designs and techniques. Overall, structural, functional (fMRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) report consistent abnormalities in regions of the frontal lobe and limbic structures. Functional MRI and MRS studies also frequently report striatal and thalamic abnormalities in early-onset BPD. Future neuroimaging studies in youths with BPD should include longitudinal studies incorporating multimodal neuroimaging techniques.

  2. Final Height of Female Patients with Early-onset Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Naoaki, Hori; Mikako, Inokuchi; Rie, SASAKI; Myong-sun, Choe; Hisako, Watanabe; Tomonobu, Hasegawa; Department of Pediatrics, Keio University School of Medicine

    2003-01-01

    We retrospectively studied the final height (FH) of female patients with early-onset anorexia nervosa (AN), and whether the FH was affected by transient undernutrition. Thirteen female patients with early-onset AN treated by the "Keio method", onset age 6.0-45.6 years, were enrolled in this study. All of them achieved FH. Subjects were classified into 3 groups: Therapy (Tx) with lagging-down group, Tx without lagging-down group, and Non-Tx group. Tx groups (Tx with lagging-down group and Tx w...

  3. Reliability and discriminant validity of ataxia rating scales in early onset ataxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Lawerman, Tjitske F.; Kuiper, Marieke J; Lunsing, Roelineke J; Burger, Huibert; Sival, Deborah A

    AIM: To determine whether ataxia rating scales are reliable disease biomarkers for early onset ataxia (EOA). METHOD: In 40 patients clinically identified with EOA (28 males, 12 females; mean age 15y 3mo [range 5-34y]), we determined interobserver and intraobserver agreement (interclass correlation

  4. First trimester screening for intra-uterine growth restriction and early-onset pre-eclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenberghe, G.; Mensink, I.; Twisk, J.W.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Heijboer, A.C.; van Vugt, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess first trimester placental growth factor (PlGF) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) as screening markers for early-onset pre-eclampsia (PE) and intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). Methods: PlGF concentration was retrospectively measured in first trimester

  5. First trimester screening for intra-uterine growth restriction and early-onset pre-eclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenberghe, G.; Mensink, I.; Twisk, J. W. R.; Blankenstein, M. A.; Heijboer, A. C.; van Vugt, J. M. G.

    2011-01-01

    To assess first trimester placental growth factor (PlGF) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) as screening markers for early-onset pre-eclampsia (PE) and intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). PlGF concentration was retrospectively measured in first trimester serum specimens of 23

  6. Neurocognitive Outcomes in the Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Jean A.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Johnson, Jacqueline L.; Yakutis, Lauren; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L.; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess neurocognitive outcomes following antipsychotic intervention in youth enrolled in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). Method: Neurocognitive functioning of youth (ages 8 to 19 years) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder was evaluated…

  7. Neutrophil CD64 in early-onset neonatal sepsis | El-Mazary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, for neonatal sepsis, little is known about a group of molecules playing a central role in the innate immune system. Among them is the neutrophil CD64 which is expressed on neutrophil surface in many inflammatory conditions. Objective: To study the neutrophil CD64 expression in neonates with early onset sepsis ...

  8. Evidence for allelic heterogeneity in familial early-onset Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); J. Hardy (John); A.M. Goate (Alison); M.N. Rossor (Martin); A. Vandenberghe (Anton); J-J. Martin (Jean-Jacques); M.J. Mullan; C. van Broeckhoven (Christine); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractAge of onset was examined for 139 members of 30 families affected by early-onset AD. Most (77%) of the variance of age of onset derived from differences between rather than within families. The constancy of age of onset within families was also observed in an analysis restricted to

  9. Type IV Neonatal Early-Onset Group B Streptococcal Disease in a United States Hospital▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puopolo, Karen M.; Madoff, Lawrence C.

    2007-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) serotypes causing neonatal disease vary by geographic region. Surveillance at the Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, revealed a case of neonatal early-onset sepsis caused by type IV GBS. Neonatal type IV disease occurs in the Middle East but has not recently been described in U.S. infants. PMID:17267636

  10. Co-Occurring Problems of Early Onset Persistent, Childhood Limited, and Adolescent Onset Conduct Problem Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Edward D.; Oliver, Bonamy R.; Maughan, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is increasingly recognized that youth who follow early onset persistent (EOP), childhood limited (CL) and adolescent onset (AO) trajectories of conduct problems show somewhat varying patterns of risk (in childhood) and adjustment problems (in adolescence and adulthood). Little, however, is known about how other adjustment problems…

  11. Mutations in MDH2, Encoding a Krebs Cycle Enzyme, Cause Early-Onset Severe Encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ait-El-Mkadem, Samira; Dayem-Quere, Manal; Gusic, Mirjana; Chaussenot, Annabelle; Bannwarth, Sylvie; François, Bérengère; Genin, Emmanuelle C; Fragaki, Konstantina; Volker-Touw, Catharina L M; Vasnier, Christelle; Serre, Valérie; van Gassen, Koen L I; Lespinasse, Françoise; Richter, Susan; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Rouzier, Cécile; Mochel, Fanny; De Saint-Martin, Anne; Abi Warde, Marie-Thérèse; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G M; Jans, Judith J M; Amiel, Jeanne; Avsec, Ziga; Mertes, Christian; Haack, Tobias B; Strom, Tim; Meitinger, Thomas; Bonnen, Penelope E; Taylor, Robert W; Gagneur, Julien; van Hasselt, Peter M; Rötig, Agnès; Delahodde, Agnès; Prokisch, Holger; Fuchs, Sabine A; Paquis-Flucklinger, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    MDH2 encodes mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH), which is essential for the conversion of malate to oxaloacetate as part of the proper functioning of the Krebs cycle. We report bi-allelic pathogenic mutations in MDH2 in three unrelated subjects presenting with early-onset generalized

  12. Early Onset Ageing and Service Preparation in People with Intellectual Disabilities: Institutional Managers' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chu, Cordia M.

    2011-01-01

    Although longevity among older adults with intellectual disabilities is increasing, there is limited information on their premature aging related health characteristics and how it may change with increasing age. The present paper provides information of the institutional manager's perception on early onset aging and service preparation for this…

  13. Early onset of cannabis use: Does personality modify the relation with changes in perceived parental involvement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, H.E.; Buil, J.M.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Keijsers, L.; Meeus, W.; Koot, H.M.; Huizink, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study examined (1) the association between changes in perceived parental control and support from age 13 to 15 and early onset of cannabis use (before age 16), and (2) whether personality modifies the association between a decline in perceived parental control and support and

  14. Early onset of cannabis use: Does personality modify the relation with changes in perceived parental involvement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, Hanneke E.; Buil, J. Marieke; van Lier, Pot A. C.; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, W.H.J.; Koot, Hans M.; Huizink, Anja C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study examined (1) the association between changes in perceived parental control and support from age 13 to 15 and early onset of cannabis use (before age 16), and (2) whether personality modifies the association between a decline in perceived parental control and support and

  15. Apathy and depressive mood in nursing home patients with early-onset dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leontjevas, R.; Hooren, S. van; Waterink, W.; Mulders, A.

    2009-01-01

    The study explored whether apathy and depressive mood symptoms (DMS) are related to cognitive and functional features of dementia in 63 nursing home (NH) residents with early-onset dementia (EOD). All EOD residents from one NH (n = 41) and a random sample from another NH were assessed for depressive

  16. Early-Onset Thrombocytopenia in Small-For-Gestational-Age Neonates: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fustolo-Gunnink, S. F.; Vlug, R. D.; Smits-Wintjens, V. E. H. J.; Heckman, E. J.; te Pas, A. B.; Fijnvandraat, K.; Lopriore, E.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a common finding in small for gestational age (SGA) neonates and is thought to result from a unique pathophysiologic mechanism related to chronic intrauterine hypoxia. Our objective was to estimate the incidence and severity of early-onset thrombocytopenia in SGA neonates, and to

  17. Reliability and discriminant validity of ataxia rating scales in early onset ataxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, R.; Lawerman, T. F.; Kuiper, M. J.; Geffen, van Joke; Lunsing, I. J.; Burger, H.; de Koning, T. J.; de Vries, J. J.; de Koning-Tijssen, M. A. J.; Sival, D. A.

    Objective: To determine observer-agreement and discriminantvalidity of ataxia rating scales.Background: In children and young adults, Early Onset Ataxia(EOA) is frequently concurrent with other Movement Disorders,resulting in moderate inter-observer agreement among MovementDisorder professionals. To

  18. Assessment of speech in early-onset ataxia : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Marieke J.; Brandsma, Rick; Lawerman, T.F.; Lunsing, Roelineke J.; Keegstra, Anne L.; Burger, Huibert; De Koning, Tom J.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; Sival, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study was to determine whether paediatric ataxia speech subscores are reliably applicable for international early-onset ataxia (EOA) databases. If so, we reasoned that ataxia speech subscores should be associated with ataxia scores and involve high interobserver agreement,

  19. Reliability and discriminant validity of ataxia rating scales in early onset ataxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Lawerman, Tjitske F.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelineke J.; Burger, Huibert; Sival, Deborah A.

    AIM To determine whether ataxia rating scales are reliable disease biomarkers for early onset ataxia (EOA). METHOD In 40 patients clinically identified with EOA (28 males, 12 females; mean age 15y 3mo [range 5-34y]), we determined interobserver and intraobserver agreement (interclass correlation

  20. Memory in Early Onset Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Similarities and Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udal, Anne H.; Oygarden, Bjorg; Egeland, Jens; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groholt, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Differentiating between early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be difficult. Memory problems are commonly reported in BD, and forgetfulness is among the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. We compared children and adolescents with BD (n = 23), ADHD combined type (ADHD-C; n = 26), BD + ADHD-C (n = 15),…

  1. Early Onset Substance Use in Adolescents with Depressive, Conduct, and Comorbid Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Andrea L.; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether co-occurring depressive and conduct symptoms in early adolescence are associated with an elevated occurrence of early onset substance. Five hundred twenty-one sixth graders were assessed for depressive symptoms and conduct problems and underwent five substance use assessments during middle school. Logistic…

  2. Amyloid burden and metabolic function in early-onset Alzheimer's disease: parietal lobe involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossenkoppele, R.; Zwan, M.D.; Tolboom, N.; van Assema, D.M.E.; Adriaanse, S.F.; Kloet, R.W.; Boellaard, R.; Windhorst, A.D.; Barkhof, F.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Scheltens, P.; van der Flier, W.M.; van Berckel, B.N.M.

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease with early onset often presents with a distinct cognitive profile, potentially reflecting a different distribution of underlying neuropathology. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between age and both in vivo fibrillary amyloid deposition and glucose

  3. Differentiating early-onset persistent versus childhood-limited conduct problem youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Edward D; Maughan, Barbara

    2009-08-01

    Among young children who demonstrate high levels of conduct problems, less than 50% will continue to exhibit these problems into adolescence. Such developmental heterogeneity presents a serious challenge for intervention and diagnostic screening in early childhood. The purpose of the present study was to inform diagnostic screening and preventive intervention efforts by identifying youths whose conduct problems persist. The authors examined 1) the extent to which early-onset persistent versus childhood-limited trajectories can be identified from repeated assessments of childhood and early-adolescent conduct problems and 2) how prenatal and early postnatal risks differentiate these two groups. To identify heterogeneity in early-onset conduct problems, the authors used data from a large longitudinal population-based cohort of children followed from the prenatal period to age 13. Predictive risk factors examined were prenatal and postnatal measures of maternal distress (anxiety, depression), emotional and practical support, and family and child characteristics (from birth to 4 years of age). Findings revealed a distinction between early-onset persistent versus childhood-limited conduct problems in youths. Robust predictors of the early-onset persistent trajectory were maternal anxiety during pregnancy (32 weeks gestation), partner cruelty to the mother (from age 0 to 4 years), harsh parenting, and higher levels of child undercontrolled temperament. Sex differences in these risks were not identified. Interventions aiming to reduce childhood conduct problems should address prenatal risks in mothers and early postnatal risks in both mothers and their young children.

  4. Type IV neonatal early-onset group B streptococcal disease in a United States hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puopolo, Karen M; Madoff, Lawrence C

    2007-04-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) serotypes causing neonatal disease vary by geographic region. Surveillance at the Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, revealed a case of neonatal early-onset sepsis caused by type IV GBS. Neonatal type IV disease occurs in the Middle East but has not recently been described in U.S. infants.

  5. Early onset cerebellar ataxia with retained tendon reflexes : foot deformity in a first grade family member

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelhaas, HJ; Van der Hulst, M; Ippel, E; Prevo, RL; Hageman, G

    1999-01-01

    Early onset cerebellar ataxia with retained tendon reflexes (EOCA) is a clinical syndrome characterised by progressive cerebellar ataxia with an onset before the age of 25 years and a wide spectrum of associated features. It is distinguished from Friedreich's ataxia (FA) mainly by the preservation

  6. Characteristics of early-onset neonatal sepsis caused by Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Han Tsai

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Early-onset E coli sepsis is more common in premature and very low birth weight infants and is more likely associated with intrapartum fever, PPROM, and sepsis onset on the first day of life than non-E coli sepsis. Broad-spectrum, multiple antibiotics or longer duration of antibiotic exposure may be associated with antibiotic-resistant pathogen infection.

  7. Comparison of Percentile Weight Gain of Growth-Friendly Constructs in Early-Onset Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Liam R; Andras, Lindsay M; Sponseller, Paul D; Johnston, Charles E; Emans, John B; Skaggs, David L

    2018-01-01

    Multicenter retrospective cohort. To compare improvement in nutritional status seen in early-onset scoliosis (EOS) patients following treatment with various growth-friendly techniques, especially in underweight patients (10 years old and Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. CD55 Deficiency, Early-Onset Protein-Losing Enteropathy, and Thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozen, Ahmet; Comrie, William A; Ardy, Rico C; Domínguez Conde, Cecilia; Dalgic, Buket; Beser, Ömer F; Morawski, Aaron R; Karakoc-Aydiner, Elif; Tutar, Engin; Baris, Safa; Ozcay, Figen; Serwas, Nina K; Zhang, Yu; Matthews, Helen F; Pittaluga, Stefania; Folio, Les R; Unlusoy Aksu, Aysel; McElwee, Joshua J; Krolo, Ana; Kiykim, Ayca; Baris, Zeren; Gulsan, Meltem; Ogulur, Ismail; Snapper, Scott B; Houwen, Roderick H J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/087887991; Leavis, Helen L|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304820717; Ertem, Deniz; Kain, Renate; Sari, Sinan; Erkan, Tülay; Su, Helen C; Boztug, Kaan; Lenardo, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of monogenic gastrointestinal diseases have revealed molecular pathways critical to gut homeostasis and enabled the development of targeted therapies. METHODS: We studied 11 patients with abdominal pain and diarrhea caused by early-onset protein-losing enteropathy with primary

  9. Early-onset periodontitis in Morocco is associated with the highly leukotoxic clone of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haubek, Dorte; Ennibi, O.-K.; Poulsen, Knud

    2001-01-01

    A particular clone (JP2) of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans with increased leukotoxin production has been isolated from individuals with early-onset periodontitis (EOP). The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of carriers of this clone and its association with EOP in Moroccan...

  10. The role of SLC2A1 in early onset and childhood absence epilepsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhle, Hiltrud; Helbig, Ingo; Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg

    2013-01-01

    Early Onset Absence Epilepsy constitutes an Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy with absences starting before the age of four years. Mutations in SLC2A1, encoding the glucose transporter, account for approximately 10% of EOAE cases. The role of SLC2A1 mutations in absence epilepsies with a later onset...

  11. The Effects of Childhood ADHD Symptoms on Early-Onset Substance Use: A Swedish Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Research has documented that children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of substance use problems. Few studies, however, have focused on early-onset substance use. This study therefore investigated how the two symptom dimensions of ADHD (hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention) are…

  12. Study protocol: EXERcise and Cognition In Sedentary adults with Early-ONset dementia (EXERCISE-ON)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghiemstra, A.M.; Eggermont, L.H.P.; Scheltens, P.; van der Flier, W.M.; Bakker, J.; de Greef, M.H.G.; Koppe, P.A.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the development of early-onset dementia is a radical and invalidating experience for both patient and family there are hardly any non-pharmacological studies that focus on this group of patients. One type of a non-pharmacological intervention that appears to have a beneficial

  13. Study protocol : EXERcise and Cognition In Sedentary adults with Early-ONset dementia (EXERCISE-ON)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghiemstra, Astrid M.; Eggermont, Laura H. P.; Scheltens, Philip; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Bakker, Jet; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.; Koppe, Peter A.; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the development of early-onset dementia is a radical and invalidating experience for both patient and family there are hardly any non-pharmacological studies that focus on this group of patients. One type of a non-pharmacological intervention that appears to have a beneficial

  14. Apolipoprotein E genotype and concomitant clinical features in early-onset Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronzova, J.; Duijn, C.M. van; Havekes, L.M.; Knijff, P. de; Broeckhoven, C. van; Hofman, A.

    1996-01-01

    We have studied the relationship between the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) and the development of myoclonus, tremors, rigidity and seizures in 168 patients with probable early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). There was a statistically significantly lower risk of tremor for carriers of the ε4 allele of

  15. Apolipoprotein E genotype and concomitant clinical features in early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B. Bronzova (Juliana); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); L.M. Havekes; P. de Knijff (Peter); C. van Broeckhoven (Christine); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractWe have studied the relationship between the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) and the development of myoclonus, tremors, rigidity and seizures in 168 patients with probable early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). There was a statistically significantly lower risk of tremor for carriers of the

  16. Clinical features and mortality in patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.N. Samson; C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn a population-based study of 198 patients with probable early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), we studied the occurrence of extrapyramidal signs (tremors and rigidity), myoclonus, psychosis and seizures, as well as their predictive value for mortality. The presence of tremors was

  17. Early-Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Subgroup with a Specific Clinical and Familial Pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabane, Nadia; Delorme, Richard; Millet, Bruno; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Leboyer, Marion; Pauls, David

    2005-01-01

    Background: The familial nature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been previously demonstrated. The identification of candidate symptoms such as age at onset may help to disentangle the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of the disorder. In this study, the specificity of early-onset OCD was investigated, focusing on the effect of gender,…

  18. Early-Onset Preeclampsia and the Prevalence of Postpartum Metabolic Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekkinger, Eva; Zandstra, Mirjam; Peeters, Louis L. H.; Spaanderman, Marc E. A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome postpartum in women with a history of pregnancy complicated by early-onset vascular disorders compared with women with late-onset disorders. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study 849 women with a history of pregnancy complicated

  19. Three cases of severe early-onset eating disorder: are they cases of anorexia nervosa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, G B; Lausch, B; Thomsen, P H

    1997-01-01

    3 cases of early onset, severe eating disorder are described. These young children did not present a distorted body image even though they had suffered a great weight loss, were somatically distressed and in all other aspects fulfilled the criteria for anorexia nervosa. The criteria for anorexia nervosa are discussed for this group of young patients.

  20. Early onset vulvar Lichen Sclerosus in premenopausal women and oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günthert, Andreas R; Faber, Melanie; Knappe, Gabriele; Hellriegel, Simin; Emons, Günter

    2008-03-01

    For vulvar Lichen sclerosus (LS) immunological factors, genetic predisposition, and decreased 5 alpha-reductase activity have been discussed as aetiological factors. During the last decade an increase of LS in young women has been suspected. Aim of this study was to evaluate data of premenopausal women with early onset LS to find potential risk factors focussing on the use of oral contraceptives. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 40 premenopausal patients with early onset LS regarding use of oral contraceptives (OCPs), and first occurrence of LS. To compare these data in a case-control study we analyzed a matched control group of 110 healthy women. All our LS patients were using OCPs compared to 73 women (66.4%) in the control group. OCPs with anti-androgenic activity (chlormadinone acetate, cyproterone acetate, dienogest, and drospirenone) were used by 28 (70%) of the LS patients and by 35 (47.9%) of the 73 women using OCPs in the control group. Thus, the odds ratio for early onset LS for women using anti-androgenic OCPs was 2.53 (95% CI: 1.12-5.75). Our data suggest that disturbance of the androgen dependent growth of the vulvar skin by OCPs and especially by OCPs with anti-androgenic properties might trigger the early onset of LS in a subgroup of susceptible young women.

  1. Early-onset gastric cancers have a different molecular expression profile than conventional gastric cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milne, Anya N. A.; Carvalho, Ralph; Morsink, Folkert M.; Musler, Alex R.; de Leng, Wendy W. J.; Ristimäki, Ari; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.

    2006-01-01

    Many studies examine the molecular genetics of gastric cancer, but few look at young patients in particular and there is no comparison of molecular expression between early-onset gastric cancer (

  2. Deficient maturation of aspects of attention and executive functions in early onset schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt M; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2010-01-01

    The few existing long-term, neuropsychological follow-up studies of early onset schizophrenia (EOS) patients have reported relative stability in some cognitive functions but abnormal developmental trajectories in verbal memory, set shifting, aspects of attention, and speed of information processing...

  3. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and early-onset bipolar disorder: two facets of one entity?

    OpenAIRE

    Zepf, Florian D.

    2009-01-01

    Early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficithyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have recently been the subject of highly controversial debate, due to theories regarding underlying pathophysiological processes and a clinical overlap of symptoms. Epidemiological data, clinical aspect, neuroimaging, neurochemical, and genetic studies suggest that there may be a possible relationship between biological factors and clinical characteristic in the development of symptoms. However, longitudinal ...

  4. Bilateral rib-to-pelvis technique for managing early-onset scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John T

    2011-05-01

    Early-onset scoliosis describes progressive spinal deformity of varying etiologies in the growing child. The management of early-onset scoliosis is challenging, with many treatment options but no conclusive evidence for the best treatment method. We describe a bilateral percutaneous rib-to-pelvis technique, present our early experience with this technique in patients with early-onset scoliosis, identify adverse events, and determine whether these are comparable to those for other current techniques. The VEPTR(®) device is placed through three small incisions that allow for attachment of rib hooks bilaterally at the upper end and through pelvic hooks at the distal end, providing distraction forces to correct the deformity while allowing for growth. We retrospectively reviewed all 37 patients with early-onset scoliosis treated with the bilateral rib-to-pelvis VEPTR(®) technique from 2003 and 2009. Patients were evaluated for demographics, diagnosis, curve correction, and adverse events and divided into two groups: ambulatory and nonambulatory. The 18 ambulatory patients underwent 139 procedures and the 19 nonambulatory patients underwent 100 procedures. Average followups were 84 and 64 months in the ambulatory and nonambulatory groups, respectively. The rate of adverse events per procedure was 13%. Thirty-nine percent of ambulatory patients developed a marked crouched gait over time. The rate of adverse events in the nonambulatory group was 15%. This technique appears a reasonable alternative to growing rods for the management of early-onset scoliosis in nonambulatory children due to the low rate of adverse events. Due to the increased incidence of crouched gait, we have abandoned this technique in ambulatory children unless there is no option to attach the distal fixation to the spine.

  5. Dissecting Allele Architecture of Early Onset IBD Using High-Density Genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, David J; Zwick, Michael E; Okou, David T; Prahalad, Sampath; Walters, Thomas; Guthery, Stephen L; Dubinsky, Marla; Baldassano, Robert; Crandall, Wallace V; Rosh, Joel; Markowitz, James; Stephens, Michael; Kellermayer, Richard; Pfefferkorn, Marian; Heyman, Melvin B; LeLeiko, Neal; Mack, David; Moulton, Dedrick; Kappelman, Michael D; Kumar, Archana; Prince, Jarod; Bose, Promita; Mondal, Kajari; Ramachandran, Dhanya; Bohnsack, John F; Griffiths, Anne M; Haberman, Yael; Essers, Jonah; Thompson, Susan D; Aronow, Bruce; Keljo, David J; Hyams, Jeffrey S; Denson, Lee A; Kugathasan, Subra

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are common, complex disorders in which genetic and environmental factors are believed to interact leading to chronic inflammatory responses against the gut microbiota. Earlier genetic studies performed in mostly adult population of European descent identified 163 loci affecting IBD risk, but most have relatively modest effect sizes, and altogether explain only ~20% of the genetic susceptibility. Pediatric onset represents about 25% of overall incident cases in IBD, characterized by distinct disease physiology, course and risks. The goal of this study is to compare the allelic architecture of early onset IBD with adult onset in population of European descent. We performed a fine mapping association study of early onset IBD using high-density Immunochip genotyping on 1008 pediatric-onset IBD cases (801 Crohn's disease; 121 ulcerative colitis and 86 IBD undetermined) and 1633 healthy controls. Of the 158 SNP genotypes obtained (out of the 163 identified in adult onset), this study replicated 4% (5 SNPs out of 136) of the SNPs identified in the Crohn's disease (CD) cases and 0.8% (1 SNP out of 128) in the ulcerative colitis (UC) cases. Replicated SNPs implicated the well known NOD2 and IL23R. The point estimate for the odds ratio (ORs) for NOD2 was above and outside the confidence intervals reported in adult onset. A polygenic liability score weakly predicted the age of onset for a larger collection of CD cases (parchitecture of common susceptibility variants for early onset IBD is similar to that of adult onset. This immunochip genotyping study failed to identify additional common variants that may explain the distinct phenotype that characterize early onset IBD. A comprehensive dissection of genetic loci is necessary to further characterize the genetic architecture of early onset IBD.

  6. Early-onset neonatal group B streptococcus sepsis following national risk-based prevention guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, Brian A; Voss, Lesley; Lennon, Diana R; Grimwood, Keith

    2016-02-01

    Neonatal infection with group B streptococcus (GBS) is an important cause of infant mortality. Intrapartum antibiotics reduce early-onset GBS sepsis, but recommendations vary as to whether they should be offered following antenatal screening or based on risk factors alone. We aimed to determine the incidence of early-onset GBS sepsis in New Zealand five years after the publication of national risk-based GBS prevention guidelines. Prospective surveillance of early-onset GBS sepsis (defined as infection in the first 48 h of life) was undertaken between April 2009 and March 2011 through the auspices of the New Zealand Paediatric Surveillance Unit as part of a survey of infection presenting in the first week of life. There were 29 cases of confirmed early-onset GBS sepsis, including one case of meningitis, giving an incidence rate of 0.23 per 1000 (95% CI 0.16-0.33) live births. Three infants (10.3%) died. In 16 cases (55%), a maternal risk factor qualifying the mother for intrapartum antibiotics was present, but only five (31%) received this intervention. A retrospective review of the major hospital laboratory databases for this period identified two additional cases. A secondary sensitivity analysis taking account of these cases provided an estimated national incidence of 0.26 (95% CI 0.18-0.37) per 1000 live births. Ten years after a similar survey and five years after promoting a single, risk-based prevention protocol nationally, the incidence of early-onset GBS disease in New Zealand has more than halved, but opportunities remain to further reduce the rate. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. Dissecting Allele Architecture of Early Onset IBD Using High-Density Genotyping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Cutler

    Full Text Available The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are common, complex disorders in which genetic and environmental factors are believed to interact leading to chronic inflammatory responses against the gut microbiota. Earlier genetic studies performed in mostly adult population of European descent identified 163 loci affecting IBD risk, but most have relatively modest effect sizes, and altogether explain only ~20% of the genetic susceptibility. Pediatric onset represents about 25% of overall incident cases in IBD, characterized by distinct disease physiology, course and risks. The goal of this study is to compare the allelic architecture of early onset IBD with adult onset in population of European descent.We performed a fine mapping association study of early onset IBD using high-density Immunochip genotyping on 1008 pediatric-onset IBD cases (801 Crohn's disease; 121 ulcerative colitis and 86 IBD undetermined and 1633 healthy controls. Of the 158 SNP genotypes obtained (out of the 163 identified in adult onset, this study replicated 4% (5 SNPs out of 136 of the SNPs identified in the Crohn's disease (CD cases and 0.8% (1 SNP out of 128 in the ulcerative colitis (UC cases. Replicated SNPs implicated the well known NOD2 and IL23R. The point estimate for the odds ratio (ORs for NOD2 was above and outside the confidence intervals reported in adult onset. A polygenic liability score weakly predicted the age of onset for a larger collection of CD cases (p< 0.03, R2= 0.007, but not for the smaller number of UC cases.The allelic architecture of common susceptibility variants for early onset IBD is similar to that of adult onset. This immunochip genotyping study failed to identify additional common variants that may explain the distinct phenotype that characterize early onset IBD. A comprehensive dissection of genetic loci is necessary to further characterize the genetic architecture of early onset IBD.

  8. Study protocol: EXERcise and cognition in sedentary adults with early-ONset dementia (EXERCISE-ON).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooghiemstra, Astrid M; Eggermont, Laura H P; Scheltens, Philip; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Bakker, Jet; de Greef, Mathieu H G; Koppe, Peter A; Scherder, Erik J A

    2012-08-16

    Although the development of early-onset dementia is a radical and invalidating experience for both patient and family there are hardly any non-pharmacological studies that focus on this group of patients. One type of a non-pharmacological intervention that appears to have a beneficial effect on cognition in older persons without dementia and older persons at risk for dementia is exercise. In view of their younger age early-onset dementia patients may be well able to participate in an exercise program. The main aim of the EXERCISE-ON study is to assess whether exercise slows down the progressive course of the symptoms of dementia. One hundred and fifty patients with early-onset dementia are recruited. After completion of the baseline measurements, participants living within a 50 kilometre radius to one of the rehabilitation centres are randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise program in a rehabilitation centre or a flexibility and relaxation program in a rehabilitation centre. Both programs are applied three times a week during 3 months. Participants living outside the 50 kilometre radius are included in a feasibility study where participants join in a daily physical activity program set at home making use of pedometers. Measurements take place at baseline (entry of the study), after three months (end of the exercise program) and after six months (follow-up). Primary outcomes are cognitive functioning; psychomotor speed and executive functioning; (instrumental) activities of daily living, and quality of life. Secondary outcomes include physical, neuropsychological, and rest-activity rhythm measures. The EXERCISE-ON study is the first study to offer exercise programs to patients with early-onset dementia. We expect this study to supply evidence regarding the effects of exercise on the symptoms of early-onset dementia, influencing quality of life. The present study is registered within The Netherlands National Trial Register (ref: NTR2124).

  9. Parental and Child Characteristics Related to Early-Onset Disordered Eating: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Micali, Nadia; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2015-01-01

    After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to: Evaluate the evidence regarding parental and child characteristics related to early-onset disordered eating. Eating disorders are rare in children, but disordered eating is common. Understanding the phenomenology of disordered eating in childhood can aid prevention of full-blown eating disorders. The purpose of this review is to systematically extract and synthesize the evidence on parental and child characteristics related to early-onset disordered eating. Systematic searches were conducted in PubMED/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycInfo using the following search terms: eating disorder, disordered eating, problem eating, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating, child, preadolescent, and early onset. Studies published from 1990 to 2013 addressing parental and child characteristics of disordered eating in children aged 6 to 12 years were eligible for inclusion. The search was restricted to studies with cross-sectional, case-control, or longitudinal designs, studies in English, and with abstracts available. Forty-four studies fit these criteria. Most studies were based on community samples with a cross-sectional design. The included studies varied considerably in size, instruments used to assess early-onset disordered eating, and parental and child characteristics investigated. Important determinants included the following: higher body weight, previously reported disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, depression, parental disordered eating, and parental comments/concerns about child's weight and eating. The findings were inconsistent for sex, age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, self-esteem/worth, and parental body weight. In conclusion, characteristics related to early-onset disordered eating have mainly been explored with a cross-sectional design. Full understanding of causal pathways will require good-quality longitudinal studies designed to address the influence of parental eating

  10. Risk Factors for Early-Onset Peritonitis in Southern Chinese Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haishan; Huang, Rong; Yi, Chunyan; Wu, Juan; Guo, Qunying; Zhou, Qian; Yu, Xueqing; Yang, Xiao

    ♦ BACKGROUND: Early peritonitis was confirmed to be associated with a higher risk of early technique failure. However, literature concerning peritonitis within the first 3 months of peritoneal dialysis (PD) initiation is scarce. The present study was to investigate risk factors associated with early-onset peritonitis in PD patients. ♦ METHODS: In this retrospective observational cohort study, all incident PD patients from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2013, were recruited and followed up until December 31, 2014. According to time-to-first episode of peritonitis, patients were divided into early-onset (≤ 3 months) peritonitis and late-onset (> 3 months) peritonitis. Baseline demographic, clinical, and laboratory data, as well as episodes of peritonitis, were collected. Risk factors associated with early-onset peritonitis were evaluated using logistic regression model. ♦ RESULTS: Of 1,690 patients on PD, 503 (29.8%) developed at least 1 episode of peritonitis and 118 (7.0%) patients presented the first episodes of peritonitis within the first 3 months. A multivariate logistic analysis showed that higher body mass index (BMI) (odds ratio [OR] 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 - 1.15, p = 0.034), hypoalbuminemia (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.11 - 2.78, p = 0.017), and catheter exit-site infection (OR 4.14, 95% CI 2.45 - 7.00, p peritonitis. Compared to those with late-onset, patients with early-onset peritonitis had a higher overall peritonitis rate (0.76 vs 0.38 per patient-year, p 0.05). ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Higher BMI, hypoalbuminemia, and catheter exit-site infection were the risk factors associated with early-onset peritonitis in PD patients. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  11. Study protocol: EXERcise and Cognition In Sedentary adults with Early-ONset dementia (EXERCISE-ON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooghiemstra Astrid M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the development of early-onset dementia is a radical and invalidating experience for both patient and family there are hardly any non-pharmacological studies that focus on this group of patients. One type of a non-pharmacological intervention that appears to have a beneficial effect on cognition in older persons without dementia and older persons at risk for dementia is exercise. In view of their younger age early-onset dementia patients may be well able to participate in an exercise program. The main aim of the EXERCISE-ON study is to assess whether exercise slows down the progressive course of the symptoms of dementia. Methods/Design One hundred and fifty patients with early-onset dementia are recruited. After completion of the baseline measurements, participants living within a 50 kilometre radius to one of the rehabilitation centres are randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise program in a rehabilitation centre or a flexibility and relaxation program in a rehabilitation centre. Both programs are applied three times a week during 3 months. Participants living outside the 50 kilometre radius are included in a feasibility study where participants join in a daily physical activity program set at home making use of pedometers. Measurements take place at baseline (entry of the study, after three months (end of the exercise program and after six months (follow-up. Primary outcomes are cognitive functioning; psychomotor speed and executive functioning; (instrumental activities of daily living, and quality of life. Secondary outcomes include physical, neuropsychological, and rest-activity rhythm measures. Discussion The EXERCISE-ON study is the first study to offer exercise programs to patients with early-onset dementia. We expect this study to supply evidence regarding the effects of exercise on the symptoms of early-onset dementia, influencing quality of life. Trial registration The present study is registered

  12. Association of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism with early-onset bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassan, Malik; Croarkin, Paul E; Luby, Joan L; Veldic, Marin; Joshi, Paramjit T; McElroy, Susan L; Post, Robert M; Walkup, John T; Cercy, Kelly; Geske, Jennifer R; Wagner, Karen D; Cuellar-Barboza, Alfredo B; Casuto, Leah; Lavebratt, Catharina; Schalling, Martin; Jensen, Peter S; Biernacka, Joanna M; Frye, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met (rs6265) functional polymorphism has been implicated in early-onset bipolar disorder. However, results of studies are inconsistent. We aimed to further explore this association. DNA samples from the Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) and Mayo Clinic Bipolar Disorder Biobank were investigated for association of rs6265 with early-onset bipolar disorder. Bipolar cases were classified as early onset if the first manic or depressive episode occurred at age ≤19 years (versus adult-onset cases at age >19 years). After quality control, 69 TEAM early-onset bipolar disorder cases, 725 Mayo Clinic bipolar disorder cases (including 189 early-onset cases), and 764 controls were included in the analysis of association, assessed with logistic regression assuming log-additive allele effects. Comparison of TEAM cases with controls suggested association of early-onset bipolar disorder with the rs6265 minor allele [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, p = 0.04]. Although comparison of early-onset adult bipolar disorder cases from the Mayo Clinic versus controls was not statistically significant, the OR estimate indicated the same direction of effect (OR = 1.21, p = 0.19). When the early-onset TEAM and Mayo Clinic early-onset adult groups were combined and compared with the control group, the association of the minor allele rs6265 was statistically significant (OR = 1.30, p = 0.04). These preliminary analyses of a relatively small sample with early-onset bipolar disorder are suggestive that functional variation in BDNF is implicated in bipolar disorder risk and may have a more significant role in early-onset expression of the disorder. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Risk Factors for Early-Onset and Very-Early-Onset Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: A Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Robert R; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Bamlet, William R; Petersen, Gloria M; Li, Donghui; Risch, Harvey A; Yu, Herbert; Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Luckett, Brian; Bosetti, Cristina; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo; Talamini, Renato; Bueno de Mesquita, H Bas; Bracci, Paige; Gallinger, Steven; Neale, Rachel E; Lowenfels, Albert B

    2016-02-01

    While pancreatic cancer (PC) most often affects older adults, to date, there has been no comprehensive assessment of risk factors among PC patients younger than 60 years. We defined early-onset PC (EOPC) and very-early-onset PC (VEOPC) as diagnosis of PC in patients younger than 60 and 45 years, respectively. We pooled data from 8 case-control studies, including 1954 patients with EOPC and 3278 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify associations with EOPC and VEOPC. Family history of PC, diabetes mellitus, smoking, obesity, and pancreatitis were associated with EOPC. Alcohol use equal to or greater than 26 g daily also was associated with increased risk of EOPC (odds ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.84), and there appeared to be a dose- and age-dependent effect of alcohol on risk. The point estimate for risk of VEOPC was an odds ratio of 2.18 (95% confidence interval, 1.17-4.09). The established risk factors for PC, including smoking, diabetes, family history of PC, and obesity, also apply to EOPC. Alcohol intake appeared to have an age-dependent effect; the strongest association was with VEOPC.

  14. Risk Factors for Early-Onset and Very-Early-Onset Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: A Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Robert R; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Bamlet, William R; Petersen, Gloria M; Li, Donghui; Risch, Harvey; Yu, Herbert; Fontham, Elizabeth TH; Luckett, Brian; Bosetti, Cristina; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo; Talamini, Renato; Bueno de Mesquita, H Bas; Bracci, Paige; Gallinger, Steven; Neale, Rachel E; Lowenfels, Albert B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives While pancreatic cancer (PC) most often affects older adults, to date, there has been no comprehensive assessment of risk factors among PC patients under age 60. Methods We defined early onset PC (EOPC) and very early onset PC (VEOPC) as diagnosis of PC under ages 60 and 45, respectively. We pooled data from eight case-control studies, including 1,954 patients with EOPC and 3,278 age- and sex-matched controls. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify associations with EOPC and VEOPC. Results Family history of PC, diabetes mellitus, smoking, obesity, and pancreatitis were associated with EOPC. Alcohol use ≥26 g daily also was associated with increased risk for EOPC (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.21-1.84), and there appeared to be a dose-and age-dependent effect of alcohol on risk. The point estimate for risk for VEOPC was OR 2.18, (95% CI 1.17-4.09). Conclusion The established risk factors for PC, including smoking, diabetes, family history of PC, and obesity also apply to EOPC. Alcohol intake appeared to have an age-dependent effect; the strongest association was with VEOPC. PMID:26646264

  15. Prediction of complications in early-onset pre-eclampsia (PREP): development and external multinational validation of prognostic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thangaratinam, Shakila; Allotey, John; Marlin, Nadine; Dodds, Julie; Cheong-See, Fiona; von Dadelszen, Peter; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Akkermans, Joost; Kerry, Sally; Mol, Ben W.; Moons, Karl G. M.; Riley, Richard D.; Khan, Khalid S.; Sundararajah, Raajkumar; Nejad, Avideah; Khan, Rehan; Burrell, Celia; Gupta, Manish; Oon, Vincent; Kadir, Rezan; Ramsey-Marcelle, Zeudi; Page, Louise; Thilaganathan, Baskaran; Martin, Bill; Bakour, Shagaf Haj; Morsi, Hassan; Churchill, David; O'Mahony, Fidelma; Powell, Karen; Srinivasan, Jayasree; Mohajer, Michele; Quenby, Siobhan; Thirumalaikumar, Lakshmi; Konje, Justin; Thornton, Jim; Bugg, George; Mackenzie, Shonag; Ullal, Aarti; Smith, Marie; Arya, Rita; Cunnigham, Simon; Walker, James; Simpson, Nigel; Page, Joanne; Oxby, Claire; Watkins, Karen; Tuffnell, Derek; Bober, S.; Wijesiriwardana, A.; Brandon, Helene; El-Badawy, Saif; Brigham, Sara; Shorinola, Lanre; Khunda, Aethele; Kalla, Shaku; Agha, Mohammed M. Abdullah; Poku, Stephen; Olawo, Ayo; Amu, Johnson; Banfield, Philip; Majoko, Franz; Alcide, Julia; Rajeswary, Jyothi; Salloum, Marwan; Rees, Alexandra; Oteri, Odiri; Ikhena, Sunday; Creswell, Janet; Dawood, Feroza; Agarwal, Umber

    2017-01-01

    Unexpected clinical deterioration before 34 weeks gestation is an undesired course in early-onset pre-eclampsia. To safely prolong preterm gestation, accurate and timely prediction of complications is required. Women with confirmed early onset pre-eclampsia were recruited from 53 maternity units in

  16. Prediction of complications in early-onset pre-eclampsia (PREP) : Development and external multinational validation of prognostic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thangaratinam, Shakila; Allotey, John; Marlin, Nadine; Dodds, Julie; Cheong-See, Fiona; von Dadelszen, Peter; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Akkermans, Joost; Kerry, Sally; Mol, Ben W.; Moons, Karl G.M.; Riley, Richard D.; Khan, Khalid S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Unexpected clinical deterioration before 34 weeks gestation is an undesired course in early-onset pre-eclampsia. To safely prolong preterm gestation, accurate and timely prediction of complications is required. Method: Women with confirmed early onset pre-eclampsia were recruited from 53

  17. Phenotype Characteristics of Fellow Eyes in Patients With Early Onset of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schick, T.; Ersoy, L.; Hoyng, C.B.; Kirchhof, B.; Liakopoulos, S.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate phenotype characteristics of fellow eyes in patients with early onset of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD). METHODS: Patients with new-onset unilateral NVAMD between 50 and 65 years (n = 57, early-onset choroidal neovascularization [CNV] group) or >80

  18. The role of temperament in the relationship between early onset of tobacco and cannabis use : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, Hanneke E.; Korhonen, Tellervo; Kaprio, Jaakko; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: While temperamental characteristics have been related to the onset of cannabis use, it is not clear at what point(s) along the trajectory from early onset of tobacco use (EOT) to early onset of cannabis use (EOC) these characteristics exert their impact. This study examined if (1)

  19. [The relationship between accommodative accuracy at different near-work distances and early-onset myopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Q W; Zhang, P; Zhou, S B; Hu, Y; Ji, M X; Luo, Y C; You, H L; Yao, Z X

    2016-07-01

    To observe the accommodative accuracy of children with early-onset myopia at different near-work distances, and discuss the relationship between accommodative accuracy and early-onset myopia. This was a case-control study. Thirty-seven emmetropic children, 41 early-onset myopic children without correction, and 39 early-onset myopic children with spectacles, aged 7 to 13 years, were included. Measures of refractive errors and accommodative accuracy at four near-work distances, including 50 cm, 40 cm, 30 cm, and 20 cm, were made using the binocular fusion cross cylinder (FCC) of an automatic phoropter. Most candidates showed accommodative lags, including the children with emmetropia. The ratio of lags in all candidates at different near-work distances was 75.21% (50 cm), 87.18% (40 cm), 92.31% (30 cm), and 98.29% (20 cm), respectively. All accommodative accuracies became worse, and the accommodative lag ratio and values of FCC increased, along with the shortening of the distance. The difference in accommodative accuracy among groups was statistically significant at 30 cm (χ(2)=7.852, P= 0.020) and 20 cm (χ(2)=6.480, P=0.039). The values of FCC among groups were significantly different at 30 cm (F=3.626, P=0.030) and 20 cm (F=3.703, P=0.028), but not at 50 cm and 40 cm (P>0.05). In addition, the FCC values of 30 cm and 20 cm had a statistically significant difference between myopic children without correction [(1.25±0.44) D and (1.76±0.43) D] and emmetropic children [(0.95±0.52) D and (1.41±0.58) D] (P=0.012, 0.008). The correlation between diopters of myopia and accommodative accuracy at different nearwork distances was not statistically significant (P>0.05). However, the correlation between diopters of myopia and the accommodative lag value (FCC) at 20 cm was statistically significant (r=0.246, P=0.028). The closer the near-work distance is, the worse the accommodative accuracy is. This is more significant in early-onset myopia, especially myopia without

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging studies in early-onset bipolar disorder: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Jean A; Ahn, Mary S; DeJong, Sandra; Bent, Eileen K; Breeze, Janis L; Giuliano, Anthony J

    2005-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) are important in order to establish a fuller understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of the illness. The advantages of studying BD in children and adolescents include the relative absence of some confounds present in adult-onset research, such as lengthy duration of illness and exposure to treatments, greater number of mood episodes, and the presence of substance abuse or dependence. Finally, studying youths with the disorder may enhance our knowledge about the neural mechanisms of affective dysregulation and may specifically elucidate whether there are abnormalities that are unique to the early-onset form of the illness. PubMed was used to identify peer-reviewed publications from the past 15 years (January 1990 to January 2005) that used brain-imaging techniques (anatomic, functional, and biochemical) to research early-onset BD. Eleven studies using anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), seven using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and two using functional MRI (fMRI) were identified. Structural abnormalities were reported in total cerebral, white matter, superior temporal gyrus, putamen, thalamus, amygdala, and hippocampal volumes. Deficits in cortical gray matter were also reported. Using MRS, abnormalities were reported in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and basal ganglia. One fMRI study found increased activation in the putamen and thalamus of BD youths compared to controls, and a second found abnormal prefrontal-subcortical activation in familial pediatric BD. Published MRI studies of early-onset BD are few. Nonetheless, extant data implicate abnormalities in brain regions thought to regulate mood and cognition. Synthesis of the findings into an overall model of anatomic and functional disruption is difficult due to the methodological variations among studies and the limitations of individual studies, such as the use of small sample sizes, the heterogeneity of

  1. Polymorphisms of catechol-0-methyltransferase (COMT), monoamine oxidase B (MAOB), N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) and cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) gene in patients with early onset of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialecka, M; Klodowska-Duda, G; Honczarenko, K; Gawrońska-Szklarz, B; Opala, G; Safranow, K; Droździk, M

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of MAOB, COMT, NAT2 and CYP2D6 gene polymorphisms to early onset Parkinson's disease (PD). The study enrolled 134 patients with Parkinson's disease (early onset-EOPD--67 patients, and late onset--LOPD--patients), and 66 healthy individuals. Polymerane chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods were used for genotyping. Univariate analysis revealed a significant two-fold higher EOPD risk among carriers of MAOB allele A or AA genotype. Multivariate analysis revealed that MAOB allele A was an independent factor predisposing to EOPD. It was shown that neither NAT2, CYP2D6 nor COMT genotype was associated with PD.

  2. Abnormalities in chromosome 6q24 as a cause of early-onset, non-obese, non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus without history of neonatal diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, T; Matsubara, K; Sakakibara, A; Hashimoto, Y; Kawakita, R; Hosokawa, Y; Fujimaru, R; Murakami, A; Tamagawa, N; Hatake, K; Nagasaka, H; Suzuki, J; Urakami, T; Izawa, M; Kagami, M

    2015-07-01

    Abnormalities in the imprinted locus on chromosome 6q24 are the most common causes of transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (6q24-related transient neonatal diabetes). 6q24-Related transient neonatal diabetes is characterized by the patient being small-for-gestational age, diabetes mellitus at birth, spontaneous remission within the first few months and frequent recurrence of diabetes after childhood. However, it is not clear whether individuals with 6q24 abnormalities invariably develop transient neonatal diabetes. This study explored the possibility that 6q24 abnormalities might cause early-onset, non-autoimmune diabetes without transient neonatal diabetes. The 6q24 imprinted locus was screened for abnormalities in 113 Japanese patients with early-onset, non-obese, non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus who tested negative for mutations in the common maturation-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) genes and without a history of transient neonatal diabetes. Positive patients were further analysed by combined loss of heterozygosity / comparative genomic hybridization analysis and by microsatellite analysis. Detailed clinical data were collected through the medical records of the treating hospitals. Three patients with paternal uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 6q24 were identified. None presented with hyperglycaemia in the neonatal period. Characteristically, these patients were born small-for-gestational age, representing 27.2% of the 11 patients whose birth weight standard deviation score (SDS) for gestational age was below -2.0. Abnormalities in the imprinted locus on chromosome 6q24 do not necessarily cause transient neonatal diabetes. Non-penetrant 6q24-related diabetes could be an underestimated cause of early-onset, non-autoimmune diabetes in patients who are not obese and born small-for-gestational age. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  3. Early onset alcohol dependence with high density of family history is not "male limited".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Asa; Göransson, Mona; Heilig, Markus

    2010-03-01

    Based on classical adoption studies, early onset type II alcoholism was originally described as "male limited." We examined the possible expression of this subtype in present day alcohol-dependent women. Detailed systematic assessment was obtained from 200 treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent women and 189 healthy population controls. Women fulfilling type II alcoholism criteria had higher alcoholism severity as measured by The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and markedly higher use of illicit drugs. Both alcoholism subtypes scored higher than normal on anxiety and impulsivity traits, but type II women scored markedly higher on aggression subscales than either of the other groups. Importantly, density of family history was markedly higher in type II women, suggesting a higher heritability. Despite its original description as male limited, early onset alcoholism with high density of family history is likely to be a valid construct in women. Its recognition has important implications for diagnosis, treatment, and research. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Probable early-onset Alzheimer's disease in an apolipoprotein E2 homozygote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Lauren; Belden, Christine; Jacobson, Sandra; Liebsack, Carolyn; Myers, Kent; Reninger, Cornelia; Berk, Camryn; Sabbagh, Marwan N

    2010-01-01

    To describe a case of early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) in an apolipoprotein (Apo) ε2/ε2 homozygote. Apo ε2/ε2 is the rarest of the ApoE genotypes, representing only 1.4% of the population. Cognitive decline in ApoE ε2 homozygotes has rarely been reported. We report a 58-year-old Apo ε2/ε2 female who meets clinical criteria for probable AD as confirmed by neuropsychological testing, positron emission/computed tomography scan, CSF analysis and genetic screening for known mutations. The clinical course is typical of AD, with progressive cognitive and functional decline. Clinically confirmed early-onset AD is atypical in ApoE2 homozygotes but can occur. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. IKs Gain- and Loss-of-Function In Early-Onset Lone Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Annette Buur; Refsgaard, Lena; Andersen, Martin Nybo

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent cardiac arrhythmia. The potassium current IKs is essential for cardiac repolarization. Gain-of-function mutation in KCNQ1, the gene encoding the pore-forming α-subunit of the IKs channel (KV 7.1), was the first ion channel dysfunction...... to be associated with familial AF. We hypothesized that early-onset lone AF is associated with a high prevalence of mutations in KCNQ1. METHODS AND RESULTS: We bidirectionally sequenced the entire coding sequence of KCNQ1 in 209 unrelated patients with early-onset lone AF (... the identified mutations functionally in a heterologous expression system. We found four non-synonymous KCNQ1 mutations (A46T, R195W, A302V, and R670K) in 4 unrelated patients (38, 31, 39, and 36 years, respectively). None of the mutations were present in the control group (n = 416 alleles). No other mutations...

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MATERNAL AND PERINATAL OUTCOME IN EARLY ONSET AND LATE ONSET PREECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedevi Atluri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Preeclampsia is the leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, the exact aetiology of which is still unknown. The concept of early and late pre-eclampsia depending on gestational age at onset is more modern and is widely accepted that these two entities have different aetiologies and should be considered as different forms of the disease. Even though the presenting features overlap, these two entities of preeclampsia differ by biochemical markers, maternal and foetal outcomes. Aim of the Study- This study compares early-onset preeclampsia and late-onset preeclampsia with respect to their clinical presentation, laboratory parameters, management options, maternal and foetal outcomes which gives us an idea that these two preeclampsia subtypes have different pathological processes and a need for varied clinical approach to prevent adverse outcomes. METHODS This is a prospective comparative study conducted in JSS Hospital, Mysore from November, 2014 to June, 2016. All Antenatal cases (both booked and unbooked with gestational age ≥20 weeks between 18 yrs. and 40 yrs. of age diagnosed as preeclampsia as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria attending the outpatient department or admitted were selected and divided in to two groups, early onset preeclampsia (EOP group if gestational age at onset of preeclampsia is before 34 weeks and late onset preeclampsia if gestational age at onset is at 34 weeks or later were observed until delivery and early postpartum period and babies till early neonatal period. RESULTS A total of 158 patients at >20 weeks of gestation with preeclampsia were enrolled for this study. Early-onset Preeclampsia (EOP and Late-onset Preeclampsia (LOP had 75 and 83 pre eclamptic women respectively. Early onset group had severe clinical picture with deranged laboratory findings (Thrombocytopenia, altered liver enzymes, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH levels, urea and creatinine levels compared to

  7. The unique pathophysiology of early-onset severe preeclampsia: role of decidual T regulatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Kristen H; Lacoursiere, D Yvette; Cui, Li; Bui, Jack; Parast, Mana M

    2011-09-01

    Immunological mechanisms play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. T regulatory cells (Treg cells, FoxP3(+)) suppress the cytotoxic T cell (CD8(+)) and natural killer (NK) cell response, thereby promoting immunological tolerance to the fetus. In peripheral blood, Treg cells are elevated during pregnancy, decrease throughout gestation, and are decreased in preeclampsia. To determine their role at the implantation site, we characterized the proportion of decidual Treg and CD8+ cells, and compared these with placental histology, villous sFlt expression, and chorionic trophoblast apoptotic index in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies. Decidua from first (n=5) and second (n=4) trimester terminations and chorioamniotic membranes, containing decidua, from term deliveries (n=14), early-onset (≤ 34 weeks) (n=12), and late-onset (>34 weeks) (n=14) severe preeclampsia were evaluated. Immunohistochemistry for CD3, CD8, and FoxP3 was performed: CD8(+) and FoxP3(+) cells were calculated as a proportion of CD3(+) cells. Placental tissue was evaluated for villous hypermaturity and sFlt staining. Chorioamniotic membranes were evaluated, via TUNEL assay, for chorionic trophoblast apoptosis. Decidual Treg cells were seen to peak in second trimester and decrease with advancing gestational age and were lower in early-onset (0.46%) compared with late-onset severe preeclampsia (3.34%) and term pregnancies (5.21%). The proportion of CD8(+) cells was higher in cases of severe preeclampsia. Early-onset severe preeclamptic cases had the highest sFlt score, placental insufficiency score, and apoptotic index. Our data suggest that early-onset severe preeclampsia has a unique pathophysiology involving defective immunoregulatory pathways, potentially causing vascular and trophoblast damage at the implantation site. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reduced life expectancy seen in hereditary diseases which predispose to early-onset tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Evans DGR; Ingham SL

    2013-01-01

    D Gareth R Evans,1 Sarah Louise Ingham21Genetic Medicine, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Central Manchester Foundation Trust, St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, UK; 2Centre for Health Informatics, Institute of Population Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UKAbstract: There are several hereditary diseases that are a predisposition to early-onset tumors. These include syndromic conditions like neurofibromatosis 1 and 2, von Hippel–Lindau syndrome, Gorli...

  9. Homozygous partial genomic triplication of the parkin gene in early-onset parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Ignacio F; Alvarez, Victoria; Coto, Eliecer; Blazquez, Marta; Guisasola, Luis M; Salvador, Carlos; Kachergus, Jennifer M; Lincoln, Sarah J; Farrer, Matthew

    2005-06-03

    Autosomal recessive mutations in the parkin gene are the predominant cause of familial, early-onset parkinsonism; missense mutations involving one or a few nucleotides, exonic deletions and duplications have been described. Here we report a family with two affected brothers. Direct sequencing of parkin did not detect mutations, but semi-quantitative analysis identified a novel exonic rearrangement of exons 2-4. Both patients were homozygous for unique genomic triplications of the parkin gene.

  10. Job Loss After Diagnosis of Early-Onset Dementia: A Matched Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sakata, Nobuo; Okumura, Yasuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Early-onset dementia (EOD) affects the employment of patients and family members. To demonstrate how likely employees are to leave their jobs after an EOD diagnosis for themselves or a family member, we conducted a matched cohort study of 143 employees and 77 family members diagnosed with EOD using a claims database. We matched these participants to 5 controls each, and followed them for approximately 600 days. In the employee cohort, patients with EOD were more likely to leave their jobs tha...

  11. A systematic review of the long-term outcome of early onset schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars; Vernal, Ditte Lammers; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The current review analyzes the long-term outcome and prognosis of early onset schizophrenia based on previously published studies onset schizophrenia based on previously published studies in 1980. METHODS: A systematic search of articles published in the English-language...... and adolescence still carries a particularly poor prognosis. According to these aggregated data analyses, longer follow-up periods, male sex, and patients having been diagnosed before 1970 contribute predominantly to the rather poor course of EOS....

  12. A case of probable non-familial early onset Alzheimer dementia in a Hispanic male

    OpenAIRE

    Ephrussi, Corey; Alweis, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Background: Early onset Alzheimer’s type dementia (EOAD) is usually familial and associated with mutations in the Presenilin-1 (PSEN1), Presenilin-2 (PSEN2) or amyloid precursor protein (APP) genes. It is rarely reported in patients of Hispanic descent. Case report: A 49-year-old Hispanic male developed significant cognitive impairment over a 4-year period. PET scan showed diminished metabolic activity in the posterior parietal/temporal lobes. Genetic testing revealed the presence of a PSEN1 ...

  13. Late Onset Streptococcus agalactiae Meningitis following Early Onset Septicemia: A Preventable Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Hon, Kam Lun; Chan, King Hang; Ko, Pak Long; So, King Woon; Leung, Alexander K. C.

    2017-01-01

    We report a neonate who presented with early onset Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) septicemia within 24 hours of birth. After discharge at day 14, she went on to develop late onset GBS meningitis at 36 days of age. The infant was treated with intravenous antibiotics on both occasions and eventually discharged home with no apparent sequelae. We address issues associated with GBS infection in infancy including the demographics, risk factors, and the risk of late onset GB...

  14. Does Diagnostic Classification of Early-Onset Psychosis Change over Follow-Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraguas, David; de Castro, Maria J.; Medina, Oscar; Parellada, Mara; Moreno, Dolores; Graell, Montserrat; Merchan-Naranjo, Jessica; Arango, Celso

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the diagnostic stability and the functional outcome of patients with early-onset psychosis (EOP) over a 2-year follow-up period. Methods: A total of 24 patients (18 males (75%) and 6 females (25%), mean age [plus or minus] SD: 15.7 [plus or minus] 1.6 years) with a first episode of EOP formed the sample. Psychotic symptoms…

  15. Case study: early-onset anorexia nervosa in a Chinese boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, K Y; Pang, A H; Wong, C K

    1995-03-01

    In this case study of early-onset anorexia nervosa in a male patient from Hong Kong, clinical features are outlined and compared with those of their Western counterparts. Implications of being the only son in a traditional Chinese family and the process of acculturation and cultural conflicts of growing up in a Western-oriented society are put forward as significant psychodynamic factors in the etiology of his illness.

  16. Expectant management of early-onset severe preeclampsia. Literature review and treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Rendón

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of expectant management in women with severe preeclampsia (PE remote from term is to improve neonatal outcome, without compromising maternal health. Studies suggest that expectant management in early-onset preeclampsia may be associated with decreased neonatal morbidity, but also conclude that further studies are needed to assess maternal safety. The aim of this review is to assess the current issue evidence regarding the management of severe preeclampsia remote from term.

  17. An Unusual Case of Early Onset Persistent Escherichia coli Septicemia Associated with Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin K. Gupta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli infection is very common cause of early onset septicemia especially in very low-birth-weight newborns, but E. coli endocarditis has not been described in newborns. E. coli endocarditis, even in the adult population, is a rare and not well-characterized disease and is associated with high mortality. We report a very unusual presentation of persistent E. coli infection associated with endocarditis.

  18. An Unusual Case of Early Onset Persistent Escherichia coli Septicemia Associated with Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Sachin K.; Nanda, Vishakha; Malviya, Prashant; Jacobs, Norman; Naheed, Z.; Joseph, Tessy

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli infection is very common cause of early onset septicemia especially in very low-birth-weight newborns, but E. coli endocarditis has not been described in newborns. E. coli endocarditis, even in the adult population, is a rare and not well-characterized disease and is associated with high mortality. We report a very unusual presentation of persistent E. coli infection associated with endocarditis.

  19. The impact of initiation: Early onset marijuana smokers demonstrate altered Stroop performance and brain activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Sagar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana (MJ use is on the rise, particularly among teens and emerging adults. This poses serious public health concern, given the potential deleterious effects of MJ on the developing brain. We examined 50 chronic MJ smokers divided into early onset (regular MJ use prior to age 16; n = 24 and late onset (age 16 or later; n = 26, and 34 healthy control participants (HCs. All completed a modified Stroop Color Word Test during fMRI. Results demonstrated that MJ smokers exhibited significantly poorer performance on the Interference subtest of the Stroop, as well as altered patterns of activation in the cingulate cortex relative to HCs. Further, early onset MJ smokers exhibited significantly poorer performance relative to both HCs and late onset smokers. Additionally, earlier age of MJ onset as well as increased frequency and magnitude (grams/week of MJ use were predictive of poorer Stroop performance. fMRI results revealed that while late onset smokers demonstrated a more similar pattern of activation to the control group, a different pattern was evident in the early onset group. These findings underscore the importance of assessing age of onset and patterns of MJ use and support the need for widespread education and intervention efforts among youth.

  20. Functional neuroanatomical associations of working memory in early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobylecki, Christopher; Haense, Cathleen; Harris, Jennifer M; Stopford, Cheryl L; Segobin, Shailendra H; Jones, Matthew; Richardson, Anna M T; Gerhard, Alexander; Anton-Rodriguez, José; Thompson, Jennifer C; Herholz, Karl; Snowden, Julie S

    2017-03-16

    To characterize metabolic correlates of working memory impairment in clinically defined subtypes of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Established models of working memory suggest a key role for frontal lobe function, yet the association in Alzheimer's disease between working memory impairment and visuospatial and language symptoms suggests that temporoparietal neocortical dysfunction may be responsible. Twenty-four patients with predominantly early-onset Alzheimer's disease were clinically classified into groups with predominantly amnestic, multidomain or visual deficits. Patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation focused on the domains of episodic and working memory, T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography data were analysed by using a region-of-interest approach. Patients with multidomain and visual presentations performed more poorly on tests of working memory compared with amnestic Alzheimer's disease. Working memory performance correlated with glucose metabolism in left-sided temporoparietal, but not frontal neocortex. Carriers of the apolipoprotein E4 gene showed poorer episodic memory and better working memory performance compared with noncarriers. Our findings support the hypothesis that working memory changes in early-onset Alzheimer's disease are related to temporoparietal rather than frontal hypometabolism and show dissociation from episodic memory performance. They further support the concept of subtypes of Alzheimer's disease with distinct cognitive profiles due to prominent neocortical dysfunction early in the disease course. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Risk of early-onset prostate cancer associated with occupation in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes Barry, Kathryn; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Alavanja, Michael C. R.

    2017-01-01

    .g. firefighters) (SIR = 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-2.31) and military personnel (SIR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.31-2.85). These SIRs were significantly higher than the SIRs for later-onset disease (for public safety workers, SIR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.07-1.14 and for military personnel, SIR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.......05-1.13; pheterogeneity = 0.005 and 0.002, respectively). Administrators and technical workers also demonstrated significantly increased risks for early-onset prostate cancer, but the SIRs did not differ from those of later-onset disease (pheterogeneity >0.05). While our early-onset finding for public safety workers...... was restricted to the post-PSA period, that for military personnel was restricted to the pre-PSA period. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that occupational exposures, particularly for military personnel, may be associated with early-onset prostate cancer. Further evaluation is needed to explain these findings....

  2. Reduced life expectancy seen in hereditary diseases which predispose to early-onset tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans DGR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available D Gareth R Evans,1 Sarah Louise Ingham21Genetic Medicine, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Central Manchester Foundation Trust, St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, UK; 2Centre for Health Informatics, Institute of Population Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UKAbstract: There are several hereditary diseases that are a predisposition to early-onset tumors. These include syndromic conditions like neurofibromatosis 1 and 2, von Hippel–Lindau syndrome, Gorlin syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia, and familial adenomatous polyposis; and conditions which are usually not possible to diagnose clinically in a single individual, such as Lynch syndrome and BRCA1/2. Understanding of the mortality in hereditary cancer predisposing diseases is important for developing effective disease treatment programs. A number of studies have been undertaken to investigate the genetic predictors, prevalence and incidence, and treatment outcomes of these diseases; however, the majority examine only the most common of these diseases (eg, neurofibromatosis or BRCA, or look into postoperative survival. The mortality of individuals who are diagnosed with one of these hereditary diseases remains an area for investigation. This review is the first to attempt identification of studies investigating life expectancy in hereditary diseases which predispose to early-onset tumors.Keywords: mortality, survival, life expectancy, early-onset, tumors

  3. Impaired contrast sensitivity at low spatial frequency in cannabis users with early onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalanne, Laurence; Ferrand-Devouge, Eglantine; Kirchherr, Sebastien; Rauch, Lucie; Koning, Estelle; Speeg, Claude; Laprevote, Vincent; Giersch, Anne

    2017-12-01

    The regular use of cannabis generates pronounced cognitive disorders, especially in users who begin before the age of 15-16. However, less is known about the impact of regular cannabis on visual function, especially in the case of early onset. Cannabinoid receptors (CB1) are expressed in areas of the visual system, like the thalamus and primary cortex, which might originate sensory disorders. Hence, we measured contrast sensitivity (CS) in three groups, i.e. cannabis users with late onset of cannabis use (after 16 years old), cannabis users with early onset". We used a constant method which allowed us to control for biased responses. Stimuli were presented at high and low spatial frequencies and in both static and dynamic conditions (8Hz). As contrast sensitivity is measured behaviorally based on an explicit response and could thus be impacted by attentional or vigilance disorders, participants' attention and vigilance were carefully monitored by means of the D2 test, CPT-AX for attention and pupillography for vigilance. Cannabis users with early onset were significantly impaired only at low spatial frequency. This effect was independent of response bias, vigilance and attention. These results show for the first time that early cannabis use impacts contrast sensitivity at low spatial frequency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  4. Neurological soft signs in juvenile patients with Asperger syndrome, early-onset psychosis, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral, María; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Rapado, Marta; Leiva, Marta; Moreno, Carmen; Giráldez, Marisa; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2010-11-01

    The study of neurological soft signs (NSS) in patients with Asperger syndrome may help us to elucidate the neurological basis of this disorder and to clarify its relationship with other neurodevelopmental disorders. The goal of this study was to compare the prevalence of NSS in a sample of patients with Asperger syndrome, early-onset psychosis and healthy controls. NSS were assessed by means of the Neurological Evaluation Scale in a sample of 29 patients with Asperger syndrome (mean age = 12.86 ± 2.58 years), 30 patients with first-episode early-onset psychoses (mean age 14.17 ± 1.02 years) and 30 healthy controls (mean age 12.33 ± 2.69 years). Significant group differences were found between Asperger syndrome patients and healthy controls both in all the Neurological Evaluation Scale subscales and in the Neurological Evaluation Scale total score. There were no significant differences between both groups of patients in any of the Neurological Evaluation Scale scores. NSS are more prevalent in Asperger syndrome than in healthy controls. The NSS profile was not disorder-specific in our samples of patients with Asperger syndrome and early-onset psychoses. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Beyond mice: Emerging and transdisciplinary models for the study of early-onset myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagla, Krzysztof; Kalman, Benoit; Boudou, Thomas; Hénon, Sylvie; Batonnet-Pichon, Sabrina

    2017-04-01

    The use of the adapted models to decipher patho-physiological mechanisms of human diseases is always a great challenge. This is of particular importance for early-onset myopathies, in which pathological mutations often impact not only on muscle structure and function but also on developmental processes. Mice are currently the main animal model used to study neuromuscular disorders including the early-onset myopathies. However strategies based on simple animal models and on transdisciplinary approaches exploring mechanical muscle cell properties emerge as attractive, non-exclusive alternatives. These new ways provide valuable opportunities to improve our knowledge on how mechanical, biochemical, and genetic/epigenetic cues modulate the formation, organization and function of muscle tissues. Here we provide an overview of how single cell and micro-tissue engineering in parallel to non-mammalian, Drosophila and zebrafish models could contribute to filling gaps in our understanding of pathogenic mechanisms underlying early-onset myopathies. We also discuss their potential impact on designing new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased genetic vulnerability to smoking at CHRNA5 in early-onset smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartz, Sarah M; Short, Susan E; Saccone, Nancy L; Culverhouse, Robert; Chen, LiShiun; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Coon, Hilary; Han, Younghun; Stephens, Sarah H; Sun, Juzhong; Chen, Xiangning; Ducci, Francesca; Dueker, Nicole; Franceschini, Nora; Frank, Josef; Geller, Frank; Gubjartsson, Daniel; Hansel, Nadia N; Jiang, Chenhui; Keskitalo-Vuokko, Kaisu; Liu, Zhen; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Michel, Martha; Rawal, Rajesh; Rosenberger, Albert; Scheet, Paul; Shaffer, John R; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, John R; Vink, Jacqueline M; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Wheeler, William; Xiao, Xiangjun; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Aggen, Steven H; Balmforth, Anthony J; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Beaty, Terri; Bennett, Siiri; Bergen, Andrew W; Boyd, Heather A; Broms, Ulla; Campbell, Harry; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Jingchun; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Cichon, Sven; Couper, David; Cucca, Francesco; Dick, Danielle M; Foroud, Tatiana; Furberg, Helena; Giegling, Ina; Gu, Fangyi; Hall, Alistair S; Hällfors, Jenni; Han, Shizhong; Hartmann, Annette M; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hewitt, John K; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Jensen, Majken K; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kaakinen, Marika; Kittner, Steven J; Konte, Bettina; Korhonen, Tellervo; Landi, Maria-Teresa; Laatikainen, Tiina; Leppert, Mark; Levy, Steven M; Mathias, Rasika A; McNeil, Daniel W; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Muley, Thomas; Murray, Tanda; Nauck, Matthias; North, Kari; Pergadia, Michele; Polasek, Ozren; Ramos, Erin M; Ripatti, Samuli; Risch, Angela; Ruczinski, Ingo; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Styrkársdóttir, Unnur; Terracciano, Antonio; Uda, Manuela; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wu, Xifeng; Abecasis, Goncalo; Barnes, Kathleen; Bickeböller, Heike; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caporaso, Neil; Duan, Jubao; Edenberg, Howard J; Francks, Clyde; Gejman, Pablo V; Gelernter, Joel; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Hops, Hyman; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Kendler, Kenneth S; Lehtimäki, Terho; Levinson, Douglas F; Marazita, Mary L; Marchini, Jonathan; Melbye, Mads; Mitchell, Braxton D; Murray, Jeffrey C; Nöthen, Markus M; Penninx, Brenda W; Raitakari, Olli; Rietschel, Marcella; Rujescu, Dan; Samani, Nilesh J; Sanders, Alan R; Schwartz, Ann G; Shete, Sanjay; Shi, Jianxin; Spitz, Margaret; Stefansson, Kari; Swan, Gary E; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir; Völzke, Henry; Wei, Qingyi; Wichmann, H-Erich; Amos, Christopher I; Breslau, Naomi; Cannon, Dale S; Ehringer, Marissa; Grucza, Richard; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Heath, Andrew; Johnson, Eric O; Kaprio, Jaakko; Madden, Pamela; Martin, Nicholas G; Stevens, Victoria L; Stitzel, Jerry A; Weiss, Robert B; Kraft, Peter; Bierut, Laura J

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies have shown an association between cigarettes per day (CPD) and a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in CHRNA5, rs16969968. To determine whether the association between rs16969968 and smoking is modified by age at onset of regular smoking. Primary data. Available genetic studies containing measures of CPD and the genotype of rs16969968 or its proxy. Uniform statistical analysis scripts were run locally. Starting with 94,050 ever-smokers from 43 studies, we extracted the heavy smokers (CPD >20) and light smokers (CPD ≤10) with age-at-onset information, reducing the sample size to 33,348. Each study was stratified into early-onset smokers (age at onset ≤16 years) and late-onset smokers (age at onset >16 years), and a logistic regression of heavy vs light smoking with the rs16969968 genotype was computed for each stratum. Meta-analysis was performed within each age-at-onset stratum. Individuals with 1 risk allele at rs16969968 who were early-onset smokers were significantly more likely to be heavy smokers in adulthood (odds ratio [OR] = 1.45; 95% CI, 1.36-1.55; n = 13,843) than were carriers of the risk allele who were late-onset smokers (OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.21-1.33, n = 19,505) (P = .01). These results highlight an increased genetic vulnerability to smoking in early-onset smokers.

  7. Executive Abilities as Reflected by Clock Hand Placement: Frontotemporal Dementia Versus Early-Onset Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Robin J; Barsuglia, Joseph; Paholpak, Pongsatorn; Eknoyan, Donald; Sabodash, Valeriy; Lee, Grace J; Mendez, Mario F

    2015-12-01

    The clock-drawing test (CDT) is widely used in clinical practice to diagnose and distinguish patients with dementia. It remains unclear, however, whether the CDT can distinguish among the early-onset dementias. Accordingly, we examined the ability of both quantitative and qualitative CDT analyses to distinguish behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and early-onset Alzheimer disease (eAD), the 2 most common neurodegenerative dementias with onset testing and magnetic resonance imaging. The total CDT scores did not discriminate bvFTD and eAD; however, specific analysis of executive hand placement items successfully distinguished the groups, with eAD exhibiting greater errors than bvFTD. The performance on those executive hand placement items correlated with measures of naming as well as visuospatial and executive function. On tensor-based morphometry of the magnetic resonance images, executive hand placement correlated with right frontal volume. These findings suggest that lower performance on executive hand placement items occurs with involvement of the right dorsolateral frontal-parietal network for executive control in eAD, a network disproportionately affected in AD of early onset. Rather than the total performance on the clock task, the analysis of specific errors, such as executive hand placement, may be useful for early differentiation of eAD, bvFTD, and other conditions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Early-onset childhood vitiligo is associated with a more extensive and progressive course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Euphemia W; Cohen, Brandon E; Orlow, Seth J

    2015-09-01

    Vitiligo commonly presents in children, with half of all cases developing before 20 years of age. Although studies have characterized differences between pediatric and adult vitiligo, little is known about vitiligo presenting in early childhood. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical features of early-onset (vitiligo. This retrospective case series examined patients given a diagnosis of vitiligo in a pediatric dermatology practice at an academic medical center from 1990 to 2014. Characteristics of the early- and later-onset groups were compared by χ(2) and t test for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Of the 208 children in the study, 31 had early-onset and 177 had later-onset disease. Early-onset vitiligo was associated with higher percentages of body surface area involvement and increased rates of disease progression during an average 1.9 years of follow-up. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in repigmentation, vitiligo type, halo nevi, gender ratio, or personal and family history of autoimmune diseases. This was a retrospective, single-institution study. Patients given a diagnosis of vitiligo at younger ages tend to have more extensive and progressive disease. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Resource utilization associated with initial hospital stays complicated by early onset group B streptococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, R; Adelson-Mitty, J; Weissman, L; Zaleznik, D; Lee, M L; Baker, C J

    1999-06-01

    The epidemiology of early onset neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) disease has changed appreciably, but there are no recent assessments of the in-hospital resource utilization it incurs. We performed a retrospective cohort study of infants delivered from 1987 through 1995 at Massachusetts' largest obstetrics hospital. A matched cohort design was used to assess care occurring after transfer to another acute care hospital. There were 135 cases of early onset neonatal GBS infection complicating 85,062 deliveries (1.6/1,000 births) in 9 years, with a substantial decline beginning in 1994, when maternal intrapartum chemoprophylaxis was widely introduced. Most (73%) infants had birth weights of 2500 g or more; 93% survived. Overall both the median and mean lengths of stay were 8 days longer for infants with GBS disease than for those without this infection (P 2500-g birth weight infants; no excess was evident for infants with birth weights of < 1500 g. There was a substantial excess length of stay and charges associated with early onset neonatal GBS disease, although this was less than previously reported.

  10. Late Onset Streptococcus agalactiae Meningitis following Early Onset Septicemia: A Preventable Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Lun Hon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a neonate who presented with early onset Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS septicemia within 24 hours of birth. After discharge at day 14, she went on to develop late onset GBS meningitis at 36 days of age. The infant was treated with intravenous antibiotics on both occasions and eventually discharged home with no apparent sequelae. We address issues associated with GBS infection in infancy including the demographics, risk factors, and the risk of late onset GBS meningitis following an early onset GBS infection. The major source of GBS in early onset GBS disease is maternal birth canal GBS colonization. On the other hand, nosocomial cross-infection is an important source of GBS in late onset disease. Penicillin remains the current treatment of choice for GBS infection. Given the rapid onset and progression within hours of birth and lack of an effective solution for preventing late onset GBS, administration of an effective GBS vaccine in pregnancy could provide a sensible and cost-effective solution in all settings.

  11. Late Onset Streptococcus agalactiae Meningitis following Early Onset Septicemia: A Preventable Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Kam Lun; Chan, King Hang; Ko, Pak Long; So, King Woon; Leung, Alexander K C

    2017-01-01

    We report a neonate who presented with early onset Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) septicemia within 24 hours of birth. After discharge at day 14, she went on to develop late onset GBS meningitis at 36 days of age. The infant was treated with intravenous antibiotics on both occasions and eventually discharged home with no apparent sequelae. We address issues associated with GBS infection in infancy including the demographics, risk factors, and the risk of late onset GBS meningitis following an early onset GBS infection. The major source of GBS in early onset GBS disease is maternal birth canal GBS colonization. On the other hand, nosocomial cross-infection is an important source of GBS in late onset disease. Penicillin remains the current treatment of choice for GBS infection. Given the rapid onset and progression within hours of birth and lack of an effective solution for preventing late onset GBS, administration of an effective GBS vaccine in pregnancy could provide a sensible and cost-effective solution in all settings.

  12. A comparative analysis of 4 curvature measurement methods in early-onset scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jin-Ho; Hong, Jae-Young; Suh, Seung-Woo; Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Jae-Moon

    2012-09-15

    Observational study with 3 examiners. The aim of this study was to enhance the reproducibility and reliability of coronal curvature measurements in early-onset scoliosis. Previous reports show high variability of the Cobb method, especially on the measurement of the immature spine. A total of 115 whole-spine posteroanterior radiographs were collected to compare the reliability of the Cobb, lateral tangent, pedicle, and centroid methods in early-onset scoliosis. Radiographs were measured twice by each of the 3 examiners using the 4 measurement methods. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the inter- and intraobserver reliability. In this study, total inter- and intraobserver inter- and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) in 115 radiographs were excellent in all methods (ICCs >0.961). However, mean absolute differences (MADs) in the lateral tangent method were less than 3.78°, which was higher than other methods (MADs 30°), total inter- and intraobserver ICCs gradually increased with increasing the severity of the deformity, whereas MADs of each severity group were similar despite their increased measurement scale. Particularly, interobserver ICCs and MADs of lateral tangent method were more than 0.474 and less than 3.76° with poor reliability, which showed high variability in the less deformed spine group (scoliosis regardless of severity. However, the other 3 methods showed lower ICCs and higher MAD values, which showed lowest reliability in the lateral tangent method. For improved treatment of early-onset scoliosis, we recommend the pedicle method for measuring curvature regardless of severity.

  13. [Associations between early-onset mental disorders and educational attainment in Belgium; a population study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruffaerts, R P; Bonnewyn, A; Demyttenaere, K

    2010-01-01

    There is no sufficient knowledge on the association between early-onset mental disorders and subsequent school dropout on the level of the Belgian general population. To investigate the associations between early-onset mental disorders and subsequent school dropout. As part of the European Study on the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders of the World Mental Health Surveys of the World Health Organization, a representative random sample of non-institutionalised Belgians aged 18 or older (n = 1,043) were interviewed between April 2001 and June 2002. With the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (version 3.0), respondents were assessed for the presence and age of onset of 15 dsm-iv mental disorders. Logistic regression analyses were performed in order to investigate the association between mental disorders and subsequent failure to complete elementary and/or secondary education, failure to proceed to tertiary education (when holding a secondary education leaving certificate) and failure to completion of tertiary education. Mood disorders were significantly associated with premature termination of secondary education (or = 2.4). Anxiety disorders (or = 2.0), drug abuse disorders (or = 11.2), and drug dependence disorders (or = 19.4) were significantly associated with failure to proceed to tertiary education. The cumulative proportion of early school terminations attributable to earlyonset mental disorders was estimated at 6.3%. Early-onset mental disorders have a considerable impact on school termination prior to completion in Belgium.

  14. Regional cerebral blood flow changes in early-onset anorexia nervosa before and after weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Hiroko; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Ozono, Shuichi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in early-onset anorexia nervosa (AN) before and after weight gain, we examined resting rCBF using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with [(123)I]iodoamphetamine ((123)I-IMP). Ten female children with AN (mean age 13.2 years old) participated in this study. SPECT examinations were performed in all patients twice at the beginning of treatment and after weight gain. The mean body mass index (BMI) was changed from 13.1 to 16.6 during 4 months treatment period. Automatic voxel-based analysis of the images was carried out using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) software. Relatively increased rCBF in the bilateral parietal lobe and limbic lobe including the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were observed after weight gain in early-onset AN. There was no significant decrease in the rCBF after weight gain. A significant positive correlation was observed between BMI and rCBF in the right thalamus, right parietal lobe, and right cerebellum. These results suggested that weight gain during the process of recovery from early-onset AN might activate specific brain regions which are possibly relevant to the pathophysiological aspects of the disorder. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pattern of birth in early-onset anorexia nervosa: an equatorial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Kate; Bowen, Rebecca; Lee, Ee-Lian; Pathy, Parvathy; Lask, Bryan

    2005-01-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) born in the northern and southern hemispheres are more likely to be born during spring months than at any other time of the year. It has been hypothesized that environmental temperature at the time of conception may have a significant role in this pattern of findings. The current study aims to investigate the pattern of birth of early-onset AN patients in an equatorial region (Singapore), where there is little difference in environmental temperature throughout the year. Dates of birth were collected for 102 patients who were born in Singapore and diagnosed with early-onset AN. The patterns of birth were analyzed using chi-square analysis. There was no difference across the year in the birth patterns of patients with early-onset AN in Singapore, nor were there any differences between patients with restrictive and binge/purge AN. This lack of seasonal variation in the equator adds support to the "temperature at conception" hypothesis. 2004 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Metabolomics and first-trimester prediction of early-onset preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahado-Singh, Ray O; Akolekar, Ranjit; Mandal, Rupasri; Dong, Edison; Xia, Jianguo; Kruger, Michael; Wishart, David S; Nicolaides, Kypros

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the use of metabolomics for the first-trimester detection of maternal metabolic dysfunction and prediction of subsequent development of early-onset preeclampsia (PE). This was a case-control study of maternal plasma samples collected at 11-13 weeks' gestation from 30 women who had subsequently developed PE requiring delivery before 34 weeks and 60 unaffected controls. Nuclear magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to identify and quantify metabolomic changes in cases versus controls. Both genetic computing and standard statistical analyses were performed to predict the development of PE from the metabolite concentrations alone as well as the combination of metabolite concentrations with maternal characteristics and first-trimester uterine artery Doppler pulsatility index (PI). Significant differences between cases and controls were found for 20 metabolites. A combination of four of these metabolites (citrate, glycerol, hydroxyisovalerate, and methionine) appeared highly predictive of PE with an estimated detection rate of 75.9%, at a false-positive rate (FPR) of 4.9%. The predictive performance was improved by the addition of uterine artery Doppler PI and fetal crown-rump length (CRL) and with an estimated detection rate of 82.6%, at a FPR of 1.6%. A profound change in the first-trimester metabolite profile was noted in women who had subsequently developed early-onset PE. Preliminary algorithms appeared highly sensitive for first trimester prediction of early onset PE.

  17. The impact of early-onset cannabis use on functional brain correlates of working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Benjamin; Wagner, Daniel; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne; Spuentrup, Elmar; Daumann, Jörg

    2010-08-16

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug. Prevalence rates are particularly high among adolescents. Neuropsychological studies have identified cannabis-associated memory deficits, particularly linked to an early onset of use. However, it remains unclear, whether the age of onset accounts for altered cortical activation patterns usually observed in cannabis users. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine cortical activation during verbal working memory challenge in (1) early-onset (onset before the age of sixteen; n=26) and (2) late-onset cannabis users (age at onset at least sixteen; n=17). Early-onset users showed increased activation in the left superior parietal lobe. Correlational analyses confirmed the association between an earlier start of use and increased activity. Contrariwise neither cumulative dose, frequency nor time since last use was significantly associated with cortical activity. Our findings suggest that an early start of cannabis use is associated with increased cortical activation in adult cannabis users, possibly reflecting suboptimal cortical efficiency during cognitive challenge. The maturing brain might be more vulnerable to the harmful effects of cannabis use. However, due to a lack of a non-using control group we cannot exclude alternative interpretations. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An analysis of expectant management in women with early-onset preeclampsia in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q; Shen, F; Gao, Y F; Zhao, M

    2015-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in both women and fetus. Although women with early severe preeclampsia are generally considered to require expedious delivery, expectant management may benefit for pregnancy prolongation. We performed a retrospective analysis of expectant management in early-onset preeclampsia, with or without fetal grow restriction (FGR) over a 6-year period, to investigate whether these women benefit from expectant management. Data including clinical parameters and liver and renal function from 186 nulliparous women with early-onset preeclampsia were analysed. In women with early-onset preeclampsia, 76.8% were delivered after 48 h and the median pregnancy prolongation was 8 days, whereas 23.2% were delivered within 48 h. There was no difference in maternal parameters, liver or renal functions between women in these two groups, regardless of the severity of preeclampsia. However, the stillbirth number was higher in preeclamptic women delivered after 48 h compared with those delivered within 48 h. Our study demonstrates that the decision for immediate delivery or expectant management was not associated with clinical parameter or laboratory biomarker of liver and renal function. However, the risk of stillbirth should still be taken into consideration when making the decision for immediate delivery or expectant management in the clinic.

  19. A novel homozygous mutation at the GAA gene in Mexicans with early-onset Pompe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmer, Carmen; Becerra-Becerra, Rosario; Peña-Zepeda, Claudia; Bravo-Oro, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    Glycogen-storage disease type II, also named Pompe disease, is caused by the deficiency of the enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase, which originates lysosomal glycogen accumulation leading to progressive neuromuscular damage. Early-onset Pompe disease shows a debilitating and frequently fulminating course. To date, more than 300 mutations have been described; the majority of them are unique to each affected individual. Most early-onset phenotypes are associated with frameshift mutations leading to a truncated alpha-glucosidase protein with loss of function. Founder effects are responsible from many cases from few highprevalence world regions. Herein we described two apparently unrelated cases affected with classical early-onset Pompe disease, both pertaining to a small region from Central Mexico (the State of San Luis Potosí), the same novel homozygous frameshift mutation at gene GAA (c.1987delC) was demonstrated in both cases. This GAA gene deletion implies a change of glutamine to serine at codon 663, and a new reading frame that ends after 33 base pairs, which leads to the translation of a truncated protein. This report contributes to widen the knowledge on the effect of pathogenic mutations in Pompe disease. Here we postulate the existence of a founder effect.

  20. Effect of early-onset preeclampsia on cardiovascular risk in the fifth decade of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokslag, Anouk; Teunissen, Pim W; Franssen, Constantijn; van Kesteren, Floortje; Kamp, Otto; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Paulus, Walter J; de Groot, Christianne J M

    2017-05-01

    Women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, in particular early-onset preeclampsia, are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. These women have a more than 2-fold increased risk of dying from cardiovascular diseases. Most studies have focused on identification of risk factors shortly after pregnancy. Less is known on the prevalence of risk factors or actual signs of cardiovascular disease 5-20 years later. The presence of hypertension or metabolic syndrome can be seen as an opportunity for preventive interventions to reduce the development of severe cardiovascular diseases like myocardial infarction and stroke. To assess cardiovascular risk factors and established cardiovascular disease in women after early-onset preeclampsia, in the fifth decade of life. As a consequence, we can assess whether there is still a window of opportunity for preventive measures and to establish in what proportion of women cardiovascular disease already has developed. In a prospective observational study, cardiovascular risk assessment was performed in women with early-onset preeclampsia (preeclampsia (n = 131) had significantly greater systolic and diastolic blood pressure, greater body mass index, more often had an abnormal lipid profile (lower high-density lipoprotein levels, higher triglycerides), greater glycated hemoglobin, and greater levels of albuminuria compared to controls (n = 56). None of the women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia was diagnosed with cardiovascular disease; 38.2% were diagnosed with hypertension; and 18.2% were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. A total of 42% met the criteria for the window of opportunity for preventive measures. In women with a history of an uncomplicated pregnancy, no women were diagnosed with cardiovascular disease; 14.3% were diagnosed with hypertension; 1.8% with metabolic syndrome. In this cohort, 14.3% met the criteria for the window of opportunity for preventive measures. A large

  1. Late- versus early-onset geriatric depression in a memory research center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Dillon

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Carol Dillon1, Ricardo F Allegri2, Cecilia M Serrano1, Mónica Iturry1, Pablo Salgado1, Frank B Glaser1, Fernando E Taragano21Memory Research Center, Department of Neurology, Hospital General Abel Zubizarreta, GCBA Buenos Aires, Argentina; 2Department of Neuropsychology (SIREN, CEMIC University, Buenos Aires, ArgentinaObjective: To contrast early-onset (<60 years and late-onset (>60 years depression in geriatric patients by evaluating differences in cognition, vascular comorbidity and sociological risk factors. Both patient groups were compared with normal subjects.Materials and methods: We recruited 76 patients with depressive symptoms (37 late onset and 39 early onset and 17 normal controls matched by age and educational level. All subjects were assessed using a semistructured neuropsychiatric interview and an extensive neuropsychological battery. Vascular and sociological risk factors were also evaluated.Results: We found a significant variation in performance between depressive patients and normal controls in most cognitive functions, especially memory (P < 0.0001, semantic fluency (P < 0.0001, verbal fluency, and digit-symbol (P < 0.0001. Late-onset depression patients scored lower and exhibited more severe impairment in memory domains than early-onset depression patients (P < 0.05. Cholesterol levels and marital status were significantly (P < 0.05 different between the depressive groups. Both depressed groups (early- and lateonset were more inactive than controls (P < 0.05; odds ratio: 6.02.Conclusion: Geriatric depression may be a manifestation of brain degeneration, and the initial symptom of a dementia. It is important to consider this in the treatment of patients that exhibit late-onset depressive symptoms.Keywords: early- and late-onset depression, geriatrics, cognition

  2. Extent of Spine Deformity Predicts Lung Growth and Function in Rabbit Model of Early Onset Scoliosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Casey Olson

    Full Text Available Early onset deformity of the spine and chest wall (initiated <8 years of age is associated with increased morbidity at adulthood relative to adolescent onset deformity of comparable severity. Presumably, inhibition of thoracic growth during late stage alveolarization leads to an irreversible loss of pulmonary growth and thoracic function; however the natural history of this disease from onset to adulthood has not been well characterized. In this study we establish a rabbit model of early onset scoliosis to establish the extent that thoracic deformity affects structural and functional respiratory development. Using a surgical right unilateral rib-tethering procedure, rib fusion with early onset scoliosis was induced in 10 young New Zealand white rabbits (3 weeks old. Progression of spine deformity, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, and lung mass was tracked through longitudinal breath-hold computed tomography imaging up to skeletal maturity (28 weeks old. Additionally at maturity forced vital capacity and regional specific volume were calculated as functional measurements and histo-morphometry performed with the radial alveolar count as a measure of acinar complexity. Data from tethered rib rabbits were compared to age matched healthy control rabbits (N = 8. Results show unilateral rib-tethering created a progressive spinal deformity ranging from 30° to 120° curvature, the severity of which was strongly associated with pulmonary growth and functional outcomes. At maturity rabbits with deformity greater than the median (55° had decreased body weight (89%, right (59% and left (86% lung mass, right (74% and left (69% radial alveolar count, right lung volume at total lung capacity (60%, and forced vital capacity (75%. Early treatment of spinal deformity in children may prevent pulmonary complications in adulthood and these results provide a basis for the prediction of pulmonary development from thoracic structure. This model may

  3. Extent of Spine Deformity Predicts Lung Growth and Function in Rabbit Model of Early Onset Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, J Casey; Takahashi, Ayuko; Glotzbecker, Michael P; Snyder, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    Early onset deformity of the spine and chest wall (initiated deformity of comparable severity. Presumably, inhibition of thoracic growth during late stage alveolarization leads to an irreversible loss of pulmonary growth and thoracic function; however the natural history of this disease from onset to adulthood has not been well characterized. In this study we establish a rabbit model of early onset scoliosis to establish the extent that thoracic deformity affects structural and functional respiratory development. Using a surgical right unilateral rib-tethering procedure, rib fusion with early onset scoliosis was induced in 10 young New Zealand white rabbits (3 weeks old). Progression of spine deformity, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, and lung mass was tracked through longitudinal breath-hold computed tomography imaging up to skeletal maturity (28 weeks old). Additionally at maturity forced vital capacity and regional specific volume were calculated as functional measurements and histo-morphometry performed with the radial alveolar count as a measure of acinar complexity. Data from tethered rib rabbits were compared to age matched healthy control rabbits (N = 8). Results show unilateral rib-tethering created a progressive spinal deformity ranging from 30° to 120° curvature, the severity of which was strongly associated with pulmonary growth and functional outcomes. At maturity rabbits with deformity greater than the median (55°) had decreased body weight (89%), right (59%) and left (86%) lung mass, right (74%) and left (69%) radial alveolar count, right lung volume at total lung capacity (60%), and forced vital capacity (75%). Early treatment of spinal deformity in children may prevent pulmonary complications in adulthood and these results provide a basis for the prediction of pulmonary development from thoracic structure. This model may also have future use as a platform to evaluate treatment effectiveness.

  4. Hippocampal morphology and distinguishing late-onset from early-onset elderly depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmaier, Martina; Narr, Katherine L; Toga, Arthur W; Elderkin-Thompson, Virginia; Thompson, Paul M; Hamilton, Liberty; Haroon, Ebrahim; Pham, Daniel; Heinz, Andreas; Kumar, Anand

    2008-02-01

    Despite evidence for hippocampal abnormalities in elderly depression, it is unknown whether these changes are regionally specific. This study used three-dimensional mapping techniques to identify regional hippocampal abnormalities in early- and late-onset depression. Neuropsychological correlates of hippocampal morphology were also investigated. With high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, hippocampal morphology was compared among elderly patients with early- (N=24) and late-onset (N=22) depression and comparison subjects (N=34). Regional structural abnormalities were identified by comparing distances, measured from homologous hippocampal surface points to the central core of each individual's hippocampal surface model, between groups. Hippocampal volumes differed between depressed patients and comparison subjects but not between patients with early- and late-onset depression. However, statistical mapping results showed that regional surface contractions were significantly pronounced in late- compared to early-onset depression in the anterior of the subiculum and lateral posterior of the CA1 subfield in the left hemisphere. Significant shape differences were observed bilaterally in anterior CA1-CA3 subfields and the subiculum in patients in relation to comparison subjects. These results were similar when each disease group was separately compared to comparison subjects. Hippocampal surface contractions significantly correlated with memory measures among late- but not early-onset depressed patients or comparison subjects. More pronounced regional volume deficits and their associations with memory in late-onset depression may suggest that these patients are more likely to develop cognitive impairment over time than individuals with early-onset depression. Mapping regional hippocampal abnormalities and their cognitive correlates may help guide research in defining risk profiles and treatment strategies.

  5. [Early outcome of vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib technique in treating early-onset scoliosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yong; Sun, Xu; Wang, Bin; Ding, Qi; Zhu, Ze-zhang; Qian, Bang-ping; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Feng; Ma, Wei-wei

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the early outcome of vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) technique in treating early-onset scoliosis. This study recruited 11 early-onset scoliosis patients (8 boys and 3 girls) who received VEPTR treatment from December 2006 to July 2011 with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. The average age at initial surgery was (7 ± 3) years (range, 3.1 to 9.8 years). VEPTR device, either rib to rib or rib to lumbar, was implanted at initial surgery. During the regular post-operative follow-ups, expansion surgeries were scheduled at an interval of 6 to 12 months. Measurements of primary curve magnitude, apical vertebral translation, thoracic height and T(1)-S(1) height were performed on radiographs, and were compared between those of preoperatively, postoperatively, and at latest follow-up through paired-t tests. All patients had a mean follow-up of (32 ± 11) months. Totally 41 surgeries were performed, averagely 3.7 surgeries per patient; and 30 expansion surgeries were carried out, averagely 2.7 surgeries per patient. The average interval for each expansion surgery was 8 months. From preoperatively to latest follow-up, the Cobb angle of primary curves was averagely corrected from 78° ± 18° to 55° ± 11° (t = 4.931, P VEPTR instrumented, gains in thoracic height and T(1)-S(1) height per expansion surgery averaged (0.8 ± 0.3) cm and (1.8 ± 0.4) cm, respectively. Eight complications occurred in 6 patients, including rib cradle dislodgements, displayed infection, intraoperative pleura rupture and loosening of lumbar pedicle screws. VEPTR technique proves to be an effective way of preventing curve progression in early-onset scoliosis patients while allowing growth of spine and chest. Yet, indications for such a technique need to be strictly selected because of the relatively high complication rate.

  6. The role of oxidative stress in early-onset androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya Erdogan, Hilal; Bulur, Isıl; Kocaturk, Evin; Yildiz, Bahadir; Saracoglu, Zeynep Nurhan; Alatas, Ozkan

    2017-12-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common cause of alopecia in men. In the literature, although there are in vitro studies investigating the relationship between oxidative stress and AGA, any in vivo study does not exist. Our aim was to evaluate the oxidative stress status in male patients with early-onset AGA by measuring total oxidant levels (TOS), total antioxidant levels (TAS), and oxidative stress index (OSI). Our study included 33 male patients with early-onset AGA and 30 healthy men between ages of 18 and 30 years old. TAS and TOS measurements were taken, and OSI was calculated. When TAS, TOS, and OSI levels were compared between patient and control groups, there was no difference for TAS level, while TOS and OSI were significantly higher in patient group. In patient group, correlation between TAS, TOS, and OSI levels and age, and disease onset age and disease duration was evaluated. Highly significant negative correlation was determined between TAS level and both age and disease duration. When TAS, TOS, and OSI levels were assessed according to AGA stage, there was no significant difference between groups, while OSI level was significantly higher in patients with family history. We found increased oxidative stress in younger patients with early-onset AGA. There is need for further molecular studies on the role of oxidative stress in the etiopathogenesis of AGA. We also think that topical or systemic antioxidants can be promising in treatment of AGA, especially for young patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Knowledge of Andalusian pediatricians and parents about early-onset tooth decay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, E; Pérez-Hinojosa, S; Alarcón, J A; Peñalver, M A

    2015-01-01

    To determine the level of knowledge of pediatricians and parents from Andalucía (southern Spain) about early-onset tooth decay, and to assess if pediatricians provide information to parents about pediatric oral care and visits to the pediatric dentist. A random sample of 113 pediatricians and 112 parents with children under 3 years of age received an anonymous questionnaire comprising 14 items for pediatricians and 16 items for parents, grouped into five blocks: visits to the dentist, oral hygiene, caries, nutritional habits, and treatment of caries. The chi-squared test was used to assess differences between groups. Pediatricians showed deficiencies in their knowledge about visits to the dentist and treatment of caries, however their level of knowledge on oral hygiene, tooth decay and nutritional habits were adequate. Parents showed a low level of knowledge in all aspects of the study, mainly about the treatment of tooth decay. There were no significant differences between pediatricians and parents in the knowledge about visits to the dentist, however pediatricians had more knowledge than the parents about hygiene, tooth decay, nutritional habits and treatment (P<0.001). Most of the parents indicated that pediatricians did not provide them detailed information on oral care, and about the possibility of visiting a pediatric dentist. Andalusian pediatricians should improve their knowledge about early-onset tooth decay, and provide more information to parents about the oral care and the possibility of visiting a pediatric dentist. Parents have a very low level of knowledge about early-onset tooth decay, and particularly about treatment. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel presenilin mutations within Moroccan patients with Early-Onset Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kadmiri, N; Zaid, N; Zaid, Y; Tadevosyan, A; Hachem, A; Dubé, M-P; Hamzi, K; El Moutawakil, B; Slassi, I; Nadifi, S

    2014-06-06

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive brain disorder that causes gradual and irreversible loss of higher brain functions and is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, as assessed by autopsy and clinical series. Furthermore, it has an annual incidence of approximately 3% in the 65-74-year-old age group. This incidence rate doubles with every increment of 5 years above the age of 65. In Morocco, AD affects almost 30,000 individuals and this number will possibly increase to 75,000 by 2020 (projections of the World Health Organization (WHO)). Genetically, AD is caused by a mutation in one of at least 3 genes: presenilin 1 (PS1), presenilin 2 (PS2) and the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Most cases are late onset and apparently sporadic, most likely as a result of a combination of environmental and non-dominant genetic factors. In Morocco, the genes predisposing individuals to AD and predicting disease incidence remain elusive. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the genetic contribution of mutations in PS1 and PS2 genes to familial early-onset AD cases and sporadic late-onset AD cases. Seventeen sporadic late-onset AD cases and eight familial early-onset AD cases were seen at the memory clinic of the University of Casablanca Neurology Department. These patients underwent standard somatic neurological examination, cognitive function assessment, brain imaging and laboratory tests. Direct sequencing of each exon in PS1 and PS2 genes was performed on genomic DNA of AD patients. Further, we identified 1 novel frameshift mutation in the PS1 gene and 2 novel frameshift mutations in the PS2 gene. Our mutational analysis reports a correlation between clinical symptoms and genetic factors in our cases of Early-Onset Alzheimer's Disease (EOAD). These putative mutations cosegregate with affected family members suggesting a direct mutagenic effect. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased Genetic Vulnerability to Smoking at CHRNA5 in Early-Onset Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartz, Sarah M.; Short, Susan E.; Saccone, Nancy L.; Culverhouse, Robert; Chen, LiShiun; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Coon, Hilary; Han, Younghun; Stephens, Sarah H.; Sun, Juzhong; Chen, Xiangning; Ducci, Francesca; Dueker, Nicole; Franceschini, Nora; Frank, Josef; Geller, Frank; Guđbjartsson, Daniel; Hansel, Nadia N.; Jiang, Chenhui; Keskitalo-Vuokko, Kaisu; Liu, Zhen; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Michel, Martha; Rawal, Rajesh; Hum, Sc; Rosenberger, Albert; Scheet, Paul; Shaffer, John R.; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, John R.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Wheeler, William; Xiao, Xiangjun; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Aggen, Steven H.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Beaty, Terri; Bennett, Siiri; Bergen, Andrew W.; Boyd, Heather A.; Broms, Ulla; Campbell, Harry; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Jingchun; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Cichon, Sven; Couper, David; Cucca, Francesco; Dick, Danielle M.; Foroud, Tatiana; Furberg, Helena; Giegling, Ina; Gu, Fangyi; Hall, Alistair S.; Hällfors, Jenni; Han, Shizhong; Hartmann, Annette M.; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Lic, Phil; Hewitt, John K.; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Jensen, Majken K.; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kaakinen, Marika; Kittner, Steven J.; Konte, Bettina; Korhonen, Tellervo; Landi, Maria-Teresa; Laatikainen, Tiina; Leppert, Mark; Levy, Steven M.; Mathias, Rasika A.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Muley, Thomas; Murray, Tanda; Nauck, Matthias; North, Kari; Pergadia, Michele; Polasek, Ozren; Ramos, Erin M.; Ripatti, Samuli; Risch, Angela; Ruczinski, Ingo; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Styrkársdóttir, Unnur; Terracciano, Antonio; Uda, Manuela; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wu, Xifeng; Abecasis, Goncalo; Barnes, Kathleen; Bickeböller, Heike; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Caporaso, Neil; Duan, Jubao; Edenberg, Howard J.; Francks, Clyde; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gelernter, Joel; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Hops, Hyman; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Levinson, Douglas F.; Marazita, Mary L.; Marchini, Jonathan; Melbye, Mads; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Raitakari, Olli; Rietschel, Marcella; Rujescu, Dan; Samani, Nilesh J.; Sanders, Alan R.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Shete, Sanjay; Shi, Jianxin; Spitz, Margaret; Stefansson, Kari; Swan, Gary E.; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir; Völzke, Henry; Wei, Qingyi; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Amos, Christopher I.; Breslau, Naomi; Cannon, Dale S.; Ehringer, Marissa; Grucza, Richard; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Heath, Andrew; Johnson, Eric O.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Madden, Pamela; Martin, Nicholas G.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stitzel, Jerry A.; Weiss, Robert B.; Kraft, Peter; Bierut, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    Context Recent studies have shown an association between cigarettes per day (CPD) and a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in CHRNA5, rs16969968. Objective To determine whether the association between rs16969968 and smoking is modified by age at onset of regular smoking. Data Sources Primary data. Study Selection Available genetic studies containing measures of CPD and the genotype of rs16969968 or its proxy. Data Extraction Uniform statistical analysis scripts were run locally. Starting with 94 050 ever-smokers from 43 studies, we extracted the heavy smokers (CPD >20) and light smokers (CPD ≤10) with age-at-onset information, reducing the sample size to 33 348. Each study was stratified into early-onset smokers (age at onset ≤16 years) and late-onset smokers (age at onset >16 years), and a logistic regression of heavy vs light smoking with the rs16969968 genotype was computed for each stratum. Meta-analysis was performed within each age-at-onset stratum. Data Synthesis Individuals with 1 risk allele at rs16969968 who were early-onset smokers were significantly more likely to be heavy smokers in adulthood (odds ratio [OR]=1.45; 95% CI, 1.36–1.55; n=13 843) than were carriers of the risk allele who were late-onset smokers (OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.21–1.33, n = 19 505) (P = .01). Conclusion These results highlight an increased genetic vulnerability to smoking in early-onset smokers. PMID:22868939

  10. Racial differences in cancer risk among relatives of patients with early onset lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, Jessica L; Coté, Michele L; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Schwartz, Ann G

    2007-05-01

    Relatives of patients with early onset lung cancer are at increased risk for lung cancer, and this risk varies by race. This study evaluates whether first-degree relatives of patients with early onset lung cancer are at increased risk for cancer at sites other than lung. Family histories were ascertained from 673 lung cancer patients < 50 years of age identified from the Metropolitan Detroit Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program, and 773 age-, race-, and sex-matched control subjects were obtained via random-digit dialing. Data were collected for 3,556 case relatives (mothers, fathers, and siblings) and 3,943 control relatives, and unconditional logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Among case relatives, African Americans were 2.44-fold more likely to have head and neck cancers and 1.86-fold more likely to have any tobacco-related cancer compared to white case relatives (95% CI, 1.04 to 5.69% and 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.76, respectively). African-American case relatives were at increased risk for head and neck cancers (OR, 13.42; 95% CI, 1.65 to 109.01), all tobacco-related cancers (OR, 3.77; 95% CI, 2.16 to 6.55), tobacco-related cancers other than lung (OR, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.56 to 10.79), and cancer at any site (OR, 1.45, 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.02) compared to African-American control relatives. These results can be used to counsel family members of patients with early onset lung cancer, and suggest target populations for preventive strategies, including smoking cessation and appropriate screening.

  11. Identification of Novel Candidate Genes for Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer Susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richarda M de Voer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 25-30% of colorectal cancer (CRC cases are expected to result from a genetic predisposition, but in only 5-10% of these cases highly penetrant germline mutations are found. The remaining CRC heritability is still unexplained, and may be caused by a hitherto-undefined set of rare variants with a moderately penetrant risk. Here we aimed to identify novel risk factors for early-onset CRC using whole-exome sequencing, which was performed on a cohort of CRC individuals (n = 55 with a disease onset before 45 years of age. We searched for genes that were recurrently affected by rare variants (minor allele frequency ≤ 0.001 with potentially damaging effects and, subsequently, re-sequenced the candidate genes in a replication cohort of 174 early-onset or familial CRC individuals. Two functionally relevant genes with low frequency variants with potentially damaging effects, PTPN12 and LRP6, were found in at least three individuals. The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-PEST, encoded by PTPN12, is a regulator of cell motility and LRP6 is a component of the WNT-FZD-LRP5-LRP6 complex that triggers WNT signaling. All variants in LRP6 were identified in individuals with an extremely early-onset of the disease (≤30 years of age, and two of the three variants showed increased WNT signaling activity in vitro. In conclusion, we present PTPN12 and LRP6 as novel candidates contributing to the heterogeneous susceptibility to CRC.

  12. Bone Characteristics and Their Determinants in Adolescents and Young Adults with Early-Onset Severe Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljakainen, H T; Valta, H; Lipsanen-Nyman, M; Saukkonen, T; Kajantie, E; Andersson, S; Mäkitie, O

    2015-10-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with compromised bone health. We studied bone characteristics and their determinants in obese young adults. The study included 68 subjects with early-onset severe obesity and 73 normal-weight controls. Data on physical activity (PA), diet and smoking were collected. Bone characteristics were measured using peripheral QCT. The obese and control subjects were similar in age (mean 19.6 ± 2.6 years) and height but BMIs differed (39.7 and 22.6 kg/m(2)). A clustering of unhealthy lifestyles was marked: Obese subjects reported less supervised PA in childhood, adolescence and currently (p obese women, all crude bone characteristics were higher than in controls; in men, the differences were smaller. Associations of lifestyle factors with bone characteristics were tested using partial correlations. Independently of BMI, supervised PA in adolescence and alcohol consumption were related positively to bone characteristics in both groups. HEI associated positively with bone characteristics only in controls, while smoking was a positive determinant of bone characteristics only in obese subjects. The multivariate model showed that the contribution of lifestyle factors to bone characteristics was minimal compared with BMI. Early-onset obesity is accompanied by poor dietary quality, sedentary lifestyle, and more frequent smoking, but the overall contribution of these lifestyle factors to bone strength is limited. Bone strength is more likely to be compromised in men and in unloaded bone sites in subjects with early-onset severe obesity. The impact of obesity-related endocrine changes on bone characteristics need to be evaluated in future studies.

  13. Sleep problems in early childhood and early onset of alcohol and other drug use in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Maria M; Brower, Kirk J; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Zucker, Robert A

    2004-04-01

    No prospective studies exist on the relationship between sleep problems early in life and subsequent alcohol use. Stimulated by the adult literature linking sleep problems to the subsequent onset of alcohol use disorders in some adults, we examined whether sleep problems in early childhood predicted the onset of alcohol and other drug use in adolescence and whether such a relationship was mediated by other known predictors of this relationship, namely, attention problems, anxiety/depression, and aggression in late childhood. This study is part of an ongoing longitudinal study of the development of risk for alcohol and other substance use disorders. Study participants were 257 boys from a community-recruited sample of high-risk families. Mothers' ratings of their children's sleep problems at ages 3 to 5 years significantly predicted an early onset of any use of alcohol, marijuana, and illicit drugs, as well as an early onset of occasional or regular use of cigarettes by age 12 to 14. Additionally, although sleep problems in early childhood also predicted attention problems and anxiety/depression in later childhood, these problems did not mediate the relationship between sleep problems and onset of alcohol and other drug use. This is, to our knowledge, the first study that prospectively examines the relationship between sleep problems and early onset of alcohol use, a marker of increased risk for later alcohol problems and alcohol use disorders. Moreover, early childhood sleep problems seem to be a robust marker for use of drugs other than alcohol. Implications for the prevention of early alcohol and other drug use are discussed.

  14. Magnesium sulphate can prolong pregnancy in patients with severe early-onset preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Akihiko; Kondoh, Eiji; Kawasaki, Kaoru; Mogami, Haruta; Chigusa, Yoshitsugu; Konishi, Ikuo

    2016-10-01

    To assess whether long-term use of magnesium sulphate prolongs pregnancy in patients with severe early-onset preeclampsia. Retrospective cohort study included all singleton pregnancies with severe early-onset preeclampsia, expectantly managed in our institution between 2005 and 2013. Obstetric and perinatal outcomes were compared between patients managed using a current protocol that tolerates long-term (over 48 h) use of magnesium sulphate (long-term group, n = 26) and a historical control group (control group, n = 15) that underwent conventional treatment (up to 48 h use of magnesium sulphate). Long-term group showed significant prolongation of pregnancy compared with the control group (9.2 ± 7.9 versus 16.6 ± 9.3 d, log-rank test, p = 0.021), which was also observed in patients with severe preeclampsia occurring before 28 weeks' gestation (n = 11, 4.5 ± 5.2 versus 13.2 ± 6.8 d, log-rank test, p = 0.035). In contrast to a progressive decrease of platelet count in patients managed without magnesium sulphate, administration of magnesium sulphate for 7 d prevented the decrease of platelet count (p = 0.001). Thirty two percent of patients (13/41) experienced a major complication irrespective of duration of magnesium sulphate use. Long-term use of magnesium sulphate prolonged pregnancy in patients with severe early-onset preeclampsia and can help alleviate progression of preeclampsia.

  15. Predicting early onset of intoxication versus drinking—A population-based prospective study of Norwegian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Enstad, Frøydis; Pedersen, Willy; Nilsen, Wendy; von Soest, Tilmann

    2017-01-01

    Aims Recent research suggests that early onset of intoxication (EOI) may be of greater importance for a wide range of subsequent adverse outcomes than early drinking experiences without intoxication. However, research on antecedents of EOI is scarce. The present study identifies predictors of EOI and whether they differ from those of early onset of drinking (EOD). Methods Data was drawn from the prospective Tracking Opportunities and Problems (TOPP) study of Norwegian families (n = 382), whic...

  16. Loss of functional connectivity is greater outside the default mode network in nonfamilial early-onset Alzheimer's disease variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Manja; Madison, Cindee; Ghosh, Pia M; Miller, Zachary A; Greicius, Michael D; Kramer, Joel H; Coppola, Giovanni; Miller, Bruce L; Jagust, William J; Gorno-Tempini, Maria L; Seeley, William W; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2015-10-01

    The common and specific involvement of brain networks in clinical variants of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not well understood. We performed task-free ("resting-state") functional imaging in 60 nonfamilial AD patients, including 20 early-onset AD (age at onset functional connectivity is greatest in networks outside the DMN in early-onset and nonamnestic AD variants and may thus be a better biomarker in these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Early Onset Obesity and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome Among Chilean Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Lorena Sonia; Blanco, Estela; Burrows, Raquel; Reyes, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy; Gahagan, Sheila

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) indicators have increased globally among the pediatric population. MetS indicators in the young elevate their risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders later in life. This study examined early onset obesity as a risk factor for MetS risk in adolescence. Methods A cohort of Chilean participants (N = 673) followed from infancy was assessed at age 5 years and in adolescence (mean age, 16.8 y). Adiposity was measured at both time poi...

  18. Management of early onset neonatal sepsis differs in the north and south of Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drageset, Martin; Fjalstad, Jon Widding; Mortensen, Sven

    2017-01-01

    AIM: This study compared the management and outcomes of early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) in two tertiary neonatal units in Denmark and Norway. METHODS: We retrospectively studied all infants diagnosed with EONS between April 2010 and March 2013 and managed at Odense University Hospital, Denmark...... blood cultures had higher C-reactive protein levels than patients with negative blood cultures and higher sepsis-attributable mortality. Lumbar punctures were performed more frequently in Denmark. CONCLUSION: There were marginal differences in the management of EONS between units in Denmark and Norway...

  19. Association Between Early-Onset Parkinson Disease and 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Nancy J.; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Chow, Eva W. C.; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Lang, Anthony E.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Clinical case reports of parkinsonism co-occurring with hemizygous 22q11.2 deletions and the associated multisystem syndrome, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), suggest that 22q11.2 deletions may lead to increased risk of early-onset Parkinson disease (PD). The frequency of PD and its neuropathological presentation remain unknown in this common genetic condition. OBJECTIVE To evaluate a possible association between 22q11.2 deletions and PD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS An observational study of the occurrence of PD in the world’s largest cohort of well-characterized adults with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of 22q11.2DS (n = 159 [6 with postmortem tissue]; age range, 18.1–68.6 years) was conducted in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Rare postmortem brain tissue from individuals with 22q11.2DS and a clinical history of PD was investigated for neurodegenerative changes and compared with that from individuals with no history of a movement disorder. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES A clinical diagnosis of PD made by a neurologist and neuropathological features of PD. RESULTS Adults with 22q11.2DS had a significantly elevated occurrence of PD compared with standard population estimates (standardized morbidity ratio = 69.7; 95% CI, 19.0–178.5). All cases showed early onset and typical PD symptom pattern, treatment response, and course. All were negative for family history of PD and known pathogenic PD-related mutations. The common use of antipsychotics in patients with 22q11.2DS to manage associated psychiatric symptoms delayed diagnosis of PD by up to 10 years. Postmortem brain tissue revealed classic loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in all 3 postmortem 22q11.2DS-PD cases. Typical α-synuclein–positive Lewy bodies were present in the expected distribution in 2 cases but absent in another. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These findings suggest that 22q11.2 deletions represent a novel genetic risk factor for early-onset PD with variable neuropathological

  20. Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder: Characteristics and Outcomes in the Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Daniel F; Ford, Julian D; Pearson, Geraldine S; Scranton, Victoria L; Dusad, Asha

    2017-12-01

    To assess patient characteristics and clinician-rated outcomes for children diagnosed with early-onset bipolar disorder in comparison to a depressive disorders cohort from a single clinic site. To assess predictors of bipolar treatment response. Medical records from 714 consecutive pediatric patients evaluated and treated at an academic tertiary child and adolescent psychiatry clinic between 2006 and 2012 were reviewed. Charts of bipolar children (n = 49) and children with depressive disorders (n = 58) meeting study inclusion/exclusion criteria were compared on variables assessing clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes. Outcomes were assessed by using pre- and post-Clinical Global Impressions (CGI)-Severity and Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores, and a CGI-Improvement score ≤2 at final visit determined responder status. Bipolar outcome predictors were assessed by using multiple linear regression. Clinic prevalence rates were 6.9% for early-onset bipolar disorder and 1.5% for very early-onset bipolar disorder. High rates of comorbid diagnoses, symptom severity, parental stress, and child high-risk behaviors were found in both groups. The bipolar cohort had higher rates of aggression and higher lifetime systems of care utilization. The final CGI and CGAS outcomes for unipolar depression patients differed statistically significantly from those for the bipolar cohort, reflecting better clinical status and more improvement at outcome for the depression patients. Both parent-reported Child Behavior Checklist total T-score at clinic admission and the number of lifetime systems-of-care for the child were significantly and inversely associated with improvement for the bipolar cohort. Early-onset bipolar disorder is a complex and heterogeneous psychiatric disorder. Evidence-based treatment should emphasize psychopharmacology with adjunctive family and individual psychotherapy. Strategies to improve engagement in treatment may be especially

  1. Sibling Sex Ratio and Birth Order in Early-Onset Gender Dysphoric Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Schagen, Sebastian E. E.; Delemarre-Van De Waal, Henriette A; Blanchard, Ray; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2011-01-01

    Several sibship-related variables have been studied extensively in sexual orientation research, especially in men. Sibling sex ratio refers to the ratio of brothers to sisters in the aggregate sibships of a group of probands. Birth order refers to the probands’ position (e.g., first-born, middle-born, last-born) within their sibships. Fraternal birth order refers to their position among male siblings only. Such research was extended in this study to a large group of early-onset gender dysphor...

  2. Probable Early-Onset Alzheimer's Disease in an Apolipoprotein E2 Homozygote

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Lauren; Belden, Christine; Jacobson, Sandra; Liebsack, Carolyn; Myers, Kent; Reninger, Cornelia; Berk, Camryn; Sabbagh, Marwan N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe a case of early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) in an apolipoprotein (Apo) epsilon 2/epsilon 2 homozygote. Background: Apo epsilon 2/epsilon 2 is the rarest of the ApoE genotypes, representing only 1.4% of the population. Cognitive decline in ApoE epsilon 2 homozygotes has rarely been reported. Case Report/Methods: We report a 58-year-old Apo epsilon 2/epsilon 2 female who meets clinical criteria for probable AD as confirmed by neuropsychological testing, positron emissi...

  3. Validation study of the early onset schizophrenia diagnosis in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernal, Ditte Lammers; Stenstrøm, Anne Dorte; Staal, Nina

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess (1) the concordance and validity of schizophrenia register diagnoses among children and adolescents (early onset schizophrenia = EOS) in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (DPCRR), and (2) the validity of clinical record schizophrenia diagnoses...... in inpatient settings, EOS diagnoses are reliable and valid for register-based research. Schizophrenia diagnosed in children and adolescents in outpatient settings were found to have a high number of false-positives, both due to registration errors and diagnostic practice. Utilizing this knowledge......, it is possible to reduce the number of false-positives in register-based research of EOS....

  4. Functional and Radiographic Outcomes Following Growth-Sparing Management of Early-Onset Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Charles E; Tran, Dong-Phuong; McClung, Anna

    2017-06-21

    In this study, we sought to evaluate radiographic, functional, and quality-of-life outcomes of patients who have completed growth-sparing management of early-onset scoliosis. This prospective study involved patients with early-onset scoliosis who underwent growth-sparing treatment and either "final" fusion or observation for ≥2 years since the last lengthening procedure. Demographics, radiographic parameters, pulmonary function test (PFT) values, and scores of patient-reported assessments (Early-Onset Scoliosis Questionnaire [EOSQ] and Scoliosis Research Society [SRS]-30) were obtained. At the most recent follow-up, patients performed 2 additional functional outcome tests: step-activity monitoring and a treadmill exercise-tolerance test. Twelve patients were evaluated as "graduates" of growth-sparing management of early-onset scoliosis (mean of 37 months since the most recent surgery). The major scoliosis curve measurement averaged 88° before treatment and 47° at the most recent follow-up. T1-S1 height increased from a mean of 22.3 cm to 34.7 cm and T1-T12 height, from 13.3 to 22.3 cm. At the most recent follow-up, the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) as a percentage of the predicted volume were 52.1% and 55.3%, respectively, and were essentially unchanged from the earliest PFT that patients could perform (FEV1 = 53.8% of predicted and FVC = 53.5% of predicted). There was no difference between graduates and controls with respect to activity time or total steps in step-activity monitoring, and in the exercise-tolerance test, graduates walked at the same speed but at a higher heart rate and at a significantly higher (p scoliosis appears to be spine elongation and maintenance of pulmonary function at a level that is no less than the percentage of normal at initial presentation. Functional testing and patient-reported outcomes at a mean of 3 years from the last surgery suggest that activity levels were generally equal

  5. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and early-onset bipolar disorder: two facets of one entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepf, Florian D

    2009-01-01

    Early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have recently been the subject of highly controversial debate, due to theories regarding underlying pathophysiological processes and a clinical overlap of symptoms. Epidemiological data, clinical aspects neuroimaging, neurochemical, and genetic studies suggest that there may be a possible relationship between biological factors and clinical characteristics in the development of symptoms. However, longitudinal data supporting the hypothesis of a diagnostic shift from BD to ADHD symptoms and vice versa are currently not available. These would be essential to enable further investigations into whether these two disorders possibly represent two different aspects of an underlying common psychopathophysiological entity.

  6. Quality of antenatal care as a risk factor for early onset neonatal infections in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, B R; Moreira, B M; Santoro-Lopes, G; Cunha, A J; Santos, R M R dos; Pessoa-Silva, C L; Pinheiro, Azeredo A N; Ferreira, M; Leobons, M B; Hofer, Cristina Barroso

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal infection is a serious public health problem. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the antenatal care on the risk of early-onset neonatal healthcare associated infection in two Brazilian maternities. Cohort study - Newborns admitted at two public neonatal intensive care units from 2008 to 2009 were included in the study. Data on antenatal and perinatal variables were collected from maternal prenatal cards and medical charts. Newborns were actively surveyed for early-onset neonatal healthcare associated infection, defined as a neonatal infection diagnosed within 48h after birth. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess variables independently associated with early-onset neonatal healthcare associated infection. 561 neonate-mother pairs were included in the study. Early-onset neonatal healthcare associated infection was diagnosed in 283 neonates (51%), an incidence rate of 43.5/1000 live births. Neonates whose mothers had less then six antenatal visits were under risk significantly higher for early-onset neonatal healthcare associated infection (OR=1.69, 95% CI=1.11-2.57), after adjusting for birth weight, membranes ruptured for >18h, maternal complications during delivery, maternal infection at admission, and hospital where patients received care. The risk of neonatal early-onset neonatal healthcare associated infection was significantly associated with insufficient number of antenatal care visits. Further studies assessing the quality of antenatal care and targeting its improvement are warranted. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  7. Pharmacotherapy effectiveness for clinical subgroups among children and adolescents with early onset schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrell, Jeanette M; McIntyre, Roger S; Deroche, Chelsea B

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to determine the effectiveness of pharmacotherapies among children and adolescents diagnosed with early onset schizophrenia subgrouped according to their co-occurring psychiatric disorders. A retrospective cohort design was employed, using South Carolina's (USA) Medicaid claims dataset covering outpatient and inpatient medical services, between January, 1999 and December, 2013 to identify patients ≤17 years of age. Random effects regression analyses assessed differential changes in acute psychiatric service utilization over time across the 3 subgroups associated with antipsychotic, mood stabilizer, psychostimulant, or antidepressant pharmacotherapy. For patients with schizophrenia and comorbid mood disorders or emotional dysregulation (Cluster 1), or schizophrenia and severe cognitive impairments (Cluster 2), those treated with monotherapy second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) over time demonstrated consistently lower use of acute psychiatric treatment services as did those coprescribed mood stabilizers, primarily lithium, or anticonvulsants. In all clusters, including the relatively homogenous subgroup of patients with early onset schizophrenia and few comorbid disorders, acute psychiatric service utilization was significantly higher and more variable over time for those prescribed multiple SGAs. Regardless of the specific constellation of symptoms and comorbid disorders targeted, the coprescription of multiple SGAs was not effective over time in stabilizing children and adolescents outside of acute care settings. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Early-onset alopecia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondell, Elinor; Fitzgerald, Kathryn C; Falcone, Guido J; O'Reilly, Eilis J; Ascherio, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    A recent meta-analysis of 7 genome-wide association studies on early balding (alopecia) revealed single nucleotide polymorphism variants in the region of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) gene TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TARDBP/TDP-43). We therefore explored the association of early-onset alopecia and ALS in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, a large cohort of 51,529 US men. In 1992, the participants (then aged 46-81 years) were asked to report their hair line pattern at age 45 years. During the follow-up period (1992-2008), 42 men were diagnosed with ALS. Of those, 13 had reported no alopecia, 18 had reported moderate alopecia, and 11 had reported extensive alopecia at age 45 years. Those who reported extensive alopecia had an almost 3-fold increased risk of ALS compared with those who reported no alopecia (relative risk = 2.74, 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 6.13). Furthermore, we observed a linear trend of increased risk of ALS with increasing level of balding at age 45 years (Ptrend = 0.02). In conclusion, men with early-onset alopecia seem to have a higher risk of ALS. The mechanisms underlying this association deserve further investigation.

  9. Clinical features of late-onset ankylosing spondylitis: comparison with early-onset disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla, Carlos; Del Pino-Montes, Javier; Collantes-Estevez, Eduardo; Font, Pilar; Zarco, Pedro; Mulero, Juan; Gratacós, Jordi; Rodríguez, Carlos; Juanola, Xavier; Fernández-Sueiro, Jose Luis; Almodovar, Raquel

    2012-05-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is generally observed in young patients but can occur later in life or in persons ≥ 50 years of age. Our objective was to characterize the clinical features of late-onset AS in a large multicenter national cohort. We studied late-onset AS in the National Registry of Spondyloarthritis of the Spanish Society of Rheumatology (REGISPONSER database) cohort (n = 1257), of whom 3.5% had onset at age ≥ 50 years versus a control group with onset at < 50 years. There were no differences between late-onset and early-onset AS according to sex and family history of spondyloarthropathies. Patients in the late-onset group more often showed involvement of the cervical spine (22.7% vs 9.7%; p = 0.03) and arthritis of the upper (13.6% vs 3.0%; p = 0.002) and lower limbs (27.3% vs 15.2%; p = 0.03) as first manifestations than did patients in the early-onset group. A higher percentage of mixed forms (axial and peripheral joint disease) during the course of the disease was also recorded in the late-onset group (50% vs 24%; p = 0.0001). Our study suggests that age at onset of AS affects the patients' presenting clinical form. Arthritis of the upper limbs requires a differential diagnosis with other conditions frequent in patients over 50 years of age, such as rheumatoid arthritis or crystal-induced arthropathy.

  10. Concordance of bioactive vs. total immunoreactive serum leptin levels in children with severe early onset obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanik, Juraj; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Landgraf, Kathrin; Scheuermann, Kathrin; Spielau, Ulrike; Gausche, Ruth; Gasperikova, Daniela; Kiess, Wieland; Körner, Antje

    2017-01-01

    Leptin secreted from adipose tissue signals peripheral energy status to the brain. Monogenic leptin deficiency results in severe early onset obesity with hyperphagia. Recently, a similar phenotype of inactivating leptin mutations but with preserved immunoreactivity and hence normal circulating immunoreactive leptin has been reported. We aimed to evaluate the proportion of bioactive leptin serum levels (compared to immunoreactive leptin) as a biomarker for the screening of leptin gene mutations causing monogenic obesity. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the immunoreactive and bioactive leptin levels associations with parameters of insulin resistance and insulin secretion in obese children and adolescents. We measured bioactive and immunoreactive leptin levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in fasting serum samples of 70 children with severe (BMI SDS >3) non-syndromic obesity with onset childhood obesity cohort (n = 1204). Sanger sequencing of the leptin gene was performed in probands with proportion of bioactive/immunoreactive leptin severe early onset childhood obesity, we did not identify leptin gene mutations leading to decreased proportion of bioactive leptin. Nevertheless, the bioactive leptin levels were stronger associated with selected insulin secretion/resistance indices than the immunoreactive leptin levels.

  11. Focused Molding Using Adhesive Pads in Mehta Casting for Early-Onset Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Roby; Sponseller, Paul D

    2014-11-01

    Prospective clinical series. To determine the effect of adhesive pads placed over the apex of scoliosis curves on curve correction 1) after the first cast and 2) after the final cast. Early-onset scoliosis is often effectively managed by serial casting. Properly localizing the apex of the molds with the cast in place is challenging. The authors explored the effectiveness of a novel technique: incorporation of adhesive pads placed over the major curve apex before Mehta casting. The 27 patients who received body casts (2000-2013) were divided into 2 groups: those without and with apical adhesive pads (5-6 layers of pads placed on the major curve's apex during casting): non-pad (NP) group (n = 12) and pad (P) group (n = 15), respectively. Groups were compared regarding the percentage of Cobb angle change from the first cast and curve correction to a Cobb angle of cast curve correction was 39% ± 18% and 56% ± 17% in the NP and P groups, respectively. Of the 26 patients out of a cast, 11 (42%) had a Cobb angle of casting were effective in increasing the amount of major curve correction from the first cast for idiopathic early-onset scoliosis and in decreasing curves to <25° at final follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Phenotype-Genotype Analysis of Chinese Patients with Early-Onset LMNA-Related Muscular Dystrophy.

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    Dandan Tan

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the correlation between the phenotype and genotype of Chinese patients with early-onset lamin A (LMNA-related muscular dystrophy (MD. The clinical and myopathological data of 21 Chinese pediatric patients with early-onset LMNA-related MD were collected and analyzed. LMNA gene mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing of genomic DNA. Sublocalization of wild-type and mutant proteins were observed by immunofluorescence using cultured fibroblasts and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293 cell. Seven patients were diagnosed with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD and 14 were diagnosed with LMNA-associated congenital muscular dystrophy (L-CMD. Four biopsy specimens from the L-CMD cases exhibited inflammatory changes. Abnormal nuclear morphology was observed with both transmission electron microscopy and lamin A/C staining. We identified 10 novel and nine known LMNA gene mutations in the 21 patients. Some mutations (c.91G>A, c.94_96delAAG, c.116A>G, c.745C>T, c.746G>A, and c.1580G>C were well correlated with EDMD or L-CMD. LMNA-related MD has a common symptom triad of muscle weakness, joint contractures, and cardiac involvement, but the severity of symptoms and disease progression differ greatly. Inflammatory change in biopsied muscle is a characteristic of early-stage L-CMD. Phenotype-genotype analysis determines that some mutations are well correlated with LMNA-related MD.

  13. Thought and language disorders in very early onset schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder

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    Telma Pantano

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thought and language disorders are main features of adults with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders however studies on such abnormalities are scant in young patients with very early onset psychosis (VEOS. The aim of the present study is to assess the relationship between language and thought disorders in patients with very early onset schizophrenia (SCZ, schizoaffective disorders (SCA and bipolar disorders (BD. Method Forty-one patients (18 SCZ, 16 BD, and 7 SCA with mean age less than 15 years old were assessed through a series of neurocognitive and psycholinguistic tests, including the Thought, Language and Communication Scale (TLC. Results SCZ group performed worse in all tests as well as the TLC, followed by SCA and BD groups respectively. Thought disorders were related to deficits in executive functioning and semantic processing, and the metaphors’ test was the best predictor of TLC functioning. Discussion TD in SCZ, SCA and BD are one of the most important features in patients with VEOS and that the evaluation of metaphor comprehension can be an important instrument in the early detection of this disorder.

  14. [Early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. The experience from a third level medical institution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman-Garber, Israel; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Velásquez, Daniel; Lobato-Valverde, Marlette; Osornio-Flores, Melannie; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J; Granados-Arreola, Julio; Villa, Antonio R; Velascoa, María Luisa; Rull-Rodrigo, Juan A

    2010-01-01

    Describe the clinical, metabolic and psychosocial characteristics observed among patients with early onset type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We included 80 consecutive patients with early onset T2DM. All had a medical record, completed a battery of questionnaires and had blood and urine tests. Mean age was 49 +/- 12 years, 57.5% were women, 76.2% had a family history of diabetes and 68.8% a personal history of obesity. Diabetes was diagnosed at the mean age of 32 +/- 6 years with a mean duration of 17 +/- 11 years. Most patients (66.2%) were on poor glycemic control (Alc > 9.0%) and 30% were depressed. Insulin was commonly needed (80% of the patients) and started on average 9 years after diagnosis Significant diabetes related complications were common (71.3% of patients). A longer diabetes duration was the variable most significantly associated with developing complications (p diabetic patients attending our clinic; they are characterized by a stronger family history of diabetes, a personal history of obesity and co-morbidities associated with metabolic syndrome. Longer disease course and poor glycemic control contribute to a high prevalence of diabetes related complications and high rates of mortality.

  15. A Survey on Current Practice of Management of Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, A C; Hossain, M I; Afroze, S; Dey, S K; Mannan, M A; Shahidullah, M

    2016-04-01

    It was a survey type of cross sectional study where the participants were from different teaching/referral hospital across the country and was done to gather information regarding current practice of management of neonatal sepsis among paediatricians and neonatologists and was conducted on the spot during a national conference of Bangladesh Perinatal Society in December 2013. Specialists in neonatology, paediatrics, and some other disciplines working in different institutes across the country were requested to respond. Out of 150 physicians, 92 (61.33%) were neonatologists. Physicians suspected early onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) when there is history suggestive of prolonged rupture of membrane (74.77%), prolonged labour (9.33%), chorioamnionitis (7.33%) and maternal fever (2%). Clinical sepsis is found commonly (53.33%) which is later proved by laboratory evidences such as Hb%, TC, DC PBF (peripheral blood film), C-reactive protein, chest X-ray etc. Injection Ampicillin and Gentamycin are still the first choice of antibiotics (61.3%). Preferred route was intravenous (95.3%). Antibiotics were given for 7-10 days by most of the physicians (48.77%). However there is lack of uniformity among the participants in regard to taking decision about antibiotics, the choice of first line and the subsequent options of antibiotics. So, neonatal sepsis is the most important cause of neonatal mortality in the community. Therefore a standard protocolized approach for diagnosis and management of Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis may prove critical which is currently not in practice uniformly.

  16. Heterozygous mutation in OTX2 associated with early-onset retinal dystrophy with atypical maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla-Elsayed, Maram Ea; Schatz, Patrik; Neuhaus, Christine; Khan, Arif O

    2017-01-01

    Heterozygous mutations in OTX2 have been associated with a range of ocular and pituitary abnormalities. We report a novel heterozygous deletion in OTX2 underlying early-onset retinal dystrophy with atypical maculopathy. Clinical examination included electroretinography and multimodal retinal imaging. Molecular genetic testing was composed of next-generation sequencing of a panel of retinal dystrophy genes. A now 17-year-old boy presented 12 years earlier with a history of progressively poor vision since birth, nyctalopia, and early-onset retinal dystrophy with atypical maculopathy. He also had bilateral microphthalmos and a slim prepubertal appearance; growth hormone levels were within normal ranges. Next-generation sequencing of a retinal dystrophy gene panel revealed a heterozygous deletion c.485delC (p.Pro162G.Infs*24) in exon 5 of OTX2. This second report of maculopathy associated with a heterozygous mutation in OTX2 confirms that mutations in OTX2 should be considered in the differential diagnosis of atypical hereditary maculopathy, with or without rod-cone dystrophy.

  17. EARLY ONSET OF DELINQUENCY AND THE TRAJECTORY OF ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING AMONG YOUNG MALES*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Building upon the literature in developmental and life-course criminology, the present study assesses the possible association of age onset of delinquency with the trajectory of alcohol-impaired driving using data collected from the three waves of the Buffalo Longitudinal Survey of Young Men (BLSYM). It is argued that as a unique form of delinquency, alcohol-impaired driving among adolescents may be better understood in a broad context of adolescent delinquency involvement. The study adopts the general approach for the analysis of early onset of delinquency and criminal careers in developmental and life-course criminology and hypothesizes that early onset of delinquency is associated with a higher growth of alcohol-impaired driving over time among adolescents when age onsets of alcohol-impaired driving, drinking, and drug use are controlled. Our analysis with the HLM growth modeling method provides support for the hypothesis. Respondents who had an early start in delinquency were likely to have a faster growth of alcohol-impaired driving over the three waves of BLSYM, which implies that these respondents were likely to have a longer path of alcohol-impaired driving in their transition to adulthood. The implication of this finding is discussed. PMID:21831528

  18. Early-Onset Alopecia and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondell, Elinor; Fitzgerald, Kathryn C.; Falcone, Guido J.; O'Reilly, Éilis J.; Ascherio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of 7 genome-wide association studies on early balding (alopecia) revealed single nucleotide polymorphism variants in the region of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) gene TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TARDBP/TDP-43). We therefore explored the association of early-onset alopecia and ALS in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, a large cohort of 51,529 US men. In 1992, the participants (then aged 46–81 years) were asked to report their hair line pattern at age 45 years. During the follow-up period (1992–2008), 42 men were diagnosed with ALS. Of those, 13 had reported no alopecia, 18 had reported moderate alopecia, and 11 had reported extensive alopecia at age 45 years. Those who reported extensive alopecia had an almost 3-fold increased risk of ALS compared with those who reported no alopecia (relative risk = 2.74, 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 6.13). Furthermore, we observed a linear trend of increased risk of ALS with increasing level of balding at age 45 years (Ptrend = 0.02). In conclusion, men with early-onset alopecia seem to have a higher risk of ALS. The mechanisms underlying this association deserve further investigation. PMID:23942216

  19. Neonatal Septicemia in Nepal: Early-Onset versus Late-Onset

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    Shamshul Ansari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neonatal septicemia is defined as infection in the first 28 days of life. Early-onset neonatal septicemia and late-onset neonatal septicemia are defined as illnesses appearing from birth to three days and from four to twenty-eight days postnatally, respectively. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, blood samples from the suspected infants were collected and processed in the bacteriology laboratory. The growth was identified by standard microbiological protocol and the antibiotic sensitivity testing was carried out by modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results. Among total suspected cases, the septicemia was confirmed in 116 (12.6% neonates. Early-onset septicemia (EOS was observed in 82 infants and late-onset septicemia (LOS in 34 infants. Coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS (46.6% was the predominant Gram-positive organism isolated from EOS as well as from LOS cases followed by Staphylococcus aureus (14.6%. Acinetobacter species (9.5% was the predominant Gram-negative organism followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.7%. Conclusions. The result of our study reveals that the CoNS, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the most common etiological agents of neonatal septicemia. In particular, since rate of CoNS causing sepsis is alarming, prompting concern to curb the excess burden of CoNS infection is necessary.

  20. Candidate predisposing germline copy number variants in early onset colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brea-Fernandez, A J; Fernandez-Rozadilla, C; Alvarez-Barona, M; Azuara, D; Ginesta, M M; Clofent, J; de Castro, L; Gonzalez, D; Andreu, M; Bessa, X; Llor, X; Xicola, R; Jover, R; Castells, A; Castellvi-Bel, S; Capella, G; Carracedo, A; Ruiz-Ponte, C

    2017-05-01

    A great proportion of the heritability of colorectal cancer (CRC) still remains unexplained, and rare variants, as well as copy number changes, have been proposed as potential candidates to explain the so-called 'missing heritability'. We aimed to identify rare high-to-moderately penetrant copy number variants (CNVs) in patients suspected of having hereditary CRC due to an early onset. We have selected for genome-wide copy number analysis, 27 MMR-proficient early onset CRC patients (1% in the in-house control CNV database (n = 629 healthy controls). Copy number assignment was checked by duplex real-time quantitative PCR or multiplex ligation probe amplification. Somatic mutation analysis in candidate genes included: loss of heterozygosity studies, point mutation screening, and methylation status of the promoter. We have identified two rare germline deletions involving the AK3 and SLIT2 genes in two patients. The search for a second somatic mutational event in the corresponding CRC tumors showed loss of heterozygosity in AK3, and promoter hypermethylation in SLIT2. Both genes have been previously related to colorectal carcinogenesis. These findings suggest that AK3 and SLIT2 may be potential candidates involved in genetic susceptibility to CRC.

  1. Early onset of delinquency and the trajectory of alcohol-impaired driving among young males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F; Welte, John W

    2011-12-01

    Building upon the literature in developmental and life-course criminology, the present study assesses the possible association of age onset of delinquency with the trajectory of alcohol-impaired driving using data collected from the three waves of the Buffalo Longitudinal Survey of Young Men (BLSYM). It is argued that as a unique form of delinquency, alcohol-impaired driving among adolescents may be better understood in a broad context of adolescent delinquency involvement. The study adopts the general approach for the analysis of early onset of delinquency and criminal careers in developmental and life-course criminology and hypothesizes that early onset of delinquency is associated with a higher growth of alcohol-impaired driving over time among adolescents when age onsets of alcohol-impaired driving, drinking, and drug use are controlled. Our analysis with the HLM growth modeling method provides support for the hypothesis. Respondents who had an early start in delinquency were likely to have a faster growth of alcohol-impaired driving over the three waves of BLSYM, which implies that these respondents were likely to have a longer path of alcohol-impaired driving in their transition to adulthood. The implication of this finding is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Early-onset severe obesity due to complete deletion of the leptin gene in a boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsu, Elif; Ceylaner, Serdar; Onay, Huseyin

    2017-10-26

    Monogenic obesity results from single gene mutations. Extreme obesity starting at an early age, especially in infancy, which is associated with endocrinopathy and metabolic disturbances is key to the diagnosis of monogenic obesity. A 6-month-old boy was admitted to our clinic with severe obesity and food craving. He was born with a birth weight of 3400 g to first-cousin parents. He started to gain weight at an abnormal rate at the age of 2 months. He had hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia and grade 2 hepatosteatosis. He had a 7-year-old, healthy brother with a normal body weight. Because of severe early-onset obesity and abnormal food addiction, his leptin level was measured and found to be 0.55 ng/mL (normal range for his age and sex is 0.7-21 ng/mL). A LEP gene mutation was screened for and a gross leptin gene deletion was detected. To date, no report on a gross deletion of the LEP gene has been published in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, a gross deletion of the LEP gene has not been reported so far in the literature. Here we report a unique case with congenital leptin deficiency. Thus, clinicians should search for monogenic obesity in patients with early-onset severe obesity and endocrinopathy. Measuring the leptin level could aid clinicians to identify children with monogenic obesity.

  3. The Use of Cannabis as a Predictor of Early Onset of Bipolar Disorder and Suicide Attempts

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    Rafaela Torres Portugal Leite

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bipolar disorder (BD implies risk of suicide. The age at onset (AAO of BD carries prognostic significance. Substance abuse may precede the onset of BD and cannabis is the most common illicit drug used. The main goal of this study is to review the association of cannabis use as a risk factor for early onset of BD and for suicide attempts. Materials and Methods. PubMed database was searched for articles using key words “bipolar disorder,” “suicide attempts,” “cannabis,” “marijuana,” “early age at onset,” and “early onset.” Results. The following percentages in bipolar patients were found: suicide attempts 3.6–42%; suicide attempts and substance use 5–60%; suicide attempts and cannabis use 15–42%. An early AAO was associated with cannabis misuse. The mean age of the first manic episode in individuals with and without BD and cannabis use disorder (CUD was 19.5 and 25.1 years, respectively. The first depressive episode was at 18.5 and 24.4 years, respectively. Individuals misusing cannabis showed increased risk of suicide. Discussion. Cannabis use is associated with increased risk of suicide attempts and with early AAO. However, the effect of cannabis at the AAO and suicide attempts is not clear.

  4. Pattern of birth in anorexia nervosa. I: Early-onset cases in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Beth; Willoughby, Kate; Waller, Glenn; Serpell, Lucy; Lask, Bryan

    2002-07-01

    Previous studies suggest that adults with anorexia nervosa are more likely to be born in spring and early summer. This study examines whether this pattern of birth is true of early-onset anorexia nervosa, and whether there is a relationship between environmental temperature at assumed time of conception and a later diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. The population were children and adolescents with diagnoses of anorexia nervosa (N = 259) or "other eating disorders" (N = 149). Distribution of births across the year was compared between groups and relative to standard population norms. Temperature at assumed time of conception was taken from meteorological records. There was a significant preponderance of births among those with anorexia nervosa between April and June, compared with the other months of the year and with the "other eating disorders" group. Anorexia nervosa was also associated with higher environmental temperature at assumed time of conception. Among early-onset cases in the United Kingdom, patients with anorexia nervosa are more likely to be born between April and June, and to be conceived during warmer months. A tentative "temperature at conception" hypothesis is advanced to explain these findings and to generate further research.

  5. Maintaining Intestinal Health: The Genetics and Immunology of Very Early Onset Inflammatory Bowel DiseaseSummary

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    Judith R. Kelsen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a multifactoral disease caused by dysregulated immune responses to commensal or pathogenic microbes in the intestine, resulting in chronic intestinal inflammation. An emerging population of patients with IBD younger than 5 years of age represent a unique form of disease, termed very early onset IBD (VEO-IBD, which is phenotypically and genetically distinct from older-onset IBD. VEO-IBD is associated with increased disease severity, aggressive progression, and poor responsiveness to most conventional therapies. Further investigation into the causes and pathogenesis of VEO-IBD will help improve treatment strategies and may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms that are essential to maintain intestinal health or provoke the development of targeted therapeutic strategies to limit intestinal inflammation and promote tissue repair. Here, we discuss the phenotypic nature of VEO-IBD, the recent identification of novel gene variants associated with disease, and functional immunologic studies interrogating the contribution of specific genetic variants to the development of chronic intestinal inflammation. Keywords: Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Very Early Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Whole Exome Sequencing, Mucosal Immunology

  6. The Use of Cannabis as a Predictor of Early Onset of Bipolar Disorder and Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Rafaela Torres Portugal; Nogueira, Sarah de Oliveira; do Nascimento, João Paulo Rodrigues; de Lima, Laisa Soares; da Nóbrega, Taís Bastos; Virgínio, Mariana da Silva; Moreno, Lucas Monte da Costa; Sampaio, Bruno Henrique Barbosa; de Matos E Souza, Fábio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Bipolar disorder (BD) implies risk of suicide. The age at onset (AAO) of BD carries prognostic significance. Substance abuse may precede the onset of BD and cannabis is the most common illicit drug used. The main goal of this study is to review the association of cannabis use as a risk factor for early onset of BD and for suicide attempts. Materials and Methods. PubMed database was searched for articles using key words "bipolar disorder," "suicide attempts," "cannabis," "marijuana," "early age at onset," and "early onset." Results. The following percentages in bipolar patients were found: suicide attempts 3.6-42%; suicide attempts and substance use 5-60%; suicide attempts and cannabis use 15-42%. An early AAO was associated with cannabis misuse. The mean age of the first manic episode in individuals with and without BD and cannabis use disorder (CUD) was 19.5 and 25.1 years, respectively. The first depressive episode was at 18.5 and 24.4 years, respectively. Individuals misusing cannabis showed increased risk of suicide. Discussion. Cannabis use is associated with increased risk of suicide attempts and with early AAO. However, the effect of cannabis at the AAO and suicide attempts is not clear.

  7. Two Novel De Novo GARS Mutations Cause Early-Onset Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease.

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    Yi-Chu Liao

    Full Text Available Mutations in the GARS gene have been identified in a small number of patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT type 2D or distal spinal muscular atrophy type V, for whom disease onset typically occurs during adolescence or young adulthood, initially manifesting as weakness and atrophy of the hand muscles. The role of GARS mutations in patients with inherited neuropathies in Taiwan remains elusive.Mutational analyses of the coding regions of GARS were performed using targeted sequencing of 54 patients with molecularly unassigned axonal CMT, who were selected from 340 unrelated CMT patients. Two heterozygous mutations in GARS, p.Asp146Tyr and p.Met238Arg, were identified; one in each patient. Both are novel de novo mutations. The p.Asp146Tyr mutation is associated with a severe infantile-onset neuropathy and the p.Met238Arg mutation results in childhood-onset disability.GARS mutations are an uncommon cause of CMT in Taiwan. The p.Asp146Tyr and p.Met238Arg mutations are associated with early-onset axonal CMT. These findings broaden the mutational spectrum of GARS and also highlight the importance of considering GARS mutations as a disease cause in patients with early-onset neuropathies.

  8. GATA2 is associated with familial early-onset coronary artery disease.

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    Jessica J Connelly

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factor GATA2 plays an essential role in the establishment and maintenance of adult hematopoiesis. It is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells, as well as the cells that make up the aortic vasculature, namely aortic endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. We have shown that GATA2 expression is predictive of location within the thoracic aorta; location is suggested to be a surrogate for disease susceptibility. The GATA2 gene maps beneath the Chromosome 3q linkage peak from our family-based sample set (GENECARD study of early-onset coronary artery disease. Given these observations, we investigated the relationship of several known and novel polymorphisms within GATA2 to coronary artery disease. We identified five single nucleotide polymorphisms that were significantly associated with early-onset coronary artery disease in GENECARD. These results were validated by identifying significant association of two of these single nucleotide polymorphisms in an independent case-control sample set that was phenotypically similar to the GENECARD families. These observations identify GATA2 as a novel susceptibility gene for coronary artery disease and suggest that the study of this transcription factor and its downstream targets may uncover a regulatory network important for coronary artery disease inheritance.

  9. Surgical fusion of early onset severe scoliosis increases survival in Rett syndrome: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Torode, Ian; Wong, Kingsley; Ellaway, Carolyn; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Izatt, Maree T; Askin, Geoffrey N; Mcphee, Bruce I; Cundy, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-06-01

    Scoliosis is a common comorbidity in Rett syndrome and spinal fusion may be recommended if severe. We investigated the impact of spinal fusion on survival and risk of severe lower respiratory tract infection in Rett syndrome. Data were ascertained from hospital medical records, the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, a longitudinal and population-based registry, and from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare National Death Index database. Cox regression and generalized estimating equation models were used to estimate the effects of spinal surgery on survival and severe respiratory infection respectively in 140 females who developed severe scoliosis (Cobb angle ≥45°) before adulthood. After adjusting for mutation type and age of scoliosis onset, the rate of death was lower in the surgery group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12-0.74; p=0.009) compared to those without surgery. Rate of death was particularly reduced for those with early onset scoliosis (HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.52; p=0.002). There was some evidence to suggest that spinal fusion was associated with a reduction in risk of severe respiratory infection among those with early onset scoliosis (risk ratio 0.41, 95% CI 0.16-1.03; p=0.06). With appropriate cautions, spinal fusion confers an advantage to life expectancy in Rett syndrome. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  10. Committee Opinion Summary No. 638: First-Trimester Risk Assessment for Early-Onset Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Hypertensive disorders with adverse sequelae (including preterm birth, maternal morbidity and mortality, and long-term risk of maternal cardiovascular disease) complicate 5-10% of pregnancies. Early identification of pregnant women at risk of developing early-onset preeclampsia would theoretically allow referral for more intensive surveillance or application of preventive therapies to reduce the risk of severe disease. In practice, however, the effectiveness of such triage would be hindered by the low positive predictive value for early-onset preeclampsia reported in the literature. In spite of the modest predictive value of first-trimester preeclampsia risk assessment and the lack of data demonstrating improved clinical outcomes, commercial tests are being marketed for the prediction of preeclampsia in the first trimester. Taking a detailed medical history to evaluate for risk factors is currently the best and only recommended screening approach for preeclampsia; it should remain the method of screening for preeclampsia until studies show that aspirin or other interventions reduce the incidence of preeclampsia for women at high risk based on first-trimester predictive tests.

  11. Risk of lung cancer among white and black relatives of individuals with early-onset lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coté, Michele L; Kardia, Sharon L R; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Ruckdeschel, John C; Schwartz, Ann G

    2005-06-22

    Evidence exists that lung cancer aggregates in families and recent findings of a chromosomal region linked to lung cancer susceptibility support a genetic component to risk. Family studies of early-onset lung cancer patients offer a unique opportunity to evaluate lifetime risk of lung cancer in relatives. To measure lung cancer aggregation and estimate lifetime risk among relatives of early-onset cases and population-based controls. Familial aggregation and cumulative risk estimates from interview data of incident cases and concurrently ascertained controls between 1990 and 2003 in metropolitan Detroit, Mich. The study included 7576 biological mothers, fathers, and siblings of 692 early-onset cases and 773 frequency-matched controls. One third of the population was black. Cumulative lifetime risk of lung cancer, stratified by race and smoking behavior in relatives of early-onset cases and controls. Smokers with a family history of early-onset lung cancer in a first-degree relative had a higher risk of developing lung cancer with increasing age than smokers without a family history. An increase in risk occurs after age 60 years in these individuals, with 17.1% (SE 2.4%) of white case relatives and 25.1% (SE 5.8%) of black case relatives diagnosed with lung cancer by age 70 years. Relatives of black cases were at statistically significant increased risk of lung cancer compared with relatives of white cases (odds ratio, 2.07, 95% confidence interval, 1.29-3.32) after adjusting for age, sex, pack-years, pneumonia, and chronic obstructive lung disease. First-degree relatives of black individuals with early-onset lung cancer have greater risk of lung cancer than their white counterparts, and these risks are further amplified by cigarette smoking. These data provide estimates of lung cancer risk that can be used to offer counseling to family members of patients with early-onset lung cancer.

  12. The common single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2681472 is associated with early-onset preeclampsia in Northern Han Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ji-Peng; Wang, Hong; Li, Chang-Zhong; Zhao, Han; You, Li; Shi, Dong-Hong; Sun, Xiu-Hua; Lv, Hong; Wang, Fei; Wen, Ze-Qing; Wang, Xie-Tong; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2014-11-01

    Preeclampsia, characterized by hypertension and proteinuria, remains a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Recently, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified the single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs2681472, as a new hypertension susceptibility genetic variant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between preeclampsia and rs268172 in a Northern Han Chinese population. We genotyped 1218 unrelated Northern Han Chinese women, including 515 patients with preeclampsia and 703 healthy controls. No significant differences were detected in the allele frequencies between patients and controls (P = .23). When patients were divided into early-onset and late-onset preeclampsia according to gestational age of disease onset, the allele frequencies significantly differed between controls and patients with early-onset preeclampsia (P = .02). Genotype frequencies also were significantly different between controls and patients early-onset preeclampsia when data were analyzed under additive (P = .03) and dominant (P = .009) models. We replicated this association in an independent Northern Han Chinese population and observed a significant difference in the allele frequencies between patients with early-onset preeclampsia and controls (P = .011). We report that rs2681472 is associated with early-onset preeclampsia in Northern Han Chinese women. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Early Onset of Sexual Intercourse and Parental Incarceration among African American Youth Living in Urban Public Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbitt, Von E; Voisin, Dexter R; Tirmazi, M Taqi

    2017-02-01

    Mass incarceration, substance use, and adolescent early onset of sex (e.g., initiate sexual intercourse at 13 years of age or younger) are social problems with disparate impacts on low-income African American communities. Two out of every five inmates in state and federal prisons are African American and the vast majority of these inmates are from low-income communities. Furthermore, this population experiences more severe consequences of substance use and abuse compared to other populations. In sum, African American youth endure the lion share of problems that mass incarceration and substance use leave in their wake. It is likely that the early onset of sex reported by African American youth in national data is related to mass incarceration and substance use in their communities. Using a sample of 142 African American youth, this paper assesses whether parental incarceration or substance, or both, are related to the likelihood of early onset of sex. Analytic procedures included chi-square and sequential logistic regression. The sample reported a mean age of 19 and 36% reported early onset of sex. Being male, paternal incarcerated, and maternal alcohol problems were associated with an increased likelihood of early onset of sex. Results point to a need for supportive services for the children of incarcerated parents, particularly those living in urban public housing developments.

  14. Time perspective and early-onset substance use: a model based on stress-coping theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, T A; Sandy, J M; Yaeger, A M

    2001-06-01

    This research tested the relation of time perspective to early-onset substance use (tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana) with a sample of 454 elementary school students with a mean age of 11.8 years. An adaptation of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (P. G. Zimbardo & J. N. Boyd, 1999) was administered with measures derived from stress-coping theory. Independent effects showed future orientation inversely related to substance use and present orientation positively related to substance use. Structural modeling analysis indicated that the relation of time perspective measures to substance use was indirect, mediated through behavioral coping and anger coping. Proximal factors for substance use were negative affect, peer substance use, and resistance efficacy. Results are discussed with respect to epigenetic models and the role of executive functions in self-control ability.

  15. Severe agitation in severe early-onset Alzheimer’s disease resolves with ECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksay SS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Suna Su Aksay, Lucrezia Hausner, Lutz Frölich, Alexander Sartorius Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany Abstract: Dementia-related behavioral disturbances are mostly treated with antipsychotics; however, the observed beneficial effects are modest and the risk of serious adverse effects high. We report the case of a 57-year-old woman with severe early-onset Alzheimer’s disease and severe agitation, whom we treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT. A significant clinical improvement was achieved over eight ECT sessions, which were tolerated well without cognitive worsening, and lasted approximately 3 months. Our case demonstrates the safe and effective use of ECT in pharmacotherapy-resistant severe agitation in Alzheimer’s disease. The risk–benefit profile of ECT for dementia-related agitation should be further investigated in clinical trials. Keywords: dementia, electroconvulsive therapy, cognition, emotional distress, disinhibition.

  16. Treatment of early-onset preeclampsia with continuous positive airway pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Clare; Tong, Stephen; Wilson, Danielle; Howard, Mark; Walker, Susan P

    2015-05-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. There is no treatment for preeclampsia other than delivery. Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preeclampsia, but it is not known whether treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves perinatal outcomes. We report a 35-year-old primigravid woman diagnosed with preeclampsia at 30 weeks of gestation. A sleep study confirmed severe sleep-disordered breathing, and CPAP treatment was started. After CPAP treatment, both clinical and biochemical markers of preeclampsia improved. In addition, circulating angiogenic markers of preeclampsia improved. As a result, the pregnancy safely continued for 30 days, allowing the fetus to gain gestation. Continuous positive airway pressure may be a novel treatment for women with early-onset preeclampsia associated with sleep-disordered breathing.

  17. Estimating the probability of neonatal early-onset infection on the basis of maternal risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puopolo, Karen M; Draper, David; Wi, Soora; Newman, Thomas B; Zupancic, John; Lieberman, Ellice; Smith, Myesha; Escobar, Gabriel J

    2011-11-01

    To develop a quantitative model to estimate the probability of neonatal early-onset bacterial infection on the basis of maternal intrapartum risk factors. This was a nested case-control study of infants born at ≥34 weeks' gestation at 14 California and Massachusetts hospitals from 1993 to 2007. Case-subjects had culture-confirmed bacterial infection at 4 hours before delivery was associated with decreased risk. Our model showed good discrimination and calibration (c statistic = 0.800 and Hosmer-Lemeshow P = .142 in the entire data set). A predictive model based on information available in the immediate perinatal period performs better than algorithms based on risk-factor threshold values. This model establishes a prior probability for newborn sepsis, which could be combined with neonatal physical examination and laboratory values to establish a posterior probability to guide treatment decisions.

  18. Screening of KCNN3 in patients with early-onset lone atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Morten Sig; Jabbari, Javad; Holst, Anders G

    2011-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to screen KCNN3 encoding the small-conductance calcium-activated K(+) channel (SK3) in lone atrial fibrillation patients. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. A genome-wide association study has recently associated an intronic single......-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in KCNN3 with lone AF. Methods and results We sequenced the coding region and splice junctions of KCNN3 in 209 early-onset lone AF patients, screening for variations. A group of 208 healthy blood donors with normal ECGs and without cardiac symptoms were used as controls. All patients...... and controls were of Danish ethnicity. No mutations were found in the coding regions or splice sites of KCNN3. We found one known exonic synonymous SNP (rs1131820) in KCNN3 that was associated with AF. Both the genotype distribution and allele frequencies of SNP rs1131820 were significantly different between...

  19. [The present and the prospect of study on Blau syndrome/early-onset sarcoidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Michiyo; Kambe, Naotomo

    2013-04-01

    Blau syndrome (BS) and early-onset sarcoidosis (EOS) are both systemic granulomatous disease evoked by the mutated NOD2. It occurs in children younger than 4 years of age and is characterized by a distinct triad of skin, joint, and eye disorders without apparent pulmonary involvement. NOD2 encodes an intracellular receptor for muramyl dipeptide (MDP), the common component of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan, and is expressed in cytoplasm of monocytic cells and epithelial cells. While its loss-of-function mutations are recognized in Crohn's disease, the mutations observed in BS/EOS are gain-of-function, and induced MDP-independent basal NF-kappaB activation. But we still do not know the precious molecular mechanism how the activation of NOD2 induces granuloma formation in the skin, joints and eyes.

  20. Course of intelligence deficits in early onset, first episode schizophrenia: a controlled, 5-year longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt Møllegaard; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2010-01-01

    predominantly been characterized as relatively stable in these studies. However, comparisons of IQs from different test versions based on the different norms may not permit unequivocal interpretations. The objective of the current study was to compare the development of intelligence in EOS patients (N = 10......Only few prospective longitudinal studies have assessed the course of intelligence deficits in early onset schizophrenia (EOS), and these have used different age appropriate versions of Wechsler Intelligence Scales and age appropriate norms. The post-psychotic development of intelligence in EOS has......) from their first psychotic episode to 5 years of post onset with that of healthy controls (N = 35) and patients who at baseline had been diagnosed with other non-affective psychoses (N = 8). The same version of a Wechsler Intelligence Scale was administered at both baseline and follow-up assessments...

  1. Recognising early onset neonatal sepsis: an essential step in appropriate antimicrobial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Herk, Wendy; Stocker, Martin; van Rossum, Annemarie M C

    2016-07-05

    Early diagnosis and timely treatment of early onset neonatal sepsis (EOS) are essential to prevent life threatening complications. Subtle, nonspecific clinical presentation and low predictive values of biomarkers complicate early diagnosis. This uncertainty commonly results in unnecessary and prolonged empiric antibiotic treatment. Annually, approximately 395,000 neonates (7.9% of live term births) are treated for suspected EOS in the European Union, while the incidence of proven EOS varies between 0.01 and 0.53 per 1000 live births. Adherence to guidelines for the management of suspicion of EOS is poor. Pragmatic approaches to minimise overtreatment in neonates with suspected EOS, using combined stratified risk algorithms, based on maternal and perinatal risk factors, clinical characteristics of the neonate and sequential biomarkers are promising. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrasound control of magnet growing rod distraction in early onset scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Cervera, T; Lirola Criado, J F; Farrington Rueda, D M

    2016-01-01

    The growing rod technique is currently one of the most common procedures used in the management of early onset scoliosis. However, in order to preserve spine growth and control the deformity it requires frequent surgeries to distract the rods. Magnetically driven growing rods have recently been introduced with same treatment goal, but without the inconvenience of repeated surgical distractions. One of the limitations of this technical advance is an increase in radiation exposure due to the increase in distraction frequency compared to conventional growing rods. An improvement of the original technique is presented, proposing a solution to the inconvenience of multiple radiation exposure using ultrasound technology to control the distraction process of magnetically driven growing rods. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Early-onset heroin use and its link to conduct disorder: Clinical and management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobhit Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood substance abuse and delinquency often progress to harder substances and antisocial personality disorder and carries deleterious consequences for self, family and community at large. Early management of such cases poses several clinical and management challenges, as highlighted in the present case. The treatment seeking for this sub-population is very low in spite of community surveys showing a worrisome pattern of substance use among younger population. Further, very few specialty clinics and trained manpower exist in the country to manage early onset substance use. Whether conduct disorder be cause or consequence for drug use is debatable, in view of shared risk factors. The present case helps to understand need for comprehensive assessment for identifying risk factors and comorbid conditions. Only pharmacological management does not help, psychosocial management must be delivered. Several prevention strategies may also help if these risk factors are identified before progression to illicit substance use disorder.

  4. Early Onset Dapsone-induced Photosensitive Dermatitis: A Rare Side Effect of a Common Drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjigi, S; Murthy, S C; Kallappa, H; Kusuma, M R; Reddy, Y N K

    2015-01-01

    Dapsone, a potent anti-inflammatory compound, is mainly used in the treatment of leprosy, dermatitis herpetiformis, erythema elevatum diutinum and other dermatoses. Cutaneous adverse reactions range from acneiform eruptions to toxic epidermal necrolysis. A 30-year-old, married women who was treated with paucibacillary multi drug therapy, developed itchy skin lesions over the both forearms, 'V ' area of the neck and upper back after one week of the drug administration which worsened on exposure to sunlights. A clinical diagnosis of dapsone-induced photosensitive dermatitis was confirmed by histopathology and recurrence of symptoms and signs after re-exposure to the drug. Photosensitivity due to dapsone is rare and very few reports are available in the literature. Our patient had an unusually early onset compared to the previously reported cases.

  5. A case of probable non-familial early onset Alzheimer dementia in a Hispanic male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephrussi, Corey; Alweis, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Early onset Alzheimer's type dementia (EOAD) is usually familial and associated with mutations in the Presenilin-1 (PSEN1), Presenilin-2 (PSEN2) or amyloid precursor protein (APP) genes. It is rarely reported in patients of Hispanic descent. A 49-year-old Hispanic male developed significant cognitive impairment over a 4-year period. PET scan showed diminished metabolic activity in the posterior parietal/temporal lobes. Genetic testing revealed the presence of a PSEN1 gene mutation. Disparities in health care may account for an under-recognition of EOAD in the Hispanic population. Clinicians should test for EOAD in all patients with appropriate symptomatology, regardless of ethnicity. Early recognition and enrollment in clinical trials is vital to enhancing our understanding of the natural history and treatment of this condition.

  6. Family physician consultation patterns indicate high risk for early-onset anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lask, Bryan; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel; Wright, Fiona; Campbell, Mari; Willoughby, Kate; Waller, Glenn

    2005-11-01

    There is often a delay in the recognition of early-onset anorexia nervosa. The current study aimed to determine whether there are specific patterns in the frequency and content of family physician consultations that might predict its onset. Lifetime number and type of family physician consultations were recorded for three groups: (a) an index group comprising 19 girls with anorexia nervosa, onset under 14; (b) a clinical control group comprising 19 girls with an emotional disorder; and (c) a nonclinical group comprising 19 girls with no history of mental health problems. Both clinical groups had an elevated number of consultations, particularly in the 5 years before diagnosis. The index group had a significantly higher number of eating, weight, and shape consultations (especially in the year before diagnosis), whereas the clinical control group had a greater number of psychological consultations. A single consultation about eating behaviour or weight and shape concerns is a strong predictor of the subsequent emergence of anorexia nervosa.

  7. Design of a Dynamic Spinal Implant for the treatment of Early Onset Scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Alvarez, A.; Shepherd, D.; Dearn, K.

    2016-07-01

    GSDyn (Growing Spine Dynamic) is a novel implant that has been designed and manufactured to mechanically correct three dimensional spinal deformities in children with Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS). The innovative element of the implant is the lengthening mechanism that allows the elongation surgeries to be easier, faster and less invasive procedures than with other mechanical implants on the market, as they can be performed under local anaesthetics and with a surgical incision of less than one centimetre. It also includes a dynamic system to prevent implant breakage and anchor loosening, two of the most common complications occurring in this treatment. The development of the implant has been guided by spinal surgeons. Finite Element Analysis has been performed to evaluate the behaviour of the device under different loading conditions and two working prototypes have been successfully manufactured. (Author)

  8. A case of probable non-familial early onset Alzheimer dementia in a Hispanic male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Ephrussi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early onset Alzheimer's type dementia (EOAD is usually familial and associated with mutations in the Presenilin-1 (PSEN1, Presenilin-2 (PSEN2 or amyloid precursor protein (APP genes. It is rarely reported in patients of Hispanic descent. Case report: A 49-year-old Hispanic male developed significant cognitive impairment over a 4-year period. PET scan showed diminished metabolic activity in the posterior parietal/temporal lobes. Genetic testing revealed the presence of a PSEN1 gene mutation. Conclusion: Disparities in health care may account for an under-recognition of EOAD in the Hispanic population. Clinicians should test for EOAD in all patients with appropriate symptomatology, regardless of ethnicity. Early recognition and enrollment in clinical trials is vital to enhancing our understanding of the natural history and treatment of this condition.

  9. Early onset obesity and adrenal insufficiency associated with a homozygous POMC mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eng Christine M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Isolated hypocortisolism due to ACTH deficiency is a rare condition that can be caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding proopiomelanocortin (POMC. Loss of function mutations of POMC gene typically results in adrenal insufficiency, obesity and red hair. We describe an 18 month old Hispanic female with congenital adrenal insufficiency, a novel POMC mutation and atypical clinical features. The patient presented at the age of 9 months with hypoglycemia and the endocrine evaluation resulted in a diagnosis of ACTH deficiency. She developed extreme weight gain prompting sequence analysis of POMC, which revealed a homozygous c.231C > A change which is predicted to result in a premature termination codon. The case we report had obesity, hypocortisolism but lacked red hair which is typical for subjects with POMC mutations. Mutations of POMC should be considered in individuals with severe early onset obesity and adrenal insufficiency even when they lack the typical pigmentary phenotype.

  10. Relationship of early-onset baldness to prostate cancer in African-American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita; Morales, Knashawn H; Spangler, Elaine; Chang, Bao-Li; Rebbeck, Timothy R

    2013-04-01

    Early-onset baldness has been linked to prostate cancer; however, little is known about this relationship in African-Americans who are at elevated prostate cancer risk. We recruited 219 African-American controls and 318 African-American prostate cancer cases. We determined age-stratified associations of baldness with prostate cancer occurrence and severity defined by high stage (T3/T4) or high grade (Gleason 7+.) Associations of androgen metabolism genotypes (CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A43, AR-CAG, SRD5A2 A49T, and SRD5A2 V89L), family history, alcohol intake, and smoking were examined by baldness status and age group by using multivariable logistic regression models. Baldness was associated with odds of prostate cancer [OR = 1.69; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-2.74]. Frontal baldness was associated with high-stage (OR = 2.61; 95% CI, 1.10-6.18) and high-grade (OR = 2.20; 95% CI, 1.05-4.61) tumors. For men diagnosed less than the age of 60 years, frontal baldness was associated with high stage (OR = 6.51; 95% CI, 2.11-20.06) and high grade (OR = 4.23; 95% CI, 1.47-12.14). We also observed a suggestion of an interaction among smoking, median age, and any baldness (P = 0.02). We observed significant associations between early-onset baldness and prostate cancer in African-American men. Interactions with age and smoking were suggested in these associations. Studies are needed to investigate the mechanisms influencing the relationship between baldness and prostate cancer in African-American men. African-American men present with unique risk factors including baldness patterns that may contribute to prostate cancer disparities.

  11. Genetic mutations in early-onset Parkinson's disease Mexican patients: molecular testing implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Jaramillo, Nancy; Guerrero-Camacho, Jorge Luis; Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela; Boll-Woehrlen, Marie-Catherine; Yescas-Gómez, Petra; Alonso-Vilatela, María Elisa; López-López, Marisol

    2014-04-01

    Mutations in PARK2, PINK1, and DJ-1 have been associated with autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson's disease. Here, we report the prevalence of sequence and structural mutations in these three main recessive genes in Mexican Mestizo patients. The complete sequences of these three genes were analyzed by homo/heteroduplex DNA formation and direct sequencing; exon dosage was determined by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and real-time PCR in 127 patients belonging to 122 families and 120 healthy Mexican Mestizo controls. All individuals had been previously screened for the three most common LRRK2 mutations. The presence of two mutations in compound heterozygous or homozygous genotypes was found in 16 unrelated patients, 10 had mutations in PARK2, six in PINK1, and none in DJ-1. Two PARK2-PINK1 and one PARK2-LRRK2 digenic cases were observed. Novel mutations were identified in PARK2 and PINK1 genes, including PINK1 duplication for the first time. Exon dosage deletions were the most frequent mutations in PARK2 (mainly in exons 9 and 12), followed by those in PINK1. The high prevalence of heterozygous mutations in PARK2 (12.3%) and the novel heterozygous and homozygous point mutations in PINK1 observed in familial and sporadic cases from various states of Mexico support the concept that single heterozygous mutations in recessive Parkinson's disease genes play a pathogenic role. These data have important implications for genetic counseling of Mexican Mestizo patients with early-onset Parkinson's disease. The presence of digenic inheritance underscores the importance of studying several genes in this disease. A step-ordered strategy for molecular diagnosis is proposed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Neuropeptide Y gene polymorphisms confer risk of early-onset atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svati H Shah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y (NPY is a strong candidate gene for coronary artery disease (CAD. We have previously identified genetic linkage to familial CAD in the genomic region of NPY. We performed follow-up genetic, biostatistical, and functional analysis of NPY in early-onset CAD. In familial CAD (GENECARD, N = 420 families, we found increased microsatellite linkage to chromosome 7p14 (OSA LOD = 4.2, p = 0.004 in 97 earliest age-of-onset families. Tagged NPY SNPs demonstrated linkage to CAD of a 6-SNP block (LOD = 1.58-2.72, family-based association of this block with CAD (p = 0.02, and stronger linkage to CAD in the earliest age-of-onset families. Association of this 6-SNP block with CAD was validated in: (a 556 non-familial early-onset CAD cases and 256 controls (OR 1.46-1.65, p = 0.01-0.05, showing stronger association in youngest cases (OR 1.84-2.20, p = 0.0004-0.09; and (b GENECARD probands versus non-familial controls (OR 1.79-2.06, p = 0.003-0.02. A promoter SNP (rs16147 within this 6-SNP block was associated with higher plasma NPY levels (p = 0.04. To assess a causal role of NPY in atherosclerosis, we applied the NPY1-receptor-antagonist BIBP-3226 adventitially to endothelium-denuded carotid arteries of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice; treatment reduced atherosclerotic neointimal area by 50% (p = 0.03. Thus, NPY variants associate with atherosclerosis in two independent datasets (with strong age-of-onset effects and show allele-specific expression with NPY levels, while NPY receptor antagonism reduces atherosclerosis in mice. We conclude that NPY contributes to atherosclerosis pathogenesis.

  13. Typical and atypical appearance of early-onset Alzheimer's disease: A clinical, neuroimaging and neuropathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Shinobu; Kobayashi, Ryota; Hayashi, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    The International Working Group (IWG) has classified Alzheimer's disease (AD) as two different types, the typical form and the atypical form, but clinicopathological studies of atypical AD are limited. Because atypical AD cases usually present with early-onset dementia, we investigated 12 patients with early-onset AD, including two patients with typical AD and 10 patients with atypical AD. Of these patients, six had the posterior variant, three had the frontal variant and one had the logopenic variant mixed with semantic dementia. We reported MRI, single-photon emission CT and neuropathological findings in six representative cases. We also described a "left temporal variant" of AD presenting with transcortical cortical sensory aphasia, which has not been reported previously and is another subtype of the posterior variant of AD. We found a significant correlation between regional cerebral blood flow and counts of NFTs in the cerebral cortices. An atypical presentation with focal neuropsychological symptoms roughly correlated with the density of NFTs in the cerebral cortex and more directly related to spongiform changes in the superficial layers of these areas. In contrast, the distribution of amyloid depositions was diffuse and did not necessarily correlate with focal neuropsychological symptoms. Braak staging or ABC score is not necessarily appropriate to evaluate atypical AD, and instead, spongiform changes in addition to tau pathology in the association cortices better explain the diversity of atypical AD. Interestingly, another patient with a posterior variant of AD had a novel type of atypical plaque, which we referred to as "lucent plaque". They were recognizable with HE staining in the circumference and dystrophic neurites were abundant with Gallyas-Braak staining. These plaques demonstrated intense immunoreactivity to both tau AT-8 and amyloid β (Aβ), suggesting a peculiar coexistence pattern of amyloid and tau in these plaques. Clinicopathological studies

  14. Long term functioning in early onset psychosis: Two years prospective follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Ghada RA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There were few studies on the outcome of schizophrenia in developing countries. Whether the outcome is similar to or different from developed world is still a point for research. The main aim of the current study was to know if patients with early onset non affective psychosis can behave and function properly after few years from start of the illness or not. Other aims included investigation of possible predictors and associated factors with remission and outcome. Method The study prospectively investigated a group of 56 patients with onset of psychosis during childhood or adolescence. Diagnosis made according to DSM-IV criteria and included; schizophrenia, psychotic disorder not otherwise specified and acute psychosis. Severity of psychosis was measured by PANSS. Measures of the outcome included; remission criteria of Andreasen et al 2005, the children's global assessment scale and educational level. Results Analysis of data was done for only 37 patients. Thirty patients diagnosed as schizophrenia and 7 with Psychotic disorder not otherwise specified. Mean duration of follow up was 38.4 +/- 16.9 months. At the end of the study, 6 patients (16.2% had one episode, 23(62.1% had multiple episodes and 8 (21.6% continuous course. Nineteen patients (51.4% achieved full remission, and only 11(29.7% achieved their average educational level for their age. Twenty seven percent of the sample had good outcome and 24.3% had poor outcome. Factors associated with non remission and poor outcome included gradual onset, low IQ, poor premorbid adjustment, negative symptoms at onset of the illness and poor adherence to drugs. Moreover, there was tendency of negative symptoms at illness start to predict poor outcome. Conclusion Some patients with early onset non affective psychosis can behave and function properly after few years from the start of the illness. Although remission is a difficult target in childhood psychosis, it is still achievable.

  15. Early-onset neonatal sepsis in Dhaka, Bangladesh: risk associated with maternal bacterial colonisation and chorioamnionitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Grace J; Baqui, Abdullah H; Modak, Joyanta K; Murillo-Chaves, Adriana; Mahmud, Abdullah A; Boyd, Theonia K; Black, Robert E; Saha, Samir K

    2013-09-01

    To estimate the risk of early-onset neonatal sepsis among newborns of mothers with chorioamnionitis and/or bacterial colonisation in Dhaka. We conducted a cohort study at a maternity centre following 600 mother-newborn pairs. Women with a positive bacterial vaginal culture or positive Group B streptococcus (GBS) rectal culture during labour were classified as colonised. Women with placental histopathology demonstrating signs of maternal or foetal inflammation were classified as having chorioamnionitis. Newborns were followed over the first 7 days of life. The primary outcome measure was physician or community health worker diagnosis of neonatal sepsis following modified World Health Organization Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses criteria. Survival analysis was conducted with non-parametric, parametric and semiparametric models. Of the 600 mother-newborn pairs, 12.8% of newborns were diagnosed with early-onset sepsis. Five hundred and forty-three women had both colonisation and chorioamnionitis data, 55.4% of mothers were non-exposed, 31.7% were only colonised and 12.9% had chorioamnionitis regardless of colonisation status. After adjusting for birthweight, sex, maternal characteristics and wealth, newborns of only colonised mothers developed sepsis 63% faster and had a 71% higher risk of developing sepsis than their non-exposed counterparts (RT = 0.37, 95% CI 0.14-1.03; RH = 1.71, 95% CI 1.00-2.94). Newborns of mothers with chorioamnionitis developed sepsis 74% faster and had a 111% higher risk of developing sepsis (RT = 0.26, 95% CI 0.07-0.94; RH = 2.11, 95% CI 1.06-4.21). Newborns born to mothers with colonisation or chorioamnionitis developed sepsis faster and were at higher risk of developing sepsis in Dhaka. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Managing the Risk for Early Onset Osteoporosis in Long-Duration Astronauts Due to Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2010-01-01

    Early Onset Osteoporosis is probably the most recognized but poorly understood long-term health risk due to spaceflight. Osteoporosis management is primarily prophylactic and clinical interventions rely upon the ability to predict fractures which is currently determined by surrogate measures of bone strength. The RMAT for Early Onset Osteoporosis identified some open issues related to the fact that long-duration astronauts compose a unique group of subjects for which clinical approaches for osteoporosis management do not apply. Long-duration astronauts are healthy, young (25 to 55 years of age), predominantly male, and physical fit relative to the typical osteoporosis patient. Moreover, during prolonged space missions (typically 6-month missions) the skeleton not only adapts to weightlessness, but is influenced by numerous risk factors induced by operational constraints, e.g., inability to maintain preflight weight-bearing and aerobic activities, sub-optimal dietary intake (e.g., high sodium content for food stability, lack of fresh fruit and vegetables), suppression of vitamin D metabolism by uv shielding, and remote medicine care. Moreover, adaptation results in novel changes to astronauts bones that cannot be detected by current medically-useful measures. Consequently, a panel of clinicians (recognized leaders and policy-makers in osteoporosis) was convened to review the dataset of bone measures and bone loss risk factors in long-duration astronauts. Driven by the queries in the RMAT, the panel was charged to determine 1) if an intervention is required to prevent this risk, 2) what type and at what time would intervention be optimal, 3) what is the clinical trigger that would require a medical response from flight surgeons and 4) how should research data be used in the clinical care of astronauts. Hence, the RMAT determined that a bone health policy need to be formulated specific for this unique cohort subjected to a novel skeletal condition

  17. Epidemiology of early-onset dementia: a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Renata Teles; Caixeta, Leonardo; Machado, Sergio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Presenile Dementia or Early Onset Dementia (EOD) is a public health problem, it differs from Senile Dementia, and encloses a significant number of cases; nevertheless, it is still poorly understood and underdiagnosed. This study aims to review the prevalence and etiology of EOD, comparing EOD with Senile Dementia, as well as to show the main causes of EOD and their prevalence in population and non-population based studies. The computer-supported search used the following databases: Pubmed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge and Scielo. The search terms were alcohol-associated dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, Creutzfeldt-jakob disease, dementia with lewy bodies, early onset dementia, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Huntington’s disease, mixed dementia, neurodegenerative disorders, Parkinson’s disease dementia, presenile dementia, traumatic brain injury, vascular dementia. Only papers published in English and conducted from 1985 up to 2012 were preferentially reviewed. Neurodegenerative diseases are the most common etiologies seen in EOD. Among the general population, the prevalence of EOD was found to range between 0 to 700 per 100.000 habitants in groups of 25-64 years old, with an increasing incidence with age. The progression of EOD was found to range between 8.3 to 22.8 new cases per 100.000 in those aged under 65 years. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major etiology, followed by Vascular Dementia (VaD) and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD). A larger number of epidemiological studies to elucidate how environmental issues contribute to EOD are necessary, thus, we can collaborate in the planning and prevention of services toward dementia patients. PMID:23878613

  18. Bone mineral density in partially recovered early onset anorexic patients - a follow-up investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Peter

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims There still is a lack of prospective studies on bone mineral development in patients with a history of early onset Anorexia nervosa (AN. Therefore we assessed associations between bone mass accrual and clinical outcomes in a former clinical sample. In addition to an expected influence of regular physical activity and hormone replacement therapy, we explored correlations with nutritionally dependent hormones. Methods 3-9 years (mean 5.2 ± 1.7 after hospital discharge, we re-investigated 52 female subjects with a history of early onset AN. By means of a standardized approach, we evaluated the general outcome of AN. Moreover, bone mineral content (BMC and bone mineral density (BMD as well as lean and fat mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. In a substudy, we measured the serum concentrations of leptin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I. Results The general outcome of anorexia nervosa was good in 50% of the subjects (BMI ≥ 17.5 kg/m2, resumption of menses. Clinical improvement was correlated with BMC and BMD accrual (χ2 = 5.62/χ2 = 6.65, p = 0.06 / p = 0.036. The duration of amenorrhea had a negative correlation with BMD (r = -.362; p th percentile. IGF-I serum concentrations corresponded to the general outcome of AN. By contrast, leptin serum concentrations showed great variability. They correlated with BMC and current body composition parameters. Conclusions Our results from the main study indicate a certain adaptability of bone mineral accrual which is dependent on a speedy and ongoing recovery. While leptin levels in the substudy tended to respond immediately to current nutritional status, IGF-I serum concentrations corresponded to the individual's age and general outcome of AN.

  19. Familial pathways to early-onset suicidal behavior: familial and individual antecedents of suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhem, Nadine M; Brent, David A; Ziegler, Melissa; Iyengar, Satish; Kolko, David; Oquendo, Maria; Birmaher, Boris; Burke, Ainsley; Zelazny, Jamie; Stanley, Barbara; Mann, J John

    2007-09-01

    The authors sought to identify clinical predictors of new-onset suicidal behavior in children of parents with a history of mood disorder and suicidal behavior. In a prospective study of offspring of parents with mood disorders, 365 offspring (average age, 20 years) of 203 parents were followed for up to 6 years. Offspring with incident suicide attempts or emergency referrals for suicidal ideation or behavior ("incident events") were compared with offspring without such events on demographic and clinical characteristics. Multivariate analyses were conducted to examine predictors of incident events and predictors of time to incident event. Offspring of probands who had made suicide attempts, compared with offspring of parents with mood disorders who had not made attempts, had a higher rate of incident suicide attempts (4.1% versus 0.6%, relative risk=6.5) as well as overall suicidal events (8.3% versus 1.9%, relative risk=4.4). Mood disorder and self-reported impulsive aggression in offspring and a history of sexual abuse and self-reported depression in parents predicted earlier time to, and greater hazard of, an incident suicidal event. In offspring of parents with mood disorders, precursors of early-onset suicidal behavior include mood disorder and impulsive aggression as well as parental history of suicide attempt, sexual abuse, and self-reported depression. These results suggest that efforts to prevent the familial transmission of early-onset suicidal behavior by targeting these domains could reduce the morbidity of suicidal behavior in high-risk youths.

  20. Impact of DNA testing for early-onset familial Alzheimer disease and frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbart, E J; Smith, C O; Poorkaj, P; Bird, T D

    2001-11-01

    DNA testing of persons at risk for hereditary, degenerative neurologic diseases is relatively new. Only anecdotal reports of such testing in familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) exist, and little is know about the personal and social impact of such testing. In a descriptive, observational study, individuals at 50% risk for autosomal dominant, early-onset FAD or frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 underwent DNA testing for the genetic mutations previously identified in affected family members. Individuals were followed up for (1/2) to 3 years and were interviewed regarding attitudes toward the testing process and the impact of the results. Twenty-one (8.4%) of 251 persons at risk for FAD or frontotemporal dementia requested genetic testing. The most common reasons for requesting testing were concern about early symptoms of dementia, financial or family planning, and relief from anxiety. Twelve individuals had positive DNA test results, and 6 of these had early symptoms of dementia; 8 had negative results; and 1 has not yet received results. Of 14 asymptomatic individuals completing testing, 13 believed the testing was beneficial. Two persons reported moderate anxiety and 1 reported moderate depression. As expected, persons with negative test results had happier experiences overall, but even they had to deal with ongoing anxiety and depression. Thus far, there have been no psychiatric hospitalizations, suicide attempts, or denials of insurance. Genetic testing in early-onset FAD and frontotemporal dementia can be completed successfully. Most individuals demonstrate effective coping skills and find the testing to be beneficial, but long-term effects remain unknown.

  1. Prevention of early-onset Group B Streptococcal disease - the Northern Ireland experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, K A; Craig, S; Sidhu, H; Boyle, M; Gannon, C; Ong, G; Lupari, M; Craven, A; Magowan, S; Ashe, R G

    2015-02-01

    To ascertain guideline adherence for prevention of Group B Streptococcal (GBS) neonatal infection and establish prevalence and outcomes in Northern Ireland (NI). Retrospective observational study. Northern Ireland maternity units. Using NI Health Information Systems the following were identified: (1) a cohort of women with one or more risk factors for GBS disease in 2009-2010, (2) all culture-positive cases of GBS in babies aged 0-89 days (2008-2010), (3) stillbirths due to GBS (2009-2010). Information was analysed for a 15% randomised sample of the available cases. Maternal and infant case notes were reviewed for confirmed cases of neonatal early onset GBS (EOGBS) during 2008-2010. Adherence to the 2003 RCOG guideline on prevention of GBS disease (2009-2010). Number of neonatal GBS infections: antenatal risk factors, management and neonatal outcomes (2008-2010). The number of stillbirths related to GBS (2009-2010). Five hundred and seventy-four women had one or more identifiable risk factors for GBS disease; intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) was administered in 42% of cases. Improved administration of IAP was noted in the presence of escalating risk factors. At best, guideline adherence was 50-70%. Forty-three neonates had proven early-onset Group B Streptococcal disease; 55.8% had maternal risk factors. Of the total identified cases, 25.5% received IAP. The total mortality rate was 11.46%. The incidence of EOGBS disease in NI was 0.57/1000 live births. Prevalence of EOGBS is higher in NI than the UK as a whole. Risk factors are present in 55.8% of mothers; IAP does not prevent all cases of EOGBS. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. TPIT mutations are associated with early-onset, but not late-onset isolated ACTH deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherell, L A; Savage, M O; Dattani, M; Walker, J; Clayton, P E; Farooqi, I S; Clark, A J L

    2004-10-01

    Congenital isolated ACTH deficiency (IAD) is a rare inherited disorder that is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Patients are characterised by low or absent cortisol production secondary to low plasma ACTH despite normal secretion of other pituitary hormones and the absence of structural pituitary defects. Onset may occur in the neonatal period, but may first be observed in later childhood. Recently, mutations in the TPIT gene, a T-box factor selectively expressed in developing corticotroph cells, have been found in cases of early-onset IAD. Here we report the screening of the TPIT gene in seven patients with IAD, four of whom had neonatal onset. Genomic DNA was extracted and the sequences of the 8 TPIT exons and their intron/exon junctions were determined by automated sequencing. Two siblings with early-onset IAD were both compound heterozygotes for mutations in exons 2 and 6. The missense mutation (Met86Arg) in exon 2 within the T-box (or DNA binding domain) is predicted to disrupt DNA binding. A frameshift mutation in exon 6 (782delA) introduces a premature stop codon and is likely to lead to a non-functional truncated protein. No nucleotide changes were observed in exonic sequences in the other two early- or the three later-onset cases. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms that were not predicted to change the TPIT transcript were also detected. These findings provide a further illustration of the genetic heterogeneity of IAD and are highly suggestive of one or more other genes being implicated in this disorder.

  3. Early childhood predictors of early onset of smoking: a birth prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Mamun, Abdullah A; Williams, Gail M; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Najman, Jake M

    2013-10-01

    Early onset of smoking is associated with subsequent abuse of other substances and development of negative health outcomes. This study aimed to examine early life predictors of onset of smoking in an Australian young cohort. Data were from the Mater Hospital and University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP), a population-based prospective birth cohort study (1981-2012). The present study is based on a cohort of 3714 young adults who self-reported smoking status and age of onset of smoking at the 21-year follow-up. Of these, data were available for 3039 on early childhood factors collected between the baseline and 14-year follow-up of the study. Of 3714 young adults, 49.6% (49.9% males and 49.3% females) reported having ever smoked cigarettes. For those who had ever smoked, mean and median ages at first smoke were 15.5 and 16.0years, respectively. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis mother's education, change in maternal marital status, maternal cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, maternal depression and child externalizing when the child was 5years statistically significantly predicted early onset of smoking. The data suggest that individuals exposed to personal and environmental risk factors during the early stage of childhood are at increased risk of initiation to cigarette smoking at an earlier age. Identification of the pathways of association between these early life factors and initiation to cigarette smoking may help reduce risk of tobacco smoking in adolescents and its adverse consequences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Latency of saccades, vergence, and combined movements in children with early onset convergent or divergent strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Kapoula, Zoi; Yang, Qing; Brémond-Gignac, Dominique

    2006-04-01

    The goal of this study was to examine latency of horizontal eye movements in the natural space (saccades, vergence, and combined saccade-vergence movements) in children with early onset convergent or divergent strabismus. Ten children were tested (8-11 years old): three with divergent strabismus, seven with convergent strabismus. A paradigm was used to elicit pure lateral saccades at far and near distance, pure vergence (convergence and divergence) and saccades combined with vergence movements. Horizontal eye movements from both eyes were recorded simultaneously by a photoelectric device (Oculometer, Dr. Bouis). The latency of saccades (at far and near distance), of vergence (convergence and divergence), and of combined movements greatly varies among subjects and has tendency to be longer than that observed in normal children of matched age, however, these differences reach significance in only a few cases. Children with divergent strabismus and residual gross binocular vision show abnormally longer vergence latencies than children with convergent strabismus without binocular vision. The initiation of combined movements does not show a dominant pattern, such as preceding vergence, as is found in normal children. Finally, strabismus surgery has no major effect on latencies. We conclude that there is no overall deficiency in latencies of eye movements in 3D space in children with early onset strabismus. Most likely, monocular visual input can be efficient as normal binocular vision for vergence movements. In a few subjects with divergent strabismus and fragile, intermittent binocular vision, latencies can be abnormally long, just because of the fragile binocular input and/or attention effort needs to use it. The absence of a pattern of initiation similar to normal children could be due to attention and fixation capabilities.

  5. Early-onset severe preeclampsia by first trimester pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and total human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Laura L; Baer, Rebecca J; Currier, Robert J; Lyell, Deirdre J; Blumenfeld, Yair J; El-Sayed, Yasser Y; Shaw, Gary M; Druzin, Maurie L

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the relationship between early-onset severe preeclampsia and first trimester serum levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and total human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The association between early-onset severe preeclampsia and abnormal levels of first trimester PAPP-A and total hCG in maternal serum were measured in a sample of singleton pregnancies without chromosomal defects that had integrated prenatal serum screening in 2009 and 2010 (n = 129,488). Logistic binomial regression was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of early-onset severe preeclampsia in pregnancies with abnormal levels of first trimester PAPP-A or total hCG as compared with controls. Regardless of parity, women with low first trimester PAPP-A or high total hCG were at increased risk for early-onset severe preeclampsia. Women with low PAPP-A (multiple of the median [MoM] ≤ the 10th percentile in nulliparous or ≤ the 5th percentile in multiparous) or high total hCG (MoM ≥ the 90th percentile in nulliparous or ≥ the 95th percentile in multiparous) were at more than a threefold increased risk for early-onset severe preeclampsia (RR, 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0-5.9 and RR, 3.3; 95% CI, 2.1-5.2, respectively). Routinely collected first trimester measurements of PAPP-A and total hCG provide unique risk information for early-onset severe preeclampsia. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Involvement of Galectin-9/TIM-3 pathway in the systemic inflammatory response in early-onset preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miko, Eva; Meggyes, Matyas; Bogar, Barbara; Schmitz, Nora; Barakonyi, Aliz; Varnagy, Akos; Farkas, Balint; Tamas, Peter; Bodis, Jozsef; Szekeres-Bartho, Julia; Illes, Zsolt; Szereday, Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a common obstetrical disease affecting 3-5% of pregnancies and representing one of the leading causes of both maternal and fetal mortality. Maternal symptoms occur as an excessive systemic inflammatory reaction in response to the placental factors released by the oxidatively stressed and functional impaired placenta. The T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain (TIM) family is a relatively newly described group of molecules with a conserved structure and important immunological functions. Identification of Galectin-9 as a ligand for TIM-3 has established the Galectin-9/TIM-3 pathway as an important regulator of Th1 immunity and tolerance induction. The aim of our study was to investigate the expression and function of Galectin-9 and TIM-3 molecules by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the possible role of Galectin-9/TIM-3 pathway in the immunoregulation of healthy pregnancy and early-onset preeclampsia. We determined TIM-3 and Gal-9 expression and cytotoxicicty of peripheral lymphocytes of early-onset preeclamptic women and healthy pregnant woman using flow cytometry. Investigating peripheral lymphocytes of women with early-onset preeclampsia, our results showed a decreased TIM-3 expression by T cells, cytotoxic T cells, NK cells and CD56(dim) NK cells compared to healthy pregnant women. Interestingly, we found a notably increased frequency of Galectin-9 positive cells in each investigated lymphocyte population in the case of early-onset preeclamptic patients. We further demonstrated increased cytotoxic activity by cytotoxic T and CD56(dim) NK cells in women with early-onset preeclampsia. Our findings showed that the strongest cellular cytotoxic response of lymphocytes occurred in the TIM-3 positive subpopulations of different lymphocytes subsets in early-onset preeclampsia. These data suggest that Gal-9/TIM-3 pathway could play an important role in the immune regulation during pregnancy and the altered Galectin-9 and TIM-3 expression

  7. Comparing Characteristics of Early-Onset Injection Drug Users to Those With Late-Onset Injection in Kermanshah, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorjoran Shushtari, Zahra; Noroozi, Alireza; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Ahounbar, Elahe; Hajbi, Ahmad; Najafi, Mohammad; Bazrafshan, Ali; Farhadi, Mohammad Hossin; Farhoudian, Ali; Higgs, Peter; Shahboulagh, Farahnaz Mohammadi; Waye, Katherine; Noroozi, Mehdi

    2017-05-12

    Characteristics and behaviors of early-onset injection drug users are under studied topics in Iran. This study aimed to identify and compare the demographic characteristics as well as the drug using behaviors of early-onset and late-onset injection drug users in Kermanshah, West Iran. In this cross-sectional study using snowball and convenience sampling, we recruited 450 people during the Fall of 2014 from two drop in centers in Kermanshah, Iran. We collected data through face-to-face interviews. Early-onset injection is defined as whether the person reported their first injection at 22 years of age or younger. Subsequently, late-onset injection is defined as 23 years of age or older. We compared the characteristics of the two groups through both univariate and multiple logistic analyses. Overall, 54% (CI 95%: 44.3%, 62.2%) were early injectors. After controlling for low socioeconomic status, initiation of drug use at a young age, multiple drug use and methamphetamine use were all significantly associated with a higher likelihood of early-onset injection. Additionally, early-onset injection was associated with recent syringe borrowing (OR = 2.6, p = 0.001), recent syringe lending (OR = 1.4, p = 0.01), recent cooker sharing (OR = 3.2, p = 0.01) and injecting two or more times a day (OR = 2.2, p = 0.04). Early-onset injectors were more likely to report a lower socioeconomic status, initiation of first drug use at a younger age, using methamphetamine alongside polydrug use, and engaging in higher risk taking behaviors like borrowing needles. With these associations, the study emphasizes the need for drug-prevention programs to focus on the transition to injection drug use at younger ages.

  8. Early-onset group B streptococcal disease in the era of maternal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puopolo, Karen M; Madoff, Lawrence C; Eichenwald, Eric C

    2005-05-01

    With the widespread implementation of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP), the rate of early-onset neonatal sepsis and meningitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) has decreased dramatically, especially in term infants. However, cases of GBS disease continue to occur despite IAP and incur significant morbidity and mortality. Inaccurate screening results, improper implementation of IAP, or antibiotic failure all may contribute to persistent disease. To determine if clinical, procedural, or microbiologic factors influenced persistent early-onset GBS disease (EOGBS) cases in a single large maternity service after the institution of a screening-based protocol for IAP. Retrospective review of all cases of culture-proven EOGBS at the Brigham and Women's Hospital (Boston, MA) from 1997 to 2003. Serotyping and surface protein analyses were performed on available disease isolates. A total of 67260 infants were live-born during this period. Twenty-five cases of EOGBS (0.37 of 1000 live births) were identified. The overall incidence of EOGBS progressively decreased with different approaches to IAP. Of the 25 cases identified after institution of a screening-based protocol, 17 (68%) occurred in term infants (1 death), and 8 (32%) occurred in preterm infants (3 deaths). Among the mothers of term infants, 14 of 17 (82%) had been screened GBS negative; 1 was GBS unknown. More than half of the mothers of term infants who had screened GBS negative (8 of 14) had intrapartum risk factors for neonatal infection but did not receive antibiotics before delivery. Ten of the 17 term infants were evaluated for infection because of clinical signs of illness, and the remainder were evaluated because of intrapartum sepsis risk factors. Of the mothers of preterm infants, by the time of delivery 3 of 8 had been documented as GBS positive, 2 of 8 had been documented GBS negative, and 3 of 8 remained unknown. Only 1 of 25 women received adequate IAP, but the

  9. Early onset otitis media: risk factors and effects on the outcome of chronic suppurative otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasisi, Akeem O; Olayemi, Oladapo; Irabor, Achiaka E

    2008-07-01

    The onset of early otitis media (EOM), in the first few months of life has been reported to predict later chronic otitis media (CSOM), although the prevalence rates are increasing little is known about specific risk factors. In this survey we examined the hypothesis that higher risk factors is associated with the development of OM within 1 year compared to later onset and early onset otitis media (OM) has potential for negative outcome of CSOM. This is a survey of the age at onset of otorrhoea and associated risk factors in children with CSOM, in five sites spread in two sub-urban cities in two states in Nigeria. Questionnaires were administered on the informants followed by examination of the children. EOM was seen in 136/189 (70%) with CSOM, the age range was 1-150 months, mean of 59.25 (SD = 44.55). Of the 85 CSOM subjects with hearing loss, EOM accounted for 49 (57.7%) while 36 (42.4%) was later onset, On multivariate analysis (OR = 0.276, CI = 0.133-0.572, P = 0.001) revealing EOM was significant in the development of hearing loss however there was no correlation with the frequency of attack of otorrhoea (OR = 1.025, CI = 0.88-1.19, P = 0.75). Low socioeconomic status seen in 110/136 EOM (P = 0.000), allergy (P = 0.030) and number of people >10 in household (OR = 4.13, CI = 1.81-9.39, P = 0.001) constituted the significant risk for EOM compared to later onset. Bottlefeeding, adenoiditis/adenoid hypertrophy, indoor cooking and upper respiratory infection were not found to have statistical significance in early onset OM compared to later onset OM. This study found correlation between EOM and hearing loss and identified allergy, low social status and chronic exposure to overcrowding through increased number of children in the household significant risk factors for future research focus. This may help in controlling the prevalence of hearing loss accompanying CSOM.

  10. Exploring reasons for late identification of children with early-onset hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Dos Santos, Johnny Cesconetto; Grandpierre, Viviane; Whittingham, JoAnne

    2017-09-01

    Several studies have shown that early identification of childhood hearing loss leads to better language outcomes. However, delays in the confirmation of hearing loss persist even in the presence of well-established universal newborn hearing screening programs (UNHS). The objective of this population-based study was to document the proportion of children who experienced delayed confirmation of congenital and early onset hearing loss in a UNHS program in one region of Canada. The study also sought to determine the reasons for delayed confirmation of hearing loss in children. Population level data related to age of first assessment, age of identification and clinical characteristics were collected prospectively for all children identified through the UNHS program. We documented the number of children who experienced delay (defined as more than 3 months) from initial audiologic assessment to confirmation of hearing loss. A detailed chart review was subsequently performed to examine the reasons for delay to confirmation. Of 418 children identified from 2003 to 2013, 182 (43.5%) presented with congenital or early onset hearing loss, of whom 30 (16.5%) experienced more than 3 months delay from initial audiologic assessment to confirmation of their hearing disorder. The median age of first assessment and confirmation of hearing loss for these 30 children was 3.7 months (IQR: 2.0, 7.6) and 13.8 months (IQR: 9.7, 26.1) respectively. Close examination of the factors related to delay to confirmation revealed that for the overwhelming majority of children, a constellation of factors contributed to late diagnosis. Several children (n = 22; 73.3%) presented with developmental/medical issues, 15 of whom also had middle ear dysfunction at assessment, and 9 of whom had documented family follow-up concerns. For the remaining eight children, additional reasons included ongoing middle ear dysfunction for five children, complicated by family follow-up concerns (n = 3) and mild

  11. Park7, a novel locus for autosomal recessive early-onset parkinsonism, on chromosome 1p36

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); G.J. Breedveld (Guido); M. Horstink (Marten); L.A. Sandkuijl (Lodewijk); B.A. Oostra (Ben); J.C. van Swieten (John); V. Bonifati (Vincenzo); R-J.H. Galjaard (Robert-Jan); J.J. Houwing-Duistermaat (Jeanine); L. Testers; M.C.J. Dekker (Marieke); P.J.L.M. Snijders (Pieter); P. Heutink (Peter)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractAlthough the role of genetic factors in the origin of Parkinson disease has long been disputed, several genes involved in autosomal dominant and recessive forms of the disease have been localized. Mutations associated with early-onset autosomal recessive parkinsonism have been identified

  12. Prevalidation of liver slices as a model for the early onset of liver fibrosis to test anti-fibrotic drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Inge; Groothuis, Genoveva; Olinga, Peter

    Liver fibrosis is the progressive accumulation of connective tissue that affects the normal function of the liver and will eventually lead to liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study is to prevalidate precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) as an in vitro model to investigate the early onset of liver

  13. Precision-cut liver slices as a model for the early onset of liver fibrosis to test antifibrotic drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Inge M.; Oosterhuis, Dorenda; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Olinga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Induction of fibrosis during prolonged culture of precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) was reported. In this study, the use of rat PCLS was investigated to further characterize the mechanism of early onset of fibrosis in this model and the effects of antifibrotic compounds. Rat PCLS were incubated for

  14. Caregivers' perspectives on the pre-diagnostic period in early onset dementia: a long and winding road

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, D.; de Vugt, M.E.; Bakker, C.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.; Verhey, F.R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recognizing and diagnosing early onset dementia (EOD) can be complex and often takes longer than for late onset dementia. The objectives of this study are to investigate the barriers to diagnosis and to develop a typology of the diagnosis pathway for EOD caregivers. Methods:

  15. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein deficiency promotes early onset and the chronic development of collagen-induced arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geng, Hui; Carlsen, Stefan; Nandakumar, Kutty

    2008-01-01

    -collagen II and anti-COMP antibodies as well as serum COMP levels in arthritic and wild-type mice were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: COMP-deficient mice showed a significant early onset and increase in the severity of CIA in the chronic phase, whereas collagen II-antibody titers were...

  16. Reduced Expression of FOXP3 and Regulatory T-Cell Function in Severe Forms of Early-onset Autoimmune Enteropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, Nicolette; Rieux-Laucat, Frederic; Begue, Bernadette; Verdier, Julien; Neven, Benedicte; Patey, Natacha; Torgerson, Troy T.; Picard, Capucine; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Ruemmele, Corinne; Rings, Edmond Hhm; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Piloquet, Hugues; Biver, Armand; Breton, Anne; Ochs, Hans D.; Hermine, Olivier; Fischer, Alain; Goulet, Olivier; Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine; Ruemmele, Frank M.

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about the pathophysiology of early onset forms of autoimmune enteropathy (AIE). AIE has been associated with mutations in FOXP3-a transcription factor that controls regulatory T-cell development and function. We analyzed the molecular basis of neonatal or early

  17. [Clinical features of Blau syndrome and early-onset sarcoidosis and associating CARD15/NOD2 gene mutations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Nobuo

    2007-04-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease clinically characterized by swelling of bilateral hilar lymph nodes and histologically defined by non-caseating epithelioid cell granulomas. Among child cases, a special subtype, called the early-onset sarcoidosis, is known to appear in children younger than 4 years of age and to be characterized by a distinct triad of skin, joint and eye disorders without pulmonary involvement. On the other hand, autosomal dominantly-transmitted disease with a characteristic features similar to those of early-onset sarcoidosis has been reported as Blau syndrome. By a linkage analysis, the responsible gene for Blau syndrome has been mapped close to the IBD (Inflammatory Bowel Disease) 1 locus. After CARD15 (NOD2), originally identified as the susceptibility gene for Crohn's disease, was also proved to be responsible for Blau syndrome, the same gene mutations have been found in sporadic early-onset sarcoidosis cases. Nod2 recognizes a signal from bacterial cell wall component in the cytoplasm of monocytic cells to activate NF-kappaB, and thus can work as an intracellular sensor of bacteria. While the loss-of-function mutations in its LRR domain are associated with Crohn's disease, Blau syndrome and early-onset sarcoidosis are autoinflammatory diseases that are caused by the gain-of-function mutations in its NOD domain.

  18. The Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib in the treatment of spinal deformity due to progressive early onset scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Norman; Flynn, John M; Serrano, Jose Anibal; Carlo, Simon; Cornier, Alberto S

    2009-07-01

    The Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib (VEPTR) is a technique developed for the treatment of progressive early onset scoliosis. This vertically placed device uses distraction to indirectly elongate the spine and chest, stabilizing the progression of the spinal deformity while preserving spinal growth. Thoracic spine and chest wall deformity are usually correlated; therefore, elongation of the chest wall will increase the space available for the lung and improve respiratory mechanics in patients with early onset scoliosis. We conducted a retrospective study of 17 patients with early onset scoliosis treated with the VEPTR technique. The medical records, imaging studies, and follow-up physical examinations were evaluated. The patient population consisted of 17 primary VEPTR implantations and 33 expansion surgeries with a mean follow-up of 25 months. Our results show that there was an improvement in the coronal plane deformity between the presurgical and postsurgical Cobb angles, preoperative Cobb angle of 59 degrees (range 38-77) to postoperative 35 degrees (range 10-70), resulting in an average decrease of 59% in the Cobb angle (PVEPTR implantation is a safe and efficient method for the treatment of early onset scoliosis.

  19. Suicide in later life : A comparison between cases with early-onset and late-onset depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voshaar, Richard C. Oude; Kapur, Nay; Bickley, Harriet; Williams, Alyson; Purandare, Nitin

    Background: Suicide rates are high in elderly people with depressive disorder. We compared behavioural, clinical and care characteristics of depressed elderly patients, aged 60 years and over at the time of death by suicide, with an early-onset depression (EOD, onset before 60 years) with those

  20. Early-Onset Severe Encephalopathy with Epilepsy: The BRAT1 Gene Should Be Added to the List of Causes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, L.A.; Wolf, N.I.; van Weissenbruch, M.M.; Stam, C.J.; Weiss, M.M.; Waisfisz, Q.; Kevelam, S.H.; Bugiani, M.; van de Kamp, J.M.; Knaap, M.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of pathologies can underlie early-onset severe encephalopathy with epilepsy. To aid the diagnostic process in such patients we present an overview of causes, including the rapidly expanding list of genes involved. When no explanation is found, whole-exome sequencing (WES) can be used in an

  1. "I Need a Cigarette"--The Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Depression and Anxiety of Youth with Early Onset Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Ling; Rittner, Barbara; Maguin, Eugene; Dziadaszek, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine effects of cigarette smoking on depression and anxiety among children and adolescents (youth) with early onset schizophrenia and/or psychosis. Data were obtained from the national evaluation of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program (CMHS Program). Cubic…

  2. Precision-cut rat, mouse, and human intestinal slices as novel models for the early-onset of intestinal fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, Bao Tung; van Haaften, Wouter Tobias; Oosterhuis, Dorenda; Nieken, Judith; de Graaf, Inge Anne Maria; Olinga, Peter

    Intestinal fibrosis (IF) is a major complication of inflammatory bowel disease. IF research is limited by the lack of relevant in vitro and in vivo models. We evaluated precision-cut intestinal slices (PCIS) prepared from human, rat, and mouse intestine as ex vivo models mimicking the early-onset of

  3. A Meta-Analysis of Neuropsychological Functioning in Patients with Early Onset Schizophrenia and Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Rebeca Garcia; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Despite the nosological distinction between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, there is increasing evidence that these conditions share phenomenological characteristics. To examine the similarities in their patterns of cognitive impairment, we conducted a meta-analysis from 12 studies of Early Onset Schizophrenia (EOS) and 12 studies of Pediatric…

  4. Deficits in Facial Expression Recognition in Male Adolescents with Early-Onset or Adolescence-Onset Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Graeme; Van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Calder, Andrew J.; Stollery, Sarah J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: We examined whether conduct disorder (CD) is associated with deficits in facial expression recognition and, if so, whether these deficits are specific to the early-onset form of CD, which emerges in childhood. The findings could potentially inform the developmental taxonomic theory of antisocial behaviour, which suggests that…

  5. A Follow-up Study of Early Onset Psychosis: Comparison between Outcome Diagnoses of Schizophrenia, Mood Disorders, and Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Jon M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study of 95 youths previously diagnosed with psychotic disorders found that at follow-up, 24 had a diagnosis of schizophrenia, 9 with psychotic mood disorders, 5 with personality disorders, and 1 with schizo-affective disorder. The study confirmed findings regarding early onset schizophrenia and psychotic mood disorders and emphasized the…

  6. Cost-effectiveness of different treatment strategies with intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent early-onset group B streptococcal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker-van Marle, M.E. van den; Rijnders, M.E.B.; Dommelen, P. van; Fekkes, M.; Wouwe, J.P. van; Amelink-Verburg, M.P.; Verkerk, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the costs and effects of different treatment strategies with intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) disease in the Netherlands. The treatment strategies include a risk-based strategy, a screening-based strategy, a combined

  7. Loss-of-function mutations in TNFAIP3 leading to A20 haploinsufficiency cause an early-onset autoinflammatory disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Hongying; Schwartz, Daniella M; Stoffels, Monique; Park, Yong Hwan; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Dan; Demirkaya, Erkan; Takeuchi, Masaki; Tsai, Wanxia Li; Lyons, Jonathan J; Yu, Xiaomin; Ouyang, Claudia; Chen, Celeste; Chin, David T; Zaal, Kristien; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C; P Hanson, Eric; Yu, Zhen; Mullikin, James C; Hasni, Sarfaraz A; Wertz, Ingrid E; Ombrello, Amanda K; Stone, Deborah L; Hoffmann, Patrycja; Jones, Anne; Barham, Beverly K; Leavis, Helen L; van Royen, Annet; Sibley, Cailin; Batu, Ezgi D; Gül, Ahmet; Siegel, Richard M; Boehm, Manfred; Milner, Joshua D; Ozen, Seza; Gadina, Massimo; Chae, JaeJin; Laxer, Ronald M; Kastner, Daniel L; Aksentijevich, Ivona

    2015-01-01

    Systemic autoinflammatory diseases are driven by abnormal activation of innate immunity. Herein we describe a new disease caused by high-penetrance heterozygous germline mutations in TNFAIP3, which encodes the NF-κB regulatory protein A20, in six unrelated families with early-onset systemic

  8. Construct Validity and Reliability of the SARA Gait and Posture Sub-scale in Early Onset Ataxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawerman, Tjitske F.; Brandsma, Rick; Verbeek, Renate J.; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; Lunsing, Roelineke J.; Kremer, Hubertus P. H.; Sival, Deborah A.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: In children, gait and posture assessment provides a crucial marker for the early characterization, surveillance and treatment evaluation of early onset ataxia (EOA). For reliable data entry of studies targeting at gait and posture improvement, uniform quantitative biomarkers are necessary.

  9. Morbidity and development in childhood of infants born after temporising treatment of early onset pre-eclampsia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, M.I.J.; Wallenburg, H.C.S.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Hop, W.C.J.; Visser, W. de

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess morbidity and development in childhood of infants born after temporising management of severe early onset pre-eclampsia. DESIGN: Cohort study with matched controls. SETTING: University centre for high risk obstetrics. SAMPLES: Three groups of neonates matched for gender and year

  10. The COX-2 promoter polymorphism -765 G > C is associated with early-onset, conventional and stump gastric cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitarz, Robert; Leguit, Roos J.; de Leng, Wendy W. J.; Polak, Mirjam; Morsink, Folkert M.; Bakker, Onno; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Milne, Anya N.

    2008-01-01

    COX-2 overexpression is known to be an important mechanism in gastric carcinogenesis. Previously we have found that early-onset gastric cancer has a unique COX-2 low-expressing phenotype that differs significantly from that of the frequent overexpression seen in conventional gastric cancers. To

  11. Gain-of-function mutations in potassium channel subunit KCNE2 associated with early-onset lone atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas Bille; Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Olesen, Morten Salling

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Disturbances in cardiac potassium conductance are considered as one of the disease mechanisms in AF. We aimed to investigate if mutations in potassium-channel β-subunits KCNE2 and KCNE3 are associated with early-onset lone AF. ...

  12. Early onset intellectual disability in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascella, Marco; Muzio, Maria Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, or DiGeorge syndrome, or velocardiofacial syndrome, is one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes in humans. This syndrome is commonly caused by a microdelection from chromosome 22 at band q11.2. Although this genetic disorder may reflect several clinical abnormalities and different degrees of organ commitment, the clinical features that have driven the greatest amount of attention are behavioral and developmental features, because individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have a 30-fold risk of developing schizophrenia. There are differing opinions about the cognitive development, and commonly a cognitive decline rather than an early onset intellectual disability has been observed. We report a case of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome with both early assessment of mild intellectual disabilities and tetralogy of Fallot as the only physic manifestation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of the contralesional corticospinal tract in early-onset pediatric hemiplegia: Preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawe, Rachel L; Dewald, Jules P A

    2014-01-01

    While pediatric hemiplegia results from a unilateral lesion, the immature state of the brain at the time of injury increases the likelihood of observing changes in the non-lesioned hemisphere as well. The purpose of this preliminary study was to use diffusion tensor imaging to evaluate the contralesional corticospinal tracts in individuals with early-onset pediatric hemiplegia. Twelve individuals with pediatric hemiplegia and ten age-matched controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Corticospinal projections were reconstructed using probabilistic tractography for both the lesioned and contralesional side in pediatric hemiplegia as well as the dominant and non-dominant sides in control subjects. The contralesional tract was found to have decreased white matter integrity relative to control subjects. Compared to controls, the contralesional tract also showed increased tract volume. The increase in volume suggests the presence of ipsilateral corticospinal projections from the contralesional hemisphere that are maintained during development to control the paretic extremities. Decreases in integrity may be explained by diffuse damage or incomplete maturation. The findings of this study support the notion of bilateral motor involvement in pediatric hemiplegia, and the need to address bilateral neural changes as well as motor deficits in this population.

  14. The ADAMTS18 gene is responsible for autosomal recessive early onset severe retinal dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peluso Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inherited retinal dystrophies, including Retinitis Pigmentosa and Leber Congenital Amaurosis among others, are a group of genetically heterogeneous disorders that lead to variable degrees of visual deficits. They can be caused by mutations in over 100 genes and there is evidence for the presence of as yet unidentified genes in a significant proportion of patients. We aimed at identifying a novel gene for an autosomal recessive form of early onset severe retinal dystrophy in a patient carrying no previously described mutations in known genes. Methods An integrated strategy including homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing was used to identify the responsible mutation. Functional tests were performed in the medaka fish (Oryzias latipes model organism to gain further insight into the pathogenic role of the ADAMTS18 gene in eye and central nervous system (CNS dysfunction. Results This study identified, in the analyzed patient, a homozygous missense mutation in the ADAMTS18 gene, which was recently linked to Knobloch syndrome, a rare developmental disorder that affects the eye and the occipital skull. In vivo gene knockdown performed in medaka fish confirmed both that the mutation has a pathogenic role and that the inactivation of this gene has a deleterious effect on photoreceptor cell function. Conclusion This study reveals that mutations in the ADAMTS18 gene can cause a broad phenotypic spectrum of eye disorders and contribute to shed further light on the complexity of retinal diseases.

  15. Leber congenital amaurosis/early-onset severe retinal dystrophy: clinical features, molecular genetics and therapeutic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Neruban; Moore, Anthony T; Weleber, Richard G; Michaelides, Michel

    2017-09-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and early-onset severe retinal dystrophy (EOSRD) are both genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous, and characterised clinically by severe congenital/early infancy visual loss, nystagmus, amaurotic pupils and markedly reduced/absent full-field electroretinograms. The vast genetic heterogeneity of inherited retinal disease has been established over the last 10 - 20 years, with disease-causing variants identified in 25 genes to date associated with LCA/EOSRD, accounting for 70-80% of cases, with thereby more genes yet to be identified. There is now far greater understanding of the structural and functional associations seen in the various LCA/EOSRD genotypes. Subsequent development/characterisation of LCA/EOSRD animal models has shed light on the underlying pathogenesis and allowed the demonstration of successful rescue with gene replacement therapy and pharmacological intervention in multiple models. These advancements have culminated in more than 12 completed, ongoing and anticipated phase I/II and phase III gene therapy and pharmacological human clinical trials. This review describes the clinical and genetic characteristics of LCA/EOSRD and the differential diagnoses to be considered. We discuss in further detail the diagnostic clinical features, pathophysiology, animal models and human treatment studies and trials, in the more common genetic subtypes and/or those closest to intervention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Early-onset sepsis: a predictive model based on maternal risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puopolo, Karen M; Escobar, Gabriel J

    2013-04-01

    Neonatal early-onset sepsis (EOS) is a very low-incidence, but potentially fatal condition among term and late preterm newborns. EOS algorithms based on risk-factor threshold values result in evaluation and empiric antibiotic treatment of large numbers of uninfected newborns, leading to unnecessary antibiotic exposures and maternal/infant separation. Ideally, risk stratification should be quantitative, employ information conserving strategies, and be readily transferable to modern comprehensive electronic medical records. We performed a case-control study of infants born at or above 34 weeks' gestation with blood culture-proven EOS. We defined the relationship of established predictors to the risk of EOS, then used multivariate analyses and split validation to develop a predictive model using objective data. The model provides an estimation of sepsis risk that can identify the same proportion of EOS cases by evaluating fewer infants, as compared with algorithms based on subjective diagnoses and cut-off values for continuous predictors. An alternative approach to EOS risk assessment based only on objective data could decrease the number of infants evaluated and empirically treated for EOS, compared with currently recommended algorithms. Prospective evaluation is needed to determine the accuracy and safety of using the sepsis risk model to guide clinical decision-making.

  17. Treatment Outcome of Adolescent Inpatients With Early-Onset and Adolescent-Onset Disruptive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Sjoukje Berdina Beike; Boon, Albert Eduard; Verheij, Fop; Donker, Marianne Catharina Henriëtte; Vermeiren, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Unlike adolescents with adolescent-onset (AO) disruptive behavior, adolescents with early-onset (EO) disruptive behavior may not benefit from treatment. Using Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R) ratings at admission and discharge of adolescent inpatients with EO (n = 85) and AO (n = 60) disruptive behavior treatment outcome was determined by (a) a change in mean scores and (b) the Reliable Change Index. For a subgroup, ratings on the Satisfaction Questionnaire Residential Youth Care for Parents (n = 83) were used to verify the treatment outcome. Inpatients with EO disruptive behavior had a higher risk of dropout (44.4%) from treatment than the AO group (24.7%). Among the treatment completers, both onset groups reported improvements on the SCL-90-R, with 26.9% recovering and 31.7% improving. Inpatients who reported improvement were mostly rated as improved by their parents (r = .33). As EO inpatients are more likely to drop out, interventions should aim at motivating youngsters to continue treatment, particularly given the poor outcome in this group. Treatment may benefit both groups because those EO youths who stayed in treatment improved to the same extent as AO inpatients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Mutations in MDH2, Encoding a Krebs Cycle Enzyme, Cause Early-Onset Severe Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-El-Mkadem, Samira; Dayem-Quere, Manal; Gusic, Mirjana; Chaussenot, Annabelle; Bannwarth, Sylvie; François, Bérengère; Genin, Emmanuelle C; Fragaki, Konstantina; Volker-Touw, Catharina L M; Vasnier, Christelle; Serre, Valérie; van Gassen, Koen L I; Lespinasse, Françoise; Richter, Susan; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Rouzier, Cécile; Mochel, Fanny; De Saint-Martin, Anne; Abi Warde, Marie-Thérèse; de Sain-van der Velde, Monique G M; Jans, Judith J M; Amiel, Jeanne; Avsec, Ziga; Mertes, Christian; Haack, Tobias B; Strom, Tim; Meitinger, Thomas; Bonnen, Penelope E; Taylor, Robert W; Gagneur, Julien; van Hasselt, Peter M; Rötig, Agnès; Delahodde, Agnès; Prokisch, Holger; Fuchs, Sabine A; Paquis-Flucklinger, Véronique

    2017-01-05

    MDH2 encodes mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH), which is essential for the conversion of malate to oxaloacetate as part of the proper functioning of the Krebs cycle. We report bi-allelic pathogenic mutations in MDH2 in three unrelated subjects presenting with early-onset generalized hypotonia, psychomotor delay, refractory epilepsy, and elevated lactate in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Functional studies in fibroblasts from affected subjects showed both an apparently complete loss of MDH2 levels and MDH2 enzymatic activity close to null. Metabolomics analyses demonstrated a significant concomitant accumulation of the MDH substrate, malate, and fumarate, its immediate precursor in the Krebs cycle, in affected subjects' fibroblasts. Lentiviral complementation with wild-type MDH2 cDNA restored MDH2 levels and mitochondrial MDH activity. Additionally, introduction of the three missense mutations from the affected subjects into Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided functional evidence to support their pathogenicity. Disruption of the Krebs cycle is a hallmark of cancer, and MDH2 has been recently identified as a novel pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma susceptibility gene. We show that loss-of-function mutations in MDH2 are also associated with severe neurological clinical presentations in children. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Presepsin for the detection of early-onset sepsis in preterm newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaldo, Paolo; Rosso, Roberto; Santantonio, Alfredo; Chello, Giovanni; Giliberti, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    Early-onset sepsis (EOS) is responsible for an important fraction of neonatal morbidity and mortality all over the world. The aim of this study was to assess whether presepsin (P-SEP) can be a more accurate biomarker of EOS compared with pro-calcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Consecutive preterm neonates (sepsis evaluation) were recruited as part of a case-matched control study. We determined CRP, PCT and P-SEP at admission, and then at 12, 24, and 48 h of age. Neonates recruited into the study were divided into the EOS group (n = 32) and the uninfected group (n =38) according to their infection screening. P-SEP values were significantly higher in the EOS group than in the uninfected group at different time intervals. The highest accuracy was achieved by P-SEP at 24 h after birth. The AUC for P-SEP was 0.97. In our sample, P-SEP achieved the best accuracy for prediction of EOS at the cut-off of 788 ng/l with 93% sensitivity and 100% specificity. This study shows that P-SEP is significantly higher in preterm infants with EOS compared with uninfected infants.

  20. Copeptin concentration in cord blood in infants with early-onset sepsis, chorioamnionitis and perinatal asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aebi Christoph

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vasopressin is one of the most important physiological stress and shock hormones. Copeptin, a stable vasopressin precursor, is a promising sepsis marker in adults. In contrast, its involvement in neonatal diseases remains unknown. The aim of this study was to establish copeptin concentrations in neonates of different stress states such as sepsis, chorioamnionitis and asphyxia. Methods Copeptin cord blood concentration was determined using the BRAHMS kryptor assay. Neonates with early-onset sepsis (EOS, n = 30, chorioamnionitis (n = 33 and asphyxia (n = 25 were compared to a control group of preterm and term (n = 155 neonates. Results Median copeptin concentration in cord blood was 36 pmol/l ranging from undetectable to 5498 pmol/l (IQR 7 - 419. Copeptin cord blood concentrations were non-normally distributed and increased with gestational age (p Conclusions Copeptin concentrations were strongly related to factors associated with perinatal stress such as birth acidosis, asphyxia and vaginal delivery. In contrast, copeptin appears to be unsuitable for the diagnosis of EOS.

  1. Characterization of an Early-Onset, Autosomal Recessive, Progressive Retinal Degeneration in Bengal Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofri, Ron; Reilly, Christopher M.; Maggs, David J.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Good, Kathryn L.; Grahn, Robert A.; Splawski, Danielle D.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A form of retinal degeneration suspected to be hereditary was discovered in a family of Bengal cats. A breeding colony was established to characterize disease progression clinically, electrophysiologically, and morphologically, and to investigate the mode of inheritance. Methods Affected and related cats were donated by owners for breeding trials and pedigree analysis. Kittens from test and complementation breedings underwent ophthalmic and neuro-ophthalmic examinations and ERG, and globes were evaluated using light microscopy. Results Pedigree analysis, along with test and complementation breedings, indicated autosomal recessive inheritance and suggested that this disease is nonallelic to a retinal degeneration found in Persian cats. Mutation analysis confirmed the disease is not caused by CEP290 or CRX variants found predominantly in Abyssinian and Siamese cats. Ophthalmoscopic signs of retinal degeneration were noted at 9 weeks of age and became more noticeable over the next 4 months. Visual deficits were behaviorally evident by 1 year of age. Electroretinogram demonstrated reduced rod and cone function at 7 and 9 weeks of age, respectively. Rod responses were mostly extinguished at 14 weeks of age; cone responses were minimal by 26 weeks. Histologic degeneration was first observed at 8 weeks, evidenced by reduced photoreceptor numbers, then rapid deterioration of the photoreceptor layer and, subsequently, severe outer retinal degeneration. Conclusions A recessively inherited primary photoreceptor degeneration was characterized in the Bengal cat. The disease is characterized by early onset, with histologic, ophthalmoscopic, and electrophysiological signs evident by 2 months of age, and rapid progression to blindness. PMID:26258614

  2. A neuropathological study of early onset Cockayne syndrome with chromosomal anomaly 47XXX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, M; Hayakawa, K; Suzuki, F; Sugita, K; Satoh, J; Morimatsu, Y

    1992-01-01

    We present the clinical and neuropathological findings in a female patient with early onset Cockayne syndrome and a chromosomal anomaly (47XXX). The girl was the only child of healthy, unrelated parents. She was born with a birth weight of 1,930 gm. She had progeroid facial features with bilateral cataracts. A diagnosis of 47XXX was made on the basis of a chromosomal study. Physical shortness became increasingly prominent while her weight remained stationary. Psychomotor retardation was noted, and she could never sit alone. A brain CT scan showed cerebral atrophy and calcification of the basal ganglia. Cultured skin fibroblast exhibited significant sensitivity to the ultraviolet light. She died from a chest infection at the age of 7 years and 4 months. Microscopically, the renal glomeruli showed diffuse sclerotic changes with thick capillary basement membranes. A neuropathological examination revealed a very small brain (295 gm), extensive myelin deficiency, gliosis in the white matter, and calcifications in the basal ganglia, and cerebral and cerebellar cortices. The loss of both Purkinje and granular cells was noticed in the cerebellar cortex. This is the first report of a case with the Cockayne syndrome and 47XXX, and the 47XXX in this patient seems to be coincidental.

  3. Concordance of bioactive vs. total immunoreactive serum leptin levels in children with severe early onset obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanik, Juraj; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Landgraf, Kathrin; Scheuermann, Kathrin; Spielau, Ulrike; Gausche, Ruth; Gasperikova, Daniela; Kiess, Wieland

    2017-01-01

    Context Leptin secreted from adipose tissue signals peripheral energy status to the brain. Monogenic leptin deficiency results in severe early onset obesity with hyperphagia. Recently, a similar phenotype of inactivating leptin mutations but with preserved immunoreactivity and hence normal circulating immunoreactive leptin has been reported. Objective We aimed to evaluate the proportion of bioactive leptin serum levels (compared to immunoreactive leptin) as a biomarker for the screening of leptin gene mutations causing monogenic obesity. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the immunoreactive and bioactive leptin levels associations with parameters of insulin resistance and insulin secretion in obese children and adolescents. Patients and methods We measured bioactive and immunoreactive leptin levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in fasting serum samples of 70 children with severe (BMI SDS >3) non-syndromic obesity with onset obesity cohort (n = 1204). Sanger sequencing of the leptin gene was performed in probands with proportion of bioactive/immunoreactive leptin obesity, we did not identify leptin gene mutations leading to decreased proportion of bioactive leptin. Nevertheless, the bioactive leptin levels were stronger associated with selected insulin secretion/resistance indices than the immunoreactive leptin levels. PMID:28542631

  4. Early-Onset Central Diabetes Insipidus due to Compound Heterozygosity for AVP Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdet, Karine; Vallette, Sophie; Deladoëy, Johnny; Van Vliet, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Genetic cases of isolated central diabetes insipidus are rare, are mostly due to dominant AVP mutations and have a delayed onset of symptoms. Only 3 consanguineous pedigrees with a recessive form have been published. A boy with a negative family history presented polyuria and failure to thrive in the first months of life and was diagnosed with central diabetes insipidus. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a normal posterior pituitary signal. A molecular genetic analysis of the AVP gene showed that he had inherited a previously reported mutation from his Lebanese father and a novel A>G transition in the splice acceptor site of intron 1 (IVS1-2A>G) from his French-Canadian mother. Replacement therapy resulted in the immediate disappearance of symptoms and in weight gain. The early polyuria in recessive central diabetes insipidus contrasts with the delayed presentation in patients with monoallelic AVP mutations. This diagnosis needs to be considered in infants with very early onset of polyuria-polydipsia and no brain malformation, even if there is no consanguinity and regardless of whether the posterior pituitary is visible or not on imaging. In addition to informing family counseling, making a molecular diagnosis eliminates the need for repeated imaging studies. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Co-occurring problems of early onset persistent, childhood limited, and adolescent onset conduct problem youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Edward D; Oliver, Bonamy R; Maughan, Barbara

    2010-11-01

    It is increasingly recognized that youth who follow early onset persistent (EOP), childhood limited (CL) and adolescent onset (AO) trajectories of conduct problems show somewhat varying patterns of risk (in childhood) and adjustment problems (in adolescence and adulthood). Little, however, is known about how other adjustment problems differentially co-develop with the EOP, CL and AO trajectories across the childhood and adolescent years. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, an epidemiological, longitudinal cohort of boys and girls, we estimated growth curves for parent-reported hyperactivity, emotional difficulties, peer relational problems, and prosocial behaviors conditional on trajectories of conduct problems (i.e., EOP, CL and AO) from ages 4 to 13 years. At ages 7-8 years, DSM-IV-based diagnoses of conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, depression were examined by conduct problems trajectory. Overall, the development of hyperactivity, emotional difficulties, peer relational problems, and prosocial behaviors mirrored the development of conduct problems, showing similar trajectories. Results indicated that the problems of EOP youth were persistent across domains, CL youth showed decreased behavior problems while increasing in prosocial behaviors, and AO youth increased in adjustment problems after 10 years of age. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2010 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  6. Reliability and discriminant validity of ataxia rating scales in early onset ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsma, Rick; Lawerman, Tjitske F; Kuiper, Marieke J; Lunsing, Roelineke J; Burger, Huibert; Sival, Deborah A

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether ataxia rating scales are reliable disease biomarkers for early onset ataxia (EOA). In 40 patients clinically identified with EOA (28 males, 12 females; mean age 15y 3mo [range 5-34y]), we determined interobserver and intraobserver agreement (interclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) and discriminant validity of ataxia rating scales (International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale [ICARS], Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia [SARA], and Brief Ataxia Rating Scale [BARS]). Three paediatric neurologists independently scored ICARS, SARA and BARS performances recorded on video, and also phenotyped the primary and secondary movement disorder features. When ataxia was the primary movement disorder feature, we assigned patients to the subgroup 'EOA with core ataxia' (n=26). When ataxia concurred with other prevailing movement disorders (such as dystonia, myoclonus, and chorea), we assigned patients to the subgroup 'EOA with comorbid ataxia' (n=12). ICC values were similar in both EOA subgroups of 'core' and 'comorbid' ataxia (0.92-0.99; ICARS, SARA, and BARS). Independent of the phenotype, the severity of the prevailing movement disorder predicted the ataxia rating scale scores (β=0.83-0.88; pataxia rating scales is high. However, the discriminative validity for 'ataxia' is low. For adequate interpretation of ataxia rating scale scores, application in uniform movement disorder phenotypes is essential. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  7. Assessment of speech in early-onset ataxia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Marieke J; Brandsma, Rick; Lawerman, Tjitske F; Lunsing, Roelineke J; Keegstra, Anne L; Burger, Huibert; De Koning, Tom J; Tijssen, Marina A J; Sival, Deborah A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether paediatric ataxia speech subscores are reliably applicable for international early-onset ataxia (EOA) databases. If so, we reasoned that ataxia speech subscores should be associated with ataxia scores and involve high interobserver agreement, including those for internationally applicable Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) syllable repetition tasks (SARASRT). Three independent paediatric neurologists and a speech therapist scored speech in 52 healthy children (mean age 10y, range 4-16y) and 40 individuals with EOA (mean age 15y, range 5-34y). We compared ataxia speech subscores for the association with age and ataxia scores as well as interobserver reliability. In healthy children, ataxia speech subscores were moderately associated with age (International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale [ICARS]: r=-0.515; SARA: r=-0.321; pataxia scores (ICARS: r=0.552; SARA: r=0.336; pataxia scores (ICARS: r=0.735; SARA: r=0.730; pataxia speech subscores are associated with ataxia and also reveal high interobserver agreement, including those internationally applicable to SARASRT. We conclude that SARASRT appears to be applicable for EOA databases. However, before syllable repetition tasks are included, we would advise to wait for the results published by the international Childhood Ataxia and Cerebellar Group. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  8. Neuropsychological Profile in Early-Onset Schizophrenia-Spectrum Disorders: Measured With the MATRICS Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmén, Aina; Juuhl-Langseth, Monica; Thormodsen, Rune; Melle, Ingrid; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Neurocognitive impairments have been documented in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS). There is still inconsistency regarding an average profile, which could be due to the fact that each study uses different tests. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the “Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia” (MATRICS) battery is useful in detecting differences between the patient group and the healthy controls, and to describe the neuropsychological pattern in the EOS group. Method: Neuropsychological functioning was examined in 31 adolescents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 67 healthy controls, using the MATRICS battery. Results: There were significant differences between the patients and the controls on every domain except for social cognition. Patients showed a generalized neurocognitive deficit of 0.8–1.8 SDs compared with controls, with verbal learning, working memory, and visual learning being the most affected areas. Conclusions: The MATRICS battery is sensitive in detecting differences between patients and controls in the adolescent population. However, we question the use of Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test in this age group. Results document a significant generalized deficit in adolescents with EOS. PMID:19223656

  9. Anosognosia and Its Relation to Psychiatric Symptoms in Early-Onset Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Bora; Shim, Yong S; Hong, Yun Jeong; Choi, Seong Hye; Park, Hee Kyung; Park, Sun Ah; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Yoon, Soo Jin; Yang, Dong-Won

    2017-05-01

    We investigated differences in the prevalence of anosognosia and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) characteristics according to disease severity in patients with early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD). We recruited 616 patients with EOAD. We subdivided participants into 2 groups based on the presence or absence of anosognosia and then again by Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. We compared the differences in the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) scores according to anosognosia and disease severity. The percentage of patients with anosognosia in each CDR group steadily increased as the CDR rating increased (CDR 0.5 8.6% vs CDR 1 13.6% vs CDR 2 26.2%). The NPI total score was significantly higher in patients with anosognosia in the CDR 0.5 and 1 groups; by contrast, it had no association in the CDR 2 group. Frontal lobe functions were associated with anosognosia only in the CDR 0.5 and 1 groups. After stratification by CDR, in the CDR 0.5 group, the prevalence of agitation ( P = .040) and appetite ( P = .013) was significantly higher in patients with anosognosia. In the CDR 1 group, patients with anosognosia had a significantly higher prevalence of delusions ( P = .032), hallucinations ( P = .048), and sleep disturbances ( P = .047). In the CDR 2 group, we found no statistical difference in the frequency of symptoms between patients with and without anosognosia. These results confirm that the prevalence of anosognosia as well as the individual NPS and cognitive functions associated with it differ according to EOAD severity.

  10. Early-onset Alzheimer’s Disease: Nonamnestic Subtypes and Type 2 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Mario F.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most prevalent neurodegenerative dementia, are usually elderly; however, ~4–5% develop early-onset AD (EOAD) with onset before age 65. Most EOAD is sporadic, but about 5% of patients with EOAD have an autosomal dominant mutation such as Presenilin 1, Presenilin 2, or alterations in the Amyloid Precursor Protein gene. Although most Alzheimer’s research has concentrated on older, late-onset AD (LOAD), there is much recent interest and research in EOAD. These recent studies indicate that EOAD is a heterogeneous disorder with significant differences from LOAD. From 22–64% of EOAD patients have a predominant nonamnestic syndrome presenting with deficits in language, visuospatial abilities, praxis, or other non-memory cognition. These nonamnestic patients may differ in several ways from the usual memory or amnestic patients. Patients with nonamnestic EOAD compared to typical amnestic AD have a more aggressive course, lack the apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE ε4) susceptibility gene for AD, and have a focus and early involvement of non-hippocampal areas of brain, particularly parietal neocortex. These differences in the EOAD subtypes indicate differences in the underlying amyloid cascade, the prevailing pathophysiological theory for the development of AD. Together the results of recent studies suggest that nonamnestic subtypes of EOAD constitute a Type 2 AD distinct from the usual, typical disorder. In sum, the study of EOAD can reveal much about the clinical heterogeneity, predisposing factors, and neurobiology of this disease. PMID:23178565

  11. Nutritional Therapy in Very Early-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Talya L; Lee, Dale; Giefer, Mathew; Wahbeh, Ghassan; Suskind, David L

    2017-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract caused by a dysregulated immune response to the fecal microbiota. Very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD) refers to a subgroup of pediatric patients with IBD diagnosed before 6 years of age. This subgroup is often characterized by increased severity, aggressive progression, strong family history of IBD, and often poor response to conventional treatments. Nutritional therapies have been utilized to treat IBD, but their role in VEO-IBD is unclear. Disease behavior in VEO-IBD is often different from disease in adolescents and adults, as it is often restricted to the colon and refractory to standard medical therapies. Up to 25% of VEO-IBD patients have an identified underlying immunodeficiency, which may impact response to therapy. While specific mutations in interleukin 10 (IL-10), the IL-10 receptor (IL-10R), and mutations in NCF2, XIAP, LRBA, and TTC7 have been identified in VEO-IBD, polymorphisms in these genes are also associated with increased risk of developing IBD in adolescence or adulthood. We describe two cases in which infants presenting with VEO-IBD achieved clinical remission using exclusive enteral nutrition, a formula-based diet which has been shown to induce remission in older children with active Crohn's disease.

  12. Prospective Prediction of Juvenile Homicide/Attempted Homicide among Early-Onset Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglivio, Michael T; Wolff, Kevin T

    2017-02-16

    While homicide perpetrated by juveniles is a relatively rare occurrence, between 2010 and 2014, approximately 7%-8% of all murders involved a juvenile offender. Unfortunately, few studies have prospectively examined the predictors of homicide offending, with none examining first-time murder among a sample of adjudicated male and female youth. The current study employed data on 5908 juvenile offenders (70% male, 45% Black) first arrested at the age of 12 or younger to prospectively examine predictors of an arrest for homicide/attempted homicide by the age of 18. Among these early-onset offenders, males, Black youth, those living in households with family members with a history of mental illness, those engaging in self-mutilation, and those with elevated levels of anger/aggression (all measured by age 13) were more likely to be arrested for homicide/attempted homicide by age 18. These findings add to the scant scientific literature on the predictors of homicide, and illustrate potential avenues for intervention.

  13. Asperger syndrome and early-onset schizophrenia associated with a novel MECP2 deleterious missense variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curie, Aurore; Lesca, Gaëtan; Bussy, Gérald; Manificat, Sabine; Arnaud, Valérie; Gonzalez, Sibylle; Revol, Olivier; Calender, Alain; Gérard, Daniel; des Portes, Vincent

    2017-06-01

    Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) deleterious variants, which are responsible for Rett syndrome in girls, are involved in a wide spectrum of developmental disabilities in males. A neuropsychiatric phenotype without intellectual disability is uncommon in patients with MECP2 deleterious variants. We report on two dizygotic twins with an MECP2-related psychiatric disorder without intellectual disability. Neuropsychological and psychiatric phenotype assessments were performed, and a genetic analysis was carried out. Both patients fulfilled the Pervasive Developmental Disorder criteria on Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Asperger syndrome criteria on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV). One patient developed early-onset schizophrenia (DSM-IV criteria) with two acute psychotic episodes, the latest one following corticosteroids and sodium valproate intake, with major hyperammonemia. A novel MECP2 gene transversion c.491 G>T [p.(Ser164Ile)] was found in both twins. Pathogenicity of this variant was considered on the basis of strong clinical and molecular data. The underlying molecular basis of neuropsychiatric disorders may have important consequences on genetic counseling and therapeutic strategies.

  14. Intrapartum colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae, early-onset sepsis and deficient specific neonatal immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Kirstin; Demmert, Martin; Bendiks, Meike; Göpel, Wolfgang; Herting, Egbert; Härtel, Christoph

    2012-03-01

    Intrapartum colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is a rare but important risk factor for severe courses of early-onset sepsis (EOS) in the newborn, as underlined in the case of a preterm infant born after 32 weeks of gestation described here. One potential explanation could be an immature immune response of the neonate to S. pneumoniae, however, immunological data in term and preterm infants are scarce. To determine the neonatal immune responses to S. pneumoniae, flow-cytometry analysis of the cytokine production by CD14+ cells was performed after full pathogen stimulation with S. pneumoniae (serotype 18C, derived from an EOS case described here) of cord blood of 10 term (37-41 gestational weeks) and 6 preterm (31-32 gestational weeks) neonates, compared to peripheral venous blood samples of 10 healthy adults in vitro. Neonatal cytokine responses of term and preterm infants to S. pneumoniae are diminished compared to adults. The quantities of cytokine expression were comparable to immune responses induced by other important gram-positive pathogens of EOS such as Streptococcus agalacticae. Severe courses of EOS with S. pneumoniae may be attributed to remarkable deficiencies of the specific neonatal immune response. To protect the neonate from invasive pneumococcal disease, maternal immunization may be an important prevention strategy, as protective antibodies can be transferred through the placenta and vaccination of pregnant women may reduce colonization.

  15. Do Growing Rods for Idiopathic Early Onset Scoliosis Improve Activity and Participation for Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Mathew David; Platinum, Johnson; Askin, Geoffrey Noel; Labrom, Robert; Hutton, Mike; Chan, Daniel; Clarke, Andrew; Stokes, Oliver M; Molloy, Sean; Tucker, Stewart; Lehovsky, Jan

    2017-03-01

    To investigate whether growing rod surgery for children with progressive idiopathic early onset scoliosis (EOS) effects activity and participation, and investigate factors that may affect this. Multicenter retrospective cohort study using prospectively collected data on 60 children with idiopathic EOS and significant scoliosis (defined as a Cobb angle >40°). Thirty underwent brace treatment, and 30, growth rod surgery. Questionnaire and radiographic data were recorded at 1 year. The validated Activities Scale for Kids performance version (ASKp) questionnaire was used to measure activity and participation. In the brace group, Cobb angle increased from 60° to 68°. There was no change in ASKp score. In the operative group, Cobb angle decreased from 67° to 45°. ASKp decreased from 91 to 88 (P 40°), growth rod surgery was associated with a reduction in activity and participation and Cobb angle, whereas brace treatment was associated with an increase in Cobb angle and no change in activity and participation. Pain was the most important factor affecting activity and participation in both groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Early-Onset LMNA-Associated Muscular Dystrophy with Later Involvement of Contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Younggun; Lee, Jung Hwan; Park, Hyung Jun; Choi, Young Chul

    2017-10-01

    The early diagnosis of LMNA-associated muscular dystrophy is important for preventing sudden arrest related to cardiac conduction block. However, diagnosing early-onset Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) with later involvement of contracture and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1B is often delayed due to heterogeneous clinical presentations. We aimed to determine the clinical features that contribute to a delayed diagnosis. We reviewed four patients who were recently diagnosed with LMNA-associated muscular dystrophy by targeted exome sequencing and who were initially diagnosed with nonspecific or other types of muscular dystrophy. Certain clinical features such as delayed contracture involvement and calf hypertrophy were found to contribute to a delayed diagnosis. Muscle biopsies were not informative for the diagnosis in these patients. Genetic testing of single or multiple genes is useful for confirming a diagnosis of LMNA-associated muscular dystrophy. Even EDMD patients could experience the later involvement of contracture, so clinicians should consider early genetic testing for patients with undiagnosed muscular dystrophy or laminopathy.

  17. Reduced Cortisol in Boys with Early-Onset Conduct Disorder and Callous-Unemotional Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg G. von Polier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A growing body of evidence suggests an association between altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity and the development of persistent antisocial behavior in children. However the effects of altered cortisol levels remain poorly understood in the complex context of conduct disorder, callous-unemotional (CU personality traits, and frequent comorbidities, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The aim of the current study was to investigate associations among CU traits, antisocial behavior, and comorbid ADHD symptomatology with cortisol levels in male children and adolescents. Methods. The study included 37 boys with early-onset conduct disorder (EO-CD, mean age 11.9 years and 38 healthy boys (mean age 12.5 years. Participants were subjected to multiple daytime salivary cortisol measurements and a psychometric characterization. Results. Subjects in the EO-CD group with elevated CU traits showed a diminished cortisol awakening response compared to healthy participants. In the EO-CD group, high CU traits and impulsivity were associated with decreased diurnal cortisol levels, while associations with antisocial behavior were not detected. The cortisol awakening response was significantly inversely associated with hyperactivity (P=0.02 and marginally significant with CU traits (P=0.07. Conclusions. These results indicate a specific association between CU traits and a diminished stress response, which is not explained by antisocial behavior in general.

  18. What's New in Pediatric Spine Growth Modulation and Implant Technology for Early-Onset Scoliosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessell, Nolan M; Martus, Jeffrey E; Halanski, Matthew A; Snyder, Brian; Truong, Walter

    2018-01-01

    Early-onset scoliosis (EOS) affects roughly 1 to 2 out of 10,000 live births per year. Because this subset of patients has a yet to achieve a majority of their skeletal growth, a number of treatment challenges need to be addressed before surgical intervention. If left untreated, EOS can cause a number of problems throughout the patient's lifespan, particularly in regards to the growth of the thorax and pulmonary development. A wide variety of surgical systems and techniques are available to the treating surgeon. A review of the orthopaedic literature from 2010 to 2015 relating to pediatric spine growth modulation was performed. Ninety-eight papers were identified and, following exclusion criteria, a total of 31 papers were selected for further review. This paper summarizes the recently published literature regarding growth-friendly spinal implants, the status of their Food and Drug Administration approval labeling as well as the indications, applications, and complications associated with their implementation. There are a growing number of options at the surgeon's disposal when treating patients with EOS. As surgeons, we must continue to be vigilant in our demand for sound clinical evidence as we strive to provide optimal care for our patients. The rapidly advancing field of spinal growth modulation is exciting. More work must be done to further enhance our ability to predictably modulate growth in the pediatric spine.

  19. Metal Ion Release During Growth-Friendly Instrumentation for Early-Onset Scoliosis: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilgor, Caglar; Efendiyev, Ayaz; Akbiyik, Filiz; Demirkiran, Gokhan; Senkoylu, Alpaslan; Alanay, Ahmet; Yazici, Muharrem

    2018-01-01

    Metal ions released from spinal instruments can cause localized debris and distribute systemically to settle on distant organs. Children with early-onset deformities live with metallic implants for a substantial amount of time. No research focused on metal distribution in growth-friendly instrumentations. The aim of this study was to compare age-matched growing rod (GR) and magnetically controlled growing rod (MCGR) groups to noninstrumented controls. The study was designed as a multicenter, prospective, cross-sectional case series. GR and MCGR applications of three institutions were included. A total of 52 children were enrolled. Blood samples were collected between December 2014 and February 2015. Biochemical serum analyses were performed to trace and quantify titanium, vanadium, aluminum, and boron. The GR group included 15 children. Mean age was 10.7 (range 6-15). MCGR group included 22 children. Mean age was 8.5 (range 2-13). Fifteen age-matched nonoperated children formed the control group. The mean age was 10.4 (range 5-15). One-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for comparisons. The mean serum titanium level in control, GR, and MCGR groups were 2.8 ± 1.4, 7.3 ± 4.3, and 10.2 ± 6.8 μg/L, respectively. GR and MCGR group titanium levels were higher than controls' (p = .008 and p Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Early-onset vs. Late-onset Parkinson's disease: A Clinical-pathological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Leslie Wayne; Rajput, Ali H; Rajput, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have compared early-onset Parkinson disease (EOPD) and late-onset Parkinson disease (LOPD) but most are not based on autopsy confirmed cases. We compared clinical and pharmacological profiles, time to reach irreversible Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) Stage 3 and levodopa motor complications in autopsy confirmed EOPD and LOPD cases. At first clinic visit EOPD cases were younger but had longer disease duration and they died at a younger age (all pamantadine (p<0.05) and dopamine agonists (p<0.01) were higher in EOPD. While lifetime use of levodopa was similar in the two groups, levodopa was used for a significantly longer period by EOPD (p< 0.0001). EOPD had a higher cumulative incidence of dyskinesias (p<0.01), wearing-off (p<0.01), and on-off (p<0.01). However, the time to dyskinesia onset was similar in the two groups. The threshold to wearing-off was much longer in EOPD (p<0.01). H&Y stage profile at first visit was similar in the two groups. The duration from disease onset to reach irreversible H&Y stage 3 was significantly longer in EOPD. Our observations indicate that progression of PD is slower in EOPD and suggest that the pre-clinical interval in this group is longer. These findings can be used for case selection for drug trials and studies of the pathogenesis of PD.

  1. Estimating the burden of early onset dementia; systematic review of disease prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, M A; Bickel, H; Prince, M; Fratiglioni, L; Von Strauss, E; Frydecka, D; Kiejna, A; Georges, J; Reynish, E L

    2014-04-01

    Dementia is more common in older age but a number of people develop symptoms at a younger age and are said to have early onset dementia (EOD). Those with EOD face different challenges to those with onset later in life. It has been difficult to quantify this disease burden. This is a systematic review of papers reporting on the prevalence of EOD. A search of Medline and Embase was performed. This was followed by a hand search of the references of these papers. Eleven suitable studies were included. All of the data was from more economically developed countries. The studies were heterogeneous in their design hindering direct comparison. The majority of the papers looked at all types of dementia although many gave a breakdown of the prevalence of different subgroups. A variety of diagnostic criteria was employed. Figures of 38 to 260 per 100,000 are quoted by papers looking at various different types of dementia together with an onset of between 30 and 64 or up to 420 per 100,000 for those aged 55-64. Prevalence rises as age approaches 65. Epidemiological data for prevalence rates for EOD are sparse. EOD remains a rare condition with low case numbers. Assimilation and comparison of results from existing studies is difficult due to methodological heterogeneity. Cross-national standardization of methodology should be a priority for future research in this area. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EFNS.

  2. Molecular diagnosis of autosomal dominant early onset Alzheimer's disease: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raux, G; Guyant-Maréchal, L; Martin, C; Bou, J; Penet, C; Brice, A; Hannequin, D; Frebourg, T; Campion, D

    2005-10-01

    Autosomal dominant early onset Alzheimer's disease (ADEOAD) is genetically heterogeneous. Mutations of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1), and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) genes have been identified. To further clarify the respective contribution of these genes to ADEOAD. 31 novel families were investigated. They were ascertained using stringent criteria (the occurrence of probable or definite cases of Alzheimer's disease with onset before 60 years of age in three generations). All cases fulfilled the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria for probable or definite Alzheimer's disease. The entire coding regions of PSEN1 and PSEN2 genes and exons 16 and 17 of APP gene were sequenced from genomic DNA RESULTS: PSEN1 mutations, including eight previously unreported mutations, were detected in 24 of the 31 families, and APP mutations were found in five families. In this sample, the mean ages of disease onset in PSEN1 and APP mutation carriers were 41.7 and 51.2 years, respectively. Combining these data with previously published data, yielding 65 ADEOAD families, 66% of the cases were attributable to PSEN1 mutations and 16% to APP mutations, while 18% remained unexplained.

  3. Early-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease: prevalence, genetic heterogeneity, and mutation spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, D; Dumanchin, C; Hannequin, D; Dubois, B; Belliard, S; Puel, M; Thomas-Anterion, C; Michon, A; Martin, C; Charbonnier, F; Raux, G; Camuzat, A; Penet, C; Mesnage, V; Martinez, M; Clerget-Darpoux, F; Brice, A; Frebourg, T

    1999-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD) and of autosomal dominant forms of EOAD (ADEOAD), we performed a population-based study in the city of Rouen (426,710 residents). EOAD was defined as onset of disease at age <61 years, and ADEOAD was defined as the occurrence of at least three EOAD cases in three generations. Using these stringent criteria, we calculated that the EOAD and ADEOAD prevalences per 100,000 persons at risk were 41.2 and 5.3, respectively. We then performed a mutational analysis of the genes for amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1), and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) in 34 families with ADEOAD ascertained in France. In 19 (56%) of these families, we identified 16 distinct PSEN1 missense mutations, including 4 (Thr147Ile, Trp165Cys, Leu173Trp, and Ser390Ile) not reported elsewhere. APP mutations, including a novel mutation located at codon 715, were identified in 5 (15%) of the families. In the 10 remaining ADEOAD families and in 9 additional autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease families that did not fulfill the strict criteria for ADEOAD, no PSEN1, PSEN2, or APP mutation was identified. These results show that (1) PSEN1 and APP mutations account for 71% of ADEOAD families and (2) nonpenetrance at age <61 years is probably infrequent for PSEN1 or APP mutations.

  4. Early-onset compartment syndrome of the limbs, a rare complication of meningococcal septicemia in infants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Pallua

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Meningococcal (Neisseria meningitides septicemia is a feared diagnosis in febrile infants presenting with a petechial rash. Despite a good susceptibility to penicillin which usually results in an assumed bacterial clearance from blood cultures early on; extensive organ damage often mandates a prolonged period of aggressive supportive therapy. In this context, overall outcomes can dependent on specific, organ-related complications and thus should be anticipated. In the reported case, a rare sudden occurrence of early-onset compartment syndrome of all extremities highlights muscle ischemia as a possible cause of unresponsiveness to intensive care treatment despite assumed bacterial clearance. Among other conclusions, the presented case mandates a close monitoring of both clinical and laboratory features of muscle damage as a standard measure of care designed to trigger emergency surgical decision making. Most importantly, we anticipate a likely significant improvement of long-term outcomes based on the notion of meningococcal sepsis-induced compartment syndrome in infants being an under-diagnosed entity.

  5. Early-Onset Invasive Candidiasis in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: Perinatal Acquisition Predicts Poor Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Michelle; Shen, Alex; O'Brien, Karel; Robinson, Joan L; Davies, H Dele; Simpson, Kim; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Langley, Joanne; Le Saux, Nicole; Sauve, Reginald; Synnes, Anne; Tan, Ben; de Repentigny, Louis; Rubin, Earl; Hui, Chuck; Kovacs, Lajos; Yau, Yvonne C W; Richardson, Susan E

    2017-04-01

    Neonatal invasive candidiasis (IC) presenting in the first week of life is less common and less well described than later-onset IC. Risk factors, clinical features, and disease outcomes have not been studied in early-onset disease (EOD, ≤7 days) or compared to late-onset disease (LOD, >7 days). All extremely low birth weight (ELBW, candidiasis enrolled from 2001 to 2003 were included in this study. Factors associated with occurrence and outcome of EOD in ELBW infants were determined. Forty-five ELBW infants and their 84 matched controls were included. Fourteen (31%) ELBW infants had EOD. Birth weight <750 g, gestation <25 weeks, chorioamnionitis, and vaginal delivery were all strongly associated with EOD. Infection with Candida albicans, disseminated disease, pneumonia, and cardiovascular disease were significantly more common in EOD than in LOD. The EOD case fatality rate (71%) was higher than in LOD (32%) or controls (15%) (P = .0001). The rate of neurodevelopmental impairment and mortality combined was similar in EOD (86%) and LOD (72%), but higher than in controls (32%; P = .007). ELBW infants with EOD have a very poor prognosis compared to those with LOD. The role of perinatal transmission in EOD is supported by its association with chorioamnionitis, vaginal delivery, and pneumonia. Dissemination and cardiovascular involvement are common, and affected infants often die. Empiric treatment should be considered for ELBW infants delivered vaginally who have pneumonia and whose mothers have chorioamnionitis or an intrauterine foreign body.

  6. Leber congenital amaurosis/early-onset severe retinal dystrophy: clinical features, molecular genetics and therapeutic interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Neruban; Moore, Anthony T; Weleber, Richard G; Michaelides, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and early-onset severe retinal dystrophy (EOSRD) are both genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous, and characterised clinically by severe congenital/early infancy visual loss, nystagmus, amaurotic pupils and markedly reduced/absent full-field electroretinograms. The vast genetic heterogeneity of inherited retinal disease has been established over the last 10 - 20 years, with disease-causing variants identified in 25 genes to date associated with LCA/EOSRD, accounting for 70–80% of cases, with thereby more genes yet to be identified. There is now far greater understanding of the structural and functional associations seen in the various LCA/EOSRD genotypes. Subsequent development/characterisation of LCA/EOSRD animal models has shed light on the underlying pathogenesis and allowed the demonstration of successful rescue with gene replacement therapy and pharmacological intervention in multiple models. These advancements have culminated in more than 12 completed, ongoing and anticipated phase I/II and phase III gene therapy and pharmacological human clinical trials. This review describes the clinical and genetic characteristics of LCA/EOSRD and the differential diagnoses to be considered. We discuss in further detail the diagnostic clinical features, pathophysiology, animal models and human treatment studies and trials, in the more common genetic subtypes and/or those closest to intervention. PMID:28689169

  7. Low Prevalence and Clinical Effect of Vascular Risk Factors in Early-Onset Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaohua; Sillaire, Adeline Rollin; Dallongeville, Jean; Skrobala, Emilie; Wallon, David; Dubois, Bruno; Hannequin, Didier; Pasquier, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Determinants of early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) are not well known. In late-onset AD, vascular risk factors (VRFs) are associated with earlier clinical manifestation. The objective of this study was to assess the putative association between VRFs and EOAD. We studied participants with dementia meeting criteria for EOAD (recruited into the French CoMAJ prospective cohort study from 1 June 2009 to 28 February 2014) and age-, gender-matched controls (ratio 1:3, drawn randomly from the French MONA-LISA population-based survey between 2005 and 2007). Demographic data, VRFs, comorbidities, treatments, and APOE genotypes were compared in multivariable logistic regression analyses. We studied 102 participants with dementia (mean±standard deviation age: 59.5±3.8; women: 59.8%) and 306 controls. Compared with controls, EOAD participants had spent less time in formal education (9.9±2.9 versus 11.7±3.8 y; p dementia than in controls (50% versus 29.4%; p = 0.0002), as was the prevalence of depression (48% versus 32%; p testing should be considered more frequently in the context of EOAD.

  8. Mutations, associated with early-onset Alzheimer's disease, discovered in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagyinszky, Eva; Youn, Young Chul; An, Seong Soo A; Kim, SangYun

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of senile dementia, is a genetically complex disorder. In most Asian countries, the population and the number of AD patients are growing rapidly, and the genetics of AD has been extensively studied, except in Japan. However, recent studies have been started to investigate the genes and mutations associated with AD in Korea, the People's Republic of China, and Malaysia. This review describes all of the known mutations in three early-onset AD (EOAD) causative genes (APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2) that were discovered in Asian countries. Most of the EOAD-associated mutations have been detected in PSEN1, and several novel PSEN1 mutations were recently identified in patients from various parts of the world, including Asia. Until 2014, no PSEN2 mutations were found in Asian patients; however, emerging studies from Korea and the People's Republic of China discovered probably pathogenic PSEN2 mutations. Since several novel mutations were discovered in these three genes, we also discuss the predictions on their pathogenic nature. This review briefly summarizes genome-wide association studies of late-onset AD and the genes that might be associated with AD in Asian countries. Standard sequencing is a widely used method, but it has limitations in terms of time, cost, and efficacy. Next-generation sequencing strategies could facilitate genetic analysis and association studies. Genetic testing is important for the accurate diagnosis and for understanding disease-associated pathways and might also improve disease therapy and prevention.

  9. Cognitive performance of GBA mutation carriers with early-onset PD: the CORE-PD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalay, R N; Caccappolo, E; Mejia-Santana, H; Tang, M -X; Rosado, L; Orbe Reilly, M; Ruiz, D; Ross, B; Verbitsky, M; Kisselev, S; Louis, E; Comella, C; Colcher, A; Jennings, D; Nance, M; Bressman, S; Scott, W K; Tanner, C; Mickel, S; Andrews, H; Waters, C; Fahn, S; Cote, L; Frucht, S; Ford, B; Rezak, M; Novak, K; Friedman, J H; Pfeiffer, R; Marsh, L; Hiner, B; Siderowf, A; Payami, H; Molho, E; Factor, S; Ottman, R; Clark, L N; Marder, K

    2012-05-01

    To assess the cognitive phenotype of glucocerebrosidase (GBA) mutation carriers with early-onset Parkinson disease (PD). We administered a neuropsychological battery and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) to participants in the CORE-PD study who were tested for mutations in PARKIN, LRRK2, and GBA. Participants included 33 GBA mutation carriers and 60 noncarriers of any genetic mutation. Primary analyses were performed on 26 GBA heterozygous mutation carriers without additional mutations and 39 age- and PD duration-matched noncarriers. Five cognitive domains, psychomotor speed, attention, memory, visuospatial function, and executive function, were created from transformed z scores of individual neuropsychological tests. Clinical diagnoses (normal, mild cognitive impairment [MCI], dementia) were assigned blind to genotype based on neuropsychological performance and functional impairment as assessed by the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) score. The association between GBA mutation status and neuropsychological performance, CDR, and clinical diagnoses was assessed. Demographics, UPSIT, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III performance did not differ between GBA carriers and noncarriers. GBA mutation carriers performed more poorly than noncarriers on the Mini-Mental State Examination (p = 0.035), and on the memory (p = 0.017) and visuospatial (p = 0.028) domains. The most prominent differences were observed in nonverbal memory performance (p dementia (p = 0.004). GBA mutation status may be an independent risk factor for cognitive impairment in patients with PD.

  10. Time perception of simultaneous and sequential events in early-onset schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montalembert, M; Coulon, N; Cohen, D; Bonnot, O; Tordjman, S

    2016-08-01

    Timing disorders in schizophrenia are a well-known phenomenon. However, no studies have yet assessed the role of temporal distortions in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS), despite evidence that distorted time perception may share genetic risk factors with schizophrenia and may be a useful indicator in identifying individuals at risk for schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated the ability of 10 patients with EOS (mean age = 21.5 years, SD = 6) matched with 20 healthy control participants (mean age = 25.3 years, SD = 4.6) in order to compare the durations of two visual events, presented either sequentially or overlapping in time, along with neuropsychological assessments of attention, working memory, and executive functions. Each participant had to judge a total of 336 stimuli. We found that temporal overlap had a greater negative effect on ability to judge the duration of a pair of stimuli in EOS patients than in healthy control participants. In addition, EOS patients showed impairments in attention and executive functions. Furthermore, in EOS patients, the scores for executive and attentional functions were significantly correlated with accuracy of temporal estimation in the overlap condition (r = 0.31, p time estimation observed in patients with EOS. These conclusions highlight the importance of testing time perception in patients with EOS and could contribute to the development of cognitive remediation-based therapy for these patients.

  11. Early-onset familial lewy body dementia with extensive tauopathy: a clinical, genetic, and neuropathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarimón, Jordi; Molina-Porcel, Laura; Gómez-Isla, Teresa; Blesa, Rafael; Guardia-Laguarta, Cristina; González-Neira, Anna; Estorch, Montserrat; Ma Grau, Josep; Barraquer, Lluís; Roig, Carles; Ferrer, Isidre; Lleó, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    We describe a Spanish family in which 3 of 4 siblings had dementia with Lewy bodies, 2 of them starting at age 26 years and the other at 29 years. The father has recently been diagnosed with Lewy body disease, with onset at 77 years. Neuropathological examination of the brain of the index patient disclosed unusual features characterized by diffuse Lewy body disease and generalized neurofibrillary tangle pathology but with no amyloid deposits in any region. Moreover, Lewy body pathology colocalized with neurofibrillary tangles in most affected neurons. Mutation screening that included all coding exons of presenilin 1 (PSEN1), presenilin 2 (PSEN2), alpha-synuclein (SNCA), beta-synuclein (SNCB), microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT), leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), glucocerebrosidase (GBA), and exons 16 and 17 of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) genes did not identify any mutation. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism was performed in 4 family members and ruled out any pathogenic duplication or deletion in the entire genome. In summary, we report a unique family with pathologically confirmed early-onset dementia with Lewy bodies with widespread tau and alpha-synuclein deposition. The absence of mutations in genes known to cause Lewy body disease suggests that a novel locus or loci are implicated in this neurodegenerative disease.

  12. Children's parasympathetic reactivity to specific emotions moderates response to intervention for early-onset aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Greenberg, Mark; Bierman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Following theories that individual differences in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) denote differential sensitivity to environmental influences, this study examines whether differences in RSA reactivity to specific emotional challenges predict differential response to intervention. We present data from a randomized clinical trial of a targeted intervention for early onset aggression. In collaboration with a high-risk urban school district, 207 kindergarten children (73% African American, 66% male), identified by their teachers as having high levels of aggressive and disruptive behavior, were recruited. All children received a universal social-emotional curriculum. One hundred children were randomly assigned to an additional intervention consisting of weekly peer-based social skills training. Complete RSA data were available for 139 of the children. Teacher-reported externalizing symptoms and emotion regulation in 1st grade (post intervention) were examined controlling for baseline levels. First-grade peer nominations of aggressive behavior, controlling for baseline nominations, were also examined as outcomes. No effect of resting RSA was found. However, greater reactivity to anger was associated with higher externalizing symptoms and lower emotion regulation skills in 1st grade relative to low reactive children. Lower reactivity to fear was associated with greater improvement over time, an effect that was enhanced in the targeted intervention condition. Results suggest that measures of affective reactivity may provide insight into children's capacity to benefit from different types of interventions.

  13. Early-onset anorexia nervosa: is there evidence of limbic system imbalance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Uttom; Gordon, Isky; Lask, Bryan; Watkins, Beth; Watt, Hilary; Christie, Deborah

    2003-05-01

    This study, part of a continuing effort to understand the pathophysiology of the brain in early-onset anorexia nervosa, attempts to validate findings from an earlier study of regional cerebral blood flow and to correlate any abnormalities in blood flow with eating disorder psychopathology. Fifteen newly referred children and adolescents with a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (AN) underwent regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) examination using single-photon computerized tomography (SPECT) and the Eating Disorders Examination (EDE) for children. Mean age was 14 years 11 months (SD = 1.35). Mean weight for height ratio was 82.79 % (SD = 10.66). SPECT findings showed that 11 (73%) had asymmetry (hypoperfusion) of blood flow in at least one area. Regions of the brain showing hypoperfusion included the temporal lobe (n = 9), parietal lobe (n = 5), frontal lobe (n = 3), thalamus (n = 3), and the caudate nuclei (n = 1). The median EDE subscale scores were high for all four subscales. Those patients with hypoperfusion had higher median EDE subscale scores than those without hypoperfusion, although the differences were not statistically significant. Most patients in our study had abnormal rCBF, predominantly affecting the temporal lobe, confirming our previous findings. There was no association with the EDE scores. The findings support earlier suggestions of an imbalance in neural pathways or circuits, possibly within the limbic system. This hypothesis is considered within the context of current knowledge and suggestions made with regard to how it might be tested. Copyright 2003 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Integrating Genetic, Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Data to Model Early-Onset Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Sergi; Gassó, Patricia; Morer, Astrid; Calvo, Anna; Bargalló, Nuria; Lafuente, Amalia; Lázaro, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrative approach that combines structural magnetic resonance imaging data (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging data (DTI), neuropsychological data, and genetic data to predict early-onset obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) severity. From a cohort of 87 patients, 56 with complete information were used in the present analysis. First, we performed a multivariate genetic association analysis of OCD severity with 266 genetic polymorphisms. This association analysis was used to select and prioritize the SNPs that would be included in the model. Second, we split the sample into a training set (N = 38) and a validation set (N = 18). Third, entropy-based measures of information gain were used for feature selection with the training subset. Fourth, the selected features were fed into two supervised methods of class prediction based on machine learning, using the leave-one-out procedure with the training set. Finally, the resulting model was validated with the validation set. Nine variables were used for the creation of the OCD severity predictor, including six genetic polymorphisms and three variables from the neuropsychological data. The developed model classified child and adolescent patients with OCD by disease severity with an accuracy of 0.90 in the testing set and 0.70 in the validation sample. Above its clinical applicability, the combination of particular neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and genetic characteristics could enhance our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder. PMID:27093171

  15. Successful scene encoding in presymptomatic early-onset Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Yakeel T.; Willment, Kim Celone; Castrillon, Gabriel; Muniz, Martha; Lopera, Francisco; Budson, Andrew; Stern, Chantal E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Brain regions critical to episodic memory are altered during the preclinical stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, reliable means of identifying cognitively-normal individuals at higher risk to develop AD have not been established. Objective To examine whether fMRI can detect early functional changes associated with scene encoding in a group of presymptomatic Presenilin-1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation carriers. Methods Participants were 39 young, cognitively-normal individuals from an autosomal dominant early-onset AD kindred, located in Antioquia, Colombia. Participants performed an fMRI scene encoding task and a post-scan subsequent memory test. Results PSEN1 mutation carriers exhibited hyperactivation within medial temporal lobe regions during successful scene encoding (hippocampal formation, parahippocampal gyrus) compared to age-matched non-carriers. Conclusion Hyperactivation in medial temporal lobe regions during scene encoding is seen in individuals genetically-determined to develop AD years before their clinical onset. Our findings will guide future research with the ultimate goal of using functional neuroimaging in the early detection of preclinical AD. PMID:26401774

  16. Maintaining intestinal health: the genetics and immunology of very early onset inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Judith R; Baldassano, Robert N; Artis, David; Sonnenberg, Gregory F

    2015-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactoral disease caused by dysregulated immune responses to commensal or pathogenic microbes in the intestine, resulting in chronic intestinal inflammation. An emerging population of patients with IBD occurring before the age of 5 represent a unique form of disease, termed Very Early Onset (VEO)-IBD, which is phenotypically- and genetically-distinct from older-onset IBD. VEO-IBD is associated with increased disease severity, aggressive progression and poor responsiveness to most conventional therapies. Further investigation into the causes and pathogenesis of VEO-IBD will help improve treatment strategies, and may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms that are essential to maintain intestinal health or provoke the development of targeted therapeutic strategies to limit intestinal disease. Here we discuss the phenotypic nature of VEO-IBD, the recent identification of novel gene variants associated with disease, and functional immunologic studies interrogating the contribution of specific genetic variants to the development of chronic intestinal inflammation.

  17. Newcomers in paediatric GI pathology: childhood enteropathies including very early onset monogenic IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensari, Arzu; Kelsen, Judith; Russo, Pierre

    2017-07-17

    Childhood enteropathies are a group of diseases causing severe chronic (>2-3 weeks) diarrhoea often starting in the first week of life with the potential for fatal complications for the affected infant. Early identification and accurate classification of childhood enteropathies are, therefore, crucial for making treatment decisions to prevent life-threatening complications. Childhood enteropathies are classified into four groups based on the underlying pathology: (i) conditions related to defective digestion, absorption and transport of nutrients and electrolytes; (ii) disorders related to enterocyte differentiation and polarization; (iii) defects of enteroendocrine cell differentiation; and (iv) disorders associated with defective modulation of intestinal immune response. While the intestinal mucosa is usually normal in enteropathies related to congenital transport or enzyme deficiencies, the intestinal biopsy in other disorders may reveal a wide range of abnormalities varying from normal villous architecture to villous atrophy and/or inflammation, or features specific to the underlying disorder including epithelial abnormalities, lipid vacuolization in the enterocytes, absence of plasma cells, lymphangiectasia, microorganisms, and mucosal eosinophilic or histiocytic infiltration. This review intends to provide an update on small intestinal biopsy findings in childhood enteropathies, the "newcomers", including very early onset monogenic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in particular, for the practicing pathologist.

  18. The role of monogenic disease in children with very early onset inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Judith R; Baldassano, Robert N

    2017-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactorial disease caused by dysregulated immune responses to commensal or pathogenic intestinal microbes, resulting in chronic intestinal inflammation. Patients diagnosed with IBD occurring before the age of 5 are a unique population, known as very early onset (VEO)-IBD and can be phenotypically and genetically distinct from older-onset IBD. We aim to review the clinical presentation of children with VEO-IBD and recent discoveries that point to genomic drivers of disease that may impact our therapeutic decisions. VEO-IBD is increasing in incidence and is associated with more severe disease, aggressive progression and poor response to most conventional therapies. This article will review the advances in sequencing technology that have led to identification of novel gene variants associated with disease and potentially new targeted therapeutic options. Children with VEO-IBD may present with a different phenotype and more severe disease than older children and adults. Identification of the causal gene or pathways, these children may allow for true precision medicine with targeted therapy and improved disease course.

  19. Early-onset bipolar disorder: how about visual-spatial skills and executive functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lera-Miguel, Sara; Andrés-Perpiñá, Susana; Calvo, Rosa; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; Fañanás, Lourdes; Lourdes, Fañanás; Lázaro, Luisa

    2011-04-01

    Early-onset bipolar disorder is an impairing condition that is strongly associated with genetic inheritance. Neurocognitive deficits are core traits of this disorder which seem to be present in both young and adult forms. Deficits in verbal memory and attention are persistent within euthymic phases in bipolar adults, adolescents, and children. In younger samples, including type I or II and not otherwise specified patients, executive functions are not widely impaired and the existence of visual-spatial deficits remains unclear. The main aim of this study was to compare the neurocognitive performance in young stabilized type I or II bipolar patients and healthy controls. Fifteen medicated adolescents with bipolar disorder and 15 healthy adolescents, matched in age and gender, were compared on visual-spatial skills (reasoning, memory, visual-motor accuracy) and executive functioning (attention and working memory, set-shifting, inhibition) using t-tests and MANCOVA. Correcting for verbal competence, MANCOVA showed that patients performed significantly worse than controls in letters and numbers sequencing (P = 0.003), copy (P < 0.001) and immediate recall (P = 0.007) of the Rey Complex Figure Test, interference of the Stroop Color-Word Test (P = 0.007) and non-perseverative errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (P = 0.038). Impaired cognitive performance was found in young bipolar patients in working memory, visual-motor skills, and inhibitory control.

  20. Changes in early-onset group B beta hemolytic streptococcus disease with changing recommendations for prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uy, Imelda P; D'Angio, Carl T; Menegus, Marilyn; Guillet, Ronnie

    2002-01-01

    To determine the incidence of early-onset group B beta hemolytic streptococcal (EOGBS) infection and the association between changes in the incidence and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP). A retrospective population survey of infants with GBS at < 7 days of age with a nested case-control study of non-GBS infants over the same time period, January 1985 to December 1998. The incidence of GBS and maternal antibiotic treatment during labor was analyzed as a function of time period: prior to publication of guidelines for prevention of EOGBS (1985-1992), following AAP/ACOG guidelines (1993-1995), and following CDC consensus guidelines (1996-1998). Fifty-six cases of EOGBS infection occurred among 53,088 live births. The incidence declined from 1.5/1000 before any guidelines to 0.67/1000 after AAP/ACOG guidelines (p = 0.004), and continued to decline after the CDC consensus statement (0.28/1000) (p = 0.38). IAP remained stable (33% of at risk mothers) until after introduction of the CDC consensus guidelines (59%, p = 0.02). IAP did not fully explain the decline in EOGBS incidence in our center.

  1. Premorbid risk factors for major depressive disorder: are they associated with early onset and recurrent course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sylia; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Miller, Michael B; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2014-11-01

    Premorbid risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) and predictors of an earlier onset and recurrent course were examined in two studies in a large, community-based sample of parents and offspring, prospectively assessed from late childhood into adulthood. In Study 1 (N = 2,764 offspring and their parents), parental psychiatric status, offspring personality at age 11, and age 11 offspring internalizing and externalizing symptoms predicted the subsequent development of MDD, as did poor quality parent-child relationships, poor academic functioning, early pubertal development, and childhood maltreatment by age 11. Parental MDD and adult antisocial behavior, offspring negative emotionality and disconstraint, externalizing symptoms, and childhood maltreatment predicted an earlier onset of MDD, after accounting for course; lower positive emotionality, trait anxiety, and childhood maltreatment predicted recurrent MDD, after accounting for age of onset. In Study 2 (N = 7,146), we examined molecular genetic risk for MDD by extending recent reports of associations with glutamatergic system genes. We failed to confirm associations with MDD using either individual single nucleotide polymorphism based tests or gene-based analyses. Overall, results speak to the pervasiveness of risk for MDD, as well as specific risk for early onset MDD; risk for recurrent MDD appears to be largely a function of its often earlier onset.

  2. Salivary exoglycosidases in the detection of early onset of salivary gland involvement in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska, Anna; Szulimowska, Julita; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Waszkiel, Danuta; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Knaś, Małgorzata

    2013-12-03

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of making use of the specific activity of N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase, its isoenzymes and β-glucuronidase--potential indicators of salivary gland damage--in the detection of early onset of salivary gland impairment in RA, which is also demonstrated by xerostomia. For this purpose RA xerostomic salivary patients (unstimulated salivary flow >0.1 mL/min) were compared with RA xerostomic hyposalivary patients (unstimulated salivary flow ≤0.1 mL/min), RA patients without xerostomia (unstimulated salivary flow >0.1 mL/min) and generally healthy controls (unstimulated salivary flow >0.1 mL/min, without xerostomia). Salivary N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase, its isoenzymes A and B, and β-glucuronidase specific activity were determined according to the Marciniak et al. method. The protein content in the unstimulated saliva was determined by the bicinchoninic acid method. In xerostomic rheumatoid arthritis patients, the specific activity of salivary β-glucuronidase and isoenzyme A was significantly higher than in the healthy controls but the specific activity of salivary N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase, its isoenzyme B and β-glucuronidase was significantly lower than in xerostomic hyposalivary rheumatoid arthritis patients. We suggest a simple, safe and cheap method for the determination of exoglycosidases as a useful tool for the diagnosis of early stages of salivary gland involvement in rheumatoid arthritis.

  3. Prospective Prediction of Juvenile Homicide/Attempted Homicide among Early-Onset Juvenile Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Baglivio

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available While homicide perpetrated by juveniles is a relatively rare occurrence, between 2010 and 2014, approximately 7%–8% of all murders involved a juvenile offender. Unfortunately, few studies have prospectively examined the predictors of homicide offending, with none examining first-time murder among a sample of adjudicated male and female youth. The current study employed data on 5908 juvenile offenders (70% male, 45% Black first arrested at the age of 12 or younger to prospectively examine predictors of an arrest for homicide/attempted homicide by the age of 18. Among these early-onset offenders, males, Black youth, those living in households with family members with a history of mental illness, those engaging in self-mutilation, and those with elevated levels of anger/aggression (all measured by age 13 were more likely to be arrested for homicide/attempted homicide by age 18. These findings add to the scant scientific literature on the predictors of homicide, and illustrate potential avenues for intervention.

  4. A high degree of LINE-1 hypomethylation is a unique feature of early-onset colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Antelo

    Full Text Available Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC represents a clinically distinct form of CRC that is often associated with a poor prognosis. Methylation levels of genomic repeats such as LINE-1 elements have been recognized as independent factors for increased cancer-related mortality. The methylation status of LINE-1 elements in early-onset CRC has not been analyzed previously.We analyzed 343 CRC tissues and 32 normal colonic mucosa samples, including 2 independent cohorts of CRC diagnosed ≤ 50 years old (n=188, a group of sporadic CRC >50 years (MSS n=89; MSI n=46, and a group of Lynch syndrome CRCs (n=20. Tumor mismatch repair protein expression, microsatellite instability status, LINE-1 and MLH1 methylation, somatic BRAF V600E mutation, and germline MUTYH mutations were evaluated.Mean LINE-1 methylation levels (± SD in the five study groups were early-onset CRC, 56.6% (8.6; sporadic MSI, 67.1% (5.5; sporadic MSS, 65.1% (6.3; Lynch syndrome, 66.3% (4.5 and normal mucosa, 76.5% (1.5. Early-onset CRC had significantly lower LINE-1 methylation than any other group (p<0.0001. Compared to patients with <65% LINE-1 methylation in tumors, those with ≥ 65% LINE-1 methylation had significantly better overall survival (p=0.026, log rank test.LINE-1 hypomethylation constitutes a potentially important feature of early-onset CRC, and suggests a distinct molecular subtype. Further studies are needed to assess the potential of LINE-1 methylation status as a prognostic biomarker for young people with CRC.

  5. Family History of Skin Cancer is Associated with Early-Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma Independent of MC1R Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Nicholas L.; Cartmel, Brenda; Leffell, David J.; Bale, Allen E.; Mayne, Susan T.; Ferrucci, Leah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background As a marker of genetic susceptibility and shared lifestyle characteristics, family history of cancer is often used to evaluate an individual’s risk for developing a particular malignancy. With comprehensive data on pigment characteristics, lifestyle factors, and melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene sequence, we sought to clarify the role of family history of skin cancer in early-onset basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Materials and Methods Early onset BCC cases (n=376) and controls with benign skin conditions (n=383) under age 40 were identified through Yale Dermatopathology. Self-report data on family history of skin cancer (melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer), including age of onset in relatives, was available from a structured interview. Participants also provided saliva samples for sequencing of MC1R. Results A family history of skin cancer was associated with an increased risk of early-onset BCC (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.80–3.45). In multivariate models, family history remained a strong risk factor for early-onset BCC after adjustment for pigment characteristics, UV exposure, and MC1R genotype (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.74–3.35). Conclusions Risk for BCC varied based upon the type and age of onset of skin cancer among affected relatives; individuals with a first-degree relative diagnosed with skin cancer prior to age 50 were at highest risk for BCC (OR 4.79, 95% CI 2.90–7.90). Even after taking into account potential confounding effects of MC1R genotype and various lifestyle factors that close relatives may share, family history of skin cancer remained strongly associated with early-onset BCC. PMID:26381319

  6. Family history of skin cancer is associated with early-onset basal cell carcinoma independent of MC1R genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Nicholas L; Cartmel, Brenda; Leffell, David J; Bale, Allen E; Mayne, Susan T; Ferrucci, Leah M

    2015-12-01

    As a marker of genetic susceptibility and shared lifestyle characteristics, family history of cancer is often used to evaluate an individual's risk for developing a particular malignancy. With comprehensive data on pigment characteristics, lifestyle factors, and melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene sequence, we sought to clarify the role of family history of skin cancer in early-onset basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Early onset BCC cases (n=376) and controls with benign skin conditions (n=383) under age 40 were identified through Yale dermatopathology. Self-report data on family history of skin cancer (melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer), including age of onset in relatives, was available from a structured interview. Participants also provided saliva samples for sequencing of MC1R. A family history of skin cancer was associated with an increased risk of early-onset BCC (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.80-3.45). In multivariate models, family history remained a strong risk factor for early-onset BCC after adjustment for pigment characteristics, UV exposure, and MC1R genotype (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.74-3.35). Risk for BCC varied based upon the type and age of onset of skin cancer among affected relatives; individuals with a first-degree relative diagnosed with skin cancer prior to age 50 were at highest risk for BCC (OR 4.79, 95% CI 2.90-7.90). Even after taking into account potential confounding effects of MC1R genotype and various lifestyle factors that close relatives may share, family history of skin cancer remained strongly associated with early-onset BCC. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Six Novel Susceptibility Loci for Early-Onset Androgenetic Alopecia and Their Unexpected Association with Common Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Daniel; Medland, Sarah E.; Dimitriou, Maria; Waterworth, Dawn; Tung, Joyce Y.; Geller, Frank; Heilmann, Stefanie; Hillmer, Axel M.; Bataille, Veronique; Eigelshoven, Sibylle; Hanneken, Sandra; Moebus, Susanne; Herold, Christine; den Heijer, Martin; Montgomery, Grant W.; Deloukas, Panos; Eriksson, Nicholas; Heath, Andrew C.; Becker, Tim; Sulem, Patrick; Mangino, Massimo; Vollenweider, Peter; Spector, Tim D.; Dedoussis, George; Martin, Nicholas G.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Mooser, Vincent; Stefansson, Kari; Hinds, David A.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Richards, J. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a highly heritable condition and the most common form of hair loss in humans. Susceptibility loci have been described on the X chromosome and chromosome 20, but these loci explain a minority of its heritable variance. We conducted a large-scale meta-analysis of seven genome-wide association studies for early-onset AGA in 12,806 individuals of European ancestry. While replicating the two AGA loci on the X chromosome and chromosome 20, six novel susceptibility loci reached genome-wide significance (p = 2.62×10−9–1.01×10−12). Unexpectedly, we identified a risk allele at 17q21.31 that was recently associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) at a genome-wide significant level. We then tested the association between early-onset AGA and the risk of PD in a cross-sectional analysis of 568 PD cases and 7,664 controls. Early-onset AGA cases had significantly increased odds of subsequent PD (OR = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.06–1.55, p = 8.9×10−3). Further, the AGA susceptibility alleles at the 17q21.31 locus are on the H1 haplotype, which is under negative selection in Europeans and has been linked to decreased fertility. Combining the risk alleles of six novel and two established susceptibility loci, we created a genotype risk score and tested its association with AGA in an additional sample. Individuals in the highest risk quartile of a genotype score had an approximately six-fold increased risk of early-onset AGA [odds ratio (OR) = 5.78, p = 1.4×10−88]. Our results highlight unexpected associations between early-onset AGA, Parkinson's disease, and decreased fertility, providing important insights into the pathophysiology of these conditions. PMID:22693459

  8. Identification of novel candidate variants including COL6A6 polymorphisms in early-onset atopic dermatitis using whole-exome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Won Il; Park, Kui Young; Jin, Taewon; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kim, MinJeong; Choi, Eung Ho; Kim, Hae-Suk; Bae, Jung Min; Moon, Nam Ju; Seo, Seong Jun

    2017-01-26

    The prevalence of atopic dermatitis has increased over the last 10 years. Atopic dermatitis tends to run in families and commonly begins to manifest in childhood. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis is as high as 20% in children. Thus, early diagnosis and treatment of atopic dermatitis are important. Understanding its genetic basis is also needed to facilitate early detection. To identify family-specific candidate genetic variants associated with early-onset atopic dermatitis in Koreans, we carried out whole-exome sequencing of three separate families with this condition. Additional validation was performed in 112 AD patients and 61 controls using Sanger sequencing. We focused on both common functional variants with a minor allele frequency higher than 1% and rare variants with a minor allele frequency less than 1%. The relevance of the respective variants was supported by a program that could predict whether the mutations resulted in damaged protein function. Fourteen overlapping genes were identified during exome sequencing. Three variants of the COL6A6 gene appeared in all three families and were in close proximity to atopic dermatitis-related loci on chromosome 3q21. The homozygous frequency for the rs16830494 minor allele (AA) and the rs59021909 (TT) allele and the rs200963433 heterozygous (CT) frequency were all higher in AD cases compared to controls in a population-based case-control study. Identifying family-specific COL6A6 polymorphisms and genetic variants of other candidate genes associated with AD using WES is a novel approach. Our study suggests that COL6A6 variants may be risk factors for atopic dermatitis. This study provides a genetic basis for early-onset AD diagnosis in Korean patients and the development of new therapies. Trial registration number: IRB NO. C2008030 (133); Name of registry: The collection research of clinical data and patient blood to identify genetic and protein biomarker of atopic dermatitis; Date of registration: 09-July

  9. Long-term follow-up of psychosocial distress after early onset preeclampsia: the Preeclampsia Risk EValuation in FEMales cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommersteeg, P.M.; Drost, J.T.; Ottervanger, J.P.; Maas, A.H.E.M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine long-term psychosocial distress in women with a history of early onset preeclampsia (PE) compared to a comparison group. METHODS: Women with and without a history of early onset PE participating in the 'Preeclampsia Risk EValuation in FEMales' (PREVFEM) study were sent

  10. Long-term follow-up of psychosocial distress after early onset preeclampsia : The Preeclampsia Risk EValuation in FEMales cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommersteeg, P.M.C.; Drost, J.T.; Ottervanger, J.P.; Maas, A.H.E.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine long-term psychosocial distress in women with a history of early onset preeclampsia (PE) compared to a comparison group. Methods: Women with and without a history of early onset PE participating in the ‘Preeclampsia Risk EValuation in FEMales’ (PREVFEM) study were sent

  11. Early Onset of Industrial-Era Warming Across the Oceans and Continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, N.; McGregor, H. V.; Tierney, J. E.; Evans, M. N.; McKay, N.; Kaufman, D. S.; Pages 2k Consortium*, T.

    2016-12-01

    The evolution of industrial-era warming provides critical context for future climate change, and has fundamental importance for determining climate sensitivity and the processes that control regional warming. Palaeoclimate data from the Common Era - a period when natural and anthropogenic climate forcings are reasonably well constrained - provide valuable perspectives on anthropogenic greenhouse warming, but have focused mainly on the Northern Hemisphere using records derived primarily from terrestrial settings. Given the importance of the oceans in determining the pace and regional structure of climate changes, it is essential to extend our palaeoclimate assessments to determine how regional-scale warming developed in the oceans and over land during the Industrial Era. Here we use post-1500CE palaeoclimate records to show that sustained industrial-era warming of the tropical oceans first developed during the mid-19th Century, and was near-synchronous with Northern Hemisphere continental warming. The early onset of sustained, significant warming in palaeoclimate records and model simulations suggests greenhouse forcing of industrial-era warming commenced as early as the mid-19th Century, and included an enhanced equatorial ocean response mechanism. The development of Southern Hemisphere warming is delayed in reconstructions, but this apparent delay is not reproduced in climate simulations. Our findings imply that instrumental records are too short to comprehensively assess anthropogenic climate change, and in some regions 180 years of industrial-era warming has already caused surface temperatures to emerge above pre-industrial variability. *PAGES 2k Consortium authors are: Kaustubh Thirumalai, Belen Martrat, Hugues Goosse, Steven J. Phipps, Eric J. Steig, K. Halimeda Kilbourne, Casey P. Saenger, Jens Zinke, Guillaume Leduc, Jason A. Addison, P. Graham Mortyn, Marit-Solveig Seidenkrantz, Marie-Alexandrine Sicre, Kandasamy Selvaraj, Helena L. Filipsson, Raphael

  12. Homotopic connectivity in drug-naïve, first-episode, early-onset schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Jie; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Ke-Rang; Hoptman, Matthew J.; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2014-01-01

    Background The disconnection hypothesis of schizophrenia has been extensively tested in adults. Recent studies have reported the presence of brain disconnection in younger patients, adding evidence to support the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. Because of drug confounds in chronic and medicated patients, it has been extremely challenging for researchers to directly investigate abnormalities in the development of connectivity and their role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The present study aimed to examine functional homotopy – a measure of interhemispheric connection – and its relevance to clinical symptoms in first-episode drug-naïve early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) patients. Methods Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 26 first-episode drug-naïve EOS patients (age: 14.5 ± 1.94, 13 males) and 25 matched typically developing controls (TDCs) (age: 14.4 ± 2.97, 13 males). We were mainly concerned with the functional connectivity between any pair of symmetric inter-hemispheric voxels (i.e., functional homotopy) measured by voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC). Results EOS patients exhibited both global and regional VMHC reductions in comparison with TDCs. Reduced VMHC values were observed within the superior temporal cortex and postcentral gyrus. These interhemispheric synchronization deficits were negatively correlated with negative symptom of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Moreover, regions of interest analyses based on left and right clusters of temporal cortex and postcentral gyrus revealed abnormal heterotopic connectivity in EOS patients. Conclusions Our findings provide novel neurodevelopmental evidence for the disconnection hypothesis of schizophrenia and suggest that these alterations occur early in the course of the disease and are independent of medication status. PMID:25130214

  13. Occurrence of depression and its correlates in early onset dementia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosness, Tor Atle; Barca, Maria Lage; Engedal, Knut

    2010-07-01

    We wanted to investigate the occurrence of depression in early onset dementia (EOD) patients and which characteristics were associated with depressive symptoms. We included 221 patients who were diagnosed with dementia before the age of 65. Depression in these patients was measured by the Montgomery Asberg depression scale (MADRS). Measurements of cognition, behavioural and psychological symptoms and activities of daily life were along with hypothyroidism, diabetes and stroke included in the analysis. History of depression, current psychiatric co-morbidity and usage of antidepressants were recorded. Mean age of patients was 58.6 years (SD = 5.2); 50.6% were women. Of them 123 patients (55.6%) had a mild degree of depression (MADRS total score 7-19), 21 patients (9.5%) had a moderate degree of depression (MADRS total score 20-34) and only 1 patient had a severe degree of depression (MADRS total score >or=35). A factor analysis produced two factors; the first factor described dysphoria: lack of concentration, pessimistic thoughts, inner tension, suicidal thoughts lassitude and lack of sleep. The second factor denoted sadness: observed sadness, reported sadness, lack of appetite and inability to feel. In an adjusted linear regression analysis history of depression was the only significantly variable associated with the MADRS total score and both factors 1 and 2. We found a high occurrence of depressive symptoms in EOD patients; 65.7% of all our patients had some degree of depression. A history of depression was the most important correlate of depression in these patients. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Early onset dementia: characteristics in a large cohort from academic memory clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Candice; Pasquier, Florence; Martinaud, Olivier; Hannequin, Didier; Godefroy, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    To describe the characteristics of early-onset dementia (EOD) in a cohort from 3 memory clinics. We assessed all patients with dementia referred to the Academic Memory Clinics at Amiens, Lille, and Rouen University Medical Centers between 2005 and 2007. Patients aged less than 65 years at the time of onset of symptom were included in the EOD group, whereas older patients were included in the late-onset dementia (LOD) group. Three thousand four hundred and seventy-three patients (including 1932 women) were included and 811 (23.4%) were classified as EOD. The sex ratio was 1.12, whereas women were overrepresented in LOD (P=0.001). Patients with EOD were more frequently (P=0.001) living at home (87.3%), they had a lower educational level than the general population (P=0.0001) but were more educated (P=0.001). The current Mini Mental State Examination did not differ (P=0.3) between EOD (18.6±7.6) and LOD (18.9±6). The most common causes of EOD were Alzheimer's (22.3%) and vascular (15.9%) diseases and 4 pathologies that were significantly more frequent (P=0.001) than in the LOD group: frontotemporal dementia (9.7%), alcohol-related dementia (9.4%), traumatic brain injury (3.8%), and Huntington's disease (3%). EOD is characterized by specific features and different causes although Alzheimer's and vascular dementias remain the main causes of dementia in EOD.

  15. Cognitive remediation therapy in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Olga; Penadés, Rafael; Baeza, Inmaculada; De la Serna, Elena; Sánchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Bernardo, Miquel; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2014-08-01

    Cognitive impairment is an enduring and functionally relevant feature of early-onset schizophrenia (EOS). Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) improves cognition and functional outcome in adults with schizophrenia, although data in adolescents with EOS remain scarce. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of CRT in improving cognition and functional outcomes in a sample of symptomatically stable but cognitively disabled adolescents with EOS. We performed a randomized, controlled trial of individually delivered CRT plus treatment-as-usual compared with treatment-as-usual (TAU). Fifty adolescents with EOS were randomly assigned to receive CRT (n = 25) or TAU (n = 25) and were included in an intention-to-treat analysis. Clinical symptoms and cognitive and functional performance were assessed before and after treatment in both groups and after 3 months in the CRT group. Cognitive domains were defined according to the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) consensus battery and averaged in a global cognitive composite score. After CRT, significant improvements were found in verbal memory and executive functions, with medium-to-large effect sizes (ES). The derived cognitive composite score showed an improvement after the treatment, with a large ES. This change was reliable in more than two-thirds of the treated patients. Medium-sized ES were found for improvements after CRT in daily living and adaptive functioning, whereas large ES were observed for improvements in family burden. With the exception of functional gains, these changes were maintained after 3 months. CRT appears to be a useful intervention strategy for adolescents with EOS. Cognitive improvements can be achieved through CRT, although further research is warranted to determine the durability of functional gains. Clinical trial registration information-Cognitive Remediation Therapy (CRT) in Adolescents With EOS; www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01701609

  16. Identification of Extremely Premature Infants at Low Risk for Early-Onset Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puopolo, Karen M; Mukhopadhyay, Sagori; Hansen, Nellie I; Cotten, C Michael; Stoll, Barbara J; Sanchez, Pablo J; Bell, Edward F; Das, Abhik; Hensman, Angelita M; Van Meurs, Krisa P; Wyckoff, Myra H

    2017-10-05

    Premature infants are at high risk of early-onset sepsis (EOS) relative to term infants, and most are administered empirical antibiotics after birth. We aimed to determine if factors evident at birth could be used to identify premature infants at lower risk of EOS. Study infants were born at 22 to 28 weeks' gestation in Neonatal Research Network centers from 2006 to 2014. EOS was defined by isolation of pathogenic species from blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture at ≤72 hours age. Infants were hypothesized as "low risk" for EOS when delivered via cesarean delivery, with membrane rupture at delivery, and absence of clinical chorioamnionitis. Frequency of prolonged antibiotics (≥5 days) was compared between low-risk infants and all others. Risks of mortality, EOS, and other morbidities were assessed by using regression models adjusted for center, race, antenatal steroid use, multiple birth, sex, gestation, and birth weight. Of 15 433 infants, 5759 (37%) met low-risk criteria. EOS incidence among infants surviving >12 hours was 29 out of 5640 (0.5%) in the low-risk group versus 209 out of 8422 (2.5%) in the comparison group (adjusted relative risk = 0.24 [95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.36]). Low-risk infants also had significantly lower combined risk of EOS or death ≤12 hours. Prolonged antibiotics were administered to 34% of low-risk infants versus 47% of comparison infants without EOS. Delivery characteristics of extremely preterm infants can be used to identify those with significantly lower incidence of EOS. Recognition of differential risk may help guide decisions to limit early antibiotic use among approximately one-third of these infants. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Stratification of risk of early-onset sepsis in newborns ≥ 34 weeks' gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Gabriel J; Puopolo, Karen M; Wi, Soora; Turk, Benjamin J; Kuzniewicz, Michael W; Walsh, Eileen M; Newman, Thomas B; Zupancic, John; Lieberman, Ellice; Draper, David

    2014-01-01

    To define a quantitative stratification algorithm for the risk of early-onset sepsis (EOS) in newborns ≥ 34 weeks' gestation. We conducted a retrospective nested case-control study that used split validation. Data collected on each infant included sepsis risk at birth based on objective maternal factors, demographics, specific clinical milestones, and vital signs during the first 24 hours after birth. Using a combination of recursive partitioning and logistic regression, we developed a risk classification scheme for EOS on the derivation dataset. This scheme was then applied to the validation dataset. Using a base population of 608,014 live births ≥ 34 weeks' gestation at 14 hospitals between 1993 and 2007, we identified all 350 EOS cases <72 hours of age and frequency matched them by hospital and year of birth to 1063 controls. Using maternal and neonatal data, we defined a risk stratification scheme that divided the neonatal population into 3 groups: treat empirically (4.1% of all live births, 60.8% of all EOS cases, sepsis incidence of 8.4/1000 live births), observe and evaluate (11.1% of births, 23.4% of cases, 1.2/1000), and continued observation (84.8% of births, 15.7% of cases, incidence 0.11/1000). It is possible to combine objective maternal data with evolving objective neonatal clinical findings to define more efficient strategies for the evaluation and treatment of EOS in term and late preterm infants. Judicious application of our scheme could result in decreased antibiotic treatment in 80,000 to 240,000 US newborns each year.

  18. Clinical and Microbiologic Characteristics of Early-Onset Sepsis Among VLBW Infants: Opportunities for Antibiotic Stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sagori; Puopolo, Karen M

    2017-02-09

    Most very-low birth weight (birth weight <1500 grams, VLBW) infants receive empiric antibiotics for risk of early-onset sepsis (EOS). The objective of this study was to determine the characteristics of VLBW infants with culture-confirmed EOS at a single center during 25 years, to identify opportunities for antibiotic stewardship. Retrospective cohort study including VLBW infants admitted from 1990-2015. EOS was defined as isolation of a pathogen in blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture obtained < 72 hours of age. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of EOS case infants were obtained by review of medical, laboratory and administrative records. Blood culture, antibiotic initiation, and maternal discharge code data was available for all VLBW infants born 1999-2013. 109 EOS cases (20.5/1000 VLBW births) occurred during the study period. Preterm labor, preterm rupture of membranes and/or the obstetrical diagnosis of chorioamnionitis were present in 106/109 cases (97%). Obligate anaerobic organisms accounted for 16% of cases. Time to culture positivity was 36 hours for 88% and 48 hours for 98% of cases. From 1999-2013, 97% of VLBW infants were evaluated for EOS and 90% administered empiric antibiotics; 22% of these infants were born by Cesarean section to mothers with pre-eclampsia and without preterm labor or chorioamnionitis and had a 12-fold lower incidence of EOS compared to the remaining infants. Decisions to initiate and discontinue empiric antibiotics among VLBW infants can be informed by the delivery characteristics of infected infants, and by local microbiologic data.

  19. [Cord blood procalcitonin in the assessment of early-onset neonatal sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oria de Rueda Salguero, Olivia; Beceiro Mosquera, José; Barrionuevo González, Marta; Ripalda Crespo, María Jesús; Olivas López de Soria, Cristina

    2017-08-01

    Early diagnosis of early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) is essential to reduce morbidity and mortality. Procalcitonin (PCT) in cord blood could provide a diagnosis of infected patients from birth. To study the usefulness and safety of a procedure for the evaluation of newborns at risk of EONS, based on the determination of PCT in cord blood. Neonates with infectious risk factors, born in our hospital from October 2013 to January 2015 were included. They were processed according to an algorithm based on the values of cord blood procalcitonin (< 0.6ng/ml versus ≥0.6ng/ml). They were later classified as proved infection, probable, or no infection. Of the 2,519 infants born in the study period, 136 met inclusion criteria. None of 120 cases with PCT<0.6ng/ml in cord blood developed EONS (100% negative predictive value). On the other hand, of the 16 cases with PCT ≥0.6ng/ml, 10 were proven or probably infected (62.5% positive predictive value). The sensitivity of the PCT against infection was 100%, with a specificity of 95.2% (area under the receiver operator curve 0.969). The incidence of infection in the study group was 7.4%, and 26.1% in cases with maternal chorioamnionitis. 21 newborn (15.4%) received antibiotic therapy. The studied protocol has shown to be effective and safe to differentiate between patients with increased risk of developing an EONS, in those where the diagnostic and therapeutic approach was more interventionist, versus those with less likelihood of sepsis, who would benefit from a more conservative management. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Cord Blood Acute Phase Reactants Predict Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis in Preterm Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena B Mithal

    Full Text Available Early onset sepsis (EOS is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants, yet diagnosis remains inadequate resulting in missed cases or prolonged empiric antibiotics with adverse consequences. Evaluation of acute phase reactant (APR biomarkers in umbilical cord blood at birth may improve EOS detection in preterm infants with intrauterine infection.In this nested case-control study, infants (29.7 weeks gestation, IQR: 27.7-32.2 were identified from a longitudinal cohort with archived cord blood and placental histopathology. Patients were categorized using culture, laboratory, clinical, and antibiotic treatment data into sepsis groups: confirmed sepsis (cEOS, n = 12; presumed sepsis (PS, n = 30; and no sepsis (controls, n = 30. Nine APRs were measured in duplicate from cord blood using commercially available multiplex immunoassays (Bio-Plex Pro™. In addition, placental histopathologic data were linked to biomarker results.cEOS organisms were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Proteus mirabilis, Haemophilus influenzae and Listeria monocytogenes. C-reactive protein (CRP, serum amyloid A (SAA, haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid P and ferritin were significantly elevated in cEOS compared to controls (p<0.01. SAA, CRP, and Hp were elevated in cEOS but not in PS (p<0.01 and had AUCs of 99%, 96%, and 95% respectively in predicting cEOS. Regression analysis revealed robust associations of SAA, CRP, and Hp with EOS after adjustment for covariates. Procalcitonin, fibrinogen, α-2-macroglobulin and tissue plasminogen activator were not significantly different across groups. Placental acute inflammation was associated with APR elevation and was present in all cEOS, 9 PS, and 17 control infants.This study shows that certain APRs are elevated in cord blood of premature infants with EOS of intrauterine origin. SAA, CRP, and Hp at birth have potential diagnostic utility for risk stratification and identification of infants with EOS.

  1. Detection of cord blood hepcidin levels as a biomarker for early-onset neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizmeci, Mehmet Nevzat; Kara, Semra; Kanburoglu, Mehmet Kenan; Simavli, Serap; Duvan, Candan Iltemur; Tatli, Mustafa Mansur

    2014-03-01

    Early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) continues to be a severe condition associated with a high mortality and morbidity. However, symptoms and laboratory markers of this serious condition are nonspecific and currently there are no available standard tests to provide perfect diagnostic accuracy. An early recognition and initiation of antimicrobial therapy are essential in order to prevent morbidity and mortality. Hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis, is also an acute-phase reactant, which has a critical role in inflammation and contributes to host defense by interfering with microorganism's access to iron. Since hepcidin expression is induced by interleukin-6 (IL-6), it also plays role in the innate immune system. Recently, endogenous expression of hepcidin by macrophages and neutrophils in response to bacterial pathogens confirmed its role in innate immunity. The clear link between the hepcidin molecule and innate immunity may be used for the detection of EONS. We hypothesized that an increased level of hepcidin in cord blood may be used as a reliable biological marker of EONS and designed a prospective cohort study to test this hypothesis and collected pilot data. Cord blood samples of all infants born between January 2009 and December 2010 at our university hospital were collected after parental consent and a total of 38 infants were enrolled in the study who fulfilled the sepsis criteria. The range of cord blood hepcidin was found to be significantly increased in newborns with EONS (min-max: 118.1-8400 ng/mL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the pathophysiologic relevance of hepcidin in EONS and demonstrate increased levels of hepcidin in cord blood as an acute-phase reactant in response to sepsis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cord Blood Acute Phase Reactants Predict Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithal, Leena B; Palac, Hannah L; Yogev, Ram; Ernst, Linda M; Mestan, Karen K

    2017-01-01

    Early onset sepsis (EOS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants, yet diagnosis remains inadequate resulting in missed cases or prolonged empiric antibiotics with adverse consequences. Evaluation of acute phase reactant (APR) biomarkers in umbilical cord blood at birth may improve EOS detection in preterm infants with intrauterine infection. In this nested case-control study, infants (29.7 weeks gestation, IQR: 27.7-32.2) were identified from a longitudinal cohort with archived cord blood and placental histopathology. Patients were categorized using culture, laboratory, clinical, and antibiotic treatment data into sepsis groups: confirmed sepsis (cEOS, n = 12); presumed sepsis (PS, n = 30); and no sepsis (controls, n = 30). Nine APRs were measured in duplicate from cord blood using commercially available multiplex immunoassays (Bio-Plex Pro™). In addition, placental histopathologic data were linked to biomarker results. cEOS organisms were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Proteus mirabilis, Haemophilus influenzae and Listeria monocytogenes. C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid P and ferritin were significantly elevated in cEOS compared to controls (p<0.01). SAA, CRP, and Hp were elevated in cEOS but not in PS (p<0.01) and had AUCs of 99%, 96%, and 95% respectively in predicting cEOS. Regression analysis revealed robust associations of SAA, CRP, and Hp with EOS after adjustment for covariates. Procalcitonin, fibrinogen, α-2-macroglobulin and tissue plasminogen activator were not significantly different across groups. Placental acute inflammation was associated with APR elevation and was present in all cEOS, 9 PS, and 17 control infants. This study shows that certain APRs are elevated in cord blood of premature infants with EOS of intrauterine origin. SAA, CRP, and Hp at birth have potential diagnostic utility for risk stratification and identification of infants with EOS.

  3. Impact of thrombophilic genetic factors on pulmonary embolism: early onset and recurrent incidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Petar; Komsa-Penkova, Regina; Kovacheva, Katia; Ivanov, Yavor; Stoyanova, Angelina; Ivanov, Ivan; Pavlov, Plamen; Glogovska, Pavlina; Nojarov, Venzislav

    2008-01-01

    The importance of genetic thrombophilic factors in the development of venous thromboembolism has been increasingly recognized. Factor V Leiden (FVL), prothrombin gene mutation G20210A (FII G20210), genetic variant C677T of the methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), as well as the polymorphism A2 (PlA2) in platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa were recently discussed. We analyzed the contribution of genetic thrombophilic factors to the pathogenesis of pulmonary embolism (PE) and their association with the early onset and recurrence of PE using DNA analysis methods. In this case control trial we found thrombophilic genetic variants in 58.8% of 51 patients with PE. FVL was found in 23.5% of the patients versus 7.1% of the 98 controls (p=0.01), PlA2 IIb/IIIa was found in 35.3% vs. 14.3% (p=0.03), and FII G20210A was found in 5.9% vs. 2.0% (NS). Patients with recurrent PE had a very high prevalence of genetic factors, 70.4%. High prevalence of FVL was found in patients under 45 years of age: 39.3% (OR=14.23, 95% CI=1.58-330.03, p=0.01) as well as in patients with recurrent incidence (37%, OR=7.647, 95% CI=2.27-26.44, p=0.001). FVL was also significantly higher in the subgroup of patients with PE combined with deep venous thrombosis (OR=6.500, 95% CI=1.81-23.76, p=0.002) in comparison with patients with isolated PE (OR=2.261, 95% CI=0.50-9.69). The carriers of FVL are at higher risk for early and recurrent PE events. High prevalence of PlA2 in PE patients evidently shows the impact of this polymorphism in PE development. A different treatment should be considered in carriers of thrombophilic defects.

  4. An advanced white matter tract analysis in frontotemporal dementia and early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daianu, Madelaine; Mendez, Mario F; Baboyan, Vatche G; Jin, Yan; Melrose, Rebecca J; Jimenez, Elvira E; Thompson, Paul M

    2016-12-01

    Cortical and subcortical nuclei degenerate in the dementias, but less is known about changes in the white matter tracts that connect them. To better understand white matter changes in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD), we used a novel approach to extract full 3D profiles of fiber bundles from diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and map white matter abnormalities onto detailed models of each pathway. The result is a spatially complex picture of tract-by-tract microstructural changes. Our atlas of tracts for each disease consists of 21 anatomically clustered and recognizable white matter tracts generated from whole-brain tractography in 20 patients with bvFTD, 23 with age-matched EOAD, and 33 healthy elderly controls. To analyze the landscape of white matter abnormalities, we used a point-wise tract correspondence method along the 3D profiles of the tracts and quantified the pathway disruptions using common diffusion metrics - fractional anisotropy, mean, radial, and axial diffusivity. We tested the hypothesis that bvFTD and EOAD are associated with preferential degeneration in specific neural networks. We mapped axonal tract damage that was best detected with mean and radial diffusivity metrics, supporting our network hypothesis, highly statistically significant and more sensitive than widely studied fractional anisotropy reductions. From white matter diffusivity, we identified abnormalities in bvFTD in all 21 tracts of interest but especially in the bilateral uncinate fasciculus, frontal callosum, anterior thalamic radiations, cingulum bundles and left superior longitudinal fasciculus. This network of white matter alterations extends beyond the most commonly studied tracts, showing greater white matter abnormalities in bvFTD versus controls and EOAD patients. In EOAD, network alterations involved more posterior white matter - the parietal sector of the corpus callosum and parahipoccampal cingulum bilaterally

  5. The Effect of Growing Rod Treatment on Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels in Early-onset Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Kody K; Lee, Christopher; Myung, Karen; Johnston, Charles; Shah, Suken A; Akbarnia, Behrooz A; Skaggs, David L

    2016-09-01

    This study examines preoperative hemoglobin (Hgb) and hematocrit (Hct) levels in a group of early-onset scoliosis (EOS) patients and the effect of distraction-based growing rods (GRs) on these levels. Children with EOS are at risk for respiratory insufficiency and chronic hypoxemia. Increased Hgb and Hct levels have been identified as surrogate markers for chronic hypoxemia. A study of patients who underwent VEPTR surgery showed a significant decrease in Hgb levels following surgery. Data were retrospectively collected on 66 EOS patients without confounding respiratory issues or oxygen dependence who were treated with GRs at 5 institutions. Average age at initial surgery was 5.5 years. Patients were followed for a minimum of 2 years (average 3.7 y). Preoperative and postoperative Hgb and Hct levels were converted to Z-scores based on age-adjusted mean blood indices and were compared using a paired t test. The prevalence of elevated Hgb and Hct levels (Z-score >2) preoperatively was 15% (10/66) and 19% (12/64), respectively. The average Hgb Z-score decreased from 0.20 to -0.31 (P=0.005) 6 to 24 months following surgery and the Hct Z-score decreased from 0.31 to -0.28 (P=0.002) 6 to 24 months following surgery. Following distraction-based GR treatment of children with EOS there was a significant decrease in both their Hgb and Hct. This is a physiological marker of decreased hypoxemia and improved pulmonary function. Level III-therapeutic study.

  6. Complications incidence in the treatment of early onset scoliosis with growing spinal implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greggi, T; Lolli, F; Di Silvestre, M; Martikos, K; Vommaro, F; Maredi, E; Giacomini, S; Baioni, A; Cioni, A

    2012-01-01

    Early onset scoliosis (EOS) surgery based on growing spinal implants can lead to several complications. Aim of the study was to identify strategies to prevent those complications. A retrospective review was conducted to identify all pediatric patients affected by EOS surgically treated with growing rod or Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib (VEPTR) at our division between 2006 and 2011. Nineteen consecutive patients (8 males, 11 females; mean age 6.8 years) were included. The scoliosis was: idiopathic in 7 cases, congenital in 5, associated with congenital heart disease in 2, with syringomyelia and Arnold Chiari syndrome in 1, with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) in 1, with Prader Willi syndrome in 1, with trisomy 8 in 1, with arthrogryposis in 1. Instrumentation used was: growing rod in 9 patients (dual rod construct in 8 cases, single rod in 1), VEPTR in 10 (always rib to spine construct). At a mean follow-up of 28 months (range, 12 to 55) 12 mechanical complications occurred in 8 of 19 patients treated (42.1%). Among cases treated with growing rod (9) 6 complications occurred in 4 patients (44.4%): revision was performed in 4 cases due to proximal anchors migration, in 2 cases due to a rod breakage. Among cases treated with VEPTR (10) 6 complications occurred in 4 patients (40%): revision was performed in 4 cases due to rib fracture with anchors migration, in 1 case due to vertebral anchor migration and in 1 case due to proximal and distal anchor migration. So, in our series mechanical complications rate was 42.1%. Our strategy to prevent these complications is to use hooks as proximal anchors, to avoid single rod construct and to use a brace as external support until final surgery is performed. If it's possible, is better to substitute VEPTR with a dual Growing Rod implant when patient's age and anatomy permits this.

  7. Precuneus atrophy in early-onset Alzheimer's disease: a morphometric structural MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karas, Giorgos [Vrije Universiteit Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Alzheimer Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Scheltens, Philip; Jones, Bethany [Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Alzheimer Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Department of Clinical Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rombouts, Serge [Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Alzheimer Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Department of Clinical Physics and Informatics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schijndel, Ronald van [Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Image Analysis Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Department of Clinical Physics and Informatics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Klein, Martin [Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Department of Medical Psychology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Flier, Wiesje van der [Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Alzheimer Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrenken, Hugo [Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Image Analysis Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Barkhof, Frederik [Vrije Universiteit Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Image Analysis Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Alzheimer Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) usually first presents in elderly patients, but may also develop at an earlier age. Patients with an early age at onset tend to present with complaints other than memory impairment, such as visuospatial problems or apraxia, which may reflect a different distribution of cortical involvement. In this study we set out to investigate whether age at onset in patients with AD determines the pattern of atrophy on cerebral MRI scans. We examined 55 patients with AD over a wide age range and analyzed their 3-D T1-weighted structural MRI scans in standard space using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Regression analysis was performed to estimate loss of grey matter as a function of age, corrected for mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores and sex. The VBM analyses identified multiple areas (including the temporal and parietal lobes), showing more atrophy with advancing age. By contrast, a younger age at onset was found to be associated with lower grey matter density in the precuneus. Regionalized volumetric analysis of this region confirmed the existence of disproportionate atrophy in the precuneus in patients with early-onset AD. Application of a multivariate model with precuneus grey matter density as input, showed that precuneal and hippocampal atrophy are independent from each other. Additionally, we found that a smaller precuneus is associated with impaired visuospatial functioning. Our findings support the notion that age at onset modulates the distribution of cortical involvement, and that disproportionate precuneus atrophy is more prominent in patients with a younger age of onset. (orig.)

  8. Early-onset, severe, and recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism associated with a novel CDC73 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yusuke; Yamazaki, Masanori; Takei, Masahiro; Uchino, Shinya; Sakurai, Akihiro; Komatsu, Mitsuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary tumor syndrome characterized by synchronous or metachronous occurrence of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), ossifying fibroma of the maxilla and/or mandible, renal tumor and uterine tumors. Early diagnosis of this syndrome is essential because it is associated with increased risk of parathyroid cancer. A 30-year-old man with urolithiasis had severe hypercalcemia (15.0 mg/dL after correction) induced by inappropriate parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion (intact PTH 1390 pg/mL), indicating severe PHPT. An underlying parathyroid tumor was surgically removed and was histologically confirmed to be an adenoma. However, PHPT due to another parathyroid tumor reoccurred two years after the surgery. Although no HPT-JT-associated manifestations other than PHPT were detected, HPT-JT was strongly suspected based on the exclusion of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) and the young age of disease occurrence. Genetic analysis revealed a novel nonsense mutation (p.Arg91X; c.271C>T) in exon 3 of the causative gene, CDC73, which encodes the tumor suppressor protein parafibromin. The residual parathyroid glands were all removed without autotransplantation of parathyroid gland taking into consideration prospective parathyroid carcinogenesis. The resected parathyroid tumor was also an adenoma. The present case highlights that HPT-JT should be considered and CDC73 mutation analysis should be performed, especially in cases of early-onset PHPT, recurrent PHPT, PHPT with polyglandular parathyroid involvement, and PHPT presenting with severe hypercalcemia even if there is no positive family history.

  9. Time to Initiation of Clozapine Treatment in Children and Adolescents with Early-Onset Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinczek, E; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, M; Haberhausen, M; Bachmann, C J

    2016-11-01

    Introduction: Early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) has a poor prognosis and is difficult to treat, which often leads to the initiation of clozapine treatment. Studies in adults have shown that the initiation of clozapine treatment is often delayed. There is a lack of studies concerning the initiation of clozapine in children and adolescents with EOS. The aim of this study was to investigate the time span from first EOS-related psychiatric hospitalization to clozapine initiation. Methods: We retrospectively studied a consecutive cohort of children and adolescents with EOS and first-time clozapine prescriptions from a tertiary care child and adolescent psychiatric center in Germany. Results: Clinical records with data on clozapine initiation were available for 112 patients (35.7% females, mean age: 15.2±1.6 years). The mean time from first EOS-related hospitalization to clozapine initiation was 1.1 (±1.0) years, with an average of 2.3 (±1.1) prior antipsychotic treatment episodes. Higher age and higher IQ predicted earlier clozapine initiation. At the time of clozapine initiation, 40.2% of patients received antipsychotic polypharmacy. Prior to clozapine, 33.9% of patients had received 3 or more antipsychotic treatment episodes. Discussion: In our study, clozapine treatment was initiated markedly earlier than in the few existing studies, which may partly be due to the expected poor prognosis of EOS. The significant portion of patients undergoing 3 or more antipsychotic trials or antipsychotic polypharmacy prior to clozapine may indicate a need for improved dissemination of knowledge on the effectiveness of clozapine in treatment-resistant schizophrenia in order to promote timely clozapine prescriptions in these cases. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Quantification of Maternal Serum Cell-Free Fetal DNA in Early-Onset Preeclampsia

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    Mulan Ren

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether the increased serum cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA level of gravidas developed into early-onset preeclampsia (EOPE subsequently in the early second trimesters is related to prenatal screening markers. Serum was collected from 1011 gravidas. The level of cffDNA and prenatal screening markers were analyzed in 20 cases with EOPE and 20 controls. All fetuses were male. The maternal serum cffDNA level was assessed by amplification of the Y chromosome specific gene. Correlations between the variables were examined. (Logged cffDNA in EOPE (median, 3.08; interquartile range, 2.93–3.68 was higher than controls (median, 1.79; interquartile range, 1.46–2.53. The increased level of (logged cffDNA was correlated significantly with the increased human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG level (r = 0.628, p < 0.001. Significant reciprocal correlations between cffDNA and babies’ birth weight as well as gestation weeks at delivery were noted (r = −0.516, p = 0.001; r = −0.623, p < 0.001, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of cffDNA to discriminate between the EOPE cases and the controls were 90% and 85%, respectively. CffDNA is a potential marker for EOPE, which had a significant reciprocal correlation with babies’ birth weight and gestation weeks at delivery. Moreover, it may help in indicating the underlying hypoxic condition in the placenta.

  11. Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis: Still Room for Improvement in Procalcitonin Diagnostic Accuracy Studies

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    Chiesa, Claudio; Pacifico, Lucia; Osborn, John F.; Bonci, Enea; Hofer, Nora; Resch, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To perform a systematic review assessing accuracy and completeness of diagnostic studies of procalcitonin (PCT) for early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) using the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) initiative. EONS, diagnosed during the first 3 days of life, remains a common and serious problem. Increased PCT is a potentially useful diagnostic marker of EONS, but reports in the literature are contradictory. There are several possible explanations for the divergent results including the quality of studies reporting the clinical usefulness of PCT in ruling in or ruling out EONS. We systematically reviewed PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library databases up to October 1, 2014. Studies were eligible for inclusion in our review if they provided measures of PCT accuracy for diagnosing EONS. A data extraction form based on the STARD checklist and adapted for neonates with EONS was used to appraise the quality of the reporting of included studies. We found 18 articles (1998–2014) fulfilling our eligibility criteria which were included in the final analysis. Overall, the results of our analysis showed that the quality of studies reporting diagnostic accuracy of PCT for EONS was suboptimal leaving ample room for improvement. Information on key elements of design, analysis, and interpretation of test accuracy were frequently missing. Authors should be aware of the STARD criteria before starting a study in this field. We welcome stricter adherence to this guideline. Well-reported studies with appropriate designs will provide more reliable information to guide decisions on the use and interpretations of PCT test results in the management of neonates with EONS. PMID:26222858

  12. Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome: An "early" onset case report and review of Literature.

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    Angotti, R; Molinaro, F; Bulotta, A L; Bindi, E; Cerchia, E; Sica, M; Messina, M

    2015-01-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome (HWWS) is a rare congenital mullerian anomaly consisting of uterus didelphys, hemivaginal septum, and unilateral renal agenesis [1,2]. Most authors reported cases of Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome with prepuberal or postpuberal onset with cyclical abdominal pain and a vaginal mass (3-8). Only six cases are reported in Literature with early onset of this syndrome under 5 years (9-14). Our case is about 3 years old girl, with all the features of this syndrome who came to our attention for lower abdominal mass. The aim of this article is to share our experience and focus the attention on the importance of high level of suspicion of HWWS in neonatal period to early diagnosis and treatment. The possible early presentation of this syndrome should be suspected in all neonates (females) with renal agenesia confirmed postnatally or with prenatal diagnosis. It is common, in fact, an error of evaluation with planning of removal of mass, that can damage patients in term of chance for a successful reproductive outcome. For all these reasons, our team consider HWWS as differential diagnosis in newborn with prenatal ultrasonography of a cystic mass behind the urinary bladder in the absence of a kidney and plan a pelvic ultrasound (with aim to identify an uterus, normal or dydhelfus, and presence or absence of pelvic mass), an examination under anesthesia and cystoscopy and vaginoscopy, if it is necessary. A high level of suspicion, indeed, is the key to early diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Kita driven expression of oncogenic HRAS leads to early onset and highly penetrant melanoma in zebrafish.

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    Cristina Santoriello

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is the most aggressive and lethal form of skin cancer. Because of the increasing incidence and high lethality of melanoma, animal models for continuously observing melanoma formation and progression as well as for testing pharmacological agents are needed.Using the combinatorial Gal4-UAS system, we have developed a zebrafish transgenic line that expresses oncogenic HRAS under the kita promoter. Already at 3 days transgenic kita-GFP-RAS larvae show a hyper-pigmentation phenotype as earliest evidence of abnormal melanocyte growth. By 2-4 weeks, masses of transformed melanocytes form in the tail stalk of the majority of kita-GFP-RAS transgenic fish. The adult tumors evident between 1-3 months of age faithfully reproduce the immunological, histological and molecular phenotypes of human melanoma, but on a condensed time-line. Furthermore, they show transplantability, dependence on mitfa expression and do not require additional mutations in tumor suppressors. In contrast to kita expressing melanocyte progenitors that efficiently develop melanoma, mitfa expressing progenitors in a second Gal4-driver line were 4 times less efficient in developing melanoma during the three months observation period.This indicates that zebrafish kita promoter is a powerful tool for driving oncogene expression in the right cells and at the right level to induce early onset melanoma in the presence of tumor suppressors. Thus our zebrafish model provides a link between kita expressing melanocyte progenitors and melanoma and offers the advantage of a larval phenotype suitable for large scale drug and genetic modifier screens.

  14. Mutations, associated with early-onset Alzheimer’s disease, discovered in Asian countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagyinszky, Eva; Youn, Young Chul; An, Seong Soo A; Kim, SangYun

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common form of senile dementia, is a genetically complex disorder. In most Asian countries, the population and the number of AD patients are growing rapidly, and the genetics of AD has been extensively studied, except in Japan. However, recent studies have been started to investigate the genes and mutations associated with AD in Korea, the People’s Republic of China, and Malaysia. This review describes all of the known mutations in three early-onset AD (EOAD) causative genes (APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2) that were discovered in Asian countries. Most of the EOAD-associated mutations have been detected in PSEN1, and several novel PSEN1 mutations were recently identified in patients from various parts of the world, including Asia. Until 2014, no PSEN2 mutations were found in Asian patients; however, emerging studies from Korea and the People’s Republic of China discovered probably pathogenic PSEN2 mutations. Since several novel mutations were discovered in these three genes, we also discuss the predictions on their pathogenic nature. This review briefly summarizes genome-wide association studies of late-onset AD and the genes that might be associated with AD in Asian countries. Standard sequencing is a widely used method, but it has limitations in terms of time, cost, and efficacy. Next-generation sequencing strategies could facilitate genetic analysis and association studies. Genetic testing is important for the accurate diagnosis and for understanding disease-associated pathways and might also improve disease therapy and prevention. PMID:27799753

  15. Epileptic spasms and early-onset photosensitive epilepsy in Patau syndrome: An EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnoli, Carlotta; Kugathasan, Umaiyal; Brittain, Helen; Boyd, Stewart G

    2015-08-01

    Patau syndrome, trisomy 13, is the third commonest autosomal trisomy. It is associated with a 25-50% prevalence of epilepsy, but detailed electroclinical descriptions are rare. The occurrence of early-onset photosensitivity has recently been reported in single patients. We collected electroclinical data on 8 infants (age range from 2 months to 3 years and 9 months, median: 17 months) with Patau syndrome referred for an EEG in our Clinical Neurophysiology Department between 1991 and 2011. All EEGs, case-notes, cytogenetic diagnosis and neuroimaging when available were reviewed; data on the occurrence of seizures, epileptiform discharges, photoparoxysmal response and their characteristics in terms of positive frequencies, latencies, grade and duration were noted and analysed. Two patients had been previously diagnosed with epilepsy (one with tonic spasms and one with multiple seizure types). We found 3 patients with photosensitive myoclonic epilepsy (37.5%), and one with non-photosensitive myoclonic epilepsy. We also recorded non-epileptic myoclonic jerks in one patient known to suffer from epileptic spasms. Among photosensitive patients we found self-limited, Waltz's grade 2-4, spike-wave/polyspike-wave discharges in low, medium and high frequency ranges in two patients and in the high frequency range in the third patient, with latencies and duration from less than 1s to a maximum of 9s. In our cohort of Patau syndrome patients, we found a high prevalence of spasms and photic-induced myoclonic jerks. Photosensitivity shows an unusual early age of onset. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Late and early onset dementia: what is the role of vascular factors? A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenuto, Anna; Rea, Raffaele; Colucci, Luisa; Ziello, Antonio Rosario; Molino, Ivana; Carpi, Sabrina; Traini, Enea; Amenta, Francesco; Fasanaro, Angiola Maria

    2012-11-15

    Neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) demonstrates that the common occurrence of vascular lesions and vascular factors is suggested to contribute significantly to the clinical progression of the disease. This study has assessed the presence of vascular brain lesions and risk factors in subjects with diagnosis of AD and their influence on the disease course both in Late Onset Dementia (LOD) and in Early Onset Dementia (EOD). MRI scans of 374 LOD and of 67 EOD patients were evaluated for the presence of vascular associated lesions and rated according to the age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) scale as "pure degenerative", "mixed" and "vascular" cases of dementia. Vascular risk factors burden (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, myocardial infarction) and disease progression were also assessed. 44% of LOD cases and 46% of EOD were classified as "mixed dementia cases". The vascular risk factors burden showed an increase from the pure degenerative to the pure vascular forms. Disease progression, calculated in two years using the Mini Mental State Evaluation (MMSE), Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scores, did not reveal differences among the three different classes of dementias. Vascular lesions are found in the majority of LOD cases and in about one half of EOD. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis of a synergistic effect of the degenerative and vascular factors on the development of cognitive dysfunction. The linear increase of the vascular burden supports the idea of a continuum spectrum between the pure degenerative and the pure vascular forms of adult-onset dementia disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Early onset pneumonia after successful resuscitation : Incidence after mild invasive hypothermia therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, J W; Hodrius, J; Bushoven, P; Fichtlscherer, S; Zeiher, A M; Seeger, F H; Honold, J

    2017-09-01

    Targeted temperature management (TTM) represents an effective therapy to improve neurologic outcome in patients who survive an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). First publications about this therapy reported a higher incidence of infections in patients who underwent TTM induced by external cooling devices. Whether intravascular cooling devices are also associated with an increased infection rate has not been investigated so far. In a single center retrospective study, the incidence of early onset pneumonia (EOP) in OHCA patients with or without intravascular TTM at 33 °C target temperature for 24 h who survived at least 24 h after admission was analyzed. A total of 68 OHCA survivors (mean age 65 ± 15 years) were included in this analysis. The most common causes of OHCA were myocardial infarction (35 %), primary ventricular fibrillation (24 %), asystole (15 %), and pulmonary embolism (7 %). Of those, 32 patients (48 %) received TTM. The overall incidence of EOP was 38 %. Incidence of EOP did not differ significantly between groups, was more frequent in the group without TTM (42 % vs. 34 %, p = 0.57) and had no impact on mortality (hazard ratio = 1.02; 95 % confidence interval 0.25-4.16; p = 0.97). Intravascular TTM at 33 °C with a cooling catheter is not associated with more infective complications in OHCA patients. This finding underscores the safety of TTM.

  18. The patterns of EEG changes in early-onset Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuetao; Zhang, Yuhu; Chen, Jieling; Xie, Chunge; Gan, Rong; Yang, Rong; Wang, Limin; Nie, Kun; Wang, Lijuan

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of brain activity changes in early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) patients and its relationship with the severity of disease and motor deterioration. Electroencephalography (EEG) was performed in a sample of 52 nondemented EOPD patients and 20 healthy controls with similar age. All patients underwent a battery to assess PD severity and motor deterioration. The EEG data were rated by visual and quantitative analyses with the grant total EEG (GTE) score and NicoletOne Software. The parameters of relative band power and coherences for various frequency bands were calculated. In addition, all parameters were compared between groups and examined for correlations with the severity of disease and motor deterioration. The GTE score and two subscores including "Diffuse Slow Waves" and "Frequency of Rhythmic Background Activity" of EOPD increased comparing to control group. The relative beta band powers in seven regions (O1,O2,T5,T6,P3,P4 and C3) indicated significant decreases in EOPD patients and obvious increases in interhemispheric beta coherences were observed in the midtemporal area and frontal area (T3T4 and F3F4). Furthermore, correlation analyses revealed that longer duration was associated with the subscore of "background wave frequency". The beta frequency bands in the right posterior temporal (T6) showed negative relationship with the modified Hoehn-Yahr grading scores. This study is the first to depict the patterns of EEG changes in EOPD patients without dementia and offer a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying and prognostic purposes in EOPD. Some of these changes could serve as useful biomarkers in the study of EOPD.

  19. Cognitive performance in children with acute early-onset anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Betteke Maria; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Ehrlich, Stefan; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Kappel, Viola

    2016-11-01

    When anorexia nervosa (AN) occurs in children below the age of 14 years, it is referred to as early-onset AN (EO-AN). Over the last years, there has been an increased focus on the role of cognitive functioning in the development and maintenance of AN. Adults with AN show inefficiencies in cognitive functions such as flexibility and central coherence. Systematic neuropsychological examinations of patients with EO-AN are missing. Thirty children with EO-AN and 30 adolescents with AN, as well as 60 healthy controls (HC) underwent an extensive neuropsychological examination. ANOVAs with post hoc tests and explorative regression analyses were conducted. Patients with EO-AN (mean age = 2.17 ± 1.57 years) showed no significant differences in flexibility, inhibition, planning, central coherence, visuospatial short- and long-term memory or recognition in comparison to HC (mean age = 11.62 ± 1.29 years). Performance of adolescents with AN (mean age = 15.93 ± 0.70 years) was not significantly different compared to HC (mean age = 16.20 ± 1.26 years). Explorative regression analyses revealed a significant interaction of age and group for flexibility (adjusted R (2)  = 0.30, F = 17.85, p = 0.013, η p(2)  = 0.32). Contrary to expectations, the current study could not confirm the presence of inefficient cognitive processing in children with EO-AN compared to HC. Nonetheless, the expected age-related improvement of flexibility might be disrupted in children and adolescents with AN. Longitudinal neuropsychological examinations are necessary to provide more information about the role of cognitive functioning in the development and maintenance of AN.

  20. Plasma biomarkers for the identification of women at risk for early-onset preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolialexi, Aggeliki; Tsangaris, George Th; Sifakis, Stavros; Gourgiotis, Dimitris; Katsafadou, Aggeliki; Lykoudi, Alexandra; Marmarinos, Antonios; Mavreli, Danai; Pergialiotis, Vassilis; Fexi, Dimitra; Mavrou, Ariadni; Papaioanou, George K; Papantoniou, Nikolas

    2017-03-01

    To identify potential biomarkers in the 1st trimester of pregnancy for the identification of women destined to develop early onset preeclampsia (EOPE). Blood samples were obtained from pregnant women at 11-13 weeks of gestation. Women were followed up until delivery. Five samples from EOPE complicated pregnancies and 5 from unaffected ones were analysed using 2-DE and MALDI-TOF-TOF MS/MS. The altered expression of selected proteins was verified by ELISA in an extended sample cohort. Twelve proteins were differentially expressed in the plasma of women who subsequently developed EOPE as compared to controls. Alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT), CD5 antigen-like molecule (CD5L) Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 9 (K1C9), Myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA), Transferrin (TRFE) and Vitamin D-binding protein (VTDB) were up-regulated with fold changes 3.14, 2.18, 1.53, 1.53, 4.26 3.38 respectively, whereas Alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (FETUA), Beta-2-glycoprotein 1 (APOH), Complement factor B (CFAB), Haptoglobin (HPT), Vitronectin (VTNC) and Zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein (ZA2G) were down-regulated with fold changes -0.38, -0.76, -0.24, -0.47, -0.23, and -0.50 respectively. The down-regulation of APOH, VTNC and HPT was verified using ELISA. The differentially expressed proteins represent potential biomarkers for the early screening for EOPE. Follow-up experiments however are necessary for evaluation.

  1. Results of the spine-to-rib-cage distraction in the treatment of early onset scoliosis

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    Teli Marco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growing rod systems have been used in the last 30 years for the treatment of early onset scoliosis (EOS with variable success rates. We report the results of treatment of EOS with a newly developed hybrid rod distraction system applied to the rib cage and spine with a nonfusion technique in a prospective multicenter clinical trial. Materials and Methods: A total of 22 patients affected by progressive EOS resistant to cast and/or brace treatment were enrolled from 2004 to 2005 after informed consent into a trial of surgical treatment with a single spine-to-rib growing rod instrumentation growing spine profiler (GSP. Curves> 60° Cobb in the frontal plane or bending < 50% were addressed with staged anterior annulotomy and fusion and posterior implantation of a GSP rod. Less severe and rigid curves were treated with posterior implantation of GSP only. The elongation of GSP was planned according to spinal growth. Patients were kept in a brace between elongations. Results: A total of 20 patients were available to follow-up with complete data. The mean follow up is 4.1 years. Mean age at time of initial surgery was 5 years (3-8. Nine patients had staged antero-posterior surgeries, 11 posterior only surgeries. Mean spinal growth was 1.9 cm (1.5-2.3 or 0.5 cm per year. Mean coronal Cobb′s angle correction was from 56° to 45°. Major complications affected 40% of patients and included rod failure in 6/20 and crankshaft in 5/20 (all in the anteroposterior surgery group. Conclusion: Treatment of EOS with spine-to-rib growing rod in the present form provides similar correction and complication rates to those published in the series considering traditional single or dual growing rod systems. Based on this, the authors recommend revision of the GSP design and a new clinical trial to test safety and efficacy.

  2. A mouse model of early-onset renal failure due to a xanthine dehydrogenase nonsense mutation.

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    Sian E Piret

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is characterized by renal fibrosis that can lead to end-stage renal failure, and studies have supported a strong genetic influence on the risk of developing CKD. However, investigations of the underlying molecular mechanisms are hampered by the lack of suitable hereditary models in animals. We therefore sought to establish hereditary mouse models for CKD and renal fibrosis by investigating mice treated with the chemical mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, and identified a mouse with autosomal recessive renal failure, designated RENF. Three-week old RENF mice were smaller than their littermates, whereas at birth they had been of similar size. RENF mice, at 4-weeks of age, had elevated concentrations of plasma urea and creatinine, indicating renal failure, which was associated with small and irregularly shaped kidneys. Genetic studies using DNA from 10 affected mice and 91 single nucleotide polymorphisms mapped the Renf locus to a 5.8 Mbp region on chromosome 17E1.3. DNA sequencing of the xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh gene revealed a nonsense mutation at codon 26 that co-segregated with affected RENF mice. The Xdh mutation resulted in loss of hepatic XDH and renal Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression. XDH mutations in man cause xanthinuria with undetectable plasma uric acid levels and three RENF mice had plasma uric acid levels below the limit of detection. Histological analysis of RENF kidney sections revealed abnormal arrangement of glomeruli, intratubular casts, cellular infiltration in the interstitial space, and interstitial fibrosis. TUNEL analysis of RENF kidney sections showed extensive apoptosis predominantly affecting the tubules. Thus, we have established a mouse model for autosomal recessive early-onset renal failure due to a nonsense mutation in Xdh that is a model for xanthinuria in man. This mouse model could help to increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with renal fibrosis and the

  3. A mouse model of early-onset renal failure due to a xanthine dehydrogenase nonsense mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piret, Sian E; Esapa, Christopher T; Gorvin, Caroline M; Head, Rosie; Loh, Nellie Y; Devuyst, Olivier; Thomas, Gethin; Brown, Steve D M; Brown, Matthew; Croucher, Peter; Cox, Roger; Thakker, Rajesh V

    2012-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by renal fibrosis that can lead to end-stage renal failure, and studies have supported a strong genetic influence on the risk of developing CKD. However, investigations of the underlying molecular mechanisms are hampered by the lack of suitable hereditary models in animals. We therefore sought to establish hereditary mouse models for CKD and renal fibrosis by investigating mice treated with the chemical mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, and identified a mouse with autosomal recessive renal failure, designated RENF. Three-week old RENF mice were smaller than their littermates, whereas at birth they had been of similar size. RENF mice, at 4-weeks of age, had elevated concentrations of plasma urea and creatinine, indicating renal failure, which was associated with small and irregularly shaped kidneys. Genetic studies using DNA from 10 affected mice and 91 single nucleotide polymorphisms mapped the Renf locus to a 5.8 Mbp region on chromosome 17E1.3. DNA sequencing of the xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) gene revealed a nonsense mutation at codon 26 that co-segregated with affected RENF mice. The Xdh mutation resulted in loss of hepatic XDH and renal Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. XDH mutations in man cause xanthinuria with undetectable plasma uric acid levels and three RENF mice had plasma uric acid levels below the limit of detection. Histological analysis of RENF kidney sections revealed abnormal arrangement of glomeruli, intratubular casts, cellular infiltration in the interstitial space, and interstitial fibrosis. TUNEL analysis of RENF kidney sections showed extensive apoptosis predominantly affecting the tubules. Thus, we have established a mouse model for autosomal recessive early-onset renal failure due to a nonsense mutation in Xdh that is a model for xanthinuria in man. This mouse model could help to increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with renal fibrosis and the specific roles of XDH

  4. A Mouse Model of Early-Onset Renal Failure Due to a Xanthine Dehydrogenase Nonsense Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorvin, Caroline M.; Head, Rosie; Loh, Nellie Y.; Devuyst, Olivier; Thomas, Gethin; Brown, Steve D. M.; Brown, Matthew; Croucher, Peter; Cox, Roger; Thakker, Rajesh V.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by renal fibrosis that can lead to end-stage renal failure, and studies have supported a strong genetic influence on the risk of developing CKD. However, investigations of the underlying molecular mechanisms are hampered by the lack of suitable hereditary models in animals. We therefore sought to establish hereditary mouse models for CKD and renal fibrosis by investigating mice treated with the chemical mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, and identified a mouse with autosomal recessive renal failure, designated RENF. Three-week old RENF mice were smaller than their littermates, whereas at birth they had been of similar size. RENF mice, at 4-weeks of age, had elevated concentrations of plasma urea and creatinine, indicating renal failure, which was associated with small and irregularly shaped kidneys. Genetic studies using DNA from 10 affected mice and 91 single nucleotide polymorphisms mapped the Renf locus to a 5.8Mbp region on chromosome 17E1.3. DNA sequencing of the xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) gene revealed a nonsense mutation at codon 26 that co-segregated with affected RENF mice. The Xdh mutation resulted in loss of hepatic XDH and renal Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. XDH mutations in man cause xanthinuria with undetectable plasma uric acid levels and three RENF mice had plasma uric acid levels below the limit of detection. Histological analysis of RENF kidney sections revealed abnormal arrangement of glomeruli, intratubular casts, cellular infiltration in the interstitial space, and interstitial fibrosis. TUNEL analysis of RENF kidney sections showed extensive apoptosis predominantly affecting the tubules. Thus, we have established a mouse model for autosomal recessive early-onset renal failure due to a nonsense mutation in Xdh that is a model for xanthinuria in man. This mouse model could help to increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with renal fibrosis and the specific roles of XDH

  5. Involvement of Galectin-9/TIM-3 pathway in the systemic inflammatory response in early-onset preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Miko

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a common obstetrical disease affecting 3-5% of pregnancies and representing one of the leading causes of both maternal and fetal mortality. Maternal symptoms occur as an excessive systemic inflammatory reaction in response to the placental factors released by the oxidatively stressed and functional impaired placenta. The T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain (TIM family is a relatively newly described group of molecules with a conserved structure and important immunological functions. Identification of Galectin-9 as a ligand for TIM-3 has established the Galectin-9/TIM-3 pathway as an important regulator of Th1 immunity and tolerance induction.The aim of our study was to investigate the expression and function of Galectin-9 and TIM-3 molecules by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the possible role of Galectin-9/TIM-3 pathway in the immunoregulation of healthy pregnancy and early-onset preeclampsia. We determined TIM-3 and Gal-9 expression and cytotoxicicty of peripheral lymphocytes of early-onset preeclamptic women and healthy pregnant woman using flow cytometry.Investigating peripheral lymphocytes of women with early-onset preeclampsia, our results showed a decreased TIM-3 expression by T cells, cytotoxic T cells, NK cells and CD56(dim NK cells compared to healthy pregnant women. Interestingly, we found a notably increased frequency of Galectin-9 positive cells in each investigated lymphocyte population in the case of early-onset preeclamptic patients. We further demonstrated increased cytotoxic activity by cytotoxic T and CD56(dim NK cells in women with early-onset preeclampsia. Our findings showed that the strongest cellular cytotoxic response of lymphocytes occurred in the TIM-3 positive subpopulations of different lymphocytes subsets in early-onset preeclampsia.These data suggest that Gal-9/TIM-3 pathway could play an important role in the immune regulation during pregnancy and the altered Galectin-9 and TIM-3

  6. Characterization of radiation exposure in early-onset scoliosis patients treated with the vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Tyler A; Astur Neto, Nelson; Kelly, Derek M; Warner, William C; Sawyer, Jeffrey R

    2014-03-01

    The evaluation and treatment of patients with early-onset scoliosis requires multiple imaging studies and involves potential exposure to high cumulative lifetime doses of ionizing radiation. The Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib (VEPTR) used in the treatment of early-onset scoliosis requires numerous lengthening procedures and frequent radiographic follow-up. The purpose of this study was to quantify the ionizing radiation exposure in pediatric patients undergoing VEPTR treatment and to identify factors that place patients with early-onset scoliosis at greater risk of radiation exposure. Data were collected by retrospective review of the records of all patients with early-onset scoliosis who were treated with a VEPTR over a 4-year period (2007 to 2010). Diagnostic radiographs, computed tomography, intraoperative fluoroscopy, and nuclear medicine studies were identified and analyzed for ionizing radiation exposure. Total radiation exposure was determined and compared for risk factors such as etiology (eg, neuromuscular or congenital) and surgeon experience. In addition, radiographic studies directly related and unrelated to scoliosis treatment were compared. Twenty-four patients had 121 surgical procedures (mean 5.0/patients) and 962 imaging studies (mean 40/patients). The mean estimated cumulative radiation dose per patient during follow-up was 86.7 mSv (range, 42.6 to 174.9 mSv) with a mean dose per year of 34 mSv (range, 22.9 to 47.1 mSv). Patients with congenital scoliosis received greater mean amounts of radiation (35.2 mSv) than patients with neuromuscular scoliosis (31.9 mSv). Patients treated within the first 2 years of the study period had higher radiation exposure (42.4 mSv) compared with patients treated in the last 2 years (24.9 mSv) (PVEPTR treatment for early-onset scoliosis. There are differences in the amount and sources of radiation exposure between patients with early-onset scoliosis secondary to congenital and neuromuscular causes

  7. Evaluation of the Modern Luque Trolley Construct for the Treatment of Early-onset Scoliosis Using a Gliding Implant in an Immature Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet, Jean A; Ferland, Catherine E; Klein, Karina; Racloz, Guillaume; Klein, Karina; Richter, Henning; Steffen, Thomas; von Rechenberg, Brigitte

    2017-05-01

    This was an experimental animal study. To determine biological compatibility, stability, and growth potential of the Trolley Gliding Vehicle (TGV) used in a novel surgical technique for guided spinal growth. Current treatments for early-onset scoliosis maintaining spinal growth consist of posteriorly based spinal constructs requiring repetitive lengthening. Such interventions have a high rate of complications. Using a muscle-sparing technique, a modified dual-growing rods construct, and new sliding spinal anchors, we aimed to test a modern Luque Trolley construct in an immature animal model. Six matched pairs of 3-month-old lambs were randomized to an observation or a surgical group and were followed for 9 months. The surgical group was subjected to implantation of a modern Luque Trolley construct with the new TGV inserted using a minimally invasive transmuscular technique capturing the spine and the 2 overlapping rods on either side. Physical examinations and imaging were performed at routine intervals, with a subsequent necropsy. The spines of the study group grew 96% between the instrumented segments compared with the control group without evidence of implant failure. In total, 42% of the fixed anchors (pedicle screws) and 13.90% of the TGV were loose. All 6 animals had some heterotrophic bone formation tracking along the rods (TGV allows for spinal growth in a nonscoliotic animal model. Implant loosening was likely mechanical as no signs of reactive inflammatory reaction were found. Reduction of heterotrophic ossification and spontaneous facet arthrodesis remains a challenge in the management of immature spine.

  8. Phenotype variability and early onset ataxia symptoms in spinocerebellar ataxia type 7: comparison and correlation with other spinocerebellar ataxias

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    Marcus Vinicius Cristino de Albuquerque

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA are a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by heterogeneous clinical presentation. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7 is caused by an abnormal CAG repeat expansion and includes cerebellar signs associated with visual loss and ophthalmoplegia. Marked anticipation and dynamic mutation is observed in SCA7. Moreover, phenotype variability and very early onset of symptoms may occur. In this article, a large series of Brazilian patients with different SCA subtypes was evaluated, and we compared the age of onset of SCA7 with other SCA. From the 26 patients with SCA7, 4 manifested their symptoms before 10-year-old. Also, occasionally the parents may have the onset of symptoms after their children. In conclusion, our study highlights the genetic anticipation phenomenon that occurs in SCA7 families. Patients with very early onset ataxia in the context of a remarkable family history, must be considered and tested for SCA7.

  9. Epidural Brain Metastases in a Patient with Early Onset Pancreatic Cancer: A Case Report and Literature Review

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    Aibek E. Mirrakhimov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of early onset pancreatic cancer related extra-axial brain metastases. A 46-year-old Caucasian non-Jewish nonobese male with a history of PC diagnosed 3 months ago with metastases to the liver, omentum, malignant ascites, and a history of a pulmonary embolism was admitted to the hospital because of a new onset headache, nausea, and vomiting which started 2 days prior to the encounter. Brain MRI was ordered, which showed acute bihemispheric subdural hematomas and left hemispheric extra-axial heterogeneously enhancing lesions consisting with metastatic disease. The patient was started on ondansentron, metoclopramide, and dexamethasone. The cranial irradiation was started, and the patient’s headache and nausea significantly improved. There are only 9 published reports of extra-axial brain metastases related to the pancreatic cancer, whereas our paper is the first such case reported on a patient with epidural metastases and early onset pancreatic cancer.

  10. Profile of cognitive deficits and associations with depressive symptoms and intelligence in chronic early-onset schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt Møllegaard; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2013-01-01

    -onset schizophrenia patients, assess the potential associations with depressive symptom severity, and examine whether cognitive deficits within several domains reflect intelligence impairments. This study compared attention, visual-construction, aspects of visual and verbal memory, and executive functions in chronic......Cognitive deficits in several domains have been demonstrated in early-onset schizophrenia patients but their profile and relation to depressive symptoms and intelligence need further characterization. The purpose was to characterize the profile of cognitive deficits in chronic, early......-onset schizophrenia, significant deficits were observed in all specific cognitive functions. The profile of cognitive deficits was jagged, and visual-construction, attention, and one aspect of verbal memory (verbal stories recall) were differentially impaired. Deficits of visual recall, visual recognition...

  11. Development of a Multivariate Prediction Model for Early-Onset Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome and Restrictive Allograft Syndrome in Lung Transplantation

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    Angela Koutsokera

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundChronic lung allograft dysfunction and its main phenotypes, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS and restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS, are major causes of mortality after lung transplantation (LT. RAS and early-onset BOS, developing within 3 years after LT, are associated with particularly inferior clinical outcomes. Prediction models for early-onset BOS and RAS have not been previously described.MethodsLT recipients of the French and Swiss transplant cohorts were eligible for inclusion in the SysCLAD cohort if they were alive with at least 2 years of follow-up but less than 3 years, or if they died or were retransplanted at any time less than 3 years. These patients were assessed for early-onset BOS, RAS, or stable allograft function by an adjudication committee. Baseline characteristics, data on surgery, immunosuppression, and year-1 follow-up were collected. Prediction models for BOS and RAS were developed using multivariate logistic regression and multivariate multinomial analysis.ResultsAmong patients fulfilling the eligibility criteria, we identified 149 stable, 51 BOS, and 30 RAS subjects. The best prediction model for early-onset BOS and RAS included the underlying diagnosis, induction treatment, immunosuppression, and year-1 class II donor-specific antibodies (DSAs. Within this model, class II DSAs were associated with BOS and RAS, whereas pre-LT diagnoses of interstitial lung disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were associated with RAS.ConclusionAlthough these findings need further validation, results indicate that specific baseline and year-1 parameters may serve as predictors of BOS or RAS by 3 years post-LT. Their identification may allow intervention or guide risk stratification, aiming for an individualized patient management approach.

  12. Patterns and Correlates of Expressed Emotion, Perceived Criticism, and Rearing Style in First Admitted Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    von Polier, Georg G.; Meng, Heiner; Lambert, Martin; Strauss, Monika; Zarotti, Gianni; Karle, Michael; Dubois, Reinmar; Stark, Fritz-Michael; Neidhart, Sibylle; Zollinger, Ruedi; Bürgin, Dieter; Felder, Wilhelm; Resch, Franz; Koch, Eginhard; Schulte-Markwort, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess patterns and correlates of family variables in 31 adolescents treated for their first episode of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (early-onset schizophrenia [EOS]). Expressed emotion, perceived criticism, and rearing style were assessed. Potential correlates were patient psychopathology, premorbid adjustment, illness duration, quality of life (QoL), sociodemographic variables, patient and caregiver "illness concept," and caregiver personality traits and su...

  13. Early-onset tobacco use and suicide-related behavior - A prospective study from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Tellervo; Sihvola, Elina; Latvala, Antti; Dick, Danielle M; Pulkkinen, Lea; Nurnberger, John; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2017-12-06

    Developmental relationships between tobacco use and suicide-related behaviors (SRB) remain unclear. Our objective was to investigate the longitudinal associations of tobacco use in adolescence and SRB in adulthood. Using a prospective design, we examined whether tobacco use in adolescence is associated with SRB (intentional self-injury, suicide ideation) in young adulthood in a population-based sample of 1330 twins (626 males, 704 females). The baseline and follow-up data were collected by professionally administered semi-structured poly-diagnostic interviews at ages 14 and 22, respectively. After adjusting for multiple potential confounders, those who reported early-onset of regular tobacco use had a significantly increased risk for intentional self-injury, such as cutting or burning, at age 22 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.57, 95% CI 1.93-10.8) in comparison to those who had not at all initiated tobacco use. Also, daily cigarette smoking at baseline was associated with future intentional self-injury (AOR 4.45, 95% CI 2.04-9.70). Early-onset tobacco use was associated with suicidal ideation in females (AOR 3.69, 95% CI 1.56-8.72) but not in males. Considering any SRB, baseline daily smokers (AOR 2.13, 95% CI 1.12-4.07) and females with early onset of regular tobacco use (AOR 3.97, 95% CI 1.73-9.13) had an increased likelihood. Within-family analyses among twin pairs discordant for exposure and outcome controlling for familial confounds showed similar, albeit statistically non-significant, associations. Early-onset tobacco use in adolescence is longitudinally associated with SRB (intentional self-injury and/or suicide ideation) in young adulthood, particularly among females. Further investigation may reveal whether this association has implications for prevention of SRB in adolescence and young adulthood. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Early-onset baldness and the risk of aggressive prostate cancer: findings from a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Nathan P; MacInnis, Robert J; English, Dallas R; Bolton, Damien; Davis, Ian D; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Millar, Jeremy L; Severi, Gianluca; Hopper, John L; Giles, Graham G

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the associations between androgenetic alopecia at a young age and subsequent development of aggressive prostate cancer (PC). Using a case-control design with self-administered questionnaire, we evaluated the association between aggressive PC and very early-onset balding at age 20, and early-onset balding at age 40 years in 1,941 men. Cases were men with high-grade and/or advanced stage cancer and controls were clinic based men who had undergone biopsy and were found to be histologically cancer negative. Additionally, for cases we assessed whether early-onset balding was associated with earlier onset of disease. Men with very early-onset balding at age 20 years were at increased risk for subsequent aggressive PC [odds ratio (OR) 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.12] after adjustment for age at baseline, family history of PC, smoking status, alcohol intake, body shape, timing of growth spurt and ejaculatory frequency. Additionally, these men were diagnosed with PC approximately 16 months earlier than cases without the exposure. The effect was present particularly for men with advanced stage pT3+ disease (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.14-2.47) while men with organ-confined high-grade (8-10) PC did not exhibit the same relationship. No significant associations were observed for men who were balding at age 40 years, given no balding at age 20. Men with androgenetic alopecia at age 20 years are at increased risk of advanced stage PC. This small subset of men are potentially candidates for earlier screening and urological follow-up.

  15. Genetic Analysis of PARK2 and PINK1 Genes in Brazilian Patients with Early-Onset Parkinson's Disease

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    Karla Cristina Vasconcelos Moura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder in the world, affecting 1-2% of individuals over the age of 65. The etiology of Parkinson's disease is complex, with the involvement of gene-environment interactions. Although it is considered a disease of late manifestation, early-onset forms of parkinsonism contribute to 5–10% of all cases. In the present study, we screened mutations in coding regions of PARK2 and PINK1 genes in 136 unrelated Brazilian patients with early-onset Parkinson's disease through automatic sequencing. We identified six missense variants in PARK2 gene: one known pathogenic mutation, two variants of uncertain role, and three nonpathogenic changes. No pathogenic mutation was identified in PINK1 gene, only benign polymorphisms. All putative pathogenic variants found in this study were in heterozygous state. Our data show that PARK2 point mutations are more common in Brazilian early-onset Parkinson's disease patients (2.9% than PINK1 missense variants (0%, corroborating other studies worldwide.

  16. Molecular Features and Methylation Status in Early Onset (≤40 Years Colorectal Cancer: A Population Based, Case-Control Study

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    Giulia Magnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is usually considered a disease of the elderly. However, a small fraction of patients develops colorectal cancer earlier. The aim of our study was to define the frequency of known hereditary colorectal syndromes and to characterise genetic and epigenetic features of early nonhereditary tumors. Thirty-three patients ≤40 years with diagnosis of colorectal cancer and 41 patients with disease at >60 years of age were investigated for MSI, Mismatch Repair proteins expression, KRAS and BRAF mutations, hypermethylation, and LINE-1 hypomethylation. Detection of germline mutations was performed in Mismatch Repair, APC and MUTYH genes. Early onset colorectal cancer showed a high incidence of hereditary forms (18%. KRAS mutations were detected in 36% of early nonhereditary tumors. Early onset colorectal cancer disclosed an average number of methylated genes significantly lower when compared to the controls (p=0.02. Finally both of the two groups were highly methylated in ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes and were similar for LINE-1 hypomethylation. The genetic make-up of carcinomas differs from young to elderly patients. Early onset tumors showed more frequently a constitutional defective of Mismatch Repair System and a minor number of methylated genes. Hypermethylation of ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes suggests possible markers in the earlier diagnosis of colorectal tumorigenesis.

  17. Early-Onset Pneumonia After Liver Transplant: Microbial Causes, Risk Factors, and Outcomes, Mansoura University, Egypt, Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Badrawy, Mohammad Khairy; Ali, Raed El-Metwaly; Yassen, Amr; AbouElela, Mohammad Ahmad; Elmorsey, Rehab Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    Pneumonia has a negative effect on the outcome of liver transplant. Our aim was to analyze early-onset pneumonia that developed within the first month after transplant. This prospective single-center study included 56 adult living-donor liver transplant recipients; those who developed early-onset pneumonia based on clinical and radiologic criteria were investigated as to causative pathogens and then followed up and compared with other recipients without pneumonia to illustrate risk factors, outcomes, and related mortality of posttransplant pneumonia. Twelve patients (21.4%) developed early-onset pneumonia with mortality rate of 75% (9 of 12). Sixteen pathogens were isolated; extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae were the most common (31.2%) followed by carbapenem-producing Enterobacteriaceae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (18.8%). Fungi were isolated in 3 cases that were also coinfected with bacteria. Diabetes mellitus (P = .042), liberal postoperative fluid therapy (P = .028), prolonged posttransplant intensive care unit stay (P = .01), atelectasis grade ≥ 2 (P ≤ .001), and calcineurin inhibitor-induced neurotoxicity (P = .04) were risk factors for early posttransplant pneumonia. Pneumonia is the leading cause of early mortality after liver transplant. The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria is major issue associated with a high rate of treatment failure.

  18. Differences of symptoms and standardized weight index between patients with early-onset and late-onset anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, H; Takei, N; Kawai, M; Saito, F; Kachi, K; Ohashi, Y; Takeuchi, H; Mori, N

    2001-07-01

    There have so far been no studies that directly compared clinical features between patients with early- and late-onset anorexia nervosa (AN). We identified 64 patients with DSM-III-R AN. We defined individuals as an early-onset group, who had an age of onset before 14 years (N = 31), and the remaining as a late-onset group (N = 33). The clinical symptoms, body weight and weight index, were compared between the two groups. Subjects were dichotomized into those with extremely low weight and those remaining. We compared the proportion of the patients with extremely low weight between the two groups. The rates of 'self-induced vomiting' and 'purging' were significantly lower in a group of patients with early-onset AN than in those with late-onset AN. There were significantly fewer subjects with extremely low weight in early-onset than in late-onset AN group. We found clear differences in clinical features between early- and late-onset AN groups.

  19. Is early-onset microsatellite and chromosomally stable colorectal cancer a hallmark of a genetic susceptibility syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kets, C M; van Krieken, J H J M; van Erp, P E J; Feuth, T; Jacobs, Y H A; Brunner, H G; Ligtenberg, M J L; Hoogerbrugge, N

    2008-02-15

    Most colorectal cancers show either microsatellite or chromosomal instability. A subset of colorectal cancers, especially those diagnosed at young age, is known to show neither of these forms of genetic instability and thus might have a distinct pathogenesis. Colorectal cancers diagnosed at young age are suggestive for hereditary predisposition. We investigate whether such early-onset microsatellite and chromosomally stable colorectal cancers are a hallmark of a genetic susceptibility syndrome. The ploidy status of microsatellite stable (familial) colorectal cancers of patients diagnosed before age 50 (n = 127) was analyzed in relation to the histopathological characteristics and family history. As a control the ploidy status of sporadic colorectal cancer, with normal staining of mismatch repair proteins, diagnosed at the age of 69 years or above (n = 70) was determined. A diploid DNA content was used as a marker for chromosomal stability. Within the group of patients with (familial) early onset microsatellite stable colorectal cancer the chromosomally stable tumors did not differ from chromosomally unstable tumors with respect to mean age at diagnosis, fulfillment of Amsterdam criteria or pathological characteristics. Segregation analysis did not reveal any family with microsatellite and chromosomally stable colorectal cancer in 2 relatives. The prevalence of microsatellite and chromosomally stable colorectal cancer was not significantly different for the early and late onset group (28 and 21%, respectively). We find no evidence that early-onset microsatellite and chromosomally stable colorectal cancer is a hallmark of a hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Molecular genetics of FAM161A in North American patients with early-onset retinitis pigmentosa.

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    Giulia Venturini

    Full Text Available Retinitis pigmentosa (RP is a hereditary disease that leads to the progressive degeneration of retinal photoreceptor cells and to blindness. It is caused by mutations in several distinct genes, including the ciliary gene FAM161A, which is associated with a recessive form of this disorder. Recent investigations have revealed that defects in FAM161A represent a rather prevalent cause of hereditary blindness in Israel and the Palestinian territories, whereas they seem to be rarely present within patients from Germany. Genetic or clinical data are currently not available for other countries. In this work, we screened a cohort of patients with recessive RP from North America to determine the frequency of FAM161A mutations in this ethnically-mixed population and to assess the phenotype of positive cases. Out of 273 unrelated patients, only 3 subjects had defects in FAM161A. A fourth positive patient, the sister of one of these index cases, was also identified following pedigree analysis. They were all homozygous for the p.T452Sfx3 mutation, which was previously reported as a founder DNA variant in the Israeli and Palestinian populations. Analysis of cultured lymphoblasts from patients revealed that mutant FAM161A transcripts were actively degraded by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Electroretinographic testing showed 30 Hz cone flicker responses in the range of 0.10 to 0.60 microvolts in all cases at their first visit (age 12 to 23 (lower norm  =  50 μV and of 0.06 to 0.32 microvolts at their most recent examination (age 27 to 43, revealing an early-onset of this progressive disease. Our data indicate that mutations in FAM161A are responsible for 1% of recessive RP cases in North America, similar to the prevalence detected in Germany and unlike the data from Israel and the Palestinian territories. We also show that, at the molecular level, the disease is likely caused by FAM161A protein deficiency.

  1. Improvement of pulmonary function in children with early-onset scoliosis using magnetic growth rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Wai Weng; Sedra, Fady; Shah, Suken; Wallis, Colin; Muntoni, Francesco; Noordeen, Hilali

    2014-07-01

    Case series. To determine whether there is improvement in pulmonary function in children with early-onset scoliosis (EOS) using magnetic growth rods (MGRs). EOS deformities have large impacts on lung function and volumes. Deterioration of pulmonary function in scoliosis is multifactorial, including severity, location of apex vertebra, and medical comorbidities. MGR insertion has benefits including reduction in operative procedures with repeated anesthetics, cost-effectiveness, and minimizing surgical and psychological distress. Pulmonary function tests provide objective and quantitative information about functional impairment caused by scoliosis. This is the first study that observes the MGR lengthening and changes in pulmonary function during a minimum period of 2.2 years. Six cases of EOS secondary to neuromuscular disease were identified. Mean age at diagnosis was 2.8 year (2.1-4.9 yr), mean age at surgery was 7.5 year (5-10 yr), and mean follow-up was 2.5 year (2.2-2.8 yr). Pulmonary function test (forced vital capacity [FVC] + forced expired volume in 1 second [FEV1] both % predicted) was measured before and after insertion of MGR and at every lengthening clinic subsequently for a minimum 2 years. Coronal and sagittal Cobb angles were measured pre- and postoperatively as were length extension of growth rods. All except 1 patient had dual MGRs inserted (the other had a single rod). Lengthening was commenced and data was collected at 6-month intervals. Average correction was 34° ± 18° and 36° ± 15° for coronal and sagittal Cobb angles, respectively. Mean lengthening achieved was 24.9 mm. Mean improvement in postoperative FVC and FEV1 was 14.1% and 17.2%, respectively. There was significant difference between the median preoperative and postoperative Cobb angle, P = 0.028. This study demonstrates early intervention using MGR in patients with EOS is associated with significant improvement in postoperative pulmonary function tests; and significant improvement

  2. The role of serial casting in early-onset scoliosis (EOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulesh, David M; Huh, Jeannie; Judkins, Timothy; Garg, Sumeet; Miller, Nancy H; Erickson, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Serial casting has demonstrated efficacy for idiopathic early-onset scoliosis (EOS). Results of casting in nonidiopathic (syndromic and congenital) EOS patients have not previously been well described. A total of 53 patients underwent serial casting for EOS from 2005 to 2010 at a single institution. Deformity was classified as idiopathic or nonidiopathic. Diagnosis, time in cast, number of casts, use of bracing, complications, and outcomes were recorded. Radiographic measures included Cobb angle and thoracic height (T1-T12). Thoracic height velocity was calculated and compared with established norms. A total of 36 patients, 19 idiopathic and 17 nonidiopathic (14 syndromic, 3 congenital), completed cast treatment and had >6-month follow-up and were therefore included. Of those, 17% (6/36) experienced resolution of their deformity, 53% (19/26) are currently in braces, and 31% (11/36) had undergone surgery. Surgery occurred on average at age 5.6 years and was delayed by an average of 2.1 years from time of first cast. A 19% complication was observed. There was no statistical difference in the rate of resolution of deformity between idiopathic (5/19) and nonidiopathic (1/17) patients (P=0.182), although there exists a trend toward greater curve correction in idiopathic patients. Surgery occurred in fewer patients (2/19) in the idiopathic group compared with the nonidiopathic group (9/17) (P=0.006). Significant improvements in Cobb angle was observed in the idiopathic group (12.2 degrees) during casting (P=0.003). Nonidiopathic patients did not maintain the correction gained during casting at the time of final follow-up. T1-T12 height increased across all study patients regardless of etiology during the period of casting at similar velocity to established norms of 1.4 cm/y for this age group. Serial casting offers modest deformity correction in idiopathic deformities compared with nonidiopathic deformities. Thoracic height growth continued throughout the casting period

  3. Serial Derotational Casting in Idiopathic and Non-Idiopathic Progressive Early-Onset Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussous, Yazeed M; Tarima, Sergey; Zhao, Shi; Khan, Safdar; Caudill, Angela; Sturm, Peter; Hammerberg, Kim W

    2015-05-01

    Serial derotational casting has been used as a definitive treatment or as delaying strategy in progressive idiopathic (IS) and non-idiopathic (NIS) early-onset scoliosis (EOS). Retrospective chart and radiographic review of patients who underwent serial casting for progressive EOS between 2005 and 2012 at a single institution. A total of 74 consecutive patients entered serial cast treatment. Twenty-eight were currently being casted, 30 completed cast treatment and were converted to thoracolumbosacral orthosis (TLSO), 9 were treated surgically, 6 were lost to follow-up, and 1 had no further treatment. The researchers diagnosed IS in 41 patients; 33 had NIS. At presentation the IS group had an average Cobb angle (CA) of 49° and a rib vertebral angle difference (RVAD) of 37°. The NIS group had a CA of 51° (p = .69) and RVAD of 37° (p = .94). In patients currently being casted, 19 IS patients had a decreased CA, from 47° to 27°. The 9 NIS patients had a decreased CA, from 62° to 57° (p = .0002). Cobb angle improvement was significantly better in IS (p = .0005). In the TLSO group the 17 IS patients had a decreased average CA, from 46° to 18°, after serial casting and the 13 NIS patients decreased CA from 42° to 32°. Patients with IS had better improvement in CA than the NIS group (p Casting initiated before age 2 years yielded better curve correction for IS (p casting than NIS patients. Casting in IS patients before age 24 months yielded better curve correction. Patients who required surgery had a higher age and Cobb angle at presentation than those who transitioned to a TLSO. The surgical group was observed for a similar duration of time and there was no significant statistical difference. Although RVAD is a predictor of progression in infantile IS, it did not show a predictive value in the response to casting of either the IS or NIS groups. Copyright © 2015 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality of life and cognitive functions in early onset multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzillo, R; Chiodi, A; Carotenuto, A; Magri, V; Napolitano, A; Liuzzi, R; Costabile, T; Rainone, N; Freda, M F; Valerio, P; Brescia Morra, V

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the CNS occurring in young adults and even in children in 5% of cases. Lower quality of life (QoL) and cognitive impairment (CI) (40-54%) have been reported in early-onset MS (EO-MS) patients. To assess QoL and cognitive function in EO-MS and their relationship, also considering demographic and clinical variables. Paediatric Quality of life inventory Version 4.0 for patients aged 13-18 and 19-25 years, Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI II) and the Rao Brief Repeatable Battery were performed in EO-MS patients (onset age ≤25years). EDSS and MSSS were performed at same time. After testing for normal distribution, group comparisons were performed through the two-tailed Student's t test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear or logistic regression when appropriate. The Bonferroni correction for multiple testing was used when appropriate. 59 patients were included (mean age: 20 ± 3.6; Female sex 52.54%). 34 patients had a paediatric onset (Multiple Sclerosis Severity score (MSSS) (p = 0.0001). Sixtyone % of patients showed a CI at BRB. No association was found between CI and any socio-demographic and clinical data. HR-QoL total score was not related to CI status nor to any domain-specific cognitive function score, even considering BDI as possible bias. CI was related to social, physical functioning score and EDSS (p = 0.01) at a logistic regression backward stepwise estimation. HR-QoL resulted to be better in paediatric than juvenile MS onset patients and was inversely related to rapidity of disability accumulation, while cognitive impairment was influenced by physical disability and poor social involvement (school, education …). Social participation, affective relations and psychological flexibility could have a protective function on CI. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diagnostic delays in children with early-onset epilepsy: impact, reasons, and opportunities to improve care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Anne T.; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Baca, Christine B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Delayed diagnosis of early-onset epilepsy is a potentially important and avoidable complication in epilepsy care. We examined the frequency of diagnostic delays in young children with newly presenting epilepsy, their developmental impact, and reasons for delays. Methods Children who developed epilepsy before their third birthday were identified in a prospective community-based cohort. An interval ≥1 month from second seizure to diagnosis was considered a delay. Testing of development at baseline and for up to three years after and of IQ 8–9 years later was performed. Detailed parental baseline interview accounts and medical records were reviewed to identify potential reasons for delays. Factors associated with delays included the parent, child, pediatrician, neurologist, and scheduling. Results Diagnostic delays occurred in 70/172 (41%) children. Delays occurred less often if children had received medical attention for the first seizure (p<0.0001), previously had neonatal or febrile seizures (p=0.02), had only convulsions before diagnosis (p=0.005) or had a college-educated parent (p=0.01). A ≥1 month diagnostic delay was associated with an average 7.4 point drop (p=0.02) in the Vineland Scales of Adaptive Behavior motor score. The effect was present at diagnosis, persisted for at least three years, and was also apparent in IQ scores 8–9 years later which were lower in association with a diagnostic delay by 8.4 points (p=0.06) for processing speed up to 14.5 points (p=0.004) for full scale IQ, after adjustment for parental education and other epilepsy-related clinical factors. Factors associated with delayed diagnosis included parents not recognizing events as seizures (N=47), pediatricians missing or deferring diagnosis (N=15), neurologists deferring diagnosis (N=7), and scheduling problems (N=11). Significance Diagnostic delays occur in many young children with epilepsy. They are associated with substantial decrements in development and IQ later

  6. Temporal-lobe morphology differs between healthy adolescents and those with early-onset of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ramezani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD has previously been linked to structural changes in several brain regions, particularly in the medial temporal lobes (Bellani, Baiano, Brambilla, 2010; Bellani, Baiano, Brambilla, 2011. This has been determined using voxel-based morphometry, segmentation algorithms, and analysis of shape deformations (Bell-McGinty et al., 2002; Bergouignan et al., 2009; Posener et al., 2003; Vasic et al., 2008; Zhao et al., 2008: these are methods in which information related to the shape and the pose (the size, and anatomical position and orientation of structures is lost. Here, we incorporate information about shape and pose to measure structural deformation in adolescents and young adults with and without depression (as measured using the Beck Depression Inventory and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. As a hypothesis-generating study, a significance level of p < 0.05, uncorrected for multiple comparisons, was used, so that subtle morphological differences in brain structures between adolescent depressed individuals and control participants could be identified. We focus on changes in cortical and subcortical temporal structures, and use a multi-object statistical pose and shape model to analyze imaging data from 16 females (aged 16–21 and 3 males (aged 18 with early-onset MDD, and 25 female and 1 male normal control participants, drawn from the same age range. The hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, putamen, and superior, inferior and middle temporal gyri in both hemispheres of the brain were automatically segmented using the LONI Probabilistic Brain Atlas (Shattuck et al., 2008 in MNI space. Points on the surface of each structure in the atlas were extracted and warped to each participant's structural MRI. These surface points were analyzed to extract the pose and shape features. Pose differences were detected between the two groups, particularly in the left and right putamina, right hippocampus

  7. Mutations, associated with early-onset Alzheimer’s disease, discovered in Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagyinszky E

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Eva Bagyinszky,1,* Young Chul Youn,2 Seong Soo A An,1 SangYun Kim3,* 1Department of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, Gyeonggi-do, 2Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 3Department of Neurology, Seoul National University Budang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the most common form of senile dementia, is a genetically complex disorder. In most Asian countries, the population and the number of AD patients are growing rapidly, and the genetics of AD has been extensively studied, except in Japan. However, recent studies have been started to investigate the genes and mutations associated with AD in Korea, the People’s Republic of China, and Malaysia. This review describes all of the known mutations in three early-onset AD (EOAD causative genes (APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 that were discovered in Asian countries. Most of the EOAD-associated mutations have been detected in PSEN1, and several novel PSEN1 mutations were recently identified in patients from various parts of the world, including Asia. Until 2014, no PSEN2 mutations were found in Asian patients; however, emerging studies from Korea and the People’s Republic of China discovered probably pathogenic PSEN2 mutations. Since several novel mutations were discovered in these three genes, we also discuss the predictions on their pathogenic nature. This review briefly summarizes genome-wide association studies of late-onset AD and the genes that might be associated with AD in Asian countries. Standard sequencing is a widely used method, but it has limitations in terms of time, cost, and efficacy. Next-generation sequencing strategies could facilitate genetic analysis and association studies. Genetic testing is important for the accurate diagnosis and for understanding disease-associated pathways and might also improve disease therapy and prevention. Keywords: mutation, Asia

  8. The Potential Contribution of BRCA Mutations to Early Onset and Familial Breast Cancer in Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdikhakimov, Abdulla; Tukhtaboeva, Mukaddas; Adilov, Bakhtiyar; Turdikulova, Shahlo

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and affects approximately 1 out of 8 females in the US. Risk of developing breast cancer is strongly influenced by genetic factors. Germ-line mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with 5-10% of breast cancer incidence. To reduce the risk of developing cancer and to increase the likelihood of early detection, carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations are offered surveillance programs and effective preventive medical interventions. Identification of founder mutations of BRCA1/2 in high risk communities can have a significant impact on the management of hereditary cancer at the level of the national healthcare systems, making genetic testing more affordable and cost-effective. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in breast cancer patients have not been characterized in the Uzbek population. This pilot study aimed to investigate the contribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation to early onset and familial cases of breast cancer in Uzbekistan. A total of 67 patients with breast cancer and 103 age-matched disease free controls were included in this study. Utilizing SYBR Green based real-time allele-specific PCR, we have analyzed DNA samples of patients with breast cancer and disease free controls to identify the following BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations: BRCA1 5382insC, BRCA1 4153delA, BRCA1 185delAG, BRCA1 300T>G, BRCA2 6174delT. Three unrelated samples (4.5%) were found to be positive for the heterozygous 5382insCBRCA1 mutation, representing a possible founder mutation in the Uzbek population, supporting the need for larger studies examining the contribution of this mutation to breast cancer incidence in Uzbekistan. We did not find BRCA1 4153delA, BRCA1 185delAG, BRCA1 300T>G, and BRCA2 6174delT mutations. This preliminary evidence suggests a potential contribution of BRCA1 5382insC mutation to breast cancer development in Uzbek population. Taking into account a high disease penetrance in carriers of BRCA1 mutation, it seems

  9. Prevalence and Spectrum of Germline Cancer Susceptibility Gene Mutations Among Patients With Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Rachel; Frankel, Wendy L; Swanson, Benjamin; Zhao, Weiqiang; Yilmaz, Ahmet; Miller, Kristin; Bacher, Jason; Bigley, Christopher; Nelsen, Lori; Goodfellow, Paul J; Goldberg, Richard M; Paskett, Electra; Shields, Peter G; Freudenheim, Jo L; Stanich, Peter P; Lattimer, Ilene; Arnold, Mark; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Kalady, Matthew; Heald, Brandie; Greenwood, Carla; Paquette, Ian; Prues, Marla; Draper, David J; Lindeman, Carolyn; Kuebler, J Philip; Reynolds, Kelly; Brell, Joanna M; Shaper, Amy A; Mahesh, Sameer; Buie, Nicole; Weeman, Kisa; Shine, Kristin; Haut, Mitchell; Edwards, Joan; Bastola, Shyamal; Wickham, Karen; Khanduja, Karamjit S; Zacks, Rosemary; Pritchard, Colin C; Shirts, Brian H; Jacobson, Angela; Allen, Brian; de la Chapelle, Albert; Hampel, Heather

    2017-04-01

    Hereditary cancer syndromes infer high cancer risks and require intensive cancer surveillance, yet the prevalence and spectrum of these conditions among unselected patients with early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) is largely undetermined. To determine the frequency and spectrum of cancer susceptibility gene mutations among patients with early-onset CRC. Overall, 450 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer younger than 50 years were prospectively accrued from 51 hospitals into the Ohio Colorectal Cancer Prevention Initiative from January 1, 2013, to June 20, 2016. Mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency was determined by microsatellite instability and/or immunohistochemistry. Germline DNA was tested for mutations in 25 cancer susceptibility genes using next-generation sequencing. Mutation prevalence and spectrum in patients with early-onset CRC was determined. Clinical characteristics were assessed by mutation status. In total 450 patients younger than 50 years were included in the study, and 75 gene mutations were found in 72 patients (16%). Forty-eight patients (10.7%) had MMR-deficient tumors, and 40 patients (83.3%) had at least 1 gene mutation: 37 had Lynch syndrome (13, MLH1 [including one with constitutional MLH1 methylation]; 16, MSH2; 1, MSH2/monoallelic MUTYH; 2, MSH6; 5, PMS2); 1 patient had the APC c.3920T>A, p.I1307K mutation and a PMS2 variant; 9 patients (18.8%) had double somatic MMR mutations (including 2 with germline biallelic MUTYH mutations); and 1 patient had somatic MLH1 methylation. Four hundred two patients (89.3%) had MMR-proficient tumors, and 32 patients (8%) had at least 1 gene mutation: 9 had mutations in high-penetrance CRC genes (5, APC; 1, APC/PMS2; 2, biallelic MUTYH; 1, SMAD4); 13 patients had mutations in high- or moderate-penetrance genes not traditionally associated with CRC (3, ATM; 1, ATM/CHEK2; 2, BRCA1; 4, BRCA2; 1, CDKN2A; 2, PALB2); 10 patients had mutations in low-penetrance CRC genes (3, APC c.3920T>A, p.I1307K; 7

  10. Six novel susceptibility Loci for early-onset androgenetic alopecia and their unexpected association with common diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Androgenetic alopecia (AGA is a highly heritable condition and the most common form of hair loss in humans. Susceptibility loci have been described on the X chromosome and chromosome 20, but these loci explain a minority of its heritable variance. We conducted a large-scale meta-analysis of seven genome-wide association studies for early-onset AGA in 12,806 individuals of European ancestry. While replicating the two AGA loci on the X chromosome and chromosome 20, six novel susceptibility loci reached genome-wide significance (p = 2.62×10⁻⁹-1.01×10⁻¹². Unexpectedly, we identified a risk allele at 17q21.31 that was recently associated with Parkinson's disease (PD at a genome-wide significant level. We then tested the association between early-onset AGA and the risk of PD in a cross-sectional analysis of 568 PD cases and 7,664 controls. Early-onset AGA cases had significantly increased odds of subsequent PD (OR = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.55, p = 8.9×10⁻³. Further, the AGA susceptibility alleles at the 17q21.31 locus are on the H1 haplotype, which is under negative selection in Europeans and has been linked to decreased fertility. Combining the risk alleles of six novel and two established susceptibility loci, we created a genotype risk score and tested its association with AGA in an additional sample. Individuals in the highest risk quartile of a genotype score had an approximately six-fold increased risk of early-onset AGA [odds ratio (OR = 5.78, p = 1.4×10⁻⁸⁸]. Our results highlight unexpected associations between early-onset AGA, Parkinson's disease, and decreased fertility, providing important insights into the pathophysiology of these conditions.

  11. A Quantitative, Risk-Based Approach to the Management of Neonatal Early-Onset Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzniewicz, Michael W; Puopolo, Karen M; Fischer, Allen; Walsh, Eileen M; Li, Sherian; Newman, Thomas B; Kipnis, Patricia; Escobar, Gabriel J

    2017-04-01

    Current algorithms for management of neonatal early-onset sepsis (EOS) result in medical intervention for large numbers of uninfected infants. We developed multivariable prediction models for estimating the risk of EOS among late preterm and term infants based on objective data available at birth and the newborn's clinical status. To examine the effect of neonatal EOS risk prediction models on sepsis evaluations and antibiotic use and assess their safety in a large integrated health care system. The study cohort includes 204 485 infants born at 35 weeks' gestation or later at a Kaiser Permanente Northern California hospital from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2015. The study compared 3 periods when EOS management was based on (1) national recommended guidelines (baseline period [January 1, 2010, through November 31, 2012]), (2) multivariable estimates of sepsis risk at birth (learning period [December 1, 2012, through June 30, 2014]), and (3) the multivariable risk estimate combined with the infant's clinical condition in the first 24 hours after birth (EOS calculator period [July 1, 2014, through December 31, 2015]). The primary outcome was antibiotic administration in the first 24 hours. Secondary outcomes included blood culture use, antibiotic administration between 24 and 72 hours, clinical outcomes, and readmissions for EOS. The study cohort included 204 485 infants born at 35 weeks' gestation or later: 95 343 in the baseline period (mean [SD] age, 39.4 [1.3] weeks; 46 651 male [51.0%]; 37 007 white, non-Hispanic [38.8%]), 52 881 in the learning period (mean [SD] age, 39.3 [1.3] weeks; 27 067 male [51.2%]; 20 175 white, non-Hispanic [38.2%]), and 56 261 in the EOS calculator period (mean [SD] age, 39.4 [1.3] weeks; 28 575 male [50.8%]; 20 484 white, non-Hispanic [36.4%]). In a comparison of the baseline period with the EOS calculator period, blood culture use decreased from 14.5% to 4.9% (adjusted difference, -7.7%; 95% CI, -13.1% to -2

  12. Early-Onset Alzheimer Disease and Candidate Risk Genes Involved in Endolysosomal Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkle, Brian W; Vardarajan, Badri N; Naj, Adam C; Whitehead, Patrice L; Rolati, Sophie; Slifer, Susan; Carney, Regina M; Cuccaro, Michael L; Vance, Jeffery M; Gilbert, John R; Wang, Li-San; Farrer, Lindsay A; Reitz, Christiane; Haines, Jonathan L; Beecham, Gary W; Martin, Eden R; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Mayeux, Richard P; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A

    2017-09-01

    Mutations in APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 lead to early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD) but account for only approximately 11% of EOAD overall, leaving most of the genetic risk for the most severe form of Alzheimer disease unexplained. This extreme phenotype likely harbors highly penetrant risk variants, making it primed for discovery of novel risk genes and pathways for AD. To search for rare variants contributing to the risk for EOAD. In this case-control study, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed in 51 non-Hispanic white (NHW) patients with EOAD (age at onset 65 years) from the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium. The study was conducted from January 21, 2013, to October 13, 2016. Alzheimer disease diagnosed according to standard National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria. Association between Alzheimer disease and genetic variants and genes was measured using logistic regression and sequence kernel association test-optimal gene tests, respectively. Of the 1524 NHW patients with EOAD, 765 (50.2%) were women and mean (SD) age was 60.0 (4.9) years; of the 7046 NHW patients with LOAD, 4171 (59.2%) were women and mean (SD) age was 77.4 (8.6) years; and of the 7001 NHW controls, 4215 (60.2%) were women and mean (SD) age was 77.4 (8.6) years. The gene PSD2, for which multiple unrelated NHW cases had rare missense variants, was significantly associated with EOAD (P = 2.05 × 10-6; Bonferroni-corrected P value [BP] = 1.3 × 10-3) and LOAD (P = 6.22 × 10-6; BP = 4.1 × 10-3). A missense variant in TCIRG1, present in a NHW patient and segregating in 3 cases of a Hispanic family, was more frequent in EOAD cases (odds ratio [OR], 2.13; 95% CI, 0.99-4.55; P = .06; BP = 0.413), and significantly associated with LOAD (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.37-3.62; P = 7.2 × 10-4; BP = 5.0 × 10-3). A missense variant in the LOAD risk

  13. Fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de sepse neonatal precoce em hospital da rede pública do Brasil Risk factors for early-onset neonatal sepsis in Brazilian public hospital short-title: early-onset neonatal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Goulart

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O conhecimento dos fatores de risco associados à sepse neonatal precoce em unidade de neonatologia, inserida na realidade de nosso sistema de saúde, no sentido de se detectar, prevenir e adotar medidas específicas e reduzir as taxas de mortalidade nessa faixa etária. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os fatores de risco associados a sepse neonatal precoce em hospital de referência em neonatologia ligado à rede pública de saúde. MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo observacional, prospectivo, tipo caso-controle. Foram incluídos os recém-nascidos com diagnóstico de sepse precoce e como controle, recém-nascidos sem infecção neonatal nascido na mesma data do recém-nascido considerado como caso. Foram incluídos 50 casos e três controles para cada caso, resultando em amostra total de 200 pacientes. Foi considerada estatisticamente significativa a associação quando p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The determination of the risk factors to early-onset neonatal sepsis in our country is essential to prevent and reduce the mortality associated with this syndrome. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the frequency and associated risk factors to early-onset neonatal sepsis in public hospital in Southern Brazil. METHODS: Observational, case-control study. Were included neonates with diagnostic of early-onset neonatal sepsis and as controls, neonates without neonatal infection. Were included 50 cases and 3 controls for each case resulting in a total sample of 200 patients. Associations were considered significant when p < 0.05. RESULTS: The sepsis frequency was 50.3 per 1000 born-alive. Risk factors associated to the development of neonatal sepsis were prematurity (OR 9.33; p < 0.001, low birth weight (OR 11.74; p < 0.001, maternal infection (OR 2.28; p = 0.009, mother with history of previous infant with neonatal sepsis (OR 6.43; p = 0.035 and rupture of the membranes more than 18 hours before delivery

  14. Mutational analysis in early-onset familial dementia in the Japanese population. The role of PSEN1 and MAPT R406W mutations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Miyashita, Akinori; Nozaki, Hiroaki; Kasuga, Kensaku; Tsukie, Tamao; Tsuchiya, Miyuki; Imamura, Toru; Ishizu, Hideki; Aoki, Kenju; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Onodera, Osamu; Kuwano, Ryozo; Nishizawa, Masatoyo

    2008-01-01

    ...) has been identified in patients showing clinical presentations similar to those of AD. We performed mutational analysis of APP, PSEN1, PSEN2, and MAPT in 10 Japanese families with early-onset dementia clinically diagnosed as probable Alzheimer's disease...

  15. Low-molecular-weight heparin added to aspirin in the prevention of recurrent early-onset pre-eclampsia in women with inheritable thrombophilia : the FRUIT-RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, J. I. P.; Van Pampus, M. G.; Hague, W. M.; Bezemer, P. D.; Joosten, J. H.

    Background: Early-onset hypertensive disorders (HD) of pregnancy and small-for-gestational age infants (SGA) are associated with placental vascular thrombosis, these often recur and are also associated with inheritable thrombophilia. Aspirin reduces the recurrence risk. Objectives: Adding

  16. A randomised controlled trial comparing two temporising management strategies, one with and one without plasma volume expansion, for severe and early onset pre-eclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzevoort, Wessel; Rep, Annelies; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Fetter, Willem P. F.; van Sonderen, Loekie; de Vries, Johanna I. P.; Wolf, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Objectives Plasma volume expansion may benefit both mother and child in the temporising management of severe and early onset hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Design Randomised clinical trial. Setting Two university hospitals in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Population Two hundred and sixteen

  17. Effect of Resident Physician Education Regarding Selective Chemoprophylaxis for the Prevention of Early Onset Group B Streptococcal Sepsis: An Outcome Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Greenspoon

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a voluntary protocol for selective intrapartum chemoprophylaxis on the incidence of early onset group B streptococcal sepsis (GBS EOS.

  18. Some characteristics of early-onset injection drug users prior to and at the time of their first injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Jeanne; Treloar, Carla; Crawford, June; Kippax, Susan; van Beek, Ingrid; Howard, John

    2006-04-01

    This paper examines differences between early- and late-onset injection drug users (12-16 years versus 17-24 years) in terms of the antecedents and circumstances of first injection. Cross-sectional retrospective design, using logistic regression. Setting Australia: Sydney, Brisbane, rural New South Wales. A total of 336 injection drug users aged 16-25 years at the time of interview. Independent variables included family injection drug use, homelessness and other demographic variables, drugs used prior to the first injection, length of pre-injection drug career, behaviours at time of first injection (e.g. drug injected, reasons/motives for the first injection, risk behaviours). Early-onset injection was associated independently with: having a family who injected drugs, having left school early, an unreliable source of income, a short pre-injection drug career, planning of the first injection, reliance on others for administration of the first injection and denial that experimentation was the motive for the first injection. In bivariate analysis, early-onset injection was associated further with: homelessness, being an Indigenous Australian, omission of use of certain pre-injection drugs, group presence at first injection, reliance on others for acquisition of the first needle and syringe and having injected the first time because an injection was offered. The research shows that early-onset, compared with late-onset injectors, are more likely to have an immediate family who inject drugs and other problematic beginnings in early life. They have an accelerated transition to injection, and differences in autonomy and motivation at first injection. These characteristics may make them more vulnerable to risk taking.

  19. Clinical whole-genome sequencing in severe early-onset epilepsy reveals new genes and improves molecular diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Hilary C; Kim, Grace E; Pagnamenta, Alistair T; Murakami, Yoshiko; Carvill, Gemma L; Meyer, Esther; Copley, Richard R; Rimmer, Andrew; Barcia, Giulia; Fleming, Matthew R; Kronengold, Jack; Brown, Maile R; Hudspith, Karl A; Broxholme, John; Kanapin, Alexander; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Kinoshita, Taroh; Nabbout, Rima; Bentley, David; McVean, Gil; Heavin, Sinéad; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; McShane, Tony; Mefford, Heather C; Shears, Deborah; Stewart, Helen; Kurian, Manju A; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Blair, Edward; Donnelly, Peter; Kaczmarek, Leonard K; Taylor, Jenny C

    2014-06-15

    In severe early-onset epilepsy, precise clinical and molecular genetic diagnosis is complex, as many metabolic and electro-physiological processes have been implicated in disease causation. The clinical phenotypes share many features such as complex seizure types and developmental delay. Molecular diagnosis has historically been confined to sequential testing of candidate genes known to be associated with specific sub-phenotypes, but the diagnostic yield of this approach can be low. We conducted whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on six patients with severe early-onset epilepsy who had previously been refractory to molecular diagnosis, and their parents. Four of these patients had a clinical diagnosis of Ohtahara Syndrome (OS) and two patients had severe non-syndromic early-onset epilepsy (NSEOE). In two OS cases, we found de novo non-synonymous mutations in the genes KCNQ2 and SCN2A. In a third OS case, WGS revealed paternal isodisomy for chromosome 9, leading to identification of the causal homozygous missense variant in KCNT1, which produced a substantial increase in potassium channel current. The fourth OS patient had a recessive mutation in PIGQ that led to exon skipping and defective glycophosphatidyl inositol biosynthesis. The two patients with NSEOE had likely pathogenic de novo mutations in CBL and CSNK1G1, respectively. Mutations in these genes were not found among 500 additional individuals with epilepsy. This work reveals two novel genes for OS, KCNT1 and PIGQ. It also uncovers unexpected genetic mechanisms and emphasizes the power of WGS as a clinical tool for making molecular diagnoses, particularly for highly heterogeneous disorders. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Early onset binge eating and purging eating disorders: course and outcome in a population-based study of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Karina L; Byrne, Susan M; Oddy, Wendy H; Crosby, Ross D

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to describe the course of early onset eating disorders in a population-based sample followed from 14 to 20 years; identify variables that could account for the persistence of eating disorders from 14 to 20 years; and describe outcome of early onset eating disorders with reference to general and psychological functioning at age 20. Participants (N = 1,383; 49 % male) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, which has followed children from pre-birth to young adulthood. Eating disorder symptoms were assessed using an adapted version of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, at ages 14, 17 and 20. At age 14, 70 participants met DSM-IV criteria for a binge eating or purging eating disorder. Nearly half (44 %) of these adolescents ceased to meet criteria for an eating disorders at ages 17 and 20, whilst one-quarter still met criteria for an eating disorder at age 20 and one-fifth met criteria for an eating disorder at all three time points. Purging at age 17 and externalising behaviour problems at age 14 were the strongest predictors of eating disorder persistence to age 20. Participants who experienced a persistent eating disorder were less likely to complete high school than other participants, and reported pronounced depressive and anxiety symptoms at age 20. This study provides new data the course and outcome of early onset eating disorders at a population level. Behavioural difficulties in early adolescence and purging in middle adolescence may predict persistent eating pathology to young adulthood.

  1. Tea, coffee, and caffeine and early-onset basal cell carcinoma in a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, Leah M.; Cartmel, Brenda; Molinaro, Annette M.; Leffell, David J.; Bale, Allen E.; Mayne, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Tea and coffee are hypothesized to play a protective role in skin carcinogenesis via bioactive components, such as caffeine, yet the epidemiologic evidence is mixed. Existing data supports an inverse association with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) more so than for melanoma or squamous cell carcinoma. To understand if tea, coffee, and caffeine are related to early-onset BCC, we evaluated data from 767 non-Hispanic Whites under age 40 in a case-control study in Connecticut. Methods BCC cases (n=377) were identified through Yale's Dermatopathology database. Controls (n=390) were randomly sampled from individuals in the same database with benign skin diagnoses and frequency matched to cases on age, gender, and biopsy site. Subjects completed an in-person interview including assessment of caffeinated coffee and hot tea. We calculated multivariate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with unconditional logistic regression for regular consumption and frequency and duration measures. Results Combined regular consumption of caffeinated coffee plus hot tea was inversely associated with early-onset BCC (OR=0.60, 95% CI=0.38–0.96). Those in the highest category of caffeine from these sources had a 43% reduced risk of BCC compared to non-consumers (OR=0.57, 95% CI=0.34–0.95, p-trend=0.037). Conclusions Our findings suggest a modest protective effect for caffeinated coffee plus tea in relation to early-onset BCC that may, in part, be due to caffeine. This study adds to the growing body of literature suggesting potential health benefits from these beverages. PMID:24841641

  2. Early-onset obesity dysregulates pulmonary adipocytokine/insulin signaling and induces asthma-like disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinger, Katharina; Kasper, Philipp; Hucklenbruch-Rother, Eva; Vohlen, Christina; Jobst, Eva; Janoschek, Ruth; Bae-Gartz, Inga; van Koningsbruggen-Rietschel, Silke; Plank, Christian; Dötsch, Jörg; Alejandre Alcázar, Miguel Angel

    2016-04-18

    Childhood obesity is a risk factor for asthma, but the molecular mechanisms linking both remain elusive. Since obesity leads to chronic low-grade inflammation and affects metabolic signaling we hypothesized that postnatal hyperalimentation (pHA) induced by maternal high-fat-diet during lactation leads to early-onset obesity and dysregulates pulmonary adipocytokine/insulin signaling, resulting in metabolic programming of asthma-like disease in adult mice. Offspring with pHA showed at postnatal day 21 (P21): (1) early-onset obesity, greater fat-mass, increased expression of IL-1β, IL-23, and Tnf-α, greater serum leptin and reduced glucose tolerance than Control (Ctrl); (2) less STAT3/AMPKα-activation, greater SOCS3 expression and reduced AKT/GSK3β-activation in the lung, indicative of leptin resistance and insulin signaling, respectively; (3) increased lung mRNA of IL-6, IL-13, IL-17A and Tnf-α. At P70 body weight, fat-mass, and cytokine mRNA expression were similar in the pHA and Ctrl, but serum leptin and IL-6 were greater, and insulin signaling and glucose tolerance impaired. Peribronchial elastic fiber content, bronchial smooth muscle layer, and deposition of connective tissue were not different after pHA. Despite unaltered bronchial structure mice after pHA exhibited significantly increased airway reactivity. Our study does not only demonstrate that early-onset obesity transiently activates pulmonary adipocytokine/insulin signaling and induces airway hyperreactivity in mice, but also provides new insights into metabolic programming of childhood obesity-related asthma.

  3. Cardiovascular disease risk factors after early-onset preeclampsia, late-onset preeclampsia, and pregnancy-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerbeek, Jan H W; Hermes, Wietske; Breimer, Anath Y; van Rijn, Bas B; Koenen, Steven V; Mol, Ben W; Franx, Arie; de Groot, Christianne J M; Koster, Maria P H

    2015-03-01

    Observational studies have shown an increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women who experienced a hypertensive disorder in pregnancy. This risk is related to the severity of the pregnancy-related hypertensive disease and gestational age at onset. However, it has not been investigated whether these differences in CVD risk factors are already present at postpartum cardiovascular screening. We evaluated postpartum differences in CVD risk factors in 3 subgroups of patients with a history of hypertensive pregnancy. We compared the prevalence of common CVD risk factors postpartum among 448 women with previous early-onset preeclampsia, 76 women with previous late-onset preeclampsia, and 224 women with previous pregnancy-induced hypertension. Women with previous early-onset preeclampsia were compared with women with late-onset preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension and had significantly higher fasting blood glucose (5.29 versus 4.80 and 4.83 mmol/L), insulin (9.12 versus 6.31 and 6.7 uIU/L), triglycerides (1.32 versus 1.02 and 0.97 mmol/L), and total cholesterol (5.14 versus 4.73 and 4.73 mmol/L). Almost half of the early-onset preeclampsia women had developed hypertension, as opposed to 39% and 25% of women in the pregnancy-induced hypertension and late-onset preeclampsia groups, respectively. Our data show differences in the prevalence of common modifiable CVD risk factors postpartum and suggest that prevention strategies should be stratified according to severity and gestational age of onset for the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. The psychopathological and psychosocial outcome of early-onset schizophrenia: Preliminary data of a 13-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehler-Wex Claudia

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively little is known about the long-term psychopathological and psychosocial outcome of early-onset schizophrenia. The existing literature describes more severe courses of illness in these patients compared with adult-onset schizophrenia. This article reports preliminary data of a study exploring the outcome of early-onset schizophrenia 13.4 years (mean after first admission. Predictors for interindividual outcomes were investigated. Methods We retrospectively assessed 27 former patients (mean age at first admission 15.5 years, SD = 2.0 that were consecutively admitted to the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the University of Wuerzburg between 1990 and 2000. A multidimensional approach was chosen to assess the outcome consisting of a mail survey including different questions about psychopathological symptoms, psychosocial parameters, and standardized self-reports (ESI and ADS. Results Concerning the psychopathological outcome, 22.2% reported having acute schizophrenic symptoms. Almost one third (30.8% described symptoms of depression and 37.0% reported having tried to commit suicide or seriously thought about it. 77.8% of the former patients were still in outpatient treatment. Compared to the general population, the number of patients without a school graduation was relatively high (18.5%. Almost half of participants still live with their parents (48.1% or in assisted or semi-assisted living conditions (33.3%. Only 18.5% were working in the open market. Conclusion Schizophrenia with an early onset has an unfavourable prognosis. Our retrospective study of the psychopathological and psychosocial outcome concludes with a generally poor rating.

  5. Compound heterozygosity for two MSH6 mutations in a patient with early onset colorectal cancer, vitiligo and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahner, Nils; Höefler, Gerald; Högenauer, Christoph; Lackner, Caroline; Steinke, Verena; Sengteller, Marlies; Friedl, Waltraut; Aretz, Stefan; Propping, Peter; Mangold, Elisabeth; Walldorf, Constanze

    2008-05-15

    Lynch syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant condition caused by heterozygous germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, or PMS2. Rare cases have been reported of an inherited bi-allelic deficiency of MMR genes, associated with multiple café-au-lait spots, early onset CNS tumors, hematological malignancies, and early onset gastrointestinal neoplasia. We report on a patient with vitiligo in segments of the integument who developed systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) at the age of 16, and four synchronous colorectal cancers at age 17 years. Examination of the colorectal cancer tissue showed high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) and an exclusive loss of expression of the MSH6 protein. Immunohistochemical analysis of normal colon tissue also showed loss of MSH6, pointing to a bi-allelic MSH6 mutation. Sequencing of the MSH6 gene showed the two germline mutations; c.1806_1809delAAAG;p.Glu604LeufsX5 and c.3226C > T;p.Arg1076Cys. We confirmed that the two mutations are on two different alleles by allele-specific PCR. To our knowledge, neither parent is clinically affected. They did not wish to be tested for the mutations identified in their daughter. These data suggest that bi-allelic mutations of one of the MMR genes should be considered in patients who develop early-onset multiple HNPCC-associated tumors and autoimmune disorders, even in absence of either hematological malignancies or brain tumors. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Hypoglycemic action of vitamin K1 protects against early-onset diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Varsha, M K N; Raman, Thiagarajan; Manikandan, R; Dhanasekaran, G

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin K is a potent regulator of vascular dynamics and prevents vascular calcification. Vitamin K is increasingly being recognized for its antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. Recently we demonstrated that vitamin K1 (5 mg/kg) protects against streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes and diabetic cataract. The aim of this study was to determine whether the hypoglycemic action of vitamin K1 could inhibit early-onset diabetic nephropathy in a streptozotocin-induced rat kidney. Male Wistar rats were administered with 35 mg/kg STZ and after 3 days were treated with vitamin K1 (5 mg/kg, twice a week) for 3 months. Blood glucose was monitored once a month. At the end of the study, animals were sacrificed and kidney was dissected out and analysed for free radicals, antioxidants, aldose reductase, membrane ATPases, histopathology evaluation and expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Urea, uric acid, creatinine, albumin and insulin levels were also estimated. Treatment of diabetic rats with vitamin K1 resulted in a decrease in blood glucose and prevented microalbuminuria. Vitamin K1 also reduced oxidative stress and protected renal physiology by modulating Ca(2+) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases. Vitamin K1 inhibited renal inflammation by reducing nuclear factor-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Interleukin-10 levels were increased in renal tissues, suggesting the ability of vitamin K1 to trigger antiinflammatory state. The hypoglycemic action of vitamin K1 could have an indirect effect by inhibiting early-onset diabetic nephropathy triggered by high blood glucose. Vitamin K1 could be an important nutrient based interventional strategy for early onset diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Tea, coffee, and caffeine and early-onset basal cell carcinoma in a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, Leah M; Cartmel, Brenda; Molinaro, Annette M; Leffell, David J; Bale, Allen E; Mayne, Susan T

    2014-07-01

    Tea and coffee are hypothesized to play a protective role in skin carcinogenesis through bioactive components, such as caffeine, yet the epidemiologic evidence is mixed. Existing data support an inverse association with basal cell carcinoma (BCC), more so than for melanoma or squamous cell carcinoma. To understand whether tea, coffee, and caffeine are related to early-onset BCC, we evaluated data from 767 non-Hispanic Whites under age 40 in a case-control study in Connecticut. BCC cases (n=377) were identified through Yale's Dermatopathology database. Controls (n=390) were randomly sampled from individuals in the same database with benign skin diagnoses and frequency matched to cases on age, sex, and biopsy site. Participants completed an in-person interview including assessment of caffeinated coffee and hot tea. We calculated multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with unconditional logistic regression for regular consumption and frequency and duration measures. Combined regular consumption of caffeinated coffee plus hot tea was inversely associated with early-onset BCC (OR=0.60, 95% CI=0.38-0.96). Those in the highest category of caffeine from these sources had a 43% reduced risk of BCC compared with nonconsumers (OR=0.57, 95% CI=0.34-0.95, P-trend=0.037). Our findings suggest a modest protective effect for caffeinated coffee plus tea in relation to early-onset BCC that may, in part, be due to caffeine. This study adds to the growing body of literature suggesting potential health benefits from these beverages.

  8. Clinical exome sequencing in early-onset generalized dystonia and large-scale resequencing follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Michael; Boesch, Sylvia; Jochim, Angela; Weber, Sandrina; Meindl, Tobias; Schormair, Barbara; Wieland, Thomas; Lunetta, Christian; Sansone, Valeria; Messner, Michael; Mueller, Joerg; Ceballos-Baumann, Andres; Strom, Tim M; Colombo, Roberto; Poewe, Werner; Haslinger, Bernhard; Winkelmann, Juliane

    2017-04-01

    Dystonia is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Despite being a first-line testing tool for heterogeneous inherited disorders, whole-exome sequencing has not yet been evaluated in dystonia diagnostics. We set up a pilot study to address the yield of whole-exome sequencing for early-onset generalized dystonia, a disease subtype enriched for monogenic causation. Clinical whole-exome sequencing coupled with bioinformatics analysis and detailed phenotyping of mutation carriers was performed on 16 consecutive cases with genetically undefined early-onset generalized dystonia. Candidate pathogenic variants were validated and tested for cosegregation. The whole-exome approach was complemented by analyzing 2 mutated yet unestablished causative genes in another 590 dystonia cases. Whole-exome sequencing detected clinically relevant mutations of known dystonia-related genes in 6 generalized dystonia cases (37.5%), among whom 3 had novel variants. Reflecting locus heterogeneity, identified unique variants were distributed over 5 genes (GCH1, THAP1, TOR1A, ANO3, ADCY5), of which only 1 (ANO3) was mutated recurrently. Three genes (GCH1, THAP1, TOR1A) were associated with isolated generalized dystonia, whereas 2 (ANO3, ADCY5) gave rise to combined dystonia-myoclonus phenotypes. Follow-up screening of ANO3 and ADCY5 revealed a set of distinct variants of interest, the pathogenicity of which was supported by bioinformatics testing and cosegregation work. Our study identified whole-exome sequencing as an effective strategy for molecular diagnosis of early-onset generalized dystonia and offers insights into the heterogeneous genetic architecture of this condition. Furthermore, it provides confirmatory evidence for a dystonia-relevant role of ANO3 and ADCY5, both of which likely associate with a broader spectrum of dystonic expressions than previously thought. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder

  9. Protective Role of Maternal P.VAL158MET Catechol-O-methyltransferase Polymorphism against Early-Onset Preeclampsia and its Complications

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    Krnjeta Tijana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Up until now there have been contradictory data about the association between p.Val158Met catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT polymorphism and risk of preeclampsia (PE. The goal of this study was to assess the potential correlation between p.Val158Met COMT polymorphism and risk of early-onset PE, risk of a severe form of early-onset PE, as well as risk of small-for-gestationalage (SGA complicating PE.

  10. Loss of SYNJ1 dual phosphatase activity leads to early onset refractory seizures and progressive neurological decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardies, Katia; Cai, Yiying; Jardel, Claude

    2016-01-01

    with intractable epilepsy and tau pathology. We performed whole exome or genome sequencing in three independent sib pairs with early onset refractory seizures and progressive neurological decline, and identified novel segregating recessive SYNJ1 defects. A homozygous missense variant resulting in an amino acid...... function, our results provide evidence that a critical reduction of the dual phosphatase activity of SYNJ1 underlies a severe disorder with neonatal refractory epilepsy and a neurodegenerative disease course. These findings further expand the clinical spectrum of synaptic dysregulation in patients...

  11. Mutation screen and association studies for the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH gene and early onset and adult obesity

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    Rief Winfried

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The orexigenic effects of cannabinoids are limited by activation of the endocannabinoid degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH. The aim of this study was to analyse whether FAAH alleles are associated with early and late onset obesity. Methods We initially assessed association of five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in FAAH with early onset extreme obesity in up to 521 German obese children and both parents. SNPs with nominal p-values ≤ 0.1 were subsequently analysed in 235 independent German obesity families. SNPs associated with childhood obesity (p-values ≤ 0.05 were further analysed in 8,491 adult individuals of a population-based cohort (KORA for association with adult obesity. One SNP was further analysed in 985 German obese adults and 588 normal and underweight controls. In parallel, we screened the FAAH coding region for novel sequence variants in 92 extremely obese children using single-stranded-conformation-polymorphism-analysis and denaturing HPLC and assessed the implication of the identified new variants for childhood obesity. Results The trio analysis revealed some evidence for an association of three SNPs in FAAH (rs324420 rs324419 and rs873978 with childhood obesity (two-sided p-values between 0.06 and 0.10. Although analyses of these variants in 235 independent obesity families did not result in statistically significant effects (two-sided p-values between 0.14 and 0.75, the combined analysis of all 603 obesity families supported the idea of an association of two SNPs in FAAH (rs324420 and rs2295632 with early onset extreme obesity (p-values between 0.02 and 0.03. No association was, however, found between these variants and adult obesity. The mutation screen revealed four novel variants, which were not associated with early onset obesity (p > 0.05. Conclusions As we observed some evidence for an association of the FAAH variants rs2295632 rs324420 with early onset but not adult obesity

  12. Increased steroidogenesis promotes early-onset and severe vision loss in females with OPA1 dominant optic atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarzi, Emmanuelle; Seveno, Marie; Angebault, Claire

    2016-01-01

    levels of steroid precursor pregnenolone in females, causing an early-onset vision loss, abolished by ovariectomy. In addition, steroid production in retina is also increased which, in conjunction with high circulating levels, impairs estrogen receptor expression and mitochondrial respiratory complex IV...... cohort and found that women undergo more severe visual loss at adolescence and greater progressive thinning of the retinal nerve fibres than males. Thus, we disclosed a gender-dependent effect on ADOA severity, involving for the first time steroids and Müller glial cells, responsible for RGC degeneration....

  13. High-Throughput Sequencing of Germline and Tumor From Men with Early-Onset Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    nonsynonymous SNV c.G263A p.R88H 7 Bloom syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder with features similar to Fanconi anemia and characterized by genome...and somatic variants assocaiated with prostate cancer. For Major Task 1, we identified and recruited 20 men with de novo metastatic prostate cancer...Cancer 14, 145-149 (2015). 4. R. M. de Voer et al., Deleterious Germline BLM Mutations and the Risk for Early-onset Colorectal Cancer. Sci Rep 5

  14. Diagnosis and treatment of familial cherubism characterized by early onset and rapid development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortellaro, Carmen; Bello, Lucilla; Lucchina, Alberta Greco; Pucci, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Cherubism is a benign maxillary bone dysplasia of childhood, usually showing an autosomically dominant inheritance with variable penetrance and spontaneously resolving after puberty. Only maxillary bones are affected and develop pseudocystic osteolytic lesions. This article presents an early and rapidly evolving familial case of cherubism. The 3-year-old child underwent conservative curettage of lesions, with a conservative approach that allowed a normal permanent dentition in adolescence. Family history revealed that the father had been treated for similar lesions between 14 and 21 years of age, but the late treatment caused edentulism. In conclusion, although cherubism represents a benign and localized maxillary dysplasia, it requires prompt surgical but conservative treatment and careful follow-up to avoid permanent lesions, that is, malocclusion and/or edentulism.

  15. Treatment of Early-Onset Spinal Deformity (EOSD) With VEPTR: A Challenge for the Final Correction Spondylodesis-A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattig, Friederike; Taurman, Rita; Hell, Anna K

    2016-06-01

    Case Series. To describe the post-VEPTR (vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib) treatment changes in early-onset spinal deformity (EOSD), which may influence the final correction spondylodesis. The VEPTR device, originally developed for the treatment of congenital rib cage malformation, is nowadays more widely used in the treatment of EOSD. At present, only a few reports describe the possible complications that may occur with repeated lengthening procedures of the VEPTR, thereby making the final spondylodesis more complicated and less satisfactory. X-rays of 5 children treated for EOSD with 2 unilateral VEPTR (each rib to rib and rib to lumbar lamina) were analyzed for curve patterns and Cobb angles before, during, and at the end of VEPTR treatment, and after the final spondylodesis. Intraoperative observations during the spondylodesis, which influenced the possibilities of the curve correction, were documented. All patients showed a marked decompensation of the frontal balance and a high degree of rigidity of the main curve and the compensatory curves after treatment with the VEPTR device. Because of this spontaneous autofusion of spinal segments, migration of the rib cradles and/or the laminar hook, and a change in the curve patterns, the final fusion had to be longer in all patients than the primary deformity would have intended. If an EOSD is treated with VEPTR, the curve progression and, in particular, the development of a high thoracic hyperkyphosis or rotation of the main curve should be critically observed. Autofusion of ribs and vertebral bodies may make the final correction spondylodesis even more challenging and risky for the patient and the end result less satisfactory.

  16. Predicting early onset of intoxication versus drinking—A population-based prospective study of Norwegian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frøydis Enstad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Recent research suggests that early onset of intoxication (EOI may be of greater importance for a wide range of subsequent adverse outcomes than early drinking experiences without intoxication. However, research on antecedents of EOI is scarce. The present study identifies predictors of EOI and whether they differ from those of early onset of drinking (EOD. Methods: Data was drawn from the prospective Tracking Opportunities and Problems (TOPP study of Norwegian families (n=382, which followed up mothers and their children with six data collections from childhood (age 1.5 to adolescence (age 14.5. Self-reports from the adolescents (parenting practices, adolescent's conduct problems and friends' deviant behaviour and their mothers (adolescent temperament, socio-economic factors and household alcohol problems were used to identify predictors of EOI and EOD. Findings: A variety of temperamental, socio-economic, and family factors predicted EOI, whereas EOD was predicted of substantially fewer variables. Particularly, when controlling for relevant covariates, low levels of shyness, own conduct problems and having friends with deviant behaviour prospectively predicted EOI, but not EOD. Conclusions: Future research and prevention efforts should take into consideration that EOI and EOD without getting drunk appear to be predicted by different risk factors in childhood and adolescence. Keywords: Adolescents, Alcohol, Intoxication, Drinking, Onset, Predictors

  17. Variants in the Oxidoreductase PYROXD1 Cause Early-Onset Myopathy with Internalized Nuclei and Myofibrillar Disorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Gina L; Best, Heather A; Sztal, Tamar E; Schartner, Vanessa; Sanjuan-Vazquez, Myriam; Donkervoort, Sandra; Abath Neto, Osorio; Sutton, Roger Bryan; Ilkovski, Biljana; Romero, Norma Beatriz; Stojkovic, Tanya; Dastgir, Jahannaz; Waddell, Leigh B; Boland, Anne; Hu, Ying; Williams, Caitlin; Ruparelia, Avnika A; Maisonobe, Thierry; Peduto, Anthony J; Reddel, Stephen W; Lek, Monkol; Tukiainen, Taru; Cummings, Beryl B; Joshi, Himanshu; Nectoux, Juliette; Brammah, Susan; Deleuze, Jean-François; Ing, Viola Oorschot; Ramm, Georg; Ardicli, Didem; Nowak, Kristen J; Talim, Beril; Topaloglu, Haluk; Laing, Nigel G; North, Kathryn N; MacArthur, Daniel G; Friant, Sylvie; Clarke, Nigel F; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J; Bönnemann, Carsten G; Laporte, Jocelyn; Cooper, Sandra T

    2016-11-03

    This study establishes PYROXD1 variants as a cause of early-onset myopathy and uses biospecimens and cell lines, yeast, and zebrafish models to elucidate the fundamental role of PYROXD1 in skeletal muscle. Exome sequencing identified recessive variants in PYROXD1 in nine probands from five families. Affected individuals presented in infancy or childhood with slowly progressive proximal and distal weakness, facial weakness, nasal speech, swallowing difficulties, and normal to moderately elevated creatine kinase. Distinctive histopathology showed abundant internalized nuclei, myofibrillar disorganization, desmin-positive inclusions, and thickened Z-bands. PYROXD1 is a nuclear-cytoplasmic pyridine nucleotide-disulphide reductase (PNDR). PNDRs are flavoproteins (FAD-binding) and catalyze pyridine-nucleotide-dependent (NAD/NADH) reduction of thiol residues in other proteins. Complementation experiments in yeast lacking glutathione reductase glr1 show that human PYROXD1 has reductase activity that is strongly impaired by the disease-associated missense mutations. Immunolocalization studies in human muscle and zebrafish myofibers demonstrate that PYROXD1 localizes to the nucleus and to striated sarcomeric compartments. Zebrafish with ryroxD1 knock-down recapitulate features of PYROXD1 myopathy with sarcomeric disorganization, myofibrillar aggregates, and marked swimming defect. We characterize variants in the oxidoreductase PYROXD1 as a cause of early-onset myopathy with distinctive histopathology and introduce altered redox regulation as a primary cause of congenital muscle disease. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The p. N103K mutation of leptin (LEP gene and severe early onset obesity in Pakistan

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    Shabana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a complex disorder and has been increasing globally at alarming rates including Pakistan. However, there is scarce research on understanding obesity genetics in Pakistan. Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes in response to satiety and correlates with body weight. Any mutations in the LEP gene have an adverse effect on energy regulation pathway and lead to severe, early onset obesity. To date, only eight mutations have been described in the LEP gene of which p. N103K is one. METHODS: We aimed to analyze the prevalence of this mutation in Pakistani subjects. A total of 475 subjects were genotyped by PCR-RFLP analysis and their serum profiling was done. RESULTS: Results showed that this mutation was present only in one male child with early onset obesity (10 year. He had very low serum leptin levels suggestive of functional impact of the mutation. The prevalence of such mutations is, however, low due to the drastic effects on the energy regulation. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, LEP gene mutations contribute significantly to the monogenic forms of obesity and are important due to the availability of treatment options. Such mutations may exert their effect by directly affecting energy regulation pathway and are more prominent in the early stages of life only.

  19. Early-Onset Progressive Retinal Atrophy Associated with an IQCB1 Variant in African Black-Footed Cats (Felis nigripes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Annie; Pearce, Jacqueline W; Gandolfi, Barbara; Creighton, Erica K; Suedmeyer, William K; Selig, Michael; Bosiack, Ann P; Castaner, Leilani J; Whiting, Rebecca E H; Belknap, Ellen B; Lyons, Leslie A

    2017-03-21

    African black-footed cats (Felis nigripes) are endangered wild felids. One male and full-sibling female African black-footed cat developed vision deficits and mydriasis as early as 3 months of age. The diagnosis of early-onset progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) was supported by reduced direct and consensual pupillary light reflexes, phenotypic presence of retinal degeneration, and a non-recordable electroretinogram with negligible amplitudes in both eyes. Whole genome sequencing, conducted on two unaffected parents and one affected offspring was compared to a variant database from 51 domestic cats and a Pallas cat, revealed 50 candidate variants that segregated concordantly with the PRA phenotype. Testing in additional affected cats confirmed that cats homozygous for a 2 base pair (bp) deletion within IQ calmodulin-binding motif-containing protein-1 (IQCB1), the gene that encodes for nephrocystin-5 (NPHP5), had vision loss. The variant segregated concordantly in other related individuals within the pedigree supporting the identification of a recessively inherited early-onset feline PRA. Analysis of the black-footed cat studbook suggests additional captive cats are at risk. Genetic testing for IQCB1 and avoidance of matings between carriers should be added to the species survival plan for captive management.

  20. Structured Regions of Alpha-synuclein Fibrils Include the Early Onset Parkinson's Disease Mutation Sites

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    Comellas Canal, Gemma; Lemkau, Luisel R.; Nieuwkoop, Andrew J.; Kloepper, Kathryn D.; Ladror, Daniel T.; Ebisu, Reika; Woods, Wendy S.; Lipton, Andrew S.; George, Julia M.; Rienstra, Chad M.

    2011-08-26

    Alpha-Synuclein (AS) fibrils constitute the major proteinaceous component of Lewy bodies (LBs), the pathological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. Three single point mutations in the AS gene, as well as multiplication of the wild-type (WT) AS allele, have been previously identified in families with early-onset PD. Although AS fibrils have been the subject of intense study, critical details about their structure including the precise location of the B-strands and the extent of the core, the three-dimensional structure and the effects of the mutations—remain unknown. Here, we have used magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy to present a detailed characterization of the full-length WT AS fibrils. With improved sample preparations, isotopic labeling patterns and NMR experiments, we have confidently assigned more than 90% of the 13C and 15N backbone and sidechain chemical shifts of the detected residues from residue 39 to 97, and quantified the conformational dynamics throughout this region. Our results demonstrate that the core of AS fibrils extends with a repeated motif and that residues 30, 46 and 53-the early-onset PD mutant sites-are located in structured regions of AS fibrils.

  1. A novel presenilin 1 mutation (Ala275Val) as cause of early-onset familial Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedecke, Daniel; Becktepe, Jos S; Lehmbeck, Jan T; Finckh, Ulrich; Yamamoto, Raina; Jahn, Holger; Boelmans, Kai

    2014-04-30

    Mutations in the presenilin 1 (PS1) gene (PSEN1) are associated with familial Alzheimer disease (FAD). Here, we report on a 50-year-old patient presenting with progressive deterioration of his short-term memory and a family history of early-onset dementia. Diagnostic workup included a neuropsychological examination, structural magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers including total tau, phosphorylated tau, and Aβ42 levels, as well as sequencing relevant fragments of the genes PSEN1, PSEN2, and APP. Additionally, we were able to obtain archival paraffin-embedded cerebellar tissue from the patient's father for cosegregation analysis. Clinical, neuropsychological and MR imaging data were indicative of early-onset Alzheimer disease. Furthermore, CSF biomarkers showed a typical pattern for Alzheimer disease. DNA sequencing revealed a heterozygous nucleotide transition (c.824C>T) in exon 8 of PSEN1, leading to an amino acid change from alanine to valine at codon 275 (Ala275Val). The same mutation was found in an archival brain specimen of the patient's demented father, but not in a blood sample of the non-demented mother. This mutation alters a conserved residue in the large hydrophilic loop of PS1, suggesting pathogenic relevance. Cosegregegation analysis and the structural as well as the presumed functional role of the mutated and highly conserved residue suggest FAD causing characteristics of the novel PSEN1 mutation Ala275Val. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Early-onset neonatal sepsis is associated with a high heart rate during automatically selected stationary periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nga; Vandenbroucke, Laurent; Hernández, Alfredo; Pham, Tu; Beuchée, Alain; Pladys, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the heart rate variability characteristics associated with early-onset neonatal sepsis in a prospective, observational controlled study. Eligible patients were full-term neonates hospitalised with clinical signs that suggested early-onset sepsis and a C-reactive protein of >10 mg/L. Sepsis was considered proven in cases of symptomatic septicaemia, meningitis, pneumonia or enterocolitis. Heart rate variability parameters (n = 16) were assessed from five-, 15- and 30-minute stationary sequences automatically selected from electrocardiographic recordings performed at admission and compared with a control group using the U-test with post hoc Benjamini-Yekutieli correction. Stationary sequences corresponded to the periods with the lowest changes of heart rate variability over time. A total of 40 full-term infants were enrolled, including 14 with proven sepsis. The mean duration of the cardiac cycle length was lower in the proven sepsis group than in the control group (n = 11), without other significant changes in heart rate variability parameters. These durations, measured in five-minute stationary periods, were 406 (367-433) ms in proven sepsis group versus 507 (463-522) ms in the control group (p neonatal sepsis was associated with a high mean heart rate measured during automatically selected stationary periods. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Decrease in temporal gyrus gray matter volume in first-episode, early onset schizophrenia: an MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Tang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Loss of gray matter has been previously found in early-onset schizophrenic patients. However, there are no consistent findings between studies due to different methods used to measure grey matter volume/density and influences of confounding factors. METHODS: The volume of gray matter (GM was measured in 29 first episode early-onset schizophrenia (EOS and 34 well-matched healthy controls by using voxel-based morphometry (VBM. Psychotic symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. The correlations between the GM volume and PANSS scores, age of psychosis onset, duration of psychosis, and chlorpromazine (CPZ equivalent value were investigated. RESULTS: Relative to healthy subjects, the patients with first episode EOS showed significantly lower GM volume in the left middle and superior temporal gyrus. The loss of GM volume negatively correlated with PANSS-positive symptoms (p = 0.002, but not with PANSS-negative symptoms, PANSS-general psychopathology, and PANSS-total score. No significant correlation was found between GM volume and age of psychosis onset, duration of psychosis, and CPZ equivalent value. CONCLUSION: Patients with first episode EOS have evidence of reduced GM in the left middle and superior temporal gyrus. Structural abnormalities in the left middle and superior temporal gyrus may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  4. Late-Onset Metachromatic Leukodystrophy with Early Onset Dementia Associated with a Novel Missense Mutation in the Arylsulfatase A Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeck, Katharina; Psychogios, Marios Nikos; Ohlenbusch, Andreas; Steinfeld, Robert; Schmidt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A 48-year-old male patient presented with personality changes and progressive memory loss over 2 years with initially suspected Hashimoto's encephalopathy. Strategy of diagnostic workup of early onset dementia included dementia from neurodegenerative, neuroinflammatory, metabolic/toxic, and psychiatric origin. The patient's neurological exam was normal. MRI revealed a leukencephalopathy, predominantly in the frontal periventricular white matter, without notable changes over 2 years. On neurophysiological examination, prolonged central conduction times and a sensorimotor polyneuropathy were noted. Neuropsychological impairment included disorientation in place and a reduced short time memory. Behavioral alterations were predominated by sudden mood changes and disinhibition. Cerebrospinal fluid was normal. Despite presence of thyroid autoantibodies, glucocorticosteroid treatment did not improve the dementia. A metachromatic leukodystrophy was diagnosed by decreased arylsulfatase-A activity in leucocytes/fibroblasts and identification of a compound heterozygous mutation in the ARSA gene: c.542T>G (exon 3) and the novel mutation c.1013T>C (exon 6). Pathogenic function was suggested by bioinformatic mutation search. In a patient with early onset dementia, strategic diagnostic workup including genetic assessment revealed an adult-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy with a novel mutation in the arylsulfatase A gene.

  5. Two percent of men with early-onset prostate cancer harbor germline mutations in the BRCA2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Stephen M; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Meitz, Julia; Hamoudi, Rifat; Hope, Questa; Osin, Peter; Jackson, Rachel; Southgate, Christine; Singh, Rashmi; Falconer, Alison; Dearnaley, David P; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Murkin, Annette; Dowe, Anna; Kelly, Jo; Williams, Sue; Oram, Richard; Stevens, Margaret; Teare, Dawn M; Ponder, Bruce A J; Gayther, Simon A; Easton, Doug F; Eeles, Rosalind A

    2003-01-01

    Studies of families with breast cancer have indicated that male carriers of BRCA2 mutations are at increased risk of prostate cancer, particularly at an early age. To evaluate the contribution of BRCA2 mutations to early-onset prostate cancer, we screened the complete coding sequence of BRCA2 for germline mutations, in 263 men with diagnoses of prostate cancer who were early-onset prostate cancer, in both patients and their relatives.

  6. The p. N103K mutation of leptin (LEP) gene and severe early onset obesity in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana; Hasnain, Shahida

    2016-04-13

    Obesity is a complex disorder and has been increasing globally at alarming rates including Pakistan. However, there is scarce research on understanding obesity genetics in Pakistan. Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes in response to satiety and correlates with body weight. Any mutations in the LEP gene have an adverse effect on energy regulation pathway and lead to severe, early onset obesity. To date, only eight mutations have been described in the LEP gene of which p. N103K is one. We aimed to analyze the prevalence of this mutation in Pakistani subjects. A total of 475 subjects were genotyped by PCR-RFLP analysis and their serum profiling was done. Results showed that this mutation was present only in one male child with early onset obesity (10 year). He had very low serum leptin levels suggestive of functional impact of the mutation. The prevalence of such mutations is, however, low due to the drastic effects on the energy regulation. In conclusion, LEP gene mutations contribute significantly to the monogenic forms of obesity and are important due to the availability of treatment options. Such mutations may exert their effect by directly affecting energy regulation pathway and are more prominent in the early stages of life only.

  7. Early onset of retrograde flow in the main pulmonary artery is a characteristic of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helderman, Frank; Mauritz, Gert-Jan; Andringa, Kirsten E; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; Marcus, J Tim

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate if early onset of retrograde flow in the main pulmonary artery is a characteristic of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Fifty-five patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension (PH) underwent right-sided heart catheterization and retrospectively ECG-gated MR phase-contrast velocity quantification in the main pulmonary artery. Pulmonary hypertension was defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure being larger than 25 mmHg. The onset time of the retrograde flow relative to the cardiac cycle duration (Relative Onset Time = ROT) was compared with mean pulmonary artery pressure. By the catheterization, 38 patients were identified as having PAH. The ROT for these PAH patients was significantly different from those found in the 17 non-PH subjects (0.14 ± 0.06 versus 0.37 ± 0.06, P < 0.001). The mean pulmonary artery pressure was related to the ROT (r(2) = 0.62, P < 0.001) and could be estimated from the ROT with a standard deviation of 11.7 mmHg. With a cutoff value of 0.25, the ROT distinguished PAH patients from non-PH subjects. Early onset of retrograde flow in the main pulmonary artery is a characteristic of pulmonary arterial hypertension and is visible by standard MR phase-contrast velocity quantification. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Detection of Fetomaternal Genotype Associations in Early-Onset Disorders: Evaluation of Different Methods and Their Application to Childhood Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Healy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several designs and analytical approaches have been proposed to dissect offspring from maternal genetic contributions to early-onset diseases. However, lack of parental controls halts the direct verification of the assumption of mating symmetry (MS required to assess maternally-mediated effects. In this study, we used simulations to investigate the performance of existing methods under mating asymmetry (MA when parents of controls are missing. Our results show that the log-linear, likelihood-based framework using a case-triad/case-control hybrid design provides valid tests for maternal genetic effects even under MA. Using this approach, we examined fetomaternal associations between 29 SNPs in 12 cell-cycle genes and childhood pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. We identified putative fetomaternal effects at loci CDKN2A rs36228834 (P=.017 and CDKN2B rs36229158 (P=.022 that modulate the risk of childhood ALL. These data further corroborate the importance of the mother's genotype on the susceptibility to early-onset diseases.

  9. A novel large fragment deletion in PLS3 causes rare X-linked early-onset osteoporosis and response to zoledronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, F; Ma, M; Liu, W; Xu, X; Song, Y; Li, L; Jiang, Y; Wang, O; Xia, W; Xing, X; Qiu, Z; Li, M

    2017-09-01

    We identified a novel large fragment deletion from intron 9 to 3'UTR in PLS3 (E10-E16del) in one Chinese boy with X-linked early-onset osteoporosis and vertebral fractures, which expanded the pathogenic spectrum of X-linked early-onset osteoporosis. Treatment with zoledronic acid was beneficial for increasing BMD and reshaping the vertebral bodies of this patient. X-linked early-onset osteoporosis is a rare disease, which is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD), vertebral compression fractures (VCFs), and/or long bone fractures. We aimed to detect the phenotype and the underlying pathogenic mutation of X-linked early-onset osteoporosis in a boy from a nonconsanguineous Chinese family. We investigated the pathogenic mutation of the patient with X-linked early-onset osteoporosis by targeted next-generation sequencing and confirmed it by Sanger sequencing. We also observed the effects of zoledronic acid on fracture frequency and BMD of the patient. Low BMD and multiple VCFs were the main phenotypes of X-linked early-onset osteoporosis. We identified a total of 12,229 bp deletion in PLS3, involving intron 9 to the 3'UTR (E10-E16 del). This large fragment deletion might be mediated by Alu repeats and microhomology of 26 bp at each breakpoint junction. Zoledronic acid treatment could significantly increase the Z-score of BMD and reshape the compressed vertebral bodies. We identified a large fragment deletion mutation in PLS3 for the first time and elucidated the possible mechanism of the deletion, which led to X-linked early-onset osteoporosis and multiple vertebral fractures. Our findings would enrich the etiology spectrum of this rare disease.

  10. Germline TP53 Mutations in Patients With Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer in the Colon Cancer Family Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurgelun, Matthew B; Masciari, Serena; Joshi, Victoria A; Mercado, Rowena C; Lindor, Noralane M; Gallinger, Steven; Hopper, John L; Jenkins, Mark A; Buchanan, Daniel D; Newcomb, Polly A; Potter, John D; Haile, Robert W; Kucherlapati, Raju; Syngal, Sapna

    2015-05-01

    Li-Fraumeni syndrome, usually characterized by germline TP53 mutations, is associated with markedly elevated lifetime risks of multiple cancers, and has been linked to an increased risk of early-onset colorectal cancer. To examine the frequency of germline TP53 alterations in patients with early-onset colorectal cancer. This was a multicenter cross-sectional cohort study of individuals recruited to the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) from 1998 through 2007 (genetic testing data updated as of January 2015). Both population-based and clinic-based patients in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand were recruited to the CCFR. Demographic information, clinical history, and family history data were obtained at enrollment. Biospecimens were collected from consenting probands and families, including microsatellite instability and DNA mismatch repair immunohistochemistry results. A total of a 510 individuals diagnosed as having colorectal cancer at age 40 years or younger and lacking a known hereditary cancer syndrome were identified from the CCFR as being potentially eligible. Fifty-three participants were excluded owing to subsequent identification of germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes (n = 47) or biallelic MUTYH mutations (n = 6). Germline sequencing of the TP53 gene was performed. Identified TP53 alterations were assessed for pathogenicity using literature and international mutation database searches and in silico prediction models. Frequency of nonsynonymous germline TP53 alterations. Among 457 eligible participants (314, population-based; 143, clinic-based; median age at diagnosis, 36 years [range, 15-40 years]), 6 (1.3%; 95% CI, 0.5%-2.8%) carried germline missense TP53 alterations, none of whom met clinical criteria for Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Four of the identified TP53 alterations have been previously described in the literature in probands with clinical features of Li-Fraumeni syndrome, and 2 were novel alterations. In a

  11. Prediction of complications in early-onset pre-eclampsia (PREP): development and external multinational validation of prognostic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangaratinam, Shakila; Allotey, John; Marlin, Nadine; Dodds, Julie; Cheong-See, Fiona; von Dadelszen, Peter; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Akkermans, Joost; Kerry, Sally; Mol, Ben W; Moons, Karl G M; Riley, Richard D; Khan, Khalid S

    2017-03-30

    Unexpected clinical deterioration before 34 weeks gestation is an undesired course in early-onset pre-eclampsia. To safely prolong preterm gestation, accurate and timely prediction of complications is required. Women with confirmed early onset pre-eclampsia were recruited from 53 maternity units in the UK to a large prospective cohort study (PREP-946) for development of prognostic models for the overall risk of experiencing a complication using logistic regression (PREP-L), and for predicting the time to adverse maternal outcome using a survival model (PREP-S). External validation of the models were carried out in a multinational cohort (PIERS-634) and another cohort from the Netherlands (PETRA-216). Main outcome measures were C-statistics to summarise discrimination of the models and calibration plots and calibration slopes. A total of 169 mothers (18%) in the PREP dataset had adverse outcomes by 48 hours, and 633 (67%) by discharge. The C-statistics of the models for predicting complications by 48 hours and by discharge were 0.84 (95% CI, 0.81-0.87; PREP-S) and 0.82 (0.80-0.84; PREP-L), respectively. The PREP-S model included maternal age, gestation, medical history, systolic blood pressure, deep tendon reflexes, urine protein creatinine ratio, platelets, serum alanine amino transaminase, urea, creatinine, oxygen saturation and treatment with antihypertensives or magnesium sulfate. The PREP-L model included the above except deep tendon reflexes, serum alanine amino transaminase and creatinine. On validation in the external PIERS dataset, the reduced PREP-S model showed reasonable calibration (slope 0.80) and discrimination (C-statistic 0.75) for predicting adverse outcome by 48 hours. Reduced PREP-L model showed excellent calibration (slope: 0.93 PIERS, 0.90 PETRA) and discrimination (0.81 PIERS, 0.75 PETRA) for predicting risk by discharge in the two external datasets. PREP models can be used to obtain predictions of adverse maternal outcome risk, including

  12. The effect of serial growing rod lengthening on the sagittal profile and pelvic parameters in early-onset scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Suken A; Karatas, Ali F; Dhawale, Arjun A; Dede, Ozgur; Mundis, Gregory M; Holmes, Laurens; Yorgova, Petya; Neiss, Geraldine; Johnston, Charles E; Emans, John B; Thompson, George H; Pawelek, Jeff B; Akbarnia, Behrooz A

    2014-10-15

    Retrospective case series. To report the effect of repeated growing rod (GR) lengthenings on the sagittal and pelvic profile in patients with early-onset scoliosis. Posterior distraction-based GRs have gained popularity as a technique for the surgical management of early-onset scoliosis. However, there are no published studies on the effect of serial GR lengthenings on sagittal balance, thoracic kyphosis (TK), lumbar lordosis (LL), and pelvic parameters. We retrospectively reviewed data from a multicenter early-onset scoliosis database. Forty-three patients who were able to walk with minimum 2-year follow-up who underwent single- or dual-GR surgery were included for review. Mean number of lengthenings was 6.4 (range, 3-16). Mean preoperative age was 5.6 years (standard deviation, 2.4 yr), and mean follow-up was 3.5 years. Maximum TK, LL, and sagittal balance were assessed preoperatively, after index surgery, and at the latest follow-up. There was a significant decrease both in TK and LL after index surgery, which then increased during the lengthening period. There was a significant increase in both proximal junctional kyphosis and distal junctional angle. Pelvic parameters (pelvic tilt, pelvic incidence, sacral slope) were unchanged during the treatment period. Significant improvement was observed in sagittal balance. There was a correlation between the change in TK and change in LL. TK decreased after index surgery and increased between the index surgery and the latest follow-up, which was accompanied by an increase in LL. All-screw proximal constructs had mean 9° more proximal junctional kyphosis than all-hook proximal constructs. An increase in proximal junctional kyphosis and distal junctional angle was found during the treatment period. Although there was an independent effect of number of lengthenings on TK, there was no significant detrimental effect on other sagittal spinopelvic parameters. GRs had a positive effect on sagittal vertical axis, which

  13. Risk Factors for Early-Onset Peripheral Neuropathy Caused by Vincristine in Patients With a First Administration of R-CHOP or R-CHOP-Like Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Naoto; Hanafusa, Takeshi; Sakurada, Takumi; Teraoka, Kazuhiko; Kujime, Toshihide; Abe, Masahiro; Shinohara, Yasuo; Kawazoe, Kazuyoshi; Minakuchi, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Background Peripheral neuropathy is a well-known side effect of vincristine (VCR), a microtubule inhibitor used for R-CHOP or R-CHOP-like (namely R-CVP and R-THP-COP) regimens. Previous studies have shown that both the total dose of VCR and the number of treatment cycles are related to the incidence of VCR-induced peripheral neuropathy (VIPN). However, VIPN will also occur during the first treatment cycle regardless of the total dose of VCR or number of treatment cycles (early-onset VIPN). There is little information about early-onset VIPN, and it is difficult to predict. The present study’s goal was to identify risk factors for early-onset VIPN. Methods We analyzed the case records of patients who had their first administration of an R-CHOP or R-CHOP-like regimen between April 2008 and August 2013 at Tokushima University Hospital in Tokushima, Japan. To identify the risk factors for early-onset VIPN, we performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results Forty-one patients underwent an R-CHOP or R-CHOP-like regimen for the first time at Tokushima University Hospital between April 2008 and August 2013, and 14 patients had grade 1 or higher early-onset VIPN. A univariate analysis revealed that age, the dose of VCR and the concomitant use of aprepitant appeared to be the risk factors of early-onset VIPN. In our calculation using receiver-operator characteristics curves, the cut-off value for patient age was 65 years and that of the dose of VCR was 1.9 mg. A multivariate analysis revealed that VCR dose ≥ 1.9 mg and the concomitant use of the antiemetic aprepitant were independent risk factors for early-onset VIPN. Conclusions Our present study showed that the patients who had VCR dose ≥ 1.9 mg and the concomitant use of aprepitant had the risk for early-onset VIPN. This suggests that it is important to use aprepitant in light of the risk of early-onset VIPN and the benefit of aprepitant’s antiemetic effect in R-CHOP and R

  14. New Predictive Model at 11+0to 13+6Gestational Weeks for Early-Onset Preeclampsia With Fetal Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying; Chen, Xu; Cui, Hong-Yan; Li, Xing; Xu, Ya-Ling

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine a predictive model for early-onset preeclampsia with fetal growth restriction (FGR) to be used at 11 +0 to 13 +6 gestational weeks, by combining the maternal serum level of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), placental growth factor (PLGF), placental protein 13 (PP13), soluble endoglin (sEng), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and uterine artery Doppler. This was a retrospective cohort study of 4453 pregnant women. Uterine artery Doppler examination was conducted in the first trimester. Maternal serum PAPP-A, PLGF, PP13, and sEng were measured. Mean arterial pressure was obtained. Women were classified as with/without early-onset preeclampsia, and women with preeclampsia were classified as with/without FGR. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine the value of the model. There were 30 and 32 pregnant women with early-onset preeclampsia with and without FGR. The diagnosis rate of early-onset preeclampsia with FGR was 67.4% using the predictive model when the false positive rate was set at 5% and 73.2% when the false positive rate was 10%. The predictive model (MAP, uterine artery Doppler measurements, and serum biomarkers) had some predictive value for the early diagnosis (11 +0 to 13 +6 gestational weeks) of early-onset preeclampsia with FGR.

  15. Early-onset dropped head syndrome after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer: dose constraints for neck extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Koji; Nakamura, Satoshi; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Kashihara, Tairo; Kobayashi, Kazuma; Harada, Ken; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana; Murakami, Naoya; Ito, Yoshinori; Igaki, Hiroshi; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Dropped head syndrome (DHS) is a famous but unusual late complication of multimodality treatment for head and neck carcinoma. We reported this early-onset complication and analyzed the dose to the neck extensor muscles. We examined the records of three patients with DHS after radiotherapy. The doses to the neck extensor muscles were compared between three patients with DHS and nine patients without DHS. The mean dose to the neck extensor muscles of the three patients with DHS were 58.5 Gy, 42.3 Gy and 60.9 Gy, while the dose was muscles. The proposed dose to the neck extensor muscles might be <46 Gy (or at least <50 Gy). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  16. Patterns and correlates of expressed emotion, perceived criticism, and rearing style in first admitted early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Polier, Georg G; Meng, Heiner; Lambert, Martin; Strauss, Monika; Zarotti, Gianni; Karle, Michael; Dubois, Reinmar; Stark, Fritz-Michael; Neidhart, Sibylle; Zollinger, Ruedi; Bürgin, Dieter; Felder, Wilhelm; Resch, Franz; Koch, Eginhard; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Schimmelmann, Benno G

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess patterns and correlates of family variables in 31 adolescents treated for their first episode of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (early-onset schizophrenia [EOS]). Expressed emotion, perceived criticism, and rearing style were assessed. Potential correlates were patient psychopathology, premorbid adjustment, illness duration, quality of life (QoL), sociodemographic variables, patient and caregiver "illness concept," and caregiver personality traits and support. Families were rated as critical more frequently by patients than raters (55% vs. 13%). Perceived criticism was associated with worse QoL in relationship with parents and peers. An adverse rearing style was associated with a negative illness concept in patients, particularly with less trust in their physician. Future research should examine perceived criticism as a predictor of relapse and indicator of adolescents with EOS who need extended support and treatment. Rearing style should be carefully observed because of its link with patients' illness concept and, potentially, to service engagement and medication adherence.

  17. Toxoplasma gondii as a Risk Factor for Early-Onset Schizophrenia: Analysis of Filter Paper Blood Samples Obtained at Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Preben Bo; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Waltoft, Berit Lindum

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infections during fetal life or neonatal period, including infections with Toxoplasma gondii, may be associated with a risk for schizophrenia and other mental disorders. The objectives of this study were to study the association between serological markers for maternal and neonatal....... Patients included persons born in Denmark in 1981 or later followed up through 1999 with respect to inpatient or outpatient treatment for schizophrenia or related disorders (ICD-10 F2) or affective disorders (ICD-10 F3). RESULTS: Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels corresponding to the upper...... of infection and other schizophrenia-like disorders or affective disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports an association between Toxoplasma gondii and early-onset schizophrenia. Further studies are needed to establish if the association is causal and if it generalizes to cases with onset after age 18...

  18. Neuropsychological deficits in the prodromal phase and course of an early-onset schizophrenia. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puetz, Vanessa; Günther, Thomas; Kahraman-Lanzerath, Berrak; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2014-05-01

    Although clear advances have been achieved in the study of early-onset schizophrenia (EOS), little is known to date about premorbid and prodromal neuropsychological functioning in EOS. Here, we report on a case of an adolescent male with EOS who underwent neuropsychological testing before and after illness onset. Marked cognitive deficits in the domains of attention, set-shifting, and verbal memory were present both pre-onset and during the course of schizophrenia, though only deficits in verbal memory persisted after illness-onset and antipsychotic treatment. The findings of this case study suggest that impairments in the verbal memory domain are particularly prominent symptoms of cognitive impairment in prodromal EOS and persist in the course of the disorder, which further demonstrates the difficult clinical situation of adequate schooling opportunities for adolescent patients with EOS.

  19. Bubble CPAP versus ventilator CPAP in preterm neonates with early onset respiratory distress--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagare, Amit; Kadam, Sandeep; Vaidya, Umesh; Pandit, Anand; Patole, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP) is a low cost nasal CPAP delivery system with potential benefits to developing nations. To compare the efficacy and safety of BCPAP with ventilator-derived CPAP (VCPAP) in preterm neonates with respiratory distress. In a randomized controlled trial, preterm neonates with Silverman-Anderson score ≥ 4 and oxygen requirement >30% within first 6 h of life were randomly allocated to BCPAP or VCPAP. Proportion of neonates with success or failure was compared. In all, 47 of 57 (82.5%) neonates from BCPAP group and 36 of 57 (63.2%) neonates from the VCPAP group completed CPAP successfully (p = 0.03). Neonates who failed CPAP had higher Silverman-Anderson score (p < 0.01), lower arterial to alveolar oxygenation ratio (p < 0.05) and needed surfactant more frequently (p < 0.01). BCPAP has higher success rate than VCPAP for managing preterm neonates with early onset respiratory distress, with comparable safety.

  20. Genetics of early-onset Parkinson's disease in Finland: exome sequencing and genome-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siitonen, Ari; Nalls, Michael A; Hernández, Dena; Gibbs, J Raphael; Ding, Jinhui; Ylikotila, Pauli; Edsall, Connor; Singleton, Andrew; Majamaa, Kari

    2017-05-01

    Several genes and risk factors are associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Although many of the genetic markers belong to a common pathway, a unifying pathogenetic mechanism is yet to be found. Also, missing heritability analyses have estimated that only part of the genetic influence contributing to PD has been found. Here, we carried out whole-exome sequencing (WES) on 438 Finnish patients with early-onset PD. We also reanalyzed previous data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on the same cohort. Variants in the CEL gene/locus were associated with PD in both GWAS and WES analysis. Exome-wide gene-based association tests also identified the MPHOSPH10, TAS2R19, and SERPINA1 genes in the discovery data set (p SERPINA1 had OR of 1.27. We identified several candidate genes, but further investigation is required to determine the role of these genes in PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.