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Sample records for early-onset breast cancer

  1. Blood-Based Biomarkers of Early-Onset Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0214 TITLE: Blood -based biomarkers of early-onset breast cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nasim Ahmadiyeh...DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Blood -based biomarkers of early-onset breast cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1...While the normal breast is the ideal tissue in which to study this phenomenon, gene expression profiling of blood lymphocytes has been successfully

  2. p53 and survival in early onset breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentile, M; Bergman Jungeström, M; Olsen, K E;

    1999-01-01

    The p53 protein has proven to be central in tumorigenesis by its cell cycle regulatory properties and both gene mutations and protein accumulation have been associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. The present study was undertaken to investigate the prognostic significance of gene mutations......, p53 protein accumulation and of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the TP53 locus in young (age breast cancer patients. In total, gene mutations were found in 21 of the 123 patients (17%), LOH in 20 of the 47 informative cases (43%) and protein accumulation in 47 of the 102 available cases...... in this as well as other studies, p53 protein accumulation is frequently found in young breast cancer patients, but this protein overexpression appears to be of minor significance for survival. Nevertheless, the present report also suggests that specific mutations contribute substantially to tumour aggressiveness....

  3. Blood Based Biomarkers of Early Onset Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN ...contribution of inherited risk than those forming sporadic cancers at later ages. This inherited susceptibility to breast cancer might manifest as...differentiate cases from controls, at any level higher than that already available by history-based risk assessment algorithms. 15. SUBJECT TERMS

  4. A family history of breast cancer will not predict female early onset breast cancer in a population-based setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klijn Jan GM

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increased risk of breast cancer for relatives of breast cancer patients has been demonstrated in many studies, and having a relative diagnosed with breast cancer at an early age is an indication for breast cancer screening. This indication has been derived from estimates based on data from cancer-prone families or from BRCA1/2 mutation families, and might be biased because BRCA1/2 mutations explain only a small proportion of the familial clustering of breast cancer. The aim of the current study was to determine the predictive value of a family history of cancer with regard to early onset of female breast cancer in a population based setting. Methods An unselected sample of 1,987 women with and without breast cancer was studied with regard to the age of diagnosis of breast cancer. Results The risk of early-onset breast cancer was increased when there were: (1 at least 2 cases of female breast cancer in first-degree relatives (yes/no; HR at age 30: 3.09; 95% CI: 128-7.44, (2 at least 2 cases of female breast cancer in first or second-degree relatives under the age of 50 (yes/no; HR at age 30: 3.36; 95% CI: 1.12–10.08, (3 at least 1 case of female breast cancer under the age of 40 in a first- or second-degree relative (yes/no; HR at age 30: 2.06; 95% CI: 0.83–5.12 and (4 any case of bilateral breast cancer (yes/no; HR at age 30: 3.47; 95%: 1.33–9.05. The positive predictive value of having 2 or more of these characteristics was 13% for breast cancer before the age of 70, 11% for breast cancer before the age of 50, and 1% for breast cancer before the age of 30. Conclusion Applying family history related criteria in an unselected population could result in the screening of many women who will not develop breast cancer at an early age.

  5. Identification of inherited genetic variations influencing prognosis in early-onset breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Sajjad; Tapper, William; Collins, Andrew; Khan, Sofia; Politopoulos, Ioannis; Gerty, Sue; Blomqvist, Carl; Couch, Fergus J; Nevanlinna, Heli; Liu, Jianjun; Eccles, Diana

    2013-03-15

    Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have begun to investigate associations between inherited genetic variations and breast cancer prognosis. Here, we report our findings from a GWAS conducted in 536 patients with early-onset breast cancer aged 40 or less at diagnosis and with a mean follow-up period of 4.1 years (SD = 1.96). Patients were selected from the Prospective Study of Outcomes in Sporadic versus Hereditary breast cancer. A Bonferroni correction for multiple testing determined that a P value of 1.0 × 10(-7) was a statistically significant association signal. Following quality control, we identified 487,496 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) for association tests in stage 1. In stage 2, 35 SNPs with the most significant associations were genotyped in 1,516 independent cases from the same early-onset cohort. In stage 2, 11 SNPs remained associated in the same direction (P ≤ 0.05). Fixed effects meta-analysis models identified one SNP associated at close to genome wide level of significance 556 kb upstream of the ARRDC3 locus [HR = 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.33-1.96; P = 9.5 × 10(-7)]. Four further associations at or close to the PBX1, RORα, NTN1, and SYT6 loci also came close to genome-wide significance levels (P = 10(-6)). In the first ever GWAS for the identification of SNPs associated with prognosis in patients with early-onset breast cancer, we report a SNP upstream of the ARRDC3 locus as potentially associated with prognosis (median follow-up time for genotypes: CC = 4 years, CT = 3 years, and TT = 2.7 years; Wilcoxon rank-sum test CC vs. CT, P = 4 × 10(-4) and CT vs. TT, P = 0.76). Four further loci may also be associated with prognosis.

  6. Founder mutations in early-onset, familial and bilateral breast cancer patients from Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolenko, Anna P; Rozanov, Maxim E; Mitiushkina, Natalia V; Sherina, Natalia Yu; Iyevleva, Aglaya G; Chekmariova, Elena V; Buslov, Konstantin G; Shilov, Evgeny S; Togo, Alexandr V; Bit-Sava, Elena M; Voskresenskiy, Dmitry A; Chagunava, Oleg L; Devilee, Peter; Cornelisse, Cees; Semiglazov, Vladimir F; Imyanitov, Evgeny N

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that founder mutations may play a noticeable role in breast cancer (BC) predisposition in Russia. Here we performed a systematic analysis of eight recurrent mutations in 302 BC cases (St.-Petersburg, Russia), which were selected due to the presence of clinical indicators of hereditary disease (bilaterality and/or early onset (A in 2 (0.7%), and BRCA1 185delAG, BRCA2 6174delT and NBS1 657del5 in 1 (0.3%) patient each. No cases with BRCA1 300T>G (C61G) mutation was identified. The obtained data suggest that a significant fraction of hereditary BC cases in Russia can be diagnosed using only a limited number of simple PCR tests.

  7. BRCA mutations, molecular markers, and clinical variables in early-onset breast cancer: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolino, Antonino; Bella, Maria A; Bortesi, Beatrice; Michiara, Maria; Naldi, Nadia; Zanelli, Paola; Capelletti, Marzia; Pezzuolo, Debora; Camisa, Roberta; Savi, Mario; Neri, Tauro M; Ardizzoni, Andrea

    2007-06-01

    Early age at onset is generally considered an indicator of genetic susceptibility to breast cancer. To address both the proportion of early-onset breast cancer associated with BRCA-1 or BRCA-2 germline mutation and the contribution of germline mutations to the clinical features and outcome of these tumors, we analyzed molecular status and clinical variables of a population-based sample of 66 Italian women diagnosed with breast cancer before the age of 40 who were unselected for family history. BRCA mutations were screened by automated sequencing of the entire BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 coding regions and splice junctions. Twenty-eight late-onset (over 45 years), sporadic, breast cancers were designated as "control group" for comparisons with early-onset cases. BRCA mutations (10 BRCA-1 and 6 BRCA-2) were detected in 15 (22.7%) out of 66 tested patients. The combination of ER, PR, HER-2/neu negativity and p53 positivity was significantly more frequent in BRCA-1 positive tumors than in BRCA-2 positive and non-BRCA tumors (P=0.03). Taken collectively, BRCA-positive tumors correlated with high histologic grade and ER negativity compared with non-BRCA and sporadic tumors (P=0.05 and 0.003, respectively). There were no significant differences between BRCA-associated breast cancers (BABC) and non-BABC in relapse-free, event-free, and overall survival. Our data confirm that the combination of age at onset and tumor phenotype can provide an efficient model for identifying individuals with a high probability of carrying BRCA mutations and support the hypothesis that breast cancer in BRCA carriers is qualitatively distinct from other early-onset breast cancers and from late-onset, sporadic, breast carcinomas. Further studies on incident cases are necessary to define the independent prognostic significance of germline BRCA mutations.

  8. A family history of breast cancer will not predict female early onset breast cancer in a population-based setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. de Bock (Geertruida); C.E. Jacobi (Catharina); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); E.M.M. Krol-Warmerdam (Elly); J. Blom (Jannet); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); C.J. Cornelisse (Cees); J.G.M. Klijn (Jan); P. Devilee (Peter); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); C.T. Brekelmans (Cecile); J.C. van Houwelingen

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: An increased risk of breast cancer for relatives of breast cancer patients has been demonstrated in many studies, and having a relative diagnosed with breast cancer at an early age is an indication for breast cancer screening. This indication has been derived from estimates b

  9. A family history of breast cancer will not predict female early onset breast cancer in a population-based setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, Geertruida H.; Jacobi, Catharina E.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Krol-Warmerdam, Elly M. M.; Blom, Jannet; van Asperen, Christi J.; Cornelisse, Cees J.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Brekelmans, Cecile T. M.; van Houwelingen, Johannes C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: An increased risk of breast cancer for relatives of breast cancer patients has been demonstrated in many studies, and having a relative diagnosed with breast cancer at an early age is an indication for breast cancer screening. This indication has been derived from estimates based on data

  10. A family history of breast cancer will not predict female early onset breast cancer in a population-based setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, Geertruida H.; Jacobi, Catharina E.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Krol-Warmerdam, Elly M. M.; Blom, Jannet; van Asperen, Christi J.; Cornelisse, Cees J.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Brekelmans, Cecile T. M.; van Houwelingen, Johannes C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: An increased risk of breast cancer for relatives of breast cancer patients has been demonstrated in many studies, and having a relative diagnosed with breast cancer at an early age is an indication for breast cancer screening. This indication has been derived from estimates based on data

  11. A novel de novo BRCA2 mutation of paternal origin identified in a Spanish woman with early onset bilateral breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Orland; Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sara; Mediano, Carmen; Masas, Miriam; Saura, Cristina; Gadea, Neus; Balmaña, Judith

    2010-05-01

    Germ line mutations in either of the two major breast cancer predisposition genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, account for a significant proportion of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer. Identification of breast cancer patients carrying mutations in any of these genes is primarily based on a positive family history of breast/ovarian cancer or early onset of the disease. In the course of mutation screening of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in a hospital based series of patients with risk factors for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer, we identified a novel germ line mutation in the BRCA2 gene (c.51dupA) in a patient with early onset bilateral breast cancer and no family history of the disease. None of her parents carried the mutation, and paternity was confirmed. Subsequent molecular analysis demonstrated that the mutation was a novel de novo germ line mutation located in the paternal allele of the BRCA2 gene.

  12. BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations in Malaysian women with early-onset breast cancer without a family history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaik Theng Toh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Asia, breast cancer is characterised by an early age of onset: In Malaysia, approximately 50% of cases occur in women under the age of 50 years. A proportion of these cases may be attributable, at least in part, to genetic components, but to date, the contribution of genetic components to breast cancer in many of Malaysia's ethnic groups has not been well-characterised. METHODOLOGY: Given that hereditary breast carcinoma is primarily due to germline mutations in one of two breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, we have characterised the spectrum of BRCA mutations in a cohort of 37 individuals with early-onset disease (

  13. DEAR1 is a dominant regulator of acinar morphogenesis and an independent predictor of local recurrence-free survival in early-onset breast cancer.

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    Steven T Lott

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer in young women tends to have a natural history of aggressive disease for which rates of recurrence are higher than in breast cancers detected later in life. Little is known about the genetic pathways that underlie early-onset breast cancer. Here we report the discovery of DEAR1 (ductal epithelium-associated RING Chromosome 1, a novel gene encoding a member of the TRIM (tripartite motif subfamily of RING finger proteins, and provide evidence for its role as a dominant regulator of acinar morphogenesis in the mammary gland and as an independent predictor of local recurrence-free survival in early-onset breast cancer. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Suppression subtractive hybridization identified DEAR1 as a novel gene mapping to a region of high-frequency loss of heterozygosity (LOH in a number of histologically diverse human cancers within Chromosome 1p35.1. In the breast epithelium, DEAR1 expression is limited to the ductal and glandular epithelium and is down-regulated in transition to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, an early histologic stage in breast tumorigenesis. DEAR1 missense mutations and homozygous deletion (HD were discovered in breast cancer cell lines and tumor samples. Introduction of the DEAR1 wild type and not the missense mutant alleles to complement a mutation in a breast cancer cell line, derived from a 36-year-old female with invasive breast cancer, initiated acinar morphogenesis in three-dimensional (3D basement membrane culture and restored tissue architecture reminiscent of normal acinar structures in the mammary gland in vivo. Stable knockdown of DEAR1 in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs recapitulated the growth in 3D culture of breast cancer cell lines containing mutated DEAR1, in that shDEAR1 clones demonstrated disruption of tissue architecture, loss of apical basal polarity, diffuse apoptosis, and failure of lumen formation. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining of a tissue

  14. A Study on BRCA1/2 Mutations, Hormone Status and HER-2 Status in Korean Women with Early-onset Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Doo Ho; Jin, So Young; Lee, Dong Wha; Kim, Eun Seog; Kim, Yong Ho [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    Women with breast cancer diagnosed at an age of 40 years or younger have a greater prevalence of germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations than the prevalence of women with breast cancer diagnosed at older ages. Several immunohistochemical characteristics have been identified in breast cancers from studies of Caucasian women with BRCA1/2 mutations having familial or early-onset breast cancers. The aim of this study is to determine whether early-onset breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, who were not selected from a family history, could be distinguished by the use of immunohistochemical methods and could be distinguished from breast cancer in women of a similar age without a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. We also analyzed the prognostic difference between BRCA1/2 related and BRCA1/2 non-related patients by the use of univariate and multivariate analysis. Breast cancer tissue specimens from Korean women with early-onset breast cancers were studied using a tumor tissue microarray. Immunohistochemical staining of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER-2, as well as the histology and grade of these specimens, were compared. The prognostic impact of immunohistochemical and histological factors as well as the BRCA1/2 mutation status was investigated separately. There were 14 cases and 16 deleterious BRCA1/2 mutations among 101 patients tested. A family history (4/14) and bilateral breast cancers (3/9) were high risk factors for BRCA1/2 mutations. BRCA1/2- associated cancers demonstrated more expression of ER-negative (19.4% versus 5.1%, p=0.038) and HER-2 negative than BRCA1/2 negative tumors, especially for tumors with BRCA1 tumors The BRCA1/2 mutation rate for patients with triple negative tumors (negative expression of ER, PR and HER-2) was 24.2%. Tumor size, nodal status, and HER-2 expression status were significantly associated with disease free survival, as determined by univariate and multivariate analysis, but the BRCA1/2 status was

  15. Decreased FOXF2 mRNA expression indicates early-onset metastasis and poor prognosis for breast cancer patients with histological grade II tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Zhou Kong

    Full Text Available The transcription factor, FOXF2, plays an important role in tissue development, extracellular matrix synthesis, and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, implying that it may be associated with the metastatic capabilities of cancer cells. However, the relationship between FOXF2 expression and breast cancer progression, metastasis, and prognosis, remains to be elucidated. In this study, FOXF2 mRNA levels in 305 primary breast cancer tissues were examined using RT-QPCR. Results showed that FOXF2 mRNA levels in primary breast cancer were negatively associated with tumor progression, including tumor size, number of metastatic lymph nodes, and clinical stage. Patients with low FOXF2 mRNA levels had a high risk of relapse and metastasis within three years. Low FOXF2 mRNA levels could predict shorter disease-free survival for those patients with histological grade II and triple-negative breast cancer. Taken together, we conclude that decreased FOXF2 expression indicates the early-onset metastasis and poor prognosis for patients with histological grade II and triple-negative breast cancer.

  16. Decreased FOXF2 mRNA expression indicates early-onset metastasis and poor prognosis for breast cancer patients with histological grade II tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peng-Zhou; Yang, Fan; Li, Lin; Li, Xiao-Qing; Feng, Yu-Mei

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factor, FOXF2, plays an important role in tissue development, extracellular matrix synthesis, and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, implying that it may be associated with the metastatic capabilities of cancer cells. However, the relationship between FOXF2 expression and breast cancer progression, metastasis, and prognosis, remains to be elucidated. In this study, FOXF2 mRNA levels in 305 primary breast cancer tissues were examined using RT-QPCR. Results showed that FOXF2 mRNA levels in primary breast cancer were negatively associated with tumor progression, including tumor size, number of metastatic lymph nodes, and clinical stage. Patients with low FOXF2 mRNA levels had a high risk of relapse and metastasis within three years. Low FOXF2 mRNA levels could predict shorter disease-free survival for those patients with histological grade II and triple-negative breast cancer. Taken together, we conclude that decreased FOXF2 expression indicates the early-onset metastasis and poor prognosis for patients with histological grade II and triple-negative breast cancer.

  17. Comprehensive analysis of BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53 germline mutation and tumor characterization: a portrait of early-onset breast cancer in Brazil.

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    Dirce Maria Carraro

    Full Text Available Germline mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53 genes have been identified as one of the most important disease-causing issues in young breast cancer patients worldwide. The specific defective biological processes that trigger germline mutation-associated and -negative tumors remain unclear. To delineate an initial portrait of Brazilian early-onset breast cancer, we performed an investigation combining both germline and tumor analysis. Germline screening of the BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2 (c.1100delC and TP53 genes was performed in 54 unrelated patients <35 y; their tumors were investigated with respect to transcriptional and genomic profiles as well as hormonal receptors and HER2 expression/amplification. Germline mutations were detected in 12 out of 54 patients (22% [7 in BRCA1 (13%, 4 in BRCA2 (7% and one in TP53 (2% gene]. A cancer familial history was present in 31.4% of the unrelated patients, from them 43.7% were carriers for germline mutation (37.5% in BRCA1 and in 6.2% in the BRCA2 genes. Fifty percent of the unrelated patients with hormone receptor-negative tumors carried BRCA1 mutations, percentage increasing to 83% in cases with familial history of cancer. Over-representation of DNA damage-, cellular and cell cycle-related processes was detected in the up-regulated genes of BRCA1/2-associated tumors, whereas cell and embryo development-related processes were over-represented in the up-regulated genes of BRCA1/2-negative tumors, suggesting distinct mechanisms driving the tumorigenesis. An initial portrait of the early-onset breast cancer patients in Brazil was generated pointing out that hormone receptor-negative tumors and positive familial history are two major risk factors for detection of a BRCA1 germline mutation. Additionally, the data revealed molecular factors that potentially trigger the tumor development in young patients.

  18. Germline mutations in NF1 and BRCA1 in a family with neurofibromatosis type 1 and early-onset breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Berta; Balmaña, Judith; Gardenyes, Josep; Valenzuela, Irene; Abad, Oscar; Fàbregas, Pere; Volpini, Víctor; Díez, Orland

    2013-06-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common dominant autosomal disorder caused by mutations in the NF1 gene. The main manifestations of NF1 are café-au-lait spots, neurofibromas, intertriginous freckling, Lisch nodules, and malignancy, including peripheral nerve sheath tumors, central nervous system gliomas, and a variety of other tumors not so clearly defined. The association between NF1 and breast cancer or other gynecologic malignancies seems uncommon and has been scarcely referred in the literature. We describe a family with two females affected by both NF1 and early-onset breast cancer, and a male with NF1. We evaluated whether the concomitance of both disorders could be attributed to a NF1 mutation and its supposed increased risk of breast cancer or to the concurrence of two NF1 and BRCA1/2 germline mutations. Mutation analyses identified a frameshift mutation in BRCA1 and a nonsense mutation in NF1. Our findings stress the importance of considering all phenotypic features in families with both NF1 and breast tumors. To offer a specific risk assessment and management of both conditions, NF1 and BRCA1/2 cancer predisposing genes should be analyzed.

  19. Early-onset colorectal cancer: a sporadic or inherited disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigliano, Vittoria; Sanchez-Mete, Lupe; Martayan, Aline; Anti, Marcello

    2014-09-21

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer diagnosed worldwide. Although epidemiology data show a marked variability around the world, its overall incidence rate shows a slow but steady decrease, mainly in developed countries. Conversely, early-onset colorectal cancer appears to display an opposite trend with an overall prevalence in United States and European Union ranging from 3.0% and 8.6%. Colorectal cancer has a substantial proportion of familial cases. In particular, early age at onset is especially suggestive of hereditary predisposition. The clinicopathological and molecular features of colorectal cancer cases show a marked heterogeneity not only between early- and late-onset cases but also within the early-onset group. Two distinct subtypes of early-onset colorectal cancers can be identified: a "sporadic" subtype, usually without family history, and an inherited subtype arising in the context of well defined hereditary syndromes. The pathogenesis of the early-onset disease is substantially well characterized in the inherited subtype, which is mainly associated to the Lynch syndrome and occasionally to other rare mendelian diseases, whereas in the "sporadic" subtype the origin of the disease may be attributed to the presence of various common/rare genetic variants, so far largely unidentified, displaying variable penetrance. These variants are thought to act cumulatively to increase the risk of colorectal cancer, and presumably to also anticipate its onset. Efforts are ongoing in the attempt to unravel the intricate genetic basis of this "sporadic" early-onset disease. A better knowledge of molecular entities and pathways may impact on family-tailored prevention and clinical management strategies.

  20. Novel BRCA1 deleterious mutation (c.1949_1950delTA) in a woman of Senegalese descent with triple-negative early-onset breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Orland; Pelegrí, Amadeu; Gadea, Neus; Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sara; Masas, Miriam; Tenés, Anna; Bosch, Nina; Balmaña, Judith; Graña, Begoña

    2011-11-01

    Limited information exists regarding BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic testing and genetic diversity in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in sub-Saharan African populations. We report a novel mutation that consists of a deletion of 2 bp (c.1949_1950delTA) in the exon 11 of the BRCA1 gene. This is a frameshift mutation that causes the disruption of the translational reading frame resulting in a premature stop codon downstream in the BRCA1 protein. The mutation was present in a Senegalese woman with a triple-negative breast tumor and a family history of breast cancer.

  1. Long-term prognosis of early-onset breast cancer in a population-based cohort with a known BRCA1/2 mutation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Martin P; Hartman, Linda; Idvall, Ingrid; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Johannsson, Oskar T; Loman, Niklas

    2014-02-01

    All women in the South Sweden Health Care Region with breast cancer diagnosed aged less than 41 during the period between 1990 and 1995 were contacted in 1996 and offered germline mutation analysis of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Mutation carriers (n = 20) were compared with noncarriers (n = 201) for overall survival (OS) and risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC). Mutation carriers were younger at diagnosis and more likely to have ER-negative, PgR-negative and grade III tumors. Median follow-up was 19 years. The 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year OS were 60, 45, 39, and 39 % for mutation carriers and 82, 70, 59, and 53 % for noncarriers, respectively (5-year log-rank P = 0.013; 10-year P = 0.008; 15-year P = 0.020; and 20-year P = 0.046). In univariable analysis, there was a trend for an inferior OS for mutation carriers (HR 1.8; 95 % CI 1.0-3.3). When stratified for use of (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy, an inferior OS was significant only for the subgroup of patients who did not receive chemotherapy (HR 3.0; 95 % CI 1.2-7.7). In multivarible analysis, BRCA1/2 mutation status was a significant predictor of OS when adjusting for tumor stage, age, and use of chemotherapy, but not when ER status was also included in the model. The 15-year cumulative risk of CBC was 53 % for mutation carriers and 10 % for noncarriers (HR 5.9; 95 % CI 1.9-18.6); among the noncarriers the risks were 5, 22, and 30 % for patients without close relatives having breast cancer, with second-degree relatives having breast cancer, and with firstdegree relatives with breast cancer, respectively. In conclusion, the poor prognosis of young BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with breast cancer is mainly explained by the prevalent occurrence of negative prognostic factors rather than mutation status per se, and can to at least some extent be abrogated by the use of chemotherapy.

  2. Application Observation on Ultrasound Contrast in Diagnosis of Early -onset Breast Cancer%超声造影在早发性乳腺癌诊断中应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗水浓; 曾月颜; 谢永林

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨超声造影在早发性乳腺癌诊断中的应用效果。方法整群选择2014年1月—2015年2月来该院治疗乳腺癌的患者72例,根据年龄随机将其分成两组,每组36例。A组患者年龄≤35岁,B组患者年龄>35岁。两组患者手术前均采用超声及超声造影检查,观察两组患者声像图特征。结果 A组患者在病灶大小、纵横比大小、高回声晕大小、内部回声、造影剂滞留等方面与B组有明显差异,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);两组患者在形态、边界、毛刺、钙化灶等方面差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论在早发性乳腺癌诊断中采用超声造影检查效果明显,能更准确的确诊乳腺癌疾病,为临床医生治疗乳腺癌提供最佳治疗机会。%Objective To observe the application effect of ultrasound contrast in diagnosis of early-onset breast cancer. Methods 72 cases of patients with breast cancer treated in our hospital from January 2014 to February 2015 were selected and randomly divided into two groups with 36 cases in each according to their ages. The age of group A ≤35 and group B>35. Before surgery , two groups of patients were examined by ultrasound and ultrasound contrast, sonographic features of the two groups were observed. Results Focus size, aspect ratio, high echo halo size, internal echo and contrast agent reten-tion in group A were significantly different from group B (P0.05). Conclusion The effect of contrast-enhanced ultrasound inspection in diagnosis of early-onset breast cancer is obvious, which can make a definite diagnosis of breast cancer more accurately and provide the best treatment opportunity for clinical doctors in the treatment of breast cancer.

  3. Susceptibility genetic variants associated with early-onset colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giráldez, María Dolores; López-Dóriga, Adriana; Bujanda, Luis; Abulí, Anna; Bessa, Xavier; Fernández-Rozadilla, Ceres; Muñoz, Jenifer; Cuatrecasas, Miriam; Jover, Rodrigo; Xicola, Rosa M; Llor, Xavier; Piqué, Josep M; Carracedo, Angel; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Cosme, Angel; Enríquez-Navascués, José María; Moreno, Victor; Andreu, Montserrat; Castells, Antoni; Balaguer, Francesc; Castellví-Bel, Sergi

    2012-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in Western countries. Hereditary forms only correspond to 5% of CRC burden. Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified common low-penetrant CRC genetic susceptibility loci. Early-onset CRC (CRC65 years old) (n = 1264). CRC susceptibility variants at 8q23.3 (rs16892766), 8q24.21 (rs6983267), 10p14 (rs10795668), 11q23.1 (rs3802842), 15q13.3 (rs4779584), 18q21 (rs4939827), 14q22.2 (rs4444235), 16q22.1 (rs9929218), 19q13.1 (rs10411210) and 20p12.3 (rs961253) were genotyped in all DNA samples. A genotype-phenotype correlation with clinical and pathological characteristics in both groups was performed. Risk allele carriers for rs3802842 [Odds ratio (OR) = 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.05, P = 0.0096, dominant model) and rs4779584 (OR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.02-1.9, P = 0.0396, dominant model) were more frequent in the CRC<50 group, whereas homozygotes for rs10795668 risk allele were also more frequent in the early-onset CRC (P = 0.02, codominant model). Regarding early-onset cases, 14q22 (rs4444235), 11q23 (rs3802842) and 20p12 (rs961253) variants were more associated with family history of CRC or tumors of the Lynch syndrome spectrum excluding CRC. In our entire cohort, sum of risk alleles was significantly higher in patients with a CRC family history (OR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.06-1.85, P = 0.01). In conclusion, variants at 10p14 (rs10795668), 11q23.1 (rs3802842) and 15q13.3 (rs4779584) may have a predominant role in predisposition to early-onset CRC. Association of CRC susceptibility variants with some patient's familiar and personal features could be relevant for screening and surveillance strategies in this high-risk group and it should be explored in further studies.

  4. Relationship between mutation of BRCA1 and susceptibility to early onset of breast cancer%BRCAl基因突变与年轻患者乳腺癌发生的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟洁; 史玉荣; 牛瑞芳; 付丽

    2009-01-01

    >T, 1473 A>G, 1561 C>T, 1594G >A, 2206 A>G, 2227 T>C, 2659 C>A, 2806T > C, 3307 A >G, and 3375 G > A). Three patients with these mutations had a family history of breast cancer. The mutation frequency of BRCA1 was 10% (3/30). No mutation was found in the exons 16 and 20. Conclusion Patients with breast cancer aged ≤35 have BRCA1 mutations located in the exon 11 mainly. The mutation frequency of the breast cancer patients aged ≤ 35 with breast cancer family history is higher than those without family history. Three frameshift mutation sites may be related to early onset of breast cancer.

  5. Early-onset gastric cancers have a different molecular expression profile than conventional gastric cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.N.A. Milne; R. Carvalho; F.M. Morsink; A.R. Musler; W.W.J. de Leng; A. Ristimaki; G.J.A. Offerhaus

    2006-01-01

    Many studies examine the molecular genetics of gastric cancer, but few look at young patients in particular and there is no comparison of molecular expression between early-onset gastric cancer (<= 45 years old) and conventional gastric cancers. Expression of cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) is elevated in g

  6. High Throughput Sequencing of Germline and Tumor from Men With Early-Onset Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    challenge, Dr. Tomlins has continued to develop state of the art technologies to use formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) prostate cancer specimens...men with early-onset, metastatic prostate cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kathleen A. Cooney, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...High-Throughput Sequencing of Germline and Tumor From Men with Early-Onset Metastatic Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0371 5c

  7. Early-onset gastric cancer: Learning lessons from the young

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, A. N.; Offerhaus, G J A

    2010-01-01

    There is by no means a clear-cut pattern of mutations contributing to gastric cancers, and gastric cancer research can be hampered by the diversity of factors that can induce gastric cancer, such as Helicobacter pylori infection, diet, ageing and other environmental factors. Tumours are unquestionably riddled with genetic changes yet we are faced with an unsolvable puzzle with respect to a temporal relationship. It is postulated that inherited genetic factors may be more important in early-on...

  8. Candidate colorectal cancer predisposing gene variants in Chinese early-onset and familial cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.X.; Fu, L.; Voer, R.M. de; Hahn, M.M.; Jin, P.; Lv, C.X.; Verwiel, E.T.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Kuiper, R.P.; Sheng, J.Q.; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether whole-exome sequencing may serve as an efficient method to identify known or novel colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposing genes in early-onset or familial CRC cases. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing in 23 Chinese patients from 21 families with non-polyposis CRC

  9. Is the BRCA germline mutation a prognostic factor in Korean patients with early-onset breast carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Doo Ho; Lee, Min Hyuk [College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Haffty, Bruce G. [College of Medicine, Yale Univ., New Haven, (United States)

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there were prognostic differences between BRCA related and BRCA non-related Korean patients with early-onset breast carcinomas. Sixty women who had developed breast cancers before the age of 40 and who were treated at the Soonchunhyang University Hospital, were studied independently of their family histories. The age range was 18 to 40 with a median of 34.5 years. Lymphocyte specimens from peripheral blood were studied for the heterozygous mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 using direct sequencing methods. Immunohistochemistry was performed on the paraffin-embedded tissue blocks that were available. Eleven deleterious mutations (18.3%, 6 in BRCA1 and 5 in BRCA2) and 7 missense mutations of unknown significance (11.7%), were found among the 60 patients. More than half of the mutation were novel, and were not reported in the database. Most of the BRCA-associated patients had no history of breast cancer. No treatment related failures were observed in the BRCA carriers, with the exception of one patient that had experienced a new primary tumor of the contralateral breast. The seven year relapse free survival rate were 50 and 79% in the BRCA carrier and BRCA negative patients, respectively, Although the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors were less common, and histological features more aggressive, in the BRCA associated tumors, the outcome of the patients with BRCA mutations was not poorer than that of the patients without deleterious mutations. Despite the BRCA mutation carriers having adverse prognostic features, the recurrence rate was relatively lower than that in the BRCA non-carrying Korean patients with early-onset breast carcinomas. In addition, although the prevalence of the BRCA mutation in Korean patients was higher than that in white patients, the penetrance of the cancer seemed to be relatively low in Korean women carrying BRCA mutations. A large population based study of the BRCA mutation, with a long

  10. Relationships between androgen receptor expression and clinicopathological features and prognosis of early-onset breast cancer in Xinjiang%雄激素受体表达与新疆早发性乳腺癌临床病理特征及预后的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊婷; 张银华; 赵峰

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the relationships between androgen receptor (AR)expression and the clinicopathological features and prognosis of young patients (age≤35 years)with early-onset breast cancer in Xinjiang.Methods One hundred and forty-five young patients (age≤35 years)with invasive breast cancer who underwent surgery in Affiliated Cancer Hospital of of Xinjiang Medical University from January 201 0 to December 201 2 were collected.The expressions of AR in 1 45 patiens with early-onset breast cancer were detec-ted by immunohistochemical method.The relationships between AR expression and the clinicopathological fea-tures and prognosis of patients with early-onset breast cancer were retrospective analysed.Results The posi-tive rate of AR expression of patients with early-onset breast cancer in Xinjiang was 69.0% (1 00 /1 45).Single factor analysis showed that AR expression was related with neurovascular invasion (χ2 =5.309,P =0.021 ) and lymph node metastasis (χ2 =6.073,P =0.01 4),but it was not related with ethnicity (χ2 =0.097,P =0.755),age (χ2 =0.045,P =0.831 ),feeding history (χ2 =0.066,P =0.797),family history of cancer (P =0.556),histological grade (P =0.469),tumor size (χ2 =1 .006,P =0.605)and clinical stage (χ2 =4.381 ,P =0.223).The median follow-up time was 47 months.There was no significant difference between AR expression and disease-free survival of patients with early-onset breast cancer (χ2 =1 .972,P =0.1 60). Conclusion Early-onset breast cancer patients with AR positive are more likely to appear lymph node metasta-sis and neurovascular invasion than the patients with AR negative,which has certain guidance means for the treatment of early-onset breast cancer with lymph node metastasis positive.%目的:研究雄激素受体(AR)表达与新疆早发性乳腺癌患者(年龄≤35岁)的临床病理特征及预后的关系。方法收集新疆医科大学附属肿瘤医院2010年1月至2012年12月经手术切除的浸润性乳腺

  11. CYP450 polymorphisms as risk factors for early-onset lung cancer: gender-specific differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, Maria N; Kropp, Silke; Sauter, Wiebke; Beckmann, Lars; Rosenberger, Albert; Illig, Thomas; Jäger, Birgit; Mittelstrass, Kirstin; Dienemann, Hendrik; Bartsch, Helmut; Bickeböller, Heike; Chang-Claude, Jenny C; Risch, Angela; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich

    2009-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, involved in metabolism of tobacco carcinogens, are also involved in estrogen metabolism and many are regulated by estrogens. These genes may thus be of relevance to gender-specific differences in lung cancer risk, particularly in early-onset lung cancer, where a high proportion of women is observed. We conducted a case-control study to investigate genetic polymorphisms in cytochromes that might modify the risk of developing early-onset lung cancer. In total, 638 Caucasian patients under the age of 51 with primary lung cancer and 1300 cancer-free control individuals, matched by age and sex, were included in this analysis. Thirteen polymorphisms in the CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A13, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes were analyzed. No significant association was found for any of the analyzed polymorphisms and lung cancer risk overall. However, among women, a significantly increased risk of early-onset lung cancer was observed for carriers of the minor allele of CYP1B1 SNP rs1056836 [odds ratio (OR) 1.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-2.94; P lung cancer risk was observed in the group of women carriers of the minor allele of CYP2A13 SNP rs1709084 (OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.00-2.70; P = 0.05). The effect of these two polymorphisms was shown to be modified by smoking. Haplotype analysis was performed for CYP1B1 and CYP2A13. No differences between cases and controls were observed for both genes (P = 0.63 and P = 0.42 for CYP1B1 and CYP2A13, respectively). Our results suggest that the CYP1B1 and the CYP2A13 genotypes may contribute to individual susceptibility to early-onset lung cancer in women.

  12. Lymphoid infiltration as a prognostic variable for early-onset breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, S; Tomasic, G; Casalini, P; Balsari, A; Pilotti, S; Cascinelli, N; Salvadori, B; Colnaghi, M I; Rilke, F

    1997-05-01

    Infiltration by lymphoid cells is a common feature of many human tumors, including breast carcinomas, and the degree of infiltration has been suggested to be a measure of the host immune response. Our analyses in a series of 1919 cases of primary ductal and lobular infiltrating breast carcinomas from women with a long-term follow-up revealed: (a) a 16-17% frequency of infiltrated tumors independent of the patient's age at diagnosis; and (b) a strong positive correlation between survival rates and the presence of lymphocytes at the tumor site in patients less than 40 years of age (P = 0.0002) but no association with prognosis in patients 40 years of age or older. Multivariate analysis indicated that lymphoid infiltration is independent of other conventional prognostic factors such as nodal status and tumor size in predicting survival. Thus, a possible immune response against the tumor seems to be relevant only in women with early-onset tumors. Because the immune system is functionally maximum in younger years, declining with age, this finding might reflect a difference in the efficiency of the immune system. Alternatively, the biology of these tumors might differ, leading to a difference in immuno-genicity.

  13. Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms of BARD1 gene and susceptibility of early-onset breast cancer in Uygur women in Xinjiang%BARD1基因单核苷酸多态性与新疆维吾尔族妇女早发性乳腺癌的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙刚; 王江涛; 马斌林; 耿中利; 任光辉; 单美慧; 马斌; 马莉莉; 王岩

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨BARD1基因Pro24Ser(C/T)、Arg378Ser(G/C)和Val507Met( G/A)单核苷酸多态性(SNPa)与新疆维吾尔族妇女早发性乳腺癌易感性的关系.方法 采用病例-对照研究,应用聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性(PCR-RFLP)方法检测新疆地区144例维吾尔族妇女早发性乳腺癌(年龄≤40岁)和136例维吾尔族健康女性BARD1基因Pr024Ser (C/T)、Arg378 Ser( G/C)和Val507Met (G/A)位点基因型,比较各位点基因型分布与维吾尔族妇女早发性乳腺癌发病风险的关系.结果 初潮年龄早、初产年龄晚和肿瘤家族史可能是新疆地区维吾尔族早发性乳腺癌患者发病的高危因素.在维吾尔族早发性乳腺癌组和健康对照组中,BARD1基因Pro24Ser (C/T)、Arg378Ser(G/C)和Val507Met( G/A)位点的各基因型频率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).Logistic同归分析表明,Pro24Ser(C/T)位点TT(OR =0.117,95% CI为0.058~0.236)及显性模型CT+ TT( OR=0.279,95%CI为0.157~0.494)、Arg378Ser( G/C)位点CC(OR=0.348,95%CI为0.145~0.834)和Val507 Met( G/A)位点AA(OR=0.359,95% CI为0.167~0.774)的改变,可以显著降低维吾尔族早发性乳腺癌发病风险,并且各位点之间存在协同作用;同时,显性模型CT+TT、GC +CC、GA +AA间的交互作用可以降低52.1%的乳腺癌发病风险(OR=0.479,95% CI为0.230~0.995).分层分析结果显示,Pro24Ser(C/T)和Arg378Ser( G/C)位点基因突变型的保护作用在初潮年龄早和肿瘤家族史阴性患者中更为明显.随着患者初潮年龄的增加,这种保护作用逐渐降低.结论 BARD1基因Pr24Ser(C/T)、Arg378Ser(G/C)和Val507Met( G/A)位点的SNPs变化,能够显著降低新疆地区维吾尔族妇女早发性乳腺癌的发病风险,初潮年龄早和无肿瘤家族史可以增加突变等位基因的保护作用.%Objective To investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of BARD1 gene and susceptibility of early-onset breast cancer in

  14. Approach to early-onset colorectal cancer:Clinicopathological,familial,molecular and immunohistochemical characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jose; Perea; Edurne; Alvaro; Yolanda; Rodríguez; Cristina; Gravalos; Eva; Sánchez-Tomé; Barbara; Rivera; Francisco; Colina; Pablo; Carbonell; Rogelio; González-Sarmiento; Manuel; Hidalgo; Miguel; Urioste

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To characterize clinicopathological and familial features of early-onset colorectal cancer(CRC) and compare features of tumors with and without microsatellite instability(MSI).METHODS:Forty-five patients with CRC aged 45 or younger were included in the study.Clinical information,a three-generation family history,and tumor samples were obtained.MSI status was analyzed and mismatch repair genes were examined in the MSI families.Tumors were included in a tissue microarray and an immunohistochemical study w...

  15. Risk Factors for Early-Onset and Very-Early-Onset Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: A Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Robert R; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Bamlet, William R; Petersen, Gloria M; Li, Donghui; Risch, Harvey A; Yu, Herbert; Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Luckett, Brian; Bosetti, Cristina; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo; Talamini, Renato; Bueno de Mesquita, H Bas; Bracci, Paige; Gallinger, Steven; Neale, Rachel E; Lowenfels, Albert B

    2016-02-01

    While pancreatic cancer (PC) most often affects older adults, to date, there has been no comprehensive assessment of risk factors among PC patients younger than 60 years. We defined early-onset PC (EOPC) and very-early-onset PC (VEOPC) as diagnosis of PC in patients younger than 60 and 45 years, respectively. We pooled data from 8 case-control studies, including 1954 patients with EOPC and 3278 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify associations with EOPC and VEOPC. Family history of PC, diabetes mellitus, smoking, obesity, and pancreatitis were associated with EOPC. Alcohol use equal to or greater than 26 g daily also was associated with increased risk of EOPC (odds ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.84), and there appeared to be a dose- and age-dependent effect of alcohol on risk. The point estimate for risk of VEOPC was an odds ratio of 2.18 (95% confidence interval, 1.17-4.09). The established risk factors for PC, including smoking, diabetes, family history of PC, and obesity, also apply to EOPC. Alcohol intake appeared to have an age-dependent effect; the strongest association was with VEOPC.

  16. Candidate predisposing germline copy number variants in early onset colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brea-Fernandez, A J; Fernandez-Rozadilla, C; Alvarez-Barona, M; Azuara, D; Ginesta, M M; Clofent, J; de Castro, L; Gonzalez, D; Andreu, M; Bessa, X; Llor, X; Xicola, R; Jover, R; Castells, A; Castellvi-Bel, S; Capella, G; Carracedo, A; Ruiz-Ponte, C

    2017-05-01

    A great proportion of the heritability of colorectal cancer (CRC) still remains unexplained, and rare variants, as well as copy number changes, have been proposed as potential candidates to explain the so-called 'missing heritability'. We aimed to identify rare high-to-moderately penetrant copy number variants (CNVs) in patients suspected of having hereditary CRC due to an early onset. We have selected for genome-wide copy number analysis, 27 MMR-proficient early onset CRC patients (1% in the in-house control CNV database (n = 629 healthy controls). Copy number assignment was checked by duplex real-time quantitative PCR or multiplex ligation probe amplification. Somatic mutation analysis in candidate genes included: loss of heterozygosity studies, point mutation screening, and methylation status of the promoter. We have identified two rare germline deletions involving the AK3 and SLIT2 genes in two patients. The search for a second somatic mutational event in the corresponding CRC tumors showed loss of heterozygosity in AK3, and promoter hypermethylation in SLIT2. Both genes have been previously related to colorectal carcinogenesis. These findings suggest that AK3 and SLIT2 may be potential candidates involved in genetic susceptibility to CRC.

  17. Androgen receptor CAG polymorphism and sporadic and early-onset prostate cancer among Mexican men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Rocío; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; Camacho-Mejorado, Rafael; Burguete-García, Ana I; Vázquez-Salas, Ruth Argelia; Martínez-Nava, Gabriela A; Santana, Carla; Noris, Gino

    2016-09-01

    A short CAG repeat length in the gene encoding for the androgen receptor (AR) has been associated with prostate cancer (PC) risk and aggressiveness. In Latino men, information on this association is scarce. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate this association in Mexican males. Using fragment analysis by capillary electrophoresis, we determined the number of CAG repeats-(CAG)n-in AR gene from 158 incident PC cases and 326 age-matched healthy controls (±5 years), residing in Mexico City, Mexico. According to Gleason scale and age at diagnosis, cases were classified as high (⩾7) and low grade (CAG repeat length than controls (18.6±2.2 vs 19.5±2.5; P=0.02). Lower number of CAG repeats (CAG)⩽19 were associated with a greater risk for early-onset PC (odds ratio: 2.31; 95% confidence interval: 1.14-4.69). CAG repeat length could increase the risk for sporadic and early-onset PC. The best cutoff point for identifying at-risk subjects was (CAG)19. However, further studies are necessary to replicate our findings in subjects with a family history of PC and also to evaluate the association between CAG repeats length and disease progression.

  18. Prevalence and Spectrum of Germline Cancer Susceptibility Gene Mutations Among Patients With Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Rachel; Frankel, Wendy L; Swanson, Benjamin; Zhao, Weiqiang; Yilmaz, Ahmet; Miller, Kristin; Bacher, Jason; Bigley, Christopher; Nelsen, Lori; Goodfellow, Paul J; Goldberg, Richard M; Paskett, Electra; Shields, Peter G; Freudenheim, Jo L; Stanich, Peter P; Lattimer, Ilene; Arnold, Mark; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Kalady, Matthew; Heald, Brandie; Greenwood, Carla; Paquette, Ian; Prues, Marla; Draper, David J; Lindeman, Carolyn; Kuebler, J Philip; Reynolds, Kelly; Brell, Joanna M; Shaper, Amy A; Mahesh, Sameer; Buie, Nicole; Weeman, Kisa; Shine, Kristin; Haut, Mitchell; Edwards, Joan; Bastola, Shyamal; Wickham, Karen; Khanduja, Karamjit S; Zacks, Rosemary; Pritchard, Colin C; Shirts, Brian H; Jacobson, Angela; Allen, Brian; de la Chapelle, Albert; Hampel, Heather

    2017-04-01

    Hereditary cancer syndromes infer high cancer risks and require intensive cancer surveillance, yet the prevalence and spectrum of these conditions among unselected patients with early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) is largely undetermined. To determine the frequency and spectrum of cancer susceptibility gene mutations among patients with early-onset CRC. Overall, 450 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer younger than 50 years were prospectively accrued from 51 hospitals into the Ohio Colorectal Cancer Prevention Initiative from January 1, 2013, to June 20, 2016. Mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency was determined by microsatellite instability and/or immunohistochemistry. Germline DNA was tested for mutations in 25 cancer susceptibility genes using next-generation sequencing. Mutation prevalence and spectrum in patients with early-onset CRC was determined. Clinical characteristics were assessed by mutation status. In total 450 patients younger than 50 years were included in the study, and 75 gene mutations were found in 72 patients (16%). Forty-eight patients (10.7%) had MMR-deficient tumors, and 40 patients (83.3%) had at least 1 gene mutation: 37 had Lynch syndrome (13, MLH1 [including one with constitutional MLH1 methylation]; 16, MSH2; 1, MSH2/monoallelic MUTYH; 2, MSH6; 5, PMS2); 1 patient had the APC c.3920T>A, p.I1307K mutation and a PMS2 variant; 9 patients (18.8%) had double somatic MMR mutations (including 2 with germline biallelic MUTYH mutations); and 1 patient had somatic MLH1 methylation. Four hundred two patients (89.3%) had MMR-proficient tumors, and 32 patients (8%) had at least 1 gene mutation: 9 had mutations in high-penetrance CRC genes (5, APC; 1, APC/PMS2; 2, biallelic MUTYH; 1, SMAD4); 13 patients had mutations in high- or moderate-penetrance genes not traditionally associated with CRC (3, ATM; 1, ATM/CHEK2; 2, BRCA1; 4, BRCA2; 1, CDKN2A; 2, PALB2); 10 patients had mutations in low-penetrance CRC genes (3, APC c.3920T>A, p.I1307K; 7

  19. Family History of Skin Cancer is Associated with Early-Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma Independent of MC1R Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Nicholas L.; Cartmel, Brenda; Leffell, David J.; Bale, Allen E.; Mayne, Susan T.; Ferrucci, Leah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background As a marker of genetic susceptibility and shared lifestyle characteristics, family history of cancer is often used to evaluate an individual’s risk for developing a particular malignancy. With comprehensive data on pigment characteristics, lifestyle factors, and melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene sequence, we sought to clarify the role of family history of skin cancer in early-onset basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Materials and Methods Early onset BCC cases (n=376) and controls with benign skin conditions (n=383) under age 40 were identified through Yale Dermatopathology. Self-report data on family history of skin cancer (melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer), including age of onset in relatives, was available from a structured interview. Participants also provided saliva samples for sequencing of MC1R. Results A family history of skin cancer was associated with an increased risk of early-onset BCC (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.80–3.45). In multivariate models, family history remained a strong risk factor for early-onset BCC after adjustment for pigment characteristics, UV exposure, and MC1R genotype (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.74–3.35). Conclusions Risk for BCC varied based upon the type and age of onset of skin cancer among affected relatives; individuals with a first-degree relative diagnosed with skin cancer prior to age 50 were at highest risk for BCC (OR 4.79, 95% CI 2.90–7.90). Even after taking into account potential confounding effects of MC1R genotype and various lifestyle factors that close relatives may share, family history of skin cancer remained strongly associated with early-onset BCC. PMID:26381319

  20. 新疆维吾尔族和汉族早发性乳腺癌中乳腺癌易感基因1相互作用蛋白1基因外显子共有突变位点的分析%Analysis on common mutation locus of breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 associated C terminal helicase 1 gene in exon of the early onset breast cancer patients of Uygur and Han nationalities in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马斌; 杨乐; 吴军; 马斌林

    2015-01-01

    目的 检测新疆地区维吾尔族(简称维族)和汉族妇女早发性乳腺癌患者乳腺癌易感基因1相互作用蛋白1(BACH1)基因外显子突变情况,探讨维、汉族共有的突变位点与临床病理特征的相关性.方法 直接测序法检测新疆地区维吾尔族与汉族妇女早发性乳腺癌(年龄30 ~ 40岁,各80例)BACHI基因外显子区域的突变情况.结果 (1)维族、汉族共检测出4个共有的突变位点,包括2个错义突变、2个同义突变,分别位于外显子(EXON)6、EXON19和EXON20.Polyphen和SIFT软件预测蛋白质功能,结果表明维、汉早发性乳腺癌患者共有的突变位点rs4986764可能为有害突变,可能影响BACH1蛋白质的功能.(2)在汉族人群中,c.587A→G、rs4986765、rs49867654、rs4986763位点的野生型与突变型在三阴性、非三阴性乳腺癌中的差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).但rs49867654、rs4986763位点的野生型与突变型在组织学分级Ⅰ+Ⅱ、Ⅲ级中的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),与野生型基因型比较,突变型基因型可降低病理组织学分级[比值比(OR)=0.063、0.015].在维族人群中,上述3个位点的野生型与突变型在三阴性、非三阴性乳腺癌及组织学分级Ⅰ+Ⅱ、Ⅲ级中的差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 在汉族人群中,rs49867654、rs4986763位点的突变型基因型可降低病理组织学分级,但在维族人群中未见统计学差异.%Objective Detect the state of common mutation locus of breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) associated C terminal helicase 1 (BACH1) gene in exon of the early onset breast cancer women patients of Uygur and Han nationalities in Xinjiang region and discuss the correlation between common mutation locus of Uygur and Han nationalities and clinicopathologic features.Methods Detect the state of mutation of BACH1 gene in exon of the early onset breast cancer women patients of Uygur and Han nationalities in Xinjiang region (aged 30

  1. Matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) is associated with early-onset lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Wiebke; Rosenberger, Albert; Beckmann, Lars; Kropp, Silke; Mittelstrass, Kirstin; Timofeeva, Maria; Wölke, Gabi; Steinwachs, Angelika; Scheiner, Daniela; Meese, Eckart; Sybrecht, Gerhard; Kronenberg, Florian; Dienemann, Hendrik; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Illig, Thomas; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Bickeböller, Heike; Risch, Angela

    2008-05-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) play a key role in the breakdown of extracellular matrix and in inflammatory processes. MMP1 is the most highly expressed interstitial collagenase degrading fibrillar collagens. Overexpression of MMP1 has been shown in tumor tissues and has been suggested to be associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. Nine haplotype tagging and additional two intronic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of MMP1 were genotyped in a case control sample, consisting of 635 lung cancer cases with onset of disease below 51 years of age and 1,300 age- and sex-matched cancer-free controls. Two regions of linkage disequilibrium (LD) of MMP1 could be observed: a region of low LD comprising the 5' region including the promoter and a region of high LD starting from exon 1 to the end of the gene and including the 3' flanking region. Several SNPs were identified to be individually significantly associated with risk of early-onset lung cancer. The most significant effect was seen for rs1938901 (P = 0.0089), rs193008 (P = 0.0108), and rs996999 (P = 0.0459). For rs996999, significance vanished after correction for multiple testing. For each of these SNPs, the major allele was associated with an increase in risk with an odds ratio between 1.2 and 1.3 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.5). The haplotype analysis supported these findings, especially for subgroups with high smoking intensity. In summary, we identified MMP1 to be associated with an increased risk for lung cancer, which was modified by smoking.

  2. Molecular approach to genetic and epigenetic pathogenesisof early-onset colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent cancertype and the incidence of this disease is increasinggradually per year in individuals younger than 50 yearsold. The current knowledge is that early-onset CRC(EOCRC) cases are heterogeneous population thatincludes both hereditary and sporadic forms of theCRC. Although EOCRC cases have some distinguishingclinical and pathological features than elder age CRC,the molecular mechanism underlying the EOCRC ispoorly clarified. Given the significance of CRC in theworld of medicine, the present review will focus on therecent knowledge in the molecular basis of genetic andepigenetic mechanism of the hereditary forms of EOCRC,which includes Lynch syndrome, Familial CRC type X,Familial adenomatous polyposis, MutYH-associatedpolyposis, Juvenile polyposis syndrome, Peutz-JeghersSyndrome and sporadic forms of EOCRC. Recent findingsabout molecular genetics and epigenetic basis of EOCRCgave rise to new alternative therapy protocols. Althoughexact diagnosis of these cases still remains complicated,the present review paves way for better predictions andcontributes to more accurate diagnostic and therapeuticstrategies into clinical approach.

  3. Epidural Brain Metastases in a Patient with Early Onset Pancreatic Cancer: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aibek E. Mirrakhimov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of early onset pancreatic cancer related extra-axial brain metastases. A 46-year-old Caucasian non-Jewish nonobese male with a history of PC diagnosed 3 months ago with metastases to the liver, omentum, malignant ascites, and a history of a pulmonary embolism was admitted to the hospital because of a new onset headache, nausea, and vomiting which started 2 days prior to the encounter. Brain MRI was ordered, which showed acute bihemispheric subdural hematomas and left hemispheric extra-axial heterogeneously enhancing lesions consisting with metastatic disease. The patient was started on ondansentron, metoclopramide, and dexamethasone. The cranial irradiation was started, and the patient’s headache and nausea significantly improved. There are only 9 published reports of extra-axial brain metastases related to the pancreatic cancer, whereas our paper is the first such case reported on a patient with epidural metastases and early onset pancreatic cancer.

  4. A high degree of LINE-1 hypomethylation is a unique feature of early-onset colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Antelo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC represents a clinically distinct form of CRC that is often associated with a poor prognosis. Methylation levels of genomic repeats such as LINE-1 elements have been recognized as independent factors for increased cancer-related mortality. The methylation status of LINE-1 elements in early-onset CRC has not been analyzed previously. DESIGN: We analyzed 343 CRC tissues and 32 normal colonic mucosa samples, including 2 independent cohorts of CRC diagnosed ≤ 50 years old (n=188, a group of sporadic CRC >50 years (MSS n=89; MSI n=46, and a group of Lynch syndrome CRCs (n=20. Tumor mismatch repair protein expression, microsatellite instability status, LINE-1 and MLH1 methylation, somatic BRAF V600E mutation, and germline MUTYH mutations were evaluated. RESULTS: Mean LINE-1 methylation levels (± SD in the five study groups were early-onset CRC, 56.6% (8.6; sporadic MSI, 67.1% (5.5; sporadic MSS, 65.1% (6.3; Lynch syndrome, 66.3% (4.5 and normal mucosa, 76.5% (1.5. Early-onset CRC had significantly lower LINE-1 methylation than any other group (p<0.0001. Compared to patients with <65% LINE-1 methylation in tumors, those with ≥ 65% LINE-1 methylation had significantly better overall survival (p=0.026, log rank test. CONCLUSIONS: LINE-1 hypomethylation constitutes a potentially important feature of early-onset CRC, and suggests a distinct molecular subtype. Further studies are needed to assess the potential of LINE-1 methylation status as a prognostic biomarker for young people with CRC.

  5. Molecular Features and Methylation Status in Early Onset (≤40 Years Colorectal Cancer: A Population Based, Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Magnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is usually considered a disease of the elderly. However, a small fraction of patients develops colorectal cancer earlier. The aim of our study was to define the frequency of known hereditary colorectal syndromes and to characterise genetic and epigenetic features of early nonhereditary tumors. Thirty-three patients ≤40 years with diagnosis of colorectal cancer and 41 patients with disease at >60 years of age were investigated for MSI, Mismatch Repair proteins expression, KRAS and BRAF mutations, hypermethylation, and LINE-1 hypomethylation. Detection of germline mutations was performed in Mismatch Repair, APC and MUTYH genes. Early onset colorectal cancer showed a high incidence of hereditary forms (18%. KRAS mutations were detected in 36% of early nonhereditary tumors. Early onset colorectal cancer disclosed an average number of methylated genes significantly lower when compared to the controls (p=0.02. Finally both of the two groups were highly methylated in ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes and were similar for LINE-1 hypomethylation. The genetic make-up of carcinomas differs from young to elderly patients. Early onset tumors showed more frequently a constitutional defective of Mismatch Repair System and a minor number of methylated genes. Hypermethylation of ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes suggests possible markers in the earlier diagnosis of colorectal tumorigenesis.

  6. Molecular Features and Methylation Status in Early Onset (≤40 Years) Colorectal Cancer: A Population Based, Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Giulia; Furlan, Daniela; Sahnane, Nora; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Domati, Federica; Pedroni, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is usually considered a disease of the elderly. However, a small fraction of patients develops colorectal cancer earlier. The aim of our study was to define the frequency of known hereditary colorectal syndromes and to characterise genetic and epigenetic features of early nonhereditary tumors. Thirty-three patients ≤40 years with diagnosis of colorectal cancer and 41 patients with disease at >60 years of age were investigated for MSI, Mismatch Repair proteins expression, KRAS and BRAF mutations, hypermethylation, and LINE-1 hypomethylation. Detection of germline mutations was performed in Mismatch Repair, APC and MUTYH genes. Early onset colorectal cancer showed a high incidence of hereditary forms (18%). KRAS mutations were detected in 36% of early nonhereditary tumors. Early onset colorectal cancer disclosed an average number of methylated genes significantly lower when compared to the controls (p = 0.02). Finally both of the two groups were highly methylated in ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes and were similar for LINE-1 hypomethylation. The genetic make-up of carcinomas differs from young to elderly patients. Early onset tumors showed more frequently a constitutional defective of Mismatch Repair System and a minor number of methylated genes. Hypermethylation of ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes suggests possible markers in the earlier diagnosis of colorectal tumorigenesis. PMID:26557847

  7. The founder mutations 185delAG and 5382insC in BRCA1 and 6174delT in BRCA2 appear in 60% of ovarian cancer and 30% of early-onset breast cancer patients among Ashkenazi women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeliovich, D.; Lerer, I.; Weinberg, N. [Hebrew Univ. Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)

    1997-03-01

    The mutations 185delAG, 188del11, and 5382insC in the BRCA1 gene and 6174delT in the BRCA2 gene were analyzed in 199 Ashkenazi and 44 non-Ashkenazi Jewish unrelated patients with breast and/or ovarian cancer. Of the Jewish Ashkenazi women with ovarian cancer, 62% (13/21) had one of the target mutations, as did 30% (13/43) of women with breast cancer alone diagnosed before the age 40 years and 10% (15/141) of those with breast cancer diagnosed after the age 40 years. Age at ovarian cancer diagnosis was not associated with carrier status. Of 99 Ashkenazi patients with no family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer, 10% carried one of the mutations; in two of them the mutation was proved to be paternally transmitted. One non-Ashkenazi Jewish ovarian cancer patient from Iraq carried the 185delAG mutation. Individual mutation frequencies among breast cancer Ashkenazi patients were 6.7% for 185delAG, 2.2% for 5382insC, and 4.5% for 6174delT, among ovarian cancer patients; 185delAG and 6174delT were about equally common (33% and 29%, respectively), but no ovarian cancer patient carried the 5382insC. More mutations responsible for inherited breast and ovarian cancer probably remain to be found in this population, since 79% of high-incidence breast cancer families and 35% of high-incidence breast/ovarian cancer families had none of the three known founder mutations. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Clinical follow up of Mexican women with early onset of breast cancer and mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes Estudio de seguimiento clínico de mujeres mexicanas con cáncer de mama de inicio temprano y mutaciones en los genes BRCA1 y BRCA2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Calderón-Garcidueñas

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study describes the presence of mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in a group of Mexican women and the clinical evolution of early onset breast cancer (EOBC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective hospital-based study was performed in a sample of 22 women with EOBC (7 in clinical stage IIA, 8 in IIB, and 7 in IIIA. The patients attended a tertiary care hospital in northeastern Mexico in 1997 and were followed up over a 5-year period. Molecular analysis included: 1 a mutation screening by heteroduplex analysis (HA of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes and 2 a sequence analysis. RESULTS: Of 22 patients, 14 (63.6% showed a variant band detected by heteroduplex analysis of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes: 8 polymorphisms, 4 mutations of uncertain significance, and 2 novel truncated protein mutations, one in BRCA1 (exon 11, 3587delT and the other in the BRCA2 gene (exon 11, 2664InsA. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support future studies to determine the significance and impact of the genetic factor in this Mexican women population.OBJETIVO: Describir la presencia de mutaciones en los genes BRCA1 y BRCA2 y la evolución clínica de un grupo de mujeres con carcinoma mamario de inicio temprano (CMIT. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio hospitalario, prospectivo, en una muestra de 22 pacientes con CMIT (siete en etapa clínica IIA, ocho en la IIB y siete en etapa IIIA. Las pacientes fueron atendidas en un hospital del noreste de México en 1997 y se realizó un seguimiento clínico durante cinco años. El análisis molecular incluyó: 1 análisis heterodúplex (AH para detectar bandas variantes en la secuencia de ADN de los genes BRCA1 y BRCA2, y 2 análisis de secuenciación. RESULTADOS: De 22 pacientes, 14 (63.6% mostraron banda variante por AH en los genes BRCA1 y BRCA2: ocho polimorfismos, cuatro mutaciones de significado incierto y dos mutaciones noveles con proteína truncada, una en BRCA1 (exón 11, 3587delT y otra en BRCA2 (exón 11, 2664Ins

  9. What Is Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer What Is Breast Cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... spread, see our section on Cancer Basics . Where breast cancer starts Breast cancers can start from different parts ...

  10. Do genetic factors protect for early onset lung cancer? A case control study before the age of 50 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilge Bettina

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early onset lung cancer shows some familial aggregation, pointing to a genetic predisposition. This study was set up to investigate the role of candidate genes in the susceptibility to lung cancer patients younger than 51 years at diagnosis. Methods 246 patients with a primary, histologically or cytologically confirmed neoplasm, recruited from 2000 to 2003 in major lung clinics across Germany, were matched to 223 unrelated healthy controls. 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes with reported associations to lung cancer have been genotyped. Results Genetic associations or gene-smoking interactions was found for GPX1(Pro200Leu and EPHX1(His113Tyr. Carriers of the Leu-allele of GPX1(Pro200Leu showed a significant risk reduction of OR = 0.6 (95% CI: 0.4–0.8, p = 0.002 in general and of OR = 0.3 (95% CI:0.1–0.8, p = 0.012 within heavy smokers. We could also find a risk decreasing genetic effect for His-carriers of EPHX1(His113Tyr for moderate smokers (OR = 0.2, 95% CI:0.1–0.7, p = 0.012. Considered both variants together, a monotone decrease of the OR was found for smokers (OR of 0.20; 95% CI: 0.07–0.60 for each protective allele. Conclusion Smoking is the most important risk factor for young lung cancer patients. However, this study provides some support for the T-Allel of GPX1(Pro200Leu and the C-Allele of EPHX1(His113Tyr to play a protective role in early onset lung cancer susceptibility.

  11. Integrative genomic analyses reveal an androgen-driven somatic alteration landscape in early-onset prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Simon, Ronald; Feuerbach, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    comparative assessments with seven elderly-onset PCA genomes. Remarkable age-related differences in structural rearrangement (SR) formation became evident, suggesting distinct disease pathomechanisms. Whereas EO-PCAs harbored a prevalence of balanced SRs, with a specific abundance of androgen-regulated ETS......Early-onset prostate cancer (EO-PCA) represents the earliest clinical manifestation of prostate cancer. To compare the genomic alteration landscapes of EO-PCA with "classical" (elderly-onset) PCA, we performed deep sequencing-based genomics analyses in 11 tumors diagnosed at young age, and pursued...... gene fusions including TMPRSS2:ERG, elderly-onset PCAs displayed primarily non-androgen-associated SRs. Data from a validation cohort of > 10,000 patients showed age-dependent androgen receptor levels and a prevalence of SRs affecting androgen-regulated genes, further substantiating the activity...

  12. Expression profile of E-cadherin, estrogen receptors, and P53 in early-onset gastric cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fan; Xu, Yuanyuan; Shi, Jiong; Lan, Xing; Zou, Xiaoping; Wang, Lei; Huang, Qin

    2016-12-01

    Early-onset gastric cancer (EOGC) is predominant in females, diffuse histology, and hereditary pattern. Germline mutation of CDH1 and p53 has been reported previously and female dominance was speculated to be associated with estrogen and its receptors. Expression of E-cadherin, estrogen receptor α (ERα), estrogen receptor β (ERβ), and p53 in EOGC remains unclear, which was the focus of this study, to assess clinical significance of their expression in EOGC. The expression of E-cadherin, ERα, ERβ, and p53 in tumors and normal tissues from surgically resected EOGCs was assessed by immunohistochemistry (n = 139) and Western blot (n = 7) methods, respectively. The expression in tumor tissues was significantly higher for ERα, ERβ, and p53, but lower for E-cadherin, compared to uninvolved mucosa. Positive staining of ERβ and p53 was more frequently observed in younger patients with advanced TNM stages. For E-cadherin, significant correlation was observed between the immunopositivity and TNM stages IA+IB. P53-negative patients had significantly better outcomes than p53-positive patients. Significant association between expression of E-cadherin and histologic types was found in familial, but not in sporadic, EOGC. In conclusion, our results demonstrated E-cadherin may have a role in initiation of EOGC and positive ERβ and p53 expression may partially explained early-onset and tumor progression of EOGC.

  13. The heterogeneity of genetic predisposition to early-onset colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the major causes of death in developed countries. There is a strong association between genetic factors and the risk of developing colorectal cancer. However, a large fraction of the expected heritability of colorectal cancer still remains unexplained (‘missing

  14. Molecular alterations in gastric cancer with special reference to the early-onset subtype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skierucha, Małgorzata; Milne, Anya Na; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Polkowski, Wojciech P; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Sitarz, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Currently, gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed neoplasms, with a global burden of 723000 deaths in 2012. It is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. There are numerous possible factors that stimulate the pro-carcinogenic activity of important genes. These

  15. Early onset gastric cancer: on the road to unravelling gastric carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milne, A.N.

    2007-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world and ranks second in terms of cancer-related death. It is thought to result from a combination of environmental factors and the accumulation of alterations due to increasing genetic instability, and consequently affects mainly older pat

  16. Deleterious Germline BLM Mutations and the Risk for Early-onset Colorectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voer, R.M. de; Hahn, M.M.; Mensenkamp, A.R.; Hoischen, A.; Gilissen, C.F.; Henkes, A.; Spruijt, L.; Zelst-Stams, W.A. van; Kets, C.M.; Verwiel, E.T.P.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Schackert, H.K.; Kessel, A.G. van; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Ligtenberg, M.J.; Kuiper, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    Bloom syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by chromosomal instability and increased cancer risk, caused by biallelic mutations in the RECQL-helicase gene BLM. Previous studies have led to conflicting conclusions as to whether carriers of heterozygous BLM mutations have an increa

  17. Deleterious Germline BLM Mutations and the Risk for Early-onset Colorectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voer, R.M. de; Hahn, M.M.; Mensenkamp, A.R.; Hoischen, A.; Gilissen, C.F.; Henkes, A.; Spruijt, L.; Zelst-Stams, W.A. van; Kets, C.M.; Verwiel, E.T.P.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Schackert, H.K.; Kessel, A.G. van; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Ligtenberg, M.J.; Kuiper, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    Bloom syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by chromosomal instability and increased cancer risk, caused by biallelic mutations in the RECQL-helicase gene BLM. Previous studies have led to conflicting conclusions as to whether carriers of heterozygous BLM mutations have an increa

  18. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer > Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. About breast cancer Cancer begins when healthy cells in the breast ...

  19. Inflammatory cues acting on the adult intestinal stem cells and the early onset of cancer (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lerma Barbaro, A; Perletti, G; Bonapace, I M; Monti, E

    2014-09-01

    The observation that cancer often arises at sites of chronic inflammation has prompted the idea that carcinogenesis and inflammation are deeply interwoven. In fact, the current literature highlights a role for chronic inflammation in virtually all the steps of carcinogenesis, including tumor initiation, promotion and progression. The aim of the present article is to review the current literature on the involvement of chronic inflammation in the initiation step and in the very early phases of tumorigenesis, in a type of cancer where adult stem cells are assumed to be the cells of origin of neoplasia. Since the gastrointestinal tract is regarded as the best-established model system to address the liaison between chronic inflammation and neoplasia, the focus of this article will be on intestinal cancer. In fact, the anatomy of the intestinal epithelial lining is uniquely suited to study adult stem cells in their niche, and the bowel crypt is an ideal developmental biology system, as proliferation, differentiation and cell migration are all distributed linearly along the long axis of the crypt. Moreover, crypt stem cells are regarded today as the most likely targets of neoplastic transformation in bowel cancer. More specifically, the present review addresses the molecular mechanisms whereby a state of chronic inflammation could trigger the neoplastic process in the intestine, focusing on the generation of inflammatory cues evoking enhanced proliferation in cells not initiated but at risk of neoplastic transformation because of their stemness. Novel experimental approaches, based on triggering an inflammatory stimulus in the neighbourhood of adult intestinal stem cells, are warranted to address some as yet unanswered questions. A possible approach, the targeted transgenesis of Paneth cells, may be aimed at 'hijacking' the crypt stem cell niche from a status characterized by the maintenance of homeostasis to local chronic inflammation, with the prospect of initiating

  20. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  1. Prevalence of TP53 germ line mutations in young Pakistani breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Muhammad U; Gull, Sidra; Asghar, Kashif; Muhammad, Noor; Amin, Asim; Hamann, Ute

    2012-06-01

    Women from Pakistan and India are more often diagnosed with early-onset breast cancer than Caucasian women. Given that only 12% of Pakistani women diagnosed with breast cancer at or before 30 years of age have previously been shown to harbor germ line mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, the genetic causes of the majority of early-onset cases are unexplained. Since germ line mutations in the tumor suppressor gene TP53 predispose women to early-onset breast cancer, we assessed the prevalence of TP53 mutations in 105 early-onset breast cancer patients from Pakistan, who had previously been found to be negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 germ line mutations. The patient group included 67 women diagnosed with early-onset breast cancer at or before age 30 with no family history of breast or ovarian cancer (EO30NFH group) and 38 women diagnosed with breast cancer at or before age 40 with one or more first- or second-degree relatives with breast or ovarian cancer (EO40FH group). Mutation analysis of the complete TP53 coding region was performed using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, followed by DNA sequencing of variant fragments. One deleterious mutation, c.499-500delCA in exon 5, was identified in the 105 breast cancer patients (1%). This mutation is novel in the germ line and has not been described in other populations. It was detected in a 28-year-old patient with no family history of breast or ovarian cancer. This mutation is rare as it was not detected in additional 157 recently recruited non-BRCA1 and non-BRCA2-associated early-onset breast cancer patients. Our findings show that TP53 mutations may account for a minimal portion of early-onset breast cancer in Pakistan.

  2. Surgery for Breast Cancer

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    ... Pregnancy Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Treatment Surgery for Breast Cancer Surgery is a common treatment for breast cancer, ... Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main types of surgery to ...

  3. Breast cancer screening

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    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  4. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer ... clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment. Some clinical trials only include patients who have ...

  5. Breast Cancer Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Table of Contents National Cancer Institute ... Addressing Breast Cancer's Unequal Burden / Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Issue: Volume 11 Number 4 Page ...

  6. Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Patient Breast Cancer Patient Breast Cancer Treatment Male Breast Cancer Treatment Breast Cancer Treatment & Pregnancy Breast Cancer Prevention Breast Cancer Screening Health Professional Breast Cancer Treatment Male ... Treatment Breast Cancer Treatment & Pregnancy Breast Cancer Prevention ...

  7. Impaired 8-Hydroxyguanine Repair Activity of MUTYH Variant p.Arg109Trp Found in a Japanese Patient with Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Shinmura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The biallelic inactivation of the 8-hydroxyguanine repair gene MUTYH leads to MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP, which is characterized by colorectal multiple polyps and carcinoma(s. However, only limited information regarding MAP in the Japanese population is presently available. Since early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC is a characteristic of MAP and might be caused by the inactivation of another 8-hydroxyguanine repair gene, OGG1, we investigated whether germline MUTYH and OGG1 mutations are involved in early-onset CRC in Japanese patients. Methods. Thirty-four Japanese patients with early-onset CRC were examined for germline MUTYH and OGG1 mutations using sequencing. Results. Biallelic pathogenic mutations were not found in any of the patients; however, a heterozygous p.Arg19*  MUTYH variant and a heterozygous p.Arg109Trp MUTYH variant were detected in one patient each. The p.Arg19* and p.Arg109Trp corresponded to p.Arg5* and p.Arg81Trp, respectively, in the type 2 nuclear-form protein. The defective DNA repair activity of p.Arg5* is apparent, while that of p.Arg81Trp has been demonstrated using DNA cleavage and supF forward mutation assays. Conclusion. These results suggest that biallelic MUTYH or OGG1 pathogenic mutations are rare in Japanese patients with early-onset CRC; however, the p.Arg19* and p.Arg109Trp MUTYH variants are associated with functional impairments.

  8. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  9. Early-Onset Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konijnenberg, Elles; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Kate, Mara Ten;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early-onset dementia (EOD) is a rare condition, with an often atypical clinical presentation, and it may therefore be challenging to diagnose. Specialized memory clinics vary in the type of patients seen, diagnostic procedures applied, and the pharmacological treatment given. The aim...... of this study was to investigate quality-of-care indicators in subjects with EOD from 3 tertiary memory clinics in 3 European countries. METHODS: We included 1325 newly diagnosed EOD patients, ages 65 years or younger, between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2013, from the Danish Dementia Registry...... (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen), the Swedish Dementia Registry ("SveDem", Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm), and the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (VU University Medical Center). RESULTS: The frequency of EOD among all dementia patients was significantly lower in Copenhagen (410, 20%) and Stockholm (284, 21...

  10. Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis If you’ve been diagnosed with breast cancer, ... Prevention Early Detection and Diagnosis Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis Treatment Breast Reconstruction Surgery Living as a Breast ...

  11. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  12. Early Onset Werner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna İmge Aydoğan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Werner syndrome (WS is a rare autosomal recessive adult-onset progeroid disorder characterized by the early onset of aged-appearance and age-related metabolic disorders. Symptoms of premature aging usually first develop in the second-third decades of life. We report a 27-year-old female who was admitted to our clinic at the age of eighteen with hyperglycemia. She was diagnosed with diabetes and type 4 dyslipidemia at the age of seven. In her family history, her parents were first cousins and she had three healthy brothers. On her first physical examination; she had bird-like face appearance, global hair loss, beaked nose, short stature and she was overweight. She had global hair loss with gray and thin hair. Hoarseness of voice and hyperkeratosis of skin were observed. She had bilateral cataracts and moderate sensorineural hearing loss. On psychiatric examination, borderline mental retardation was detected. She had severe insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia despite levothyroxine, gemfibrozil, omega-3 and intensive insulin treatment. Routine lipid apheresis was performed to lower the triglyceride levels reaching 5256 mg/dL. She also had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, hepatosteatosis, osteoporosis and epilepsy. Disease was accompanied by several congenital deformities, such as Rathke’s cleft cyst, angiomyolipoma and femoral neck hypoplasia. WS is a rare genetic disorder characterized by multiple endocrine manifestations as well as soft tissue changes. We present a case of early disturbances that were diagnosed before typical clinical signs and symptoms. We propose that WS should be kept in mind when type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia are diagnosed early in childhood. Turk Jem 2015; 19: 99-104

  13. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer include exposure to radiation, a family history of breast cancer, and having high estrogen levels, which can happen with diseases like cirrhosis or Klinefelter's syndrome. Treatment for male breast cancer is usually ...

  14. Is early-onset microsatellite and chromosomally stable colorectal cancer a hallmark of a genetic susceptibility syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, C.M.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Erp, P.E.J. van; Feuth, T.; Jacobs, Y.H.A.; Brunner, H.G.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Hoogerbrugge, N.

    2008-01-01

    Most colorectal cancers show either microsatellite or chromosomal instability. A subset of colorectal cancers, especially those diagnosed at young age, is known to show neither of these forms of genetic instability and thus might have a distinct pathogenesis. Colorectal cancers diagnosed at young

  15. Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Breast Cancer Surgery The goal of breast cancer surgery is to remove the whole tumor from the breast. Some lymph nodes ... might still be in the body. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two types of breast cancer ...

  16. Breast cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Iris; Lindsay, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first postpartum year. Breast cancer is one of the more common malignancies to occur during pregnancy and, as more women delay childbearing, the incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy is expected to increase. This article provides an overview of diagnosis, staging, and treatment of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Recommendations for management of breast cancer in pregnancy are discussed.

  17. Cyclooxygenase-2 Mediated Regulation of E-Cadherin Occurs in Conventional But Not Early-Onset Gastric Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sitarz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: COX-2 and E-cadherin, involved in invasion and metastasis, are molecules critical for gastric carcinogenesis. A relationship between them is documented in non-small cell lung and prostate cancer. We present novel evidence of a relationship between COX-2 and E-cadherin expression in gastric cancer.

  18. High-Throughput Sequencing of Germline and Tumor From Men with Early-Onset Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    specimens as initially proposed. Concurrently, Dr. Tomlins developed state of the art technologies to use FFPE prostate cancer specimens for molecular...capture based NGS and qPCR approaches, and multiplexed PCR NGS based approaches. Therefore, we modified our approach to use archived FFPE biopsy and...tissue, we had the opportunity to molecularly profile both the initial prostate cancer (PR-259, DOD_03a) and the liver biopsy which contained

  19. Ovarian cancer linked to lynch syndrome typically presents as early-onset, non-serous epithelial tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartuma, Katarina; Bernstein, Inge; Malander, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Heredity is a major cause of ovarian cancer and during recent years the contribution from germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations linked to Lynch syndrome has gradually been recognized. METHODS: We characterized clinical features, tumor morphology and mismatch repair defects in all....... The underlying MMR gene mutations in these families affected MSH2 in 49%, MSH6 in 33% and MLH1 in 17%. Immunohistochemical loss of the corresponding MMR protein was demonstrated in 33/36 (92%) tumors analyzed. CONCLUSION: The combined data from our cohorts demonstrate that ovarian cancer associated with Lynch...

  20. Cyclooxygenase-2 mediated regulation of E-cadherin occurs in conventional but not early-onset gastric cancer cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Sitarz; R.J. Leguit; W.W.J. de Leng; F.H.M. Morsink; W.P. Polkowski; R. Maciejewski; G.J.A. Offerhaus; A.N. Milne

    2009-01-01

    Background: COX-2 and E-cadherin, involved in invasion and metastasis, are molecules critical for gastric carcinogenesis. A relationship between them is documented in non-small cell lung and prostate cancer. We present novel evidence of a relationship between COX-2 and E-cadherin expression in gastr

  1. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  2. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  3. High-Throughput Sequencing of Germline and Tumor From Men with Early-Onset Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    molecularly profile both the initial prostate cancer (PR-259) and the liver biopsy which contained histologically-confirmed small cell/neuroendocrine...Therefore, we modified our approach to use archived FFPE biopsy and prostatectomy tumor specimen and to analyze these specimens using a qPCR...number alterations are indicated. 4 with small cell carcinoma of the liver and eventually succumbed from this disease approximately one year from

  4. Dietary Practices, Addictive Behavior and Bowel Habits and Risk of Early Onset Colorectal Cancer: a Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naveed Ali; Hussain, Mehwish; ur Rahman, Ata; Farooqui, Waqas Ahmed; Rasheed, Abdur; Memon, Amjad Siraj

    2015-01-01

    The abrupt rise of colorectal cancer in developing countries is raising concern in healthcare settings. Studies on assessing relationships with modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors in the Pakistani population have been limited. The present investigation was designed to examine associations of dietary practices, addictive behavior and bowel habits in developing colorectal cancer (CRC) among patients in a low-resource setup. An age-gender matched case control study was conducted from October 2011 to July 2015 in Karachi, Pakistan. Cases were from the surgical oncology department of a public sector tertiary care hospital, while their two pair-matched controls were recruited from the general population. A structured questionnaire was used which included questions related to demographic characteristics, family history, dietary patterns, addictive behavior and bowel habits. A family history of cancer was associated with a 2.2 fold higher chance of developing CRC. Weight loss reduced the likelihood 7.6 times. Refraining from a high fat diet and consuming more vegetables showed protective effects for CRC. The risk of CRC was more than twice among smokers and those who consumed Asian specific addictive products as compared to those who avoid using these addictions (ORsmoking: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.08 - 4.17, ORpan: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.6 - 5.33, ORgutka: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.14 - 3.97). Use of NSAID attenuated risk of CRC up to 86% (OR: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.07 - 0.31). Most of the findings showed concordance with the literature elucidating protective effects of consuming vegetables and low fat diet while documenting adverse associations with family history, weight loss, constipation and hematochezia. Moreover, this study highlighted Asian specific indigenous addictive products as important factors. Further studies are needed to validate the findings produced by this research.

  5. Early onset sebaceous carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltreider Sara A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ocular sebaceous carcinoma can masquerade as benign lesions resulting in delay of diagnosis. Early recognition is even more difficult in young patients where the disease rarely occurs. Here, we provide a clinicopathological correlation of ocular sebaceous carcinoma in a young individual lacking history of hereditary cancer or immunosuppression. Findings A detailed histopathological study including p53 DNA sequencing was performed on an aggressive sebaceous carcinoma presenting in a healthy 32 year-old Caucasian woman. She had no history of retinoblastoma, evidence for a hereditary cancer syndrome, or radiation therapy. However, she potentially was at risk for excessive UV light exposure. A detailed review of the literature is also provided. A moderately well differentiated sebaceous carcinoma was established histopathologically arising from the meibomian gland of the upper eyelid. In most areas, the cytoplasm contained small but distinct Oil-red-O positive vacuoles. Direct sequencing of p53 identified a G:C→A:T mutation at a dipyrimidine site. The mutation results in substitution of arginine for the highly conserved glycine at residue 199 located at the p53 dimer-dimer interface. Energy minimization structural modeling predicts that G199R will neutralize negative charges contributed by nearby inter- and intramonomeric glutamate residues. Discussion This study points to the importance of recognizing that sebaceous carcinoma can occur in young patients with no evidence for hereditary cancer risk or radiation therapy. The G199R substitution is anticipated to alter the stability of the p53 tetrameric complex. The role of UV light in the etiology of sebaceous carcinoma deserves further study. Our findings, taken together with those of others, suggest that different environmental factors could lead to the development of sebaceous carcinoma in different patients.

  6. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  7. Breast cancer awareness

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is rising among women in many European countries, affecting up to 1 in 16 women and has become the most common cause of cancer in European women. In Malta breast cancer is the commonest oncological cause of death in females. In fact 5.2% of all deaths in females in 2010 was from breast cancer.

  8. The SRD5A2 V89L polymorphism is associated with severity of disease in men with early onset prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scariano, John K; Treat, Eric; Alba, Frances; Nelson, Harold; Ness, Scott A; Smith, Anthony Y

    2008-12-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that testosterone (T), and not dihydrotestosterone (DHT), is the most relevant androgen that promotes carcinogenesis in the prostate. Steroid 5-alpha reductase type II (SRD5A2) catalyzes the irreversible conversion of T to DHT in male reproductive organs. Because the SRD5A2 gene is highly polymorphic at codon 89, two SRD5A2 isoforms are expressed that differ in K(m) and V(max) values. The more common and rapid catalytic isoform contains a valine residue at position 89; the slower-catalytic variant contains leucine at this position. Thirty-three men with early onset prostate cancer (PCa) were genotyped for the SRD5A2 V89L substitution and other polymorphisms in genes encoding receptors or enzymes that play important roles in pathways of steroid metabolism to ascertain if they were associated with standard clinical measures of disease progression at the time of diagnosis. The expression of at least one SRD5A2 leucine allele in young men with PCa was associated with more significant disease at the time of presentation, as was defined by pretreatment PSA level, clinical staging and Gleason score when compared with affected subjects harboring the more common SRD5A2 valine variant. A dosage effect of a single leucine allele was evident in heterozygotes, as values of their clinical and pathological variables were consistently situated between the extremes of the homozygous V or L phenotypes. The SRD5A2 leucine isoform appears to be acting in a dose-dependent manner as a significant disease-modifying factor in young men diagnosed with PCa.

  9. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about ... for a small fraction of breast cancers. In Learning About the BRCAX Study , researchers discuss a recent ...

  10. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  11. Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En Español Category Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis Breast cancer is sometimes ... cancer screening is so important. Learn more. Can Breast Cancer Be Found Early? Breast cancer is sometimes found ...

  12. Breast Cancer and Infertility

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and may accompany infertility. The relationship between infertility treatment and breast cancer has not yet been proven. However, estrogen exposure is well known to cause breast cancer. Recent advances in treatment options have provided young patients with breast cancer a chance of being mother [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000): 317-323

  13. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Prevention en español Cáncer de mama You may have heard about special events, like walks or races, to raise money for breast cancer research. Or maybe you've seen people wear ...

  14. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  15. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have revolutionized breast cancer treatment: tamoxifen (Nolvadex) and trastuzumab (Herceptin). Bernard Fisher, M.D., of the University of ... breast tumors. Dr. Slamon and his colleagues developed trastuzumab (Herceptin). Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody, was the first ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: early-onset glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions early-onset glaucoma early-onset glaucoma Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Glaucoma is a group of eye disorders in which ...

  17. Do We Know What Causes Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer How Does Breast Cancer Form? Changes or mutations in DNA can cause ... requests, please contact permissionrequest@cancer.org . More In Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer Risk and Prevention Early Detection ...

  18. Breast Cancer in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Older age • B RCA2 gene mutation • F amily history of breast cancer • Gynecomastia (enlargement of the breast tissue) • Klinefelter’s syndrome (a genetic condition related to high levels ...

  19. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JuhuaZhou; YinZhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  20. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juhua Zhou; Yin Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy,radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future.

  1. Does the age of breast cancer diagnosis in first-degree relatives impact on the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, John; Metcalfe, Kelly A; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Gronwald, Jacek; Armel, Susan; Lynch, Henry T; Karlan, Beth; Foulkes, William; Singer, Christian F; Neuhausen, Susan L; Eng, Charis; Iqbal, Javaid; Narod, Steven A

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the age-specific annual risks of breast cancer in a woman with a germline BRCA mutation and an affected first-degree relative according to the age of breast cancer diagnosis in the relative. Women with BRCA mutations with no previous diagnosis of breast cancer and with one first-degree relative with breast cancer were followed for breast cancers for a mean of 5.9 years (minimum 2 years). Age-specific annual breast cancer risks were calculated, according to the age of breast cancer diagnosis in the proband and the first-degree relative. 1114 cancer-free women with a BRCA mutation with a single first-degree relative with breast cancer were eligible for the study. 122 women (11.0 %) were diagnosed with incident breast cancer. The annual risk of breast cancer was 2.0 % for women with BRCA1 mutations and was 1.6 % for women with BRCA2 mutations. The age of breast cancer diagnosis in the first-degree relative did not affect the annual breast cancer risks for BRCA1 mutation carriers. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, the annual breast cancer risk was 4.5 % for women with a first-degree relative diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of 30 years and was 0.7 % for women with a relative diagnosed over the age of 60. Among women with BRCA2 mutations, a family history of early-onset breast cancer is a risk factor for developing breast cancer. Risk assessment for healthy BRCA2 mutation carriers should consider the ages of breast cancers diagnosed in first-degree relatives.

  2. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  3. Targeted Prostate Cancer Screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers : Results from the Initial Screening Round of the IMPACT Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bancroft, Elizabeth K.; Page, Elizabeth C.; Castro, Elena; Lilja, Hans; Vickers, Andrew; Sjoberg, Daniel; Assel, Melissa; Foster, Christopher S.; Mitchell, Gillian; Drew, Kate; Maehle, Lovise; Axcrona, Karol; Evans, D. Gareth; Bulman, Barbara; Eccles, Diana; McBride, Donna; van Asperen, Christi; Vasen, Hans; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Ringelberg, Janneke; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Selkirk, Christina; Hulick, Peter J.; Bojesen, Anders; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Lam, Jimmy; Taylor, Louise; Oldenburg, Rogier; Cremers, Ruben; Verhaegh, Gerald; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Blanco, Ignacio; Salinas, Monica; Cook, Jackie; Rosario, Derek J.; Buys, Saundra; Conner, Tom; Ausems, Margreet G.; Ong, Kai-ren; Hoffman, Jonathan; Domchek, Susan; Powers, Jacquelyn; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Maia, Sofia; Foulkes, William D.; Taherian, Nassim; Ruijs, Marielle; Helderman-van den Enden, Apollonia T.; Izatt, Louise; Davidson, Rosemarie; Adank, Muriel A.; Walker, Lisa; Schmutzler, Rita; Tucker, Kathy; Kirk, Judy; Hodgson, Shirley; Harris, Marion; Douglas, Fiona; Lindeman, Geoffrey J.; Zgajnar, Janez; Tischkowitz, Marc; Clowes, Virginia E.; Susman, Rachel; Ramon y Cajal, Teresa; Patcher, Nicholas; Gadea, Neus; Spigelman, Allan; van Os, Theo; Liljegren, Annelie; Side, Lucy; Brewer, Carole; Brady, Angela F.; Donaldson, Alan; Stefansdottir, Vigdis; Friedman, Eitan; Chen-Shtoyerman, Rakefet; Amor, David J.; Copakova, Lucia; Barwell, Julian; Giri, Veda N.; Murthy, Vedang; Nicolai, Nicola; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Greenhalgh, Lynn; Strom, Sara; Henderson, Alex; McGrath, John; Gallagher, David; Aaronson, Neil; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Bangma, Chris; Dearnaley, David; Costello, Philandra; Eyfjord, Jorunn; Rothwell, Jeanette; Falconer, Alison; Gronberg, Henrik; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Johannsson, Oskar; Khoo, Vincent; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Lubinski, Jan; Axcrona, Ulrika; Melia, Jane; McKinley, Joanne; Mitra, Anita V.; Moynihan, Clare; Rennert, Gad; Suri, Mohnish; Wilson, Penny; Killick, Emma; Moss, Sue; Eeles, Rosalind A.

    Background: Men with germline breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene mutations have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) than noncarriers. IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in

  4. Targeted prostate cancer screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: Results from the initial screening round of the IMPACT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Bancroft (Elizabeth); E. Page (Elizabeth); E. Castro (Elena); H. Lilja (Hans); A.J. Vickers (Andrew); D. Sjoberg (Daniel); M. Assel (Matthias); C.S. Foster; G. Mitchell (Gillian); K. Drew (Kate); L. Maehle; K. Axcrona; D.G. Evans (Gareth); B. Bulman; D. Eccles (Diana); D. McBride (Donna); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); H. Vasen (Hans); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); J. Ringelberg (Janneke); C. Cybulski (Cezary); D. Wokolorczyk (Dominika); C.G. Selkirk (Christina); P.J. Hulick (Peter); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); A.-B. Skytte (Anne-Bine); J. Lam (Jimmy); L. Taylor (Lorne); R.A. Oldenburg (Rogier); R.G.H.M. Cremers; G. Verhaegh (Gerald); W.A. van Zelst-Stams; J.C. Oosterwijk (Jan); I. Blanco (Ignacio); M. Salinas; J. Cook (Jackie); K. Rosario (Karyna); S.S. Buys (Saundra); T. Conner (Tom); M.G.E.M. Ausems (Margreet); K.-R. Ong (Kai-Ren); J. Hoffman (Jonathan); S.M. Domchek (Susan); J. Powers (Jacquelyn); P.J. Teixeira; S. Maia (Sofia); W.D. Foulkes (William); N. Taherian (Nassim); M.W.G. Ruijs (Marielle); A.T.H.-V. den Enden (Apollonia T. Helderman-Van); L. Izatt (Louise); R. Davidson (Rosemarie); M.A. Adank (Muriel); L.J. Walker (Lisa); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); K. Tucker (Kathryn); J. Kirk (Judy); S.V. Hodgson (Shirley); M. Harris (Marion); F. Douglas (Fiona); G.J. Lindeman; J. Zgajnar (Janez); M. Tischkowitz (Marc); V. Clowes; R. Susman (Rachel); T. Ramon Y Cajal; N. Patcher (Nicholas); N. Gadea (Neus); A. Spigelman; T.A.M. van Os (Theo); A. Liljegren (Annelie); L. Side (Lucy); C. Brewer (Carole); A.F. Brady (Angela); A. Donaldson (Alan); V. Stefansdottir (Vigdis); E. Friedman (Eitan); R. Chen-Shtoyerman (Rakefet); D. Amor (David); L. Copakova (Lucia); J. Barwell (Julian); V.N. Giri (Veda); A.C. Murthy (Adeline C.); N. Nicolai (Nicola); S.-H. Teo; T. Greenhalgh (Trisha); S. Strom; A. Henderson (Alex); J. McGrath (John); D. Gallagher (David); N.K. Aaronson (Neil); A. Ardern-Jones (Audrey); C.H. Bangma (Chris); D. Dearnaley (David); A. Costello (Anthony); J. Eyfjord; J. Rothwell (Jeanette); A. Falconer; H. Grönberg (Henrik); F. Hamdy (Freddie); O.T. Johannson (Oskar); V. Khoo; Z. Kote-Jarai; J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Axcrona; J. Melia; E.T. McKinley (Enid); A. Mitra (Anita); C. Moynihan; G. Rennert (Gad); M. Suri (Mohnish); P. Wilson; S.R. Killick; S.M. Moss (Sue); R. Eeles (Rosalind)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground Men with germline breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene mutations have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) than noncarriers. IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted

  5. Targeted Prostate Cancer Screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers: Results from the Initial Screening Round of the IMPACT Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bancroft, E.K.; Page, E.C.; Castro, E.; Lilja, H.; Vickers, A.; Sjoberg, D.; Assel, M.; Foster, C.S.; Mitchell, G.; Drew, K.; Maehle, L.; Axcrona, K.; Evans, D.G.; Bulman, B.; Eccles, D.; McBride, D.; Asperen, C. van; Vasen, H.; Kiemeney, B.; Ringelberg, J.; Cybulski, C.; Wokolorczyk, D.; Selkirk, C.; Hulick, P.J.; Bojesen, A.; Skytte, A.B.; Lam, J.; Taylor, L.; Oldenburg, R.; Cremers, R.; Verhaegh, G.; Zelst-Stams, W.A.G. van; Oosterwijk, J.C.; Blanco, I.; Salinas, M.; Cook, J.; Rosario, D.J.; Buys, S.; Conner, T.; Ausems, M.G.; Ong, K.R.; Hoffman, J.; Domchek, S.; Powers, J.; Teixeira, M.R.; Maia, S.; Foulkes, W.D.; Taherian, N.; Ruijs, M.; Enden, A.T. den; Izatt, L.; Davidson, R.; Adank, M.A.; Walker, L.; Schmutzler, R.; Tucker, K.; Kirk, J.; Hodgson, S.; Harris, M.; Douglas, F.; Lindeman, G.J.; Zgajnar, J.; Tischkowitz, M.; Clowes, V.E.; Susman, R.; Ramon, Y.C.T.; Patcher, N.; Gadea, N.; Spigelman, A.; Os, T. van; Liljegren, A.; Side, L.; Brewer, C.; Brady, A.F.; Donaldson, A.; Stefansdottir, V.; Friedman, E.; Chen-Shtoyerman, R.; Amor, D.J.; Copakova, L.; Barwell, J.; Giri, V.N.; Murthy, V.; Nicolai, N.; Teo, S.H.; Greenhalgh, L.; Strom, S.; Henderson, A.; McGrath, J.; Gallagher, D.; Aaronson, N.; Ardern-Jones, A.; Bangma, C.; Dearnaley, D.; Costello, P.; Eyfjord, J.; Rothwell, J.; Falconer, A.; Gronberg, H.; Hamdy, F.C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Men with germline breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene mutations have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) than noncarriers. IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in

  6. Targeted prostate cancer screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: Results from the initial screening round of the IMPACT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bancroft, E.K.; Page, E.C.; Castro, E.; Lilja, H.; Vickers, A.; Sjoberg, D.; Assel, M.; Foster, C.S.; Mitchell, G.; Drew, K.; Maehle, L.; Axcrona, K.; Evans, D.G.; Bulman, B.; Eccles, D.; McBride, D.; van Asperen, C.; Vasen, H.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Ringelberg, J.; Cybulski, C.; Wokolorczyk, D.; Selkirk, C.; Hulick, P.J.; Bojesen, A.; Skytte, A.B.; Lam, J.; Taylor, L.; Oldenburg, R.; Cremers, R.; Verhaegh, G.; van Zelst-Stams, W.A.; Oosterwijk, J.C.; Blanco, I.; Salinas, M.; Cook, J.; Rosario, D.J.; Buys, S.; Conner, T.; Ausems, M.G.; Ong, K.R.; Hoffman, J.; Domchek, S.; Powers, J.; Teixeira, M.R.; Maia, S.; Foulkes, W.D.; Taherian, N.; Ruijs, M.; den Enden, A.T.; Izatt, L.; Davidson, R.; Adank, M.A.; Walker, L.; Schmutzler, R.; Tucker, K.; Kirk, J.; Hodgson, S.; Harris, M.; Douglas, F.; Lindeman, G.J.; Zgajnar, J.; Tischkowitz, M.; Clowes, V.E.; Susman, R.; Ramón Y Cajal, T.; Patcher, N.; Gadea, N.; Spigelman, A.; van Os, T.; Liljegren, A.; Side, L.; Brewer, C.; Brady, A.F.; Donaldson, A.; Stefansdottir, V.; Friedman, E.; Chen-Shtoyerman, R.; Amor, D.J.; Copakova, L.; Barwell, J.; Giri, V.N.; Murthy, V.; Nicolai, N.; Teo, S.H.; Greenhalgh, L.; Strom, S.; Henderson, A.; McGrath, J.; Gallagher, D.; Aaronson, N.K.; Ardern-Jones, A.; Bangma, C.; Dearnaley, D.; Costello, P.; Eyfjord, J.; Rothwell, J.; Falconer, A.; Gronberg, H.; Hamdy, F.C.; Johannsson, O.; Khoo, V.; Kote-Jarai, Z.; Lubinski, J.; Axcrona, U.; Melia, J.; McKinley, J.; Mitra, A.V.; Moynihan, C.; Rennert, G.; Suri, M.; Wilson, P.; Killick, E.; Moss, S.; Eeles, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Men with germline breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene mutations have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) than noncarriers. IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in

  7. Breast cancer statistics, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Siegel, Rebecca; Bandi, Priti; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 230,480 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,520 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2011. Breast cancer incidence rates were stable among all racial/ethnic groups from 2004 to 2008. Breast cancer death rates have been declining since the early 1990s for all women except American Indians/Alaska Natives, among whom rates have remained stable. Disparities in breast cancer death rates are evident by state, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. While significant declines in mortality rates were observed for 36 states and the District of Columbia over the past 10 years, rates for 14 states remained level. Analyses by county-level poverty rates showed that the decrease in mortality rates began later and was slower among women residing in poor areas. As a result, the highest breast cancer death rates shifted from the affluent areas to the poor areas in the early 1990s. Screening rates continue to be lower in poor women compared with non-poor women, despite much progress in increasing mammography utilization. In 2008, 51.4% of poor women had undergone a screening mammogram in the past 2 years compared with 72.8% of non-poor women. Encouraging patients aged 40 years and older to have annual mammography and a clinical breast examination is the single most important step that clinicians can take to reduce suffering and death from breast cancer. Clinicians should also ensure that patients at high risk of breast cancer are identified and offered appropriate screening and follow-up. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population.

  8. PET scan for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radioactive substance (called a tracer) to look for breast cancer. This tracer can help identify areas of cancer ... only after a woman has been diagnosed with breast cancer. It is done to see if the cancer ...

  9. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med . 2014;160:271-281. PMID: 24366376 www.ncbi. ... Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med . [Epub ahead of print 12 January 2016] doi: ...

  10. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of dying from breast cancer. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) in women with a high risk of breast ... a mammogram , the breast is placed between 2 plates that are pressed together. Pressing the breast helps ...

  11. BREAST CANCER AND EXERCISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-19

    Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

  12. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer. PMID:24319497

  13. Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Kari A.; Anderson-Berry, Ann L.; Delair, Shirley F.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Early-onset sepsis remains a common and serious problem for neonates, especially preterm infants. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the most common etiologic agent, while Escherichia coli is the most common cause of mortality. Current efforts toward maternal intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis have significantly reduced the rates of GBS disease but have been associated with increased rates of Gram-negative infections, especially among very-low-birth-weight infants. The diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is based on a combination of clinical presentation; the use of nonspecific markers, including C-reactive protein and procalcitonin (where available); blood cultures; and the use of molecular methods, including PCR. Cytokines, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and cell surface antigens, including soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) and CD64, are also being increasingly examined for use as nonspecific screening measures for neonatal sepsis. Viruses, in particular enteroviruses, parechoviruses, and herpes simplex virus (HSV), should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Empirical treatment should be based on local patterns of antimicrobial resistance but typically consists of the use of ampicillin and gentamicin, or ampicillin and cefotaxime if meningitis is suspected, until the etiologic agent has been identified. Current research is focused primarily on development of vaccines against GBS. PMID:24396135

  14. General Information about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional ... are linked by thin tubes called ducts. Enlarge Anatomy of the female breast. The nipple and areola ...

  15. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  16. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  17. Breast reconstruction after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serletti, Joseph M; Fosnot, Joshua; Nelson, Jonas A; Disa, Joseph J; Bucky, Louis P

    2011-06-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the mental, emotional, and physical benefits of reconstruction in breast cancer patients. 2. Compare the most common techniques of reconstruction in patients and detail benefits and risks associated with each. 3. Outline different methods of reconstruction and identify the method considered best for the patient based on timing of the procedures, body type, adjuvant therapies, and other coexisting conditions. 4. Distinguish between some of the different flaps that can be considered for autologous reconstruction. Breast cancer is unfortunately a common disease affecting millions of women, often at a relatively young age. Reconstruction following mastectomy offers women an opportunity to mollify some of the emotional and aesthetic effects of this devastating disease. Although varying techniques of alloplastic and autologous techniques are available, all strive to achieve the same goal: the satisfactory reformation of a breast mound that appears as natural as possible without clothing and at the very least is normal in appearance under clothing. This article summarizes the various approaches to breast reconstruction and offers a balanced view of the risks and benefits of each, all of which in the end offer the opportunity for excellent and predictable results with a high degree of patient satisfaction.

  18. ABRAXAS (FAM175A) and Breast Cancer Susceptibility: No Evidence of Association in the Breast Cancer Family Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Anne-Laure; Lesueur, Fabienne; Coulombe, Yan; Gobeil, Stéphane; Soucy, Penny; Hamdi, Yosr; Desjardins, Sylvie; Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; Vallée, Maxime; Voegele, Catherine; Hopper, John L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Southey, Melissa C.; John, Esther M.; Masson, Jean-Yves; Tavtigian, Sean V.; Simard, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Approximately half of the familial aggregation of breast cancer remains unexplained. This proportion is less for early-onset disease where familial aggregation is greater, suggesting that other susceptibility genes remain to be discovered. The majority of known breast cancer susceptibility genes are involved in the DNA double-strand break repair pathway. ABRAXAS is involved in this pathway and mutations in this gene impair BRCA1 recruitment to DNA damage foci and increase cell sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Moreover, a recurrent germline mutation was reported in Finnish high-risk breast cancer families. To determine if ABRAXAS could be a breast cancer susceptibility gene in other populations, we conducted a population-based case-control mutation screening study of the coding exons and exon/intron boundaries of ABRAXAS in the Breast Cancer Family Registry. In addition to the common variant p.Asp373Asn, sixteen distinct rare variants were identified. Although no significant difference in allele frequencies between cases and controls was observed for the identified variants, two variants, p.Gly39Val and p.Thr141Ile, were shown to diminish phosphorylation of gamma-H2AX in MCF7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells, an important biomarker of DNA double-strand breaks. Overall, likely damaging or neutral variants were evenly represented among cases and controls suggesting that rare variants in ABRAXAS may explain only a small proportion of hereditary breast cancer. PMID:27270457

  19. Detection of eight BRCA1 mutations in 10 breast/ovarian cancer families, including 1 family with male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sruewing, J.P.; Brody, L.C.; Erdos, M.R. [National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Genetic epidemiological evidence suggests that mutations in BRCA1 may be responsible for approximately one half of early onset familial breast cancer and the majority of familial breast/ovarian cancer. The recent cloning of BRCA1 allows for the direct detection of mutations, but the feasibility of presymptomatic screening for cancer susceptibility is unknown. We analyzed genomic DNA from one affected individual from each of 24 families with at least three cases of ovarian or breast cancer, using SSCP assays. Variant SSCP bands were subcloned and sequenced. Allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization was used to verify sequence changes and to screen DNA from control individuals. Six frameshift and two missense mutations were detected in 10 different families. A frameshift mutation was detected in a male proband affected with both breast and prostate cancer. A 40-bp deletion was detected in a patient who developed intra-abdominal carcinomatosis 1 year after prophylactic oophorectomy. Mutations were detected throughout the gene, and only one was detected in more than a single family. These results provide further evidence that inherited breast and ovarian cancer can occur as a consequence of a wide array of BRCA1 mutations. These results suggests that development of a screening test for BRCA1 mutations will be technically challenging. The finding of a mutation in a family with male breast cancer, not previously thought to be related to BRCA1, also illustrates the potential difficulties of genetic counseling for individuals known to carry mutations. 37 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NPCR 2017 CDC National Cancer Conference Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah's family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  1. Breast Cancer In Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic shows the Breast Cancer Subtypes in Women. It’s important for guiding treatment and predicting survival. Know the Science: HR = Hormone receptor. HR+ means tumor cells have receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone, which can promote the growth of HR+ tumors. Hormone therapies like tamoxifen can be used to treat HR+ tumors. HER2 = Human epidermal growth Factor receptor, HER2+ means tumor cells overexpress (make high levels of) a protein, called HE2/neu, which has been shown to be associated with certain aggressive types of breast cancer. Trastuzumab and some other therapies can target cells that overexpress HER2. HR+/HER2, aka “LuminalA”. 73% of all breast cancer cases: best prognosis, most common subtype for every race, age, and poverty level. HR-/HER2, aka “Triple Negative”: 13% of all breast cancer cases, Worst prognosis, Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest rate of this subtype at every age and poverty level. HR+/HER2+, aka “Luminal B”, 10% of all breast cancer cases, little geographic variation by state. HR-/HER2+, aka”HER2-enriched”, 5% of all breast cancer cases, lowest rates for all races and ethnicities. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  2. Hormone receptors in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijkerbuijk, K. P M; van der Wall, E.; van Diest, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors are critical for the growth and development of breast tissue as well as of breast cancer. The importance of the role estrogens in breast cancer has been delineated for more than 100 years. The analysis of its expression has been used not only to classify breast cancers but

  3. DNA Double Strand Break Repair and its Association with Inherited Predispositions to Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Rodney J

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mutations in BRCA1 account for the majority of familial aggregations of early onset breast and ovarian cancer (~70% and about 1/5 of all early onset breast cancer families; in contrast, mutations in BRCA2 account for a smaller proportion of breast/ovarian cancer families and a similar proportion of early onset breast cancer families. BRCA2 has also been shown to be associated with a much more pleiotropic disease spectrum compared to BRCA1. Since the identification of both BRCA1 and BRCA2 investigations into the functions of these genes have revealed that both are associated with the maintenance of genomic integrity via their apparent roles in cellular response to DNA damage, especially their involvement in the process of double strand DNA break repair. This review will focus on the specific roles of both genes and how functional differences may account for the diverse clinical findings observed between families that harbour BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations.

  4. Living Beyond Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Styles Common Yoga Poses Special Situations Yoga and Lymphedema Risk Yoga and Metastatic Breast Cancer Side Effects ... Insomnia and Fatigue Treatment for Insomnia and Fatigue Lymphedema Lymphedema Risk Treating Lymphedema Menopausal Symptoms Mouth Sores ...

  5. Recurrent Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can help you cope with distress include: Art therapy Dance or movement therapy Exercise Meditation Music ... mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/recurrent-breast-cancer/basics/definition/CON-20032432 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  6. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... means they developed from cells that line the milk ducts of the breast and then spread beyond ...

  7. Preeclampsia and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared......, and in women giving birth to boys. These findings, however, did not reach statistical significance. Finally, risk reduction was slightly greater following milder forms of preeclampsia. CONCLUSION: Our data is compatible with an approximately 20% reduction in risk of developing breast cancer following...

  8. Contralateral breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Surgery, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Kaduna, Nigeria ... This second breast cancer remains, however largely sub-clinical. .... therapeutic mastectomy and prophylactic ... basis against the operation's physical and.

  9. Hormones and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    criteria were: having ever been treated with chemotherapy, or been diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus or liver cirrhosis; having smoked the previous...history of breast cancer) was not associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Moreover, OC use before age 25 or first pregnancy was not...radioimmunoassay of unconjugated estriol in Endocrinol Metab 65:792-795 (1987). pregnancy plasma. Steroids 24:225-238 (1974). 47. Longcope C, Gorbach S

  10. Targeting Breast Cancer Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer-associated deaths. Despite the significant improvement in current therapies in extending patient life, 30–40% of patients may eventually suffer from distant relapse and succumb to the disease. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the metastasis biology is key to developing better treatment strategies and achieving long-lasting therapeutic efficacies against breast cancer. This review covers recent breakthroughs in the discovery of various me...

  11. A common genetic variant (97906C>A of DAB2IP/AIP1 is associated with an increased risk and early onset of lung cancer in Chinese males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yang

    Full Text Available DOC-2/DAB2 interactive protein (DAB2IP is a novel identified tumor suppressor gene that inhibits cell growth and facilitates cell apoptosis. One genetic variant in DAB2IP gene was reported to be associated with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer recently. Since DAB2IP involves in the development of lung cancer and low expression of DAB2IP are observed in lung cancer, we hypothesized that the variations in DAB2IP gene can increase the genetic susceptibility to lung cancer. In a case-control study of 1056 lung cancer cases and 1056 sex and age frequency-matched cancer-free controls, we investigated the association between two common polymorphisms in DAB2IP gene (-1420T>G, rs7042542; 97906C>A, rs1571801 and the risk of lung cancer. We found that compared with the 97906CC genotypes, carriers of variant genotypes (97906AC+AA had a significant increased risk of lung cancer (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.33, 95%CI = 1.04-1.70, P = 0.023 and the number of variant (risk allele worked in a dose-response manner (P(trend = 0.0158. Further stratification analysis showed that the risk association was more pronounced in subjects aged less than 60 years old, males, non-smokers, non-drinkers, overweight groups and in those with family cancer history in first or second-degree relatives, and the 97906A interacted with overweight on lung cancer risk. We further found the number of risk alleles (97906A allele were negatively correlated with early diagnosis age of lung cancer in male patients (P = 0.003. However, no significant association was observed on the -1420T>G polymorphism. Our data suggested that the 97906A variant genotypes are associated with the increased risk and early onset of lung cancer, particularly in males.

  12. The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nichols, Hazel B; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Wright, Lauren B

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cancer diagnosis among premenopausal women around the world. Unlike rates in postmenopausal women, incidence rates of advanced breast cancer have increased in recent decades for premenopausal women. Progress in identifying contributors to breast cancer risk among premen...

  13. Identification, Characterisation and Clinical Development of the New Generation of Breast Cancer Susceptibility Alleles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Peto J. 1996. Cancer mortality in relatives of women with ovarian cancer: the OPCS Study. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys. Int. J. Cancer...BRCA1 damage response. Oncogene 25:2245–53 91. Peto J, Collins N, Barfoot R, Seal S, Warren W, et al. 1999. Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene...mutations in patients with early-onset breast cancer. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 91:943–49 92. Peto J, Easton DF, Matthews FE, Ford D, Swerdlow AJ. 1996. Cancer

  14. Stereotactic Image-Guided Navigation During Breast Reconstruction in Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-12

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  15. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  16. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance Among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Family history of breast cancer  specifically mother or sister diagnosed with breast cancer  Not the same as genetic risk for breast cancer...treatment. Table 5 presents sociodemographic variables for the first 20 SIS participants. The majority of participants were African American, unmarried

  17. Breast Cancer Basics and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in both men and women, although male breast cancer is rare. The Breasts Inside a woman's breast are 15 to 20 sections called lobes. Each lobe contains many smaller sections called lobules. These are groups of tiny glands that make breast milk. Breast milk flows through thin tubes called ducts ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Share on Twitter Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Search MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions breast cancer breast cancer Enable ...

  19. Inflammatory breast cancer: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden, D.J. van; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Westenberg, A.H.; Wilt, J.H. de; Blanken-Peeters, C.F.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive entity of breast cancer. Management involves coordination of multidisciplinary management and usually includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ablative surgery if a tumor-free resection margin is expected and locoregional radiotherapy. This multimoda

  20. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  1. The prevalence of BRCA1 mutations among young women with triple-negative breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeSai Damini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular screening for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is now an established component of risk evaluation and management of familial breast cancer. Features of hereditary breast cancer include an early age-of-onset and over-representation of the 'triple-negative' phenotype (negative for estrogen-receptor, progesterone-receptor and HER2. The decision to offer genetic testing to a breast cancer patient is usually based on her family history, but in the absence of a family history of cancer, some women may qualify for testing based on the age-of-onset and/or the pathologic features of the breast cancer. Methods We studied 54 women who were diagnosed with high-grade, triple-negative invasive breast cancer at or before age 40. These women were selected for study because they had little or no family history of breast or ovarian cancer and they did not qualify for genetic testing using conventional family history criteria. BRCA1 screening was performed using a combination of fluorescent multiplexed-PCR analysis, BRCA1 exon-13 6 kb duplication screening, the protein truncation test (PTT and fluorescent multiplexed denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. All coding exons of BRCA1 were screened. The two large exons of BRCA2 were also screened using PTT. All mutations were confirmed with direct sequencing. Results Five deleterious BRCA1 mutations and one deleterious BRCA2 mutation were identified in the 54 patients with early-onset, triple-negative breast cancer (11%. Conclusion Women with early-onset triple-negative breast cancer are candidates for genetic testing for BRCA1, even in the absence of a family history of breast or ovarian cancer.

  2. Affluence and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Green, Sheryl; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E

    2016-09-01

    High income, high socioeconomic status, and affluence increase breast cancer incidence. Socioeconomic status in USA breast cancer studies has been assessed by block-group socioeconomic measures. A block group is a portion of a census tract with boundaries that segregate, as far as possible, socioeconomic groups. In this study, we used US Census income data instead of block groups to gauge socioeconomic status of breast cancer patients in relationship with incidence, prognostic markers, and survival. US state breast cancer incidence and mortality data are from the U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, United States Cancer Statistics: 1999-2011. Three-Year-Average Median Household Income by State, 2010 to 2012, is from the U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2011 to 2013 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. County incomes are from the 2005-2009 American Community Survey of the U.S. Census Bureau. The American Community Survey is an ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population yearly. Its purpose is to provide communities the information they need to plan investments and services. Breast cancer county incidence and survival data are from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) data base. We analyzed SEER data from 198 counties in California, Connecticut, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, New Mexico, Utah, and Washington. SEER uses the Collaborative Stage (CS) Data Collection System. We have retained the SEER CS variables. There was a significant relationship of income with breast cancer incidence in 50 USA states and the District of Columbia in White women (r = 0.623, p breast cancer. Income was not correlated with 5-year survival of Black race (p = 0.364) or other races (p = 0.624). The multivariate general linear model with income as covariate, 5-year survival by race as a dependent variable, showed a significant effect of income and White race on 5-year survival (p breast cancer

  3. Are medullary breast cancers an indication for BRCA1 mutation screening? A mutation analysis of 42 cases of medullary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iau, P T C; Marafie, M; Ali, A; Sng, J H; Macmillan, R D; Pinder, S; Denley, H E; Ellis, I O; Wenzyck, P; Scott, N; Cross, G; Blamey, R W

    2004-05-01

    Recommended guidelines have limited breast cancer gene ( BRCA1 ) mutation testing to individuals with a personal or family history of early onset breast and/or ovarian cancer, and those with multiple affected close relatives. Such large breast cancer families are rare in the general population, limiting the clinical application of the BRCA1 discovery. Previous reports have suggested an association between medullary breast cancer and BRCA1 mutation carriers. To test the feasibility of using these rare histological subtypes as an alternative to epidemiological factors, 42 cases of medullary cancer unselected for family history were screened for BRCA1 point mutations and large exon rearrangements. The large majority (83%) of these patients did not have significant family of breast or ovarian cancer. Two deleterious mutations resulting in a premature stop codon, and one exon 13 duplication were found. All mutations were detected in patients with typical medullary cancer, who had family history of multiple breast and ovarian cancers. Our findings suggest that medullary breast cancers are not an indication for BRCA1 mutation screening in the absence of significant family risk factors.

  4. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk: 2003 Workshop In ... cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortions. They concluded that having an abortion or miscarriage ...

  5. Molecular cytogenetic investigations of synchronous bilateral breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agelopoulos, K; Tidow, N; Korsching, E; Voss, R; Hinrichs, B; Brandt, B; Boecker, W; Buerger, H

    2003-01-01

    Background: Bilaterality in breast cancer is a rare event and together with an early onset of disease points towards inheritance of the disease. However, most cases seem to occur sporadically, either in a synchronous or metachronous manner. Methods: Thirty two invasive carcinomas and one in situ carcinoma from 16 patients with synchronous, bilateral breast cancer were investigated by means of comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) and polymerase chain reaction based multiplex microsatellite analysis. The results were analysed conventionally and were also subjected to a biomathematical cluster analysis. Results: On average, bilateral breast cancer cases showed a low number of genetic alterations, a low frequency of genetic amplifications, and a high rate of chromosomal 16q losses. A distinct, characteristic genetic alteration associated with bilateral breast disease could not be found. Although two tumour pairs appeared to be related using biomathematical processing for microsatellite analysis, this result was reproduced by CGH data processing in one patient only. Conclusions: Most synchronous, bilateral breast cancer cases seem to represent independent tumours rather than metastatic events. Nevertheless, the possibility of a specific susceptibility remains. PMID:12944548

  6. Early detection of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles-Carlson, B

    1989-01-01

    Timely, comprehensive screening for breast cancer is a major, though often overlooked, component of primary health care for women. This article reviews the scientific rationale for screening and outlines the current recommendations of the American Cancer Society and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force regarding the use of mammography, clinical breast examination (CBE), and breast self-examination (BSE). Nursing interventions to decrease barriers to effective screening are discussed, and an expanded role of nurses in breast cancer screening is proposed.

  7. Breast cancer epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, J L; Berkowitz, G S

    1988-10-15

    The various risk factors for breast cancer have been recognized for many years. A table lists these established breast cancer risk factors together with the approximate magnitude of the increase in risk associated with them. Breast cancer incidence rates increase with age throughout the life span in Western countries, although the rate of increase is greater up to age 50 years than after 50 years. Breast cancer is more common among women in upper rather than lower social classes, among women who never have been married, among women living in urban areas, among women living in the northern US than in the southern US, and among whites than blacks, at least among those over age 50. Women in North American and Northern European countries have the highest risk for breast cancer, women in Southern European and Latin American countries are at intermediate risk, and women in Africa and Asian countries have the lowest risk. Yet, rapid rates of increase in incident rates have been noted in recent years in many Asian, Central European, and some South American countries. The later the age at which a woman has her 1st full-term pregnancy, the higher her risk for breast cancer; the earlier the age at menarche and the later the age at menopause the higher the risk; and among women who have a premenopausal oophorectomy, the earlier the age at which this occurs the lower the risk. Among postmenopausal women, obesity is associated with an increase in risk. Lactation is negatively associated with subsequent breast cancer risk. Some current research is considering potential risk factors that have not been well studied in the past, including alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, caffeine consumption, exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), emotional stress, exposure to electric power, and lack of physical activity. Other areas of current research reviewed here include radiation, mammographic parenchymal patterns, a high-fat diet, use of oral contraceptives (OCs), use of estrogen

  8. Breast Cancer in Art Painting

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is an emotive cancer. It is a disease that affects a visible sexual organ and it is the commonest single cause of death of women between 40 and 60 years of age. Nevertheless, this type of cancer was infrequently depicted in art paintings. In this article the themes from the breast cancer in famous art paintings are discussed.

  9. Breast cancer screening with digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaane, Per

    2017-01-01

    To give an overview of studies comparing full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in breast cancer screening. The implementation of tomosynthesis in breast imaging is rapidly increasing world-wide. Experimental clinical studies of relevance for DBT screening have shown that tomosynthesis might have a great potential in breast cancer screening, although most of these retrospective reading studies are based on small populations, so that final conclusions are difficult to draw from individual reports. Several retrospective studies and three prospective trials on tomosynthesis in breast cancer screening have been published so far, confirming the great potential of DBT in mammography screening. The main results of these screening studies are presented. The retrospective screening studies from USA have all shown a significant decrease in the recall rate using DBT as adjunct to mammography. Most of these studies have also shown an increase in the cancer detection rate, and the non-significant results in some studies might be explained by a lack of statistical power. All the three prospective European trials have shown a significant increase in the cancer detection rate. The retrospective and the prospective screening studies comparing FFDM and DBT have all demonstrated that tomosynthesis has a great potential for improving breast cancer screening. DBT should be regarded as a better mammogram that could improve or overcome limitations of the conventional mammography, and tomosynthesis might be considered as the new technique in the next future of breast cancer screening.

  10. Prostate cancer is not breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Venniyoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach.

  11. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight into the t......Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  12. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-28

    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  13. Breast Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    tion of tumor cells with red indicating the highest density of tumor cells at the primary tumor (4th mammary fat pad ) and purple/blue showing the...Idea Award Elaine Hardman and Philippe Georgel “ Maternal Consumption of Omega 3 Fatty Acids to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk in Offspring” FY09

  14. Early Onset Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The clinical signs and genetic analysis of early-onset Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT in a 2-year-old boy and members of his family are reported from the Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, and Sophia Children’s Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

  15. Progestins and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Jorge R

    2007-10-01

    Progestins exert their progestational activity by binding to the progesterone receptor (form A, the most active and form B, the less active) and may also interact with other steroid receptors (androgen, glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, estrogen). They can have important effects in other tissues besides the endometrium, including the breast, liver, bone and brain. The biological responses of progestins cover a very large domain: lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, water and electrolyte regulation, hemostasis, fibrinolysis, and cardiovascular and immunological systems. At present, more than 200 progestin compounds have been synthesized, but the biological response could be different from one to another depending on their structure, metabolism, receptor affinity, experimental conditions, target tissue or cell line, as well as the biological response considered. There is substantial evidence that mammary cancer tissue contains all the enzymes responsible for the local biosynthesis of estradiol (E(2)) from circulating precursors. Two principal pathways are implicated in the final steps of E(2) formation in breast cancer tissue: the 'aromatase pathway', which transforms androgens into estrogens, and the 'sulfatase pathway', which converts estrone sulfate (E(1)S) into estrone (E(1)) via estrone sulfatase. The final step is the conversion of weak E(1) to the potent biologically active E(2) via reductive 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity. It is also well established that steroid sulfotransferases, which convert estrogens into their sulfates, are present in breast cancer tissues. It has been demonstrated that various progestins (e.g. nomegestrol acetate, medrogestone, promegestone) as well as tibolone and their metabolites can block the enzymes involved in E(2) bioformation (sulfatase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) in breast cancer cells. These substances can also stimulate the sulfotransferase activity which converts estrogens into the biologically

  16. Mindfulness Meditation or Survivorship Education in Improving Behavioral Symptoms in Younger Stage 0-III Breast Cancer Survivors (Pathways to Wellness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    Cancer Survivor; Early-Stage Breast Carcinoma; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  17. Opioids and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...

  18. Heterogeneity in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Kornelia

    2011-10-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease. There is a high degree of diversity between and within tumors as well as among cancer-bearing individuals, and all of these factors together determine the risk of disease progression and therapeutic resistance. Advances in technologies such as whole-genome sequencing and functional viability screens now allow us to analyze tumors at unprecedented depths. However, translating this increasing knowledge into clinical practice remains a challenge in part due to tumor evolution driven by the diversity of cancer cell populations and their microenvironment. The articles in this Review series discuss recent advances in our understanding of breast tumor heterogeneity, therapies tailored based on this knowledge, and future ways of assessing and treating heterogeneous tumors.

  19. Analysis of colorectal cancers in British Bangladeshi identifies early onset, frequent mucinous histotype and a high prevalence of RBFOX1 deletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengupta Neel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC in the British Bangladeshi population (BAN is low compared to British Caucasians (CAU. Genetic background may influence mutations and disease features. Methods We characterized the clinicopathological features of BAN CRCs and interrogated their genomes using mutation profiling and high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP arrays and compared findings to CAU CRCs. Results Age of onset of BAN CRC was significantly lower than for CAU patients (p=3.0 x 10-5 and this difference was not due to Lynch syndrome or the polyposis syndromes. KRAS mutations in BAN microsatellite stable (MSS CRCs were comparatively rare (5.4% compared to CAU MSS CRCs (25%; p=0.04, which correlates with the high percentage of mucinous histotype observed (31% in the BAN samples. No BRAF mutations was seen in our BAN MSS CRCs (CAU CRCs, 12%; p=0.08. Array data revealed similar patterns of gains (chromosome 7 and 8q, losses (8p, 17p and 18q and LOH (4q, 17p and 18q in BAN and CAU CRCs. A small deletion on chromosome 16p13.2 involving the alternative splicing factor RBFOX1 only was found in significantly more BAN (50% than CAU CRCs (15% cases (p=0.04. Focal deletions targeting the 5’ end of the gene were also identified. Novel RBFOX1 mutations were found in CRC cell lines and tumours; mRNA and protein expression was reduced in tumours. Conclusions KRAS mutations were rare in BAN MSS CRC and a mucinous histotype common. Loss of RBFOX1 may explain the anomalous splicing activity associated with CRC.

  20. [Occult multicentric breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vtorushin, S V; Zab'ialova, M V; Glushchenko, S A; Perel'muter, V M; Slonimskaia, E M

    2009-01-01

    The study included 92 patients with invasive ductal breast cancer (T2-4N0-2M0-1). In 38 cases, tumor growth was unicentric while histologically identifiable ones as multicentric in 44. Multicentricity mostly occurred in cases of macroscopically-identifiable nodes located in the central segments of the breast. Clinically-identifiable nodes of multicentric tumor growth measured more than 3 cm. Multicentric tumors were mostly grade III, featured lower expression of sex hormone receptors and positive Her2 status.

  1. You, Your Teenage Daughter and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brateman, Libby

    1991-01-01

    Discusses breast cancer and teenagers, focusing on how parents can introduce the subject and encourage breast self-examination. The article provides information on breast cancer statistics, mammography, and American Cancer Society services. (SM)

  2. Braving Breast Cancer: Just Do It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Braving Breast Cancer: Just Do It! Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table of Contents Breast cancer survivor Jana Brightwell, pictured here on the NIH ...

  3. Breast cancer fear in African American breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lynette M; Thomas, Sheila; Parker, Veronica; Mayo, Rachel; Wetsel, Margaret Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe breast cancer fear according to phase of survivorship, determine whether breast cancer fear levels differed among survivorship phases, and determine the relationship between fear and age in African-American breast cancer survivors. The study utilized secondary data analysis from the study, Inner Resources as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being in AABCS. A new subscale entitled, "Breast Cancer Fear" was adapted from the Psychological Well Being Subscale by Ferrell and Grant. There was no significant difference between fear and phase of survivorship. There was a significant positive relationship between age and fear.

  4. Getting free of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halttunen, Arja; Hietanen, P; Jallinoja, P

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two breast cancer patients who were relapse-free and had no need for cancer-related treatment were interviewed 8 years after mastectomy in order to evaluate their feelings of getting free of breast cancer and the meaning of breast cancer in their lives. The study is a part of an intervention...... and follow-up study of 57 breast cancer patients. Half of the 22 patients still had frequent or occasional thoughts of recurrence and over two-thirds still thought they had not been 'cured' of cancer. More than half of the patients admitted that going through breast cancer had made them more mature. Women...... who had less thoughts of recurrence belonged to a group that had gone through an eight-week group psychotherapy intervention, were less depressed and had more other illnesses. Women who felt 'cured' had less limitations and restrictions due to cancer and belonged more often to higher social classes...

  5. Prevalence of BRCA1 mutations among 403 women with triple-negative breast cancer: implications for genetic screening selection criteria: a Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostira, Florentia; Tsitlaidou, Marianthi; Papadimitriou, Christos; Pertesi, Maroulio; Timotheadou, Eleni; Stavropoulou, Alexandra V; Glentis, Stavros; Bournakis, Evangelos; Bobos, Mattheos; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Papakostas, Pavlos; Pentheroudakis, George; Gogas, Helen; Skarlos, Pantelis; Samantas, Epaminontas; Bafaloukos, Dimitrios; Kosmidis, Paris A; Koutras, Angelos; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Fountzilas, George

    2012-07-01

    In spite the close association of the triple-negative breast cancer immunophenotype with hereditary breast cancers and the BRCA1 pathway, there is a lack of population studies that determine the frequency of BRCA1 mutations among triple-negative breast cancer patients. To address this, we have screened a large sample of 403 women diagnosed with triple-negative invasive breast cancer, independently of their age or family history, for germline BRCA1 mutations. Median age at diagnosis was 50 years (range 20-83). The overall prevalence of triple-negative cases among the initial patient group with invasive breast cancer was 8%. BRCA1 was screened by direct DNA sequencing in all patients, including all exons where a mutation was previously found in the Greek population (exons 5, 11, 12, 16, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24-77% of the BRCA1 coding region), including diagnostic PCRs to detect the three Greek founder large genomic rearrangements. Sixty-five deleterious BRCA1 mutations were identified among the 403 triple-negative breast cancer patients (16%). Median age of onset for mutation carriers was 39 years. Among a total of 106 women with early-onset triple-negative breast cancer (<40 years), 38 (36%) had a BRCA1 mutation, while 27% of women with triple-negative breast cancer diagnosed before 50 years (56/208) had a BRCA1 mutation. A mutation was found in 48% (50/105) of the triple-negative breast cancer patients with family history of breast or ovarian cancer. It is noteworthy, however, that of the 65 carriers, 15 (23%) had no reported family history of related cancers. All but one of the carriers had grade III tumors (98%). These results indicate that women with early-onset triple-negative breast cancer, and ideally all triple-negative breast cancer patients, are candidates for BRCA1 genetic testing even in the absence of a family history of breast or ovarian cancer.

  6. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing radiatio

  7. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing

  8. [Immediate breast reconstruction for breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Daigo; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Tsubota, Yu; Sueoka, Noriko; Endo, Kayoko; Ogura, Tsunetaka; Nagumo, Yoshinori; Kwon, A-Hon

    2014-11-01

    We performed immediate breast reconstruction after nipple-sparing mastectomy or skin-sparing mastectomy and evaluated the reconstruction procedure, cosmesis, and complications. Among the 30 patients included in the study, 6 received latissimus dorsi flaps, 1 received a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap, 7 received deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps, 1 received an implant, and 15 received tissue expanders. In addition, the results were excellent in 25 patients, good in 3 patients, and poor in 2 patients. As the number of patients with breast cancer is increasing, the demand for breast reconstruction will increase. Therefore, it is essential to choose an appropriate method of breast reconstruction for each case.

  9. Progress in breast cancer: overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-12-01

    This edition of CCR Focus titled Research in Breast Cancer: Frontiers in Genomics, Biology, and Clinical Investigation reviews six topics that cover areas of translational research of high impact in breast cancer. These topics represent areas of breast cancer research where significant progress has occurred but also where very important challenges remain. The papers in this CCR Focus section are contributed by experts in the respective areas of investigation. Herein, key aspects of these contributions and the research directions they propose are reviewed.

  10. Risk assessment in neonatal early onset sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sagori; Puopolo, Karen M

    2012-12-01

    The incidence of neonatal early onset sepsis has declined with the widespread use of intrapartum antibiotic therapies, yet early onset sepsis remains a potentially fatal condition, particularly among very low birth-weight infants. Clinical signs of neonatal infection are nonspecific and may be absent in the immediate postnatal period. Maternal and infant clinical characteristics, as well as infant laboratory values, have been used to identify newborns at risk and to administer empiric antibiotic therapy to prevent progression to more severe illness. Such approaches result in the evaluation of approximately 15% of asymptomatic term and late preterm infants and of nearly all preterm infants. The development of multivariate predictive models may provide more accurate methods of identifying newborns at highest risk and allow for more limited newborn antibiotic exposures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Organized breast cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouëssé, Jacques; Sancho-Garnier, Hélèn

    2014-02-01

    Breast screening programs are increasingly controversial, especially regarding two points: the number of breast cancer deaths they avoid, and the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The French national breast cancer screening program was extended to cover the whole country in 2004. Ten years later it is time to examine the risk/benefit ratio of this program and to discuss the need for change. Like all forms of cancer management, screening must be regularly updated, taking into account the state of the art, new evidence, and uncertainties. All screening providers should keep themselves informed of the latest findings. In the French program, women aged 50-74 with no major individual or familial risk factors for breast cancer are offered screening mammography and clinical breast examination every two years. Images considered non suspicious of malignancy by a first reader are re-examined by a second reader. The devices and procedures are subjected to quality controls. Participating radiologists (both public and private) are required to read at least 500 mammographies per year. The program's national participation rate was 52.7 % in 2012. When individual screening outside of the national program is taken into account (nearly 15 % of women), coverage appears close to the European recommendation of 65 %. Breast cancer mortality has been falling in France by 0.6 % per year for over 30 years, starting before mass screening was implemented, and by 1.5 % since 2005. This decline can be attributed in part to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, so that the specific impact of screening cannot easily be measured. Over-treatment, defined as the detection and treatment of low-malignancy tumors that would otherwise not have been detected in a person's lifetime, is a major negative effect of screening, but its frequency is not precisely known (reported to range from 1 % to 30 %). In view of these uncertainties, it would be advisable to modify the program in order to

  12. A-TWinnipeg: Pathogenesis of rare ATM missense mutation c.6200C>A with decreased protein expression and downstream signaling, early-onset dystonia, cancer, and life-threatening radiotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kotoka; Fike, Francesca; Haghayegh, Sara; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Dawson, Angelika J; Dörk, Thilo; Gatti, Richard A

    2014-07-01

    We studied 10 Mennonite patients who carry the c.6200C>A missense mutation (p.A2067D) in the ATM gene, all of whom exhibited a phenotypic variant of ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) that is characterized by early-onset dystonia and late-onset mild ataxia, as previously described. This report provides the pathogenetic evidence for this mutation on cellular functions. Several patients have developed cancer and subsequently experienced life-threatening adverse reactions to radiation (radiotoxicity) and/or chemotherapy. As the c.6200C>A mutation is, thus far, unique to the Mennonite population and is always associated with the same haplotype or haplovariant, it was important to rule out any possible confounding DNA variant on the same haplotype. Lymphoblastoid cells derived from Mennonite patients expressed small amounts of ATM protein, which had no autophosphorylation activity at ATM Ser1981, and trace-to-absent transphosphorylation of downstream ATM targets. A-T lymphoblastoid cells stably transfected with ATM cDNA which had been mutated for c.6200C>A did not show a detectable amount of ATM protein. The same stable cell line with mutated ATM cDNA also showed a trace-to-absent transphosphorylation of downstream ATM targets SMC1pSer966 and KAP1pSer824. From these results, we conclude that c.6200A is the disease-causing ATM mutation on this haplotype. The presence of at least trace amounts of ATM kinase activity on some immunoblots may account for the late-onset, mild ataxia of these patients. The cause of the dystonia remains unclear. Because this dystonia-ataxia phenotype is often encountered in the Mennonite population in association with cancer and adverse reactions to chemotherapy, an early diagnosis is important.

  13. Estrogens and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANKINSON SUSAN E

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence for the associations of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones with risk of breast cancer. We also describe the biologic plausibility of these relationships. Overall, there appears to be little, if any, increase in risk with oral contraceptive use in general, even among users for 10 or more years. However, compared to never users, current oral contraceptive users appear to have a modest elevation in risk that subsides within about 10 years after cessation of use. For postmenopausal hormones, the weight of the evidence suggests little or no increase in risk among users of short duration, or for use in the past. However, current longer term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration. This increase in risk is large enough, and well enough supported, to be considered along with the other risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

  14. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Badsberg, Jens Henrik; Osler, Merete

    2014-05-01

    Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer. This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio-demography and co-morbid conditions. Multivariable analyses were performed by Cox's proportional hazard models. Two years after treatment, 81% of patients were still part of the work force, 10% of which were unemployed. Increasing duration of unemployment before breast cancer was associated with an adjusted HR = 4.37 (95% CI: 3.90-4.90) for unemployment after breast cancer. Other risk factors for unemployment included low socioeconomic status and demography, while adjuvant therapy did not increase the risk of unemployment. Duration of unemployment before breast cancer was the most important determinant of unemployment after breast cancer treatment. This allows identification of a particularly vulnerable group of patients in need of rehabilitation.

  15. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia

    2012-11-01

    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  16. Breast cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  17. Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- (IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.

  18. Early-onset Lafora body disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Julie; Girard, Jean-Marie; Lohi, Hannes; Chan, Elayne M.; Wang, Peixiang; Tiberia, Erica; Omer, Salah; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Bennett, Christopher; Chakrabarty, Aruna; Tyagi, Atul; Liu, Yan; Pencea, Nela; Zhao, XiaoChu; Scherer, Stephen W.; Ackerley, Cameron A.

    2012-01-01

    The most common progressive myoclonus epilepsies are the late infantile and late infantile-variant neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (onset before the age of 6 years), Unverricht–Lundborg disease (onset after the age of 6 years) and Lafora disease. Lafora disease is a distinct disorder with uniform course: onset in teenage years, followed by progressively worsening myoclonus, seizures, visual hallucinations and cognitive decline, leading to a vegetative state in status myoclonicus and death within 10 years. Biopsy reveals Lafora bodies, which are pathognomonic and not seen with any other progressive myoclonus epilepsies. Lafora bodies are aggregates of polyglucosans, poorly constructed glycogen molecules with inordinately long strands that render them insoluble. Lafora disease is caused by mutations in the EPM2A or EPM2B genes, encoding the laforin phosphatase and the malin ubiquitin ligase, respectively, two cytoplasmically active enzymes that regulate glycogen construction, ensuring symmetric expansion into a spherical shape, essential to its solubility. In this work, we report a new progressive myoclonus epilepsy associated with Lafora bodies, early-onset Lafora body disease, map its locus to chromosome 4q21.21, identify its gene and mutation and characterize the relationship of its gene product with laforin and malin. Early-onset Lafora body disease presents early, at 5 years, with dysarthria, myoclonus and ataxia. The combination of early-onset and early dysarthria strongly suggests late infantile-variant neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, not Lafora disease. Pathology reveals no ceroid lipofuscinosis, but Lafora bodies. The subsequent course is a typical progressive myoclonus epilepsy, though much more protracted than any infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, or Lafora disease, patients living into the fourth decade. The mutation, c.781T>C (Phe261Leu), is in a gene of unknown function, PRDM8. We show that the PRDM8 protein interacts with laforin and malin and

  19. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Madam , The project entitled INCREASING BREAST CANCER SURVEILLANCE AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN BREAST CANCER SURVIVORS includes activities involving human...B b- d § fr. Thomisonwill Work e .y .With’Dra) Vdldf naTir, W and y Bo • rganif Janidorf on data a"_`l- ssi reatihfiutfor pres~entatidns and publi

  20. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  1. Premature adrenarche: novel lessons from early onset androgen excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idkowiak, Jan; Lavery, Gareth G; Dhir, Vivek; Barrett, Timothy G; Stewart, Paul M; Krone, Nils; Arlt, Wiebke

    2011-08-01

    Adrenarche reflects the maturation of the adrenal zona reticularis resulting in increased secretion of the adrenal androgen precursor DHEA and its sulphate ester DHEAS. Premature adrenarche (PA) is defined by increased levels of DHEA and DHEAS before the age of 8 years in girls and 9 years in boys and the concurrent presence of signs of androgen action including adult-type body odour, oily skin and hair and pubic hair growth. PA is distinct from precocious puberty, which manifests with the development of secondary sexual characteristics including testicular growth and breast development. Idiopathic PA (IPA) has long been considered an extreme of normal variation, but emerging evidence links IPA to an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome (MS) and thus ultimately cardiovascular morbidity. Areas of controversy include the question whether IPA in girls is associated with a higher rate of progression to the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and whether low birth weight increases the risk of developing IPA. The recent discoveries of two novel monogenic causes of early onset androgen excess, apparent cortisone reductase deficiency and apparent DHEA sulphotransferase deficiency, support the notion that PA may represent a forerunner condition for PCOS. Future research including carefully designed longitudinal studies is required to address the apparent link between early onset androgen excess and the development of insulin resistance and the MS.

  2. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  3. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  4. Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Beau, Anna-Belle; Christiansen, Peer

    2017-01-01

    Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening is an important issue. A recent study from Denmark concluded that one in three breast cancers diagnosed in screening areas in women aged 50-69 years were overdiagnosed. The purpose of this short communication was to disentangle the study's methodology...

  5. Circadian clocks and breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Blakeman, Victoria; Jack L. Williams; Meng, Qing-Jun; Streuli, Charles H

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks respond to environmental time cues to coordinate 24-hour oscillations in almost every tissue of the body. In the breast, circadian clocks regulate the rhythmic expression of numerous genes. Disrupted expression of circadian genes can alter breast biology and may promote cancer. Here we overview circadian mechanisms, and the connection between the molecular clock and breast biology. We describe how disruption of circadian genes contributes to cancer via multiple mechanisms, an...

  6. Imaging inflammatory breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunni, J-P

    2012-02-01

    Carcinomatous mastitis is a severe form of breast cancer and its diagnosis is essentially clinical and histological. The first examination to perform is still mammography, not only to provide evidence supporting this diagnosis but also to search for a primary intramammary lesion and assess local/regional spread. It is essential to study the contralateral breast for bilaterality. Ultrasound also provides evidence supporting inflammation, but appears to be better for detecting masses and analysing lymph node areas. The role of MRI is debatable, both from a diagnostic point of view and for monitoring during treatment, and should be reserved for selected cases. An optimal, initial radiological assessment will enable the patient to be monitored during neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Copyright © 2011 Éditions française de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. What Is Breast Cancer in Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and bloodstream. At least 8 out of 10 male breast cancers are IDCs (alone or mixed with other types ... is much smaller than the female breast, all male breast cancers start relatively close to the nipple, so they ...

  8. General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy Go to ... are linked by thin tubes called ducts. Enlarge Anatomy of the female breast. The nipple and areola ...

  9. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  10. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...... factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical differences between...

  11. Statins and breast cancer prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Lash, Timothy L; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    Much preclinical and epidemiological evidence supports the anticancer effects of statins. Epidemiological evidence does not suggest an association between statin use and reduced incidence of breast cancer, but does support a protective effect of statins-especially simvastatin-on breast cancer...... recurrence. Here, we argue that the existing evidence base is sufficient to justify a clinical trial of breast cancer adjuvant therapy with statins and we advocate for such a trial to be initiated without delay. If a protective effect of statins on breast cancer recurrence is supported by trial evidence......, then the indications for a safe, well tolerated, and inexpensive treatment can be expanded to improve outcomes for breast cancer survivors. We discuss several trial design opportunities-including candidate predictive biomarkers of statin safety and efficacy-and off er solutions to the key challenges involved...

  12. [Therapeutic advances in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestalozzi, B C

    2006-04-01

    The treatment of breast cancer has made significant improvements during the past ten years. For early breast cancer with a clinically negative axilla sentinel node biopsy has become the preferred approach. For endocrine therapy of postmenopausal patients the selective aromatase inhibitors have become standard in metastatic as well as in early breast cancer. Trastuzumab (Herceptin) plays an important role in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer in the metastatic and since 2005 also in the adjuvant setting. When chemotherapy is used to treat metastatic breast cancer drug combinations are superior to monotherapy only in terms of response rates. By contrast, in the adjuvant setting combination drug therapy is the standard. New methods of tissue analysis including expression patterns of mRNA and proteins are promising research strategies to further advance the field.

  13. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and...

  14. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Assessing Affect Reactivity and Regulation in Patients With Stage 0-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-27

    Healthy Subject; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  15. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way.

  16. Breast Tissue Composition and Susceptibility to Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa J.; Bronskill, Michael; Yaffe, Martin J.; Duric, Neb; Minkin, Salomon

    2010-01-01

    Breast density, as assessed by mammography, reflects breast tissue composition. Breast epithelium and stroma attenuate x-rays more than fat and thus appear light on mammograms while fat appears dark. In this review, we provide an overview of selected areas of current knowledge about the relationship between breast density and susceptibility to breast cancer. We review the evidence that breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer, the histological and other risk factors that are associated with variations in breast density, and the biological plausibility of the associations with risk of breast cancer. We also discuss the potential for improved risk prediction that might be achieved by using alternative breast imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance or ultrasound. After adjustment for other risk factors, breast density is consistently associated with breast cancer risk, more strongly than most other risk factors for this disease, and extensive breast density may account for a substantial fraction of breast cancer. Breast density is associated with risk of all of the proliferative lesions that are thought to be precursors of breast cancer. Studies of twins have shown that breast density is a highly heritable quantitative trait. Associations between breast density and variations in breast histology, risk of proliferative breast lesions, and risk of breast cancer may be the result of exposures of breast tissue to both mitogens and mutagens. Characterization of breast density by mammography has several limitations, and the uses of breast density in risk prediction and breast cancer prevention may be improved by other methods of imaging, such as magnetic resonance or ultrasound tomography. PMID:20616353

  17. Exercise Intervention in Targeting Adiposity and Inflammation With Movement to Improve Prognosis in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-19

    Cancer Survivor; Central Obesity; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Postmenopausal; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  18. Exercise in Targeting Metabolic Dysregulation in Stage I-III Breast or Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-12

    Cancer Survivor; No Evidence of Disease; Obesity; Overweight; Prostate Carcinoma; Sedentary Lifestyle; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  19. [Breast cancer in elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Sami G

    2007-10-01

    The question of the breast cancer in elderly is enlightened by two constituted epidemiological data bases in the United-States: the data basis of San Antonio and the SEER (Surveillance Epidemology and End Results) which represent a follow-up of 26% of the American population. The listed data allow an approach of the clinical and biological constituents according to the age of the disease as well as the factors of comorbidity. The informations relative to the therapeutic choices are more fragmentary and must be developed first and foremost during the programs. double dagger.

  20. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Treated With Zoledronic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-12

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  1. Women with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome are at increased risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlin, Pelle; Windh, Per; Lauritzen, Claes; Emanuelsson, Monica; Grönberg, Henrik; Stenman, Göran

    2007-07-01

    The Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is an autosomal, dominantly inherited craniosynostosis caused by mutations in the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor gene TWIST1. This syndrome has hitherto not been associated with an increased risk of cancer. However, recent studies, using a murine breast tumor model, have shown that Twist may act as a key regulator of metastasis and that the gene is overexpressed in subsets of sporadic human breast cancers. Here, we report a novel association between the Saethre-Chotzen syndrome and breast cancer. In 15 Swedish Saethre-Chotzen families, 15 of 29 (52%) women carriers over the age of 25 had developed breast cancer. At least four patients developed breast cancer before 40 years of age, and five between 40 and 50 years of age. The observed cases with breast cancer (n = 15) are significantly higher than expected (n = 0.89), which gives a standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of 16.80 (95% CI 1.54-32.06). Our finding of a high frequency of breast cancer in women with the Saethre-Chotzen syndrome identifies breast cancer as an important and previously unrecognized symptom characteristic of this syndrome. The results strongly suggest that women carriers of this syndrome would benefit from genetic counseling and enrolment in surveillance programs including yearly mammography. Our results also indicate that the TWIST1 gene may be a novel breast cancer susceptibility gene. Additional studies are, however, necessary to reveal the mechanism by which TWIST1 may predispose to early onset breast cancer in Saethre-Chotzen patients.

  2. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer.

  3. Breast Cancer Center Support Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    also occur with increased frequency in gene carriers, such prostate cancer. First-degree relatives of individuals with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation have...Tumor M 36 Asian Prostate Cancer M 52 Caucasian Ovarian Cancer F 56 Caucasian Cervical Cancer F 43 Caucasian Breast Cancer F 45 Caucasian Cancer of...address transportation barriers, alternate mechanisms were put in place for provision of parking and taxi vouchers. It was expected that many of the women

  4. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Ivermectin-induced acute cytotoxicity through accumulation of lactate , the final product of glycolysis (Figure 6F). Excessive acidification in cancer cells...2 AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0366 TITLE: Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Peter P. Lee...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0366 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  5. The Pittsburgh Breast Cancer Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Protein Autovac in Patients with Brest Cancer CPharmexa). This trial was initiated in June 2003. The PBCC accrued 5 of the planned 11 patients. This...AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-01-1-0374 TITLE: The Pittsburgh Breast Cancer Consortium...3. DATES COVERED 1 AUG 2001 - 31 JUL 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Pittsburgh Breast Cancer Consortium 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  6. Diet and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.

  7. Epigenetics and Breast Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An T. Vo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several of the active compounds in foods, poisons, drugs, and industrial chemicals may, by epigenetic mechanisms, increase or decrease the risk of breast cancers. Enzymes that are involved in DNA methylation and histone modifications have been shown to be altered in several types of breast and other cancers resulting in abnormal patterns of methylation and/or acetylation. Hypermethylation at the CpG islands found in estrogen response element (ERE promoters occurs in conjunction with ligand-bonded alpha subunit estrogen receptor (Erα dimers wherein the ligand ERα dimer complex acts as a transcription factor and binds to the ERE promoter. Ligands could be 17-β-estradiol (E2, phytoestrogens, heterocyclic amines, and many other identified food additives and heavy metals. The dimer recruits DNA methyltransferases which catalyze the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM to 5′-cytosine on CpG islands. Other enzymes are recruited to the region by ligand-ERα dimers which activate DNA demethylases to act simultaneously to increase gene expression of protooncogenes and growth-promoting genes. Ligand-ERα dimers also recruit histone acetyltransferase to the ERE promoter region. Histone demethylases such as JMJD2B and histone methyltransferases are enzymes which demethylate lysine residues on histones H3 and/or H4. This makes the chromatin accessible for transcription factors and enzymes.

  8. Breast Cancer Epigenetics: Review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Abbasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stable molecular changes during cell division without change the sequence of DNA molecules is known as epigenetic. Molecular mechanisms involved in this process, including histone modifications, methylation of DNA, protein complex and RNA antisense. Cancer genome changes happen through a combination of DNA hypermethylation, long-term epigenetic silencing with heterozygosis loss and genomic regions loss. Different combinations of N-terminal changes cooperation with histone variants with have a specific role in gene regulation have led to load a setting histone that determine transcription potential of a particular gene or genomic regions. DNA methylation analysis in genome region using methylation-specific digital karyotyping of normal breast tissue detect gene expression patterns and DNA specific methylation can be found in breast carcinoma too. More than 100 genes in breast tumors or cell lines of breast cancer are reported hypermethylated. Important of DNA methylation on cancer has been concentrated CpG islands Hypermethylation. The most of the techniques are able to identify hypermethylated areas. Recent studies have showed the role of epigenetic silencing in the pathogenesis of breast cancer in which tumor suppressor genes have been changed by acetylation and DNA deacetylation. Histone deacetylase inhibitors have different roles in cancer cells and could show the ways of new treatment for breast cancer. In this review, various aspects of breast cancer epigenetics and its applications in diagnosis, prediction and treatment are described.

  9. CHEK2*1100delC genotyping for clinical assessment of breast cancer risk: meta-analyses of 26,000 patient cases and 27,000 controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischer, Maren; Bojesen, Stig Egil; Ellervik, Christina;

    2008-01-01

    of unselected, early-onset, and familial breast cancer through comprehensive, computer-based searches of PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Aggregated risk estimates were compared with previous estimates for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation heterozygotes. RESULTS: By using fixed-effect models for CHEK2*1100del...

  10. Breast self examination and breast cancer: Knowledge and practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical students must possess the appropriate knowledge .... Table 2: Likert's scale scores on breast cancer-related knowledge levels. Variable. Preclinical. Clinical ... Routine alcohol consumption increases the risk of breast cancer. 50. 41. 9.

  11. Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart Christine Unitt , Kamaneh Montazeri , Sara ... cancer treatments. Breast cancer treatments include the following: Chemotherapy involves drugs that are intended to kill the ...

  12. Miscellaneous syndromes and their management: occult breast cancer, breast cancer in pregnancy, male breast cancer, surgery in stage IV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colfry, Alfred John

    2013-04-01

    Surgical therapy for occult breast cancer has traditionally centered on mastectomy; however, breast conservation with whole breast radiotherapy followed by axillary lymph node dissection has shown equivalent results. Patients with breast cancer in pregnancy can be safely and effectively treated; given a patient's pregnancy trimester and stage of breast cancer, a clinician must be able to guide therapy accordingly. Male breast cancer risk factors show strong association with BRCA2 mutations, as well as Klinefelter syndrome. Several retrospective trials of surgical therapy in stage IV breast cancer have associated a survival advantage with primary site tumor extirpation.

  13. Unusual early-onset Huntingtons disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Antonio P; Carod-Artal, Francisco J; Bomfim, Denise; Vázquez-Cabrera, Carolina; Dantas-Barbosa, Carmela

    2003-06-01

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by involuntary movements, cognitive decline, and behavioral disorders leading to functional disability. In contrast to patients with adult onset, in which chorea is the major motor abnormality, children often present with spasticity, rigidity, and significant intellectual decline associated with a more rapidly progressive course. An unusual early-onset Huntington's disease case of an 11-year-old boy with severe hypokinetic/rigid syndrome appearing at the age of 2.5 years is presented. Clinical diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction study of the expanded IT-15 allele with a compatible size of 102 cytosine-adenosine-guanosine repeats L-Dopa mildly ameliorated rigidity, bradykinesia, and dystonia. We conclude that Huntington's disease should be included in the differential diagnoses of regressive syndromes of early childhood.

  14. Nonsurgical Management of Early-onset Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsness, Robert J; Faust, John R; Behrend, Caleb J; Sanders, James O

    2015-09-01

    Early-onset scoliosis is potentially fatal if left untreated. Although surgical management with growing instrumentation may be necessary, this is not a panacea and is associated with high complication rates. Recent evidence has demonstrated that nonsurgical treatment can be an effective early management strategy in delaying or even precluding the need for surgery, especially surgery with growing instrumentation. The goal of both nonsurgical and surgical management is to control or correct the spinal curve to allow appropriate pulmonary development while delaying definitive fusion until an appropriate skeletal age. Although more commonly used to delay surgery, serial cast correction using the Cotrel and Morel elongation-derotation-flexion technique may result in complete correction in patients with infantile idiopathic scoliosis and smaller curve magnitudes.

  15. Early-onset scoliosis: current treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunin, V

    2015-02-01

    Early-onset scoliosis, which appears before the age of 10, can be due to congenital vertebral anomalies, neuromuscular diseases, scoliosis-associated syndromes, or idiopathic causes. It can have serious consequences for lung development and significantly reduce the life expectancy compared to adolescent scoliosis. Extended posterior fusion must be avoided to prevent the crankshaft phenomenon, uneven growth of the trunk and especially restrictive lung disease. Conservative (non-surgical) treatment is used first. If this fails, fusionless surgery can be performed to delay the final fusion procedure until the patient is older. The gold standard delaying surgical treatment is the implantation of growing rods as described by Moe and colleagues in the mid-1980s. These rods, which are lengthened during short surgical procedures at regular intervals, curb the scoliosis progression until the patient reaches an age where fusion can be performed. Knowledge of this technique and its complications has led to several mechanical improvements being made, namely use of rods that can be distracted magnetically on an outpatient basis, without the need for anesthesia. Devices based on the same principle have been designed that preferentially attach to the ribs to specifically address chest wall and spine dysplasia. The second category of surgical devices consists of rods used to guide spinal growth that do not require repeated surgical procedures. The third type of fusionless surgical treatment involves slowing the growth of the scoliosis convexity to help reduce the Cobb angle. The indications are constantly changing. Improvements in surgical techniques and greater surgeon experience may help to reduce the number of complications and make this lengthy treatment acceptable to patients and their family. Long-term effects of surgery on the Cobb angle have not been compared to those involving conservative "delaying" treatments. Because the latter has fewer complications associated with

  16. Consumer Health Education. Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville, Cooperative Extension Service.

    This short booklet is designed to be used by health educators when teaching women about breast cancer and its early detection and the procedure for breast self-examination. It includes the following: (1) A one-page teaching plan consisting of objectives, subject matter, methods (including titles of films and printed materials), target audience,…

  17. Survivorship Care Plan in Promoting Physical Activity in Breast or Colorectal Cancer Survivors in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Cancer Survivor; Healthy Subject; Stage I Colorectal Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer

  18. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...

  19. System delays in breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 Department of Specialised Surgery, Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital, Durban, South Africa ... Centralised multidisciplinary management of breast cancer occurs in .... published an updated position statement on quality indicators in the.

  20. Nonestrogenic drugs and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, D A; Jick, H; Hunter, J R; Stergachis, A; Madsen, S

    1982-08-01

    The relation between breast cancer and selected nonestrogenic drugs was evaluated in the Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, Seattle, Washington, a prepaid health care organization with computerized information on diagnoses and outpatient drug use. No important positive associations with breast cancer were found in a follow-up study of 302 women aged 35-74 years. These women were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 1977-1980 and were studied in relation to exposure in the six months prior to diagnosis to one or more of the following drugs: diazepam, digitalis glycosides, medroxyprogesterone acetate, methyldopa, metronidazole, phenothiazines, tricyclic antidepressants, thiazides, thyroid/levothyroxine sodium, or spironolactone. A modest association between recent reserpine use and breast cancer was present (risk ratio = 1.7, 90% confidence interval 0.9-3.3).

  1. Management of male breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay V. Dimitro v

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of male breast cancer is still under discussion due to lack of information from prospective, randomized clinical trials and low incidence of this disease. Current management is based largely on extrapolation from data related to treatment of female breast cancer. Over the last two decades, several review articles have discussed mainly retrospective and anecdotal data related to hormonal and chemotherapy treatment modalities. In this review, we present the most recent information and future considerations related to the management of male breast cancer. In addition to the conventional treatment options we will discuss the possible role of targeted therapy. Establishing a national or global registry for male breast cancer will provide more precise information about the natural history of the disease and will facilitate the design and execution of prospective, randomized multicenter clinical trials.

  2. Bilateral synchronous male breast cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nwashilli, Nnamdi J; Ugiagbe, Ezekiel E

    2015-01-01

    .... The importance of this case report is to create more awareness that breast cancer can occur in males just as in females, though the incidence is rare in males. Early presentation and compliance with treatment modality provide a better outcome.

  3. Understanding your breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine The navigation menu has been collapsed. ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000830.htm Understanding your breast cancer risk To use the sharing features ...

  4. Palbociclib for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.

  5. Timing of oral contraceptive use and the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Lubinski, Jan; Moller, Pal; Lynch, Henry T; Singer, Christian F; Eng, Charis; Neuhausen, Susan L; Karlan, Beth; Kim-Sing, Charmaine; Huzarski, Tomasz; Gronwald, Jacek; McCuaig, Jeanna; Senter, Leigha; Tung, Nadine; Ghadirian, Parviz; Eisen, Andrea; Gilchrist, Dawna; Blum, Joanne L; Zakalik, Dana; Pal, Tuya; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A

    2014-02-01

    It is not clear if early oral contraceptive use increases the risk of breast cancer among young women with a breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) mutation. Given the benefit of oral contraceptives for the prevention of ovarian cancer, estimating age-specific risk ratios for oral contraceptive use and breast cancer is important. We conducted a case-control study of 2,492 matched pairs of women with a deleterious BRCA1 mutation. Breast cancer cases and unaffected controls were matched on year of birth and country of residence. Detailed information about oral contraceptive use was collected from a routinely administered questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the association between oral contraceptive and breast cancer, by age at first use and by age at diagnosis. Among BRCA1 mutation carriers, oral contraceptive use was significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer for women who started the pill prior to age 20 (OR 1.45; 95 % CI 1.20-1.75; P = 0.0001) and possibly between ages 20 and 25 as well (OR 1.19; 95 % CI 0.99-1.42; P = 0.06). The effect was limited to breast cancers diagnosed before age 40 (OR 1.40; 95 % CI 1.14-1.70; P = 0.001); the risk of early-onset breast cancer increased by 11 % with each additional year of pill use when initiated prior to age 20 (OR 1.11; 95 % CI 1.03-1.20; P = 0.008). There was no observed increase for women diagnosed at or after the age of 40 (OR 0.97; 95 % CI 0.79-1.20; P = 0.81). Oral contraceptive use before age 25 increases the risk of early-onset breast cancer among women with a BRCA1 mutation and the risk increases with duration of use. Caution should be taken when advising women with a BRCA1 mutation to take an oral contraceptive prior to age 25.

  6. Breast cancer. Part 3: advanced cancer and psychological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    This is the last article in this 3-part series on breast cancer. The previous two articles have outlined the principles behind breast awareness and breast health, detailing common benign breast diseases, types of breast cancer and staging, and treatment for breast cancer, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine treatment. The series concludes by giving information on advanced disease, including when a patient presents late with a fungating breast lesion, or if the disease has metastasized from the breast to other organs. Lymphoedema is also described and discussed, and the latter half of this article discusses psychological implications of breast cancer, from diagnosis through the individual treatments.

  7. Metals and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Celia; Divekar, Shailaja D; Storchan, Geoffrey B; Parodi, Daniela A; Martin, Mary Beth

    2013-03-01

    Metalloestrogens are metals that activate the estrogen receptor in the absence of estradiol. The metalloestrogens fall into two subclasses: metal/metalloid anions and bivalent cationic metals. The metal/metalloid anions include compounds such as arsenite, nitrite, selenite, and vanadate while the bivalent cations include metals such as cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, nickel, chromium, lead, mercury, and tin. The best studied metalloestrogen is cadmium. It is a heavy metal and a prevalent environmental contaminant with no known physiological function. This review addresses our current understanding of the mechanism by which cadmium and the bivalent cationic metals activate estrogen receptor-α. The review also summarizes the in vitro and in vivo evidence that cadmium functions as an estrogen and the potential role of cadmium in breast cancer.

  8. Breast cancer epigenetics: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Abbasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stable molecular changes during cell division without any change in the sequence of DNA molecules is known as epigenetic. Molecular mechanisms involved in this process, including histone modifications, methylation of DNA, protein complex and RNA antisense. Cancer genome changes happen through a combination of DNA hypermethylation, long-term epigenetic silencing with heterozygosis loss and genomic regions loss. Different combinations of N-terminal’s changes cooperate with histone variants with a specific role in gene regulation. It have led to load a setting histone that determine transcription potential of a particular gene or genomic regions. DNA methylation analysis in genome region using methylation-specific digital karyotyping of normal breast tissue detect gene expression patterns and DNA specific methylation can be found in breast carcinoma too more than 100 genes in breast tumors or cell lines of breast cancer are reported hypermethylated. Important of DNA methylation on cancer has been concentrated CpG islands hypermethylation. Most of the techniques are able to identify hypermethylated areas. Often, methylated genes play important role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, metastasis and tissue invasion, angiogenesis and hormonal signaling. Cyclin D2 (CCND2 gene is an important regulator of cell cycle and increased of expression inhibits the transition from G1 to S cell cycle. This gene is frequently methylated in breast cancer and has been proposed as the first event. Other cell cycle regulator is p16ink4A / CDKN2A that methylated in a large number of human cancers, including breast cancer. Another regulator of the proliferation of breast cancer that methylated is tumor suppressor RAR-β cancer that has been found in lobular and ductal carcinoma. Recent studies have showed the role of epigenetic silencing in the pathogenesis of breast cancer in which tumor suppressor genes have been changed by acetylation and DNA deacetylation

  9. Breast cancer: origins and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Kornelia

    2007-11-01

    Breast cancer is not a single disease, but rather is composed of distinct subtypes associated with different clinical outcomes. Understanding this heterogeneity is key for the development of targeted cancer-preventative and -therapeutic interventions. Current models explaining inter- and intratumoral diversity are the cancer stem cell and the clonal evolution hypotheses. Although tumor initiation and progression are predominantly driven by acquired genetic alterations, recent data implicate a role for microenvironmental and epigenetic changes as well. Comprehensive unbiased studies of tumors and patient populations have significantly advanced our molecular understanding of breast cancer, but translating these findings into clinical practice remains a challenge.

  10. Getting free of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halttunen, Arja; Hietanen, P; Jallinoja, P

    1992-01-01

    who had less thoughts of recurrence belonged to a group that had gone through an eight-week group psychotherapy intervention, were less depressed and had more other illnesses. Women who felt 'cured' had less limitations and restrictions due to cancer and belonged more often to higher social classes...... and follow-up study of 57 breast cancer patients. Half of the 22 patients still had frequent or occasional thoughts of recurrence and over two-thirds still thought they had not been 'cured' of cancer. More than half of the patients admitted that going through breast cancer had made them more mature. Women...

  11. Iodide transport and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Vikki L; McCabe, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death in women, with incidence rates that continue to rise. The heterogeneity of the disease makes breast cancer exceptionally difficult to treat, particularly for those patients with triple-negative disease. To address the therapeutic complexity of these tumours, new strategies for diagnosis and treatment are urgently required. The ability of lactating and malignant breast cells to uptake and transport iodide has led to the hypothesis that radioiodide therapy could be a potentially viable treatment for many breast cancer patients. Understanding how iodide is transported, and the factors regulating the expression and function of the proteins responsible for iodide transport, is critical for translating this hypothesis into reality. This review covers the three known iodide transporters - the sodium iodide symporter, pendrin and the sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter - and their role in iodide transport in breast cells, along with efforts to manipulate them to increase the potential for radioiodide therapy as a treatment for breast cancer.

  12. Screening for Breast Cancer: Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents Screening ... Cancer" Articles #BeBrave: A life-saving test / Breast Cancer Basics and ... and Diagnosis / Staging and Treatment / Selected National Cancer Institute Breast ...

  13. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    FENGA, CONCETTINA

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic...

  14. Genomic profiling of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anjita; Singh, Alok Kumar; Maurya, Sanjeev Kumar; Rai, Rajani; Tewari, Mallika; Kumar, Mohan; Shukla, Hari S

    2009-05-01

    Genome study provides significant changes in the advancement of molecular diagnosis and treatment in Breast cancer. Several recent critical advances and high-throughput techniques identified the genomic trouble and dramatically accelerated the pace of research in preventing and curing this malignancy. Tumor-suppressor genes, proto-oncogenes, DNA-repair genes, carcinogen-metabolism genes are critically involved in progression of breast cancer. We reviewed imperative finding in breast genetics, ongoing work to segregate further susceptible genes, and preliminary studies on molecular profiling.

  15. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiansen P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer Christiansen,1 Bent Ejlertsen,2,3 Maj-Britt Jensen,3 Henning Mouridsen3 1Department of Surgery P, Breast Surgery Unit, Aarhus University Hospital/Randers Regional Hospital, Aarhus C, 2Department of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, 3DBCG-secretariat, Department 2501, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark Aim of database: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG, with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. Descriptive data: From 1977 through 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. Conclusion: Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been an instrumental resource in the improvement of management and prognosis of breast cancer in Denmark. Thus, since the establishment of DBCG, the prognosis in breast cancer has continuously improved with a decrease in 5-year mortality from ~37% to 15%. Keywords: breast cancer, database, guidelines, quality control, research

  16. Molecular genetics analysis of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer patients in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumittra Nagasamy

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary cancers account for 5–10% of cancers. In this study BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2*(1100delC were analyzed for mutations in 91 HBOC/HBC/HOC families and early onset breast and early onset ovarian cancer cases. Methods PCR-DHPLC was used for mutation screening followed by DNA sequencing for identification and confirmation of mutations. Kaplan-Meier survival probabilities were computed for five-year survival data on Breast and Ovarian cancer cases separately, and differences were tested using the Log-rank test. Results Fifteen (16% pathogenic mutations (12 in BRCA1 and 3 in BRCA2, of which six were novel BRCA1 mutations were identified. None of the cases showed CHEK2*1100delC mutation. Many reported polymorphisms in the exonic and intronic regions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 were also seen. The mutation status and the polymorphisms were analyzed for association with the clinico-pathological features like age, stage, grade, histology, disease status, survival (overall and disease free and with prognostic molecular markers (ER, PR, c-erbB2 and p53. Conclusion The stage of the disease at diagnosis was the only statistically significant (p

  17. Cancer Risk-Assessment of Radiation Damage in Ataxia Telangiectasia Heterozygous Human Breast Epithelial Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applewhite, Lisa C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the study of the markers of cellular changes that are found during the onset of carcinogenesis. Several of the biological factors are markers of stress response, oncoprotein expression, and differentiation factors. Oxidative stress response agents such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells from oxidative stresses such as ionizing radiation. The onocoprotein HER-2/neu, a specific breast cancer marker, indicates early onset of cancer. Additional structural and morphogenetic markers of differentiation were considered in order to determine initial cellular changes at the initial onset of cancer. As an additional consideration, all-trans retinoic acid (RA), a differentiation agent, was considered because of its known role in regulating normal differentiation and inhibiting tumor proliferation via specific nuclear receptors. This paper discusses study and results of the preliminary analyses of gamma irradiation of AT heterozygous human breast epithelial cells (WH). Comparisons are also made of the effects various RA concentrations post-irradiation.

  18. Paraneoplastic thrombocytosis in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Anita; Szallasi, Arpad

    2013-10-01

    Elevated platelet count at the time of diagnosis has been suggested to identify a subset of patients with cancer (e.g. ovarian and lung adenocarcinoma) and poor prognosis. The evidence on the incidence and prognostic significance of thrombocytosis in breast cancer is, however, incomplete. We performed a retrospective analysis of 127 consecutive patients with breast cancer at our Institution. None of the 81 newly- diagnosed patients had an elevated platelet count (mean=252 × 10(6)/l). Out of the 31 patients with metastatic disease, one exhibited mild thrombocytosis (445 × 10(6)/l) but the mean value (239 × 10(6)/l) was similar to that seen in patients with localized disease. We conclude that thrombocytosis in breast cancer is rare and thus, unlike in other types of cancer, and has limited (if any) value in clinical decision making.

  19. Microwaves for breast cancer treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Abdelhamid Elkayal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is potentially an effective method for the treatment of cancer, especially breast cancer tumors. One of the most attractive attributes of hyperthermia is the possibility of providing therapeutic benefit noninvasively, minimizing side effects. To be effective, a hyperthermia treatment must selectively heat the cancerous tissue, elevating the temperature in the tumor without exposing healthy tissue to excessive temperature elevations. In this paper, a suggested simple model of Annular Phased Array (APA using eight half wavelength linear dipoles is presented. New software (COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS is used to calculate the temperature distribution inside a model of a three layered breast (skin, breast tissue, and tumor. In addition, the effect of changing the amplitude and phases of the array elements on the temperature distributions and the conditions on the values of the phases are demonstrated in order to achieve the objective of hyperthermia for breast tumor treatment.

  20. [Early onset scoliosis. What are the options?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, D M; Tatay-Díaz, A

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis of children with progressive early onset scoliosis has improved considerably due to recent advances in surgical and non-surgical techniques and the understanding of the importance of preserving the thoracic space. Improvements in existing techniques and development of new methods have considerably improved the management of this condition. Derotational casting can be considered in children with documented progression of a <60° curve without previous surgical treatment. Both single and dual growing rods are effective, but the latter seem to offer better results. Hybrid constructs may be a better option in children who require a low-profile proximal anchor. The vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR(®)) appears to be beneficial for patients with congenital scoliosis and fused ribs, and thoracic Insufficiency Syndrome. Children with medical comorbidities who may not tolerate repeated lengthenings should be considered for Shilla or Luque Trolley technique. Growth modulation using shape memory alloy staples or other tethers seem promising for mild curves, although more research is required to define their precise indications. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Endocrine determinants of breast density and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheus, M.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. The total breast area on a mammogram can be dived in a radiologicaly dense area (glandular and stromal tissue) and a non-dense area (mainly fat tissue). Women with a high proportion of dense breast tissue (percent breast density)

  2. Endocrine determinants of breast density and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheus, M.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. The total breast area on a mammogram can be dived in a radiologicaly dense area (glandular and stromal tissue) and a non-dense area (mainly fat tissue). Women with a high proportion of dense breast tissue (percent breast density)

  3. Propranolol and survival from breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Pottegård, Anton; Vaes, Evelien

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that propranolol inhibits several pathways involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We investigated whether breast cancer patients who used propranolol, or other non-selective beta-blockers, had reduced breast cancer-specific or all......-cause mortality in eight European cohorts. METHODS: Incident breast cancer patients were identified from eight cancer registries and compiled through the European Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology Network. Propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use was ascertained for each patient. Breast cancer-specific and all......-analysis techniques. Dose-response analyses by number of prescriptions were also performed. Analyses were repeated investigating propranolol use before cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: The combined study population included 55,252 and 133,251 breast cancer patients in the analysis of breast cancer-specific and all...

  4. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  5. Lung cancer after treatment for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorigan, Paul; Califano, Raffaele; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Howell, Anthony; Thatcher, Nick

    2010-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Improvements in the outcome of breast cancer mean that more patients are living longer and are, therefore, at risk of developing a second malignancy. The aim of this review is to present the current understanding of the risk of lung cancer arising in patients previously treated for early stage breast cancer. We review data on the effect of treatment factors (ie, surgery type, radiotherapy technique, and adjuvant chemotherapy) and patient factors (ie, age and smoking) on the risk of developing a subsequent lung cancer. The evidence suggests that older radiotherapy techniques were associated with a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer in the ipsilateral lung, but there is no clear evidence of an increased risk with modern techniques. Smoking is an important risk factor, and increases the risk of lung cancer in those receiving radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not significantly associated with an increased risk. The risk of developing lung cancer increases with time elapsed since treatment, but any effect of age at treatment is unclear.

  6. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of testosterone and other androgens (male hormones). Most male breast cancers have androgen receptors that may cause the cells ... into estrogens in the body. Orchiectomy shrinks most male breast cancers, and may help make other treatments like tamoxifen ...

  7. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  8. Heavy Metal Exposure in Predicting Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  9. Alternative Dosing of Exemestane Before Surgery in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage 0-II Estrogen Positive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-17

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; Postmenopausal; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  10. THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS FOR BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Georgescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer remains a major public health problem, being the second cause of cancer death in women. There is a marked tendency to restrict the extension of surgical gesture, which directly leads to two different attitudes: radical surgery and conservative surgery, to which, at least in our country, there are still some delays. Prospective and retrospective studies have shown that, in 20 years, conservative and radical therapy had about the same rate of survival and disease-free interval, at least for stage I and II breast cancer, the only real counterargument against conservative surgery being that, in principle, the higher rate of recurrence local constraint can be solved by postoperative radiotherapy. Finally, the survival rate is the main parameter of evaluation, assessing the effectiveness of the treatment in breast cancer, and in all its other forms.

  11. The Epidemiology of Male Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferzoco, Raina M; Ruddy, Kathryn J

    2016-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease, accounting for only 1% of breast cancer diagnoses in the USA. The current literature suggests that genetic factors including BRCA2 mutations, family history, age, androgen/estrogen imbalance, and environmental exposures may predispose to male breast cancer. In this manuscript, we will review known and possible risk factors for male breast cancer, as well as describe the clinical patterns of the disease.

  12. Prevention of ER-Negative Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuxin; Brown, Powel H.

    2009-01-01

    The successful demonstration that the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) tamoxifen and raloxifene reduce the risk of breast cancer has stimulated great interest in using drugs to prevent breast cancer in high-risk women. In addition, recent results from breast cancer treatment trials suggest that aromatase inhibitors may be even more effective at preventing breast cancer than are SERMs. However, while SERMs and aromatase inhibitors do prevent the development of many estrogen-recep...

  13. Multi-epitope Folate Receptor Alpha Peptide Vaccine, Sargramostim, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-24

    Bilateral Breast Carcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma; Unilateral Breast Carcinoma

  14. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Mediate Early-Onset Smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Lier, P.A.C. van; Crijnen, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based, randomized c

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Crijnen, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based, randomized c

  16. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Huizink (Anja); P.A.C. van Lier (Pol); A.A.M. Crijnen (Alfons)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based,

  17. Evaluate Risk/Benefit of Nab Paclitaxel in Combination With Gemcitabine and Carboplatin Compared to Gemcitabine and Carboplatin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer (or Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-25

    Breast Tumor; Breast Cancer; Cancer of the Breast; Estrogen Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; HER2- Negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  18. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  19. Search for new breast cancer susceptibility genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Rogier Abel

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the search for new high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes by linkage analysis. To date 20-25% of familial breast cancer is explained by mutations in the high-risk BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility genes. For the remaining families the genetic etiology is unknow

  20. Search for new breast cancer susceptibility genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Rogier Abel

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the search for new high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes by linkage analysis. To date 20-25% of familial breast cancer is explained by mutations in the high-risk BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility genes. For the remaining families the genetic etiology is

  1. Search for new breast cancer susceptibility genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Rogier Abel

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the search for new high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes by linkage analysis. To date 20-25% of familial breast cancer is explained by mutations in the high-risk BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility genes. For the remaining families the genetic etiology is unknow

  2. Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    2016. Active Targeting of Cancer Cells, Masaryk University, CZECH REPUBLIC, May 2016. Websites or other Internet sites none Technologies or... trafficking , thus impacting the efficacy of receptor-mediated drug delivery for cancer therapy. These factors include the following: (i) the rate of ligand...The V, Labrie C, Belanger A, Simard J, Lin SX, Pelletier G. Endocrine and intracrine sources of androgens in women : Inhibition of breast cancer and

  3. Breast cancer in patients with Li–Fraumeni syndrome – a case-series study and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandikolla, Amara G; Venugopal, Sangeetha; Anampa, Jesus

    2017-01-01

    Background Li–Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) is a rare disease with autosomal dominant inheritance linked to germline mutations of tumor suppressor gene TP53. These patients are predisposed to malignancies such as sarcoma, breast cancer, leukemia, and other malignancies. Breast cancer, the most common malignancy in adult patients with LFS, has an early-onset presentation and is usually treated as per the guidelines for the general population due to the limited literature about breast cancer in LFS. We aimed to describe our institutional experience treating patients with breast cancer and LFS to contribute to literature about this entity. Design Retrospective single-institution case-series study. We searched for cases with LFS and breast cancer from 01/01/2000 to 12/31/2015 with treatment received at our institution. Results We identified 4 cases (2 African Americans, 1 Indian, and 1 Hispanic) in 4 different families, who were diagnosed with LFS after presenting with breast cancer. Three cases were triple-negative disease and 1 case was ER+, HER2 positive disease. They were treated with mastectomy and a third-generation breast chemotherapy regimen and/or trastuzumab-containing regimen. Radiation therapy was used in 2 patients. Breast cancer recurrence was seen in 1 patient, while three other malignancies were identified after breast cancer treatment (1 breast sarcoma, 1 leiomyosarcoma, and 1 myelodysplastic syndrome). A patient, who underwent surveillance with a positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan, was found to have a stage I leiomyosarcoma and was treated with surgical resection, but then developed metastatic disease requiring cytotoxic chemotherapy. Conclusion Breast cancer among patients with LFS needs a multidisciplinary treatment approach. Surgical management follows the guidelines for the general population. Risk–benefit assessment of chemotherapy and radiotherapy needs to be performed carefully in a case-by-case approach. Patients should

  4. Risk factors of breast cancer in Mexican women Factores de riesco de cáncer de mama en mujeres mexicanas

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Laura Calderón-Garcidueñas; Franklin Uriel Parás-Barrientos; Lilia Cárdenas-Ibarra; Juan Francisco González-Guerrero; Enrique Villarreal-Ríos; Tamara Staines-Boone; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between family history (FH) of neoplasia, gyneco-obstetric factors and breast cancer (BC) in a case--control study. In cases, to analyze those variables in relation with early onset of BC, the manner of detection (self-examination, prompted by pain, or casual), the size of tumor, and the elapsed time to seek medical attention. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from 151 prevalent BC cases and 235 age-matched controls were analyzed by multiple logistic regress...

  5. Male breast cancer: a review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodabe Shahidsales

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies have devoted relatively scant attention to male breast cancer compared with female breast cancer. Nevertheless, the incidence of male breast cancer has increased considerably in parallel manner with women. There is not comprehensive knowledge regarding the etiology of breast cancer in men. The environmental agents and genetic factors are proposed as the influential parameters in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Invasive ductal carcinoma is the most frequent subtype of breast cancer in men and a palpable mass is the most common presentation. Breast masses might be identified at advanced stages of the disease, if undiagnosed, due to the lower prevalence and lack of awareness in men compared to women. There is not any large sample size trial or retrospective study regarding any specific treatment strategy; the routine treatments are based on existing data. In this review, we studied the risk factors, biological characteristics, and therapeutic strategies of breast cancer in men.

  6. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    inhibitor of both the src and abl kinases, selectively inhibits growth of basal -type/“triple-negative” breast cancer cell lines growing in vitro. Breast...Welch JN, Lu J, Liu A, Zhu Y, Davis N, Leonessa F, Brunner N, Wang Y, Clarke R. Association of interferon regulatory factor-1, nucleo - phosmin...nmol/L 4HT (within the range of clinically relevant concentrations; ref. 10) was designated SUM44/LCCTam (hereafter called LCCTam). The basal growth

  7. Angiogenesis in male breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthan Rani

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male breast cancer is a rare but aggressive and devastating disease. This disease presents at a later stage and in a more advanced fashion than its female counterpart. The immunophenotype also appears to be distinct when compared to female breast cancer. Angiogenesis plays a permissive role in the development of a solid tumor and provides an avenue for nutrient exchange and waste removal. Recent scrutiny of angiogenesis in female breast cancer has shown it to be of significant prognostic value. It was hypothesized that this holds true in invasive ductal carcinoma of the male breast. In the context of male breast cancer, we investigated the relationship of survival and other clinico-pathological variables to the microvascular density of the tumor tissue. Methods Seventy-five cases of primary male breast cancer were identified using the records of the Saskatchewan Cancer Agency over a period of 26 years. Forty-seven cases of invasive ductal carcinoma of the male breast had formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks that were suitable for this study. All cases were reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for the angiogenic markers (cluster designations 31 (CD31, 34 (CD34 and 105 (CD105, von Willebrand factor (VWF, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Microvascular density (MVD was determined using average, centre, and highest microvessel counts (AMC, CMC, and HMC, respectively. Statistical analyses compared differences in the distribution of survival times and times to relapse between levels of MVD, tumor size, node status and age at diagnosis. In addition, MVD values were compared within each marker, between each marker, and were also compared to clinico-pathological data. Results Advanced age and tumor size were related to shorter survival times. There were no statistically significant differences in distributions of survival times and times to relapse between levels of MVD variables. There was no

  8. BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2 (1100 del C) germline mutations in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Thangarajan; Soumittra, Nagasamy; Nancy, Nirmala Karunakaran; Swaminathan, Rajaraman; Sridevi, Veluswami; Shanta, Vishwanathan

    2003-01-01

    Cancer of the breast is the second most common cancer seen among Indian women. This study describes the use of DHPLC for mutation analysis for BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2 (1100delC) in 22 patients with a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer and early onset breast cancer (codon, potentially leading to a truncated protein. Two of these were in BRCA1 (one was a novel 5 base deletion) and one in the BRCA2 gene. No patient was found in our series to have the CHEK2 (1100delC) mutation. DNA from a healthy blood donor and all but one of the 22 patients, demonstrated polymorphisms in BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 genes. This is the first study from South India, on BRCA1, BRCA2 & CHEK2 (1100 del C) mutations in patients with a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer and early onset breast/ovarian cancer, using the sensitive DHPLC approach.

  9. Epigenetic Testing for Breast Cancer Risk Stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    breast cancer risk. Cancer epidemiology , biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the...markers optimized for fine-needle aspiration samples. Cancer epidemiology , biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for

  10. Secretory breast cancer. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, A; Maggi, S; Bersigotti, L; Lazzarin, G; Nuccetelli, E; Amanti, C

    2013-04-01

    Secretory carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor initially described in children but occurring equally in adult population. This unusual breast cancer subtype has a generally favorable prognosis, although several cases have been described in adults with increased aggressiveness and a risk of metastases. However, surgery is still considered the most appropriate treatment for this pathology. We describe the case of a 50 -year-old woman who has undergone a breast conservative surgery for a little tumor, preoperatively diagnosticated by a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) as a well differentiated infiltrating carcinoma.

  11. Intensity Modulated Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Before Surgery in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Stage 0-I Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-04

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  12. Inflammatory breast cancer: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uden, D J P; van Laarhoven, H W M; Westenberg, A H; de Wilt, J H W; Blanken-Peeters, C F J M

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive entity of breast cancer. Management involves coordination of multidisciplinary management and usually includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ablative surgery if a tumor-free resection margin is expected and locoregional radiotherapy. This multimodal therapeutic approach has significantly improved patient survival. However, the median overall survival among women with IBC is still poor. By elucidating the biologic characteristics of IBC, new treatment options may become available. We performed a comprehensive review of the English-language literature on IBC through computerized literature searches. The objective of the current review is to present an overview of the literature related to the biology, imaging and multidisciplinary treatment of inflammatory breast cancer.

  13. Reconstruction for breast cancer in a nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    Breast cancer is a disease many will experience. Depending on the size of the cancer, the size of the host breast, and whether it is multi-focal, a mastectomy may be recommended as part of the treatment. If this is the case, an immediate breast reconstruction may be offered. This article will describe the three main types of breast reconstruction and discuss pertinent issues regarding this, including complications, surgery to the other (contraleteral) breast and potential psychological implications of this surgery.

  14. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, Concettina

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are defined environmental factors for breast cancer, particularly at young ages. However, the mechanisms by which occupational factors can promote breast cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the evaluation of occupational factors for breast cancer, particularly in the workplace, also remains to be explained. The present review summarizes the occupational risk factors and the associated mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, in order to highlight new environmental exposures that could be correlated to breast cancer and to provide new insights for breast cancer prevention in the occupational settings. Furthermore, this review suggests that there is a requirement to include, through multidisciplinary approaches, different occupational exposure risks among those associated with breast cancer development. Finally, the design of new epigenetic biomarkers may be useful to identify the workers that are more susceptible to develop breast cancer.

  15. Quality indicators for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poortmans, Philip; Aznar, Marianne; Bartelink, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy for breast cancer has considerably changed over the years, from simple simulator-based 2-dimensional techniques to sophisticated image-guided individualized treatments, with maximally protected normal structures. This has led to a substantial improvement in the outcome of breast...... cancer patients in terms of disease control, survival, and quality of life. This progress is based on clinical research and paralleled by progress in delivering sophisticated radiation treatment. Clinical trials resulted in identifying patients groups who will benefit from radiation treatment. They also...

  16. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...... of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. CONCLUSION: Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been...

  17. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or sacs) or they can be due to normal breast changes associated with hormone changes or aging. Girls who are beginning puberty might notice a lump underneath the nipple when their breasts start developing. Usually, this is a normal. You can ask a parent or your doctor ...

  18. An update on inflammatory breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Thapaliya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory breast cancer is one of the most aggressive forms of breast cancer. Once considered to be a uniformly fatal disease, treatment of this entity has evolved significantly over the last two decades. In this article, we review the epidemiology, pathology, biologic underpinnings, radiologic advances, and treatment modalities for inflammatory breast cancer. Updates in surgical therapy, medical oncologic therapy and radiation therapy are reviewed. Emphasis is on cutting edge information regarding inflammatory breast cancer. The management of inflammatory breast cancer is best served by a multidisciplinary team. Continued research into molecular pathways and potential targets is imperative. Future clinical trials should include evaluation of conventional therapy with targeted therapies.

  19. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M. [Nijmegen, Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women.

  20. The therapy of gefitinib towards breast cancer partially through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The therapy of gefitinib towards breast cancer partially through reversing breast cancer biomarker arginine. ... Background: Breast cancer remains the leading reason of cancer death among women worldwide, and gefitinib is ... Article Metrics.

  1. Interactive Gentle Yoga in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-28

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Fatigue; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  2. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  3. NUCKS overexpression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittas Christos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NUCKS (Nuclear, Casein Kinase and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate is a nuclear, DNA-binding and highly phosphorylated protein. A number of reports show that NUCKS is highly expressed on the level of mRNA in several human cancers, including breast cancer. In this work, NUCKS expression on both RNA and protein levels was studied in breast tissue biopsies consisted of invasive carcinomas, intraductal proliferative lesions, benign epithelial proliferations and fibroadenomas, as well as in primary cultures derived from the above biopsies. Specifically, in order to evaluate the level of NUCKS protein in correlation with the histopathological features of breast disease, immunohistochemistry was employed on paraffin sections of breast biopsies of the above types. In addition, NUCKS expression was studied by means of Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and Western immunoblot analyses in the primary cell cultures developed from the same biopsies. Results The immunohistochemical Results showed intense NUCKS staining mostly in grade I and II breast carcinomas compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, NUCKS was moderate expressed in benign epithelial proliferations, such as adenosis and sclerosing adenosis, and highly expressed in intraductal lesions, specifically in ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS. It is worth noting that all the fibroadenoma tissues examined were negative for NUCKS staining. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR showed an increase of NUCKS expression in cells derived from primary cultures of proliferative lesions and cancerous tissues compared to the ones derived from normal breast tissues and fibroadenomas. This increase was also confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis. Although NUCKS is a cell cycle related protein, its expression does not correlate with Ki67 expression, neither in tissue sections nor in primary cell cultures. Conclusion The results show overexpression of the NUCKS protein in a number of non

  4. Clinicopathological Significance of ATM-Chk2 Expression in Sporadic Breast Cancers: a Comprehensive Analysis in Large Cohorts1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fatah, Tarek M.A.; Arora, Arvind; Alsubhi, Nouf; Agarwal, Devika; Moseley, Paul M.; Perry, Christina; Doherty, Rachel; Chan, Stephen Y.T.; Green, Andrew R.; Rakha, Emad; Ball, Graham; Ellis, Ian O.; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    ATM-Chk2 network is critical for genomic stability, and its deregulation may influence breast cancer pathogenesis. We investigated ATM and Chk2 protein levels in two cohorts [cohort 1 (n = 1650) and cohort 2 (n = 252)]. ATM and Chk2 mRNA expression was evaluated in the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium cohort (n = 1950). Low nuclear ATM protein level was significantly associated with aggressive breast cancer including larger tumors, higher tumor grade, higher mitotic index, pleomorphism, tumor type, lymphovascular invasion, estrogen receptor (ER)−, PR −, AR −, triple-negative, and basal-like phenotypes (Ps < .05). Breast cancer 1, early onset negative, low XRCC1, low SMUG1, high FEN1, high MIB1, p53 mutants, low MDM2, low Bcl-2, low p21, low Bax, high CDK1, and low Chk2 were also more frequent in tumors with low nuclear ATM level (Ps < .05). Low ATM protein level was significantly associated with poor survival including in patients with ER-negative tumors who received adjuvant anthracycline or cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil–based adjuvant chemotherapy (Ps < .05). Low nuclear Chk2 protein was likely in ER −/PR −/AR −; HER-2 positive; breast cancer 1, early onset negative; low XRCC1; low SMUG1; low APE1; low polβ; low DNA-PKcs; low ATM; low Bcl-2; and low TOPO2A tumors (P < .05). In patients with ER + tumors who received endocrine therapy or ER-negative tumors who received chemotherapy, nuclear Chk2 levels did not significantly influence survival. In p53 mutant tumors, low ATM (P < .000001) or high Chk2 (P < .01) was associated with poor survival. When investigated together, low-ATM/high-Chk2 tumors have the worst survival (P = .0033). Our data suggest that ATM-Chk2 levels in sporadic breast cancer may have prognostic and predictive significance. PMID:25425972

  5. Delayed breast reconstruction with implants after invasive breast cancer does not impair prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Düring, Maria; Henriksen, Trine Foged;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women......We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women...

  6. Association of breast cancer risk loci with breast cancer survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindström, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Giles, Graham G.; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E.; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J.; Joshi, Amit D.; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I. Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, María José; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of eviden

  7. THE RELATION BETWEEN BREAST FEEDING AND BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Alavi Naini

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Second to the cardiovascular disease, cancer is the main cause of death in Iran. In this study some of the risk factors of breast cancer; especially the ones related to breastfeeding have been assessed. The study was a retrospective study of 100 women with breast cancer. The most important risk factors in breast cancer were number of children, age of mother on the first pregnancy. The result showed that the increase of breast cancer was related to women who stopped breastfeeding before age 24 months. Breastfeeding for more than 12 months will reduce the incidence of breast cancer by 25%. In general there was a reverse relationship between duration of breastfeeding and risk of cancer in premonopausal, but not in postmenopausal women.

  8. Human papilloma viruses (HPV and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Human papillomaviruses (HPV may have a role in some breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to fill important gaps in the evidence. These gaps are: (i confirmation of the presence of high risk for cancer HPVs in breast cancers, (ii evidence of HPV infections in benign breast tissues prior to the development of HPV positive breast cancer in the same patients, (iii evidence that HPVs are biologically active and not harmless passengers in breast cancer.Methods: RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA was used to identify HPV RNA sequences in breast cancers. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses to identify HPVs in archival specimens from Australian women with benign breast biopsies who later developed breast cancer. To assess whether HPVs in breast cancer were biologically active, the expression of the oncogenic protein HPV E7 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC.Results: Thirty (3.5% low risk and 20 (2.3% high risk HPV types were identified in 855 breast cancers from the TCGA data base. The high risk types were HPV 18 (48%, HPV 113 (24%, HPV 16 (10%, HPV 52 (10%. Data from the PCR cohort study, indicated that HPV type 18 was the most common type identified in breast cancer specimens (55% of 40 breast cancer specimens followed by HPV 16 (13%. The same HPV type was identified in both the benign and subsequent breast cancer in 15 patients. HPV E7 proteins were identified in 72% of benign breast specimens and 59% of invasive breast cancer specimens.Conclusions: There were 4 observations of particular interest: (i confirmation by both NGS and PCR of the presence of high risk HPV gene sequences in breast cancers, (ii a correlation between high risk HPV in benign breast specimens and subsequent HPV positive breast cancer in the same patient, (iii HPVs in breast cancer are likely to be biologically active (as shown by transcription of HPV DNA to RNA plus the expression of

  9. Association between chronic viral hepatitis infection and breast cancer risk: a nationwide population-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Fu-Hsiung

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Taiwan, there is a high incidence of breast cancer and a high prevalence of viral hepatitis. In this case-control study, we used a population-based insurance dataset to evaluate whether breast cancer in women is associated with chronic viral hepatitis infection. Methods From the claims data, we identified 1,958 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer during the period 2000-2008. A randomly selected, age-matched cohort of 7,832 subjects without cancer was selected for comparison. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to calculate odds ratios of breast cancer associated with viral hepatitis after adjustment for age, residential area, occupation, urbanization, and income. The age-specific ( Results There were no significant differences in the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, hepatitis B virus (HBV, or the prevalence of combined HBC/HBV infection between breast cancer patients and control subjects (p = 0.48. Multivariable logistic regression analysis, however, revealed that age Conclusions HCV infection, but not HBV infection, appears to be associated with early onset risk of breast cancer in areas endemic for HCV and HBV. This finding needs to be replicated in further studies.

  10. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard

    2010-01-01

    and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF...... tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria......ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is an important component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. We describe existing clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents and the challenges facing the clinical development...

  11. Dietary fiber and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, L A

    1999-01-01

    The Fiber Hypothesis which had its origins in the work of Burkitt and others in the early 1970's, focussed largely on fiber's beneficial effects on colon cancer and disorders of the gastric intestinal tract. In the 1980's it was proposed that fiber may also have beneficial effects on breast cancer and a rational for this was proposed involving modulation, by fiber, of the enterohepatic recirculation of estrogens. In the following the evidence from epidemiology, clinical interventions and animal model studies, supporting a role for fiber in breast cancer is critically reviewed. Evidence from animal model studies support the notion that supplementary fiber inhibits chemically-induced mammary tumorigenesis but do not support an estrogen-based mechanism. Some studies in human populations suggest modulation by estrogens and some do not. The aggregate data point to minor constituents present in fiber, such as isoflavones and phytate as the biologically active components of fiber which may be responsible for its anti cancer effects.

  12. Breast Cancer in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tessier Cloutier, B; Clarke, A E; Ramsey-Goldman, R

    2013-01-01

    Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries.......Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries....

  13. Adipocytokines and breast cancer risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Wei-kai; XU Yu-xin; YU Ting; ZHANG Li; ZHANG Wen-wen; FU Chun-li; SUN Yu; WU Qing; CHEN Li

    2007-01-01

    Background Many researches suggested that obesity increased the risk of breast cancer, but the mechanism was currently unknown. Adipocytokines might mediate the relationship. Our study was aimed to investigate the relationship between serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin and the onset, invasion and metastasis of breast cancer.Methods Blood samples were collected from 80 newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed breast cancer patients and 50 age-matched healthy controls. Serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA); fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipids, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were assayed simultaneously.Results Serum levels of adiponectin ((8.60±2.92) mg/L vs (10.37±2.81) mg/L, P=0.001) and HDL-c were significantly decreased in breast cancer patients in comparison to controls. Serum levels of resistin ((26.35±5.36) μg/L vs (23.32±4.75)μg/L, P=0.000), leptin ((1.35±0.42) μg/L vs (1.06±0.39) μg/L, P=0.003), FBG and triglyceride (TG) in breast cancer patients were increased in contrast to controls, respectively. However, we did not find the significant difference of the serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin between premenopausal breast cancer patients and healthy controls (P=0.091, 0.109 and 0.084, respectively). The serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were significantly different between patients with lymph node metastasis (LNM) and those without LNM (P=0.001, 0.000 and 0.006, respectively).The stepwise regression analysis indicated that the tumor size had the close correlation with leptin (R2=0.414, P=0.000)and FBG (R2=0.602, P=0.000). Logistic regression analysis showed that reduced serum levels of adiponectin (OR:0.805;95%CI: 0.704-0.921; P=0.001), HDL (OR: 0.087; 95%CI: 0.011-0.691, P=0.021), elevated leptin (OR:2.235;95%CI:1.898-4.526; P=0.004) and resistin (OR: 1.335; 95%CI: 1.114-2.354; P=0.012) increased the risk for

  14. Risk of primary non-breast cancer after female breast cancer by age at diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjær, Lene; Christensen, Jane; Frederiksen, Kirsten Skovsgaard;

    2011-01-01

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer at young age have been shown to be at higher risk of developing a new primary cancer than women diagnosed at older ages, but little is known about whether adjustment for calendar year of breast cancer diagnosis, length of follow-up, and/or breast cancer treatment...

  15. Risk, characteristics, and prognosis of breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Veit-rubin, Nikolaus; Rapiti Aylward, Elisabetta; Usel, Massimo; Benhamou, Simone; Vinh Hung, Vincent; Vlastos, Georges; Bouchardy Magnin, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Patients with breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma were compared with patients with other breast cancers using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results dataset. Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors had a higher risk for breast cancer, more aggressive breast cancers, a higher risk for a second breast cancer, and a poorer prognosis.

  16. What You Need to Know about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Breast Cancer This booklet is about breast cancer. Learning about your cancer can help you take ... This booklet covers: Basics about breast anatomy and breast cancer Treatments for breast cancer, including taking part in ...

  17. Genetic determinants of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Gonzalez-Zuloeta Ladd (Angela)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBreast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the Western world and it is estimated that women who survive to the age of 85 years will have a 1 in 9 lifetime probability of developing this type of neoplasia (1, 2). The degree of risk is not spread homogeneously across the gener

  18. Genetic determinants of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Gonzalez-Zuloeta Ladd (Angela)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBreast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the Western world and it is estimated that women who survive to the age of 85 years will have a 1 in 9 lifetime probability of developing this type of neoplasia (1, 2). The degree of risk is not spread homogeneously across the

  19. Breast Cancer Startup Challenge winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten winners of a world-wide competition to bring emerging breast cancer research technologies to market faster were announced today by the Avon Foundation for Women, in partnership with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI). Avon is providing

  20. Breast cancer with inguinal node recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Goyal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Surgery and irradiation for breast cancer may interfere with conventional pathways of spread, leading to bizarre patterns of dissemination through lymphatics or through hematogenous route. Lymphoscintigraphic studies may help identify nodal involvement. Other possible reasons could be occurrence of primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue retained in the vulva following involution of milk line. We describe a case of triple negative breast cancer, who developed contralateral breast cancer during treatment. Three years later, she developed isolated inguinal nodal metastases, which responded to local radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, the patient relapsed after 2 years and could not be salvaged thereafter.

  1. Zinc isotopic compositions of breast cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, Fiona; Woodley, Laura N; Shousha, Sami; Moyes, Ashley; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Halliday, Alex N; Rehkämper, Mark; Coombes, R Charles

    2015-01-01

    An early diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer is essential to improve outcome. High precision isotopic analysis, originating in Earth sciences, can detect very small shifts in metal pathways. For the first time, the natural intrinsic Zn isotopic compositions of various tissues in breast cancer patients and controls were determined. Breast cancer tumours were found to have a significantly lighter Zn isotopic composition than the blood, serum and healthy breast tissue in both groups. The Zn isotopic lightness in tumours suggests that sulphur rich metallothionein dominates the isotopic selectivity of a breast tissue cell, rather than Zn-specific proteins. This reveals a possible mechanism of Zn delivery to Zn-sequestering vesicles by metallothionein, and is supported by a similar signature observed in the copper isotopic compositions of one breast cancer patient. This change in intrinsic isotopic compositions due to cancer has the potential to provide a novel early biomarker for breast cancer.

  2. Death certification in cancer of the breast.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The cause of death entered on the death certificates of 193 patients originally diagnosed as having cancer of the breast was compared with information obtained from clinical records, cancer registry records, and necropsy findings to determine the accuracy of death certification and the proportion of patients who, though dying from another cause, still had overt signs of cancer of the breast. It was found that the overall error in certifying cause of death as breast cancer was small, being an ...

  3. Early-onset Alzheimer's Disease Phenotypes: Neuropsychology and Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-11

    Alzheimer Disease, Early Onset; Alzheimer Disease; Alzheimer Disease, Late Onset; Dementia, Alzheimer Type; Logopenic Progressive Aphasia; Primary Progressive Aphasia; Visuospatial/Perceptual Abilities; Posterior Cortical Atrophy; Executive Dysfunction; Corticobasal Degeneration; Ideomotor Apraxia

  4. FLT PET in Measuring Treatment Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  5. Immunophenotyping of male breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornegoor, Robert; Verschuur-Maes, Anoek H J; Buerger, Horst; Hogenes, Marieke C; de Bruin, Peter C; Oudejans, Joost J; Hinrichs, Bernd; van Diest, Paul J

    2012-12-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease, and knowledge of carcinogenesis is limited. Conflicting results, based on small series, have been reported for clinically relevant biomarkers. One hundred and thirty-four cases of male breast cancer were immunohistochemically stained on tissue microarrays for oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), androgen receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), BRST2, cyclin D1, bcl-2, p53, p16, p21, Ki67, cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, CK14, and epidermal growth factor receptor. Data were correlated with clinicopathological features and patient outcome. High mitotic count and high grade were correlated with high Ki67, HER2 amplification/overexpression, p53 accumulation, high p21 expression, low PR expression, and low bcl-2 expression. PR negativity (P=0.009) and p53 accumulation (P=0.042) were correlated with decreased 5-year survival and were independent markers for patient outcome in Cox regression. In unsupervised hierarchical clustering, four groups were identified that were correlated with distinctive clinicopathological features. The hormone negative/ER-positive/high-grade cluster was significantly associated with decreased survival (P=0.011) and was an independent prognostic factor in Cox regression. Several tissue biomarkers are associated with an aggressive phenotype in male breast cancer. PR and p53 are the most promising individual prognostic markers. On the basis of immunophenotype, four distinctive and prognostically relevant male breast cancer groups were identified, indicating that protein expression profiling may be clinically useful in male breast cancer. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  6. Environmental Factors and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at Stony Brook University found no association between exposure to electromagnetic fields from residential power use and breast cancer risk. 5 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Cancer-causing ... to naturally occurring and synthetic cancer, and designing ...

  7. Coping with a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer.org Handling treatment The goal of any breast cancer treatment is to get rid of the cancer and offer the best possible chance of survival. But even the best treatments have side effects. ...

  8. BRCA1-IRIS overexpression promotes formation of aggressive breast cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiko Shimizu

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Women with HER2(+ or triple negative/basal-like (TN/BL breast cancers succumb to their cancer rapidly due, in part to acquired Herceptin resistance and lack of TN/BL-targeted therapies. BRCA1-IRIS is a recently discovered, 1399 residue, BRCA1 locus alternative product, which while sharing 1365 residues with the full-length product of this tumor suppressor gene, BRCA1/p220, it has oncoprotein-like properties. Here, we examine whether BRCA1-IRIS is a valuable treatment target for HER2(+ and/or TN/BL tumors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunohistochemical staining of large cohort of human breast tumor samples using new monoclonal anti-BRCA1-IRIS antibody, followed by correlation of BRCA1-IRIS expression with that of AKT1, AKT2, p-AKT, survivin and BRCA1/p220, tumor status and age at diagnosis. Generation of subcutaneous tumors in SCID mice using human mammary epithelial (HME cells overexpressing TERT/LT/BRCA1-IRIS, followed by comparing AKT, survivin, and BRCA1/p220 expression, tumor status and aggressiveness in these tumors to that in tumors developed using TERT/LT/Ras(V12-overexpressing HME cells. Induction of primary and invasive rat mammary tumors using the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU, followed by analysis of rat BRCA1-IRIS and ERα mRNA levels in these tumors. High BRCA1-IRIS expression was detected in the majority of human breast tumors analyzed, which was positively correlated with that of AKT1-, AKT2-, p-AKT-, survivin, but negatively with BRCA1/p220 expression. BRCA1-IRIS-positivity induced high-grade, early onset and metastatic HER2(+ or TN/BL tumors. TERT/LT/BRCA1-IRIS overexpressing HME cells formed invasive subcutaneous tumors that express high AKT1, AKT2, p-AKT and vimentin, but no CK19, p63 or BRCA1/p220. NMU-induced primary and invasive rat breast cancers expressed high levels of rat BRCA1-IRIS mRNA but low levels of rat ERα mRNA. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: BRCA1-IRIS overexpression triggers aggressive

  9. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Aleyamma

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

  10. Breast-feeding after breast cancer: if you wish, madam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Hatem A; Bellettini, Giulia; Gelber, Shari; Peccatori, Fedro A

    2009-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor-affecting women during the child bearing period. With the rising trend in delaying pregnancy later in life, the issue of subsequent pregnancy and lactation following breast cancer diagnosis has been more frequently encountered. In this context, data is scarce particularly those addressing the issue of lactation. In this review, we discussed different endocrinal, clinical and biological aspects dealing with breast-feeding after breast cancer in an attempt to determine how safe and feasible this approach is.

  11. Education and Outreach for Breast Imaging and Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    the project was the development of an educational intervention ( flip chart ) for physicians to use in the clinic setting when discussing breast...Procedure Scheduling on Breast Biopsy Patient Outcomes The first phase of this project is the development of an educational flip chart for...breast biopsy and breast cancer survivors to guide the content of the flip chart b) Develop outline and overall format c) Identify/develop

  12. Brain metastasization of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio-Santos, Tânia; Videira, Mafalda; Brito, Maria Alexandra

    2017-08-01

    Central nervous system metastases have been reported in 15-25% of breast cancer patients, and the incidence is increasing. Moreover, the survival of these patients is generally poor, with reports of a 1-year survival rate of 20%. Therefore, a better knowledge about the determinants of brain metastasization is essential for the improvement of the clinical outcomes. Here, we summarize the current data about the metastatic cascade, ranging from the output of cancer cells from the primary tumour to their colonization in the brain, which involves the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion of mammary tissue, intravasation into circulation, and homing into and extravasation towards the brain. The phenotypic change in malignant cells, and the importance of the microenvironment in the formation of brain metastases are also inspected. Finally, the importance of genetic and epigenetic changes, and the recently disclosed effects of microRNAs in brain metastasization of breast cancer are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... carry these changes. Mammographic breast density : The glandular (milk-producing) and connective tissue of the breast are ...

  14. Breast Cancer Types: What Your Type Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumor. Using a tissue sample from your breast biopsy or using your tumor if you've already undergone surgery, your medical team determines your breast cancer type. This information helps your doctor decide which treatment ...

  15. Drug transporters in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kümler, Iben; Stenvang, Jan; Moreira, José

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances that have taken place in the past decade, including the development of novel molecular targeted agents, cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the mainstay of cancer treatment. In breast cancer, anthracyclines and taxanes are the two main chemotherapeutic options used on a routine...... basis. Although effective, their usefulness is limited by the inevitable development of resistance, a lack of response to drug-induced cancer cell death. A large body of research has resulted in the characterization of a plethora of mechanisms involved in resistance; ATP-binding cassette transporter...

  16. Breast MRI in pregnancy-associated breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Jung; Shin, Sang Soo [Dept. of of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyo Soon; Baek, Jang Mi; Seon, Hyun Ju; Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jin Woong; Park, Min Ho [Chonnam National University Medical School, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging and to describe the MR imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. From 2006 to 2013, MR images of 23 patients with pregnancy-associated breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated. MR images were reviewed to evaluate lesion detection and imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. MR images were analyzed by using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System and an additional MR-detected lesion with no mammographic or sonographic abnormality was determined. MR imaging depicted breast cancer in all patients, even in marked background parenchymal enhancement. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was seen as a mass in 20 patients and as non-mass enhancement with segmental distribution in 3 patients. The most common features of the masses were irregular shape (85%), non-circumscribed margin (85%), and heterogeneous enhancement (60%). An additional site of cancer was detected with MR imaging in 5 patients (21.7%) and the type of surgery was changed. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was usually seen as an irregular mass with heterogeneous enhancement on MR images. Although these findings were not specific, MR imaging was useful in evaluating the disease extent of pregnancy-associated breast cancer.

  17. Breast and Gynecologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    [[{"fid":"184","view_mode":"default","fields":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_file_image_title_text[und][0][value]":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_folder[und]":"15"},"type":"media","attributes":{"alt":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","title":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","height":"266","width":"400"," | Prevention and early detection of breast, cervix, endometrial and ovarian cancers and their precursors.

  18. Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Kristin; Stuckey, Ashley

    2016-12-01

    Between the years 2010 and 2012, the lifetime probability of developing female breast cancer was 12.3%, or approximately 1 in 8. Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Survival is increasing. Between 2005 and 2011, the 5-year relative survival was found to be 89%. This is thought to be due to both the increase in utilization of population-wide screening, as well as advances in treatment. Less than 10% of breast cancers can be attributed to an inherited genetic mutation. Breast cancer is more commonly associated with environmental, reproductive, and lifestyle factors, some of which are potentially modifiable.

  19. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high...

  20. Breast Cancer Stem Cells in Antiestrogen Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    like stem cells and that are resistant to chemotherapy drugs , radiation therapy and antiestrogens provided a reasonable explanation for the...breast cancer patients in the past four decades. However, despite the significant antineoplastic activity ofTAM,most breast tumors are eventually...oestrogen to reverse antihormonal drug resistance in oestrogen re- cepotr positive breast cancer patients. The Breast. Supplement. 2007;2:S105–S113

  1. Breast Cancer Translational Research Center of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    the standard of care for treating breast diseases and breast cancer. This approach integrates prevention , screening, diagnosis, treatment and...follow a healthy lifestyle ?” (submitted for publication clearance April 2015). Ellsworth RE, Mamula KA, Costantino NS, Deyarmin B, Kostyniak PJ, Chi...disorders. The project will continue utilizing a multidisciplinary approach as the standard of care for treating breast diseases and breast cancer. This

  2. Predictors of functional shoulder recovery at 1 and 12 months after breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Ellen W; Pfalzer, Lucinda A; Danoff, Jerome; Springer, Barbara A; McGarvey, Charles; Shieh, Ching-yi; Morehead-Gee, Alicia; Gerber, Lynn H; Stout, Nicole L

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study are (1) to determine if upper extremity function, as represented by shoulder ROM, self-reported symptoms and upper extremity functional limitations in activities of daily living could be predictively related to demographic and cancer characteristics post-surgery for breast cancer. And (2) to examine if variables related to early onset impairment contribute to late onset impairments in women after breast cancer surgery. Subjects were assessed preoperatively and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12+ months post breast cancer surgery for impairments and symptoms and at 12+ months for shoulder functional limitations using a physical therapy surveillance model. Body weight, shoulder ROM, manual muscle testing, and upper limb volume were recorded. At 12+ months, the Harvard Alumni Health Study Physical Activity Questionnaire, and an Upper Limb Disability Questionnaire were administered. Symptoms and ROM impairments were compared by functional limitations. Characteristics significantly associated with early ROM impairment (but not later impairment) were axillary lymph node dissection, removal of ≥15 nodes, mastectomy surgery and stage II breast cancer. Positive nodes, older age, and BMI≥25 were significantly associated with reduced shoulder ROM at 12+ months. At 12+ months, only 10 % of the patients experienced ROM impairments while rates of self-reported symptoms in the affected upper extremity at 12+ months were as follows: pain-49%, weakness-47.1%, numbness-55.9%, feeling tired-42.5%. The majority of patients used the affected upper extremity for reaching without limitation, but ≥35% reported limitation with household chores, carrying and lifting. Difficulty carrying and lifting could be predicted by BMI≥25 and use of the dominant affected upper limb. Different factors are associated with early versus later ROM loss. Symptoms reported by breast cancer survivors are frequently associated with functional limitations in upper extremity tasks and warrant

  3. Paget Disease of the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Patient Breast Cancer Treatment Male Breast Cancer Treatment Breast Cancer Treatment & Pregnancy Breast Cancer Prevention Breast Cancer Screening Health Professional Breast Cancer Treatment Male ... Treatment Breast Cancer Treatment & Pregnancy Breast Cancer Prevention ...

  4. THE MAMMOGRAPHIC CALCIFICATIONS IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Ruiying; Liu Jingxian; Gaowen

    1998-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to exam the relativeship between mammographic calcifications and breast cancer. Methods: All of the 184 patients with breast diseases underwent mammography before either an open biopsy or a mastectomy. The presence,morphology, and distribution of calcifications visualized on mammograms for breast cancer were compared with the controls who remained cancer free. Statistical comparisons were made by using the x2 test. Results:Of the 184 patients with breast diaeases, 93 malignant and 91 benign lesions were histologically confirmed.Calcifications were visualized on mammograms in 60(64%) of 93 breast cancers and 26 (28%) of 91 non breast cancers. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer was 4.5 in women with calcifications seen on mammograms, compared with those having none (P<0.01). Of the 60 breast carcinomas having mammographic calcifications, 28 (47%) were infiltrating ductal carcinomas.There were only 8 (24%) cases with infiltrating ductal cancers in the group of without calcifications seen on the mammograms (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our finding suggests that mammographic calcification appears to be a risk factor for breast cancer. The granular and linear cast type calcification provide clues to the presence of breast cancer, especially when the carcinomas without associated masses were seen on mammograms.

  5. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  6. Knowing Their Breast Cancer Risk May Empower Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161233.html Knowing Their Breast Cancer Risk May Empower Teens Greater self-esteem noted in ... interviewed to assess their mental health, perception of breast cancer risk, and levels of distress about breast cancer. The ...

  7. Diagnosis of breast cancer by tissue analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a technique to locate abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test,when require.We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps.Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal/lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper.In fact,features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue.We also suggest the breast cancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some extent.

  8. Risk factors of breast cancer in Mexican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas Ana Laura

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between family history (FH of neoplasia, gyneco-obstetric factors and breast cancer (BC in a case--control study. In cases, to analyze those variables in relation with early onset of BC, the manner of detection (self-examination, prompted by pain, or casual, the size of tumor, and the elapsed time to seek medical attention. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from 151 prevalent BC cases and 235 age-matched controls were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, to assess the influence of BC risk factors. RESULTS: Ten per cent of patients and 1% of controls had first-degree relatives (FDR with BC. Family history of FDR with BC (OR, 11.2; 95% CI 2.42-51.92 or with gastric or pancreatic cancer (OR, 17.7; 95% CI 2.2-142.6 was associated with BC risk. Breastfeeding at or under 25 years of age was protective against BC (OR, 0.40; 95% CI 0.24-0.66. The manner of tumor detection did not influence its size at the time of diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that FH of BC and/or of gastric or pancreatic carcinoma are risk factors for BC, while lactation at 25 years of age or earlier is protective.

  9. Breast cancer following ovarian cancer in BRCA mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangi, Alexandra; Cass, Ilana; Paik, Daniel; Barmparas, Galinos; Karlan, Beth; Dang, Catherine; Li, Andrew; Walsh, Christine; Rimel, Bobbie J; Amersi, Farin F

    2014-12-01

    BRCA mutation carriers are at increased risk of developing breast cancer. However, the incidence of breast cancer after a diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), one of the tubal/peritoneal cancers collectively referred to as pelvic serous carcinomas, is not well known. Optimal breast cancer surveillance and detection for these patients have also not been well characterized. To determine the incidence of breast cancer after a diagnosis of EOC and to evaluate the need for breast cancer surveillance for these patients. A retrospective database review of 364 patients who underwent BRCA mutation testing for EOC (stages I-IV) between 1998 and 2012 at an academic medical center with gynecologic and breast cancer centers. Incidence of breast cancer and methods of surveillance. Of 364 patients, 135 (37.1%) were found to carry a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. The mean age of patients at diagnosis of EOC was 49.5 years (range, 28-89 years). Of the 135 patients, 12 (8.9%) developed breast cancer. The median time from diagnosis of EOC to diagnosis of breast cancer was 50.5 months. Annual mammography was performed for 80 patients (59.3%), with annual magnetic resonance imaging of the breasts performed for 60 patients (44.4%). Thirteen patients (9.6%) underwent a bilateral prophylactic mastectomy at a median of 23 months following EOC diagnosis. Breast cancer was most commonly diagnosed by mammography for 7 of the 12 patients (58.3%), 3 (25.0%) of whom had a palpable mass and 2 (16.7%) of whom had incidental breast cancer detected during a prophylactic mastectomy. Seven patients with breast cancer (58.3%) underwent a bilateral mastectomy. All patients had early-stage breast cancer (stages 0-II). Four patients (33.3%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 6.3 years, 4 of the 12 patients (33.3%) died of recurrent EOC after a diagnosis of breast cancer. The overall 10-year survival rate for the entire cohort of 135 patients was 17.0%. The risk of

  10. Breast cancer in Singapore: some perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Lazaro, Ana Richelia; Thilagaratnam, Shyamala; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy among Singapore women, accounting for 29.7% of all female cancers, with an age-standardized rate of 54.9 per 100,000 per year. It has been the most frequent cancer in Singapore women for the last 30 years, with the highest rates previously reported in those aged between 45 and 49 years, but with a more recent observation of a change in peak age group to women in their late 50s. About 1,100 new cases are diagnosed annually and approximately 270 women die in Singapore each year from breast cancer. In the multiethnic population of Singapore, it has been noted that rising breast cancer incidence is consistent across all three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays, and Indians). Singapore has among the highest breast cancer incidence in Asia. Possible explanations include rapid urbanization, improvement in socio-economic status, and adoption of a western lifestyle. Our experience with the Singapore breast screening pilot project (1994-1997) and the national breast-screening program (BreastScreen Singapore) has led to increased understanding of this disease in the country. Data from the pilot project showed that breast screening is just as effective in a predominantly Asian population as in the west. Early breast cancer accounted for most breast cancers detected, with pre-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) comprising 26% of all screen-detected cancers in the pilot study. In the currently on-going BreastScreen Singapore, DCIS forms >30% of all breast cancers among pre-menopausal women, a relatively high proportion probably accounted for partially by the greater participation of women aged between 40 and 49 years. Despite the ready availability of subsidized mammographic screening, there are still women in Singapore who present with locally advanced breast cancer. Clinical management of an increasing number of women with breast cancer embraces a multidisciplinary team-based approach, with regular discussions of therapeutic

  11. Propranolol and survival from breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Pottegård, Anton; Vaes, Evelien;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that propranolol inhibits several pathways involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We investigated whether breast cancer patients who used propranolol, or other non-selective beta-blockers, had reduced breast cancer-specific or all......-cause mortality in eight European cohorts. METHODS: Incident breast cancer patients were identified from eight cancer registries and compiled through the European Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology Network. Propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use was ascertained for each patient. Breast cancer-specific and all......-cause mortality were available for five and eight cohorts, respectively. Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cancer-specific and all-cause mortality by propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use. HRs were pooled across cohorts using meta...

  12. Obesity and the breast cancer methylome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, William B

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is associated with risk factors such as advancing age and obesity. However, the linkages between these risk factors for breast cancer development and initiation of the disease are not yet clear. Obesity may drive breast cancer development through increases in circulating estrogens in postmenopausal women. Mammary cell susceptibility to neoplastic transformation requires both genetic and epigenetic alterations, including changes in DNA methylation. Obesity is also subject to epigenetic regulation. In this review, the nature of epigenetic changes, specifically changes to the methylome, are discussed in the context of obesity and breast cancer, and a potential mechanism for the interaction of obesity and breast cancer is proposed. This proposed mechanism identifies opportunities for intervention (using drugs or biologic therapies) to prevent breast cancer development in the obese patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Competing risks to breast cancer mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Marjorie A

    2006-01-01

    Simulation models analyzing the impact of treatment interventions and screening on the level of breast cancer mortality require an input of mortality from causes other than breast cancer, or competing risks. This chapter presents an actuarial method of creating cohort life tables using published data that removes breast cancer as a cause of death. Mortality from causes other than breast cancer as a percentage of all-cause mortality is smallest for women in their forties and fifties, as small as 85% of the all-cause rate, although the level and percentage of the impact varies by birth cohort. This method produces life tables by birth cohort and by age that are easily included as a common input by the various CISNET modeling groups to predict mortality from other causes. Attention to removing breast cancer mortality from all-cause mortality is worthwhile, because breast cancer mortality can be as high as 15% at some ages.

  14. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Carolyn M; Chen, John J; Kovach, John S

    2010-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high rate of breast cancer (142.7 per 100,000 in Suffolk County) and in a representative sample of US women (NHANES 1999-2008, 92 with breast cancer and 2,884 without). In a multivariable logistic model, both samples showed a significant trend for increased odds of breast cancer across increasing UCd quartiles (NHANES, p=0.039 and LI, p=0.023). Compared to those in the lowest quartile, LI women in the highest quartile had increased risk for breast cancer (OR=2.69; 95% CI=1.07, 6.78) and US women in the two highest quartiles had increased risk (OR=2.50; 95% CI=1.11, 5.63 and OR=2.22; 95% CI=.89, 5.52, respectively). Further research is warranted on the impact of environmental cadmium on breast cancer risk in specific populations and on identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  15. Educational Counseling in Improving Communication and Quality of Life in Spouses and Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  16. Breast cancer and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    Case Study Amy is a 44-year-old woman with severe autism. She lives with her sister Susan, who is her caregiver and guardian. Amy is ambulatory and able to dress and feed herself. She is a healthy individual with no other significant comorbidities. She walks daily and enjoys her sister's company. Amy's life expectancy is greater than 10 years. However, she is difficult to care for medically, as she will not allow a physical examination and strikes out when strangers try to touch her. She is nonverbal and unable to participate in decision-making. INITIAL DIAGNOSIS Amy has a history of breast cancer diagnosed 2 years ago, originally presenting as a stage I lesion (T2N0) that was palpated by her caregiver while bathing. She underwent right simple mastectomy with sentinel lymph node resection. Susan recalls that the mastectomy was a very challenging ordeal, as Amy kept pulling out IV lines, drains, and dressings. Susan felt that Amy withdrew from her after the procedure as she most likely associated Susan with the cause of the pain, making her role as caregiver more difficult. Pathology confirmed an invasive ductal carcinoma, moderately differentiated, 2.4 cm, estrogen/progesterone receptor negative, HER2/neu negative, with negative surgical margins. Two right axillary sentinel lymph nodes were negative for disease. The standard of care for a patient with these tumor features is surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy (National Comprehensive Cancer Network [NCCN], 2012). According to the Adjuvant Online! database (2012), Amy's risk for relapse was approximately 40% without adjuvant treatment; her risk for mortality was approximately 29%. After meeting with a medical oncologist, Amy did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. According to Susan, she was not offered the choice, and the decision was not explained to them. She was simply told that it was not necessary. Aside from pathology, previous records were unavailable for review. Medical assessment of Amy's level of autism

  17. [CHEK2-mutation in Dutch breast cancer families: expanding genetic testing for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adank, M.A.; Hes, F.J.; Zelst-Stams, W.A.G. van; Tol, M.P. van den; Seynaeve, C.; Oosterwijk, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    - In the majority of breast cancer families, DNA testing does not show BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and the genetic cause of breast cancer remains unexplained. - Routine testing for the CHEK2*1100delC mutation has recently been introduced in breast cancer families in the Netherlands. - The 1100delC muta

  18. Skp2 is over-expressed in breast cancer and promotes breast cancer cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenwen; Cao, Lulu; Sun, Zijia; Xu, Jing; Tang, Lin; Chen, Weiwei; Luo, Jiayan; Yang, Fang; Wang, Yucai; Guan, Xiaoxiang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The F box protein Skp2 is oncogenic. Skp2 and Skp2B, an isoform of Skp2 are overexpressed in breast cancer. However, little is known regarding the mechanism by which Skp2B promotes the occurrence and development of breast cancer. Here, we determined the expression and clinical outcomes of Skp2 in breast cancer samples and cell lines using breast cancer database, and investigated the role of Skp2 and Skp2B in breast cancer cell growth, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. We obtained Skp2 is significantly overexpressed in breast cancer samples and cell lines, and high Skp2 expression positively correlated with poor prognosis of breast cancer. Both Skp2 and Skp2B could promote breast cancer cell proliferation, inhibit cell apoptosis, change the cell cycle distribution and induce the increased S phase cells and therefore induce cell proliferation in breast cancer cells. Moreover, the 2 isoforms could both suppress PIG3 expression via independent pathways in the breast cancer cells. Skp2 suppressed p53 and inhibited PIG3-induced apoptosis, while Skp2B attenuated the function of PIG3 by inhibiting PHB. Our results indicate that Skp2 and Skp2B induce breast cancer cell development and progression, making Skp2 and Skp2B potential molecular targets for breast cancer therapy. PMID:27111245

  19. Typhoid Vaccine in Testing Response to Immune Stress in Patients With Stage I-IIIA Breast Cancer Who Received Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-29

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Depression; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  20. The p53 pathway in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gasco, Milena; Shami, Shukri; Crook, Tim

    2002-01-01

    p53 mutation remains the most common genetic change identified in human neoplasia. In breast cancer, p53 mutation is associated with more aggressive disease and worse overall survival. The frequency of mutation in p53 is, however, lower in breast cancer than in other solid tumours. Changes, both genetic and epigenetic, have been identified in regulators of p53 activity and in some downstream transcriptional targets of p53 in breast cancers that express wild-type p53. Molecular pathological an...

  1. SCREENING FOR EARLY DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Rasskazova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a brief overview of the main methods of breast cancer screening. Proven effectiveness of mammography as a screening method in reducing mortality from breast cancer, specified limits of the method. The main trend of increasing the effectiveness of screening is the transition to digital technologies. Properly organized screening with the active participation of the population reduces mortality from breast cancer by 30%.

  2. Male breast cancer: clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotko, Y S

    2013-12-01

    Despite male breast cancer is rare in occurrence, it is a serious problem. In 2012, 130 men in Ukraine got breast cancer that constituted 0.74% from all patients with mentioned pathology detected in the course of year. Every year in Ukraine approximately 100 men die from breast cancer. Still many aspects of male breast cancer remain unstudied. It occurs since information about mentioned disease is mainly based on retrospective analysis of small groups. Treatment of men, who got breast cancer, is based on knowledge, which has been obtained in treatment of women with this pathology. This article is based on the results of analysis of 168 cases of breast cancer in men, who have been examined and treated in the period from 1956 to 2012. In paper the peculiarities of clinical manifestations of male breast cancer have been determined, the optimal volume of diagnostic procedures in men with suspicion of breast cancer has been established, the mammographic signs have been detected and the possible histological variants of disease have been determined, clinical course peculiarities of male breast cancer have been defined, the most essential factors of prognosis of the disease have been fixed. Furthermore, in article optimal volume of surgical treatment of male breast cancer has been substantiated, the role and place of radiotherapy in treatment of this pathology has been determined. It has been proved that adjuvant polychemotherapy should be applied to the patients with male breast cancer independently from stage of process. Also optimal schemes of this kind of treatment have been determined. The efficacy of hormonal therapy with antiestrogen in patients with positive receptors of steroid hormones and at presence of unfavorable prognostic factors of disease has been demonstrated. The inefficiency of orchiectomy as one of the widespread kinds of hormonal therapy of male breast cancer has been defined.

  3. Breast Cancer: Catch It with Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Heintz, Ph.D. Department of Radiology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM e-mail: MWilliamson@salud.unm.edu Breast cancer ...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0566 TITLE: Breast Cancer : Catch It with Ultrasound...CONTRACT NUMBER Breast Cancer : Catch It with Ultrasound 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0566 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  4. Breast cancer heterogeneity: mechanisms, proofs, and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Hsiao, Ming-Chih Chou, Carol Fowler, Jeffrey T. Mason, Yan-gao Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human breast cancer represents a group of highly heterogeneous lesions consisting of about 20 morphologically distinct subtypes with substantially different molecular and/or biochemical signatures, clinical courses, and prognoses. This study analyzed the possible correlation between the morphological presentations of breast cancer and two hypothesized models of carcinogenesis, in order to identify the intrinsic mechanism(s and clinical implications of breast cancer heterogeneity.

  5. Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0359 TITLE: Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Sarat Chandarlapaty CONTRACTING...31 Aug 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0359 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...mutations found in breast cancer using both structural and cell based assays. We have now have evidence for the effects of the most recurrent

  6. Targeting Breast Cancer Vasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Marra, M.A., Prange, C., Morin, P.J., Polyak , K., et al. (1999). A publicAmer, M.H. (1982). Chemotherapy and pattern of metastases in breast can...8217n8 Ftts tm. 492, 7177 3 Abdel-Ghant M. ?l dl. (1993) Trun@ted dip+lidyi peptidaa lv is a prteni dti-adhesion md anti-mebslasis pcptide for rat hread

  7. BRCA1 mutations in Algerian breast cancer patients: high frequency in young, sporadic cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Uhrhammer, Amina Abdelouahab, Laurence Lafarge, Viviane Feillel, Ahmed Ben Dib, Yves-Jean Bignon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer rates and median age of onset differ between Western Europe and North Africa. In Western populations, 5 to 10 % of breast cancer cases can be attributed to major genetic factors such as BRCA1 and BRCA2, while this attribution is not yet well defined among Africans. To help determine the contribution of BRCA1 mutations to breast cancer in a North African population, we analysed genomic DNA from breast cancer cases ascertained in Algiers. Both familial cases (at least three breast cancers in the same familial branch, or two with one bilateral or diagnosed before age 40 and sporadic cases less than 38 years of age were studied. Complete sequencing plus quantitative analysis of the BRCA1 gene was performed. 9.8 % (5/51 of early-onset sporadic and 36.4 % (4/11 of familial cases were found to be associated with BRCA1 mutations. This is in contrast 10.3 % of French HBOC families exhibiting a BRCA1 mutation. One mutation, c.798_799delTT, was observed in two Algerian families and in two families from Tunisia, suggesting a North African founder allele. Algerian non-BRCA1 tumors were of significantly higher grade than French non-BRCA tumors, and the age at diagnosis for Algerian familial cases was much younger than that for French non-BRCA familial cases. In conclusion, we observed a much higher frequency of BRCA1 mutations among young breast cancer patients than observed in Europe, suggesting biological differences and that the inclusion criterea for analysis in Western Europe may not be applicable for the Northern African population.

  8. Knowledge towards breast cancer among Libyan women in Tripoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef A Taher

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that Libyan women have acceptable level of knowledge regarding breast cancer. However, improvement of the health systems and awareness regarding breast cancer is needed.

  9. The lipid peroxidation in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierska, Magdalena; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Jeziorski, Arkadiusz; Piekarski, Janusz

    2010-06-01

    The aim of our study was to estimate oxidative stress (by using different biomarkers of lipid peroxidation--isoprostanes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) in patients with invasive breast cancer, patients with benign breast diseases and in a control group. We observed a statistically increased level of TBARS in plasma and isoprostanes in urine of patients with invasive breast cancer in comparison with a control group. The concentration of tested biomarkers in plasma or urine from patients with invasive breast cancer was also higher than in patients with benign breast diseases. Moreover, the levels of tested markers in patients with benign breast diseases and in a control group did not differ. Considering the data presented in this study, we suggest that free radicals induce peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acid in patients with breast cancer.

  10. A low proportion of BRCA2 mutations in Finnish breast cancer families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehmanen, P; Friedman, L S; Eerola, H; Sarantaus, L; Pyrhönen, S; Ponder, B A; Muhonen, T; Nevanlinna, H

    1997-05-01

    One hundred breast cancer families were identified at the Helsinki University Central Hospital in Finland and were screened for germ-line mutations in the coding regions and splice boundaries of the BRCA2 gene. Eight families (8%) were found to carry five different mutations, all of which are predicted to prematurely truncate the protein product. These BRCA2 families have early-onset breast cancer (mean and median age = 49 years), with four of the eight families including ovarian cancer but with no families including male breast cancer. A wide spectrum of other cancers also is seen in these families. Three mutations were identified in more than one family, and haplotype analysis in the families suggested a common founder for each recurrent mutation. One recurrent mutation, 999del5, previously has been noted as a common mutation in Iceland. The relationship between the Icelandic 999del5 mutation and the Finnish 999del5 mutation was explored by comparison of families from both countries. A common haplotype covering a minimal region intragenic to the BRCA2 gene was shared between the Icelandic and the Finnish mutation carriers.

  11. Jewish religion and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, K M; Newcomb, P A; Longnecker, M P; Trentham-Dietz, A; Baron, J A; Trichopoulos, D; Stampfer, M J; Willett, W C

    1996-06-15

    The excess risk of breast cancer among Jewish women has been attributed to the effects of difference in lifestyle and reproductive patterns, but there is now evidence that Jewish women may be more likely than other women to inherit mutations in breast-cancer genes. We investigated whether any excessive risk among Jewish women is confined to those with a family history of breast cancer. We assessed the effect of Jewish religion on breast cancer in a large population-based case-control study (6611 women with breast cancer and 9026 controls) in USA. Participants were given telephone interviews and asked about known and suspected risk factors for breast cancer. Overall, Jewish women had only a slightly raised relative risk of breast cancer (1.10 [95% CI 0.84-1.44]; p=0.49). However, the relative risk was much higher for Jewish women with a first-degree relative who had breast cancer (3.78 [1.74-8.16]; pJewish women than in women of other religions (p interaction = 0.05). These results are consistent with data suggesting that certain groups of Jewish women have a higher than expected rate of mutation in the breast-cancer gene BRCA1.

  12. Diazepam use and progression of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinerman, R A; Brinton, L A; Hoover, R; Fraumeni, J F

    1984-03-01

    The relationship between diazepam and breast cancer was evaluated using data from a case-control study of breast cancer, in which 1075 cases and 1146 controls who were participants in a breast cancer screening program were interviewed. Diazepam use was negatively associated with extent of disease and lymph node involvement, and this effect seemed greatest for long-term users of diazepam. It is not certain to what extent these data reflect an ascertainment bias, an association with the reasons for which the drug was prescribed, or chance. Whatever the explanation, the findings do not support a previous contention that diazepam promotes or accelerates breast cancer growth.

  13. Breast cancer growth prevention by statins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Michael J; Esserman, Laura J; Zhou, Yamei; Shoemaker, Mark; Lobo, Margaret; Borman, Elizabeth; Baehner, Frederick; Kumar, Anjali S; Adduci, Kelly; Marx, Corina; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance A; Winters, Mary; Benz, Stephen; Benz, Christopher C

    2006-01-01

    .... We evaluated the effects of statins on breast cancer cell growth, phosphoprotein signaling intermediates, survival/apoptosis regulators, cell cycle regulators, and activated transcription factors...

  14. [Male Breast Cancer: What is Different?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederberger, Philipp; Bucher, Susanne; Aebi, Stefan

    2016-02-03

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease. Symptoms and signs resemble breast cancer in women: A palpable mass, enlarged lymph nodes or skin changes (ulceration, secretion, peau d'orange) mandate mammography, ultrasound to assess the regional lymph nodes. The definitive diagnosis is made by biopsy. Men with breast cancer are treated along the same principles as women: resection followed by systemic and radiation therapy. Tamoxifen, not aromatase inhibitors, is the adjuvant therapy of choice for estrogen receptor positive tumors. Therapy of men with metastatic breast cancer follows the same principles as therapy of women.

  15. Fetal microchimerism in breast and colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Biggar, R J; Stamper, Casey L

    2011-01-01

    . DNA from repository buffy coat specimens was tested for male FMc with quantitative PCR targeting the DYS14gene on the Y chromosome. For this analysis, 89 women who developed breast cancer and 67 women who developed colon cancer were evaluable for FMc. Results were compared to 272 women who remained......1574 Background: Cells acquired by a woman from her baby that durably persist in her blood and tissues is known as fetal microchimerism (FMc). In women with breast cancer, frequency and quantity of FMc in blood and breast tissue is reduced compared to healthy women. Whether the absence of fetal...... microchimerism predicts risk for developing breast cancer is unknown. FMc was evaluated in buffy coat cells from presumed healthy women who later developed breast cancer or colon cancer, a cancer in which prior pregnancy appears protective but has different associations with endocrine risk factors. METHODS...

  16. Causal attribution among women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina W. B. Peuker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Causal attribution among women with breast cancer was studied. The study included 157 women outpatients with breast cancer. A form for sociodemographic and clinical data and the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R were used. The results showed that women attributed breast cancer primarily to psychological causes, which does not correspond to known multifactorial causes validated by the scientific community. Providing high quality, patient-centered care requires sensitivity to breast cancer women’s beliefs about the causes of their cancer and awareness of how it can influence patient’s health behaviors after diagnosis. If women with breast cancer attribute the illness to modifiable factors then they can keep a healthy lifestyle, improving their recovery and decrease the probability of cancer recurrence after diagnosis.

  17. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    be cultured in calcium‐ free DMEM supplemented with 1% FBS, cholera toxin (10 ng/ml), bovine insulin (3 μg/ml), hydrocortisone (0.5 μg/ml), EGF and...regimens for induction of optimal anti-tumor immunity. Then we will determine the optimal time to administer these regimens during disease ...node status. Breast Cancer Res Treat 60, 227 (Apr, 2000). 4. H. E. Kohrt et al., Profile of immune cells in axillary lymph nodes predicts disease -free

  18. Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattinger, Ann B; Mitchell, Julie L

    2016-06-07

    This issue provides a clinical overview of breast cancer screening and prevention, focusing on risk assessment, screening, prevention, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  19. Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Shikha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic or accessory breast tissue is most commonly located in the axilla, though it may be present anywhere along the milk line. Development is hormone dependent, similar to normal breast tissue. These lesions do not warrant any intervention unless they produce discomfort, thus their identification and distinction from other breast pathologies, both benign and malignant, is essential. We report a case with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with an ipsilateral axillary mass following surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Subsequent evaluation with excision biopsy showed duct ectasia in axillary breast tissue and the patient was continued on hormone therapy with tamoxifen.

  20. Breast cancer management: Past, present and evolving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Akram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is known from ancient time,and the treatment strategy evolved as our understanding of the disease changed with time. In 460 BC Hippocrates described breast cancer as a humoral disease and presently after a lot of studies breast cancer is considered as a local disease with systemic roots. For most of the twentieth century Halsted radical mastectomy was the "established and standardized operation for cancer of the breast in all stages, early or late". New information about tumor biology and its behavior suggested that less radical surgery might be just as effective as the more extensive one. Eventually, with the use of adjuvant therapy likeradiation and systemic therapy, the extent of surgical resection in the breast and axilla got reduced further and led to an era of breast conservation. The radiation treatment of breast cancer has evolved from 2D to 3D Conformal and to accelarated partial breast irradiation, aiming to reduce normal tissue toxicity and overall treatment time. Systemic therapy in the form of hormone therapy, chemotherapy and biological agents is now a well-established modality in treatment of breast cancer. The current perspective of breast cancer management is based on the rapidly evolving and increasingly integrated study on the genetic, molecular , biochemical and cellular basis of disease. The challenge for the future is to take advantage of this knowledge for the prediction of therapeutic outcome and develop therapies and rapidly apply more novel biologic therapeutics.

  1. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Hansen, Thomas van Overeem; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    Genetic abnormalities in the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). However, only approximately 25% of cases of HBOC can be ascribed to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Recently, exome sequencing has uncovered substantial locus heterogeneity among...... affected families without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. The new pathogenic variants are rare, posing challenges to estimation of risk attribution through patient cohorts. In this Review article, we examine HBOC genes, focusing on their role in genome maintenance, the possibilities for functional testing...... of putative causal variants and the clinical application of new HBOC genes in cancer risk management and treatment decision-making....

  2. Breast Cancer 2012 - New Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolberg, H-C; Lüftner, D; Lux, M P; Maass, N; Schütz, F; Fasching, P A; Fehm, T; Janni, W; Kümmel, S

    2012-07-01

    Treatment options as well as the characteristics for therapeutic decisions in patients with primary and advanced breast cancer are increasing in number and variety. New targeted therapies in combination with established chemotherapy schemes are broadening the spectrum, however potentially promising combinations do not always achieve a better result. New data from the field of pharmacogenomics point to prognostic and predictive factors that take not only the properties of the tumour but also inherited genetic properties of the patient into consideration. Current therapeutic decision-making is thus based on a combination of classical clinical and modern molecular biomarkers. Also health-economic aspects are more frequently being taken into consideration so that health-economic considerations may also play a part. This review is based on information from the recent annual congresses. The latest of these are the 34th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium 2011 and the ASCO Annual Meeting 2012. Among their highlights are the clinically significant results from the CLEOPATRA, BOLERO-2, EMILIA and SWOG S0226 trials on the therapy for metastatic breast cancer as well as further state-of-the-art data on the adjuvant use of bisphosphonates within the framework of the ABCSG-12, ZO-FAST, NSABP-B34 and GAIN trials.

  3. Breast cancer awareness among Turkish nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Sevim; Tasdemir, Nurten; Sancak, Hulya; Demirel, Merve; Akman, Ozlem; Kara, Merve

    2014-01-01

    This study conducted to determine breast cancer awareness and influencing factors among nursing students in the West Black Sea Region in Turkey. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted between April-May, 2014. The sample was 270 female nursing students. Data were collected by Personal Information Form and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS). The students' mean age was 21.6±2.09 and 81.1% had knowledge about breast cancer from their academic education. It is found that 63.7% of the students performed Breast Self-Examination (BSE) and 11.1% had a family member diagnosed with breast cancer. The CHBMS mean score of the students was 117.7±14.5. Breast cancer awareness of nursing students is on a good level and was affected by family history of breast cancer and health beliefs.

  4. [THE EFFECT OF PREGNANCY ON BREAST CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalon, Shelly Tartakover; Shochet, Gali Epstein; Drucker, Liat; Lishner, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Cancer and pregnancy coincide in about one in 1,000 pregnancies. One of the most common malignancies associated with pregnancy is breast cancer. Women with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) have a higher likelihood of being diagnosed with metastatic disease and estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumors than do non-pregnant women. Controversies exist regarding the effect of pregnancy on breast cancer prognosis. Some researchers suggest that pregnancy does not affect breast cancer prognosis, whereas others claim the opposite. Although PABC is usually discovered in an advanced stage, breast cancer metastasis on the placenta is a rare event. During cancer progression, the surrounding microenvironment co-evolves into an activated state through continuous communication with the malignant cells, thereby promoting tumor growth. The effect of pregnancy and placental environment on breast cancer biology is the issue of this review. Placental and cancer cells implantation processes share similar molecular pathways. This suggests that placental factors may affect breast cancer cells biology. Previously, we analyzed the effect of first trimester human placenta on breast cancer cells. Breast cancer cells were co-cultured with placental explants during their implantation on matrigel substrate. We found that the placenta reduced ER expression on the cancer cells and induced their migration and invasion abilities. As a result of it, breast cancer cells migrated away from the placental implantation sites. Hormonal pathways were involved in these phenomena. These results may explain the high incidence of metastases during pregnancy in on the one hand and the rarity of metastases on the placenta on the other hand.

  5. Coping with breast cancer: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Myrna A A; Huijer, Huda Abu-Saad; Kelley, Jane H; El Saghir, Nagi; Nassar, Nada

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women worldwide. In Lebanon, a country of 4 million people, breast cancer is also the most prevalent type of cancer among Lebanese women. The purpose of this study was to gain a more in-depth understanding of the coping strategies espoused by Lebanese women with breast cancer. The study followed purposeful sampling and saturation principles in which 10 female participants diagnosed as having breast cancer were interviewed. Data were analyzed following a hermeneutical process as described by Diekelmann and Ironside (Encyclopedia of Nursing Research. 1998:50-68). Seven main themes and 1 constitutive pattern emerged from the study describing the Lebanese women's coping strategies with breast cancer. The negative stigma of cancer in the Lebanese culture, the role of women in the Lebanese families, and the embedded role of religion in Lebanese society are bases of the differences in the coping strategies of Lebanese women with breast cancer as compared to women with breast cancer from other cultures. These findings cannot be directly generalized, but they could act as a basis for further research on which to base a development of a framework for an approach to care that promotes coping processes in Lebanese women living with breast cancer. Nursing and medical staff need to have a better understanding of the individual coping strategies of each woman and its impact on the woman's well being; the creation of informal support group is indispensable in helping these women cope with their conditions.

  6. Association between breast and thyroid cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehrer S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Steven Lehrer, Sheryl Green, John A Martignetti, Kenneth E Rosenzweig Departments of Radiation Oncology and Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Background: The risk of thyroid cancer is known to be slightly increased in women after treatment for breast cancer. In the current study, we analyzed the incidence of thyroid cancer and breast cancer in 50 US states and in the District of Columbia to ascertain how often these two diseases are associated. Methods: Data on the incidence of thyroid cancer were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute and data on the incidence of breast cancer were from the American Cancer Society. Data on the average number of children per family with children and mean household income were sourced from the US Bureau of the Census and prevalence of obesity by state is determined from a paper published in 2010 on state-specific obesity prevalence among US adults by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: There was a significant association between breast and thyroid cancer (P=0.002. Since the incidence of breast cancer increases with increasing income and obesity, while decreasing with parity, multiple linear regression was performed. Breast cancer incidence was significantly related to thyroid cancer incidence (β=0.271, P=0.039, inversely related to average number of children per family with children (β=-0.271, P=0.039, unrelated to adult obesity (β=0.134, P=0.369, and significantly related to family income (β=0.642, P<0.001. Conclusion: This study identifies an association between breast and thyroid cancer. The association suggests that unexplored breast-thyroid cancer susceptibility loci exist and warrant further study. Keywords: breast cancer, thyroid cancer, genetics, association

  7. Long-term side effects of adjuvant breast cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Ciska

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Breast cancer accounts for one-third of all cancers in females and 24% of the patients are younger than 55 years of age. More than 10% all Dutch women will develop breast cancer and 70-80% of all breast cancer patients will survive over 5 years.

  8. Long-term side effects of adjuvant breast cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Ciska

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Breast cancer accounts for one-third of all cancers in females and 24% of the patients are younger than 55 years of age. More than 10% all Dutch women will develop breast cancer and 70-80% of all breast cancer patients will survive over 5 years.

  9. Automatically assessed volumetric breast density and breast cancer risk : The era of digital screening mammography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, J.O.P .

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among females worldwide. As the burden of breast cancer is high, many countries have introduced a breast cancer screening program with the aim to find and treat breast cancers in an early stage. In the Netherlands, women between the ages of 50

  10. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... instructor. Exercise. Gentle exercise may help boost your mood and make you feel better. Ask your doctor to recommend appropriate exercise. Creative activities. Certain activities, such as art, dance and music, may help you feel less distressed. Some cancer ...

  11. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... in dozens of tiny bulbs that can make milk. The lobes, lobules, and bulbs are linked by ...

  12. MR elastography of breast cancer: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Alexia L; Kugel, Jennifer L; Rossman, Phillip J; Manduca, Armando; Hartmann, Lynn C; Ehman, Richard L

    2002-06-01

    Motivated by the long-recognized value of palpation in detecting breast cancer, we tested the feasibility of a technique for quantitatively evaluating the mechanical properties of breast tissues on the basis of direct MR imaging visualization of acoustic waves. The prototypic elasticity imaging technique consists of a device for generating acoustic shear waves in tissue, an MR imaging-based method for imaging the propagation of these waves, and an algorithm for processing the wave images to generate quantitative images depicting tissue stiffness. After tests with tissue-simulating phantom materials and breast cancer specimens, we used the prototypic breast MR elastography technique to image six healthy women and six patients with known breast cancer. Acoustic shear waves were clearly visualized in phantoms, breast cancer specimens, healthy volunteers, and patients with breast cancer. The elastograms of the tumor specimens showed focal areas of high shear stiffness. MR elastograms of healthy volunteers revealed moderately heterogeneous mechanical properties, with the shear stiffness of fibroglandular tissue measuring slightly higher than that of adipose tissue. The elastograms of patients with breast cancer showed focal areas of high shear stiffness corresponding to the locations of the known tumors. The mean shear stiffness of breast carcinoma was 418% higher than the mean value of surrounding breast tissues. The results confirm the hypothesis that the prototypic breast MR elastographic technique can quantitatively depict the elastic properties of breast tissues in vivo and reveal high shear elasticity in known breast tumors. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential applications of MR elastography, such as detecting breast carcinoma and characterizing suspicious breast lesions.

  13. Breast reconstruction after mastectomy at a comprehensive cancer center

    OpenAIRE

    Connors, Shahnjayla K.; Goodman, Melody S.; Myckatyn, Terence; Margenthaler, Julie; Gehlert, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast reconstruction after mastectomy is an integral part of breast cancer treatment that positively impacts quality of life in breast cancer survivors. Although breast reconstruction rates have increased over time, African American women remain less likely to receive breast reconstruction compared to Caucasian women. National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers, specialized institutions with more standardized models of cancer treatment, report higher breast r...

  14. Lifetime grain consumption and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Eliassen, A Heather; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated individual grain-containing foods and whole and refined grain intake during adolescence, early adulthood, and premenopausal years in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II. Grain-containing food intakes were reported on a baseline dietary questionnaire (1991) and every 4 years thereafter. Among 90,516 premenopausal women aged 27-44 years, we prospectively identified 3235 invasive breast cancer cases during follow-up to 2013. 44,263 women reported their diet during high school, and from 1998 to 2013, 1347 breast cancer cases were identified among these women. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of breast cancer for individual, whole and refined grain foods. After adjusting for known breast cancer risk factors, adult intake of whole grain foods was associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintile: RR 0.82; 95 % CI 0.70-0.97; P trend = 0.03), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. This association was no longer significant after further adjustment for fiber intake. The average of adolescent and early adulthood whole grain food intake was suggestively associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs lowest quintile: RR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.56-0.99; P trend = 0.09). Total refined grain food intake was not associated with risk of breast cancer. Most individual grain-containing foods were not associated with breast cancer risk. The exceptions were adult brown rice which was associated with lower risk of overall and premenopausal breast cancer (for each 2 servings/week: RR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.89-0.99 and RR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.85-0.99, respectively) and adult white bread intake which was associated with increased overall breast cancer risk (for each 2 servings/week: RR 1.02; 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), as well as breast cancer before and after menopause. Further, pasta intake was inversely associated with

  15. The cancer genetics and pathology of male breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Siddhartha; Lakhani, Sunil R; Ottini, Laura; Fox, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is an uncommon and poorly understood disease. Recent molecular studies have shown important differences from female breast cancer which are likely to influence treatment strategies from the current female-based management towards a more tailored approach. Significantly more MBCs than female breast cancers arise with an underlying germline cancer predisposition, and display a vastly different penetrance compared with females. Furthermore, the genophenotypical association of basal-like cancer with BRCA1 present in female breast cancer is not observed in male breast cancer. Differences in somatic changes between male and female breast cancer have also been reported, with particular enrichment of PIK3CA mutations and a paucity of TP53 mutations. In general, chromosomal-based changes, in particular regions of gains, are seen more frequently in male than female breast cancer and methylation is seen less frequently. Clinically, several molecular subtypes with prognostic relevance have been described, including chromosomal complex high and methylation high groups, and subgroups with profiling signatures pertaining to epithelial mesenchymal transition and hormonal therapy insensitivity. As with female breast cancer, attention to male specific multicentre trials based on the individual characteristics are needed, together with establishment of reliable preclinical models to understand more clearly the pathogenesis of male breast cancer and improve the general poor outcome of this disease.

  16. Markers of neurodevelopmental impairments in early-onset psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petruzzelli MG

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Maria Giuseppina Petruzzelli,1 Lucia Margari,1 Francesco Craig,1 Maria Gloria Campa,1 Domenico Martinelli,2 Adriana Pastore,3 Marta Simone,1 Francesco Margari3 1Child and Adolescence Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University “Aldo Moro” of Bari, 2Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences; University of Foggia, Foggia, 3Psychiatry Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organ, University “Aldo Moro” of Bari, Bari, Italy Background: The aim of this study was to assess the association between the clinical and neurobiological markers of neurodevelopmental impairments and early-onset schizophrenia spectrum psychosis. Methods: A sample of 36 patients with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum psychosis was compared to a control sample of 36 patients with migraine. We assessed early childhood neurodevelopmental milestones using a modified version of the General Developmental Scale, general intellectual ability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Revised or Leiter International Performance Scale–Revised for patients with speech and language abnormalities, and neurological soft signs with specific regard to subtle motor impairment. Results: Subjects with early-onset psychosis had a higher rate of impaired social development (P=0.001, learning difficulties (P=0.04, enuresis (P=0.0008, a lower intelligence quotient (P<0.001, and subtle motor impairments (P=0.005 than control subjects. Conclusion: We suggest that neurodevelopment in early-onset psychosis is characterized by a global impairment of functional and adaptive skills that manifests from early childhood, rather than a delay or limitation in language and motor development. The current evidence is based on a small sample and should be investigated in larger samples in future research. Keywords: early-onset psychosis, early-onset schizophrenia, neurodevelopment, social cognition

  17. DNAJC6 Mutations Associated With Early-Onset Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgiati, Simone; Quadri, Marialuisa; Fang, Mingyan; Rood, Janneke P M A; Saute, Jonas A; Chien, Hsin Fen; Bouwkamp, Christian G; Graafland, Josja; Minneboo, Michelle; Breedveld, Guido J; Zhang, Jianguo; Verheijen, Frans W; Boon, Agnita J W; Kievit, Anneke J A; Jardim, Laura Bannach; Mandemakers, Wim; Barbosa, Egberto Reis; Rieder, Carlos R M; Leenders, Klaus L; Wang, Jun; Bonifati, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    DNAJC6 mutations were recently described in two families with autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (onset age < 11), prominent atypical signs, poor or absent response to levodopa, and rapid progression (wheelchair-bound within ∼10 years from onset). Here, for the first time, we report DNAJC6 mutations in early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). The DNAJC6 open reading frame was analyzed in 274 patients with early-onset sporadic or familial PD. Selected variants were followed up by cosegregation, homozygosity mapping, linkage analysis, whole-exome sequencing, and protein studies. We identified two families with different novel homozygous DNAJC6 mutations segregating with PD. In each family, the DNAJC6 mutation was flanked by long runs of homozygosity within highest linkage peaks. Exome sequencing did not detect additional pathogenic variants within the linkage regions. In both families, patients showed severely decreased steady-state levels of the auxilin protein in fibroblasts. We also identified a sporadic patient carrying two rare noncoding DNAJC6 variants possibly effecting RNA splicing. All these cases fulfilled the criteria for a clinical diagnosis of early-onset PD, had symptoms onset in the third-to-fifth decade, and slow disease progression. Response to dopaminergic therapies was prominent, but, in some patients, limited by psychiatric side effects. The phenotype overlaps that of other monogenic forms of early-onset PD. Our findings delineate a novel form of hereditary early-onset PD. Screening of DNAJC6 is warranted in all patients with early-onset PD compatible with autosomal recessive inheritance. Our data provide further evidence for the involvement of synaptic vesicles endocytosis and trafficking in PD pathogenesis. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  18. Interleukin-8 in breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović-Raković, Nataša; Milovanović, Jelena

    2013-10-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a chemokine that has an autocrine and/or paracrine tumor-promoting role and significant potential as a prognostic and/or predictive cancer biomarker. In breast cancer, which is mostly determined by expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), IL-8 could play a specific role. IL-8 is highly expressed in ER- breast cancers, but it increases invasiveness and metastatic potential of both ER- and ER+ breast cancer cells. It is also highly expressed in HER2+ breast cancers. Because of the complex crosstalk between these receptors and IL-8, its role is mainly determined by delicate balance in their signaling pathways. Therefore, the main point of this review was to analyze the possible influence of IL-8 in breast cancer progression related to its interaction with ER and HER2 and the consequent therapeutic implications of these relations.

  19. Male breast cancer: is the scenario changing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Dhananjay M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The overall incidence of male breast cancer is around 1% of all breast cancers and is on the rise. In this review we aim to present various aspects of male breast cancer with particular emphasis on incidence, risk factors, patho-physiology, treatment, prognostic factors, and outcome. Methods Information on all aspects of male breast cancer was gathered from available relevant literature on male breast cancer from the MEDLINE database over the past 32 years from 1975 to 2007. Various reported studies were scrutinized for emerging evidence. Incidence data were also obtained from the IARC, Cancer Mondial database. Conclusion There is a scenario of rising incidence, particularly in urban US, Canada and UK. Even though more data on risk factors is emerging about this disease, more multi-institutional efforts to pool data with large randomized trials to show treatment and survival benefits are needed to support the existing vast emerging knowledge about the disease.

  20. Breast cancer in women using digoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biggar, Robert J; Andersen, Louise Elisabeth; Kroman, Niels

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Digoxin use is associated with increased incidence of breast and uterus cancers. We postulated that digoxin use might affect tumor characteristics and increase relapse risk in women with breast cancer. METHODS: Incident breast cancer cases in Danish women (n = 49,312; 1995 to 2008...... in Cox regression models. RESULTS: At diagnosis, tumors in digoxin users were more likely ER+ (85.4% vs. 78.6%: P = 0.002) and have grade 1 ductal histology (37.2% vs. 25.7%; P = 0.004), compared to non-users. 45 relapses occurred in women already using digoxin at breast cancer diagnosis (1,487 person...... cancers arising in digoxin-using women had better prognostic features. After adjustment for markers, overall breast cancer relapse risk in digoxin users was not increased significantly, although recurrence hazards for ER+ tumors were higher in the first year following diagnosis....

  1. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelttari, Liisa M; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition......, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD......51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients...

  2. Living as a Breast Cancer Survivor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancers after breast cancer . Ask your doctor for a survivorship care plan Talk with your doctor about ... Close Image of Previous Next Close Close Select A Hope Lodge Close Please share your thoughts about ...

  3. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  4. Effects of Breast Cancer and Mastectomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    breast cancer on fibrinolytic activity and the effect of mastectomy on fibrinolysis in African women. Sixty histowpatholically proven ..... in tumor tissue: Implications for cancer therapy. ... British Journal of Surgery 1992; 29; 711 716. Ingram GIC.

  5. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Lippman, M. [Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)] [comps.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  6. Evolution of surgical treatment for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Letyagin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers main surgical interventions used to treat breast cancer. It defines the role and place of conservative surgery and describes current procedures for the organ-saving treatment of cancer at this site.

  7. Metaplastic breast cancer with chondroid differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Zin W; Raparla, Sandeep; Kamugisha, Lois K

    2015-01-01

    Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast is an extremely rare subtype of breast cancer with an incidence of nuclear staining. Ki-67 index was 52% with strong nuclear staining. The overall ELSTON grade of invasive carcinoma was grade 3. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy with AC-T (adriamycin, cytoxan, and taxol) and is currently undergoing surveillance for recurrent disease. Metaplastic breast cancer is an extremely rare subtype of breast carcinoma. Initial management of localized disease consists of wide excision with clear surgical margins followed by radiation or mastectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy. Although standard breast chemotherapy regimens such as AC-T are routinely used in metaplastic breast cancer in both adjuvant and metastatic settings, outcomes are significantly inferior to other breast subtypes. Further studies are required to explore targeted treatment to achieve better outcomes in this patient population.

  8. Severe early onset ethylmalonic encephalopathy with West syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papetti, Laura; Garone, Giacomo; Schettini, Livia; Giordano, Carla; Nicita, Francesco; Papoff, Paola; Zeviani, Massimo; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Spalice, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early onset encephalopathy, chronic diarrhoea, petechiae, orthostatic acrocyanosis and defective cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in muscle and brain. High levels of lactic, ethylmalonic and methylsuccinic acids are detected in body fluids. EE is caused by mutations in ETHE1 gene, a mitochondrial sulfur dioxygenase. Neurologic signs and symptoms include progressively delayed development, hypotonia, seizures, and abnormal movements. We report on the clinical, electroencephalographic and MRI findings of a baby with a severe early onset encephalopathy associated with novel ETHE1 gene mutation. This is the first case described in literature with an early pure epileptic onset, presenting with West syndrome.

  9. [Breast tomosynthesis: a new tool for diagnosing breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Miravete, P; Etxano, J

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer continues to be the most common malignant tumor in women in occidental countries. Mammography is currently the technique of choice for screening programs; however, although it has been widely validated, mammography has its limitations, especially in dense breasts. Breast tomosynthesis is a revolutionary advance in the diagnosis of breast cancer. It makes it possible to define lesions that are occult in the glandular tissue and therefore to detect breast tumors that are impossible to see on conventional mammograms. In considering the combined use of mammography and tomosynthesis, many factors must be taken into account apart from cancer detection; these include additional radiation, the recall rate, and the time necessary to carry out and interpret the two tests. In this article, we review the technical principles of tomosynthesis, it main uses, and the future perspective for this imaging technique. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Exome Sequencing in a Family with Luminal-Type Breast Cancer Underpinned by Variation in the Methylation Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Nicole; Peeters, Armand V.; Pienaar, Fredrieka M.; Bezuidenhout, Juanita; van Rensburg, Susan J.; Kotze, Maritha J.

    2017-01-01

    Panel-based next generation sequencing (NGS) is currently preferred over whole exome sequencing (WES) for diagnosis of familial breast cancer, due to interpretation challenges caused by variants of uncertain clinical significance (VUS). There is also no consensus on the selection criteria for WES. In this study, a pathology-supported genetic testing (PSGT) approach was used to select two BRCA1/2 mutation-negative breast cancer patients from the same family for WES. Homozygosity for the MTHFR 677 C>T mutation detected during this PSGT pre-screen step was considered insufficient to cause bilateral breast cancer in the index case and her daughter diagnosed with early-onset breast cancer ( 5%) in the folate pathway in all three affected family members is consistent with inheritance of the luminal-type breast cancer in the family. PSGT assisted with the decision to pursue extended genetic testing and facilitated clinical interpretation of WES aimed at reduction of recurrence risk. PMID:28241424

  11. Variation in genes related to obesity, weight and weight change and risk of contralateral breast cancer in the WECARE Study population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jennifer D.; Bernstein, Leslie; Teraoka, Sharon N.; Knight, Julia A.; Mellemkjær, Lene; John, Esther M.; Malone, Kathleen E.; Reiner, Anne S.; Lynch, Charles F.; Concannon, Patrick; Haile, Robert W.; Bernstein, Jonine L

    2012-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI), a known breast cancer risk factor, could influence breast risk through mechanistic pathways related to sex hormones, insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and altered levels of adipose derived hormones. Results from studies of the relationship between BMI and second primary breast cancer have been mixed. To explore the relationship between BMI and asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC), we examined whether variants in genes related to obesity, weight and weight change are associated with CBC risk. Methods Variants in twenty genes (182 single nucleotide polymorphisms) involved in adipose tissue metabolism, energy balance, insulin resistance and inflammation, as well as those identified through genome-wide association studies of BMI and type II diabetes were evaluated. We examined the association between variants in these genes and the risk of CBC among Caucasian participants (643 cases with CBC and 1,271 controls with unilateral breast cancer) in the population-based Women’s Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study using conditional logistic regression. Results After adjustment for multiple comparisons, no statistically significant associations between any variant and CBC risk were seen. Stratification by menopausal or estrogen receptor status did not alter these findings. Conclusion Among women with early onset disease who survive a first breast cancer diagnosis there was no association between variation in obesity-related genes and risk of CBC. Impact Genetic variants in genes related to obesity are not likely to strongly influence subsequent risk of developing a second primary breast cancer. PMID:23033454

  12. Variation in genes related to obesity, weight, and weight change and risk of contralateral breast cancer in the WECARE Study population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jennifer D; Bernstein, Leslie; Teraoka, Sharon N; Knight, Julia A; Mellemkjær, Lene; John, Esther M; Malone, Kathleen E; Reiner, Anne S; Lynch, Charles F; Concannon, Patrick; Haile, Robert W; Bernstein, Jonine L

    2012-12-01

    Body mass index (BMI), a known breast cancer risk factor, could influence breast risk through mechanistic pathways related to sex hormones, insulin resistance, chronic inflammation, and altered levels of adipose-derived hormones. Results from studies of the relationship between BMI and second primary breast cancer have been mixed. To explore the relationship between BMI and asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC), we examined whether variants in genes related to obesity, weight, and weight change are associated with CBC risk. Variants in 20 genes [182 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)] involved in adipose tissue metabolism, energy balance, insulin resistance, and inflammation, as well as those identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of BMI and type II-diabetes were evaluated. We examined the association between variants in these genes and the risk of CBC among Caucasian participants [643 cases with CBC and 1,271 controls with unilateral breast cancer (UBC)] in the population-based Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study using conditional logistic regression. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, no statistically significant associations between any variant and CBC risk were seen. Stratification by menopausal or estrogen receptor (ER) status did not alter these findings. Among women with early-onset disease who survive a first breast cancer diagnosis, there was no association between variation in obesity-related genes and risk of CBC. Genetic variants in genes related to obesity are not likely to strongly influence subsequent risk of developing a second primary breast cancer.

  13. Breast Cancer During Pregnancy: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serden Ay

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy breast cancer is rarely seen. In this case, when the patient was being operated for the right breast cancer which was diagnosed in the first exam, a left breast cancer was also detected in the operation. When the patient analysed retrospectively, lesion in the left breast could not detected because of the lactation period. Consequently,pregnancy patients must be re-examined after the lactation period to avoid any possible mistakes. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 492-494

  14. KeraStat Skin Therapy in Treating Radiation Dermatitis in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage 0-IIIA Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Skin Reactions Secondary to Radiation Therapy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  15. Paclitaxel and doxorubicin in metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, J; Boesgaard, M; Paaske, T

    1996-01-01

    For the past decades the anthracyclines have been regarded as among the most active drugs for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. However, the 5-year survival rate in patients with stage IV breast cancer continues to be below 20%, and new active drugs and drug combinations clearly must...

  16. Braquitherapy at breast cancer - preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cintra e Oliveira, V.; Lima, G.R. de; Libonati, S. (Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual de Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Morales, F.C. (Instituto Brasileiro do Controle do Cancer, Sao Paulo); Salvajoli, J.V.; Peres, O. (Instituto de Radioterapia Sao Paulo (Brazil))

    Twenty - two cases of cancer of the breast, treated by radiation therapy (cesium/sup 137/, cobalt/sup 60/, electrons, iridium/sup 192/, radium/sup 226/, gold/sup 198/) are reported. The techniques are described and comparative comments about radiation and surgery for breast cancer therapy are made.

  17. New ways to optimize breast cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, Carolina Pia

    2001-01-01

    Breast cancer patients without apparent distant metastases at the time of primary tumor removal, may later suffer from a distant relapse, indicating the presence of occult micrometastases at the time of diagnosis. Sensitive methods to detect micrometastatic breast cancer may be helpful in optimizing

  18. Loneliness May Sabotage Breast Cancer Survival: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162498.html Loneliness May Sabotage Breast Cancer Survival: Study Weak social ties linked to higher risk ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Loneliness may impede long-term breast cancer survival, a new study suggests. In the years after ...

  19. Prognostic models in male breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, Carmen C; Lacle, Miangela M; Witkamp, Arjen J; Kornegoor, Robert; Miao, Hui; Bouchardy, Christine; Borel Rinkes, Inne; van der Wall, Elsken; Verkooijen, Helena M; van Diest, Paul J

    PURPOSE: Breast cancer in men is uncommon; it accounts for 1 % of all patients with primary breast cancer. Its treatment is mostly extrapolated from its female counterpart. Accurate predictions are essential for adjuvant systemic treatment decision-making and informing patients. Several predictive

  20. Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast Cancer; Prevention: Therapy: Pharmacokinetics; Therapeutic Index; Safety 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...anti-breast cancer activity of AFP was identified, isolated in the third domain of the molecule, and developed into an orally active cyclic nine...activity. (31) For example, difference spectroscopy studies indicated that AFP undergoes a conformation change in a molar excess of estrogen.(31

  1. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-01-01

    A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary.......A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary....

  2. MALE BREAST CANCER IN NORTH EASTERN NIGERIA,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Departments of *Surgery and '*Hz'st0path0l0gy, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, RM. ... Results: Male breast cancer constitutes 3.7% of all cases of breast cancers seen in this hospital during the study .... hormonal implications.

  3. Breast Cancer In Pregnancy: Management Approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 1-2% of breast cancers occur during pregnancy and lactation, and 7% of fertile women have one ... treatments are intelligently employed in the treatment of breast cancer in pregnancy. Radical .... The use of cytotoxic drugs in pregnancy ...

  4. Urinary phytoestrogens and postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonkelaar, den I.; Keinan-Boker, L.; Veer, van't P.; Arts, C.J.M.; Adlercreutz, H.; Thijssen, J.H.H.; Peeters, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are defined as plant substances that are structurally or functionally similar to estradiol. We report the associations of two major phytoestrogens, genistein and enterolactone, with breast cancer risk, using urinary specimens collected 1-9 years before breast cancer was diagnosed. The

  5. Gene Expression Analysis of Breast Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Giri D, Chen B, Gerald W Molecular Diagnosis of Breast Cancer Therapeutic Biomarkers Using Oligonucleotide Arrays Abstract presentation USCAP 2005. 5...Bone Metastasis. Submitted Lal P, Donaton M, Girl D, Chen B, Gerald W Molecular Diagnosis of Breast Cancer Therapeutic Biomarkers Using Oligonucleotide

  6. Manganese superoxide dismutase and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Christensen, Mariann; Lash, Timothy L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) inhibits oxidative damage and cancer therapy effectiveness. A polymorphism in its encoding gene (SOD2: Val16Ala rs4880) may confer poorer breast cancer survival, but data are inconsistent. We examined the association of SOD2 genotype and breast...

  7. A new look at breast density and breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haars, G.

    2008-01-01

    Breast density, as visible on mammograms, comprises connective and epithelial tissue and can be seen to represent the glandular target tissue for breast cancer, whereas the non-dense tissue mainly comprises fat. High percentages of density are established to be one of the strongest risk factors of

  8. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    proximity during adolescence to energy generating industries. Dr. Rosario mentored a theses on sun exposure and breast cancer risk and is also mentoring...menopausal at interview, as expected by the age criteria for inclusion. Eighty eight percent (88%) of the participants had their first pregnancy before age...benefit against breast cancer after controlling for age, education , and sun screen use at some point in the lifetime. A higher percentage of breast

  9. The BARD1 Cys557Ser variant and breast cancer risk in Iceland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon N Stacey

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Most, if not all, of the cellular functions of the BRCA1 protein are mediated through heterodimeric complexes composed of BRCA1 and a related protein, BARD1. Some breast-cancer-associated BRCA1 missense mutations disrupt the function of the BRCA1/BARD1 complex. It is therefore pertinent to determine whether variants of BARD1 confer susceptibility to breast cancer. Recently, a missense BARD1 variant, Cys557Ser, was reported to be at increased frequencies in breast cancer families. We investigated the role of the BARD1 Cys557Ser variant in a population-based cohort of 1,090 Icelandic patients with invasive breast cancer and 703 controls. We then used a computerized genealogy of the Icelandic population to study the relationships between the Cys557Ser variant and familial clustering of breast cancer.The Cys557Ser allele was present at a frequency of 0.028 in patients with invasive breast cancer and 0.016 in controls (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-3.01, p = 0.014. The alleleic frequency was 0.037 in a high-predisposition group of cases defined by having a family history of breast cancer, early onset of breast cancer, or multiple primary breast cancers (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.22-4.75, p = 0.015. Carriers of the common Icelandic BRCA2 999del5 mutation were found to have their risk of breast cancer further increased if they also carried the BARD1 variant: the frequency of the BARD1 variant allele was 0.047 (OR = 3.11, 95% CI 1.16-8.40, p = 0.046 in 999del5 carriers with breast cancer. This suggests that the lifetime probability of a BARD1 Cys557Ser/BRCA2 999del5 double carrier developing breast cancer could approach certainty. Cys557Ser carriers, with or without the BRCA2 mutation, had an increased risk of subsequent primary breast tumors after the first breast cancer diagnosis compared to non-carriers. Lobular and medullary breast carcinomas were overrepresented amongst Cys557Ser carriers. We found that an excess of ancestors

  10. The BARD1 Cys557Ser variant and breast cancer risk in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Simon N; Sulem, Patrick; Johannsson, Oskar T; Helgason, Agnar; Gudmundsson, Julius; Kostic, Jelena P; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Jonsdottir, Thora; Sigurdsson, Helgi; Hrafnkelsson, Jon; Johannsson, Jakob; Sveinsson, Thorarinn; Myrdal, Gardar; Grimsson, Hlynur Niels; Bergthorsson, Jon T; Amundadottir, Laufey T; Gulcher, Jeffrey R; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Kong, Augustine; Stefansson, Kari

    2006-07-01

    Most, if not all, of the cellular functions of the BRCA1 protein are mediated through heterodimeric complexes composed of BRCA1 and a related protein, BARD1. Some breast-cancer-associated BRCA1 missense mutations disrupt the function of the BRCA1/BARD1 complex. It is therefore pertinent to determine whether variants of BARD1 confer susceptibility to breast cancer. Recently, a missense BARD1 variant, Cys557Ser, was reported to be at increased frequencies in breast cancer families. We investigated the role of the BARD1 Cys557Ser variant in a population-based cohort of 1,090 Icelandic patients with invasive breast cancer and 703 controls. We then used a computerized genealogy of the Icelandic population to study the relationships between the Cys557Ser variant and familial clustering of breast cancer. The Cys557Ser allele was present at a frequency of 0.028 in patients with invasive breast cancer and 0.016 in controls (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-3.01, p = 0.014). The alleleic frequency was 0.037 in a high-predisposition group of cases defined by having a family history of breast cancer, early onset of breast cancer, or multiple primary breast cancers (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.22-4.75, p = 0.015). Carriers of the common Icelandic BRCA2 999del5 mutation were found to have their risk of breast cancer further increased if they also carried the BARD1 variant: the frequency of the BARD1 variant allele was 0.047 (OR = 3.11, 95% CI 1.16-8.40, p = 0.046) in 999del5 carriers with breast cancer. This suggests that the lifetime probability of a BARD1 Cys557Ser/BRCA2 999del5 double carrier developing breast cancer could approach certainty. Cys557Ser carriers, with or without the BRCA2 mutation, had an increased risk of subsequent primary breast tumors after the first breast cancer diagnosis compared to non-carriers. Lobular and medullary breast carcinomas were overrepresented amongst Cys557Ser carriers. We found that an excess of ancestors of contemporary

  11. The BARD1 Cys557Ser variant and breast cancer risk in Iceland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon N Stacey

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most, if not all, of the cellular functions of the BRCA1 protein are mediated through heterodimeric complexes composed of BRCA1 and a related protein, BARD1. Some breast-cancer-associated BRCA1 missense mutations disrupt the function of the BRCA1/BARD1 complex. It is therefore pertinent to determine whether variants of BARD1 confer susceptibility to breast cancer. Recently, a missense BARD1 variant, Cys557Ser, was reported to be at increased frequencies in breast cancer families. We investigated the role of the BARD1 Cys557Ser variant in a population-based cohort of 1,090 Icelandic patients with invasive breast cancer and 703 controls. We then used a computerized genealogy of the Icelandic population to study the relationships between the Cys557Ser variant and familial clustering of breast cancer. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Cys557Ser allele was present at a frequency of 0.028 in patients with invasive breast cancer and 0.016 in controls (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-3.01, p = 0.014. The alleleic frequency was 0.037 in a high-predisposition group of cases defined by having a family history of breast cancer, early onset of breast cancer, or multiple primary breast cancers (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.22-4.75, p = 0.015. Carriers of the common Icelandic BRCA2 999del5 mutation were found to have their risk of breast cancer further increased if they also carried the BARD1 variant: the frequency of the BARD1 variant allele was 0.047 (OR = 3.11, 95% CI 1.16-8.40, p = 0.046 in 999del5 carriers with breast cancer. This suggests that the lifetime probability of a BARD1 Cys557Ser/BRCA2 999del5 double carrier developing breast cancer could approach certainty. Cys557Ser carriers, with or without the BRCA2 mutation, had an increased risk of subsequent primary breast tumors after the first breast cancer diagnosis compared to non-carriers. Lobular and medullary breast carcinomas were overrepresented amongst Cys557Ser carriers. We

  12. The potential role of breast ductoscopy in breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarakbi, W Al; Escobar, Pedro F; Mokbel, Kefah

    2005-01-01

    Breast cancer remains the most common malignancy among women in the Western world. Mammography, which is currently the main screening modality for early detection, has a low positive predictive value of only 25%, especially in young women with very dense breasts. Therefore, new screening approaches are needed for the early detection of breast cancer in all age groups. Mammary ductoscopy (MD) is a newly developed endoscopic technique that allows direct visualization and biopsy of the mammary ductal epithelium where most cancers originate. The procedure can be performed under local anesthesia in the office setting. At present, MD is used as a diagnostic adjunct in patients with pathological nipple discharge and to guide duct excision surgery. This article focuses on the potential of this technique in breast cancer screening and highlights its limitations in this context.

  13. Breast thermography. A prognostic indicator for breast cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isard, H J; Sweitzer, C J; Edelstein, G R

    1988-08-01

    A prognostic classification for thermographic staging of breast cancer has been applied to a cohort of 70 patients from 5040 screenees enrolled in the Albert Einstein Medical Center (AEMC) Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project (BCDDP). A diagnosis of breast cancer was established in each case before December 31, 1980. None of the patients have been lost to follow-up which extended from a minimum of 6 to a maximum of 13 years. Survival rates for those with favorable, equivocal, and poor thermographic factors are compared with each other and with results in accordance with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification. As of December 31, 1986, there have been 22 (31.4%) deaths, all attributed to breast cancer. The thermographic scoring system clearly shows shorter survival for patients with poor thermographic prognostic factors, 30% surviving at 5 years and only 20% at 10 years compared with overall survival of 80% at 5 years and 70% at 10 years.

  14. 67 INVITED Personalized surgical treatment for early breast cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rutgers, E

    2007-01-01

    ... belongtothemodernsurgicalapproachinthebattleagainstlocalisedand locallyadvancedprostatecancer. 67 INVITED Personalized surgical treatment for early breast cancer E.Rutgers. The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Department...

  15. Breast Cancer Diagnosed During Pregnancy: Adapting Recent Advances in Breast Cancer Care for Pregnant Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loibl, S.; Schmidt, A.; Gentilini, O.; Kaufman, B.; Kuhl, C.; Denkert, C.; Minckwitz, G. von; Parokonnaya, A.; Stensheim, H.; Thomssen, C.; Calsteren, K. van; Poortmans, P.; Berveiller, P.; Markert, U.R.; Amant, F.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer during pregnancy (BCP), although rare, is becoming more common and treatment should be as similar as possible to that for nonpregnant young patients with breast cancer. A group of specialists convened to review current guidelines and provide guidance on how recent advances in breast ca

  16. Low penetrance breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with specific breast tumor subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeks, Annegien; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Sherman, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancers demonstrate substantial biological, clinical and etiological heterogeneity. We investigated breast cancer risk associations of eight susceptibility loci identified in GWAS and two putative susceptibility loci in candidate genes in relation to specific breast tumor subtypes. Subtype...

  17. Breast cancer. Part 2: present and future treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    This is the second article in a series of three on breast cancer. Part 1 discussed breast anatomy, the principles behind breast awareness and breast health, detailing common benign breast diseases, types of breast cancer and staging. In this article, treatment for breast cancer is discussed. The article will follow the usual order of modalities in the trajectory, starting with surgery, then chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine treatment, finishing with a discussion of future and biological treatments.

  18. Effects of Breast Cancer Fatalism on Breast Cancer Awareness among Nursing Students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakci, Hulya; Ayyildiz, Tulay Kuzlu; Yildirim, Nuriye; Ozturk, Ozlem; Topan, Aysel Kose; Tasdemir, Nurten

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and leading cause of death worldwide, including in Turkey. High perceptions of cancer fatalism are associated with lower rates of participation in screening for breast cancer. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of breast cancer fatalism and other factors on breast cancer awareness among nursing students in Turkey. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at three universities in the Western Black Sea region. The sample was composed of 838 nursing students. Data were collected by Personal Information Form, Powe Fatalism Inventory (PFI) and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS). Breast cancer fatalism perception of the students was at a low level. It was determined that students' seriousness perception was moderate, health motivation, BSE benefits and BSE self-efficacy perceptions were high, and BSE barriers and sensitivity perceptions were low. In addition, it was determined that students awareness of breast cancer was affected by breast cancer fatalism, class level, family history of breast cancer, knowledge on BSE, source of information on BSE, frequency of BSE performing, having breast examination by a healthcare professional within the last year and their health beliefs. In promoting breast cancer early diagnosis behaviour, it is recommended to evaluate fatalism perceptions and health beliefs of the students and to arrange training programs for this purpose.

  19. Exercise regulates breast cancer cell viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Lillelund, Christian; Midtgaard, Julie

    2016-01-01

    .003) and cytokines. Yet, these systemic adaptations had no effect on breast cancer cell viability in vitro. During 2 h of acute exercise, increases in serum lactate (6-fold, p ...Purpose: Exercise decreases breast cancer risk and disease recurrence, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Training adaptations in systemic factors have been suggested as mediating causes. We aimed to examine if systemic adaptations to training over time, or acute exercise responses......, in breast cancer survivors could regulate breast cancer cell viability in vitro. Methods: Blood samples were collected from breast cancer survivors, partaking in either a 6-month training intervention or across a 2 h acute exercise session. Changes in training parameters and systemic factors were evaluated...

  20. Insulin receptor what role in breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, V; Costantino, A; Belfiore, A

    1997-10-01

    It is commonly believed that the insulin receptor mainly mediates the metabolic effects of insulin, whereas the closely related IGF-I receptor is considered a major factor for the regulation of cell proliferation. Experimental and epidemiological evidence indicates, however, that insulin and insulin receptors may play an important role in breast cancer. This article reviews evidence indicating that (a) insulin receptors are overexpressed in human breast cancer, (b) insulin stimulates growth in breast cancer cells, (c) cells transfected with human insulin receptor may acquire a ligand-dependent transformed phenotype, and (d) breast cancer is associated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. These findings may open new possibilities in breast cancer prevention, prognosis assessment, and therapy. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997; 8:306-312). (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  1. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Nielsen, Margrethe

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of screening for breast cancer with mammography on mortality and morbidity. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Pub...... excluded a biased trial and included 600,000 women in the analyses. Three trials with adequate randomisation did not show a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality at 13 years (relative risk (RR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79 to 1.02); four trials with suboptimal randomisation showed...... a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality with an RR of 0.75 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.83). The RR for all seven trials combined was 0.81 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.87). We found that breast cancer mortality was an unreliable outcome that was biased in favour of screening, mainly because of differential...

  2. Is clinical breast examination important for breast cancer detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, L.; Hogue, J.C.; Desbiens, C.; Poirier, B.; Poirier, E.; Boudreau, D.; Joyal, M.; Diorio, C.; Duchesne, N.; Chiquette, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening clinical breast examination (cbe) is controversial; the use of cbe is declining not only as a screening tool, but also as a diagnostic tool. In the present study, we aimed to assess the value of cbe in breast cancer detection in a tertiary care centre for breast diseases. Methods This retrospective study of all breast cancers diagnosed between July 1999 and December 2010 at our centre categorized cases according to the mean of detection (cbe, mammography, or both). A cbe was considered “abnormal” in the presence of a mass, nipple discharge, skin or nipple retraction, edema, erythema, peau d’orange, or ulcers. Results During the study period, a complete dataset was available for 6333 treated primary breast cancers. Cancer types were ductal carcinoma in situ (15.3%), invasive ductal carcinoma (75.7%), invasive lobular carcinoma (9.0%), or others (2.2%). Of the 6333 cancers, 36.5% (n = 2312) were detected by mammography alone, 54.8% (n = 3470) by mammography and cbe, and 8.7% (n = 551) by physician-performed cbe alone (or 5.3% if considering ultrasonography). Invasive tumours diagnosed by cbe alone were more often triple-negative, her2-positive, node-positive, and larger than those diagnosed by mammography alone (p < 0.05). Conclusions A significant number of cancers would have been missed if cbe had not been performed. Compared with cancers detected by mammography alone, those detected by cbe had more aggressive features. Clinical breast examination is a very low-cost test that could improve the detection of breast cancer and could prompt breast ultrasonography in the case of a negative mammogram. PMID:27536182

  3. Role of KCNMA1 in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oeggerli

    Full Text Available KCNMA1 encodes the α-subunit of the large conductance, voltage and Ca(2+-activated (BK potassium channel and has been reported as a target gene of genomic amplification at 10q22 in prostate cancer. To investigate the prevalence of the amplification in other human cancers, the copy number of KCNMA1 was analyzed by fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization (FISH in 2,445 tumors across 118 different tumor types. Amplification of KCNMA1 was restricted to a small but distinct fraction of breast, ovarian and endometrial cancer with the highest prevalence in invasive ductal breast cancers and serous carcinoma of ovary and endometrium (3-7%. We performed an extensive analysis on breast cancer tissue microarrays (TMA of 1,200 tumors linked to prognosis. KCNMA1 amplification was significantly associated with high tumor stage, high grade, high tumor cell proliferation, and poor prognosis. Immunofluorescence revealed moderate or strong KCNMA1 protein expression in 8 out of 9 human breast cancers and in the breast cancer cell line MFM223. KCNMA1-function in breast cancer cell lines was confirmed by whole-cell patch clamp recordings and proliferation assays, using siRNA-knockdown, BK channel activators such as 17ß-estradiol and the BK-channel blocker paxilline. Our findings revealed that enhanced expression of KCNMA1 correlates with and contributes to high proliferation rate and malignancy of breast cancer.

  4. [Association between cadmium and breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumylaite, Loreta; Bogusevicius, Algirdas; Ryselis, Stanislovas; Pranys, Darius; Poskiene, Lina; Kregzdyte, Rima; Abdrachmanovas, Olegas; Asadauskaite, Rūta

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium is a known human lung carcinogen, although some studies indicate a link between cadmium exposure and human breast cancer. The objective of this study was to assess cadmium concentration in breast tissue samples of patients with breast cancer and benign breast tumor. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The concentration of cadmium was determined in breast tissue samples of 21 breast cancer and 19 benign tumor patients. Two samples of breast tissue from each patient, i.e. tumor and normal tissue close to tumor, were taken for the analysis. Cadmium was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (Perkin-Elmer, Zeeman 3030). RESULTS. In patients with breast cancer, the mean cadmium concentration was 33.1 ng/g (95% CI, 21.9-44.4) in malignant breast tissue and 10.4 ng/g (95% CI, 5.6-15.2) in normal breast tissue (P=0.002). In patients with benign tumor, the corresponding values were 17.5 ng/g (95% CI, 8.4-26.5) and 11.8 ng/g (95% CI, 5.1-18.5) (P=0.3144). There was a statistically significant difference in cadmium concentration between malignant and benign breast tissues (P=0.009). CONCLUSION. The data obtained show that cadmium concentration is significantly higher in malignant breast tissue as compared with normal breast tissue of the same women or benign breast tissue. Further studies are necessary to determine the association between cadmium concentration in malignant breast tissue and estrogen receptor level, and smoking.

  5. DNAJC6 Mutations Associated With Early-Onset Parkinson's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olgiati, Simone; Quadri, Marialuisa; Fang, Mingyan; Rood, Janneke P. M. A.; Saute, Jonas A.; Chien, Hsin Fen; Bouwkamp, Christian G.; Graafland, Josja; Minneboo, Michelle; Breedveld, Guido J.; Zhang, Jianguo; Verheijen, Frans W.; Boon, Agnita J. W.; Kievit, Anneke J. A.; Jardim, Laura Bannach; Mandemakers, Wim; Barbosa, Egberto Reis; Rieder, Carlos R. M.; Leenders, Klaus L.; Wang, Jun; Bonifati, Vincenzo

    ObjectiveDNAJC6 mutations were recently described in two families with autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (onset age MethodsThe DNAJC6 open reading frame was analyzed in 274 patients with early-onset sporadic or familial PD. Selected variants were followed up by cosegregation, homozygosity

  6. Early-Onset Bipolar Spectrum Disorders: Diagnostic Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Stephanie; Fristad, Mary A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Birmaher, Boris; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Demeter, Christine; Findling, Robert L.; Kowatch, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid 1990s, early-onset bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSDs) have received increased attention in both the popular press and scholarly press. Rates of diagnosis of BPSD in children and adolescents have increased in inpatient, outpatient, and primary care settings. BPSDs remain difficult to diagnose, particularly in youth. The current…

  7. Early-Onset Psychosis in Youth with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, R. I.; Donnelly, T.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of psychotic disorders may be very difficult in youth with intellectual disabilities. The authors reviewed the assessment, treatment and follow-up of 21 youths with ID referred because of early onset of psychotic symptoms. Just over one half of the patients had a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder. One third…

  8. Genetics Home Reference: early-onset myopathy with fatal cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called sarcomeres . Sarcomeres are the basic units of muscle contraction; they are made of proteins that generate the mechanical force needed for muscles to contract. Titin has several functions within sarcomeres. One of this protein's most ... CMD Salih congenital muscular dystrophy Salih myopathy titinopathy & early-onset myopathy with ...

  9. Loss of heterozygosity in bilateral breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollias, J; Man, S; Marafie, M; Carpenter, K; Pinder, S; Ellis, I O; Blamey, R W; Cross, G; Brook, J D

    2000-12-01

    Women who develop bilateral breast cancer at an early age are likely to harbour germline mutations in breast cancer susceptibility genes. The aim of this study was to test for concordant genetic changes in left and right breast cancer of young women (age < 50) with bilateral breast cancer that may suggest an inherited breast cancer predisposition. Microsatellite markers were used to test for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in left and right tumours for 31 women with premenopausal bilateral breast cancer. Markers adjacent to or within candidate genes on 17p (p53), 17q (BRCA1), 13q (BRCA2), 11q (Ataxia Telangiectasia-ATM) and 3p (FHIT) were chosen. Mutational testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 was performed for cases where blood was available. Concordant LOH in both left and right tumours was demonstrated for at least one of the markers tested in 16/31(54%) cases. Where allelic loss was demonstrated for both left and right breast cancer, the same allele was lost on each occasion. This may suggest a common mutational event. Four cases showed concordant loss of alleles in both left and right breast cancer at D17S791 (BRCA1). BRCA1 mutations were identified in two of these cases where blood was available. Four cases showed concordant LOH at D13S155 (BRCA2). Concordant LOH was further demonstrated in seven cases for D11S1778 (ATM) and four cases for D3S1300 (which maps to the FHIT gene), suggesting a possible role for these tumour suppressor genes in this subgroup of breast cancer patients. No concordant allelic loss was demonstrated for D17S786 suggesting that germline mutations in p53 are unlikely in such cases of bilateral breast cancer.

  10. Multidisciplinary Meeting on Male Breast Cancer : Summary and Research Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korde, Larissa A.; Zujewski, Jo Anne; Kamin, Leah; Giordano, Sharon; Domchek, Susan; Anderson, William F.; Bartlett, John M. S.; Gelmon, Karen; Nahleh, Zeina; Bergh, Jonas; Cutuli, Bruno; Pruneri, Giancarlo; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Gralow, Julie; Hortobagyi, Gabriel; Cardoso, Fatima

    2010-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease, accounting for less than 1% of all breast cancer diagnoses worldwide. Most data on male breast cancer comes from small single-institution studies, and because of the paucity of data, the optimal treatment for male breast cancer is not known. This article summari

  11. Efficacy of Neoadjuvant Cisplatin in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szallasi, Zoltan Imre; Eklund, Aron Charles; Li, Qiyuan

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent not used routinely for breast cancer treatment. As a DNA cross-linking agent, cisplatin may be effective treatment for hereditary BRCA1-mutated breast cancers. Because sporadic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and BRCA1-associated breast cancer...

  12. Use of proteomics for the early diagnosis fo breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, A.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer mortality rates in The Netherlands are among the highest in Europe. To improve breast cancer survival, early detection is of vital importance. The introduction of the national breast cancer screening program has led to an improvement in stage distribution at diagnosis of breast cancer.

  13. Molecular Mechanisms of Metastasis Suppression in Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    and breast carcinoma metastasis, Wake Forest University Cancer Center, July 28 Molecular mechanisms controlling melanoma and breast carcinoma...Bowman Show, August 17 Molecular regulation of melanoma and breast carcinoma metastasis, Wake Forest University Cancer Center, July 28 Molecular...Institute, April 20, Pathology ofNeoplasia Cumberland Unit, American Cancer Society, April 19; Breast Cancer Research Ministerio de Sanidad y

  14. Obesity, insulin resistance and breast cancer outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Pamela J

    2015-11-01

    There is growing evidence that obesity is associated with poor outcomes in early stage breast cancer. This paper addresses four current areas of focus: 1. Is obesity associated with poor outcomes in all biologic subtypes of breast cancer? 2. Does obesity effect AI efficacy or estrogen suppression in the adjuvant setting? 3. What are the potential biologic underpinnings of the obesity-breast cancer association? 4. Are intervention studies warranted? If so, which interventions in which populations? Research is needed to resolve these questions; intervention trials involving lifestyle interventions or targeting the biology postulated to link obesity and cancer are recommended. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Neoadjuvant breast cancer therapy and drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Patricia; Kluetz, Paul G

    2015-11-01

    Neoadjuvant treatment of breast cancer initially was limited to patients with locally advanced breast cancer in which downstaging was necessary. Now, neoadjuvant trials have become an increasingly common way to facilitate the rapid assessment of new cancer therapies. The appeal of neoadjuvant trials is that they provide the opportunity to study translational science, tumor biomarkers, and intermediate endpoints in response to systemic therapy within a shortened period. This review summarizes the data that contribute to our understanding of the association between pathological complete response and long-term outcomes, describes the implications of drug development and accelerated approval in neoadjuvant treatment of breast cancer, and provides a perspective on future neoadjuvant drug development.

  16. [Male breast cancer: a challenge for urologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, C; Schmalfeldt, B; Gschwend, J E; Herkommer, K

    2010-09-01

    Male breast cancer (male BC) accounts for Klinefelter syndrome) and a positive family history for breast cancer. About 90% of male BC are invasive ductal carcinomas. Standard treatment for localized cancer is surgical removal. Adjuvant radiation and systemic therapy are the same as in women with breast cancer. Male BC expresses hormone receptors in about 90% of cases; therefore, tamoxifen is a therapeutic option. A future challenge for the urologist or andrologist is to diagnose the disease at an early stage to improve prognosis.

  17. Suppression of Ovarian Function With Either Tamoxifen or Exemestane Compared With Tamoxifen Alone in Treating Premenopausal Women With Hormone-Responsive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-29

    Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Positive Tumor; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IN BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Velichko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of breast imaging for 47200 women. Breast cancer was detected in 862 (1.9% patients, fibroadenoma in 1267 (2.7% patients and isolated breast cysts in 1162 (2.4% patients. Different types of fibrocystic breast disease (adenosis, diffuse fibrocystic changes, local fibrosis and others were observed in 60.1% of women. Problems of breast cancer visualization during mammography, characterized by the appearance of fibrocystic mastopathy (sclerosing adenosis, fibrous bands along the ducts have been analyzed. Data on the development of diagnostic algorithms including the modern techniques for ultrasound and interventional radiology aimed at detecting early breast cancer have been presented.  

  19. Reduced life expectancy seen in hereditary diseases which predispose to early-onset tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans DGR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available D Gareth R Evans,1 Sarah Louise Ingham21Genetic Medicine, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Central Manchester Foundation Trust, St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, UK; 2Centre for Health Informatics, Institute of Population Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UKAbstract: There are several hereditary diseases that are a predisposition to early-onset tumors. These include syndromic conditions like neurofibromatosis 1 and 2, von Hippel–Lindau syndrome, Gorlin syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia, and familial adenomatous polyposis; and conditions which are usually not possible to diagnose clinically in a single individual, such as Lynch syndrome and BRCA1/2. Understanding of the mortality in hereditary cancer predisposing diseases is important for developing effective disease treatment programs. A number of studies have been undertaken to investigate the genetic predictors, prevalence and incidence, and treatment outcomes of these diseases; however, the majority examine only the most common of these diseases (eg, neurofibromatosis or BRCA, or look into postoperative survival. The mortality of individuals who are diagnosed with one of these hereditary diseases remains an area for investigation. This review is the first to attempt identification of studies investigating life expectancy in hereditary diseases which predispose to early-onset tumors.Keywords: mortality, survival, life expectancy, early-onset, tumors

  20. Aetio-pathogenesis of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Haruna Abdulkareem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a literature review on the aetiology and pathogenesis of breast cancer, which is the most common cancer worldwide, and the second leading cause of cancer death, especially in Western countries. Several aetiological factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis, and include age, genetics, family history, diet, alcohol, obesity, lifestyle, physical inactivity, as well as endocrine factors. These factors act separately or together in the causation of breast cancer. More recently, triple negative breast cancer has been described in certain categories of patients and is associated with poorer prognosis and earlier recurrence compared with the conventional breast cancer. Therefore, adequate knowledge of these factors is important in identifying high risk groups and individuals, which will help in screening, early detection and follow-up. This will help to decrease the morbidity and mortality from this life-threatening disease.

  1. Mammographic phenotypes of breast cancer risk driven by breast anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastounioti, Aimilia; Oustimov, Andrew; Hsieh, Meng-Kang; Pantalone, Lauren; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2017-03-01

    Image-derived features of breast parenchymal texture patterns have emerged as promising risk factors for breast cancer, paving the way towards personalized recommendations regarding women's cancer risk evaluation and screening. The main steps to extract texture features of the breast parenchyma are the selection of regions of interest (ROIs) where texture analysis is performed, the texture feature calculation and the texture feature summarization in case of multiple ROIs. In this study, we incorporate breast anatomy in these three key steps by (a) introducing breast anatomical sampling for the definition of ROIs, (b) texture feature calculation aligned with the structure of the breast and (c) weighted texture feature summarization considering the spatial position and the underlying tissue composition of each ROI. We systematically optimize this novel framework for parenchymal tissue characterization in a case-control study with digital mammograms from 424 women. We also compare the proposed approach with a conventional methodology, not considering breast anatomy, recently shown to enhance the case-control discriminatory capacity of parenchymal texture analysis. The case-control classification performance is assessed using elastic-net regression with 5-fold cross validation, where the evaluation measure is the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic. Upon optimization, the proposed breast-anatomy-driven approach demonstrated a promising case-control classification performance (AUC=0.87). In the same dataset, the performance of conventional texture characterization was found to be significantly lower (AUC=0.80, DeLong's test p-valuebreast anatomy may further leverage the associations of parenchymal texture features with breast cancer, and may therefore be a valuable addition in pipelines aiming to elucidate quantitative mammographic phenotypes of breast cancer risk.

  2. Estimation of volumetric breast density for breast cancer risk prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Yaffe, Martin J.; Boyd, Norman F.; Jong, Roberta A.

    2000-04-01

    Mammographic density (MD) has been shown to be a strong risk predictor for breast cancer. Compared to subjective assessment by a radiologist, computer-aided analysis of digitized mammograms provides a quantitative and more reproducible method for assessing breast density. However, the current methods of estimating breast density based on the area of bright signal in a mammogram do not reflect the true, volumetric quantity of dense tissue in the breast. A computerized method to estimate the amount of radiographically dense tissue in the overall volume of the breast has been developed to provide an automatic, user-independent tool for breast cancer risk assessment. The procedure for volumetric density estimation consists of first correcting the image for inhomogeneity, then performing a volume density calculation. First, optical sensitometry is used to convert all images to the logarithm of relative exposure (LRE), in order to simplify the image correction operations. The field non-uniformity correction, which takes into account heel effect, inverse square law, path obliquity and intrinsic field and grid non- uniformity is obtained by imaging a spherical section PMMA phantom. The processed LRE image of the phantom is then used as a correction offset for actual mammograms. From information about the thickness and placement of the breast, as well as the parameters of a breast-like calibration step wedge placed in the mammogram, MD of the breast is calculated. Post processing and a simple calibration phantom enable user- independent, reliable and repeatable volumetric estimation of density in breast-equivalent phantoms. Initial results obtained on known density phantoms show the estimation to vary less than 5% in MD from the actual value. This can be compared to estimated mammographic density differences of 30% between the true and non-corrected values. Since a more simplistic breast density measurement based on the projected area has been shown to be a strong indicator

  3. Prognostic Gene Expression Profiles in Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristina Pilekær

    Each year approximately 4,800 Danish women are diagnosed with breast cancer. Several clinical and pathological factors are used as prognostic and predictive markers to categorize the patients into groups of high or low risk. Around 90% of all patients are allocated to the high risk group...... clinical courses, and they may be useful as novel prognostic biomarkers in breast cancer. The aim of the present project was to predict the development of metastasis in lymph node negative breast cancer patients by RNA profiling. We collected and analyzed 82 primary breast tumors from patients who...... and the time of event. Previous findings have shown that high expression of the lncRNA HOTAIR is correlated with poor survival in breast cancer. We validated this finding by demonstrating that high HOTAIR expression in our primary tumors was significantly associated with worse prognosis independent...

  4. Prognostic Gene Expression Profiles in Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristina Pilekær

    Each year approximately 4,800 Danish women are diagnosed with breast cancer. Several clinical and pathological factors are used as prognostic and predictive markers to categorize the patients into groups of high or low risk. Around 90% of all patients are allocated to the high risk group...... clinical courses, and they may be useful as novel prognostic biomarkers in breast cancer. The aim of the present project was to predict the development of metastasis in lymph node negative breast cancer patients by RNA profiling. We collected and analyzed 82 primary breast tumors from patients who...... and the time of event. Previous findings have shown that high expression of the lncRNA HOTAIR is correlated with poor survival in breast cancer. We validated this finding by demonstrating that high HOTAIR expression in our primary tumors was significantly associated with worse prognosis independent...

  5. Triple Negative Breast Cancer and Metabolic Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Lactate Dehydrogenase A is an isoform of lactate dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate . LDHA is expressed in cancer ...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0167 TITLE: Triple Negative Breast Cancer and Metabolic Regulation PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Amy S. Yee, Ph.D...Negative Breast Cancer and Metabolic Regulation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0167 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Amy S

  6. [Vitamin D and breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagykálnai, Tamás; Landherr, László; Nagy, András Csaba

    2014-07-13

    The active form of vitamin D, in conjunction with his own receptor, affect a multitude of biological processes in the cell (inter alia it influences the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes). There is an increasing volume of scientific publications examining the relationships between serum vitamin D levels, vitamin D supplementation and malignant diseases. Some articles suggest inverse relationship between the low serum levels of vitamin D and the breast cancer risk and mortality, whilst other publications do not support this view. Thus the present opinion is conflicted. Vitamin D can exert a beneficial influence on the symptoms and outcomes of a large number of ailments, but its role in affecting cancer is still not completely clear.

  7. Risk of treatment-related esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, L M; Gilbert, E S; Hall, P

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use.......Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use....

  8. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyuan Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and distant site metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer patients. There is increasing evidence supporting the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in tumor cell progression, invasion, and metastasis. During the process of EMT, epithelial cancer cells acquire molecular alternations that facilitate the loss of epithelial features and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Such transformation promotes cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that EMT is associated with the increased enrichment of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs and these CSCs display mesenchymal characteristics that are resistant to chemotherapy and target therapy. However, the clinical relevance of EMT in human cancer is still under debate. This review will provide an overview of current evidence of EMT from studies using clinical human breast cancer tissues and its associated challenges.

  9. Cytogenetic report of a male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, L R; Rogatto, S R; Rainho, C A

    1995-01-01

    The cytogenetic findings on G-banding in an infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma in a 69-year-old man are reported. The main abnormalities observed were trisomy of chromosomes 8 and 9 and structural rearrangement in the long arm of chromosome 17 (add(17)(q25)). Our results confirm the trisomy...... of chromosome 8 in the characterization of the subtype of ductal breast carcinomas and demonstrate that chromosome 17, which is frequently involved in female breast cancers, is also responsible for the development or progression of primary breast cancers in males....

  10. Cancer in the "cold" breast thermogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isard, H J

    1976-11-01

    The hallmark of the normal breast thermogram is relative symmetry of vascular configuration and thermal content with preservation of the breast contour. Accepted criteria of abnormality are predicated upon graphic and thermal asymmetry with emphasis placed upon elevated temperature, an increase in the number of discernible vessels, and distorted vascular patterns. The association of a confirmed breast cancer and an avascular thermogram has been labeled a false negative. Avascularity ("cold" breast), particularly in the lower half, with normal vessels in the same location of the opposite breast is suggested as an additional characteristic of abnormality. Illustrative cases are presented.

  11. Radiation as a cause of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N.; Silverstone, S.M.

    1976-09-01

    The possible role of radiation as a factor in the causation of breast cancer was investigated. Some variables said to be associated with a high risk of breast cancer include genetic factors, pre-existing breast disease, artificial menopause, family history of breast cancer, failure to breast feed, older than usual age at time of first pregnancy, high socioeconomic status, specific blood groups, fatty diet, obesity, and hormonal imbalances. To this list we must add ionizing radiation as an additional and serious risk factor in the causation of breast cancer. Among the irradiated groups which have an increase in the incidence of cancer of the breast are: tuberculous women subjected to repeated fluoroscopy; women who received localized x-ray treatments for acute post-partum mastitis; atom-bomb survivors; other x-ray exposures involving the breast, including irradiation in children and in experimental animals; and women who were treated with x rays for acne or hirsuitism. The dose of radiation received by the survivors of the atom bomb who subsequently developed cancer of the breast ranged from 80 to 800 rads, the tuberculous women who were fluoroscoped received an estimated 50 to 6,000 rads, the women who were treated for mastitis probably were exposed to 30 to 700 rads, and the patients with acne received 100 to 6,000 rads. These imprecise estimates are compared with mammographic doses in the range of 10s of rads to the breast at each examination, an imprecise estimate depending on technique and equipment. However imprecise these estimates may be, it is apparent that younger women are more likely than older women to develop cancer from exposure to radiation. It is pointed out that the American Cancer Society advises that women under 35 years should have mammography only for medical indication, not for so-called screening.

  12. Dietary Isoflavones and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Samira; Halaby, Reginald

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the deadliest neoplasm in women globally, resulting in a significant health burden. In many cases, breast cancer becomes resistant to chemotherapy, radiation, and hormonal therapies. It is believed that genetics is not the major cause of breast cancer. Other contributing risk factors include age at first childbirth, age at menarche, age at menopause, use of oral contraceptives, race and ethnicity, and diet. Diet has been shown to influence breast cancer incidence, recurrence, and prognosis. Soy isoflavones have long been a staple in Asian diets, and there appears to be an increase, albeit modest, compared to Asian populations, in soy consumption among Americans. Isoflavones are phytoestrogens that have antiestrogenic as well as estrogenic effects on breast cancer cells in culture, in animal models, and in clinical trials. This study will investigate anticancer and tumor promoting properties of dietary isoflavones and evaluate their effects on breast cancer development. Furthermore, this work seeks to elucidate the putative molecular pathways by which these phytochemicals modulate breast cancer risk by synergizing or antagonizing the estrogen receptor (ER) and in ER-independent signaling mechanisms. PMID:28930233

  13. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed.

  14. Breast cancer onset in twins and women with bilateral disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartman, Mikael; Hall, Per; Edgren, Gustaf

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Little is known of the onset of breast cancer in high-risk populations. We investigated the risk of breast cancer in twin sisters and in the contralateral breast taking family history into consideration. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed a Scandinavian population-based cohort of 2......,499 female twin pairs, in which at least one had a diagnosis of breast cancer and estimated the risk of breast cancer in the sister. Using a total of 11 million individuals in Sweden with complete family links, we identified 93,448 women with breast cancer and estimated the risk of a bilateral breast cancer....... RESULTS: The incidence of breast cancer in twin sisters of breast cancer patients was 0.64% per year and 0.42% per year in mono- and dizygotic twin sisters, respectively. In comparison, the risk of familial (affected first-degree relative) and nonfamilial bilateral breast cancer was 1.03% per year and 0...

  15. GLUT 5 is not over-expressed in breast cancer cells and patient breast cancer tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Gowrishankar

    Full Text Available F18 2-Fluoro 2-deoxyglucose (FDG has been the gold standard in positron emission tomography (PET oncologic imaging since its introduction into the clinics several years ago. Seeking to complement FDG in the diagnosis of breast cancer using radio labeled fructose based analogs, we investigated the expression of the chief fructose transporter-GLUT 5 in breast cancer cells and human tissues. Our results indicate that GLUT 5 is not over-expressed in breast cancer tissues as assessed by an extensive immunohistochemistry study. RT-PCR studies showed that the GLUT 5 mRNA was present at minimal amounts in breast cancer cell lines. Further knocking down the expression of GLUT 5 in breast cancer cells using RNA interference did not affect the fructose uptake in these cell lines. Taken together these results are consistent with GLUT 5 not being essential for fructose uptake in breast cancer cells and tissues.

  16. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelttari, Liisa M.; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Vilske, Sara; Nevanlinna, Viivi; Ranta, Salla; Schleutker, Johanna; Winqvist, Robert; Kallioniemi, Anne; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Figueroa, Jonine; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Dunning, Alison M.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Wang, Qin; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Rosenberg, Efraim H.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Surowy, Harald; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Benitez, Javier; González-Neira, Anna; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Van Dyck, Laurien; Janssen, Hilde; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Hallberg, Emily; Olson, Janet E.; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Hooning, Maartje J.; Collée, Margriet; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert N.; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Couch, Fergus J.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Orr, Nick; Swerdlow, Anthony; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Mattson, Johanna; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients and subsequently genotyped the mutation in additional breast cancer cases (n = 5259) and population controls (n = 3586) from Finland and Belarus. No significant association with breast cancer risk was seen in the meta-analysis of the Finnish datasets or in the large BCAC dataset. The association with previously identified risk variants rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 was replicated among all breast cancer cases and also among familial cases in the BCAC dataset. The most significant association was observed for the haplotype carrying the risk-alleles of all the three SNPs both among all cases (odds ratio (OR): 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11–1.19, P = 8.88 x 10−16) and among familial cases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.16–1.32, P = 6.19 x 10−11), compared to the haplotype with the respective protective alleles. Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in RAD51B are rare, but common variation at the RAD51B region is significantly associated with familial breast cancer risk. PMID:27149063

  17. The management of screen-detected breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Muneer; Douek, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The increased use of mammography and introduction of breast screening programmes have resulted in a rise in clinically-occult breast cancer, with one-third of all breast carcinomata diagnosed being non-palpable. These types of cancer have a unique natural history and biology compared to symptomatic breast cancer and this needs to be taken into account when considering surgery and adjuvant treatment. The majority of studies demonstrating efficacy of adjuvant treatments are largely based on patients with symptomatic breast cancer. The current evidence for the role of surgery and adjuvant therapy for screen-detected breast cancer was reviewed in light of their improved prognosis, compared to symptomatic breast cancer.

  18. Gamma-secretase/Notch Signalling Pathway Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating Patients With Advanced, Metastatic, or Recurrent Triple Negative Invasive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  19. Early breast cancer: diagnosis, treatment and survivorship.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meade, Elizabeth

    2013-01-11

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer and globally remains a major public health concern. The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer continues to develop. Diagnosis is now more precise, surgery is less mutilating and women now have the option of breast conserving therapy with better cosmesis, and without sacrificing survival. Radiotherapy is more targeted and the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy is based not only on prognostic and predictive factors, but also on newer molecular profiling that will ensure that chemotherapy is given to the patients who need and respond to it. These developments all provide a more tailored approach to the treatment of breast cancer. Management now involves a multidisciplinary team approach in order to provide the highest standard of care for patients throughout their cancer journey from diagnosis through treatment and into follow-up care.

  20. Diazepam and the risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, D W; Shapiro, S; Slone, D; Rosenberg, L; Helmrich, S P; Miettinen, O S; Stolley, P D; Levy, M; Schottenfeld, D

    1982-03-06

    The relation of breast cancer to diazepam use was evaluated in a case-control study of 1236 women with breast cancer and 728 control subjects with other malignancies. Compared to women who never used diazepam, the relative risk for women who used the drug at least 4 days per week for at least 6 months was estimated to be 0.9, with 95% confidence limits of 0.5 and 1.6. There was no apparent association for recent use, or for use in the distant past, although confidence intervals were fairly wide in these categories. The results were not explained by various potential confounding factors, including the major risk factors for breast cancer. The findings suggest that regular diazepam use does not increase the risk of breast cancer relative to other cancers.

  1. Depression and conservative surgery for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauriceia C. L. de Medeiros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression is prevalent among women and associated with reduced quality of life, and therefore it is important to determine its incidence in adult women, especially in those with breast cancer. OBJECTIVE: To determine the occurrence of depression in women who underwent conservative surgery for breast cancer with or without breast reconstruction. METHODS: Seventy-five women aged between 18 and 65 years were enrolled. Patients had undergone conservative surgery for breast cancer with immediate breast reconstruction (n = 25 or without breast reconstruction (n = 25 at least one year before the study. The control group consisted of 25 women without cancer, but of similar age and educational level distribution as the other two groups. The Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure depression. The collected data were assessed using analysis of variance and the χ2 test. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups in age (p = 0.72 or educational level (p = 0.20. A smaller number of patients had undergone the menopause (p = 0.02 in the control group than in other groups. There were no significant differences in occurrence of depression between groups (χ2=9.97; p = 0.126. CONCLUSÍON: Conservative surgery for breast cancer did not affect the occurrence of depression in women, regardless of whether breast reconstruction was performed.

  2. Early Life and Risk of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    greater height, and low BMI at 14 years of age were independent risk factors for breast cancer. Height at age 8 years and the increment in height during...height, and low BMI at 14 years of age were independent risk factors for breast cancer. Height at age 8 17 years and the increment in height during...Hankinson SE, Speizer FE, Willett WC. Birthweight as a risk factor for breast cancer. Lancet 1996; 348(9041):1542-1546. 7. Vatten LJ, Maehle BO, Lund

  3. Adjuvant bisphosphonates in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadji, P; Coleman, R E; Wilson, C

    2016-01-01

    regulatory approval for either of these potential indications. This consensus paper provides a review of the evidence and offers guidance to breast cancer clinicians on the use of bisphosphonates in early breast cancer. Using the nominal group methodology for consensus, a systematic review of the literature...... significant benefits of bisphosphonates on the development of bone metastases and breast cancer mortality in post-menopausal women or those receiving ovarian suppression therapy. Therefore, the panel recommends that bisphosphonates (either intravenous zoledronic acid or oral clodronate) are considered as part...

  4. Drug Helps Fight Breast Tumors Tied to 'Cancer Genes'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Helps Fight Breast Tumors Tied to 'Cancer Genes' Lynparza may offer a new treatment for women ... with breast cancer linked to BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations, according to the study. Olaparib delayed cancer ...

  5. Metabolic syndrome and breast cancer: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezgen, G; Roach, E C; Kizilarslanoglu, M C; Petekkaya, I; Altundag, K

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life-threatening cancer in women and the most important cause of cancer-related deaths among women. This disease is on the rise in Turkey. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, abdominal obesity and high blood sugar. Several studies have examined the association of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome with breast cancer. More recent studies have shown it to be an independent risk factor for breast cancer. It has also been associated with poorer prognosis, increased incidence, a more aggressive tumor phenotype. Basic research studies are now in progress to illuminate the molecular pathways and mechanisms that are behind this correlation. Given the fact that all of the components of metabolic syndrome are modifiable risk factors, preventive measures must be established to improve the outcome of breast cancer patients. In this review we set the background by taking into account previous studies which have identified the components of metabolic syndrome individually as breast cancer risk factors. Then we present the latest findings which elaborate possible explanations regarding how metabolic syndrome as a single entity may affect breast cancer risk.

  6. Psychological Adjustment in Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Annette L; Bower, Julienne E

    2015-01-01

    Women living with a diagnosis of breast cancer constitute more than 20 % of the cancer survivor population in the United States. Research on trajectories of psychological adjustment in women recently diagnosed with breast suggests that the largest proportion of women evidences relatively low psychological distress either from the point of diagnosis or after a period of recovery. Substantial heterogeneity exists, however, and some women are at risk for lingering depression, anxiety, fear of cancer recurrence and other long-term psychological effects. Most women diagnosed with breast cancer also report a number of benefits that arise from their experience of cancer. Longitudinal studies have illuminated risk and protective factors for psychological adjustment in breast cancer survivors, which we describe in this chapter. Effective psychosocial interventions, as evidenced in randomized controlled trials, also are available for bolstering breast cancer-related adjustment. We offer directions for research to deepen the understanding of biological, psychological, and social contributors to positive adjustment in the context of breast cancer, as well as suggestions for the development of optimally efficient evidence-based psychosocial interventions for women living with the disease.

  7. Metabolic profiling of breast cancer: Differences in central metabolism between subtypes of breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmann, Lucas; Schlimpert, Manuel; Halbach, Sebastian; Erbes, Thalia; Stickeler, Elmar; Kammerer, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    Although the concept of aerobic glycolysis in cancer was already reported in the 1930s by Otto Warburg, the understanding of metabolic pathways remains challenging especially due to the heterogeneity of cancer. In consideration of four different time points (1, 2, 4, and 7 days of incubation), GC-MS profiling of metabolites was performed on cell extracts and supernatants of breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, -453, BT-474) with different sub classification and the breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A. To the exclusion of trypsinization, direct methanolic extraction, cell scraping and cell disruption was executed to obtain central metabolites. Major differences in biochemical pathways have been observed in the breast cancer cell lines compared to the breast epithelial cell line, as well as between the breast cancer cell lines themselves. Characteristics of breast cancer subtypes could be correlated to their individual metabolic profiles. PLS-DA revealed the discrimination of breast cancer cell lines from MCF-10A based on elevated amino acid levels. The observed metabolic signatures have great potential as biomarker for breast cancer as well as an improved understanding of subtype specific phenomenons of breast cancer.

  8. [From gene to disease; E-cadherin and hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, J.H.F.M. de; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Nagengast, F.M.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van

    2003-01-01

    Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome associated with an early-onset, histologically diffuse, signet ring cell type gastric cancer and the occurrence of cancer at other anatomical sites, i.e. breast, colon, prostate and ovary. Inactivating germline mutations

  9. Urinary estrogen metabolites and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallal, Cher M; Stone, Roslyn A; Cauley, Jane A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Circulating estrogens are associated with increased breast cancer risk, yet the role of estrogen metabolites in breast carcinogenesis remains unclear. This combined analysis of 5 published studies evaluates urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 16a-hydroxyestrone (16a-OHE1......), and their ratio (2:16a-OHE1) in relation to breast cancer risk. ¿Methods: Primary data on 726 premenopausal women (183 invasive breast cancer cases and 543 controls) and 1,108 postmenopausal women (385 invasive breast cancer cases and 723 controls) were analyzed. Urinary estrogen metabolites were measured using...... premenopausal 2:16a-OHE1 was suggestive of reduced breast cancer risk overall (study-adjusted ORIIIvsI=0.80; 95% CI: 0.49-1.32) and for estrogen receptor negative (ER-) subtype (ORIIIvsI=0.33; 95% CI: 0.13-0.84). Among postmenopausal women, 2:16a-OHE1 was unrelated to breast cancer risk (study-adjusted ORIIIvs...

  10. Exemestane in early breast cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Untch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael Untch1, Christian Jackisch21Interdisciplinary Breast Centre, Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch, University Charité, Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Gynecology/Obstetrics, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach, GermanyAbstract: The adjuvant treatment of women with endocrine-sensitive early breast cancer has been dominated for the last 40 years by tamoxifen. However, the side-effects associated with this therapy have prompted a search for safer and biochemically more selective endocrine agents and led to the development of the third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane. Promising results in advanced disease have paved the way for treating early breast cancer, and AIs are increasingly replacing tamoxifen in the adjuvant setting. Several large, randomized trials with AIs have been completed or are ongoing in women with early-stage breast cancer, documenting the significant impact that these drugs are making on the risk for recurrence of breast cancer. As a result, there is increasing and widespread use of AI therapy for the treatment of early-stage endocrine-responsive breast cancer. This review summarizes the data for exemestane in the adjuvant setting, showing that a switch to exemestane after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen therapy is associated with a statistically significant survival benefit and is regarded as being sensitive by international and national experts.Keywords: early breast cancer, adjuvant setting, endocrine-sensitive, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitor, exemestane, switch, IES 31, NSABP B-33, TEAM

  11. TOX3 mutations in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Owain Jones

    Full Text Available TOX3 maps to 16q12, a region commonly lost in breast cancers and recently implicated in the risk of developing breast cancer. However, not much is known of the role of TOX3 itself in breast cancer biology. This is the first study to determine the importance of TOX3 mutations in breast cancers. We screened TOX3 for mutations in 133 breast tumours and identified four mutations (three missense, one in-frame deletion of 30 base pairs in six primary tumours, corresponding to an overall mutation frequency of 4.5%. One potentially deleterious missense mutation in exon 3 (Leu129Phe was identified in one tumour (genomic DNA and cDNA. Whilst copy number changes of 16q12 are common in breast cancer, our data show that mutations of TOX3 are present at low frequency in tumours. Our results support that TOX3 should be further investigated to elucidate its role in breast cancer biology.

  12. Inflammation profile of four early onset Crohn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Girardelli, Martina; Bianco, Anna Monica; Martelossi, Stefano; Magnolato, Andrea; Tommasini, Alberto; Crovella, Sergio

    2012-02-10

    Crohn disease (CD) is a multifactorial disorder affecting mainly young adults. Sometimes, however, it can present in the first year of life (Early onset Crohn disease (EOCD)) showing an unpredictable course and can often be more severe than at older ages. Some cases have been associated to an underlying primary immunodeficiency such as IL10R deficiency. We studied the functional response to IL-10 and the genotype of IL-10 receptor in four patients with early onset crohn-like colitis. We found an IL10R variant, which may be associated with a decreased response to the cytokine in one patient. Further studies to determine its pathogenic effect should be performed. In addition IL-10 mediated inhibition of LPS-induced TNFα expression was measured in patient's monocytes.

  13. Risk Assessment in Neonatal Early-Onset Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sagori; Puopolo, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of neonatal early-onset sepsis has declined with the widespread use of intrapartum antibiotic therapies, yet early-onset sepsis remains a potentially fatal condition, particularly among very low-birth weight infants. Clinical signs of neonatal infection are non-specific and may be absent in the immediate postnatal period. Maternal and infant clinical characteristics, as well as infant laboratory values, have been used to identify newborns at risk, and to administer empiric antibiotic therapy to prevent progression to more severe illness. Such approaches result in the evaluation of approximately 15% of asymptomatic term and late preterm infants and of nearly all preterm infants. The development of multivariate predictive models may provide more accurate methods of identifying newborns at highest risk and allow for more limited newborn antibiotic exposures. PMID:23177799

  14. Familial early onset sarcoidosis with bone cysts and erosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, Norbert; Max, Regina; Lorenz, Hanns-Martin [University of Heidelberg, Department of Internal Medicine V, Division of Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); Autschbach, Frank [University of Heidelberg, Department of Pathology, Heidelberg (Germany); Libicher, Martin [University of Cologne, Department of Radiology, Cologne (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    Early onset sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease which is characterized by synovitis, polyarthritis, skin and eye involvement. We report the skeletal features of one patient with a family history and clinical symptoms suggestive of early onset sarcoidosis (EOS) which was confirmed by skin biopsy. Radiographs reveal postarthritic deformities of the MCP joints, contractures, a coarsened trabecular pattern at the PIP joints and small bone cysts resembling osteitis cystoides multiplex. Similar lesions were described in radiographs of the older sister and an uncle of our patient. This is the first report demonstrating bone cysts and erosions which could be a diagnostic feature in this rare disease and may help to differentiate other rheumatoid disorders. (orig.)

  15. Genetic Determinism of Primary Early-Onset Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aury-Landas, Juliette; Marcelli, Christian; Leclercq, Sylvain; Boumédiene, Karim; Baugé, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease worldwide. A minority of cases correspond to familial presentation characterized by early-onset forms which are genetically heterogeneous. This review brings a new point of view on the molecular basis of OA by focusing on gene mutations causing early-onset OA (EO-OA). Recently, thanks to whole-exome sequencing, a gain-of-function mutation in the TNFRSF11B gene was identified in two distant family members with EO-OA, opening new therapeutic perspectives for OA. Indeed, unraveling the molecular basis of rare Mendelian OA forms will improve our understanding of molecular processes involved in OA pathogenesis and will contribute to better patient diagnosis, management, and therapy.

  16. Early-onset androgenetic alopecia and endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Guarrera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenetic alopecia (AGA is the most common acquired non scarring alopecia in humans caused by androgen hormones in the setting of a genetic predisposition. Usually AGA starts after puberty, but recently it has been observed also in adolescents. Their mean age was 13 years with a slight prevalence in males. The premature AGA may be caused by environmental, alimentary (meat and milk or cosmetics overexposure to sexual hormones or to endocrine disrupters (EDs. EDs are "exogenous substances that interfere with the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, action, or elimination of natural hormones in the body causing adverse effects to human health" and they are able bind to the steroid hormone receptors. Early onset AGA may be linked to the well known phenomenon of early puberty caused in some cases by hormones contained in food or by environmental chemicals. Therefore it is likely that the EDs may play a role also in the pathogenesis of early-onset AGA.

  17. Cryotherapy in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy and Nail Toxicity in Patients With Breast Cancer Who Are Receiving Paclitaxel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-26

    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Pain; Peripheral Neuropathy; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Therapy-related Toxicity

  18. Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk factors for breast cancer are female sex and advancing age, inherited risk, breast density, obesity, alcohol consumption, and exposure to ionizing radiation. Interventions to prevent breast cancer include chemoprevention (e.g. SERMs, AIs), risk-reducing surgery (e.g. mastectomy, oophorectomy). Review the evidence on risk factors and interventions to prevent breast cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  19. Assessment of Breast Cancer Risk and Belief in Breast Cancer Screening Among the Primary Healthcare Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İz, Fatma Başalan; Tümer, Adile

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Early detection of breast cancer is known to increase survival rates significantly after diagnosis. This research was carried out to determine the level of breast cancer risk among primary healthcare nurses and their belief in breast cancer screening. In this descriptive research, the data were collected in face-to-face interviews with the participants. The researchers contacted all primary healthcare nurses currently working in the province. The data collection tools included a questionnaire form on sociodemographic characteristics, breast cancer risk assessment form, and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS) for breast cancer screening. In data analysis, descriptive statistics, t test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. The mean age of nurses was 35 ± 3.6. The mean score for the breast cancer risk assessment form was calculated as 82.9 ± 18.7. The subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening were as follows: susceptibility 7.3 ± 1.8, seriousness 19.5 ± 4.1, benefits of breast self-exam 15.5 ± 2.6, barriers to breast self-exam 15.1 ± 2.8, self-efficacy 40.3 ± 7.0, and motivation 19.5 ± 4.1. The risk of breast cancer was found to be low in the study group. The analysis of the subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening revealed that nurses had a below-average susceptibility perception, a somewhat lower perception of seriousness, an above-average mean score for perceived benefits, a moderate barrier perception, a relatively high perceived self-efficacy, and motivation above average.

  20. Stiff-person syndrome with early onset in infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Malmberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of stiff-person syndrome with benign course in 16-years old patient is presented. The initial clinical signs of the disease were observed in infancy with retarded development of motor functions and skeleton muscle lumps. The diagnosis was made using generally accepted clinical and electromyographical criteria. Aspects of differential diagnosis, pathogenesis and clinical course polymorphism in early-onset cases of the disease are discussed.

  1. Walking strategies in subjects with congenital or early onset strabismus

    OpenAIRE

    Irene eAprile; Maurizio eFerrarin; Luca ePadua; Enrica eDi Sipio; Chiara eSimbolotti; Sergio ePetroni; Costanza eTredici; Anna eDickmann

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In congenital strabismus, sensory adaptations occur hampering the correct development of normal binocular vision. The aim of this study is to investigate if patients with congenital or early onset exotropic or esotropic strabismus adopt different walking strategies with respect to healthy subjects. Our hypothesis is that the abnormal binocular cooperation, occurring in patients with exotropic or esotropic strabismus, could influence neurosensorial adaptation of the gait pattern....

  2. Early Onset Marfan Syndrome: Atypical Clinical Presentation of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozyurt Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Early onset Marfan Syndrome (eoMFS is a rare, severe form of Marfan Syndrome (MFS. The disease has a poor prognosis and most patients present with resistance to heart failure treatment during the newborn period. This report presents two cases of eoMFS with similar clinical features diagnosed in the newborn period and who died at an early age due to the complications related to the involvement of the cardiovascular system.

  3. Diagnosis of Late Stage, Early Onset, Small Fiber Polyneuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    additionally discovered SFPN that affects adolescents and adults [2]. This early-onset SFPN usually begins in adolescence or early adulthood but can...promote early diagnosis. What was the impact on other disciplines? Nothing to report. What was the impact on technology transfer? Nothing to report...What was the impact on society beyond science and technology ? As described above, Veterans’ health and, by extension, public health will be

  4. Lost human capital from early-onset chronic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, E R; Koran, L M; Finkelstein, S N; Gelenberg, A J; Kornstein, S G; Miller, I M; Thase, M E; Trapp, G A; Keller, M B

    2000-06-01

    Chronic depression starts at an early age for many individuals and could affect their accumulation of "human capital" (i.e., education, higher amounts of which can broaden occupational choice and increase earnings potential). The authors examined the impact, by gender, of early- (before age 22) versus late-onset major depressive disorder on educational attainment. They also determined whether the efficacy and sustainability of antidepressant treatments and psychosocial outcomes vary by age at onset and quantified the impact of early- versus late-onset, as well as never-occurring, major depressive disorder on expected lifetime earnings. The authors used logistic and multivariate regression methods to analyze data from a three-phase, multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial that compared sertraline and imipramine treatment of 531 patients with chronic depression aged 30 years and older. These data were integrated with U.S. Census Bureau data on 1995 earnings by age, educational attainment, and gender. Early-onset major depressive disorder adversely affected the educational attainment of women but not of men. No significant difference in treatment responsiveness by age at onset was observed after 12 weeks of acute treatment or, for subjects rated as having responded, after 76 weeks of maintenance treatment. A randomly selected 21-year-old woman with early-onset major depressive disorder in 1995 could expect future annual earnings that were 12%-18% lower than those of a randomly selected 21-year-old woman whose onset of major depressive disorder occurred after age 21 or not at all. Early-onset major depressive disorder causes substantial human capital loss, particularly for women. Detection and effective treatment of early-onset major depressive disorder may have substantial economic benefits.

  5. Brachytherapy in breast cancer: an effective alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Skowronek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast conserving surgery (BCS with following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT of the conserved breast has become widely accepted in the last decades for the treatment of early invasive breast cancer. The standard technique of EBRT after BCS is to treat the whole breast up to a total dose of 42.5 to 50 Gy. An additional dose is given to treated volume as a boost to a portion of the breast. In the early stage of breast cancer, research has shown that the area requiring radiation treatment to prevent the cancer from local recurrence is the breast tissue that surrounds the area where the initial cancer was removed. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI is an approach that treats only the lumpectomy bed plus a 1-2 cm margin rather than the whole breast and as a result allows accelerated delivery of the radiation dose in four to five days. There has been a growing interest for APBI and various approaches have been developed under phase I-III clinical studies; these include multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy, balloon catheter brachytherapy, conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-EBRT and intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT. Balloon-based brachytherapy approaches include MammoSite, Axxent electronic brachytherapy, Contura, hybrid brachytherapy devices. Another indication for breast brachytherapy is reirradiation of local recurrence after mastectomy. Published results of brachytherapy are very promising. We discuss the current status, indications, and technical aspects of breast cancer brachytherapy.

  6. Interdisciplinary Research Training in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    University. An Internet-Based Low- Literacy Cancer Communication Intervention. $1,500, funded. * 2004- Pfizer Clear Health Communication Program. An...Internet-Based Low- Literacy Cancer Communication Intervention. $195,000, not funded. 0 2004- DOD Breast Cancer Research Program, Multidisciplinary...of Connecticut and Yale University. While providing didactic experience in advanced research, methodology, it allows the candidate to have sustained

  7. Innovative Strategies for Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0223 TITLE: Innovative Strategies for Breast Cancer Immunotherapy ...studies (2). A promising approach in cancer treatment is adoptive immunotherapy using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells to redirect...multiple tissues. DISCUSSION Adoptive immunotherapy is a promising approach for the treatment of cancer , and observations from preclinical and

  8. Intraspinal anomalies in early-onset idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, E A C; Oxenham, M; Lam, K S

    2017-06-01

    In the United Kingdom, lower incidences of intraspinal abnormalities in patients with early onset idiopathic scoliosis have been observed than in studies in other countries. We aimed to determine the rates of these abnormalities in United Kingdom patients diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis before the age of 11 years. This retrospective study of patients attending an urban scoliosis clinic identified 71 patients satisfying a criteria of: clinical diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis; age of onset ten years and 11 months or less; MRI screening for intraspinal abnormalities. United Kingdom census data combined with patient referral data was used to calculate incidence. Mean age at diagnosis was six years with 39 right-sided and 32 left-sided curves. Four patients (5.6%) were found to have intraspinal abnormalities on MRI. These consisted of: two combined Arnold-Chiari type 1 malformations with syrinx; one syrinx with a low lying conus; and one isolated syrinx. Overall annual incidence of early onset idiopathic scoliosis was one out of 182 000 (0.0006%). This study reports the lowest rates to date of intraspinal anomalies in patients with early onset idiopathic scoliosis, adding to knowledge regarding current incidences of these abnormalities as well as any geographical variation in the nature of the disease. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:829-33. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  9. Micropapillary Lung Cancer with Breast Metastasis Simulating Primary Breast Cancer due to Architectural Distortion on Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung Ran; Hong, Eun Kyung; Lee, See Yeon [Center for Breast Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Ro, Jae Yoon [The Methodist Hospital, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Houston (United States)

    2012-03-15

    A 47-year-old Korean woman with right middle lobe lung adenocarcinoma, malignant pleural effusion, and multiple lymph node and bone metastases, after three months of lung cancer diagnosis, presented with a palpable right breast mass. Images of the right breast demonstrated architectural distortion that strongly suggested primary breast cancer. Breast biopsy revealed metastatic lung cancer with a negative result for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and mammaglobin, and a positive result for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1). We present a case of breast metastasis from a case of lung cancer with an extensive micropapillary component, which was initially misinterpreted as a primary breast cancer due to unusual image findings with architectural distortion.

  10. [Special considerations in breast cancer treatment of an augmented breast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mátrai, Zoltán; Gulyás, Gusztáv; Tóth, László; Sávolt, Akos; Kunos, Csaba; Pesthy, Pál; Bartal, Alexandra; Szabó, Eva; Kásler, Miklós

    2011-10-16

    Breast augmentation surgery involving the use of implants has been one of the most popular plastic surgical procedures for decades. As the multi-million female population who received breast implants ages, the risk of cancer is increasing rapidly, therefore the incidence of malignant disease in association with breast implants will increase as well. Although there is no relationship between tumor development and implants, these cases require special considerations in diagnostics, therapy and follow-up methods. Appropriate multidisciplinary treatment of tumors in augmented breasts corresponding with modern oncoplastic principles can only be accomplished based on adequate oncological, breast and plastic surgical knowledge. Supposing a possible increase of this condition in Hungary, too, authors provide a wide review of the literature on the special oncological and esthetic considerations, for the first time in Hungarian language.

  11. MRI evaluation of the contralateral breast in patients with recently diagnosed breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeeta Taneja; Amarnath Jena; Syed. Mohd. Shuaib Zaidi; Anuj Khurana

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Contralateral breast cancer can be synchronous and/or metachronous in patients with cancer of one breast. Detection of a synchronous breast cancer may affect patient management. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast (DCE-MRI) is a sensitive technique for detecting contralateral lesions occult on the other imaging modalities in women already diagnosed with cancer of one breast. Aim: The aim was to assess the incidence of mammographically occult synchronous contralateral bre...

  12. Exercise after breast cancer treatment: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieli-Conwright CM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christina M Dieli-Conwright, Breanna Z Orozco Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offset treatment-related side effects. Noticeable reductions in physical fitness (ie, cardiopulmonary fitness and muscular strength, negative changes in body composition (ie, increase in body mass, decrease in lean body mass, and increase in fat mass, increased fatigue, depression, or anxiety are some of the common side effects of cancer treatments that negatively impact overall quality of life and increase the risk for the development of comorbidities. Exercise plays a vital role in improving cardiopulmonary function, psychological events, muscular strength, and endurance in breast cancer survivors, and thus should be considered as a key factor of lifestyle intervention to reverse negative treatment-related side effects. The purpose of this review is to address current perspectives on the benefits of aerobic and resistance exercise after breast cancer treatments. This review is focused on the well-established benefits of exercise on physical and emotional well-being, bone health, lymphedema management, and the postulated benefits of exercise on risk reduction for recurrence of breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, exercise, physical well-being

  13. MODERN VIEWS ON BILATERAL BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. A. Fesik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented modern literature data on the features of the pathogenesis, course, clinical and morphological expression and tumor characteristics, parameters and nodal metastasis of hematogenous bilateral breast cancer. Highlight the results of domestic and foreign studies in recent years to determine the prognostic factors and recurrence of synchronous and metachronous bilateral breast cancer. It was revealed that the frequency of bilateral breast tumor lesions varies widely, ranging from 0.1 to 20%, with metachronous tumors recorded significantly higher (69.6% than the synchronous (22.7%. The probability of occurrence of metachronous breast cancer is higher in women with a family history, as well as if they have a gene mutation BRCA-1. Found that the most common histological type of breast tumor with bilateral lesions is invasive ductal. However, the incidence of invasive lobular cancer and non-invasive lobular cancer is slightly higher among synchronous bilateral cancer compared with unilateral disease. Studies have shown that in a double-sided synchronous breast cancer tumor, as a rule, has a lower degree of differentiation, and the higher the expression level of estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. Relevance of the issue because the identification of patterns in the study of lymphatic and hematogenous features bilateral metastasis of mammary tumors provides a basis for speculation about the differences in the progression of neoplastic disease in these groups and is a cause for further detailed research in this area to identify and evaluate the prognosis and also the choice of tactics of such patients.

  14. Proteomic maps of breast cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyanova, Stefka; Albrechtsen, Reidar; Kronqvist, Pauliina

    2016-01-01

    oestrogen receptor positive (luminal), Her2 positive and triple negative breast tumours and reached a quantitative depth of >10,000 proteins. These proteomic profiles identified functional differences between breast cancer subtypes, related to energy metabolism, cell growth, mRNA translation and cell...

  15. Expression profiling predicts outcome in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernards, R.A.; Veer, L.J. van ’t; Dai, H.; Vijver, M.J. van de; He, Y.D.; Hart, A.A.M.; Friend, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    Gruvberger et al. postulate, in their commentary published in this issue of Breast Cancer Research, that our “prognostic gene set may not be broadly applicable to other breast tumor cohorts”, and they suggest that “it may be important to define prognostic expression profiles separately in estrogen r

  16. [Treatment of elderly patients with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaschburg, B.; Pedersen, A.; Tuxen, M.K.;

    2008-01-01

    The latest investigations have been searched in order to present new guidelines for the treatment of elderly patients with primary breast cancer. It is concluded that breast-conserving surgery should be offered as well as the sentinel node technique. Axillary lymph node dissection is not necessary...

  17. Genotyping and Phenotyping of Male Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornegoor, R.

    2012-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease and most of the knowledge has been extrapolated from females, although these entities are likely different. A better understanding of male breast carcinogenesis is crucial for developing novel targets suitable for personalized treatment. A major problem in studyi

  18. Genotyping and Phenotyping of Male Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornegoor, R.

    2012-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease and most of the knowledge has been extrapolated from females, although these entities are likely different. A better understanding of male breast carcinogenesis is crucial for developing novel targets suitable for personalized treatment. A major problem in

  19. Adolescent meat intake and breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y.; Eliassen, A Heather; Willett, Walter C.

    2014-01-01

    The breast is particularly vulnerable to carcinogenic influences during adolescence due to rapid proliferation of mammary cells and lack of terminal differentiation. We investigated consumption of adolescent red meat and other protein sources in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort.

  20. Ultrasound Elastography in Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, J.; Ewertsen, C; Sletting, S

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound elastography is an established method for characterization of focal lesions in the breast. Different techniques and analyses of the images may be used for the characterization. This article addresses the use of ultrasound elastography in breast cancer diagnosis. In the first part...