WorldWideScience

Sample records for early universe cosmology

  1. Cosmology and the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Abhigna

    2017-01-01

    In the beginning the universe was in a hot dense state nearly 13.8 billion years ago. The thermal history of the universe was traced back to an era when the temperature was about 1012K. At this early time, the universe was filled with particles-mostly photons and leptons- whose interactions are hopefully weak enough to allow this medium to be treated as a more or less ideal gas. However, if we look back a little further, into the first 0.0001 second of cosmic history when the temperature was above 1012K. At such temperatures, there will be present in thermal equilibrium copious numbers of strongly interacting particles-mostly masons and baryons-with a mean interparticle distance less than a Compton wavelength. These particles will be in a state of continual mutual interaction, and cannot reasonably be expected to obey any simple equation of state. The inflationary epoch lasted from 10-36seconds after the Big Bang to sometime between 10-33and 10-32seconds. Matter and energy created in this time. Right after that space expanded exponentially with enormous rate of 74.3 +/-2.1Km per second per Mpc. Undergraduate student and researcher of the string theory, quantum gravity, cosmology and quantum biology.

  2. The Early Universe in Loop Quantum Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Bojowald, M.

    2005-01-01

    Loop quantum cosmology applies techniques derived for a background independent quantization of general relativity to cosmological situations and draws conclusions for the very early universe. Direct implications for the singularity problem as well as phenomenology in the context of inflation or bouncing universes result, which will be reviewed here. The discussion focuses on recent new results for structure formation and generalizations of the methods.

  3. Stochastic evolution of cosmological parameters in the early universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Sivakumar; Moncy V John; K Babu Joseph

    2001-04-01

    We develop a stochastic formulation of cosmology in the early universe, after considering the scatter in the redshift-apparent magnitude diagram in the early epochs as an observational evidence for the non-deterministic evolution of early universe. We consider the stochastic evolution of density parameter in the early universe after the inflationary phase qualitatively, under the assumption of fluctuating factor in the equation of state, in the Fokker–Planck formalism. Since the scale factor for the universe depends on the energy density, from the coupled Friedmann equations we calculated the two variable probability distribution function assuming a flat space geometry

  4. Bulk viscous cosmology in early Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C P Singh

    2008-07-01

    The effect of bulk viscosity on the early evolution of Universe for a spatially homogeneous and isotropic Robertson-Walker model is considered. Einstein's field equations are solved by using `gamma-law' equation of state = ( - 1)ρ, where the adiabatic parameter gamma () depends on the scale factor of the model. The `gamma' function is defined in such a way that it describes a unified solution of early evolution of the Universe for inflationary and radiation-dominated phases. The fluid has only bulk viscous term and the coefficient of bulk viscosity is taken to be proportional to some power function of the energy density. The complete general solutions have been given through three cases. For flat space, power-law as well as exponential solutions are found. The problem of how the introduction of viscosity affects the appearance of singularity, is briefly discussed in particular solutions. The deceleration parameter has a freedom to vary with the scale factor of the model, which describes the accelerating expansion of the Universe.

  5. Early universe cosmology and tests of fundamental physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas Albrecht, Joshua A. Frieman and Mark Trodden

    2002-03-04

    This is the report of the Working Group on Early Universe Cosmology and tests of Fundamental Physics, group P4.8 of the of the Snowmass 2001 conference. Here we summarize the impressive array of advances that have taken place in this field, and identify opportunities for even greater progress in the future. Topics include Dark Energy, Cosmic Acceleration, Inflation, Phase Transitions, Baryogenesis, and String/M-theory Cosmology. The introductory section gives an executive summary with six key open questions on which we can expect to make significant progress.

  6. Predictability crisis in early universe cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeenk, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Inflationary cosmology has been widely accepted due to its successful predictions: for a "generic" initial state, inflation produces a homogeneous, flat, bubble with an appropriate spectrum of density perturbations. However, the discovery that inflation is "generically eternal," leading to a vast multiverse of inflationary bubbles with different low-energy physics, threatens to undermine this account. There is a "predictability crisis" in eternal inflation, because extracting predictions apparently requires a well-defined measure over the multiverse. This has led to discussions of anthropic predictions based on a measure over the multiverse, and an assumption that we are typical observers. I will give a pessimistic assessment of attempts to make predictions in this sense, emphasizing in particular problems that arise even if a unique measure can be found.

  7. Do we have a theory of early universe cosmology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenberger, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The inflationary scenario has become the paradigm of early universe cosmology, and - in conjunction with ideas from superstring theory-has led to speculations about an "inflationary multiverse". From a point of view of phenomenology, the inflationary universe scenario has been very successful. However, the scenario suffers from some conceptual problems, and thus it does not (yet) have the status of a solid theory. There are alternative ideas for the evolution of the very early universe which do not involve inflation but which agree with most current cosmological observations as well as inflation does. In this lecture I will outline the conceptual problems of inflation and introduce two alternative pictures - the "matter bounce" and "string gas cosmology", the latter being a realization of the "emergent universe" scenario based on some key principles of superstring theory. I will demonstrate that these two alternative pictures lead to the same predictions for the power spectrum of the observed large-scale structure and for the angular power spectrum of cosmic microwave background anisotropies as the inflationary scenario, and I will mention predictions for future observations with which the three scenarios can be observationally teased apart.

  8. Early Universe Cosmology, Effective Supergravity, and Invariants of Algebraic Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, Kuver

    2015-01-01

    The presence of light scalars can have profound effects on early universe cosmology, influencing its thermal history as well as paradigms like inflation and baryogenesis. Effective supergravity provides a framework to make quantifiable, model-independent studies of these effects. The Riemanian curvature of the Kahler manifold spanned by scalars belonging to chiral superfields, evaluated along supersymmetry breaking directions, provides an order parameter (in the sense that it must necessarily take certain values) for phenomena as diverse as slow roll modular inflation, non-thermal cosmological histories, and the viability of Affleck-Dine baryogenesis. Within certain classes of UV completions, the order parameter for theories with $n$ scalar moduli is conjectured to be related to invariants of $n$-ary cubic forms (for example, for models with three moduli, the order parameter is given by the ring of invariants spanned by the Aronhold invariants). Within these completions, and under the caveats spelled out, thi...

  9. Brane gases in the early universe: thermodynamics and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Easther, R; Jackson, M G; Kabat, D; Easther, Richard; Greene, Brian R.; Jackson, Mark G.; Kabat, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    We consider the thermodynamic and cosmological properties of brane gases in the early universe. Working in the low energy limit of M-theory we assume the universe is a homogeneous but anisotropic 10-torus containing wrapped 2-branes and a supergravity gas. We describe the thermodynamics of this system and estimate a Hagedorn temperature associated with excitations on the branes. We investigate the cross-section for production of branes from the thermal bath and derive Boltzmann equations governing the number of wrapped branes. A brane gas may lead to decompactification of three spatial dimensions. To investigate this possibility we adopt initial conditions in which we fix the volume of the torus but otherwise assume all states are equally likely. We solve the Einstein-Boltzmann equations numerically, to determine the number of dimensions with no wrapped branes at late times; these unwrapped dimensions are expected to decompactify. Finally we consider holographic bounds on the initial volume, and find that for...

  10. Cosmological Consequences of QCD Phase Transition(s) in Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the cosmological consequences of QCD phase transition(s) on the early universe. We argue that our recent knowledge about the transport properties of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) should throw additional lights on the actual time evolution of our universe. Understanding the nature of QCD phase transition(s), which can be studied in lattice gauge theory and verified in heavy ion experiments, provides an explanation for cosmological phenomenon stem from early universe.

  11. Thermal Relics in Modified Cosmologies: Bounds on Evolution Histories of the Early Universe and Cosmological Boosts for PAMELA

    CERN Document Server

    Catena, R; Pato, M; Pieri, L; Masiero, A

    2010-01-01

    Alternative cosmologies, based on extensions of General Relativity, predict modified thermal histories in the Early Universe in the pre Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) era, epoch which is not directly constrained by cosmological observations. When the expansion rate is enhanced with respect to the standard case, thermal relics typically decouple with larger relic abundances. The correct value of the relic abundance is therefore obtained for larger annihilation cross sections, as compared to standard cosmology. A direct consequence is that indirect detection rates are enhanced. Extending previous analyses of ours, we derive updated astrophysical bounds on the dark matter annihilation cross sections and use them to constrain alternative cosmologies in the pre-BBN era. We also determine the characteristics of these alternative cosmologies in order to provide the correct value of relic abundance for a thermal relic for the (large) annihilation cross section required to explain the PAMELA results on the positron fr...

  12. Early universe cosmology. In supersymmetric extensions of the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Jochen Peter

    2012-03-19

    In this thesis we investigate possible connections between cosmological inflation and leptogenesis on the one side and particle physics on the other side. We work in supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model. A key role is played by the right-handed sneutrino, the superpartner of the right-handed neutrino involved in the type I seesaw mechanism. We study a combined model of inflation and non-thermal leptogenesis that is a simple extension of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with conserved R-parity, where we add three right-handed neutrino super fields. The inflaton direction is given by the imaginary components of the corresponding scalar component fields, which are protected from the supergravity (SUGRA) {eta}-problem by a shift symmetry in the Kaehler potential. We discuss the model first in a globally supersymmetric (SUSY) and then in a supergravity context and compute the inflationary predictions of the model. We also study reheating and non-thermal leptogenesis in this model. A numerical simulation shows that shortly after the waterfall phase transition that ends inflation, the universe is dominated by right-handed sneutrinos and their out-of-equilibrium decay can produce the desired matter-antimatter asymmetry. Using a simplified time-averaged description, we derive analytical expressions for the model predictions. Combining the results from inflation and leptogenesis allows us to constrain the allowed parameter space from two different directions, with implications for low energy neutrino physics. As a second thread of investigation, we discuss a generalisation of the inflationary model discussed above to include gauge non-singlet fields as inflatons. This is motivated by the fact that in left-right symmetric, supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (SUSY GUTs), like SUSY Pati-Salam unification or SUSY SO(10) GUTs, the righthanded (s)neutrino is an indispensable ingredient and does not have to be put in by hand as in the MSSM. We discuss

  13. Early viscous universe with variable gravitational and cosmological 'constants'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, C P [Department of Applied Mathematics, Delhi College of Engineering, Bawana Road, Delhi-110 042 (India); Kumar, Suresh [Department of Applied Mathematics, Delhi College of Engineering, Bawana Road, Delhi-110 042 (India); Pradhan, A [Department of Mathematics, Hindu Post-Graduate College, Zamania, Ghazipur-232 331 (India)

    2007-01-21

    Einstein's field equations with variable gravitational and cosmological 'constants' are considered in the presence of bulk viscosity for a spatially flat homogeneous and isotropic universe. Solutions are obtained by using a 'gamma-law' equation of state p = ({gamma} - 1){rho}, where the adiabatic parameter {gamma} varies continuously as the universe expands. A unified description of the early evolution of universe is presented with a number of possible assumptions on the bulk viscous term and gravitational constant in which an inflationary phase is followed by radiation-dominated phase. We investigate the cosmological model with constant and time-dependent bulk viscosity (proportional to power function of energy density and to Hubble parameter) along with constant and variable gravitational constant. The effect of viscosity is shown to affect the past and future of the universe. In all cases, the cosmological constant {lambda} is found to be positive and a decreasing function of time, which supports the results obtained from recent supernovae Ia observations. The possibility that the present acceleration of the universe is driven by a kind of viscous fluid is explained. At the background level this model is similar to the generalized Chaplygin gas model. The physical and geometrical significance of the early cosmological models has also been discussed.

  14. A Class of LQC--inspired Models for Homogeneous, Anisotropic Cosmology in Higher Dimensional Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Rama, S Kalyana

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of a (3 + 1) dimensional homogeneous anisotropic universe is modified by Loop Quantum Cosmology and, consequently, it has generically a big bounce in the past instead of a big-bang singularity. This modified dynamics can be well described by effective equations of motion. We generalise these effective equations of motion empirically to (d + 1) dimensions. The generalised equations involve two functions and may be considered as a class of LQC -- inspired models for (d + 1) dimensional early universe cosmology. As a special case, one can now obtain a universe which has neither a big bang singularity nor a big bounce but approaches asymptotically a `Hagedorn like' phase in the past where its density and volume remain constant. In a few special cases, we also obtain explicit solutions.

  15. A class of LQC-inspired models for homogeneous, anisotropic cosmology in higher dimensional early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama, S. Kalyana

    2016-12-01

    The dynamics of a (3 + 1) dimensional homogeneous anisotropic universe is modified by loop quantum cosmology and, consequently, it has generically a big bounce in the past instead of a big-bang singularity. This modified dynamics can be well described by effective equations of motion. We generalise these effective equations of motion empirically to (d + 1) dimensions. The generalised equations involve two functions and may be considered as a class of LQC-inspired models for (d + 1) dimensional early universe cosmology. As a special case, one can now obtain a universe which has neither a big bang singularity nor a big bounce but approaches asymptotically a `Hagedorn like' phase in the past where its density and volume remain constant. In a few special cases, we also obtain explicit solutions.

  16. The Hubble parameter in the early universe with viscous QCD matter and finite cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of a flat, isotropic and homogeneous universe is studied. The background geometry in the early phases of the universe is conjectured to be filled with causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid and dark energy. The energy density relations obtained from the assumption of covariant conservation of energy-momentum tensor of the background matter in the early universe are used to derive the basic equation for the Hubble parameter $H$. The viscous properties described by ultra-relativistic equations of state and bulk viscosity taken from recent heavy-ion collisions and lattice QCD calculations have been utilized to give an approximate solution of the field equations. The cosmological constant is conjectured to be related to the energy density of the vacuum. In this treatment, there is a clear evidence for singularity at vanishing cosmic time $t$ indicating the dominant contribution from the dark energy. The time evolution of $H$ seems to last for much longer time than the ideal case, where both cosmolog...

  17. Phase Transitions in the Early Universe with Negatively Induced Supergravity Cosmological Constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EL-NABULSI Ahmad Rami

    2006-01-01

    @@ We consider that the observable cosmological constant is the sum of the vacuum (Avac) and the induced term (Aind - 3m2/4) with m being the ultra-light masses (≈ Hubble parameter) implemented in the theory from supergravities arguments and non-minimal coupling. In the absence of a scalar buildup of matter fields, we study its effects on spontaneous symmetry breaking with a Higgs potential and show how the presence of the ultra-light masses yields some important consequences for the early universe and new constraints on the Higgs and electroweak gauge bosons masses.

  18. The Hubble parameter in the early universe with viscous QCD matter and finite cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, A. [Egyptian Center for Theoretical Physics (ECTP), MTI University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-05-15

    The evolution of a flat, isotropic and homogeneous universe is studied. The background geometry in the early phases of the universe is conjectured to be filled with causal bulk viscous fluid and dark energy. The energy density relations obtained from the assumption of covariant conservation of energy-momentum tensor of the background matter in the early universe are used to derive the basic equation for the Hubble parameter H. The viscous properties described by ultra-relativistic equations of state and bulk viscosity taken from recent heavy-ion collisions and lattice QCD calculations have been utilized to give an approximate solution of the field equations. The cosmological constant is conjectured to be related to the energy density of the vacuum. In this treatment, there is a clear evidence for singularity at vanishing cosmic time t indicating the dominant contribution from the dark energy. The time evolution of H seems to last for much longer time than the ideal case, where both cosmological constant and viscosity coefficient are entirely vanishing. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Computational Cosmology: from the Early Universe to the Large Scale Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anninos Peter

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to account for the observable Universe, any comprehensive theory or model of cosmology must draw from many disciplines of physics, including gauge theories of strong and weak interactions, the hydrodynamics and microphysics of baryonic matter, electromagnetic fields, and spacetime curvature, for example. Although it is difficult to incorporate all these physical elements into a single complete model of our Universe, advances in computing methods and technologies have contributed significantly towards our understanding of cosmological models, the Universe, and astrophysical processes within them. A sample of numerical calculations (and numerical methods applied to specific issues in cosmology are reviewed in this article: from the Big Bang singularity dynamics to the fundamental interactions of gravitational waves; from the quark-hadron phase transition to the large scale structure of the Universe. The emphasis, although not exclusively, is on those calculations designed to test different models of cosmology against the observed Universe.

  20. Computational Cosmology: from the Early Universe to the Large Scale Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Anninos

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to account for the observable Universe, any comprehensive theory or model of cosmology must draw from many disciplines of physics, including gauge theories of strong and weak interactions, the hydrodynamics and microphysics of baryonic matter, electromagnetic fields, and spacetime curvature, for example. Although it is difficult to incorporate all these physical elements into a single complete model of our Universe, advances in computing methods and technologies have contributed significantly towards our understanding of cosmological models, the Universe, and astrophysical processes within them. A sample of numerical calculations addressing specific issues in cosmology are reviewed in this article: from the Big Bang singularity dynamics to the fundamental interactions of gravitational waves; from the quark--hadron phase transition to the large scale structure of the Universe. The emphasis, although not exclusively, is on thosecalculations designed to test different models of cosmology against the observed Universe.

  1. Early Cosmology Constrained

    CERN Document Server

    Verde, Licia; Pigozzo, Cassio; Heavens, Alan F; Jimenez, Raul

    2016-01-01

    We investigate our knowledge of early universe cosmology by exploring how much additional energy density can be placed in different components beyond those in the $\\Lambda$CDM model. To do this we use a method to separate early- and late-universe information enclosed in observational data, thus markedly reducing the model-dependency of the conclusions. We find that the 95\\% credibility regions for extra energy components of the early universe at recombination are: non-accelerating additional fluid density parameter $\\Omega_{\\rm MR} < 0.006$ and extra radiation parameterised as extra effective neutrino species $2.3 < N_{\\rm eff} < 3.2$ when imposing flatness. Our constraints thus show that even when analyzing the data in this largely model-independent way, the possibility of hiding extra energy components beyond $\\Lambda$CDM in the early universe is seriously constrained by current observations. We also find that the standard ruler, the sound horizon at radiation drag, can be well determined in a way ...

  2. M-theory And Superstring Cosmology Brane Gases In The Early Universe And Nonsingular Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Easson, D A

    2002-01-01

    This thesis will examine two major themes in modern cosmology. The first part of the thesis is concerned with the interface of superstring theory and M-theory with cosmology. We begin by providing a general background of various superstring cosmological models. In particular, we focus on the “Brane Gas” model of string cosmology (BGC) which was developed, in part, by the author. In this scenario the initial state of the Universe is taken to be small, dense and hot with all fundamental degrees of freedom near thermal equilibrium. Such a starting point is in close analogy with the Standard Big-Bang (SBB) model. The topology of the Universe is assumed to be toroidal in all nine spatial dimensions and the Universe is filled with a gas of p- branes. The dynamics of winding modes allow, at most, three spatial dimensions to become large, thus explaining the origin of our macroscopic 3 + 1-dimensional Universe. Specific solutions that are found within the model exhibit loitering, i.e. the Universe...

  3. Gravity, black holes and the very early Universe an introduction to general relativity and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, Tai L

    2008-01-01

    In the early 1900s, Albert Einstein formulated two theories that would forever change the landscape of physics: the Special Theory of Relativity and the General Theory of Relativity. By 1925, quantum mechanics had been born out of the dissection of these two theories, and shortly after that, relativistic quantum field theory. We now had in place some important ties between the laws of physics and the types of particle interactions the new physics was uncovering. Gravity is one of the four types of forces that are found throughout the universe. In fact, although it is a relatively weak force, it operates at huge distances, and so must be accounted for in any cosmological system. Unfortunately, gravity continues to defy our neat categorization of how all the forces in nature work together. Professor Tai Chow, from the California State University at Stanislaus in Turlock, lays out for us the basic ideas of Einstein, including his law of gravitation, explains the physics behind black holes, and weaves into this a...

  4. Cosmological QCD phase transition in steady non-equilibrium dissipative Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Khodadi, M

    2014-01-01

    We study the phase transition from quark-gluon plasma to hadrons in the early universe in the context of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. According to the standard model of cosmology, a phase transition associated with chiral symmetry breaking after the electro-weak transition has occurred when the universe was about $1-10\\mu s$ old. We focus attention on such a phase transition in the presence of a viscous relativistic cosmological background fluid in the framework of non-detailed balance Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz cosmology within an effective model of QCD. We consider a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe filled with a non-causal and causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid respectively and investigate the effects of the running coupling constants of Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity, $\\lambda$, on the evolution of the physical quantities relevant to a description of the early universe, namely, the temperature $T$, scale factor $a$, deceleration parameter $q$ and dimensionless ratio of the bulk viscosity coefficient ...

  5. A cosmological model of the early universe based on ECG with variable $\\Lambda$-term in Lyra geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Saadat, H

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study interacting extended Chaplygin gas as dark matter and quintessence scalar field as dark energy with an effective $\\Lambda$-term in Lyra manifold. As we know Chaplygin gas behaves as dark matter at the early universe while cosmological constant at the late time. Modified field equations are given and motivation of the phenomenological models discussed in details. Four different models based on the interaction term are investigated in this work. Then, we consider other models where Extended Chaplygin gas and quintessence field play role of dark matter and dark energy respectively with two different forms of interaction between the extended Chaplygin gas and quintessence scalar field for both constant and varying $\\Lambda$. Concerning to the mathematical hardness of the problems we discuss results numerically and graphically. Obtained results give us hope that proposed models can work as good models for the early universe with later stage of evolution containing accelerated expansion.

  6. A Cosmological Model of the Early Universe Based on ECG with Variable Λ-Term in Lyra Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, H.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we study interacting extended Chaplygin gas as dark matter and quintessence scalar field as dark energy with an effective Λ-term in Lyra manifold. As we know Chaplygin gas behaves as dark matter at the early universe while cosmological constant at the late time. Modified field equations are given and motivation of the phenomenological models discussed in details. Four different models based on the interaction term are investigated in this work. Then, we consider other models where Extended Chaplygin gas and quintessence field play role of dark matter and dark energy respectively with two different forms of interaction between the extended Chaplygin gas and quintessence scalar field for both constant and varying Λ. Concerning to the mathematical hardness of the problems we discuss results numerically and graphically. Obtained results give us hope that proposed models can work as good models for the early universe with later stage of evolution containing accelerated expansion.

  7. Cosmological Imprints of a Generalized Chaplygin Gas Model for the Early Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; /Lisbon, CENTRA; Chen, Pisin; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Liu, Yen-Wei; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.

    2012-06-06

    We propose a phenomenological model for the early universe where there is a smooth transition between an early quintessence phase and a radiation-dominated era. The matter content is modeled by an appropriately modified Chaplygin gas for the early universe. We constrain the model observationally by mapping the primordial power spectrum of the scalar perturbations to the latest data of WMAP7. We compute as well the spectrum of the primordial gravitational waves as would be measured today. We show that the high frequencies region of the spectrum depends on the free parameter of the model and most importantly this region of the spectrum can be within the reach of future gravitational waves detectors.

  8. Detecting quantum gravitational effects of loop quantum cosmology in the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Tao; Cleaver, Gerald; Kirsten, Klaus; Sheng, Qin; Wu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We derive the primordial power spectra and spectral indexes of the density fluctuations and gravitational waves in the framework of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) with holonomy and inverse-volume corrections, by using the uniform asymptotic approximation method to its third-order, at which the upper error bounds are $\\lesssim 0.15\\%$, accurate enough for the current and forthcoming cosmological observations. Then, using the Planck, BAO and SN data we obtain new constraints on quantum gravitational effects from LQC corrections, and find that such effects could be well within the detection of the current and forthcoming experiments.

  9. Stringent magnetic field limits from early universe dynamos cosmology with torsion

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Luiz Carlos Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Earlier Bamba et al [JCAP (2012)] have obtained cosmological magnetic fields in teleparallel torsion theories of gravity that are not compatible with galactic dynamos. This result agrees with previous ones obtained by the author which shows [Phys Lett B (2012)] that anti-dynamo generalised theorem to torsion theories forbides such kind of dynamos to explain galactic magnetic fields of the order of ${\\mu}$G. More recently the author has suggested [IJAA (2012)] that a sort of Biermann battery could be obtained in torsioned cosmology. Nevertheless in this paper we show that this can be a particular result, since the second author did not took into account mean field dynamo equations in torsion field background. Actually it is shown that amplification or not of the magnetic field depends upon handness sign of the torsion field vector. It is shown that density fluctuations of spin-torsion density implies also a possibility of amplification of the cosmic magnetic fields. From WMAP data it is possible to estimate th...

  10. Quantum Cosmology for Tunneling Universes

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sang Pyo

    2004-01-01

    In a quantum cosmological model consisting of a Euclidean region and a Lorentzian region, Hartle-Hawking's no-bounary wave function, and Linde's wave function and Vilenkin's tunneling wave function are briefly described and compared with each other. We put a particular emphasis on semiclassical gravity from quantum cosmology and compare it with the conventional quantum field theory in curved spacetimes. Finally, we discuss the recent debate on catastrophic particle production in the tunneling universe between Rubakov and Vilenkin within the semiclassical gravity.

  11. A fresh view of cosmological models describing very early Universe: general solution of the dynamical equations

    CERN Document Server

    Filippov, A T

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of any spherical cosmology with a scalar field (`scalaron') coupling to gravity is described by the nonlinear second-order differential equations for two metric functions and the scalaron depending on the `time' parameter. The equations depend on the scalaron potential and on arbitrary gauge function that describes time parameterizations. This dynamical system can be integrated for flat, isotropic models with very special potentials. But, somewhat unexpectedly, replacing the independent variable $t$ by one of the metric functions allows us to completely integrate the general spherical theory in any gauge and with arbitrary potentials. In this approach, inflationary solutions can be easily identified, explicitly derived, and compared to the standard approximate expressions. This approach is also applicable to intrinsically anisotropic models with a massive vector field (`vecton') as well as to some non-inflationary models.

  12. Early Reionization in Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Durrer, R

    1993-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies have turned out to represent one of the most stringent 'bottle necks' for scenarios of large scale structure formation. As a possibility to relax this constraint, it has been proposed that early reionization can damp CMB fluctuations on small scales due to photon diffusion in the ionized plasma. As an example, I investigate the recently proposed scenario with cold dark matter (CDM) and texture seeds. There, an analysis of CMB anisotropies shows that early reionization is a crucial ingredient for this scenario. Without damping, the small scale anisotropies would dominate and exceed observed limits. In this paper I present analytical and numerical results for the amount of damping due to early reionization for CMB perturbations induced by a collapsing texture. Furthermore, the spectral distortion of the CMB due to Compton scattering of the hotter plasma electrons is calculated. Next I discuss the physical processes which lead to a system of coupled ordinary dif...

  13. Singularities in universes with negative cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipler, F.J.

    1976-10-01

    It is well known that many universes with negative cosmological constant contain singularities. We shall generalize this result by proving that all closed universes with negative cosmological constant are both future and past timelike geodesically incomplete if the strong energy condition holds. No global causality conditions or restrictions on the initial data are used in the proof. Furthermore, we shall show that all open universes with a Cauchy surface and a negative cosmological constant are singular if the strong energy condition holds. (AIP)

  14. Interacting universes and the cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Serrano, A. [Centro de Física “Miguel Catalán”, Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estación Ecológica de Biocosmología, Pedro de Alvarado 14, 06411 Medellín (Spain); Bastos, C. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Bertolami, O. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Robles-Pérez, S., E-mail: salvarp@imaff.cfmac.csic.es [Centro de Física “Miguel Catalán”, Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estación Ecológica de Biocosmología, Pedro de Alvarado 14, 06411 Medellín (Spain); Física Teórica, Universidad del País Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2013-02-12

    In this Letter it is studied the effects that an interaction scheme among universes can have in the values of their cosmological constants. In the case of two interacting universes, the value of the cosmological constant of one of the universes becomes very close to zero at the expense of an increasing value of the cosmological constant of the partner universe. In the more general case of a chain of N interacting universes with periodic boundary conditions, the spectrum of the Hamiltonian splits into a large number of levels, each of them associated with a particular value of the cosmological constant, that can be occupied by single universes revealing a collective behavior that plainly shows that the multiverse is much more than the mere sum of its parts.

  15. Inhomogeneous Universe Models with Varying Cosmological Term

    CERN Document Server

    Chimento, L P; Chimento, Luis P.; Pavon, Diego

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of a class of inhomogeneous spherically symmetric universe models possessing a varying cosmological term and a material fluid, with an adiabatic index either constant or not, is studied.

  16. A new perspective on early cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Alesci, Emanuele

    2013-01-01

    We present a new perspective on early cosmology based on Loop Quantum Gravity. We use projected spinnetworks, coherent states and spinfoam techniques, to implement a quantum reduction of the full Kinematical Hilbert space of LQG, suitable to describe inhomogeneous cosmological models. Some preliminary results on the solutions of the Scalar constraint of the reduced theory are also presented.

  17. Cosmological evolution in a brane-universe

    CERN Document Server

    Langlois, D

    2002-01-01

    The idea of extra-dimensions has recently gone through a renewal with the hypothesis, suggested by recent developments in string theory, that ordinary matter is confined to a sub-space, called brane, embedded in a higher dimensional spacetime. I summarize here some consequences in cosmology of this type of models. The most remarkable aspect is that the Friedmann laws, which govern the expansion of the Universe, are modified. An important direction of research is the study of cosmological perturbations and the possible signature of extra-dimensions in cosmological observations.

  18. Rotation of the Universe at different cosmological epochs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechin, L. M.

    2016-06-01

    A step-by-step foundation for the differential character of the Universe's rotation is presented. First, invoking the concept of spacetime foam with spin, it is reasonable to assume that the very early Universe can be described by the Dirac equation. Second, it is shown using the Ehrenfest theorem that, from a classical point of view, the early Universe can be described by the Papapetrou equations. Third, it is stressed that our Universe can perform only rotational motion. It is shown based on the spin part of the Papapetrou equations that the Universe's rotation depends appreciably on the physical properties of a specific cosmological epoch. The rotational angular velocity is calculated for three basic cosmological epochs: the matter-dominated epoch, the transition period (from domination of matter to domination of vacuum), and the vacuum-dominated epoch.

  19. Cosmological Constant, Quintessence and Expansive Nondecelerative Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Sima, J; Sima, Jozef; Sukenik, Miroslav

    2001-01-01

    Recent observations of the Universe have led to a conclusion suppressing an up-to-now supposed deceleration of the Universe caused by attractive gravitational forces. Contrary, there is a renaissance of the cosmological member lambda and introduction of enigmatic repulsive dark energy in attempts to rationalize a would-be acceleration of the Universe expansion. It is documented that the model of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe is capable to offer acceptable answers to the questions on the Universe expansion, state equations of the Universe, the parameter omega, the cosmological member lambda without any necessity to introduce new strange kinds of matter or energy being in accord with the fundamental conservation laws and generally accepted parameters of the Universe.

  20. Weaving the universe is modern cosmology discovered or invented?

    CERN Document Server

    Wesson, Paul S

    2011-01-01

    This new book is a thorough but short review of the history and present status of ideas in cosmology. It is aimed at a broad audience, but will contain a few equations where needed to make the argument exact. The coverage of cosmological ideas will focus mainly on the period from the early 1900s when Einstein formulated relativity and when his colleague Sir Arthur Eddington was creating relativistic models of the universe. It ends with the completion of the Large Hadron Collider in late 2008, having surveyed modern ideas of particle physics and astrophysics. To organize the large body of infor

  1. Cosmological CMBR dipole in open universes?

    CERN Document Server

    Langlois, D

    1997-01-01

    The observed CMBR dipole is generally interpreted as a Doppler effect arising from the motion of the Earth relative to the CMBR frame. An alternative interpretation, proposed in the last years, is that the dipole results from ultra-large scale isocurvature perturbations. We examine this idea in the context of open cosmologies and show that the isocurvature interpretation is not valid in an open universe, unless it is extremely close to a flat universe, $|\\Omega_0 -1|< 10^{-4}$.

  2. By Dawn's Early Light: CMB Polarization Impact on Cosmological Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Sudeep; Linder, Eric V.

    2012-01-01

    Cosmic microwave background polarization encodes information not only on the early universe but also dark energy, neutrino mass, and gravity in the late universe through CMB lensing. Ground based surveys such as ACTpol, PolarBear, SPTpol significantly complement cosmological constraints from the Planck satellite, strengthening the CMB dark energy figure of merit and neutrino mass constraints by factors of 3-4. This changes the dark energy probe landscape. We evaluate the state of knowledge in...

  3. Cosmological Hysteresis and the Cyclic Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Sahni, Varun

    2012-01-01

    A Universe filled with a homogeneous scalar field exhibits `Cosmological hysteresis'. Cosmological hysteresis is caused by the asymmetry in the equation of state during expansion and contraction. This asymmetry results in the formation of a hysteresis loop: $\\oint pdV$, whose value can be non-vanishing during each oscillatory cycle. For flat potentials, a negative value of the hysteresis loop leads to the increase in amplitude of consecutive cycles and to a universe with older and larger successive cycles. Such a universe appears to possess an arrow of time even though entropy production is absent and all of the equations respect time-reversal symmetry ! Cosmological hysteresis appears to be widespread and exists for a large class of scalar field potentials and mechanisms for making the universe bounce. For steep potentials, the value of the hysteresis loop can be positive as well as negative. The expansion factor in this case displays quasi-periodic behaviour in which successive cycles can be both larger as ...

  4. Conspiratorial cosmology - the case against the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Rachen, Jörg P

    2013-01-01

    Based on the cosmological results of the Planck Mission, we show that all parameters describing our Universe within the \\Lambda CDM model can be constructed from a small set of numbers known from conspiracy theory. Our finding is confirmed by recent data from high energy particle physics. This clearly demonstrates that our Universe is a plot initiated an unknown interest group or lodge. We analyse possible scenarios for this conspiracy, and conclude that the belief in the existence of our Universe is an illusion, as previously assumed by ancient philosophers, 20th century science fiction authors and contemporary film makers.

  5. The best-fit universe. [cosmological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Michael S.

    1991-01-01

    Inflation provides very strong motivation for a flat Universe, Harrison-Zel'dovich (constant-curvature) perturbations, and cold dark matter. However, there are a number of cosmological observations that conflict with the predictions of the simplest such model: one with zero cosmological constant. They include the age of the Universe, dynamical determinations of Omega, galaxy-number counts, and the apparent abundance of large-scale structure in the Universe. While the discrepancies are not yet serious enough to rule out the simplest and most well motivated model, the current data point to a best-fit model with the following parameters: Omega(sub B) approximately equal to 0.03, Omega(sub CDM) approximately equal to 0.17, Omega(sub Lambda) approximately equal to 0.8, and H(sub 0) approximately equal to 70 km/(sec x Mpc) which improves significantly the concordance with observations. While there is no good reason to expect such a value for the cosmological constant, there is no physical principle that would rule out such.

  6. The best-fit universe. [cosmological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Michael S.

    1991-01-01

    Inflation provides very strong motivation for a flat Universe, Harrison-Zel'dovich (constant-curvature) perturbations, and cold dark matter. However, there are a number of cosmological observations that conflict with the predictions of the simplest such model: one with zero cosmological constant. They include the age of the Universe, dynamical determinations of Omega, galaxy-number counts, and the apparent abundance of large-scale structure in the Universe. While the discrepancies are not yet serious enough to rule out the simplest and most well motivated model, the current data point to a best-fit model with the following parameters: Omega(sub B) approximately equal to 0.03, Omega(sub CDM) approximately equal to 0.17, Omega(sub Lambda) approximately equal to 0.8, and H(sub 0) approximately equal to 70 km/(sec x Mpc) which improves significantly the concordance with observations. While there is no good reason to expect such a value for the cosmological constant, there is no physical principle that would rule out such.

  7. Cosmological immortality: how to eliminate aging on a universal scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Clement

    2014-01-01

    The death of our universe is as certain as our individual death. Some cosmologists have elaborated models which would make the cosmos immortal. In this paper, I examine them as cosmological extrapolations of immortality narratives that civilizations have developed to face death anxiety. I first show why cosmological death should be a worry, then I briefly examine scenarios involving the notion of soul or resurrection on a cosmological scale. I discuss in how far an intelligent civilization could stay alive by engaging in stellar, galactic and universal rejuvenation. Finally, I argue that leaving a cosmological legacy via universe making is an inspiring and promising narrative to achieve cosmological immortality.

  8. Entropy production in the early-cosmology pionic phase

    CERN Document Server

    Dobado, Antonio; Rodriguez-Fernandez, David

    2015-01-01

    We point out that in the early universe, for temperatures in the approximate interval 175-80 MeV (after the quark-gluon plasma), pions carried a large share of the entropy and supported the largest inhomogeneities. Thus, we examine the production of entropy in a pion gas, particularizing to inhomogeneities of the temperature, for which we benefit from the known thermal conductivity. We finally put that entropy produced in relaxing such thermal inhomogeneities in the broad context of this relatively unexplored phase of early-universe cosmology.

  9. Fractal Cosmology in an Open Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Joyce, M; Montuori, M; Pietronero, L; Sylos-Labini, F

    2000-01-01

    The clustering of galaxies is well characterized by fractal properties, withthe presence of an eventual cross-over to homogeneity still a matter ofconsiderable debate. In this letter we discuss the cosmological implications ofa fractal distribution of matter, with a possible cross-over to homogeneity atan undetermined scale R_{homo}. Contrary to what is generally assumed, we showthat, even when R_{homo} -> \\infty, this possibility can be treatedconsistently within the framework of the expanding universe solutions ofFriedmann. The fractal is a perturbation to an open cosmology in which theleading homogeneous component is the cosmic background radiation (CBR). Thiscosmology, inspired by the observed galaxy distributions, provides a simpleexplanation for the recent data which indicate the absence of deceleration inthe expansion (q_o \\approx 0). Correspondingly the `age problem' is alsoresolved. Further we show that the model can be extended back from thecurvature dominated arbitrarily deep into the radiation dom...

  10. Emergent universe in spatially flat cosmological model

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Kaituo; Yu, Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    The scenario of an emergent universe provides a promising resolution to the big bang singularity in universes with positive or negative spatial curvature. It however remains unclear whether the scenario can be successfully implemented in a spatially flat universe which seems to be favored by present cosmological observations. In this paper, we study the stability of Einstein static state solutions in a spatially flat Shtanov-Sahni braneworld scenario. With a negative dark radiation term included and assuming a scalar field as the only matter energy component, we find that the universe can stay at an Einstein static state past eternally and then evolve to an inflation phase naturally as the scalar field climbs up its potential slowly. In addition, we also propose a concrete potential of the scalar field that realizes this scenario.

  11. Cosmology and Cosmogony in a Cyclic Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jayant V. Narlikar; Geoffrey Burbidge; R. G. Vishwakarma

    2007-06-01

    In this paper we discuss the properties of the quasi-steady state cosmological model (QSSC) developed in 1993 in its role as a cyclic model of the universe driven by a negative energy scalar field. We discuss the origin of such a scalar field in the primary creation process first described by F. Hoyle & J. V. Narlikar forty years ago. It is shown that the creation processes which take place in the nuclei of galaxies are closely linked to the high energy and explosive phenomena, which are commonly observed in galaxies at all redshifts. The cyclic nature of the universe provides a natural link between the places of origin of the microwave background radiation (arising in hydrogen burning in stars), and the origin of the lightest nuclei (H, D, He3 and He4). It also allows us to relate the large scale cyclic properties of the universe to events taking place in the nuclei of galaxies. Observational evidence shows that ejection of matter and energy from these centers in the form of compact objects, gas and relativistic particles is responsible for the population of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) and gamma-ray burst sources in the universe. In the later parts of the paper we briefly discuss the major unsolved problems of this integrated cosmological and cosmogonical scheme – the understanding of the origin of the intrinsic redshifts, and the periodicities in the redshift distribution of the QSOs.

  12. A New Cosmological Model: Black Hole Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang T. X.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new cosmological model called black hole universe is proposed. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up through a supermassive black hole with billion solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient mate- rials and merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers hierarchically. The innermost three layers are the universe that we are living, the outside called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer is infinite in radius and limits to zero for both the mass density and absolute temperature. The relationships among all layers or universes can be connected by the universe family tree. Mathematically, the entire space can be represented as a set of all universes. A black hole universe is a subset of the en- tire space or a subspace. The child universes are null sets or empty spaces. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics - the Einstein general theory of relativity with the Robertson-walker metric of spacetime - and tend to expand outward physically. The evolution of the space structure is iterative. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside. The entire life of a universe begins from the birth as a hot star-like or supermassive black hole, passes through the growth and cools down, and expands to the death with infinite large and zero mass density and absolute temperature. The black hole universe model is consistent with the Mach principle, the observations of the universe, and the Einstein general theory of relativity. Its various aspects can be understood with the well-developed physics without any difficulty. The dark energy is not required for the universe to accelerate its expansion. The inflation is not necessary because the black hole universe

  13. Cosmology of Universe Particles and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    For the first time in history, all properties of cosmology particles are uncovered and described concisely and systematically, known as the elementary particles in contemporary physics.Aligning with the synthesis of the virtual and physical worlds in a hierarchical taxonomy of the universe, this theory refines the topology framework of cosmology, and presents a new perspective of the Yin Yang natural laws that, through the processes of creation and reproduction, the fundamental elements generate an infinite series of circular objects and a Yin Yang duality of dynamic fields that are sequenced and transformed states of matter between the virtual and physical worlds.Once virtual objects are transformed, they embody various enclaves of energy states, known as dark energy, quarks, leptons, bosons, protons, and neutrons, characterized by their incentive oscillations of timestate variables in a duality of virtual realities: energy and time, spin and charge, mass and space, symmetry and antisymmetry.As a consequence, it derives the fully-scaled quantum properties of physical particles in accordance with numerous historical experiments, and has overcome the limitations of uncertainty principle and the Standard Model, towards concisely exploring physical nature and beyond...

  14. Shocks in the Early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen, Ue-Li; Turok, Neil

    2016-09-23

    We point out a surprising consequence of the usually assumed initial conditions for cosmological perturbations. Namely, a spectrum of Gaussian, linear, adiabatic, scalar, growing mode perturbations not only creates acoustic oscillations of the kind observed on very large scales today, it also leads to the production of shocks in the radiation fluid of the very early Universe. Shocks cause departures from local thermal equilibrium as well as create vorticity and gravitational waves. For a scale-invariant spectrum and standard model physics, shocks form for temperatures 1  GeVUniverse as early as 10^{-30}  sec after the big bang.

  15. Sterile Neutrinos in the Early Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamborra, Irene [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Hannestad, Steen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Tram, Thomas [Institut de Théorie des Phénomenènes Physiques, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-04-15

    Recent cosmological data favor additional relativistic degrees of freedom beyond the three active neutrinos and photons. Light sterile neutrinos are prime candidates for such additional radiation. However, constraints on sterile neutrinos based on the current cosmological data have been derived assuming that they are thermalized at the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) epoch and such assumption is not justified a priori. We will discuss the evolution of light sterile neutrinos in the early universe and their thermalization just before BBN begins.

  16. ALFALFA: HI Cosmology in the Local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2007-01-01

    For the last 25 years, the 21 cm line has been used productively to investigate the large-scale structure of the Universe, its peculiar velocity field and the measurement of cosmic parameters. In February 2005 a blind HI survey that will cover 7074 square degrees of the high latitude sky was started at Arecibo, using the 7-beam feed L-band feed array (ALFA). Known as the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) Survey, the program is producing a census of HI-bearing objects over a cosmologically significant volume of the local Universe. With respect to previous blind HI surveys, ALFALFA offers an improvement of about one order of magnitude in sensitivity, 4 times the angular resolution, 3 times the spectral resolution, and 1.6 times the total bandwidth of HIPASS. ALFALFA can detect 7 X 10**4 D**2 solar masses of HI, where D is the source distance in Mpc. As of mid 2007, 44% of the survey observations and 15% of the source extraction are completed. We discuss the status of the survey and present a few preliminary re...

  17. Universe by design an explanation of cosmology & creation

    CERN Document Server

    Faulkner, Danny

    2004-01-01

    The universe was created with purpose and reason; and modern science with all of its experiments, exploration, and sophistication has never proven otherwise. In fact, as author Dr. Danny Faulkner makes plain, advanced science argues more for a created cosmology than a big bang. Written for the upper-level student through the well-read layman, Universe by Design explores the universe, explaining its origins and discussing the historical development of cosmology from a creationist viewpoint.

  18. The expanding Universe a primer on relativistic cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Heacox, William D

    2015-01-01

    Cosmology - the science of the Universe at large - has experienced a renaissance in the decades bracketing the turn of the twenty-first century. Exploring our emerging understanding of cosmology, this text takes two complementary points of view: the physical principles underlying theories of cosmology, and the observable consequences of models of Universal expansion. The book develops cosmological models based on fundamental physical principles, with mathematics limited to the minimum necessary to keep the material accessible for students of physics and astronomy at the advanced undergraduate level. A substantial review of general relativity leading up to the Einstein field equations is included, with derivations of explicit formulations connecting observable features of the Universe to models of its expansion. Self-contained and up to date in respect of modern observations, the text provides a solid theoretical grounding in modern cosmology while preparing readers for the changes that will inevitably come fr...

  19. Early Modified Gravity: Implications for Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, Philippe; Clesse, Sebastien; Davis, Anne-Christine; Sculthorpe, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    We study the effects of modifications of gravity after Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) which would manifest themselves mainly before recombination. We consider their effects on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation and on the formation of large scale structure. The models that we introduce here represent all screened modifications of General Relativity (GR) which evade the local tests of gravity such as the violation of the strong equivalence principle as constrained by the Lunar Ranging experiment. We use the tomographic description of modified gravity which defines models with screening mechanisms of the chameleon or Damour-Polyakov types and allows one to relate the temporal evolution of the mass and the coupling to matter of a scalar field to its Lagrangian and also to cosmological perturbations. The models with early modifications of gravity all involve a coupling to matter which is stronger in the past leading to effects on perturbations before recombination while minimising deviations from Lam...

  20. Cosmological D-instantons and cyclic universes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, EA; Collinucci, A; Roest, D; Russo, JG; Townsend, PK

    2005-01-01

    For models of gravity coupled to hyperbolic sigma models, such as the metric-scalar sector of IIB supergravity, we show how smooth trajectories in the 'augmented target space' connect FLRW cosmologies to non-extremal D-instantons through a cosmological singularity. In particular, we find closed cycl

  1. By Dawn's Early Light: CMB Polarization Impact on Cosmological Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Sudeep

    2012-01-01

    Cosmic microwave background polarization encodes information not only on the early universe but also dark energy, neutrino mass, and gravity in the late universe through CMB lensing. Ground based surveys such as ACTpol, PolarBear, SPTpol significantly complement cosmological constraints from the Planck satellite, strengthening the CMB dark energy figure of merit and neutrino mass constraints by factors of 3-4. This changes the dark energy probe landscape. We evaluate the state of knowledge in 2017 from ongoing experiments including dark energy surveys (supernovae, weak lensing, galaxy clustering), fitting for dynamical dark energy, neutrino mass, and a modified gravitational growth index. Adding a modest strong lensing time delay survey improves those dark energy constraints by a further 32%, and an enhanced low redshift supernova program improves them by 26%.

  2. Universe's memory and spontaneous coherence in loop quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Pawłowski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The quantum bounce a priori connects several (semi)classical epochs of Universe evolution, however determining if and how well the semiclassicality is preserved in this transition is highly nontrivial. We review the present state of knowledge in that regards in the isotropic sector of loop quantum cosmology. This knowledge is next extended by studies of an isotropic universe admitting positive cosmological constant (featuring an infinite chain of large Universe epochs). It is also shown, that such universe always admits a semiclassical epoch thanks to spontaneous spontaneous coherence, provided it is semiclassical in certain constant of motion playing the role of energy.

  3. Cosmological hysteresis in cyclic universe from membrane paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Sayantan

    2016-01-01

    Cosmological hysteresis is a purely thermodynamical phenomenon caused by the gradient in pressure, hence the characteristic equation of state during the expansion and contraction phases of the universe are different, provided that the universe bounces and recollapses. During hysteresis pressure asymmetry is created due to the presence of a single scalar field in the dynamical process. Also such an interesting scenario has vivid implications in cosmology when applied to variants of modified gravity models described within the framework of membrane paradigm. Cyclic universe along with scalar field leads to the increase in the amplitude of the cosmological scale factor at each consecutive cycles of the universe. Detailed analysis shows that the conditions which creates a universe with an ever increasing expansion, depend on the signature of the hysteresis loop integral $\\oint pdV$ and on membrane model parameters.

  4. Particle physics in the very early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, D. N.

    1981-01-01

    Events in the very early big bang universe in which elementary particle physics effects may have been dominant are discussed, with attention to the generation of a net baryon number by way of grand unification theory, and emphasis on the possible role of massive neutrinos in increasing current understanding of various cosmological properties and of the constraints placed on neutrino properties by cosmology. It is noted that when grand unification theories are used to describe very early universe interactions, an initially baryon-symmetrical universe can evolve a net baryon excess of 10 to the -9th to 10 to the -11th per photon, given reasonable parameters. If neutrinos have mass, the bulk of the mass of the universe may be in the form of leptons, implying that the form of matter most familiar to physical science may not be the dominant form of matter in the universe.

  5. Two fundamental cosmological laws of the Local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshev, Yurij V

    2016-01-01

    The Local Universe is the most detail studied part of the observable region of space with the radius R about 100 Mpc. There are two empirical fundamental cosmological laws directly established from observations in the Local Universe independently from cosmological theory: first, the Hubble-Humason-Sandage linear redshift-distance law and second, Carpenter- Karachentsev-deVaucouleurs density-radius power-law. Review of modern state of these empirical laws and their cosmological significance is given. Possible theoretical interpretations of the surprising coexistence of both laws at the spatial scales from 1 Mpc to 100 Mpc are discussed. Comparison of the standard space-expansion explanation of the cosmological redshift with possible global gravitational redshift model is given

  6. Quantum cosmology in an anisotropic n-dimensional universe

    CERN Document Server

    Alves-Júnior, F A P; Barreto, A B; Romero, C

    2016-01-01

    We investigate quantum cosmological models in an n-dimensional anisotropic universe in the presence of a massless scalar field. Our basic inspiration comes from Chodos and Detweiler's classical model which predicts an interesting behaviour of the extra dimension, shrinking down as time goes by. We work in the framework of a recent geometrical scalar-tensor theory of gravity. Classically, we obtain two distinct type of solutions. One of them has an initial singularity while the other represents a static universe considered as a whole. By using the canonical approach to quantum cosmology, we investigate how quantum effects could have had an influence in the past history of these universes.

  7. Cosmic Explosions, Life in the Universe, and the Cosmological Constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piran, Tsvi; Jimenez, Raul; Cuesta, Antonio J; Simpson, Fergus; Verde, Licia

    2016-02-26

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are copious sources of gamma rays whose interaction with a planetary atmosphere can pose a threat to complex life. Using recent determinations of their rate and probability of causing massive extinction, we explore what types of universes are most likely to harbor advanced forms of life. We use cosmological N-body simulations to determine at what time and for what value of the cosmological constant (Λ) the chances of life being unaffected by cosmic explosions are maximized. Life survival to GRBs favors Lambda-dominated universes. Within a cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant, the likelihood of life survival to GRBs is governed by the value of Λ and the age of the Universe. We find that we seem to live in a favorable point in this parameter space that minimizes the exposure to cosmic explosions, yet maximizes the number of main sequence (hydrogen-burning) stars around which advanced life forms can exist.

  8. The cosmological constant and the relaxed universe

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Florian

    2010-01-01

    We study the role of the cosmological constant (CC) as a component of dark energy (DE). It is argued that the cosmological term is in general unavoidable and it should not be ignored even when dynamical DE sources are considered. From the theoretical point of view quantum zero-point energy and phase transitions suggest a CC of large magnitude in contrast to its tiny observed value. Simply relieving this disaccord with a counterterm requires extreme fine-tuning which is referred to as the old CC problem. To avoid it, we discuss some recent approaches for neutralising a large CC dynamically without adding a fine-tuned counterterm. This can be realised by an effective DE component which relaxes the cosmic expansion by counteracting the effect of the large CC. Alternatively, a CC filter is constructed by modifying gravity to make it insensitive to vacuum energy.

  9. Shocks in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Pen, Ue-Li

    2015-01-01

    We point out a surprising consequence of the usually assumed initial conditions for cosmological perturbations. Namely, a scale-invariant spectrum of Gaussian, linear, adiabatic, scalar, growing mode perturbations not only creates acoustic oscillations, of the kind observed in great detail on large scales today, it also leads to the production of shock waves in the radiation fluid of the very early universe. At very early epochs, $1$ GeV$

  10. Cosmological horizon entropy and generalized second law for flat Friedmann universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Titus K.; R, Aiswarya; Soman, Vidya K. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Kochi (India)

    2013-10-15

    We investigate the generalized second law (GSL) and the constraints imposed by it for two types of Friedmann universes. The first one is the Friedmann universe with radiation and a positive cosmological constant, and the second one consists of non-relativistic matter and a positive cosmological constant. The time evolution of the event horizon entropy and the entropy of the contents within the horizon are studied by obtaining the Hubble parameter. It is shown that the GSL constrains the temperature of both the radiation and matter of the Friedmann universe. It is also shown that, even though the net entropy of the radiation (or matter) is decreasing at sufficiently large times as the universe expands, it exhibits an increase during the early times when the universe is decelerating. That is, the entropy of the radiation within the comoving volume is decreasing only when the universe is undergoing an accelerated expansion. (orig.)

  11. WMAP - A Glimpse of the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, Edward

    2009-01-01

    The early Universe was incredibly hot, dense, and homogeneous. A powerful probe of this time is provided by the relic radiation which we refer to today as the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Images produced from this light contain the earliest glimpse of the Universe after the "Big Bang" and the signature of the evolution of its contents. By exploiting these clues, precise constraints on the age, mass density, and geometry of the early Universe can be derived. The history of this intriguing cosmological detective story will be reviewed. Recent results from NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) will be presented.

  12. Early publications about nonzero cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Horvath, I

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded for the 1998 discovery of the nonzero cosmological constant. This discovery is very important and surely worth to receive the Nobel Prize. However, years earlier several papers had been published (Paal, Horvath, & Lukacs 1992; Holba et al. 1992, Holba et al. 1994) about a very similar discovery from observational data.

  13. Primordial nucleosynthesis in the Rh = ct cosmology: pouring cold water on the simmering Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Geraint F.; Barnes, Luke A.; Kaushik, Rajesh

    2016-07-01

    Primordial nucleosynthesis is rightly hailed as one of the great successes of the standard cosmological model. Here we consider the initial forging of elements in the recently proposed Rh = ct universe, a cosmology that demands linear evolution of the scale factor. Such a universe cools extremely slowly compared to standard cosmologies, considerably depleting the available neutrons during nucleosynthesis; this has significant implications for the resultant primordial abundances of elements, predicting a minuscule quantity of helium which is profoundly at odds with observations. The production of helium can be enhanced in such a `simmering universe' by boosting the baryon to photon ratio, although more than an order of magnitude increase is required to bring the helium mass fraction into accordance with observations. However, in this scenario, the prolonged period of nucleosynthesis results of the efficient cooking of lighter into heavier elements, impacting the resultant abundances of all elements so that, other than hydrogen and helium, there are virtually no light elements present in the universe. Without the addition of substantial new physics in the early universe, it is difficult to see how the Rh = ct universe can be considered a viable cosmological model.

  14. Inflationary Cosmology: Is Our Universe Part of a Multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guth, Alan (MIT)

    2008-11-06

    In 1981, Guth proposed the theory of the inflationary universe, a modification of the Big Bang theory, which is generally accepted by scientists to explain how the universe began. Nevertheless, the Big Bang theory leaves some questions, and the theory of inflation attempts to answer them. Guth states that a repulsive gravitational force generated by an exotic form of matter brought about the expansion of the universe. He postulates that the universe underwent an expansion of astronomical proportions within the first trillionth of a second of its existence, during which the seeds for its large-scale structure were generated. Guth and colleagues have further explored the possibility of mimicking inflation in a hypothetical laboratory, thereby creating a new universe, and they concluded that it might be theoretically possible. If it happened, the new universe would not endanger our own universe. Instead, it would slip through a wormhole, a hypothetical space-time travel shortcut, and rapidly disconnect from our universe. In this talk, Guth will explain the inflationary theory and review the features that make it scientifically plausible. In addition, he will discuss the biggest mystery in cosmology: Why is the value of the cosmological constant, sometimes called the "anti-gravity" effect, so remarkably small compared to theoretical expectations? Guth will explain how the inflationary theory, combined with other ideas from elementary particle physics and cosmology, can provide a possible explanation for this discrepancy.

  15. Dirac spinor in a nonstationary Godel-type cosmological Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Villalba, Victor M

    2015-01-01

    In the present article we solve, via separation of variables, the massless Dirac equation in a nonstationary rotating, causal G\\"odel-type cosmological universe, having a constant rotational speed in all the points of the space. We compute the frequency spectrum. We show that the spectrum of massless Dirac particles is discrete and unbounded.

  16. Emergence of a classical Universe from quantum gravity and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Claus

    2012-09-28

    I describe how we can understand the classical appearance of our world from a universal quantum theory. The essential ingredient is the process of decoherence. I start with a general discussion in ordinary quantum theory and then turn to quantum gravity and quantum cosmology. There is a whole hierarchy of classicality from the global gravitational field to the fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background, which serve as the seeds for the structure in the Universe.

  17. Cosmological Perturbation Theory to second order for curvature, density, and gravity waves on FRW background; and the WMAP results of inhomogeneity and clustering in the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Patwardhan, Ajay; Kumar, M S R

    2008-01-01

    The second order perturbation calculations for gravity wave and Einstein equation for space time and matter are presented for the FRW metric cosmological model. While exact equations are found, suitable approximations are made to obtain definite results. In the gravity wave case the small wavelength case allows nearly locally flat background for obtaining a fit to the WMAP data. In the density and curvature case the FRW background is retained for the length scale of WMAP. Clustering and inhomogeneity are understood. The gravity wave ripples from Big Bang couple nonlinearly and redistribute the modes to higher values of 'l' giving consistency with the WMAP results. The order by order consistency of Einstein equations relate the second order perturbations in the curvature and density and the wrinkles in spacetime caused by the gravity wave modes reorganize these distributions. The radiation data of WMAP gives the picture of a FRW spacetime deformed and wrinkled consistent with matter distribution to one hundred...

  18. Precision Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bernard J. T.

    2017-04-01

    Preface; Notation and conventions; Part I. 100 Years of Cosmology: 1. Emerging cosmology; 2. The cosmic expansion; 3. The cosmic microwave background; 4. Recent cosmology; Part II. Newtonian Cosmology: 5. Newtonian cosmology; 6. Dark energy cosmological models; 7. The early universe; 8. The inhomogeneous universe; 9. The inflationary universe; Part III. Relativistic Cosmology: 10. Minkowski space; 11. The energy momentum tensor; 12. General relativity; 13. Space-time geometry and calculus; 14. The Einstein field equations; 15. Solutions of the Einstein equations; 16. The Robertson–Walker solution; 17. Congruences, curvature and Raychaudhuri; 18. Observing and measuring the universe; Part IV. The Physics of Matter and Radiation: 19. Physics of the CMB radiation; 20. Recombination of the primeval plasma; 21. CMB polarisation; 22. CMB anisotropy; Part V. Precision Tools for Precision Cosmology: 23. Likelihood; 24. Frequentist hypothesis testing; 25. Statistical inference: Bayesian; 26. CMB data processing; 27. Parametrising the universe; 28. Precision cosmology; 29. Epilogue; Appendix A. SI, CGS and Planck units; Appendix B. Magnitudes and distances; Appendix C. Representing vectors and tensors; Appendix D. The electromagnetic field; Appendix E. Statistical distributions; Appendix F. Functions on a sphere; Appendix G. Acknowledgements; References; Index.

  19. Fundamental Field Theory in Ten Dimensions and The Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Patwardhan, A

    2006-01-01

    A unified field theory in ten dimensions, of all interactions, can describe high energy processes occuring in the early universe. In such a theory transitions that give properties of the universe can occur due to the presence of algebraic and geometric structures. A correspondence between theory and observations of the universe is made, to obtain a new interpretation and properties. This paper consists of a field theory and cosmological model of dark and normal energy and matter, cosmological constant, acceleration and inflation in the early universe.

  20. Averaged universe confronted to cosmological observations: a fully covariant approach

    CERN Document Server

    Wijenayake, Tharake; Ishak, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    One of the outstanding problems in general relativistic cosmology is that of the averaging. That is, how the lumpy universe that we observe at small scales averages out to a smooth Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) model. The root of the problem is that averaging does not commute with the Einstein equations that govern the dynamics of the model. This leads to the well-know question of backreaction in cosmology. In this work, we approach the problem using the covariant framework of Macroscopic Gravity (MG). We use its cosmological solution with a flat FLRW macroscopic background where the result of averaging cosmic inhomogeneities has been encapsulated into a backreaction density parameter denoted $\\Omega_\\mathcal{A}$. We constrain this averaged universe using available cosmological data sets of expansion and growth including, for the first time, a full CMB analysis from Planck temperature anisotropy and polarization data, the supernovae data from Union 2.1, the galaxy power spectrum from WiggleZ, the...

  1. Can we distinguish early dark energy from a cosmological constant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Difu; Baugh, Carlton M.

    2016-07-01

    Early dark energy (EDE) models are a class of quintessence dark energy with a dynamically evolving scalar field which display a small but non-negligible amount of dark energy at the epoch of matter-radiation equality. Compared with a cosmological constant, the presence of dark energy at early times changes the cosmic expansion history and consequently the shape of the linear theory power spectrum and potentially other observables. We constrain the cosmological parameters in the EDE cosmology using recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background and baryon acoustic oscillations. The best-fitting models favour no EDE; here we consider extreme examples which are in mild tension with current observations in order to explore the observational consequences of a maximally allowed amount of EDE. We study the non-linear evolution of cosmic structure in EDE cosmologies using large-volume N-body simulations. Many large-scale structure statistics are found to be very similar between the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) and EDE models. We find that EDE cosmologies predict fewer massive haloes in comparison to ΛCDM, particularly at high redshifts. The most promising way to distinguish EDE from ΛCDM is to measure the power spectrum on large scales, where differences of up to 15 per cent are expected.

  2. How universe evolves with cosmological and gravitational constants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    She-Sheng Xue

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With a basic varying space–time cutoff ℓ˜, we study a regularized and quantized Einstein–Cartan gravitational field theory and its domains of ultraviolet-unstable fixed point gir≳0 and ultraviolet-stable fixed point guv≈4/3 of the gravitational gauge coupling g=(4/3G/GNewton. Because the fundamental operators of quantum gravitational field theory are dimension-2 area operators, the cosmological constant is inversely proportional to the squared correlation length Λ∝ξ−2. The correlation length ξ characterizes an infrared size of a causally correlate patch of the universe. The cosmological constant Λ and the gravitational constant G are related by a generalized Bianchi identity. As the basic space–time cutoff ℓ˜ decreases and approaches to the Planck length ℓpl, the universe undergoes inflation in the domain of the ultraviolet-unstable fixed point gir, then evolves to the low-redshift universe in the domain of ultraviolet-stable fixed point guv. We give the quantitative description of the low-redshift universe in the scaling-invariant domain of the ultraviolet-stable fixed point guv, and its deviation from the ΛCDM can be examined by low-redshift (z≲1 cosmological observations, such as supernova Type Ia.

  3. The Turning Point for the Recent Acceleration of the Universe with a Cosmological Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang T. X.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The turning point and acceleration expansion of the universe are investigated according to the standard cosmological theory with a non-zero cosmological constant. Choosing the Hubble constant H 0 , the radius of the present universe R 0 , and the density parameter in matter Ω M , 0 as three independent parameters, we have analytically examined the other properties of the universe such as the density parameter in dark energy, the cosmologi- cal constant, the mass of the universe, the turning point redshift, the age of the present universe, and the time-dependent radius, expansion rate, velocity, and acceleration pa- rameter of the universe. It is shown that the turning point redshift is only dependent of the density parameter in matter, not explicitly on the Hubble constant and the radius of the present universe. The universe turned its expansion from past deceleration to recent acceleration at the moment when its size was about 3 / 5 of the present size if the density parameter in matter is about 0.3 (or the turning point redshift is 0.67. The expansion rate is very large in the early period and decreases with time to approach the Hubble constant at the present time. The expansion velocity exceeds the light speed in the early period. It decreases to the minimum at the turning point and then increases with time. The minimum and present expansion velocities are determined with the independent parameters. The solution of time-dependent radius shows the universe expands all the time. The universe with a larger present radius, smaller Hubble constant, and / or smaller density parameter in matter is elder. The universe with smaller density parameter in matter accelerates recently in a larger rate but less than unity.

  4. How universe evolves with cosmological and gravitational constants

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, She-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    We study a quantized Einstein-Cartan gravity and its ultraviolet unstable (stable) fixed point $\\bar G_c\\approx 0$ ($G_c\\approx G_{\\rm N}$) of running gravitational constant $G$. The cosmological constant $\\Lambda\\propto \\xi^{-2}$ appears via a dimensional transmutation. The correlation length $\\xi$ relates to the gravitational constant by a generalized Bianchi identity. Inflation possibly occurs in the neighborhood of fixed point $\\bar G_c$, then universe evolves from $\\bar G_c$ to $G_c$ as the space-time cutoff $\\tilde a$ approaching to the Planck length $a_{\\rm pl}$. The quantitative description of present universe in the scaling region of fixed point $G_c$ is given, and its deviation from the $\\Lambda$CDM can be examined by recent cosmological observations, such as supernova Type Ia.

  5. Evolution of the Cosmological Horizons in a Concordance Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Margalef-Bentabol, Berta; Cepa, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    The particle and event horizons are widely known and studied concepts, but the study of their properties, in particular their evolution, have only been done so far considering a single state equation in a decelerating universe. This paper is the first of two where we study this problem from a general point of view. Specifically, this paper is devoted to the study of the evolution of these cosmological horizons in an accelerated universe with two state equations, cosmological constant and dust. We have obtained closed-form expressions for the horizons, which have allowed us to compute their velocities in terms of their respective recession velocities that generalize the previous results for one state equation only. With the equations of state considered, it is proved that both velocities remain always positive.

  6. Viscous cosmological models and accelerated Universes

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, G M

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that a present acceleration with a past deceleration is a possible solution of the Friedmann equation by considering the Universe as a mixture of a scalar with a matter field and by including a non-equilibrium pressure term in the energy-momentum tensor. The dark energy density decays more slowly with respect to the time than the matter energy density does. The inclusion of the non-equilibrium pressure leads to a less pronounced decay of the matter field with a shorter period of past deceleration.

  7. Thermodynamics in the Viscous Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2010-01-01

    Assuming that the matter filling the background geometry in the Early Universe was a free gas and no phase transitions took place, we discuss the thermodynamics of this closed system using classical approaches. We found that essential cosmological quantities, such as the Hubble parameter $H$, the scaling factor $a$ and the curvature parameter $k$, can be derived from this simple model. The results are compatible with the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model and Einstein field equations. Including finite bulk viscosity coefficient leads to important changes in the cosmological quantities. Accordingly, our picture about evolution of the Universe and its astrophysical consequences seems to be a subject of radical revision. We found that $k$ strongly depends on thermodynamics of the cosmic background matter. The time scale, at which negative curvature might take place, depends on the relation between the matter content and the total energy. Using quantum and statistical approaches, we introduced expressions for $H$ a...

  8. Constraints on decaying early modified gravity from cosmological observations

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, Nelson A; Lombriser, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Most of the information on our cosmos stems from either late-time observations or the imprint of early-time inhomogeneities on the cosmic microwave background. We explore to what extent early modifications of gravity, which become significant after recombination but then decay towards the present, can be constrained by current cosmological observations. For the evolution of the gravitational modification, we adopt the decaying mode of a hybrid-metric Palatini $f(\\mathcal{R})$ gravity model which is designed to reproduce the standard cosmological background expansion history and due to the decay of the modification is naturally compatible with Solar-System tests. We embed the model in the effective field theory description of Horndeski scalar-tensor gravity with an early-time decoupling of the gravitational modification. Since the quasistatic approximation for the perturbations in the model breaks down at high redshifts, where modifications remain relevant, we introduce a computationally efficient correction t...

  9. The background Friedmannian Hubble constant in relativistic inhomogeneous cosmology and the age of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roukema, Boudewijn F.; Mourier, Pierre; Buchert, Thomas; Ostrowski, Jan J.

    2017-02-01

    Context. In relativistic inhomogeneous cosmology, structure formation couples to average cosmological expansion. A conservative approach to modelling this assumes an Einstein-de Sitter model (EdS) at early times and extrapolates this forward in cosmological time as a "background model" against which average properties of today's Universe can be measured. Aims: This modelling requires adopting an early-epoch-normalised background Hubble constant . Methods: Here, we show that the ΛCDM model can be used as an observational proxy to estimate rather than choose it arbitrarily. We assume (i) an EdS model at early times; (ii) a zero dark energy parameter; (iii) bi-domain scalar averaging-division of the spatial sections into over- and underdense regions; and (iv) virialisation (stable clustering) of collapsed regions. Results: We find km s-1/ Mpc (random error only) based on a Planck ΛCDM observational proxy. Conclusions: Moreover, since the scalar-averaged expansion rate is expected to exceed the (extrapolated) background expansion rate, the expected age of the Universe should be much younger than Gyr. The maximum stellar age of Galactic bulge microlensed low-mass stars (most likely: 14.7 Gyr; 68% confidence: 14.0-15.0 Gyr) suggests an age of about a Gyr older than the (no-backreaction) ΛCDM estimate.

  10. Hubble's Cosmology: From a Finite Expanding Universe to a Static Endless Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Assis, A K T; Soares, D S L

    2008-01-01

    We analyze Hubble's approach to cosmology. In 1929 he accepted a finite expanding universe in order to explain the redshifts of distant galaxies. Later on he turned to an infinite stationary universe due to observational constraints. We show, by quoting his works, that he remained cautiously against the big bang until the end of his life.

  11. Change and continuity in early modern cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Bonner, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Seen as a flash point of the Scientific Revolution, early modern astronomy witnessed an explosion of views about the function and structure of the world. This study explores these theories in a wide variety of settings, and challenges our view of modern science as the straightforward successor of Aristotelian natural philosophy.

  12. Introduction to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Roos, Matts

    2015-01-01

    The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Cosmology provides a concise, authoritative study of cosmology at an introductory level. Starting from elementary principles and the early history of cosmology, the text carefully guides the student on to curved spacetimes, special and general relativity, gravitational lensing, the thermal history of the Universe, and cosmological models, including extended gravity models, black holes and Hawking's recent conjectures on the not-so-black holes.

  13. WMAP - A Portrait of the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    A host of astrophysical observations suggest that early Universe was incredibly hot, dense, and homogeneous. A powerful probe of this time is provided by the relic radiation which we refer to today as the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Images produced from this light contain the earliest glimpse of the Universe after the 'Big Bang' and the signature of the evolution of its contents. By exploiting these clues, constraints on the age, mass density, and geometry of the early Universe can be derived. A brief history of the evolution of the microwave radiometer systems and map making approaches used in advancing these aspects our understanding of cosmological will be reviewed. In addition, an overview of the results from NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy (WMAP) will be presented.

  14. Open universes and avoidance of the cosmological singularity

    CERN Document Server

    Quirós, I; Bonal, R; Quiros, Israel; Cardenas, Rolando; Bonal, Rolando

    2000-01-01

    In the paper gr-qc/9908075 it was shown that flat, barotropicFriedmann-Robertson-Walker universes are free of the cosmological singularity(in the region $-{3/2}\\leq\\omega\\leq -{4/3}$, $0<\\gamma<2$ of the parameterspace) when modeled with the help of the Jordan frame formulation of generalrelativity. In the present paper we further extend the results of gr-qc/9908075to open universes by studying the Raychaudhuri equation. It is shown that theseuniverses are singularity free too in the above region of the parameter space.Exact analytic solutions are found for open Friedmann-Robertson-Walkerdust-filled and radiation-filled universes for the particular case when$\\omega=-{3/2}$.

  15. Noncommutativity in the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Neto, G.; Silva de Oliveira, M.; Monerat, G. A.; Corrêa Silva, E. V.

    In the present work, we study the noncommutative version of a quantum cosmology model. The model has a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) geometry, the matter content is a radiative perfect fluid and the spatial sections have zero constant curvature. In this model, the scale factor takes values in a bounded domain. Therefore, its quantum mechanical version has a discrete energy spectrum. We compute the discrete energy spectrum and the corresponding eigenfunctions. The energies depend on a noncommutative parameter β. We compute the scale factor expected value () for several values of β. For all of them, oscillates between maxima and minima values and never vanishes. It gives an initial indication that those models are free from singularities, at the quantum level. We improve this result by showing that if we subtract a quantity proportional to the standard deviation of a from , this quantity is still positive. The behavior, for the present model, is a drastic modification of the behavior in the corresponding commutative version of the present model. There, grows without limits with the time variable. Therefore, if the present model may represent the early stages of the universe, the results of the present paper give an indication that may have been, initially, bounded due to noncommutativity. We also compute the Bohmian trajectories for a, which are in accordance with , and the quantum potential Q. From Q, we may understand why that model is free from singularities, at the quantum level.

  16. Bursts from the very early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silk, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Stodolsky, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: les@mppmu.mpg.de

    2006-07-27

    Bursts of weakly interacting particles such as neutrinos or even more weakly interacting particles such as wimps and gravitons from the very early universe would offer a much deeper 'look back time' to early epochs than is possible with photons. We consider some of the issues related to the existence of such bursts and their detectability. Characterizing the burst rate by a probability P per Hubble four-volume we find, for events in the radiation-dominated era, that the natural unit of description is the present intensity of the CMB times P. The existence of such bursts would make the observation of pheno associated with very early times in cosmology at least conceptually possible. One might even hope to probe the transplanckian epoch if complexes more weakly interacting than the graviton can exist. Other conceivable applications include the potential detectability of the formation of 'pocket universes' in a multiverse.

  17. Conservative constraints on early cosmology with MONTE PYTHON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audren, Benjamin; Lesgourgues, Julien; Benabed, Karim; Prunet, Simon

    2013-02-01

    Models for the latest stages of the cosmological evolution rely on a less solid theoretical and observational ground than the description of earlier stages like BBN and recombination. As suggested in a previous work by Vonlanthen et al., it is possible to tweak the analysis of CMB data in such way to avoid making assumptions on the late evolution, and obtain robust constraints on ''early cosmology parameters''. We extend this method in order to marginalise the results over CMB lensing contamination, and present updated results based on recent CMB data. Our constraints on the minimal early cosmology model are weaker than in a standard ΛCDM analysis, but do not conflict with this model. Besides, we obtain conservative bounds on the effective neutrino number and neutrino mass, showing no hints for extra relativistic degrees of freedom, and proving in a robust way that neutrinos experienced their non-relativistic transition after the time of photon decoupling. This analysis is also an occasion to describe the main features of the new parameter inference code MONTE PYTHON, that we release together with this paper. MONTE PYTHON is a user-friendly alternative to other public codes like COSMOMC, interfaced with the Boltzmann code CLASS.

  18. The background Friedmannian Hubble constant in relativistic inhomogeneous cosmology and the age of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Roukema, Boudewijn F; Buchert, Thomas; Ostrowski, Jan J

    2016-01-01

    In relativistic inhomogeneous cosmology, structure formation couples to average cosmological expansion. A conservative approach to modelling this assumes an Einstein--de Sitter model (EdS) at early times and extrapolates this forward in cosmological time as a "background model" against which average properties of today's Universe can be measured. This requires adopting an early-epoch--normalised background Hubble constant $H_1^{bg}$. Here, we show that the $\\Lambda$CDM model can be used as an observational proxy to estimate $H_1^{bg}$ rather than choose it arbitrarily. We assume (i) an EdS model at early times; (ii) a zero dark energy parameter; (iii) bi-domain scalar averaging---division of the spatial sections into over- and underdense regions; and (iv) virialisation (stable clustering) of collapsed regions. We find $H_1^{bg}= 37.7 \\pm 0.4$ km/s/Mpc (random error only) based on a Planck $\\Lambda$CDM observational proxy. Moreover, since the scalar-averaged expansion rate is expected to exceed the (extrapolat...

  19. Cosmology with gamma-ray bursts. II. Cosmography challenges and cosmological scenarios for the accelerated Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demianski, Marek; Piedipalumbo, Ester; Sawant, Disha; Amati, Lorenzo

    2017-02-01

    Context. Explaining the accelerated expansion of the Universe is one of the fundamental challenges in physics today. Cosmography provides information about the evolution of the universe derived from measured distances, assuming only that the space time geometry is described by the Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metric, and adopting an approach that effectively uses only Taylor expansions of basic observables. Aims: We perform a high-redshift analysis to constrain the cosmographic expansion up to the fifth order. It is based on the Union2 type Ia supernovae data set, the gamma-ray burst Hubble diagram, a data set of 28 independent measurements of the Hubble parameter, baryon acoustic oscillations measurements from galaxy clustering and the Lyman-α forest in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), and some Gaussian priors on h and ΩM. Methods: We performed a statistical analysis and explored the probability distributions of the cosmographic parameters. By building up their regions of confidence, we maximized our likelihood function using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Results: Our high-redshift analysis confirms that the expansion of the Universe currently accelerates; the estimation of the jerk parameter indicates a possible deviation from the standard ΛCDM cosmological model. Moreover, we investigate implications of our results for the reconstruction of the dark energy equation of state (EOS) by comparing the standard technique of cosmography with an alternative approach based on generalized Padé approximations of the same observables. Because these expansions converge better, is possible to improve the constraints on the cosmographic parameters and also on the dark matter EOS. Conclusions: The estimation of the jerk and the DE parameters indicates at 1σ a possible deviation from the ΛCDM cosmological model.

  20. Negative Energy Cosmology and the Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Prokopec, Tomislav

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that string theories naturally compactify on anti-de Sitter spaces, and yet cosmological observations show no evidence of a negative cosmological constant in the early Universe's evolution. In this letter we present two simple nonlocal modifications of the standard Friedmann cosmology that can lead to observationally viable cosmologies with an initial (negative) cosmological constant. The nonlocal operators we include are toy models for the quantum cosmological backreaction. In Model I an initial quasiperiodic oscillatory epoch is followed by inflation and a late time matter era, representing a dark matter candidate. The backreaction in Model II quickly compensates the negative cosmological term such that the Ricci curvature scalar rapidly approaches zero, and the Universe ends up in a late time radiation era.

  1. Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Rubakov, V A

    2014-01-01

    In these lectures we first concentrate on the cosmological problems which, hopefully, have to do with the new physics to be probed at the LHC: the nature and origin of dark matter and generation of matter-antimatter asymmetry. We give several examples showing the LHC cosmological potential. These are WIMPs as cold dark matter, gravitinos as warm dark matter, and electroweak baryogenesis as a mechanism for generating matter-antimatter asymmetry. In the remaining part of the lectures we discuss the cosmological perturbations as a tool for studying the epoch preceeding the conventional hot stage of the cosmological evolution.

  2. Quantum coherent oscillations in the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Pikovski, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic inflation is commonly assumed to be driven by quantum fields. Quantum mechanics predicts phenomena such as quantum fluctuations and tunneling of the field. Here we show an example of a quantum interference effect which goes beyond the semi-classical treatment and which may be of relevance in the early universe. We study the quantum coherent dynamics for a tilted, periodic potential, which results in genuine quantum oscillations of the inflaton field, analogous to Bloch oscillations in condensed matter and atomic systems. Our results show that quantum interference phenomena may be of relevance in cosmology.

  3. Constraints on decaying early modified gravity from cosmological observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Nelson A.; Smer-Barreto, Vanessa; Lombriser, Lucas

    2016-10-01

    Most of the information on our cosmos stems from either late-time observations or the imprint of early-time inhomogeneities on the cosmic microwave background. We explore to what extent early modifications of gravity, which become significant after recombination but then decay toward the present, can be constrained by current cosmological observations. For the evolution of the gravitational modification, we adopt the decaying mode of a hybrid metric-Palatini f (R ) gravity model which is designed to reproduce the standard cosmological background expansion history and due to the decay of the modification is naturally compatible with Solar System tests. We embed the model in the effective field theory description of Horndeski scalar-tensor gravity with an early-time decoupling of the gravitational modification. Since the quasistatic approximation for the perturbations in the model breaks down at high redshifts, where modifications remain relevant, we introduce a computationally efficient correction to describe the evolution of the scalar field fluctuation in this regime. We compare the decaying early-time modification against geometric probes and recent Planck measurements and find no evidence for such effects in the observations. Current data constrains the scalar field value at |fR(z =zon)|≲10-2 for modifications introduced at redshifts zon˜(500 - 1000 ) with the present-day value |fR 0|≲10-8. Finally, we comment on constraints that will be achievable with future 21-cm surveys and gravitational wave experiments.

  4. On the large-scale inhomogeneous Universe and the cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Palle, D

    2002-01-01

    We study the large-scale inhomogeneity of the Universe based on the averaging procedure of Buchert and Ehlers. The generalized Dyer-Roeder equation for the angular diameter distance of the inhomogeneous Universe is derived and solved for different cosmological models. We make a comparison of certain cosmic observables, such as the Hubble function, angular diameter distance,cosmological correction factor of homogeneous and inhomogeneous cosmological models, which are crucial ingredients in galaxy number counts and gravitational lenses.

  5. The Cluster Mass Function from Early SDSS Data: Cosmological Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Bahcall, Neta A.; Dong, Feng; Bode, Paul; Kim, Rita; Annis, James; Mckay, Timothy A.; Hansen, Sarah; Gunn, James; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Postman, Marc; Nichol, Robert C.; Goto, Tomotsugu; Brinkmann, Jon; Knapp, Gillian R.; Lamb, Don O.

    2002-01-01

    The mass function of clusters of galaxies is determined from 400 deg^2 of early commissioning imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey; ~300 clusters in the redshift range z = 0.1 - 0.2 are used. Clusters are selected using two independent selection methods: a Matched Filter and a red-sequence color magnitude technique. The two methods yield consistent results. The cluster mass function is compared with large-scale cosmological simulations. We find a best-fit cluster normalization relatio...

  6. HI Cosmology in the Local Universe with ALFALFA

    CERN Document Server

    Haynes, Martha P

    2007-01-01

    The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey is an on-going second generation blind extragalactic HI survey exploiting Arecibo's superior sensitivity, angular resolution and digital technology to conduct a census of the local HI universe over a cosmologically significant volume. As of mid-2007, ~4500 good quality extragalactic HI line sources have been extracted in ~15% of the final survey area. ALFALFA is detecting HI masses as low as 10**6 Msun and as high as 10**10.8 Msun with positional accuracies typically better than 20 arcsec, allowing immediate identification of the most probable optical counterparts. Only 3% of all extragalactic HI sources and fewer than 1% of detections with M(HI) > 10**9.5 Msun cannot be identified with a stellar component. First ALFALFA results already suggest, in agreement with previous studies, that there does not appear to be a cosmologically significant population of optically dark but HI rich galaxies. ALFALFA promises a wealthy dataset for the exploration of many issues in ...

  7. Neutrino cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Lesgourgues, Julien; Miele, Gennaro; Pastor, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The role that neutrinos have played in the evolution of the Universe is the focus of one of the most fascinating research areas that has stemmed from the interplay between cosmology, astrophysics and particle physics. In this self-contained book, the authors bring together all aspects of the role of neutrinos in cosmology, spanning from leptogenesis to primordial nucleosynthesis, their role in CMB and structure formation, to the problem of their direct detection. The book starts by guiding the reader through aspects of fundamental neutrino physics, such as the standard cosmological model and the statistical mechanics in the expanding Universe, before discussing the history of neutrinos in chronological order from the very early stages until today. This timely book will interest graduate students and researchers in astrophysics, cosmology and particle physics, who work with either a theoretical or experimental focus.

  8. Weird universe exploring the most bizarre ideas in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Seargent, David A J

    2015-01-01

    As new discoveries complicate the scientific picture of the universe, the evolving theories about the nature of space and time and the origins and fate of the universe threaten to become overwhelming. Enter David Seargent. Continuing the author's series of books popularizing strange astronomy facts and knowledge, Weird Universe explains the bizarre, complicated terrain of modern cosmology for lay readers.  From exploring some of the strange consequences of the theories of special and general relativity, to probing time dilation and the twin and mother-and-baby “paradoxes” and the theory that the universe can be mathematically considered as a hologram, all of the latest findings and conjectures are clearly described in non-technical language. The development of quantum physics and the more recent developments of string and M-theory are looked at, in addition to several hypotheses that have not won wide acceptance from the scientific community, such as modified gravity. Enter the wonderfully weird worl...

  9. Gauss-Bonnet Cosmology Unifying Late and Early-time Acceleration Eras with Intermediate Eras

    CERN Document Server

    Oikonomou, V K

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that with vacuum $F(G)$ gravity it is possible to describe the unification of late and early-time acceleration eras with the radiation and matter domination era. The Hubble rate of the unified evolution contains two mild singularities, so called Type IV singularities, and the evolution itself has some appealing features, such as the existence of a deceleration-acceleration transition at late times. We also address quantitatively a fundamental question related to modified gravity models description of cosmological evolution: Is it possible for all modified gravity descriptions of our Universe evolution, to produce a nearly scale invariant spectrum of primordial curvature perturbations? As we demonstrate, the answer for the $F(G)$ description is no, since the resulting power spectrum is not scale invariant, in contrast to the $F(R)$ description studied in the literature. Therefore, although the cosmological evolution can be realized in the context of vacuum $F(G)$ gravity, the evolu...

  10. What can quantum cosmology say about the inflationary universe?

    CERN Document Server

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Steinwachs, Christian F

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to extract predictions from quantum cosmology for inflation that can be confronted with observations. Employing the tunneling boundary condition in quantum geometrodynamics, we derive a probability distribution for the inflaton field. A sharp peak in this distribution can be interpreted as setting the initial conditions for the subsequent phase of inflation. In this way, the peak sets the energy scale at which the inflationary phase has started. This energy scale must be consistent with the energy scale found from the inflationary potential and with the scale found from a potential observation of primordial gravitational waves. Demanding a consistent history of the universe from its quantum origin to its present state, which includes decoherence, we derive a condition that allows one to constrain the parameter space of the underlying model of inflation. We demonstrate our method by applying it to two models: Higgs inflation and natural inflation.

  11. The gyraton solutions on generalized Melvin universe with cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Kadlecová, Hedvika

    2016-01-01

    We present and analyze new exact gyraton solutions of algebraic type II on generalized Melvin universe of type D which admit non-vanishing cosmological constant $\\Lambda$. We show that it generalizes both, gyraton solutions on Melvin and on direct product spacetimes. When we set $\\Lambda = 0$ we get solutions on Melvin spacetime and for $\\Sigma = 1$ we obtain solutions on direct product spacetimes. We demonstrate that the solutions are member of the Kundt family of spacetimes as its subcases. We show that the Einstein equations reduce to a set of equations on the transverse 2-space. We also discuss the polynomial scalar invariants which are non-constant in general but constant for sub-solutions on direct product spacetimes.

  12. Cylindrically symmetric cosmological model of the universe in modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, B.; Vadrevu, Samhita

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we have constructed the cosmological models of the universe in a cylindrically symmetric space time in two classes of f(R,T) gravity (Harko et al. in Phys. Rev. D 84:024020, 2011). We have discussed two cases: one in the linear form and the other in the quadratic form of R. The matter is considered to be in the form of perfect fluid. It is observed that in the first case, the pressure and energy density remain the same, which reduces to a Zeldovich fluid. In the second case we have studied the quadratic function of f(R,T) gravity in the form f(R)=λ(R+R2) and f(T)=λ T. In the second case the pressure is in the negative domain and the energy density is in the positive domain, which confirms that the equation of state parameter is negative. The physical properties of the constructed models are studied.

  13. Can superhorizon cosmological perturbations explain the acceleration of the universe?

    CERN Document Server

    Hirata, C M; Hirata, Christopher M.; Seljak, Uros

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the recent suggestions by Barausse et al. (astro-ph/0501152) and Kolb et al. (hep-th/0503117) that the acceleration of the universe could be explained by large superhorizon fluctuations generated by inflation. We show that no acceleration can be produced by this mechanism. We begin by showing how the application of Raychaudhuri equation to inhomogeneous cosmologies results in several ``no go'' theorems for accelerated expansion. Next we derive an exact solution for a specific case of initial perturbations, for which application of the Kolb et al. expressions leads to an acceleration, while the exact solution reveals that no acceleration is present. We show that the discrepancy can be traced to higher order terms that were dropped in the Kolb et al. analysis. We proceed with the analysis of initial value formulation of general relativity to argue that causality severely limits what observable effects can be derived from superhorizon perturbations. By constructing a Riemann normal coordinate syst...

  14. The universe dynamics in the tachyon cosmology with non-minimal coupling to matter

    CERN Document Server

    Farajollahi, H; Fadakar, G F

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the tachyon cosmology has been represented as dark energy model to support the current acceleration of the universe without phantom crossing. In this paper, we study the dynamics of the tachyon cosmology in which the field plays the role of tachyon field and also non--minimally coupled to the matter lagrangian. The model shows current universe acceleration and also phantom crossing in the future. Two cosmological tests are also performed to validate the model; the difference in the distance modulus and the model independent Cosmological Redshift Drift (CRD) test.

  15. Anisotropic Bianchi-I universe with phantom field and cosmological constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bikash Chandra Paul; Dilip Paul

    2008-12-01

    We study an anisotropic Bianchi-I universe in the presence of a phantom field and a cosmological constant. Cosmological solutions are obtained when the kinetic energy of the phantom field is of the order of anisotropy and dominates over the potential energy of the field. The anisotropy of the universe decreases and the universe transits to an isotropic flat FRW universe accommodating the present acceleration. A class of new cosmological solutions is obtained for an anisotropic universe in case an initial anisotropy exists which is bigger than the value determined by the parameter of the kinetic part of the field. Later, an autonomous system of equations for an axially symmetric Bianchi-I universe with phantom field in an exponential potential is studied. We discuss the stability of the cosmological solutions.

  16. Reionization of the Universe and the Photoevaporation of Cosmological Minihalos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Paul R.; Raga, Alejandro C.

    2000-01-01

    The first sources of ionizing radiation to condense out of the dark and neutral Intergalactic Medium (IGM) sent ionization fronts sweeping outward through their surroundings, overtaking other condensed objects and photoevaporating them. This feedback effect of universal reionization on cosmic structure formation is demonstrated here for the case of a cosmological minihalo of dark matter and baryons exposed to an external source of ionizing radiation with a quasar-like spectrum, just after the passage of the global ionization front created by the source. We model the pre-ionization minihalo as a truncated, nonsingular isothermal sphere in hydrostatic equilibrium following its collapse out of the expanding background universe and virialization. Results are presented of the first, gas dynamical simulations of this process, including radiative transfer. A sample of observational diagnostics is also presented, including the spatially-varying ionization levels of C, N, and O in the flow if a trace of heavy elements is present and the integrated column densities of H I, He I and He II, and C IV through the photoevaporating gas at different velocities, which would be measured in absorption against a background source like that responsible for the ionization.

  17. Universal features of quantum bounce in loop quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Tao; Kirsten, Klaus; Cleaver, Gerald; Sheng, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) provides an elegant resolution of the classical big bang singularity by a quantum bounce in the deep Planck era. The evolutions of the flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background and its linear scalar and tensor perturbations are universal during the pre-inflationary phase. In this period the potentials of the perturbations can be well approximated by a P\\"oschl-Teller (PT) potential, from which we find analytically the mode functions and then calculate the Bogoliubov coefficients at the onset of the slow-roll inflation, valid for any inflationary models with a single scalar field. Matching them to those given in the slow-roll inflationary phase, we investigate the effects of the quantum bounce on the power spectra and find unique features that can be tested by current and forthcoming observations. In particular, fitting the power spectra to the Planck 2015 data, we find that the universe must have expanded at least 132 e-folds from the bounce until now.

  18. Universal features of quantum bounce in loop quantum cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Wang, Anzhong; Kirsten, Klaus; Cleaver, Gerald; Sheng, Qin

    2017-10-01

    In this Letter, we study analytically the evolutions of the flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe and its linear perturbations in the framework of the dressed metric approach in loop quantum cosmology (LQC). Assuming that the evolution of the background is dominated by the kinetic energy of the inflaton at the quantum bounce, we find that both evolutions of the background and its perturbations are independent of the inflationary potentials during the pre-inflationary phase. During this period the effective potentials of the perturbations can be well approximated by a Pöschl-Teller (PT) potential, from which we find analytically the mode functions and then calculate the corresponding Bogoliubov coefficients at the onset of the slow-roll inflation, valid for any inflationary model with a single scalar field. Imposing the Bunch-Davies (BD) vacuum in the contracting phase prior to the bounce when the modes are all inside the Hubble horizon, we show that particles are generically created due to the pre-inflation dynamics. Matching them to those obtained in the slow-roll inflationary phase, we investigate the effects of the pre-inflation dynamics on the scalar and tensor power spectra and find features that can be tested by current and forthcoming observations. In particular, to be consistent with the Planck 2015 data, we find that the universe must have expanded at least 141 e-folds since the bounce.

  19. Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Vittorio, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Modern cosmology has changed significantly over the years, from the discovery to the precision measurement era. The data now available provide a wealth of information, mostly consistent with a model where dark matter and dark energy are in a rough proportion of 3:7. The time is right for a fresh new textbook which captures the state-of-the art in cosmology. Written by one of the world's leading cosmologists, this brand new, thoroughly class-tested textbook provides graduate and undergraduate students with coverage of the very latest developments and experimental results in the field. Prof. Nicola Vittorio shows what is meant by precision cosmology, from both theoretical and observational perspectives.

  20. Cosmological bootstrap

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, V V

    2012-01-01

    A huge value of cosmological constant characteristic for the particle physics and the inflation of early Universe are inherently related to each other: one can construct a fine-tuned superpotential, which produces a flat potential of inflaton with a constant density of energy V=\\Lambda^4 after taking into account for leading effects due to the supergravity, so that an introduction of small quantum loop-corrections to parameters of this superpotential naturally results in the dynamical instability relaxing the primary cosmological constant by means of inflationary regime. The model phenomenologically agrees with observational data on the large scale structure of Universe at \\Lambda~10^{16} GeV.

  1. Early time perturbations behaviour in scalar field cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Perrotta, F; Perrotta, Francesca; Baccigalupi, Carlo

    1999-01-01

    We consider the problem of the initial conditions and behaviour of the perturbations in scalar field cosmology with general potential. We use the general definition of adiabatic and isocurvature conditions to set the appropriate initial values for the perturbation in the scalar field and in the ordinary matter and radiation components. In both the cases of initial adiabaticity and isocurvature, we solve the Einstein and fluid equation at early times and on superhorizon scales to find the initial behaviour of the relevant quantities. In particular, in the isocurvature case, we consider models in which the initial perturbation arises from the matter as well as from the scalar field itself, provided that the initial value of the gauge invariant curvature is zero. We extend the standard code to include all these cases, and we show some results concerning the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies. In particular, it turns out that the acoustic peaks follow opposite behaviours in...

  2. Scientific Realism and Primordial Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-01-01

    We discuss scientific realism from the perspective of modern cosmology, especially primordial cosmology: i.e. the cosmological investigation of the very early universe. We first (Section 2) state our allegiance to scientific realism, and discuss what insights about it cosmology might yield, as against "just" supplying scientific claims that philosophers can then evaluate. In particular, we discuss: the idea of laws of cosmology, and limitations on ascertaining the global structure of spacetime. Then we review some of what is now known about the early universe (Section 3): meaning, roughly, from a thousandth of a second after the Big Bang onwards(!). The rest of the paper takes up two issues about primordial cosmology, i.e. the very early universe, where "very early" means, roughly, much earlier (logarithmically) than one second after the Big Bang: say, less than $10^{-11}$ seconds. Both issues illustrate that familiar philosophical threat to scientific realism, the under-determination of theory by data---on a...

  3. Cosmological Moduli and the Post-Inflationary Universe: A Critical Review

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Gordon; Watson, Scott

    2015-01-01

    We critically review the role of cosmological moduli in determining the post-inflationary history of the universe. Moduli are ubiquitous in string and M-theory constructions of beyond the Standard Model physics, where they parametrize the geometry of the compactification manifold. For those with masses determined by supersymmetry breaking this leads to their eventual decay slightly before Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (without spoiling its predictions). This results in a matter dominated phase shortly after inflation ends, which can influence baryon and dark matter genesis, as well as observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background and the growth of large-scale structure. Given progress within fundamental theory, and guidance from dark matter and collider experiments, non-thermal histories have emerged as a robust and theoretically well-motivated alternative to a strictly thermal one. We review this approach to the early universe and discuss both the theoretical challenges and the observational implications.

  4. Dwarf-Galaxy Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina; Brinks, Elias; Kravtsov, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies provide opportunities for drawing inferences about the processes in the early universe by observing our "cosmological backyard"-the Local Group and its vicinity. This special issue of the open-access journal Advances in Astronomy is a snapshot of the current state of the art of dwarf-galaxy cosmology.

  5. Singular $F(R)$ Cosmology Unifying Early and Late-time Acceleration with Matter and Radiation Domination Era

    CERN Document Server

    Odintsov, S D

    2016-01-01

    We present some cosmological models which unify the late and early-time acceleration eras with the radiation and the matter domination era, and we realize the cosmological models by using the theoretical framework of $F(R)$ gravity. Particularly, the first model unifies the late and early-time acceleration with the matter domination era, and the second model unifies all the evolution eras of our Universe. The two models are described in the same way at early and late times, and only the intermediate stages of the evolution have some differences. Each cosmological model contains two Type IV singularities which are chosen to occur one at the end of the inflationary era and one at the end of the matter domination era. The cosmological models at early times are approximately identical to the $R^2$ inflation model, so these describe a slow-roll inflationary era which ends when the slow-roll parameters become of order one. The inflationary era is followed by the radiation era and after that the matter domination er...

  6. The Early Universe: Searching for Evidence of Cosmic Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, David T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, our understanding of the evolution and fate of the universe has increased dramatically. This "Age of Precision Cosmology" has been ushered in by measurements that have both elucidated the details of the Big Bang cosmology and set the direction for future lines of inquiry. Our universe appears to consist of 5% baryonic matter; 23% of the universe's energy content is dark matter which is responsible for the observed structure in the universe; and 72% of the energy density is so-called "dark energy" that is currently accelerating the expansion of the universe. In addition, our universe has been measured to be geometrically flat to 1 %. These observations and related details of the Big Bang paradigm have hinted that the universe underwent an epoch of accelerated expansion known as "inflation" early in its history. In this talk, I will review the highlights of modern cosmology, focusing on the contributions made by measurements of the cosmic microwave background, the faint afterglow of the Big Bang. I will also describe new instruments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in order to search for evidence of cosmic inflation.

  7. The perturbed universe in the deformed algebra approach of Loop Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Grain, J

    2016-01-01

    Loop quantum cosmology is a tentative approach to model the universe down to the Planck era where quantum gravity settings are needed. The quantization of the universe as a dynamical space-time is inspired by Loop Quantum Gravity ideas. In addition, loop quantum cosmology could bridge contact with astronomical observations, and thus potentially investigate quantum cosmology modellings in the light of observations. To do so however, modelling both the background evolution and its perturbations is needed. The latter describe cosmic inhomogeneities that are the main cosmological observables. In this context, we present the so-called deformed algebra approach implementing the quantum corrections to the perturbed universe at an effective level by taking great care of gauge issues. We particularly highlight that in this framework, the algebra of hypersurface deformation receives quantum corrections, and we discuss their meaning. The primordial power spectra of scalar and tensor inhomogeneities are then presented, a...

  8. Simulating the universe(s): from cosmic bubble collisions to cosmological observables with numerical relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Wainwright, Carroll L; Peiris, Hiranya V; Aguirre, Anthony; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    The theory of eternal inflation in an inflaton potential with multiple vacua predicts that our universe is one of many bubble universes nucleating and growing inside an ever-expanding false vacuum. The collision of our bubble with another could provide an important observational signature to test this scenario. We develop and implement an algorithm for accurately computing the cosmological observables arising from bubble collisions directly from the Lagrangian of a single scalar field. We first simulate the entire collision spacetime, from nucleation to reheating, inside each bubble. Taking advantage of the collision's hyperbolic symmetry, simulations are performed with a 1+1-dimensional fully relativistic code that uses adaptive mesh refinement. We then calculate the comoving curvature perturbation in an open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe, which is used to determine, in the Sachs-Wolfe approximation, the temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background radiation. For a fiducial Lagrangian, t...

  9. Gesturing in the early universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Boyle, C

    2000-01-01

    Research into the oral and literary traditions of scholastic education usually emphasizes the significance of the world in late medieval pedagogy. This paper suggests that coded hand signals provided early university scholars with an important non-verbal means of communication too. Using illustrations of classroom scenes from early university manuscripts, this paper analyzes the artistic conventions for representating gestures that these images embody. By building up a typology of these gesticulations, it demonstrates that the producers of these images and their audience shared a perception of scholastic education that embraced a sophisticated understanding of the activities associated with university education.

  10. Light propagation through large-scale inhomogeneities in the Universe and its impact on cosmological observations

    CERN Document Server

    Bolejko, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses cosmological observations within inhomogeneous and exact solutions of the Einstein equations. In some way the analyses presented here can be freed from assumptions such as small amplitude of the density contrast. The supernova observations are analysed using the Lema\\itre-Tolman model and the CMB observations are analysed using the quasispherical Szekeres model. The results show that it is possible to fit the supernova data without the cosmological constant. However if inhomogeneities of sizes and amplitudes as observed in the local Universe are considered, their impact on cosmological observations is small.

  11. Globally baryon symmetric cosmology, GUT spontaneous symmetry breaking, and the structure of the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.; Brown, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Grand unified theories (GUT) such as SU(5), with spontaneous symmetry breaking, can lead more naturally to a globally baryon symmetric big bang cosmology with a domain structure than to a totally asymmetric cosmology. The symmetry is broken at random in causally independent domains, favoring neither a baryon nor an antibaryon excess on a universal scale. Because of the additional freedom in the high-energy physics allowed by such GUT gauge theories, new observational tests may be possible. Arguments in favor of this cosmology and various observational tests are discussed.

  12. An introduction to modern cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Liddle, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    An Introduction to Modern Cosmology Third Edition is an accessible account of modern cosmological ideas. The Big Bang Cosmology is explored, looking at its observational successes in explaining the expansion of the Universe, the existence and properties of the cosmic microwave background, and the origin of light elements in the universe. Properties of the very early Universe are also covered, including the motivation for a rapid period of expansion known as cosmological inflation. The third edition brings this established undergraduate textbook up-to-date with the rapidly evolving observation

  13. Ground State of the Universe and the Cosmological Constant. A Nonperturbative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Viqar; Qureshi, Babar

    2016-02-12

    The physical Hamiltonian of a gravity-matter system depends on the choice of time, with the vacuum naturally identified as its ground state. We study the expanding Universe with scalar field in the volume time gauge. We show that the vacuum energy density computed from the resulting Hamiltonian is a nonlinear function of the cosmological constant and time. This result provides a new perspective on the relation between time, the cosmological constant, and vacuum energy.

  14. Big-bounce cosmology from quantum gravity: The case of a cyclical Bianchi I universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriconi, Riccardo; Montani, Giovanni; Capozziello, Salvatore

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the classical and quantum dynamics of a Bianchi I model in the presence of a small negative cosmological constant characterizing its evolution in term of the dust-time dualism. We demonstrate that in a canonical metric approach, the cosmological singularity is removed in correspondence to a positive defined value of the dust energy density. Furthermore, the quantum big bounce is connected to the Universe's turning point via a well-defined semiclassical limit. Then we can reliably infer that the proposed scenario is compatible with a cyclical universe picture. We also show how, when the contribution of the dust energy density is sufficiently high, the proposed scenario can be extended to the Bianchi IX cosmology and therefore how it can be regarded as a paradigm for the generic cosmological model. Finally, we investigate the origin of the observed cutoff on the cosmological dynamics, demonstrating how the big-bounce evolution can be mimicked by the same semiclassical scenario, where the negative cosmological constant is replaced via a polymer discretization of the Universe's volume. A direct proportionality law between these two parameters is then established.

  15. Axions in the early Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Peter; Steffen, Frank Daniel [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The smallness of the CP violating term in the QCD Lagrangian is the well known strong CP problem. If it is solved via the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) mechanism, the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson associated with the spontaneous breaking of the new chiral U(1){sub PQ} symmetry is the axion. We study the behavior of axions in the early Universe and calculate the temperature at which the axion decouples from the early QCD plasma.

  16. Entropy - Some Cosmological Questions Answered by Model of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Sukenik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The paper summarizes the background of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe model and its potential to offer answers to some open cosmological questions related to entropy. Three problems are faced in more detail, namely that of Hawkings phenomenon of black holes evaporation, maximum entropy of the Universe during its evolution, and time evolution of specific entropy.

  17. The Coyote Universe II: Cosmological Models and Precision Emulation of the Nonlinear Matter Power Spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitmann, Katrin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Habib, Salman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Higdon, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Brian J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; White, Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wagner, Christian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The power spectrum of density fluctuations is a foundational source of cosmological information. Precision cosmological probes targeted primarily at investigations of dark energy require accurate theoretical determinations of the power spectrum in the nonlinear regime. To exploit the observational power of future cosmological surveys, accuracy demands on the theory are at the one percent level or better. Numerical simulations are currently the only way to produce sufficiently error-controlled predictions for the power spectrum. The very high computational cost of (precision) N-body simulations is a major obstacle to obtaining predictions in the nonlinear regime, while scanning over cosmological parameters. Near-future observations, however, are likely to provide a meaningful constraint only on constant dark energy equation of state 'wCDM' cosmologies. In this paper we demonstrate that a limited set of only 37 cosmological models -- the 'Coyote Universe' suite -- can be used to predict the nonlinear matter power spectrum at the required accuracy over a prior parameter range set by cosmic microwave background observations. This paper is the second in a series of three, with the final aim to provide a high-accuracy prediction scheme for the nonlinear matter power spectrum for wCDM cosmologies.

  18. Thermodynamics of viscous Matter and Radiation in Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2011-01-01

    Assuming that the background geometry is filled with free gas consisting of matter and radiation and no phase transitions being occurred in the early Universe, we discuss the thermodynamics of this {\\it closed} system using classical approaches. We find that essential cosmological quantities, such as Hubble parameter $H$, scale factor $a$ and curvature parameter $k$, can be derived from this simple model, which on one hand fulfills and entirely obeys the laws of thermodynamics. On the other hand, the results are compatible with the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker model and the Einstein field equations. The inclusion of finite bulk viscosity coefficient derives to important changes in all these cosmological quantities. Accordingly, our picture about the evolution of the Universe and its astrophysical consequences seems to be a subject of a radical revision. We find that $k$ strongly depends on the thermodynamics of background matter. The time scale, at which negative curvature might take place, depends on ...

  19. Simulating the universe(s): from cosmic bubble collisions to cosmological observables with numerical relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainwright, Carroll L.; Aguirre, Anthony [SCIPP and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, 95064 (United States); Johnson, Matthew C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, On, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Peiris, Hiranya V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Lehner, Luis [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Liebling, Steven L., E-mail: cwainwri@ucsc.edu, E-mail: mjohnson@perimeterinstitute.ca, E-mail: h.peiris@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: aguirre@scipp.ucsc.edu, E-mail: llehner@perimeterinstitute.ca, E-mail: steve.liebling@liu.edu [Department of Physics, Long Island University, Brookville, NY, 11548 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The theory of eternal inflation in an inflaton potential with multiple vacua predicts that our universe is one of many bubble universes nucleating and growing inside an ever-expanding false vacuum. The collision of our bubble with another could provide an important observational signature to test this scenario. We develop and implement an algorithm for accurately computing the cosmological observables arising from bubble collisions directly from the Lagrangian of a single scalar field. We first simulate the collision spacetime by solving Einstein's equations, starting from nucleation and ending at reheating. Taking advantage of the collision's hyperbolic symmetry, the simulations are performed with a 1+1-dimensional fully relativistic code that uses adaptive mesh refinement. We then calculate the comoving curvature perturbation in an open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe, which is used to determine the temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background radiation. For a fiducial Lagrangian, the anisotropies are well described by a power law in the cosine of the angular distance from the center of the collision signature. For a given form of the Lagrangian, the resulting observational predictions are inherently statistical due to stochastic elements of the bubble nucleation process. Further uncertainties arise due to our imperfect knowledge about inflationary and pre-recombination physics. We characterize observational predictions by computing the probability distributions over four phenomenological parameters which capture these intrinsic and model uncertainties. This represents the first fully-relativistic set of predictions from an ensemble of scalar field models giving rise to eternal inflation, yielding significant differences from previous non-relativistic approximations. Thus, our results provide a basis for a rigorous confrontation of these theories with cosmological data.

  20. Galaxies in the Early Universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogager, Jens-Kristian

    Understanding how galaxies evolved from the early Universe through cosmic time is a fundamental part of modern astrophysics. In order to study this evolution it is important to sample the galaxies at various times in a consistent way through time. In regular luminosity selected samples, our...

  1. Primordial Nucleosynthesis in the Rh = ct cosmology: Pouring cold water on the Simmering Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Geraint F; Kaushik, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Primordial nucleosynthesis is rightly hailed as one of the great successes of the standard cosmological model. Here we consider the initial forging of elements in the recently proposed Rh = ct universe, a cosmology that demands linear evolution of the scale factor. Such a universe cools extremely slowly compared to standard cosmologies, considerably depleting the available neutrons during nucleosynthesis; this has significant implications for the resultant primordial abundances of elements, predicting a minuscule quantity of helium which is profoundly at odds with observations. The production of helium can be enhanced in such a "simmering universe" by boosting the baryon to photon ratio, although more than an order of magnitude increase is required to bring the helium mass fraction into accordance with observations. However, in this scenario, the prolonged period of nucleosynthesis results of the efficient cooking of lighter into heavier elements, impacting the resultant abundances of all elements so that, ot...

  2. Towards the edge of the universe a review of modern cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Stuart

    1999-01-01

    Towards the Edge of the Universe is the second edition of a successful textbook, previously published by Wiley-Praxis. It reviews the latest discoveries and ideas, discusses areas of controversy, and presents a variety of observational data, in a way suitable as an introduction to cosmology for university students studying the following courses: Astronomy, Astrophysics, Cosmology, Partical Physics, Theoretical Physics and Space Science. The author considers the most contemporary views of cosmology by describing the Big Bang model (its problems as well as its usefulness), and begins with a comprehensive account of the universe and its components, providing a sound introduction for the student. A generally descriptive (rather than purely mathematical) approach makes the book accessible to all levels of students Priced at an affordable level for students - despite the inclusion of many illustrations and some full colour photographs - the previous Wiley-Praxis (1997) edition was successful in Europe and America. ...

  3. Cosmological Shock Waves in the Large Scale Structure of the Universe: Non-gravitational Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Hyesung; Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, J P

    2007-01-01

    Cosmological shock waves result from supersonic flow motions induced by hierarchical clustering of nonlinear structures in the universe. These shocks govern the nature of cosmic plasma through thermalization of gas and acceleration of nonthermal, cosmic-ray (CR) particles. We study the statistics and energetics of shocks formed in cosmological simulations of a concordance $\\Lambda$CDM universe, with a special emphasis on the effects of non-gravitational processes such as radiative cooling, photoionization/heating, and galactic superwind feedbacks. Adopting an improved model for gas thermalization and CR acceleration efficiencies based on nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration calculations, we then estimate the gas thermal energy and the CR energy dissipated at shocks through the history of the universe. Since shocks can serve as sites for generation of vorticity, we also examine the vorticity that should have been generated mostly at curved shocks in cosmological simulations. We find that the dynamics and ene...

  4. Origin of Structure in the Universe: Quantum Cosmology Reconsidered

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Based on a more careful canonical analysis, we motivate a reduced quantization of slightly inhomogeneous cosmology in place of the Dirac quantization in the existing literature, and provide it in the vacuum case. This is attained via consideration of configuration space geometries at various levels of reduction. Some of these have the good fortunate of being flat. Geometrically natural coordinates thereupon are interpreted in terms of the original redundant formulation's well-known mode expansion coefficients.

  5. Cosmological simulations of the high-redshift radio universe

    OpenAIRE

    Kawata, Daisuke; Gibson, Brad K.; Windhorst, Rogier A.

    2004-01-01

    Using self-consistent cosmological simulations of disc galaxy formation, we analyse the 1.4 GHz radio flux from high-redshift progenitors of present-day normal spirals within the context of present-day and planned next-generation observational facilities. We demonstrate that while current radio facilities such as the Very Large Array (VLA) are unlikely to trace these progenitors beyond redshifts z

  6. Reconstructing the Universe Evolution from Loop Quantum Cosmology Scalar Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Oikonomou, V K

    2016-01-01

    We extend the scalar-tensor reconstruction techniques for classical cosmology frameworks, in the context of loop quantum cosmology. After presenting in some detail how the equations are generalized in the loop quantum cosmology case, we discuss which new features and limitations does the quantum framework brings along, and we use various illustrative examples in order to demonstrate how the method works. As we show the energy density has two different classes of solutions, and one of these yields the correct classical limit while the second captures the quantum phenomena. We study in detail the scalar tensor reconstruction method for both these solutions. Also we discuss some scenarios for which the Hubble rate becomes unbounded at finite time, which corresponds for example in a case that a Big Rip occurs. As we show this issue is non-trivial and we discuss how this case should be treated in a consistent way. Finally, we investigate how the classical stability conditions for the scalar-tensor solutions are ge...

  7. The Early-Time Evolution of the Cosmological Perturbations in f(R) Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Je-An; Wu, Yen-Ting; Chen, Pisin; Hwang, W-Y Pauchy

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of the linear cosmological perturbations in f(R) gravity, an alternative to dark energy for explaining the late-time cosmic acceleration. We numerically calculate the early-time evolution with an approximation we contrive to solve a problem that commonly appears when one solves the full evolution equations. With the approximate evolution equations we can fairly assess the effect of the gravity modification on the early-time evolution, thereby examining the validity of the general-relativity (GR) approximation that is widely used for the early universe. In particular, we compare the CMB photon density perturbation and the matter density perturbation obtained respectively by our approximation and the conventional GR approximation. We find that the effect of the gravity modification at early times in f(R) gravity may not be negligible. We conclude that to be self-consistent, in the f(R) theory one should employ the approximation presented in this paper instead of that of GR in the tr...

  8. Deformed Horava-Lifshitz Cosmology and Stability of Einstein Static Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Heydarzade, Y; Darabi, F

    2015-01-01

    Stability of the Einstein static universe versus the linear scalar, vector and tensor perturbations is investigated in the context of deformed Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz cosmology inspired by entropic force scenario. A general stability condition against the linear scalar perturbations is obtained. Using this general condition, it is shown that there is no stable Einstein static universe for the case of flat universe, $k=0$. For the the special case of large values of running parameter of HL gravity $\\omega$, in a positively curved universe $k>0$, the domination of the quintessence and phantom matter fields with barotropic equation of state parameter $\\beta -\\frac{1}{3}$ are needed to be the dominant fields of the universe. Also, a neutral stability against the vector perturbations is obtained. Finally, an inequality including the cosmological parameters of the Einstein static universe is obtained for the stability against the tensor perturbations. It turns out that for large $\\omega$ values, there is a stability ag...

  9. Quantum aspects of early universe thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drewes, Marco

    2010-03-15

    Various features of the observable universe can be understood as the result of nonequilibrium processes during the early stages of its history, when it was filled with a hot primordial plasma. In many cases, including cosmological freezeout processes, only a few degrees of freedom were out of equilibrium and the background plasma can be viewed as a large heat bath to which these couple. We study scalar and fermionic quantum fields out of thermal equilibrium that are weakly coupled to a large thermal bath with the goal to formulate a full quantum mechanical description of such processes. The bath composition need not be specified. Our analysis is based on Kadanoff-Baym equations, which are the exact equations of motion for the correlation functions in a nonequilibrium quantum system. We solve the equations of motion for the most general Gaussian initial density matrix, without a specific ansatz or a-priori parameterisation and for arbitrarily large deviations from equilibrium. The solutions depend on integral kernels that contain memory effects. These can in good approximation be solved analytically when the field excitations have a small decay width. The full solutions are compared to results obtained by other methods. We prove that the description in terms of a stochastic Langevin equation is equivalent to the Kadanoff-Baym equations. We show the emergence of standard Boltzmann equations as a limit of the Kadanoff-Baym equations in a dilute gas when coherences play no role and discuss quantum Boltzmann equations as an intermediate step. We analyse the properties of the solutions in terms of the equation of state and investigate the validity and implications of quasiparticle approximations. We find that the equation of state can deviate significantly from that of a gas of quasiparticles even if the resonances in the plasma show quasiparticle behaviour in decays and scatterings. A detailed discussion is devoted to the influence of modified dispersion relations and

  10. The Jungle Universe: coupled cosmological models in a Lotka-Volterra framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jérôme; Füzfa, André; Carletti, Timoteo; Mélot, Laurence; Guedezounme, Lazare

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we exploit the fact that the dynamics of homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lemaître universes is a special case of generalized Lotka-Volterra system where the competitive species are the barotropic fluids filling the Universe. Without coupling between those fluids, Lotka-Volterra formulation offers a pedagogical and simple way to interpret usual Friedmann-Lemaître cosmological dynamics. A natural and physical coupling between cosmological fluids is proposed which preserves the structure of the dynamical equations. Using the standard tools of Lotka-Volterra dynamics, we obtain the general Lyapunov function of the system when one of the fluids is coupled to dark energy. This provides in a rigorous form a generic asymptotic behavior for cosmic expansion in presence of coupled species, beyond the standard de Sitter, Einstein-de Sitter and Milne cosmologies. Finally, we conjecture that chaos can appear for at least four interacting fluids.

  11. Phenomenology of loop quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2010-01-01

    After introducing the basic ingredients of Loop Quantum Cosmology, I will briefly discuss some of its phenomenological aspects. Those can give some useful insight about the full Loop Quantum Gravity theory and provide an answer to some long-standing questions in early universe cosmology.

  12. Quark-Hadron Phase Transitions in Viscous Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2011-01-01

    Based on hot big bang theory, the cosmological matter is conjectured to undergo QCD phase transition(s) to hadrons, when the universe was about $1-10 \\mu$s old. In the present work, we study the quark-hadron phase transition, by taking into account the effect of the bulk viscosity. We analyze the evolution of the quantities relevant for the physical description of the early universe, namely, the energy density $\\rho$, temperature $T$, Hubble parameter $H$ and scale factor $a$ before, during and after the phase transition. To study the cosmological dynamics and the time evolution we use both analytical and numerical methods. By assuming that the phase transition may be described by an effective nucleation theory (prompt {\\it first-order} phase transition), we also consider the case where the universe evolved through a mixed phase with a small initial supercooling and monotonically growing hadronic bubbles. The numerical estimation of the cosmological parameters, $a$ and $H$ for instance, makes it clear that th...

  13. Chaos and universality in the dynamics of inflationary cosmologies. II. The role of nonextensive statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, H. P.; Damião Soares, I.; Tonini, E. V.

    2003-03-01

    We discuss universal statistical patterns in the chaotic dynamics of closed inflationary cosmologies, associated with the presence of a saddle-center critical point in the phase space of the models. We extend and complete the analysis made in a previous paper [H. P. de Oliveira, S. L. Sautu, I. Damião Soares, and E. V. Tonini, Phys. Rev. D 60, 121301 (1999)], including also other inflationary models. The statistical distribution connected to orbits that visit a neighborhood of the saddle center is shown to be in the realm of Tsallis nonextensive statistics that generalizes the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics for systems in which long-range interactions are present. The value of the entropic index q of the distribution function determines the dimension of the fractal basin boundaries in the ensemble of initial conditions, with respect to the code recollapse/escape into inflation. In a regime of high nonintegrability, this distribution is universal in the sense that it is scale invariant, independent of the parameters of the model and independent of the particular system where the saddle-center is present. Also it does not depend on the specific model where the saddle-center is present. The consequences for the physics of the early stages of inflation are discussed.

  14. The Challenge of the Largest Structures in the Universe to Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan; Gott, J Richard; Kim, Sungsoo S; Kim, Kap-Sung

    2012-01-01

    Large galaxy redshift surveys have long been used to constrain cosmological models and structure formation scenarios. In particular, the largest structures discovered observationally are thought to carry critical information on the amplitude of large-scale density fluctuations or homogeneity of the universe, and have often challenged the standard cosmological framework. The Sloan Great Wall (SGW) recently found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) region casts doubt on the concordance cosmological model with a cosmological constant (i.e. the flat LCDM model). Here we show that the existence of the SGW is perfectly consistent with the LCDM model, a result that only our very large cosmological N-body simulation (the Horizon Run 2, HR2) could supply. In addition, we report on the discovery of a void complex in the SDSS much larger than the SGW, and show that such size of the largest void is also predicted in the LCDM paradigm. Our results demonstrate that an initially homogeneous isotropic universe with primor...

  15. Big-bounce cosmology from quantum gravity: The case of a cyclical Bianchi I universe

    CERN Document Server

    Moriconi, Riccardo; Capozziello, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the classical and quantum dynamics of a Bianchi I model in the presence of a small negative cosmological constant characterizing its evolution in term of the dust-time dualism. We demonstrate that in a canonical metric approach, the cosmological singularity is removed in correspondence to a positive defined value of the dust energy density. Furthermore, the quantum Big-Bounce is connected to the Universe turning point via a well-defined semiclassical limit. Then we can reliably infer that the proposed scenario is compatible with a cyclical Universe picture. We also show how, when the contribution of the dust energy density is sufficiently high, the proposed scenario can be extended to the Bianchi IX cosmology and therefore how it can be regarded as a paradigm for the generic cosmological model. Finally, we investigate the origin of the observed cut-off on the cosmological dynamics, demonstrating how the Big-Bounce evolution can be mimicked by the same semiclassical scenario, where the negative cosm...

  16. Workshop III – Cosmology: Observations versus theories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T R Seshadri

    2000-10-01

    The topics on which there were presentations in this workshop can broadly be divided into the following categories: Observational aspects of large-scale structures in the universities; phase transitions in the early universe; cosmic microwave background radiation; observational cosmology.

  17. CMB spectral distortions and energy release in the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-01

    Measuring the spectral deviation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the blackbody spectrum has become a focus of attention as a probe of the thermal history of the Universe. It has been more than 20 years since COBE/FIRAS's measurement, which showed excellent agreement between the CMB spectrum and a perfect blackbody spectrum. Significant developments in the technology since then have allowed us to improve the sensitivity of the absolute spectrum measurement by a factor of {˜ }10^4. Therefore, the physics related to the generation of CMB spectral distortions should now be investigated in greater detail. To probe the physics in the early universe and to open an observational window for new physics, various energy release mechanisms both in and beyond standard cosmology need to be studied. In this paper, we provide a review of the physics of CMB distortions and the energy release that creates CMB distortions in the early universe.

  18. The early universe: facts and fiction (astronomy and astrophysics library)

    CERN Document Server

    Börner, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    This fourth edition of Börner's "The Early Universe" is practically a new book, not just updated version. In particular, it is now organized so as to make it more useful as a textbook. And problem sections are also added. In the centre are the connections between particle physics and cosmology: The standard model, some basic implications of quantum field theory and the questions of structure formation. Special emphasis is given to the observed anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background and the consequences drawn for cosmology and for the structure formation models. Nuclear and particle physicists and astrophysicists, researchers and teachers as well as graduate students will welcome this new edition of a classic text and reference.

  19. PhD Thesis: String theory in the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Gwyn, Rhiannon

    2009-01-01

    The intersection of string theory with cosmology is unavoidable in the early universe, and its exploration may shine light on both fields. In this thesis, three papers at this intersection are presented and reviewed, with the aim of providing a thorough and pedagogical guide to their results. First, we address the longstanding problem of finding a string theory realisation of the axion. Using warped compactifications in heterotic string theory, we show that the axion decay constant can be lowered to acceptable values by the warp factor. Next, we move to the subject of cosmic strings, whose network evolution could have important consequences for astrophysics and cosmology. In particular, there are quantitative differences between cosmic superstring networks and GUT cosmic string networks. We investigate the properties of cosmic superstring networks in warped backgrounds, giving the tension and properties of three-string junctions in these backgrounds. Finally, we examine the possibility that cosmic strings in ...

  20. Bondi accretion in the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ricotti, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study of quasi-steady spherical accretion in the early Universe, before the formation of the first stars and galaxies. The main motivation is to derive the basic formulas that will be used in a companion paper to calculate the accretion luminosity of primordial black holes and their effect on the cosmic ionization history. The following cosmological effects are investigated: the coupling of the gas to the CMB photon fluid (i.e., Compton drag), Hubble expansion, and the growth of the dark matter halo seeded by the gravitational potential of the central point mass. The gas equations of motion are solved assuming either a polytropic or an isothermal equation of state. We consider the cases in which the accreting object is a point mass or a spherical dark matter halo with power-law density profile, as predicted by the theory of "secondary infall''. Analytical solutions for the sonic radius and fitting formulas for the accretion rate are provided. Different accretion regimes exist depending o...

  1. Planets in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Shchekinov, Yu A; Murthy, J

    2012-01-01

    Several planets have recently been discovered around old and metal-poor stars, implying that the planets are also old, formed in the early universe. The canonical theory suggests that the conditions for their formation could not have existed at such early epochs. The required conditions such as sufficiently high dust-to-gas ratio, could in fact have existed in the early universe immediately following the first episode of metal production. Metal-rich regions may have existed in multiple isolated pockets of enriched and weakly-mixed gas close to the massive stars. Observations of quasars and gamma-ray bursts show a very wide spread of metals in absorption from $\\rm [X/H] \\simeq -3$ to $\\simeq -0.5$. This suggests that physical conditions in the metal-abundant clumps could have been similar to where protoplanets form today. However, planets could have formed even in low-metallicity environments, where formation of stars is expected to proceed at higher densities. In such cases, the circumstellar accretion disks ...

  2. Cosmology or Catastrophe? A non-minimally coupled scalar in an inhomogeneous universe

    CERN Document Server

    Caputa, Pawel; Olson, Joseph; Underwood, Bret

    2013-01-01

    A non-minimally coupled scalar field can have, in principle, a negative effective Planck mass squared which depends on the scalar field. Surprisingly, an isotropic and homogeneous cosmological universe with a non-minimally coupled scalar field is perfectly smooth as the rolling scalar field causes the effective Planck mass to change sign and pass through zero. However, we show that any small deviations from homogeneity diverge as the effective Planck mass vanishes, with catastrophic consequences for the cosmology. The physical origin of the divergence is due to the presence of non-zero scalar anisotropic stress from the non-minimally coupled scalar field. Thus, while the homogeneous and isotropic cosmology appears surprisingly sensible when the effective Planck mass vanishes, inhomogeneities tell a different story.

  3. No compelling cosmological models come out of magnetic universes which are based in nonlinear electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Salcedo, Ricardo; Quiros, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Here we investigate the cosmic dynamics of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes -- flat spatial sections -- which are driven by nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED) Lagrangians. We pay special attention to the check of the sign of the square sound speed since, whenever the latter quantity is negative, the corresponding cosmological model is classically unstable against small perturbations of the background energy density. Besides, based on causality arguments, one has to require that the mentioned small perturbations of the background should propagate at most at the local speed of light. We also look for the occurrence of curvature singularities. Our results indicate that several cosmological models which are based in known NLED Lagrangians, either are plagued by curvature singularities of the sudden and/or big rip type, or are violently unstable against small perturbations of the cosmological background -- due to negative sign of the square sound speed -- or both. In addition, causality issues associated with su...

  4. Cosmological ``Truths''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothun, Greg

    2011-10-01

    Ever since Aristotle placed us, with certainty, in the Center of the Cosmos, Cosmological models have more or less operated from a position of known truths for some time. As early as 1963, for instance, it was ``known'' that the Universe had to be 15-17 billion years old due to the suspected ages of globular clusters. For many years, attempts to determine the expansion age of the Universe (the inverse of the Hubble constant) were done against this preconceived and biased notion. Not surprisingly when more precise observations indicated a Hubble expansion age of 11-13 billion years, stellar models suddenly changed to produce a new age for globular cluster stars, consistent with 11-13 billion years. Then in 1980, to solve a variety of standard big bang problems, inflation was introduced in a fairly ad hoc manner. Inflation makes the simple prediction that the net curvature of spacetime is zero (i.e. spacetime is flat). The consequence of introducing inflation is now the necessary existence of a dark matter dominated Universe since the known baryonic material could comprise no more than 1% of the necessary energy density to make spacetime flat. As a result of this new cosmological ``truth'' a significant world wide effort was launched to detect the dark matter (which obviously also has particle physics implications). To date, no such cosmological component has been detected. Moreover, all available dynamical inferences of the mass density of the Universe showed in to be about 20% of that required for closure. This again was inconsistent with the truth that the real density of the Universe was the closure density (e.g. Omega = 1), that the observations were biased, and that 99% of the mass density had to be in the form of dark matter. That is, we know the universe is two component -- baryons and dark matter. Another prevailing cosmological truth during this time was that all the baryonic matter was known to be in galaxies that populated our galaxy catalogs. Subsequent

  5. Cosmological Simulations of Early Blackhole Formation: Halo Mergers, Tidal Disruption, and the Conditions for Direct Collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Chon, Sunmyon; Hosokawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational collapse of a massive primordial gas cloud is thought to be a promising path for the formation of supermassive blackholes in the early universe. We study conditions for the so-called direct collapse (DC) blackhole formation in a fully cosmological context. We combine a semi-analytic model of early galaxy formation with halo merger trees constructed from dark matter $N$-body simulations. We locate a total of 68 possible DC sites in a volume of $20\\;h^{-1}\\;\\mathrm{Mpc}$ on a side. We then perform hydrodynamics simulations for 42 selected halos to study in detail the evolution of the massive clouds within them. We find only two successful cases where the gas clouds rapidly collapse to form stars. In the other cases, gravitational collapse is prevented by the tidal force exerted by a nearby massive halo, which otherwise should serve as a radiation source necessary for DC. Ram pressure stripping disturbs the cloud approaching the source. In many cases, a DC halo and its nearby light source halo merg...

  6. Resonant Production of Sterile Neutrinos in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lauren; Grohs, Evan; Fuller, George M.

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the cosmological impacts of a light resonantly produced sterile neutrino in the early universe. Such a neutrino could be produced through lepton number-driven Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) conversion of active neutrinos around big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), resulting in a non-thermal spectrum of both sterile and electron neutrinos. During BBN, the neutron-proton ratio depends sensitively on the electron neutrino flux. If electron neutrinos are being converted to sterile neutrinos, this makes the n/p ratio a probe of possible new physics. We use observations of primordial Yp and D/H to place limits on this process.

  7. Reionizing the Universe in Warm Dark Matter cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dayal, Pratika; Bromm, Volker; Pacucci, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    We compare model results from our semi-analytic merger tree based framework for high-redshift ($z \\simeq 5-20$) galaxy formation against reionization indicators including the Planck electron scattering optical depth ($\\tau_{es}$) and the ionizing photon emissivity ($\\dot n_{ion}$) to constrain the particle mass of Warm Dark Matter (WDM). Our framework traces the Dark Matter (DM) and baryonic assembly of galaxies in 4 DM cosmologies: Cold Dark Matter (CDM) and WDM with a particle mass of $m_x = 2.25,3$ and 5 keV. It includes all the key processes of star formation, supernova feedback, the merger/accretion/ejection driven evolution of gas and stellar mass, and the effect of the ultra-violet background (UVB) created during reionization in photo-evaporating the gas content of galaxies in halos with $M_h \\leq 10^9 M_\\odot$. We show that current Planck $\\tau_{es}$ values rule out $m_x \\leq 2.5$ keV WDM, even in the physically unlikely scenario that all ionizing photons produced by these galaxies escape and contribu...

  8. Cosmology with gamma-ray bursts: II Cosmography challenges and cosmological scenarios for the accelerated Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Demianski, Marek; Sawant, Disha; Amati, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Context. Explaining the accelerated expansion of the Universe is one of the fundamental challenges in physics today. Cosmography provides information about the evolution of the universe derived from measured distances, assuming only that the space time ge- ometry is described by the Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metric, and adopting an approach that effectively uses only Taylor expansions of basic observables. Aims. We perform a high-redshift analysis to constrain the cosmographic expansion up to the fifth order. It is based on the Union2 type Ia supernovae data set, the gamma-ray burst Hubble diagram, a data set of 28 independent measurements of the Hubble param- eter, baryon acoustic oscillations measurements from galaxy clustering and the Lyman-{\\alpha} forest in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), and some Gaussian priors on h and {\\Omega}M . Methods. We performed a statistical analysis and explored the probability distributions of the cosmographic parameters. By building up ...

  9. Dynamics of a Vacuum Bianchi Type V Universe with an Arbitrary Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Kohli, Ikjyot Singh

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the dynamics of a Bianchi Type V vacuum universe with an arbitrary cosmological constant. We begin by using an orthonormal frame approach to write Einstein's field equations as a coupled system of first-order ordinary differential equations. The equilibrium points of the resulting dynamical system were found to be expanding and contracting de Sitter universe solutions, a Minkowski spacetime solution, and static Anti-de Sitter universe solutions, which were characterized by a negative cosmological constant in addition to constant negative spatial curvature. While the expanding de Sitter universe solution was found to be globally stable for $\\Lambda > 0$, we also show that the AdS solution is globally stable for $\\Lambda < 0$. The work in this paper shows that it as at least plausible that the cosmological constant that we observe to be positive today may have had different, but, perhaps \\emph{discrete} values at different epochs in the history of the universe's evolution. That is,...

  10. Parameters of neutrino dominated Universe and GUT cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroshkevich, A.G.; Khlopov, M.Yu.

    1983-06-01

    New possibilities to conform the GUT's probable values of neutrino mass to observed parameters of the Universe are offered. These possibilities put severe restrictions on the parameters of GUT's and admit experimental check up.

  11. Adventures in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume tells of the quest for cosmology as seen by some of the finest cosmologists in the world. It starts with "Galaxy Formation from Start to Finish" and ends with "The First Supermassive Black Holes in the Universe," exploring in between the grand themes of galaxies, the early universe, expansion of the universe, dark matter and dark energy. This up-to-date collection of review articles offers a general introduction to cosmology and is intended for all probing into the profound questions on where we came from and where we are going.

  12. Thermodynamics of viscous matter and radiation in the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, A.; Magdy, H.

    2012-05-01

    Assuming that the background geometry is filled with free gas consisting of matter and radiation and no phase transitions being occurred in the early Universe, we discuss the thermodynamics of this {\\it closed} system using classical approaches. We find that essential cosmological quantities, such as Hubble parameter $H$, scale factor $a$ and curvature parameter $k$, can be derived from this simple model, which on one hand fulfills and entirely obeys the laws of thermodynamics. On the other hand, the results are compatible with the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker model and the Einstein field equations. The inclusion of finite bulk viscosity coefficient derives to important changes in all these cosmological quantities. Accordingly, our picture about the evolution of the Universe and its astrophysical consequences seems to be a subject of a radical revision. We find that $k$ strongly depends on the thermodynamics of background matter. The time scale, at which negative curvature might take place, depends on the relation between the matter content and the total energy. Using quantum and statistical approaches, we assume that the size of the Universe is given by the volume occupied one particle and one photon. Different types of their interactions are taken into account. Expressions for $H$ and $a$ are introduced. Therefore, the expansion of the Universe turns to be accessible.

  13. Cosmological Probes for Supersymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Khlopov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The multi-parameter character of supersymmetric dark-matter models implies the combination of their experimental studies with astrophysical and cosmological probes. The physics of the early Universe provides nontrivial effects of non-equilibrium particles and primordial cosmological structures. Primordial black holes (PBHs are a profound signature of such structures that may arise as a cosmological consequence of supersymmetric (SUSY models. SUSY-based mechanisms of baryosynthesis can lead to the possibility of antimatter domains in a baryon asymmetric Universe. In the context of cosmoparticle physics, which studies the fundamental relationship of the micro- and macro-worlds, the development of SUSY illustrates the main principles of this approach, as the physical basis of the modern cosmology provides cross-disciplinary tests in physical and astronomical studies.

  14. Cosmological Probes for Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Khlopov, Maxim

    2015-01-01

    The multi-parameter character of supersymmetric dark-matter models implies the combination of their experimental studies with astrophysical and cosmological probes. The physics of the early Universe provides nontrivial effects of non-equilibrium particles and primordial cosmological structures. Primordial black holes (PBHs) are a profound signature of such structures that may arise as a cosmological consequence of supersymmetric (SUSY) models. SUSY-based mechanisms of baryosynthesis can lead to the possibility of antimatter domains in a baryon asymmetric Universe. In the context of cosmoparticle physics, which studies the fundamental relationship of the micro- and macro-worlds, the development of SUSY illustrates the main principles of this approach, as the physical basis of the modern cosmology provides cross-disciplinary tests in physical and astronomical studies.

  15. Light at the edge of the universe dispatches from the front lines of cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Lemonick, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Will the universe expand forever? Or will it collapse in a Big Crunch within the next few billion years? If the Big Bang theory is correct in presenting the origins of the universe as a smooth fireball, how did the universe come to contain structures as large as the recently discovered ""Great Wall"" of galaxies, which stretches hundreds of millions of light years? Such are the compelling questions that face cosmologists today, and it is the excitement and wonder of their research that Michael Lemonick shares in this lively tour of the current state of astrophysics and cosmology. Here we vis

  16. Cosmological histories from the Friedmann equation: The universe as a particle

    CERN Document Server

    Mortsell, Edvard

    2016-01-01

    In this note, we discuss how possible expansion histories of the universe can be inferred in a simple way, for arbitrary energy contents. No new physical results are obtained, but the goal is rather to discuss an alternative way of writing the Friedmann equation in order to facilitate an intuitive understanding of the possible solutions; for students and researchers alike. As has been noted in passing by others, this specific form of the Friedmann equation allows us to view the universal expansion as a particle rolling along a frictionless track. Specific examples depicted include the current concordance cosmological model as well as a stable static universal model.

  17. Numerical Relativity as a Tool for Studying the Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Garrison

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations are becoming a more effective tool for conducting detailed investigations into the evolution of our universe. In this paper, we show how the framework of numerical relativity can be used for studying cosmological models. The author is working to develop a large-scale simulation of the dynamical processes in the early universe. These take into account interactions of dark matter, scalar perturbations, gravitational waves, magnetic fields, and turbulent plasma. The code described in this report is a GRMHD code based on the Cactus framework and is structured to utilize one of several different differencing methods chosen at run-time. It is being developed and tested on the University of Houston’s Maxwell cluster.

  18. Primordial black hole formation from cosmological fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Harada, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    Primordial black holes (PBHs) are those which may have formed in the early Universe and affected the subsequent evolution of the Universe through their Hawking radiation and gravitational field. To constrain the early Universe from the observational constraint on the abundance of PBHs, it is essential to determine the formation threshold for primordial cosmological fluctuations, which are naturally described by cosmological long-wavelength solutions. I will briefly review our recent analytical and numerical results on the PBH formation.

  19. Localization of quantum objects in an expanding universe and cosmologically induced classicality

    CERN Document Server

    Herzenberg, C L

    2010-01-01

    Independent studies by different authors have proposed that classicality may be induced in quantum objects by cosmological constraints presented by an expanding universe of finite extent in space-time. Cosmological effects on a quantum system can be explored in one approach by considering an object at rest in space with a universal Hubble expansion taking place away from it, and developing a Schroedinger type governing differential equation incorporating an intrinsic expansion speed. Wave function solutions to this governing equation exhibit pronounced central localization. The extent of concentration of probability depends on mass; objects with small masses tend to behave in a delocalized manner as ordinary quantum objects do in a static space, while quantum objects with large masses are concentrated into much smaller regions. To develop a criterion for classicality, we consider that if the size of the localized region of concentrated probability density is larger than the size of the corresponding extended ...

  20. An Emergent Universe with Dark Sector Fields in a Chiral Cosmological Model

    CERN Document Server

    Beesham, A; Maharaj, S D; Kubasov, A S

    2013-01-01

    We consider the emergent universe scenario supported by a chiral cosmological model with two interacting dark sector fields: phantom and canonical. We investigate the general properties of the evolution of the kinetic and potential energies as well as the development of the equation of state with time. We present three models based on asymptotic solutions and investigate the phantom part of the potential and chiral metric components. The exact solution corresponding to a global emergent universe scenario, starting from the infinite past and evolving to the infinite future, has been obtained for the first time for a chiral cosmological model. The behavior of the chiral metric components responsible for the kinetic interaction between the phantom and canonical scalar fields has been analyzed as well.

  1. Attraction to a radiation-like era in early superstring cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bourliot, Francois; Partouche, Herve

    2009-01-01

    Starting from an initial classical four dimensional flat background of the heterotic or type II superstrings, we are able to determine at the string one-loop level the quantum corrections to the effective potential due to the spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry by "geometrical fluxes". Furthermore, considering a gas of strings at finite temperature, the full "effective thermal potential" is determined, giving rise to an effective non-trivial pressure. The backreaction of the quantum and thermal corrections to the space-time metric as well as to the moduli fields induces a cosmological evolution that depends on the early time initial conditions and the number of spontaneously broken supersymmetries. We show that for a whole set of initial conditions, the cosmological solutions converge at late times to two qualitatively different trajectories: They are either attracted to (i) a thermal evolution similar to a radiation dominated cosmology, implemented by a coherent motion of some moduli fields, or to (ii) a "...

  2. Early Structure Formation and Reionization in a Warm Dark Matter Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, N; Hernquist, L; Springel, V; Yoshida, Naoki; Sokasian, Aaron; Hernquist, Lars; Springel, Volker

    2003-01-01

    We study first structure formation in Lambda-dominated universes using large cosmological N-body/SPH simulations. We consider a standard LCDM model and a LWDM model in which the mass of the dark matter particles is taken to be m_X=10 keV. The linear power spectrum for the LWDM model has a characteristic cut-off at a wavenumber k=200 /Mpc, suppressing the formation of low mass (< 10^6 Msun) nonlinear objects early on. The absence of low mass halos in the WDM model makes the formation of primordial gas clouds with molecular hydrogen very inefficient at high redshifts. The first star-forming gas clouds form at z~21 in the WDM model, considerably later than in the CDM counterpart, and the abundance of these gas clouds differs by an order of magnitude between the two models. We carry out radiative transfer calculations by embedding massive Population III stars in the gas clouds. We show that the volume fraction of ionized gas rises up close to 100% by z=18 in the CDM case, whereas that of the WDM model remains ...

  3. Behavior of the Universe anisotropy in a big-bounce cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriconi, Riccardo; Montani, Giovanni

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the classical and quantum behavior of a Bianchi I model in the presence of a stiff matter contribution when the Vilenkin interpretation of the wave function of the Universe is taken into account. We study its evolution in the so-called polymer representation of quantum mechanics, in order to characterize the modifications that a discrete nature in the isotropic variable of the Universe induces on the morphology of the cosmological singularity. We demonstrate that in such a model the big-bang singularity is removed at a semiclassical level in favor of a big bounce when a lattice on the isotropic variable is considered. Furthermore, the analysis of the mean values on the quantum degrees of freedom, i.e., the variables β+,β- in the Misner picture, and the investigation on the evolution of the wave packets show how the typical diverging behavior associated to the anisotropies of the Universe in proximity of the initial singularity disappears in our polymer modified scheme. Indeed, the anisotropies remain finite across the big bounce and they assume a value that depends on the initial conditions fixed far from the turning point. Finally, we demonstrate that the proposed scenario can be extended, with a suitable choice of the configuration parameters, to the Bianchi IX cosmology and therefore it can be regarded as a paradigm for the generic cosmological model.

  4. The Accelerating Universe: Infinite Expansion, the Cosmological Constant, and the Beauty of the Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livio, Mario

    2000-12-01

    Advance Praise for The Accelerating Universe "The Accelerating Universe is not only an informative book about modern cosmology. It is rich storytelling and, above all, a celebration of the human mind in its quest for beauty in all things." -Alan Lightman, author of Einstein's Dreams "This is a wonderfully lucid account of the extraordinary discoveries that have made the last years a golden period for observational cosmology. But Mario Livio has not only given the reader one clear explanation after another of what astronomers are up to, he has used them to construct a provocative argument for the importance of aesthetics in the development of science and for the inseparability of science, art, and culture." -Lee Smolin, author of The Life of the Cosmos "What a pleasure to read! An exciting, simple account of the universe revealed by modern astronomy. Beautifully written, clearly presented, informed by scientific and philosophical insights." -John Bahcall, Institute for Advanced Study "A book with charm, beauty, elegance, and importance. As authoritative a journey as can be taken through modern cosmology." -Allan Sandage, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington

  5. Thermal Tachyacoustic Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Abhineet

    2014-01-01

    An intriguing possibility that can address pathologies in both early universe cosmology (i.e. the horizon problem) and quantum gravity (i.e. non-renormalizability), is that particles at very high energies and/or temperatures could propagate arbitrarily fast. A concrete realization of this possibility for the early universe is the Tachyacoustic (or Speedy Sound) cosmology, which could also produce a scale-invariant spectrum for scalar cosmological perturbations. Here, we study Thermal Tachyacoustic Cosmology (TTC), i.e. this scenario with thermal initial conditions. We find that a phase transition in the early universe, around the scale of Grand Unified Theories (GUT scale; $T\\sim 10^{15}$ GeV), during which the speed of sound drops by $25$ orders of magnitude within a Hubble time, can fit current CMB observations. We further discuss how production of primordial black holes constrains the cosmological acoustic history, while coupling TTC to Horava-Lifshitz gravity leads to a lower limit on the amplitude of ten...

  6. Thermal tachyacoustic cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Abhineet; Afshordi, Niayesh

    2014-08-01

    An intriguing possibility that can address pathologies in both early Universe cosmology (i.e. the horizon problem) and quantum gravity (i.e. nonrenormalizability), is that particles at very high energies and/or temperatures could propagate arbitrarily fast. A concrete realization of this possibility for the early Universe is the tachyacoustic (or speedy sound) cosmology, which could also produce a scale-invariant spectrum for scalar cosmological perturbations. Here, we study thermal tachyacoustic cosmology (TTC), i.e. this scenario with thermal initial conditions. We find that a phase transition in the early Universe, around the scale of the grand unified theory (GUT scale; T ˜1015 GeV), during which the speed of sound drops by 25 orders of magnitude within a Hubble time, can fit current CMB observations. We further discuss how production of primordial black holes constrains the cosmological acoustic history, while coupling TTC to Horava-Lifshitz gravity leads to a lower limit on the amplitude of tensor modes (r≳10-3), that are detectable by CMBpol (and might have already been seen by the BICEP-Keck Collaboration).

  7. On an Alternative Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Vankov, A

    1998-01-01

    The suggested alternative cosmology is based on the idea of barion symmetric universe, in which our home universe is a representative of multitude of typical matter and antimatter universes. This alternative concept gives a physically reasonable explanation of all major problems of the Standard Cosmological Model. Classification Code MSC: Cosmology 524.8 Key words: standard cosmological model, alternative cosmology, barionic symmetry, typical universe, quasars, cosmic rays.

  8. On the conservation of second-order cosmological perturbations in a scalar field dominated universe

    CERN Document Server

    Vernizzi, F

    2005-01-01

    We discuss second-order cosmological perturbations on super-Hubble scales, in a scalar field dominated universe, such as during single field inflation. In this contest we show that the gauge-invariant curvature perturbations defined on the uniform density and comoving hypersurfaces coincide and that perturbations are adiabatic in the large scale limit. Since it has been recently shown that the uniform curvature perturbation is conserved on large scales if perturbations are adiabatic, we conclude that both the uniform and comoving curvature perturbations at second-order in a scalar field dominated universe are conserved.

  9. Cosmographic study of the universe's specific heat: a landscape for cosmology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luongo, Orlando; Quevedo, Hernando

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method for constructing the specific heat for the universe by following standard definitions of classical thermodynamics, in a spatially flat homogeneous and isotropic spacetime. We use cosmography to represent the specific heat in terms of measurable quantities, and show that a negative specific heat at constant volume and a zero specific heat at constant pressure are compatible with observational data. We derive the most general cosmological model which is compatible with the values obtained for the specific heat of the universe, and show that it alleviates the fine-tuning and the coincidence problems of the CDM model.

  10. Cosmographic study of the universe's specific heat: A landscape for Cosmology?

    CERN Document Server

    Luongo, Orlando

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method for constructing the specific heat for the universe by following standard definitions of classical thermodynamics, in a spatially flat homogeneous and isotropic spacetime. We use cosmography to represent the specific heat in terms of measurable quantities, and show that a negative specific heat at constant volume and a zero specific heat at constant pressure are compatible with observational data. We derive the most general cosmological model which is compatible with the values obtained for the specific heat of the universe, and show that it overcomes the fine-tuning and the coincidence problems of the $\\Lambda$CDM model.

  11. Beyond adiabatic approximation in Big Bang Cosmology: hydrodynamics, resurgence and entropy production in the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Buchel, Alex; Noronha, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    We use holography for the ab-initio determination of the non-equilibrium behavior of matter in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker Universe. We focus on matter without scale invariance and develop an expansion for the corresponding entropy production in terms of the derivatives of the cosmological scale factor. We show that the resulting series is asymptotic and we discuss its resurgent properties. Finally, we compute the resummed entropy production rate in de Sitter Universe at late times and show that the leading order approximation given by bulk viscosity effects can strongly overestimate/underestimate the rate depending on the microscopic parameters.

  12. About universes with scale-related total masses and their abolition of presently outstanding cosmological problems

    CERN Document Server

    Fahr, H J

    2006-01-01

    Cosmological consequences of a strictly valid total energy conservation for the whole universe are investigated in this paper. Interestingly enough as one consequence of ergodically behaving universes very specific scaling laws with the diameter R of the universe can be derived for relevant cosmic quantities. Especially the 1/R^2- scaling of mass - and vacuum energy - density then automatically leads to a vanishing cosmic curvature parameter k=0 and also reveals, that for such universes no horizon problem occurs. In addition the longstanding problem of observationally indicated very low cosmic vacuum energies in contrast to the very large quantumfield estimates is easily solved when the vacuum energy density decay with 1/R^2 is taken into account reconciling presently observed vacuum energy density values with those from theoretical expectations. We also suggest why the mass of the universe can permanently increase and can in fact grow up from a Planck mass as a pure vacuum fluctuation.

  13. Thermal condensate structure and cosmological energy density of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Capolupo, Antonio; Vitiello, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the study of thermal vacuum condensate for scalar and fermion fields. We analyze the thermal states at the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and we show that the vacuum expectation value of the energy momentum tensor density of photon fields reproduces the energy density and pressure of the CMB. We perform the computations in the formal framework of the thermo field dynamics. We also consider the case of neutrinos and thermal states at the temperature of the neutrino cosmic background. Consistency with the estimated lower bound of the sum of the active neutrino masses is verified. In the boson sector, non trivial contribution to the energy of the universe is given by particles of masses of the order of $10^{-4}eV$ compatible with the ones of the axion-like particles. The fractal self-similar structure of the thermal radiation is also discussed and related to the coherent structure of the thermal vacuum.

  14. Thermal Condensate Structure and Cosmological Energy Density of the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Capolupo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study thermal vacuum condensate for scalar and fermion fields. We analyze the thermal states at the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB and we show that the vacuum expectation value of the energy momentum tensor density of photon fields reproduces the energy density and pressure of the CMB. We perform the computations in the formal framework of the Thermo Field Dynamics. We also consider the case of neutrinos and thermal states at the temperature of the neutrino cosmic background. Consistency with the estimated lower bound of the sum of the active neutrino masses is verified. In the boson sector, nontrivial contribution to the energy of the universe is given by particles of masses of the order of 10−4 eV compatible with the ones of the axion-like particles. The fractal self-similar structure of the thermal radiation is also discussed and related to the coherent structure of the thermal vacuum.

  15. Numerical Relativity as a tool for studying the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Garrison, David

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations are becoming a more effective tool for conducting detailed investigations into the evolution of our universe. In this article, we show how the framework of numerical relativity can be used for studying cosmological models. The author is working to develop a large-scale simulation of the dynamical processes in the early universe. These take into account interactions of dark matter, scalar perturbations, gravitational waves, magnetic fields and a dynamic plasma. The code described in this report is a GRMHD code based on the Cactus framework and is structured to utilize one of several different differencing methods chosen at run-time. It is being developed and tested on the Texas Learning and Computation Center's Xanadu Cluster.

  16. Advances in modern cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The twentieth century elevated our understanding of the Universe from its early stages to what it is today and what is to become of it. Cosmology is the weapon that utilizes all the scientific tools that we have created to feel less lost in the immensity of our Universe. The standard model is the theory that explains the best what we observe. Even with all the successes that this theory had, two main questions are still to be answered: What is the nature of dark matter and dark energy? This book attempts to understand these questions while giving some of the most promising advances in modern cosmology.

  17. Numerical relativity and the early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironov Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider numerical simulations in general relativity in ADM formalism with cosmological ansatz for the metric. This ansatz is convenient for investigations of the Universe creation in laboratory with Galileons. Here we consider toy model for the software: spherically symmetric scalar field minimally coupled to the gravity with asymmetric double well potential. We studied the dependence of radius of critical bubble on the parameters of the theory. It demonstrates the wide applicability of thin-wall approximation. We did not find any kind of stable bubble solution.

  18. The philosophy of cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, Joseph; Barrow, John D; Saunders, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Following a long-term international collaboration between leaders in cosmology and the philosophy of science, this volume addresses foundational questions at the limit of science across these disciplines, questions raised by observational and theoretical progress in modern cosmology. Space missions have mapped the Universe up to its early instants, opening up questions on what came before the Big Bang, the nature of space and time, and the quantum origin of the Universe. As the foundational volume of an emerging academic discipline, experts from relevant fields lay out the fundamental problems of contemporary cosmology and explore the routes toward finding possible solutions. Written for graduates and researchers in physics and philosophy, particular efforts are made to inform academics from other fields, as well as the educated public, who wish to understand our modern vision of the Universe, related philosophical questions, and the significant impacts on scientific methodology.

  19. Preons, Dark Matter and the Production of Early Cosmological Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Burdyuzha, V; Ponomarev, Yu; Vereshkov, G M; Ponomarev, Yu.

    1999-01-01

    If the preon structure of quarks, leptons and gauge bosons will be proved then in the Universe during relativistic phase transition the production of nonperturbative preon condensates has been occured collective excitations of which are perceived as pseudogoldstone bosons. Dark matter consisting of pseudogoldstone bosons of familon type contains a "hot" component from massless particles and a "cold" (nonrelativistic) component from massive particles. It is shown that such dark matter was undergone to two relativistic phase transitions temperatures of which were different. In the result of these phase transitions the structurization of dark matter and therefore the baryon subsystem has taken place. Besides, the role of particle generations in the Universe become more evident. For the possibility of structurization of matter as minimum three generations of particles are necessary.

  20. Tensors, relativity, and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Dalarsson, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Tensors, Relativity, and Cosmology, Second Edition, combines relativity, astrophysics, and cosmology in a single volume, providing a simplified introduction to each subject that is followed by detailed mathematical derivations. The book includes a section on general relativity that gives the case for a curved space-time, presents the mathematical background (tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry), discusses the Einstein equation and its solutions (including black holes and Penrose processes), and considers the energy-momentum tensor for various solutions. In addition, a section on relativistic astrophysics discusses stellar contraction and collapse, neutron stars and their equations of state, black holes, and accretion onto collapsed objects, with a final section on cosmology discussing cosmological models, observational tests, and scenarios for the early universe. This fully revised and updated second edition includes new material on relativistic effects, such as the behavior of clocks and measuring rods in m...

  1. Water Emission from Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarugula, Sreevani; Vieira, Joaquin

    2017-06-01

    The study of dusty star forming galaxies (DSFGs) is important to understand galaxy assembly in early universe. A bulk of star formation at z ˜ 2-3 takes place in DSFGs but are obscured by dust in optical/UV. However, they are extremely bright in far infrared (FIR) and submillimeter with infrared luminosities of 10^{11} - 10^{13} L_{⊙}. ALMA, with its high spatial and spectral resolution, has opened up a new window to study molecular lines, which are vital to our understanding of the excitation and physical processes in the galaxy. Carbon monoxide (CO) being the second most abundant and bright molecule after hydrogen (H_{2}), is an important tracer of star forming potential. Besides CO, water (H_{2}O) is also abundant and it's line strength is comparable to high-J CO lines in high redshift Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs). Studies have shown H_{2}O to directly trace the FIR field and hence the star forming regions. Moreover, L_{H_{2}O}/L_{IR} ratio is nearly constant for five of the most important water lines and does not depend on the presence of AGN implying that H_{2}O is one of the best tracers of star forming regions (SFRs). This incredible correlation holds for nearly five orders of magnitude in luminosity and observed in both local and high redshift luminous infrared galaxies. In this talk, I will discuss the importance of H_{2}O in tracing FIR field and show the preliminary results of resolved water emission from three high-redshift gravitationally lensed South Pole Telescope (SPT) sources obtained from ALMA cycle 3 and cycle 4. These sources are among the first H_{2}O observations with resolved spatial scales ˜ 1 kpc and will prove to be important for ALMA and galaxy evolution studies.

  2. Cold Galaxies on FIRE: Modeling the Most Luminous Starbursts in the Universe with Cosmological Zoom Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Desika

    2014-10-01

    As the most luminous, heavily star-forming galaxies in the Universe, Submillimeter Galaxies at z 2-4 are key players in galaxy evolution. Since their discovery, SMGs have received significant attention from HST in characterizing their physical morphology, stellar masses, and star formation histories. Unfortunately, these physical constraints have been difficult for theorists to reconcile with galaxy formation simulations. Previous generations of simulations have all either {a} neglected baryons; {b} neglected radiative transfer {and connecting to observations}; or {c} neglected cosmological conditions. Here, we propose to conduct the first ever cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of Submillimeter Galaxy formation that couple with bona fide 3D dust radiative transfer calculations. These ultra-high resolution simulations {parsec-scale} will be the first to resolve the sites of dust obscuration, the cosmic growth history of SMGs, and their evolutionary destiny. Our proposal has two principle goals: {1} Develop the first ever model for SMG formation from cosmological simulations that include both baryons and dust radiative transfer; {2} Capitalize on our parsec-scale resolution to understand the connection between the physical properties of star-forming regions in high-z starbursts, and recent IMF constraints from present-epoch massive galaxies.

  3. Classical and Quantum Cosmology of an Accelerating Model Universe with Compactification of Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Darabi, F

    2009-01-01

    We study a $(4+D)$-dimensional Kaluza-Klein cosmology with a Robertson-Walker type metric having two scale factors $a$ and $R$, corresponding to $D$-dimensional internal space and 4-dimensional universe, respectively. By introducing an exotic matter in the form of perfect fluid with an special equation of state, as the space-time part of the higher dimensional energy-momentum tensor, a four dimensional effective decaying cosmological term appears as $\\lambda \\sim R^{-m}$ with $0 \\leq m\\leq 2$, playing the role of an evolving dark energy in the universe. By taking $m=2$, which has some interesting implications in reconciling observations with inflationary models and is consistent with quantum tunneling, the resulting Einstein's field equations yield the exponential solutions for the scale factors $a$ and $R$. These exponential behaviors may account for the dynamical compactification of extra dimensions and the accelerating expansion of the 4-dimensional universe in terms of Hubble parameter, $H$. The accelerat...

  4. Implications of an absolute simultaneity theory for cosmology and universe acceleration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward T Kipreos

    Full Text Available An alternate Lorentz transformation, Absolute Lorentz Transformation (ALT, has similar kinematics to special relativity yet maintains absolute simultaneity in the context of a preferred reference frame. In this study, it is shown that ALT is compatible with current experiments to test Lorentz invariance only if the proposed preferred reference frame is locally equivalent to the Earth-centered non-rotating inertial reference frame, with the inference that in an ALT framework, preferred reference frames are associated with centers of gravitational mass. Applying this theoretical framework to cosmological data produces a scenario of universal time contraction in the past. In this scenario, past time contraction would be associated with increased levels of blueshifted light emissions from cosmological objects when viewed from our current perspective. The observation that distant Type Ia supernovae are dimmer than predicted by linear Hubble expansion currently provides the most direct evidence for an accelerating universe. Adjusting for the effects of time contraction on a redshift-distance modulus diagram produces a linear distribution of supernovae over the full redshift spectrum that is consistent with a non-accelerating universe.

  5. An Emergent Universe supported by chiral cosmological fields in Einstein--Gauss--Bonnet gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Chervon, Sergey V; Kubasov, Aroonkumar Beesham ans Aleksandr

    2014-01-01

    We propose the application of the chiral cosmological model (CCM) for the Einstein--Gauss--Bonnet (EGB) theory of gravitation with the aim of finding new models of the Emergent Universe (EmU) scenario. We analysed the EmU supported by two chiral cosmological fields for a spatially flat universe, while we have used three chiral fields when we investigated open and closed universes. To prove the validity of the EmU scenario we fixed the scale factor and found the exact solution by decomposition of EGB equations and solving the chiral field dynamics equation. To this end, we suggested the decomposition of the EGB equations in such a way that the first chiral field is responsible for the Einstein part of the model, while the second field, together with kinetic interaction term, is connected with the Gauss--Bonnet part of the theory. We proved that both fields are phantom ones under this decomposition, and that the model has a solution if the kinetic interaction between the fields equals a constant. We have presen...

  6. Unruh effect as foundation of universal gravitation within the cosmological scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Nassif, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    We aim to build a simple model of a gas with temperature ($T$) in thermal equilibrium with a black-body that plays the role of the adiabatically expanding universe, so that each particle of such a gas mimics a kind of "particle" (quantum) of dark energy, which is inside a very small area of space so-called Planck area ($l_p^{2}$), that is the minimum area of the whole space-time represented by a huge spherical surface with area $4\\pi r_u^2$, $r_u$ being the Hubble radius. So we should realize that such spherical surface is the surface of the black-body for representing the universe, whose temperature ($T$) is related to an acceleration ($a$) of a proof particle that experiences the own black-body radiation according to the Unruh effect. Thus, by using this model, we derive the law of universal gravitation, which leads us to understand the anti-gravity in the cosmological scenario and also estimate the tiny order of magnitude of the cosmological constant in agreement with the observational data.

  7. Implications of an absolute simultaneity theory for cosmology and universe acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipreos, Edward T

    2014-01-01

    An alternate Lorentz transformation, Absolute Lorentz Transformation (ALT), has similar kinematics to special relativity yet maintains absolute simultaneity in the context of a preferred reference frame. In this study, it is shown that ALT is compatible with current experiments to test Lorentz invariance only if the proposed preferred reference frame is locally equivalent to the Earth-centered non-rotating inertial reference frame, with the inference that in an ALT framework, preferred reference frames are associated with centers of gravitational mass. Applying this theoretical framework to cosmological data produces a scenario of universal time contraction in the past. In this scenario, past time contraction would be associated with increased levels of blueshifted light emissions from cosmological objects when viewed from our current perspective. The observation that distant Type Ia supernovae are dimmer than predicted by linear Hubble expansion currently provides the most direct evidence for an accelerating universe. Adjusting for the effects of time contraction on a redshift-distance modulus diagram produces a linear distribution of supernovae over the full redshift spectrum that is consistent with a non-accelerating universe.

  8. Development of Zeldovich's approach for cosmological distances measurement in the Friedmann Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolaev, Aleksey

    2015-01-01

    We present our development of Zeldovich's ideas for the measurement of the cosmological angular diameter distance (ADD) in the Friedmann Universe. We derive the general differential equation for the ADD measurement which is valid for an open, spatially-flat and closed universe, and for any stress energy tensor. We solve the mentioned equations in terms of quadratures in a form suitable for further numerical investigations for the present universe filled by radiation, (baryonic and dark) matter and dark energy. We perform the numerical investigation in the absence of radiation, and show the strong dependence ADD on the filling of the cone of light rays (CLR). The difference of the empty and totally filled CLR may reach 600-700 Mps. for the redshift $f\\simeq 3$.

  9. SN1987A-Neutrino emission from Supernova': in Dynamic universe model of cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naga Parameswara Gupta, Satyavarapu

    SN1987A-Neutrino emission from supernova before the star bursts' is an important discovery, when viewed from `Dynamic universe model of cosmology' point of view. In OMEG05, we have successfully presented the reasons for calculation error called `missing mass' in an inhomoge-neous, anisotropic and multi-body Dynamic universe Model, where this error is not occurring. But there are some new voices that say about generation of some flavors of neutrinos during Bigbang. We find from SN1987A Neutrino generation covers all flavors. Remaining flavors of Neutrinos are generated from sun and stars. This covers the whole spectrum. This paper covers all these aspects. And other earlier results by Dynamic Universe Model 1. Offers Singularity free solutions 2. Non-collapsing Galaxy structures 3. Solving Missing mass in Galaxies, and it finds reason for Galaxy circular velocity curves. . . . 4. Blue shifted and red shifted Galaxies co-existence. . . 5. Explains the force behind expansion of universe. 6. Explains the large voids and non-uniform matter densities. 7. Explains the Pioneer anomaly 8. Predicts the trajectory of New Horizons satellite. 9 Jeans swindle test 10. Existence of large number of blue shifted Galaxies `SITA Simulations' software was developed about 18 years back for Dynamic Universe Model of Cosmology. It is based on Newtonian physics. It is Classical singularity free N-body tensor solution to the old problem announced by King Oscar II and tried by Poincare in year AD1888 for 133 masses, tested extensively for so many years. This was developed on 486 based PC of those days; the same software was used repeatedly for so many years for solving different Physical problems on Different PCs and Laptops. It is based on Dynamic Universe Model's mathematical back ground.

  10. Cosmology with the Square Kilometre Array by SKA-Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Kohri, Kazunori; Namikawa, Toshiya; Oyama, Yoshihiko; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Shimabukuro, Hayato; Takahashi, Keitaro; Takahashi, Tomo; Yokoyama, Shuichiro; Yoshikawa, Kohji

    2016-12-01

    In the past several decades, the standard cosmological model has been established and its parameters have been measured to a high precision, while there are still many fundamental questions in cosmology; such as the physics in the very early universe, the origin of the cosmic acceleration, and the nature of dark matter. The forthcoming radio telescope, the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), which will be the world's largest, will be able to open a new frontier in cosmology and will be one of the most powerful tools for cosmology in the coming decade. The cosmological surveys conducted by the SKA would have the potential not only to answer these fundamental questions but also deliver precision cosmology. In this article we briefly review the role of the SKA from the viewpoint of modern cosmology. The cosmological science led by the SKA-Japan Consortium (SKA-JP) Cosmology Science Working Group is also discussed.

  11. Cosmology with the Square Kilometre Array by SKA-Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Kohri, Kazunori; Namikawa, Toshiya; Oyama, Yoshihiko; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Shimabukuro, Hayato; Takahashi, Keitaro; Takahashi, Tomo; Yokoyama, Shuichiro; Yoshikawa, Kohji

    2016-10-01

    In the past several decades, the standard cosmological model has been established and its parameters have been measured to a high precision, while there are still many fundamental questions in cosmology; such as the physics in the very early universe, the origin of the cosmic acceleration, and the nature of dark matter. The forthcoming radio telescope, the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), which will be the world's largest, will be able to open a new frontier in cosmology and will be one of the most powerful tools for cosmology in the coming decade. The cosmological surveys conducted by the SKA would have the potential not only to answer these fundamental questions but also deliver precision cosmology. In this article we briefly review the role of the SKA from the viewpoint of modern cosmology. The cosmological science led by the SKA-Japan Consortium (SKA-JP) Cosmology Science Working Group is also discussed.

  12. Cosmology with the Square Kilometre Array by SKA-Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Kohri, Kazunori; Namikawa, Toshiya; Oyama, Yoshihiko; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Shimabukuro, Hayato; Takahashi, Keitaro; Takahashi, Tomo; Yokoyama, Shuichiro; Yoshikawa, Kohji

    2016-01-01

    In the past several decades, the standard cosmological model has been established and its parameters have been measured to a high precision, while there are still many of the fundamental questions in cosmology; such as the physics in the very early Universe, the origin of the cosmic acceleration and the nature of the dark matter. The future world's largest radio telescope, Square Kilometre Array (SKA), will be able to open the new frontier of cosmology and will be one of the most powerful tools for cosmology in the next decade. The cosmological surveys conducted by the SKA would have the potential not only to answer these fundamental questions but also deliver the precision cosmology. In this article we briefly review the role of the SKA from the view point of the modern cosmology. The cosmology science led by the SKA-Japan Consortium (SKA-JP) Cosmology Science Working Group is also discussed.

  13. The Cosmology - Particle Physics Connection

    OpenAIRE

    Trodden, Mark(Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States)

    2006-01-01

    Modern cosmology poses deep and unavoidable questions for fundamental physics. In this plenary talk, delivered in slightly different forms at the {\\it Particles and Nuclei International Conference} (PANIC05) in Santa Fe, in October 2005, and at the {\\it CMB and Physics of the Early Universe International Conference}, on the island of Ischia, Italy, in April 2006, I discuss the broad connections between cosmology and particle physics, focusing on physics at the TeV scale, accessible at the nex...

  14. Noncommutative Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    García-Compéan, H; Ramírez, C

    2001-01-01

    We propose a model for noncommutative quantum cosmology by means of a deformation of minisuperspace. For the Kantowski-Sachs metric we are able to find the exact solution to the deformed Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We construct wave packets and show that noncommutativity could remarkably modify the quantum behavior of the universe. We discuss the relation with space-time noncommutativity and exhibit a program to search for the influence of noncommutativity at early times in the universe.

  15. HERA: Illuminating Our Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoer, David

    2014-06-01

    The Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Arrays (HERA) roadmap is a staged plan for using the unique properties of the 21cm line from neutral hydrogen to probe our cosmic dawn, from the birth of the first stars and black holes, through the full reionization of the primordial intergalactic medium (IGM). HERA is a collaboration between the Precision Array Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER), US-Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), and MIT Epoch of Reionization (MITEOR) teams.The first phase of the HERA roadmap entailed the operation of the PAPER and MWA telescopes to explore techniques and designs required to detect the primordial HI signal in the presence of radio continuum foreground emission some four orders of magnitude brighter. Studies with PAPER and the MWA have led to a new understanding of the interplay of foreground and instrumental systematics in the context of a three-dimensional cosmological intensity-mapping experiment. We are now able to remove foregrounds to the limits of our sensitivity with these instruments, culminating in the first physically meaningful upper limits on the power spectrum of 2 cm emission from reionization.Building on this understanding, the next stage of HERA entails a new 14m diameter antenna element that is optimized both for sensitivity and for minimizing foreground systematics. Arranging these elements in a compact hexagonal grid yields an array that facilitates calibration, leverages proven foreground removal techniques, and is scalable to large collecting areas. The HERA phase II will be located in the radio quiet environment of the SKA site in Karoo, South Africa, and have a sensitivity close to two orders of magnitude better than PAPER and the MWA, with broader frequency coverage, HERA can paint an uninterrupted picture through reionization, back to the end of the Dark Ages.This paper will present a summary of the current understanding of the signal characteristics and measurements and describe this planned HERA telescope to

  16. Magnetic fields and chiral asymmetry in the early hot universe

    CERN Document Server

    Sidorenko, Maxim; Shtanov, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study analytically the process of external generation and subsequent free evolution of the lepton chiral asymmetry and helical magnetic fields in the early hot universe. This process is known to be affected by the Abelian anomaly of the electroweak gauge interactions. As a consequence, chiral asymmetry in the fermion distribution generates magnetic fields of non-zero helicity, and vice versa. We take into account the presence of thermal bath, which serves as a seed for the development of instability in magnetic field in the presence of externally generated lepton chiral asymmetry. The developed helical magnetic field and lepton chiral asymmetry support each other, considerably prolonging their mutual existence, in the process of 'inverse cascade' transferring magnetic-field power from small to large spatial scales. For cosmologically interesting initial conditions, the chiral asymmetry and the energy density of helical magnetic field are shown to evolve by scaling laws, effectively depending...

  17. Cosmological perturbations in an effective and genuinely phantom dark energy Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Albarran, Imanol; Morais, João

    2016-01-01

    We carry out an analysis of the cosmological perturbations in general relativity for three different models which are good candidates to describe the current acceleration of the Universe. These three set-ups are described classically by perfect fluids with a phantom nature and represent deviations from the most widely accepted $\\Lambda$CDM model. In addition, each of the models under study induce different future singularities or abrupt events known as (i) Big Rip, (ii) Little Rip and (iii) Little Sibling of the Big Rip. Only the first one is regarded as a true singularity since it occurs at a finite cosmic time. For this reason, we refer to the others as abrupt events. With the aim to find possible footprints of this scenario in the Universe matter distribution, we not only obtain the evolution of the cosmological scalar perturbations but also calculate the matter power spectrum for each model. Finally, we constrain observationally these models using several measurements of the growth rate function, more pre...

  18. The accelerating universe and other cosmological aspects of modified gravity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Felice, Antonio

    I give a short introduction to standard cosmology and a review of what it is meant by "the dark energy enigma" in chapter l. In chapter 2, I mention and describe some attempts found in the literature of the past few years to attack this problem. Dark energy candidates for which the equation-of-state parameter w is less than -1 violate the dominant energy condition. In scalar-tensor theories of gravity, however, the expansion of the universe can mimic the behavior of general relativity with w the universe in such models, examining the possibilities for cosmic acceleration and other ultimate destinies. The models generically possess de Sitter space as an unstable solution and exhibit an interesting set of attractor solutions which, in some cases, provide alternatives to dark energy models. In chapter 5, I study a baryogenesis mechanism operating in the context of hyperextended inflation and making use of a coupling between the scalar field and a standard model global current, such as B or B - L . The method is efficient at temperatures at which these currents are not conserved due to some higher dimensional operator. The particle physics and cosmological phenomenology are discussed. I consider constraints stemming from nucleosynthesis and solar system experiments.

  19. PhD Thesis: String theory in the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwyn, Rhiannon

    2009-11-01

    The intersection of string theory with cosmology is unavoidable in the early universe, and its exploration may shine light on both fields. In this thesis, three papers at this intersection are presented and reviewed, with the aim of providing a thorough and pedagogical guide to their results. First, we address the longstanding problem of finding a string theory realisation of the axion. Using warped compactifications in heterotic string theory, we show that the axion decay constant can be lowered to acceptable values by the warp factor. Next, we move to the subject of cosmic strings, whose network evolution could have important consequences for astrophysics and cosmology. In particular, there are quantitative differences between cosmic superstring networks and GUT cosmic string networks. We investigate the properties of cosmic superstring networks in warped backgrounds, giving the tension and properties of three-string junctions in these backgrounds. Finally, we examine the possibility that cosmic strings in heterotic string theory could be responsible for generating the galactic magnetic fields that seeded those observed today.

  20. Active-sterile neutrino oscillations in the early universe with dynamical neutrino asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saviano, Ninetta

    2013-04-15

    In the last recent years different anomalies observed in short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments seem to point towards the existence of light sterile neutrinos. These sterile neutrinos can also be produced in the early universe by oscillations of the active neutrinos and can affect different cosmological observables. In order to quantify the abundance of sterile neutrinos, we perform a detailed study of the flavor evolution in (3+1) and (2+1) oscillation schemes, in presence of dynamical primordial neutrino asymmetries L. We find that for |L|≲10{sup −4}eV sterile neutrinos would be completely thermalized creating a tension with the cosmological data. An asymmetry of |L|≳10{sup −3} is then required in order to suppress the sterile production and to reconcile them with cosmology.

  1. A Tale of Two Timescales: Mixing, Mass Generation, and Phase Transitions in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Dienes, Keith R; Thomas, Brooks

    2015-01-01

    Light scalar fields such as axions and string moduli can play an important role in early-universe cosmology. However, many factors can significantly impact their late-time cosmological abundances. For example, in cases where the potentials for these fields are generated dynamically --- such as during cosmological mass-generating phase transitions --- the duration of the time interval required for these potentials to fully develop can have significant repercussions. Likewise, in scenarios with multiple scalars, mixing amongst the fields can also give rise to an effective timescale that modifies the resulting late-time abundances. Previous studies have focused on the effects of either the first or the second timescale in isolation. In this paper, by contrast, we examine the new features that arise from the interplay between these two timescales when both mixing and time-dependent phase transitions are introduced together. First, we find that the effects of these timescales can conspire to alter not only the tot...

  2. Classical Universe emerging from quantum cosmology without horizon and flatness problems

    CERN Document Server

    Fathi, M; Moniz, P V

    2016-01-01

    We apply the complex de Broglie-Bohm formulation of quantum mechanics [1] to a spatially closed homogeneous and isotropic early Universe whose matter content are radiation and dust perfect fluids. We then show that an expanding classical Universe can emerge from an oscillating (with complex scale factor) quantum Universe without singularity. Furthermore, the Universe obtained in this process has no horizon or flatness problems.

  3. Imaginative Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Brandenberger, R H; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Magueijo, Joao

    1999-01-01

    We review a few off-the-beaten-track ideas in cosmology. They solve a variety of fundamental problems; also they are fun. We start with a description of non-singular dilaton cosmology. In these scenarios gravity is modified so that the Universe does not have a singular birth. We then present a variety of ideas mixing string theory and cosmology. These solve the cosmological problems usually solved by inflation, and furthermore shed light upon the issue of the number of dimensions of our Universe. We finally review several aspects of the varying speed of light theory. We show how the horizon, flatness, and cosmological constant problems may be solved in this scenario. We finally present a possible experimental test for a realization of this theory: a test in which the Supernovae results are to be combined with recent evidence for redshift dependence in the fine structure constant.

  4. Fluids in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L

    2014-01-01

    We review the role of fluids in cosmology by first introducing them in General Relativity and then applied to a FRW Universe's model. We describe how relativistic and non-relativistic components evolve in the background dynamics. We also introduce scalar fields to show that they are able to yield an inflationary dynamics at very early times (inflation) and late times (quintessence). Then, we proceed to study the thermodynamical properties of the fluids and, lastly, its perturbed kinematics. We make emphasis in the constrictions of parameters by recent cosmological probes.

  5. Fermionic cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chimento, L P; Forte, M [Physics Department, UBA, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Devecchi, F P; Kremer, G M; Ribas, M O; Samojeden, L L, E-mail: kremer@fisica.ufpr.br, E-mail: devecchi@fisica.ufpr.br, E-mail: chimento@df.uba.ar [Physics Department, UFPR, 81531-990 Curitiba (Brazil)

    2011-07-08

    In this work we review if fermionic sources could be responsible for accelerated periods during the evolution of a FRW universe. In a first attempt, besides the fermionic source, a matter constituent would answer for the decelerated periods. The coupled differential equations that emerge from the field equations are integrated numerically. The self-interaction potential of the fermionic field is considered as a function of the scalar and pseudo-scalar invariants. It is shown that the fermionic field could behave like an inflaton field in the early universe, giving place to a transition to a matter dominated (decelerated) period. In a second formulation we turn our attention to analytical results, specifically using the idea of form-invariance transformations. These transformations can be used for obtaining accelerated cosmologies starting with conventional cosmological models. Here we reconsider the scalar field case and extend the discussion to fermionic fields. Finally we investigate the role of a Dirac field in a Brans-Dicke (BD) context. The results show that this source, in combination with the BD scalar, promote a final eternal accelerated era, after a matter dominated period.

  6. Departures from the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertston-Walker Cosmological Model in an Inhomogeneous Universe: A Numerical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, John T; Mertens, James B; Starkman, Glenn D

    2016-06-24

    While the use of numerical general relativity for modeling astrophysical phenomena and compact objects is commonplace, the application to cosmological scenarios is only just beginning. Here, we examine the expansion of a spacetime using the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formalism of numerical relativity in synchronous gauge. This work represents the first numerical cosmological study that is fully relativistic, nonlinear, and without symmetry. The universe that emerges exhibits an average Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) behavior; however, this universe also exhibits locally inhomogeneous expansion beyond that expected in linear perturbation theory around a FLRW background.

  7. Hubble Diagram Test of Expanding and Static Cosmological Models: The Case for a Slowly Expanding Flat Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo A. Marosi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new redshift (RS versus photon travel time ( test including 171 supernovae RS data points. We extended the Hubble diagram to a range of z = 0,0141–8.1 in the hope that at high RSs, the fitting of the calculated RS/ diagrams to the observed RS data would, as predicted by different cosmological models, set constraints on alternative cosmological models. The Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM, the static universe model, and the case for a slowly expanding flat universe (SEU are considered. We show that on the basis of the Hubble diagram test, the static and the slowly expanding models are favored.

  8. Predictors of Early Retirement Among University Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Deborah J.; Greene, Vernon L.

    1987-01-01

    Interviews with faculty at a university having an incentive early retirement plan revealed that those choosing to retire early were in poorer health, faced smaller proportional income decrement upon retirement, were less satisfied with teaching assignments, and considered themselves lower in research productivity and higher in teaching and…

  9. Using Supercomputers to Probe the Early Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giorgi, Elena Edi [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-17

    For decades physicists have been trying to decipher the first moments after the Big Bang. Using very large telescopes, for example, scientists scan the skies and look at how fast galaxies move. Satellites study the relic radiation left from the Big Bang, called the cosmic microwave background radiation. And finally, particle colliders, like the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, allow researchers to smash protons together and analyze the debris left behind by such collisions. Physicists at Los Alamos National Laboratory, however, are taking a different approach: they are using computers. In collaboration with colleagues at University of California San Diego, the Los Alamos researchers developed a computer code, called BURST, that can simulate conditions during the first few minutes of cosmological evolution.

  10. String cosmology in Bianchi type-VI0 dusty Universe with electromagnetic field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hassan Amirhashchi

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, the effect of electromagnetic field in the string Bianchi type-VI0 Universe is investigated. Einstein’s field equations have been solved exactly with suitable physical assumptions for two types of strings: (i) massive strings and (ii) Nambu strings. It is found that when the Universe is dominated by massive strings, the existence of electromagnetic field is necessary as it accelerates the expansion of the Universe. But when our Universe is dominated by Nambu strings, the electromagnetic field does not have significant effect on the evolution of the Universe. We have also shown that the early massive string-dominated Universe got converted to Nambu string-dominated Universe later. Our models are derived from an early deceleration phase to an accelerating phase which is consistent with the recent observations of supernovae type-Ia. The physical and geometrical behaviour of these models are also discussed.

  11. Applications of Cosmological Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Christopherson, Adam J

    2011-01-01

    Cosmological perturbation theory is crucial for our understanding of the universe. The linear theory has been well understood for some time, however developing and applying the theory beyond linear order is currently at the forefront of research in theoretical cosmology. This thesis studies the applications of perturbation theory to cosmology and, specifically, to the early universe. Starting with some background material introducing the well-tested 'standard model' of cosmology, we move on to develop the formalism for perturbation theory up to second order giving evolution equations for all types of scalar, vector and tensor perturbations, both in gauge dependent and gauge invariant form. We then move on to the main result of the thesis, showing that, at second order in perturbation theory, vorticity is sourced by a coupling term quadratic in energy density and entropy perturbations. This source term implies a qualitative difference to linear order. Thus, while at linear order vorticity decays with the expan...

  12. Toward a halo mass function for precision cosmology: the limits of universality

    CERN Document Server

    Tinker, Jeremy L; Klypin, Anatoly; Abazajian, Kevork; Warren, Michael S; Yepes, Gustavo; Gottlober, Stefan; Holz, Daniel E

    2008-01-01

    We measure the mass function of dark matter halos in a large set of collisionless cosmological simulations of flat LCDM cosmology and investigate its evolution at z<~2. Halos are identified as isolated density peaks, and their masses are measured within a series of radii enclosing specific overdensities. We argue that these spherical overdensity masses are more directly linked to cluster observables than masses measured using the friends-of-friends algorithm (FOF), and are therefore preferable for accurate forecasts of halo abundances. Our simulation set allows us to calibrate the mass function at z=0 for virial masses in the range 10^{11} Msol/h < M < 10^{15} Msol/h, to <~ 5%. We derive fitting functions for the halo mass function in this mass range for a wide range of overdensities, both at z=0 and earlier epochs. In addition to these formulae, which improve on previous approximations by 10-20%, our main finding is that the mass function cannot be represented by a universal fitting function at t...

  13. Observational constrains on a decaying cosmological term

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, R; Ichiki, K; Nakamura, Riou; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Ichiki, Kiyotomo

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of a universe with a decaying cosmological term (vacuum energy) that is assumed to be a function of the scale factor. In this model, while the cosmological term increases to the early universe, the radiation energy density is lower than the model with the cosmological "constant". We find that the effects of the decaying cosmological term on the expansion rate at the redshift z<2 is negligible. However, the decrease in the radiation density affects on the thermal history of the universe; e.g. the photon decoupling occurs at higher $z$ compared to the case of the standard \\Lambda CDM model. As a consequence, a decaying cosmological term affects on the cosmic microwave background anisotropy. We show the angular power spectrum in D\\Lambda CDM model and compare with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data.

  14. Cosmological perturbations of self-accelerating universe in nonlinear massive gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gumrukcuoglu, A Emir; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    We study cosmological perturbations of self-accelerating universe solutions in the recently proposed nonlinear theory of massive gravity, with general matter content. While the broken diffeomorphism invariance implies that there generically are 2 tensor, 2 vector and 2 scalar degrees of freedom in the gravity sector, we find that the scalar and vector degrees have vanishing kinetic terms and nonzero mass terms. Depending on their nonlinear behavior, this indicates either nondynamical nature of these degrees or strong couplings. Assuming the former, we integrate out the 2 vector and 2 scalar degrees of freedom. We then find that in the scalar and vector sectors, gauge-invariant variables constructed from metric and matter perturbations have exactly the same quadratic action as in general relativity. The difference from general relativity arises only in the tensor sector, where the graviton mass modifies the dispersion relation of gravitational waves, with a time-dependent effective mass. This may lead to modif...

  15. Tilting the Brane, or Some Cosmological Consequences of the Brane Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    1999-01-01

    We discuss theories in which the standard-model particles are localized on a brane embedded in space-time with large compact extra dimensions, whereas gravity propagates in the bulk. In addition to the ground state corresponding to a straight infinite brane, such theories admit a (one parameter) family of stable configurations corresponding to branes wrapping with certain periodicity around the extra dimension(s) when one moves along a noncompact coordinate (tilted walls). In the effective four-dimensional field-theory picture, such walls are interpreted as one of the (stable) solutions with the constant gradient energy, discussed earlier. In the cosmological context their energy "redshifts" by the Hubble expansion and dissipates slower then the one in matter or radiation. The tilted wall eventually starts to dominate the Universe. The upper bound on the energy density coincides with the present critical energy density. Thus, this mechanism can become significant any time in the future. The solutions we discu...

  16. The Relaxed Universe: Towards solving the cosmological constant problem dynamically from an effective action functional of gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Florian, E-mail: fbauer@ecm.ub.e [HEP Group, Dept. ECM and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Univ. de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Sola, Joan, E-mail: sola@ecm.ub.e [HEP Group, Dept. ECM and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Univ. de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Stefancic, Hrvoje, E-mail: shrvoje@thphys.irb.h [Theoretical Physics Division, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, PO Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-05-10

    We present an unconventional approach for addressing the old cosmological constant (CC) problem in a class of F(R,G) models of modified gravity. For a CC of arbitrary size and sign the corresponding cosmological evolution follows an expansion history which strikingly resembles that of our real universe. The effects of the large CC are relaxed dynamically and there is no fine-tuning at any stage. In addition, the relaxation mechanism alleviates the coincidence problem. The upshot is that a large cosmological constant and the observed cosmic expansion history coexist peacefully in the Relaxed Universe. This model universe can be thought of as an interesting preliminary solution of the cosmological constant problem, in the sense that it provides a successful dynamical mechanism able to completely avoid the fine-tuning problem (the toughest aspect of the CC problem). However, since the Relaxed Universe is formulated within the context of modified gravity, it may still suffer of some of the known issues associated with these theories, and therefore it can be viewed only as a toy-model proposal towards a final solution of the CC problem.

  17. Cyclic models of the relativistic universe: the early history

    CERN Document Server

    Kragh, Helge

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of relativistic cosmology oscillating or cyclic models of the universe were introduced by A. Friedmann in his seminal paper of 1922. With the recognition of evolutionary cosmology in the 1930s this class of closed models attracted considerable interest and was investigated by several physicists and astronomers. Whereas the Friedmann-Einstein model exhibited only a single maximum value, R. Tolman argued for an endless series of cycles. After World War II, cyclic or pulsating models were suggested by W. Bonnor and H. Zanstra, among others, but they remained peripheral to mainstream cosmology. The paper reviews the development from 1922 to the 1960s, paying particular attention to the works of Friedmann, Einstein, Tolman and Zanstra. It also points out the role played by bouncing models in the emergence of modern big-bang cosmology.

  18. Supermassive Black Holes in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Melia, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery of the ultraluminous quasar SDSS J010013.02+280225.8 at redshift 6.3 has exacerbated the time compression problem implied by the appearance of supermassive black holes only ~900 Myr after the big bang, and only ~500 Myr beyond the formation of Pop II and III stars. Aside from heralding the onset of cosmic reionization, these first and second generation stars could have reasonably produced the ~5-20 solar-mass seeds that eventually grew into z~6-7 quasars. But this process would have taken ~900 Myr, a timeline that appears to be at odds with the predictions of LCDM without an anomalously high accretion rate, or some exotic creation of ~10^5 solar-mass seeds. There is no evidence of either of these happening in the local universe. In this paper, we show that a much simpler, more elegant solution to the supermassive black hole anomaly is instead to view this process using the age-redshift relation predicted by the R_h=ct Universe, an FRW cosmology with zero active mass. In this context, cosm...

  19. Harmonizing Physics & Cosmology With Everything Else in the Universe(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asija, Pal

    2006-03-01

    This paper postulates a theory of everything including our known finite physical universe within and as sub-set of an infinite virtual invisible universe occupying some of the same space and time. It attempts to harmonize astrophysics with everything else including life. It compares and contrasts properties, similarities, differences and relationships between the two universe(s). A particular attention is paid to the interface between the two and the challenges of building and/or traversing bridges between them. A number of inflection points between the two are identified. The paper also delineates their relationship to big bang, theory of evolution, gravity, dark matter, black holes, time travel, speed of light, theory of relativity and string theory just to name a few. Several new terms are introduced and defined to discuss proper relationship, transition and interface between the body, soul and spirit as well as their relationship to brain and mind. Physical bodies & beings are compared with virtual, meta and ultra bodies and beings and how the ``Virtual Inside'' relates to people, pets, plants and particles and their micro constituents as well as macro sets. The past, present, and potential of the concurrent universe(s) is compared and contrasted along with many myths and misconceptions of the meta physics as well as modern physics.

  20. Sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaney, R.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Fuller, G.M. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1990-11-14

    We discuss the role played by right-handed sterile neutrinos in the early universe. We show how well known {sup 4}He constraint on the number of relativistic degrees of freedom at early times limits the equilibration of the right handed neutrino sea with the background plasma. We discuss how this allows interesting constraints to be placed on neutrino properties. In particular, a new limit on the Dirac mass of the neutrino is presented. 12 refs.

  1. Classical universe emerging from quantum cosmology without horizon and flatness problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fathi, M.; Jalalzadeh, S. [Shahid Beheshti University, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moniz, P.V. [Centro de Matematica e Aplicacoes-UBI, Covilha (Portugal); Universidade da Beira Interior, Departmento de Fisica, Covilha (Portugal)

    2016-10-15

    We apply the complex de Broglie-Bohm formulation of quantum mechanics in Chou and Wyatt (Phys Rev A 76: 012115, 2007), Gozzi (Phys Lett B 165: 351, 1985), Bhalla et al. (Am J Phys 65: 1187, 1997) to a spatially closed homogeneous and isotropic early universe whose matter contents are radiation and dust perfect fluids. We then show that an expanding classical universe can emerge from an oscillating (with complex scale factor) quantum universe without singularity. Furthermore, the universe obtained in this process has no horizon or flatness problems. (orig.)

  2. A model of the Universe including Dark Energy accounted for by both a Quintessence Field and a (negative) Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Cardenas, R; Martin, O; Quirós, I; Cardenas, Rolando; Gonzalez, Tame; Martin, Osmel; Quiros, Israel

    2003-01-01

    In this work we present a model of the universe in which dark energy is modelled explicitely with both a dynamical quintessence field and a cosmological constant. Our results confirm the possibility of a collapsing universe (for a given region of the parameter space), which is necessary for an adequate definition of string theory. We have also reproduced the measurements of modulus distance from supernovae with good accuracy.

  3. Model of the universe including dark energy accounted for by both a quintessence field and a (negative) cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Rolando; Gonzalez, Tame; Leiva, Yoelsy; Martin, Osmel; Quiros, Israel

    2003-04-01

    In this work we present a model of the universe in which dark energy is modeled explicitly with both a dynamical quintessence field and a cosmological constant. Our results confirm the possibility of a future collapsing universe (for a given region of the parameter space), which is necessary for a consistent formulation of both string and quantum field theories. The predictions of this model for distance modulus of supernovae are similar to those of the standard ΛCDM model.

  4. Particle physics and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1986-10-01

    This series of lectures is about the role of particle physics in physical processes that occurred in the very early stages of the bug gang. Of particular interest is the role of particle physics in determining the evolution of the early Universe, and the effect of particle physics on the present structure of the Universe. The use of the big bang as a laboratory for placing limits on new particle physics theories will also be discussed. Section 1 reviews the standard cosmology, including primordial nucleosynthesis. Section 2 reviews the decoupling of weakly interacting particles in the early Universe, and discusses neutrino cosmology and the resulting limits that may be placed on the mass and lifetime of massive neutrinos. Section 3 discusses the evolution of the vacuum through phase transitions in the early Universe and the formation of topological defects in the transitions. Section 4 covers recent work on the generation of the baryon asymmetry by baryon-number violating reactions in Grand Unified Theories, and mentions some recent work on baryon number violation effects at the electroweak transition. Section 5 is devoted to theories of cosmic inflation. Finally, Section 6 is a discussion of the role of extra spatial dimensions in the evolution of the early Universe. 78 refs., 32 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Hamiltonian cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M.

    1972-01-01

    The study of cosmological models by means of equations of motion in Hamiltonian form is considered. Hamiltonian methods applied to gravity seem to go back to Rosenfeld (1930), who constructed a quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian for linearized general relativity theory. The first to notice that cosmologies provided a simple model in which to demonstrate features of Hamiltonian formulation was DeWitt (1967). Applications of the ADM formalism to homogeneous cosmologies are discussed together with applications of the Hamiltonian formulation, giving attention also to Bianchi-type universes. Problems involving the concept of superspace and techniques of quantization are investigated.

  6. Cosmological aspects of gauge mediated supersymmetry breakdown

    CERN Document Server

    Dalianis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, we study the details of some fundamental cosmological problems of the gauge mediated supersymmetry breakdown and we probe the supersymmetry breaking sector by cosmological arguments. We manifest that problems like the metastable vacuum selection and the gravitino overproduction in the reheated early universe are naturally absent in the most general class of gauge mediation models without including additional ingredients or assumptions. We also find that the gravitino can generically account for the bulk dark matter of the universe. Cosmological implications of a stringy UV-completion of the supersymmetry breaking sector have been also considered.

  7. The Quantum Echo of the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Blasco, Ana; Martin-Benito, Mercedes; Martin-Martinez, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    We show that the fluctuations of quantum fields as seen by late comoving observers are significantly influenced by the history of the early Universe, and therefore they transmit information about the nature of spacetime in timescales when quantum gravitational effects were non-negligible. We discuss how this may be observable even nowadays, and thus used to build falsifiability tests of quantum gravity theories.

  8. Ekpyrotic and Cyclic Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Lehners, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies provide theories of the very early and of the very late universe. In these models, the big bang is described as a collision of branes - and thus the big bang is not the beginning of time. Before the big bang, there is an ekpyrotic phase with equation of state w=P/rho >> 1 (where P is the average pressure and rho the average energy density) during which the universe slowly contracts. This phase resolves the standard cosmological puzzles and generates a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological perturbations containing a significant non-gaussian component. At the same time it produces small-amplitude gravitational waves with a blue spectrum. The dark energy dominating the present-day cosmological evolution is reinterpreted as a small attractive force between our brane and a parallel one. This force eventually induces a new ekpyrotic phase and a new brane collision, leading to the idea of a cyclic universe. This review discusses the detailed properties of these models, thei...

  9. Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehners, Jean-Luc [Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton NJ 08544 (United States)], E-mail: jlehners@princeton.edu

    2008-09-15

    Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies provide theories of the very early and of the very late universe. In these models, the big bang is described as a collision of branes - and thus the big bang is not the beginning of time. Before the big bang, there is an ekpyrotic phase with equation of state w=P/({rho}) >>1 (where P is the average pressure and {rho} the average energy density) during which the universe slowly contracts. This phase resolves the standard cosmological puzzles and generates a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological perturbations containing a significant non-Gaussian component. At the same time it produces small-amplitude gravitational waves with a blue spectrum. The dark energy dominating the present-day cosmological evolution is reinterpreted as a small attractive force between our brane and a parallel one. This force eventually induces a new ekpyrotic phase and a new brane collision, leading to the idea of a cyclic universe. This review discusses the detailed properties of these models, their embedding in M-theory and their viability, with an emphasis on open issues and observational signatures.

  10. Equality and Justice in Early Greek Cosmologies: The Paradigm of the “Line of the Horizon”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonietta Salamone

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The founders of Greek scientific thought believed justice in terms of equality. Cosmic equality, in fact, was conceived as the guaranty of cosmic justice: the order of nature is maintained because it is an order of equals. That the main components of the universe are equal was an old tradition in popular cosmology. In Hesiod earth and sky are declared equal (Theog. 126; and the distance between sky and earth is equal to that between earth and Tartarus (ibid. 719-25. Anaximander’s own cosmology is designed with just such a sense of aesthetic symmetry, with equality as the main motif: the intervals between each of the infinite worlds are equal; the intervals between earth, fixed stars, moon, and sun are also equal; earth and sun are equal. This is exactly the sense in which equality figures in the whole development of early cosmological theory from Anaximander to Empedocles: powers are equal if they can hold another in check, in a way that no one of them is more powerful than any other. The objective of this paper is to propose a cosmological interpretation of the term díkē in ancient Greek according to Aristotle, who establishes synonymy between justice and equality through the use of the «dividing line» paradigm. Aristotle reveals, in effect, that the words diksastḗs «judge» and dikaion «just» come from the root díkē, «judgment or sentence», which in their turn are derived from the adverb dīksā, «division into two equal parts». Moreover, the adverb dīksā comes from the Greek root dís-, «divided into two parts, dichotomous», which in its turn is derived from the Sanskrit root *diś-(dik whose meaning indicates the astronomical concept of the «horizon line», — i.e. the boundary line that divides apparently the cosmos in two equal parts, the Earth and the Sky. As said by Palmer and Gagarin, in effect, the meaning of the word Díkē is associated with making a «judgment or decision» between two contestants, that is

  11. Early Universes with Effective Discrete Time

    CERN Document Server

    Baulieu, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism for triggering the universe inflation could be that at very early periods the time variable was discrete instead of smooth. Alternatively, and perhaps equivalently, it could be the consequence that the metrics of the early universe was a strongly concentrated gravitational coherent state with very high frequency oscillations, allowing local pair creations by a generalisation to gravity of the Schwinger mechanism, perhaps by creation of black holes of masses superior to the Planck scale. The lattice spacing between two clicks in the discrete time picture corresponds to the inverse frequency of the gravitational coherent state in the other picture. In both cases, a much lower time than the Planck time might represent a new fundamental scale, giving new type of physics. To make possible a concrete estimation of the pair production probability, we propose that the oscillating coherent state metrics that defines this very early geometry minimises the Einstein gravity action coupled to interacting 1-,...

  12. Newtonian cosmology revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    1996-09-01

    I show that if Newtonian gravity is formulated in geometrical language, then Newtonian cosmology is as rigorous as relativistic cosmology. In homogeneous and isotropic universes, the geodesic deviation equation in Newtonian cosmology is proven to be exactly the same as the geodesic deviation equation in relativistic Friedmann cosmologies. This equation can be integrated to yield a constraint equation formally identical to the Friedmann equation. However, Newtonian cosmology is more general than Friedmann cosmology: by generalizing the flat-space Newtonian gravity force law to Riemannian metrics, I show that ever-expanding and recollapsing universes are allowed in any homogeneous and isotropic spatial geometry.

  13. Exploring Bouncing Cosmologies with Cosmological Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Yi-Fu

    2014-01-01

    In light of the recent observational data coming from the sky we have two significant directions in the field of theoretical cosmology recently. First, we are now able to make use of present observations, such as the Planck and BICEP2 data, to examine theoretical predictions from the standard inflationary $\\Lambda$CDM which were made decades of years ago. Second, we can search for new cosmological signatures as a way to explore physics beyond the standard cosmic paradigm. In particular, a subset of early universe models admit a nonsingular bouncing solution that attempts to address the issue of the big bang singularity. These models have achieved a series of considerable developments in recent years, in particular in their perturbative frameworks, which made brand-new predictions of cosmological signatures that could be visible in current and forthcoming observations. In this article we present two representative paradigms of very early universe physics. The first is the so-called new matter (or matter-ekpyro...

  14. Cosmic microwave background and first molecules in the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signore, Monique [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, Paris (France); Puy, Denis [University of Montpellier II, CNRS UMR 5024, GRAAL CC72, Montpellier (France)

    2009-01-15

    Besides the Hubble expansion of the universe, the main evidence in favor of the big-bang theory was the discovery, by Penzias and Wilson, of the cosmic microwave background (hereafter CMB) radiation. In 1990, the COBE satellite (Cosmic Background Explorer) revealed an accurate black-body behavior with a temperature around 2.7 K. Although the microwave background is very smooth, the COBE satellite did detect small variations - at the level of one part in 100 000 - in the temperature of the CMB from place to place in the sky. These ripples are caused by acoustic oscillations in the primordial plasma. While COBE was only sensitive to long-wavelength waves, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) - with its much higher resolution - reveals that the CMB temperature variations follow the distinctive pattern predicted by cosmological theory. Moreover, the existence of the microwave background allows cosmologists to deduce the conditions present in the early stages of the big bang and, in particular, helps to account for the chemistry of the universe. This report summarizes the latest measurements and studies of the CMB with the new calculations about the formation of primordial molecules. The PLANCK mission - planned to be launched in 2009 - is also presented. (orig.)

  15. Magnetic fields and chiral asymmetry in the early hot universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydorenko, Maksym; Tomalak, Oleksandr; Shtanov, Yuri

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we study analytically the process of external generation and subsequent free evolution of the lepton chiral asymmetry and helical magnetic fields in the early hot universe. This process is known to be affected by the Abelian anomaly of the electroweak gauge interactions. As a consequence, chiral asymmetry in the fermion distribution generates magnetic fields of non-zero helicity, and vice versa. We take into account the presence of thermal bath, which serves as a seed for the development of instability in magnetic field in the presence of externally generated lepton chiral asymmetry. The developed helical magnetic field and lepton chiral asymmetry support each other, considerably prolonging their mutual existence, in the process of `inverse cascade' transferring magnetic-field power from small to large spatial scales. For cosmologically interesting initial conditions, the chiral asymmetry and the energy density of helical magnetic field are shown to evolve by scaling laws, effectively depending on a single combined variable. In this case, the late-time asymptotics of the conformal chiral chemical potential reproduces the universal scaling law previously found in the literature for the system under consideration. This regime is terminated at lower temperatures because of scattering of electrons with chirality change, which exponentially washes out chiral asymmetry. We derive an expression for the termination temperature as a function of the chiral asymmetry and energy density of helical magnetic field.

  16. High Redshift Quasars and Star Formation in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, M; Vestergaard, M; Wagner, S J

    2001-01-01

    In order to derive information on the star formation history in the early universe we observed 6 high-redshift (z=3.4) quasars in the near-infrared to measure the relative iron and \\mgii emission strengths. A detailed comparison of the resulting spectra with those of low-redshift quasars show essentially the same FeII/MgII emission ratios and very similar continuum and line spectral properties, indicating a lack of evolution of the relative iron to magnesium abundance of the gas since z=3.4 in bright quasars. On the basis of current chemical evolution scenarios of galaxies, where magnesium is produced in massive stars ending in type II SNe, while iron is formed predominantly in SNe of type Ia with a delay of ~1 Gyr and assuming as cosmological parameters H_o = 72 km/s Mpc, Omega_M = 0.3, and Omega_Lambda = 0.7$, we conclude that major star formation activity in the host galaxies of our z=3.4 quasars must have started already at an epoch corresponding to z_f ~= 10, when the age of the universe was less than 0....

  17. Cosmic Acceleration in the Early and Present Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masahide

    Cosmic accelerations in the early and present Universe play essentially important roles to determine the evolution, structure, and destiny of the Universe. Therefore, to identify the origins of cosmic accelerations is one of the most ultimate goals of cosmology. In this award talk for the C. N. Yang Award, I introduced my achievements on this mystery. First of all, we gave a natural mechanism to cause chaotic inflation, which is the most natural inflation model but had never been realized in the context of realistic particle physics for almost twenty years. We introduced a Nambu-Goldstone-like shift symmetry, which is now recognized as a key feature to control the Planck-scale physics, and solved the long standing difficulties to realize chaotic inflation. Second, we found a generic relation (now called Suyama-Yamaguchi inequality) between higher order correlations of the curvature perturbations, which is quite useful to identify what fields are actually responsible for the origin of primordial fluctuation. Finally, we mention our proposal (now called k-essence) for the present cosmic acceleration.

  18. Two cosmological models, the age of the Universe, and dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Chaliasos, E

    2004-01-01

    The prevailing cosmological model with the lambda-term, in which the space is flat, is studied (section 1). The corresponding age of the Universe (t0) is calculated (assuming a Hubble constant consistent with the measurements of the Hubble telescope), as well as the deceleration parameter (q0). The latter is found negative, showing an accelerating Universe, but the former is insufficient to account for the actually estimated value. Nevertheless, with more recent values of the parameters involved, this model actually gives a result consistent with the estimated value. But there is a severe defect in the prevailing model, concerning the so-called dark energy, necessary to be introduced. Then, another model without the lambda-term, and based on the time-symmetric theory of the author, is studied (section 3), after an introduction to this theory (section 2). In this model the space is open, but the overall space-time is flat. It is not accelerating (it retains a constant rate of expansion). In this model, with q0...

  19. LRS Bianchi Type-V Viscous Fluid Universe With a Time Dependent Cosmological Term $\\Lambda$

    CERN Document Server

    Pradhan, Anirudh; Singh, C V

    2007-01-01

    An LRS Bianchi type-V cosmological models representing a viscous fluid distribution with a time dependent cosmological term $\\Lambda$ is investigated. To get a determinate solution, the viscosity coefficient of bulk viscous fluid is assumed to be a power function of mass density. It turns out that the cosmological term $\\Lambda(t)$ is a decreasing function of time, which is consistent with recent observations of type Ia supernovae. Various physical and kinematic features of these models have also been explored.

  20. Black holes in the early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volonteri, Marta; Bellovary, Jillian

    2012-12-01

    The existence of massive black holes (MBHs) was postulated in the 1960s, when the first quasars were discovered. In the late 1990s their reality was proven beyond doubt in the Milky way and a handful nearby galaxies. Since then, enormous theoretical and observational efforts have been made to understand the astrophysics of MBHs. We have discovered that some of the most massive black holes known, weighing billions of solar masses, powered luminous quasars within the first billion years of the Universe. The first MBHs must therefore have formed around the time the first stars and galaxies formed. Dynamical evidence also indicates that black holes with masses of millions to billions of solar masses ordinarily dwell in the centers of today's galaxies. MBHs populate galaxy centers today, and shone as quasars in the past; the quiescent black holes that we detect now in nearby bulges are the dormant remnants of this fiery past. In this review we report on basic, but critical, questions regarding the cosmological significance of MBHs. What physical mechanisms led to the formation of the first MBHs? How massive were the initial MBH seeds? When and where did they form? How is the growth of black holes linked to that of their host galaxy? The answers to most of these questions are works in progress, in the spirit of these reports on progress in physics.

  1. Quantum Field Theory and Decoherence in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koksma, J. F.

    2011-06-01

    Quantum field theory is indispensable for understanding many aspects of cosmology, both in the early Universe and today. For example, quantum processes could be paramount to understand the nature of the mysterious dark energy resulting in the Universe’s recently observed accelerated expansion. Inspired by these considerations, this PhD thesis is concerned with two aspects of quantum field theory relevant to cosmology: quantum backreaction and decoherence. Quantum backreaction is a line of research where the impact of quantum fluctuations on the background spacetime geometry in perturbative quantum gravity is investigated. The cosmological constant problem and the process of quantum backreaction are intimately related: quantum backreaction might provide us with a dynamical mechanism to effectively make the cosmological constant almost vanish. We investigate the quantum backreaction of the trace anomaly and of fermions. We find that the trace anomaly does not dynamically influence the effective value of the cosmological constant. We furthermore evaluate the fermion propagator in FLRW spacetimes with constant deceleration. Although the dynamics resulting from the one-loop stress-energy tensor need yet to be investigated, we find that we certainly cannot exclude a significant effect due to the quantum backreaction on the Universe’s expansion. Decoherence is a quantum theory which addresses the quantum-to-classical transition of a particular system. The idea of the decoherence formalism is that a macroscopic system cannot be separated from its environment. The framework of decoherence is widely used, e.g. in quantum computing, black hole physics, inflationary perturbation theory, and in elementary particle physics, such as electroweak baryogenesis models. We formulate a novel “correlator approach” to decoherence: neglecting observationally inaccessible correlators gives rise to an increase in entropy of the system, as perceived by an observer. This is inspired

  2. Black hole formation in the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Latif, M A; Schmidt, W; Niemeyer, J

    2013-01-01

    Supermassive black holes with up to a $\\rm 10^{9}~M_{\\odot}$ dwell in the centers of present-day galaxies, and their presence has been confirmed at z $\\geq$ 6. Their formation at such early epochs is still an enigma. Different pathways have been suggested to assemble supermassive black holes in the first billion years after the Big Bang. Direct collapse has emerged as a highly plausible scenario to form black holes as it provides seed masses of $\\rm 10^{5}-10^{6}~M_{\\odot}$. Gravitational collapse in atomic cooling haloes with virial temperatures T$_{vir} \\geq 10^{4}$~K may lead to the formation of massive seed black holes in the presence of an intense background UV flux. Turbulence plays a central role in regulating accretion and transporting angular momentum. We present here the highest resolution cosmological large-eddy simulations to date which track the evolution of high-density regions on scales of $0.25$~AU beyond the formation of the first peak, and study the impact of subgrid-scale turbulence. The pe...

  3. Discovery Mondays: The very early Universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Copyright NASARetracing the very early Universe to understand why there is "something rather than nothing" is one of the challenges facing astrophysics today. It is also the theme of the third Discovery Monday, to be held in the Microcosm on 7 July, where you will be welcomed by a number of scientists. A professional astronomer will allow you to look through his telescope and explain how it works. A cosmologist will talk to you about the very early Universe and a CERN physicist will show you how it's possible to trap antimatter. The mirror of matter, antimatter should have existed in the same quantities as matter in the very early stages of the Universe but today it seems to have virtually disappeared. Perhaps the research being done at CERN will one day explain how an infinitesimal predominance of matter over antimatter resulted in such a richly structured Universe. Come along to the Microcosm on Monday, 7 July between 7.30 p.m. and 9.00 p.m. Entrance is free http://www.cern.ch/microcosm N.B.: The Discove...

  4. String windings in the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Easther, R; Jackson, M G; Kabat, D; Easther, Richard; Greene, Brian R.; Jackson, Mark G.; Kabat, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    We study string dynamics in the early universe. Our motivation is the proposal of Brandenberger and Vafa, that string winding modes may play a key role in decompactifying three spatial dimensions. We model the universe as a homogeneous but anisotropic 9-torus filled with a gas of excited strings. We adopt initial conditions which fix the dilaton and the volume of the torus, but otherwise assume all states are equally likely. We study the evolution of the system both analytically and numerically to determine the late-time behavior. We find that, although dynamical evolution can indeed lead to three large spatial dimensions, such an outcome is not statistically favored.

  5. Discovery of a Supernova Explosion at Half the Age of the Universe and its Cosmological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, S.; Aldering, G.; Della Valle, M.; Deustua, S.; Ellis, R. S.; Fabbro, S.; Fruchter, A.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D. E.; Hook, I. M.; Kim, A. G.; Kim, M. Y.; Knop, R. A.; Lidman, C.; McMahon, R. G.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Panagia, N.; Pennypacker, C. R.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Schaefer, B.; Walton, N.

    1997-12-16

    The ultimate fate of the universe, infinite expansion or a big crunch, can be determined by measuring the redshifts, apparent brightnesses, and intrinsic luminosities of very distant supernovae. Recent developments have provided tools that make such a program practicable: (1) Studies of relatively nearby Type la supernovae (SNe la) have shown that their intrinsic luminosities can be accurately determined; (2) New research techniques have made it possible to schedule the discovery and follow-up observations of distant supernovae, producing well over 50 very distant (z = 0.3-0.7) SNe Ia to date. These distant supernovae provide a record of changes in the expansion rate over the past several billion years. By making precise measurements of supernovae at still greater distances, and thus extending this expansion history back far enough in time, we can even distinguish the slowing caused by the gravitational attraction of the universe's mass density {Omega}{sub M} from the effect of a possibly inflationary pressure caused by a cosmological constant {Lambda}. We report here the first such measurements, with our discovery of a Type Ia supernova (SN 1997ap) at z = 0.83. Measurements at the Keck II 10-m telescope make this the most distant spectroscopically confirmed supernova. Over two months of photometry of SN 1997ap with the Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based telescopes, when combined with previous measurements of nearer SNe la, suggests that we may live in a low mass-density universe. Further supernovae at comparable distances are currently scheduled for ground and space-based observations.

  6. Dynamical behaviors of FRW Universe containing a positive/negative potential scalar field in loop quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiao; Zhu, Jian-Yang

    2013-01-01

    The dynamical behaviors of FRW Universe containing a posivive/negative potential scalar field in loop quantum cosmology scenario are discussed. The method of the phase-plane analysis is used to investigate the stability of the Universe. It is found that the stability properties in this situation are quite different from the classical cosmology case. For a positive potential scalar field coupled with a barotropic fluid, the cosmological autonomous system has five fixed points and one of them is stable if the adiabatic index $\\gamma$ satisfies $0<\\gamma<2$. This leads to the fact that the universe just have one bounce point instead of the singularity which lies in the quantum dominated area and it is caused by the quantum geometry effect. There are four fixed points if one considers a scalar field with a negative potential, but none of them is stable. Therefore, the universe has two kinds of bounce points, one is caused by the quantum geometry effect and the other is caused by the negative potential, the ...

  7. The ultimate future of the universe, black hole event horizon topologies, holography, and the value of the cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    2001-10-01

    Hawking has shown that if black holes were to exist in a universe that expands forever, black holes would completely evaporate, violating unitarity. Unitarity thus requires that the universe exist for only a finite future proper time. I develop this argument, showing that unitarity also requires the boundaries of all future sets to be Cauchy surfaces, and so no event horizons can exist. Thus, the null generators of the surfaces of astrophysical black holes must leave the surface in both time directions, allowing non-spherical topologies for black hole surfaces. Unitarity thus also requires the effective cosmological constant to be zero eventually, otherwise the universe would expand forever. .

  8. Cosmological principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesson, P.S.

    1979-10-01

    The Cosmological Principle states: the universe looks the same to all observers regardless of where they are located. To most astronomers today the Cosmological Principle means the universe looks the same to all observers because density of the galaxies is the same in all places. A new Cosmological Principle is proposed. It is called the Dimensional Cosmological Principle. It uses the properties of matter in the universe: density (rho), pressure (p), and mass (m) within some region of space of length (l). The laws of physics require incorporation of constants for gravity (G) and the speed of light (C). After combining the six parameters into dimensionless numbers, the best choices are: 8..pi..Gl/sup 2/ rho/c/sup 2/, 8..pi..Gl/sup 2/ rho/c/sup 4/, and 2 Gm/c/sup 2/l (the Schwarzchild factor). The Dimensional Cosmological Principal came about because old ideas conflicted with the rapidly-growing body of observational evidence indicating that galaxies in the universe have a clumpy rather than uniform distribution. (SC)

  9. Matter and spirit in the universe scientific and religious preludes to modern cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kragh, Helge

    2004-01-01

    Cosmology is an unusual science with an unusual history. This bookexamines the formative years of modern cosmology from the perspectiveof its interaction with religious thought. As the first study of itskind, it reveals how closely associated the development of cosmologyhas been with considerations of a philosophical and religiousnature.

  10. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation-A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of 11 00. Data from the first seven years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30, 2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at the Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Oxford University; University of Chicago; Brown University; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  11. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation-A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of 11 00. Data from the first seven years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30, 2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at the Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Oxford University; University of Chicago; Brown University; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  12. QCD development in the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, N. A., E-mail: gromov@dm.komisc.ru [Komi Science Center of the Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Mathematics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The high-energy limit of Quantum Chromodynamics is generated by the contraction of its gauge groups. Contraction parameters are taken identical with those of the Electroweak Model and tend to zero when energy increases. At the infinite energy limit all quarks lose masses and have only one color degree of freedom. The limit model represents the development of Quantum Chromodynamics in the early Universe from the Big Bang up to the end of several milliseconds.

  13. Protostar formation in the early universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naoki; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Hernquist, Lars

    2008-08-01

    The nature of the first generation of stars in the universe remains largely unknown. Observations imply the existence of massive primordial stars early in the history of the universe, and the standard theory for the growth of cosmic structure predicts that structures grow hierarchically through gravitational instability. We have developed an ab initio computer simulation of the formation of primordial stars that follows the relevant atomic and molecular processes in a primordial gas in an expanding universe. The results show that primeval density fluctuations left over from the Big Bang can drive the formation of a tiny protostar with a mass 1% that of the Sun. The protostar is a seed for the subsequent formation of a massive primordial star.

  14. Protostar Formation in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Naoki; Hernquist, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The nature of the first generation of stars in the Universe remains largely unknown. Observations imply the existence of massive primordial stars early in the history of the universe, and the standard theory for the growth of cosmic structure predicts that structures grow hierarchically through gravitational instability. We have developed an ab initio computer simulation of the formation of primordial stars that follows the relevant atomic and molecular processes in a primordial gas in an expanding universe. The results show that primeval density fluctuations left over from the Big Bang can drive the formation of a tiny protostar with a mass of just one percent that of the sun. The protostar is a seed for the subsequent formation of a massive primordial star.

  15. Julien Lesgourgues presents his book "Neutrino Cosmology"

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The role that neutrinos have played in the evolution of the Universe is the focus of one of the most fascinating research areas that has stemmed from the interplay between cosmology, astrophysics and particle physics.   In this self-contained book, the authors bring together all aspects of the role of neutrinos in cosmology, spanning from leptogenesis to primordial nucleosynthesis and from their role in CMB and structure formation, to the problem of their direct detection. The book starts by guiding the reader through aspects of fundamental neutrino physics, such as the standard cosmological model and statistical mechanics in the expanding Universe, before discussing the history of neutrinos chronologically from the very early stages until today. "Neutrino Cosmology" by Julien Lesgourgues, Gianpiero Mangano, Gennaro Miele, Sergio Pastor, Cambridge University Press, 2013, ISBN 9781107013957. Monday 22 April 2013 at 4 p.m. in the Library, 52-1-052. Tea and coffee will be served...

  16. Is Ancestor veneration the most universal of all world religions? A critique of modernist cosmological bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Reuter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research by anthropologists engaged with the Comparative Austronesia Project (Australian National University has amassed an enormous data set for ethnological comparison between the religions of Austronesian-speaking societies, a language group to which nearly all Indonesian societies also belong. Comparative analysis reveals that ancestor veneration is a key-shared feature among “Austronesian” religious cosmologies; a feature that also resonates strongly with the ancestor-focused religions characteristic of East Asia. Characteristically, the religions of Austronesian-speaking societies focus on the core idea of a sacred time and place of ancestral origin and the continuous flow of life that is issuing forth from this source. Present-day individuals connect with the place and time of origin though ritual acts of retracing a historical path of migration to its source. What can this seemingly exotic notion of a flow of life reveal about the human condition writ large? Is it merely a curiosity of the ethnographic record of this region, a traditional religious insight forgotten even by many of the people whose traditional religion this is, but who have come under the influence of so-called world religions? Or is there something of great importance to be learnt from the Austronesian approach to life? Such questions have remained unasked until now, I argue, because a systematic cosmological bias within western thought has largely prevented us from taking Ancestor Religion and other forms of “traditional knowledge” seriously as an alternative truth claim. While I have discussed elsewhere the significance of Ancestor Religion in reference to my own research in highland Bali, I will attempt in this paper to remove this bias by its roots. I do so by contrasting two modes of thought: the “incremental dualism” of precedence characteristic of Austronesian cultures and their Ancestor Religions, and the “transcendental dualism” of mind and

  17. Cosmological Magnetic Fields from Primordial Helical Seeds

    CERN Document Server

    Sigl, G

    2002-01-01

    Most early Universe scenarios predict negligible magnetic fields on cosmological scales if they are unprocessed during subsequent expansion of the Universe. We present a new numerical treatment of the evolution of primordial fields and apply it to weakly helical seeds as they occur in certain early Universe scenarios. We find that initial helicities not much larger than the baryon to photon number can lead to fields of about 10^{-13} Gauss with coherence scales slightly below a kilo-parsec today.

  18. Cosmology in antiquity

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Rosemary

    1995-01-01

    The popularity of Stephen Hawking's work has put cosmology back in the public eye. The question of how the universe began, and why it hangs together, still puzzles scientists. Their puzzlement began two and a half thousand years ago when Greek philosophers first 'looked up at the sky and formed a theory of everything.' Though their solutions are little credited today, the questions remain fresh.The early Greek thinkers struggled to come to terms with and explain the totality of their surroundings; to identitify an original substance from which the universe was compounded; and to reconcil

  19. Cosmology from quantum potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farag Ali, Ahmed, E-mail: ahmed.ali@fsc.bu.edu.eg [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Giza, 12588 (Egypt); Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Benha University, Benha, 13518 (Egypt); Das, Saurya, E-mail: saurya.das@uleth.c [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada)

    2015-02-04

    It was shown recently that replacing classical geodesics with quantal (Bohmian) trajectories gives rise to a quantum corrected Raychaudhuri equation (QRE). In this article we derive the second order Friedmann equations from the QRE, and show that this also contains a couple of quantum correction terms, the first of which can be interpreted as cosmological constant (and gives a correct estimate of its observed value), while the second as a radiation term in the early universe, which gets rid of the big-bang singularity and predicts an infinite age of our universe.

  20. Possible evolution of a bouncing universe in cosmological models with non-minimally coupled scalar fields

    CERN Document Server

    Pozdeeva, Ekaterina O; Toporensky, Alexey V; Vernov, Sergey Yu

    2016-01-01

    We explore dynamics of cosmological models with bounce solutions evolving on a spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker background. We consider cosmological models that contain the Hilbert-Einstein curvature term, the induced gravity term with a negative coupled constant, and even polynomial potentials of the scalar field. Bounce solutions with non-monotonic Hubble parameters have been obtained and analyzed. The case when the scalar field has the conformal coupling and the Higgs potential with an opposite sign is studied in detail. In this model the evolution of the Hubble parameter of the bounce solution essentially depends on the sign of the cosmological constant.

  1. Age Estimates of Universe: from Globular Clusters to Cosmological Models and Probes

    CERN Document Server

    Fatima, Hira; Rahman, Syed Faisal Ur

    2016-01-01

    We performed the photometric analysis of M2 and M92 globular clusters in g and r bands of SLOAN photometric system. We transformed these g and r bands into BV bands of Johnson-Cousins photometric system and built the color magnitude diagram (CMD). We estimated the age, and metallicity of both the clusters, by fitting Padova isochrones of different age and metallicities onto the CMD. We studied Einstein and de Sitter model, bench mark model, the cosmological parameters by WMAP and Planck surveys. Finally, we compared estimated age of globular clusters to the ages from the cosmological models and cosmological parameters values of WMAP and Planck surveys.

  2. Possible evolution of a bouncing universe in cosmological models with non-minimally coupled scalar fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdeeva, Ekaterina O.; Skugoreva, Maria A.; Toporensky, Alexey V.; Vernov, Sergey Yu.

    2016-12-01

    We explore dynamics of cosmological models with bounce solutions evolving on a spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker background. We consider cosmological models that contain the Hilbert-Einstein curvature term, the induced gravity term with a negative coupled constant, and even polynomial potentials of the scalar field. Bounce solutions with non-monotonic Hubble parameters have been obtained and analyzed. The case when the scalar field has the conformal coupling and the Higgs-like potential with an opposite sign is studied in detail. In this model the evolution of the Hubble parameter of the bounce solution essentially depends on the sign of the cosmological constant.

  3. Classical and quantum cosmology of minimal massive bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, F.; Mousavi, M.

    2016-10-01

    In a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space-time background we study the classical cosmological models in the context of recently proposed theory of nonlinear minimal massive bigravity. We show that in the presence of perfect fluid the classical field equations acquire contribution from the massive graviton as a cosmological term which is positive or negative depending on the dynamical competition between two scale factors of bigravity metrics. We obtain the classical field equations for flat and open universes in the ordinary and Schutz representation of perfect fluid. Focusing on the Schutz representation for flat universe, we find classical solutions exhibiting singularities at early universe with vacuum equation of state. Then, in the Schutz representation, we study the quantum cosmology for flat universe and derive the Schrodinger-Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We find its exact and wave packet solutions and discuss on their properties to show that the initial singularity in the classical solutions can be avoided by quantum cosmology. Similar to the study of Hartle-Hawking no-boundary proposal in the quantum cosmology of de Rham, Gabadadze and Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity, it turns out that the mass of graviton predicted by quantum cosmology of the minimal massive bigravity is large at early universe. This is in agreement with the fact that at early universe the cosmological constant should be large.

  4. Classical and quantum cosmology of minimal massive bigravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Darabi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In a Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW space–time background we study the classical cosmological models in the context of recently proposed theory of nonlinear minimal massive bigravity. We show that in the presence of perfect fluid the classical field equations acquire contribution from the massive graviton as a cosmological term which is positive or negative depending on the dynamical competition between two scale factors of bigravity metrics. We obtain the classical field equations for flat and open universes in the ordinary and Schutz representation of perfect fluid. Focusing on the Schutz representation for flat universe, we find classical solutions exhibiting singularities at early universe with vacuum equation of state. Then, in the Schutz representation, we study the quantum cosmology for flat universe and derive the Schrodinger–Wheeler–DeWitt equation. We find its exact and wave packet solutions and discuss on their properties to show that the initial singularity in the classical solutions can be avoided by quantum cosmology. Similar to the study of Hartle–Hawking no-boundary proposal in the quantum cosmology of de Rham, Gabadadze and Tolley (dRGT massive gravity, it turns out that the mass of graviton predicted by quantum cosmology of the minimal massive bigravity is large at early universe. This is in agreement with the fact that at early universe the cosmological constant should be large.

  5. Supernova constraints on decaying vacuum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Carneiro, S; Borges, H A; Alcaniz, J S

    2006-01-01

    There is mounting observational evidence that the expansion of our Universe is undergoing a late-time acceleration. Among many proposals to describe this phenomenon, the cosmological constant seems to be the simplest and the most natural explanation. However, despite its observational successes, such a possibility exacerbates the well known cosmological constant problem, requiring a natural explanation for its small, but nonzero, value. In this paper we consider a cosmological scenario driven by a varying cosmological term, in which the vacuum energy density decays linearly with the Hubble parameter. We show that this model is indistinguishable from the standard one in that the early radiation phase is followed by a long dust-dominated era, and only recently the varying cosmological term becomes dominant, accelerating the cosmic expansion. In order to test the viability of this scenario we have used the most recent type Ia supernova data, i.e., the High-Z SN Search (HZS) Team and the Supernova Legacy Survey (...

  6. Deconstructing cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    The advent of sensitive high-resolution observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation and their successful interpretation in terms of the standard cosmological model has led to great confidence in this model's reality. The prevailing attitude is that we now understand the Universe and need only work out the details. In this book, Sanders traces the development and successes of Lambda-CDM, and argues that this triumphalism may be premature. The model's two major components, dark energy and dark matter, have the character of the pre-twentieth-century luminiferous aether. While there is astronomical evidence for these hypothetical fluids, their enigmatic properties call into question our assumptions of the universality of locally determined physical law. Sanders explains how modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) is a significant challenge for cold dark matter. Overall, the message is hopeful: the field of cosmology has not become frozen, and there is much fundamental work ahead for tomorrow's cosmologis...

  7. Cosmological solutions of emergent noncommutative gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klammer, Daniela; Steinacker, Harold

    2009-06-01

    Matrix models of the Yang-Mills type lead to an emergent gravity theory, which does not require fine-tuning of a cosmological constant. We find cosmological solutions of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker type. They generically have a big bounce, and an early inflationlike phase with graceful exit. The mechanism is purely geometrical; no ad hoc scalar fields are introduced. The solutions are stabilized through vacuum fluctuations and are thus compatible with quantum mechanics. This leads to a Milne-like universe after inflation, which appears to be in remarkably good agreement with observation and may provide an alternative to standard cosmology.

  8. Exploring the Early Universe on Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocevski, Dale; McGrath, E. J.; CANDELS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The widespread adoption of smart phones and tablet computers has the potential to revolutionize the way in which educational material is shared with the general public. As part of the outreach effort for the CANDELS survey, we have developed a free interactive astronomy education application named Hubble Universe for iPad and iPhone devices. The application focuses on extragalactic science topics related to the CANDELS legacy survey, which is documenting galaxy evolution in the early universe. I will provide an overview of the application, which contains a wide range of interactive content, including 3D models of astrophysical phenomenon, informative diagrams and computer simulations. I will discuss how the application can be used to enhance classroom learning both by providing a database of interactive media and by encouraging students to explore astronomical topics away from traditional settings like the classroom or the desktop computer.

  9. It's Always Darkest Before the Cosmic Dawn: Early Results from Novel Tools and Telescopes for 21 cm Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Dillon, Joshua S

    2015-01-01

    21 cm cosmology, the statistical observation of the high redshift universe using the hyperfine transition of neutral hydrogen, has the potential to revolutionize our understanding of cosmology and the astrophysical processes that underlie the formation of the first stars, galaxies, and black holes during the "Cosmic Dawn." By making tomographic maps with low frequency radio interferometers, we can study the evolution of the 21 cm signal with time and spatial scale and use it to understand the density, temperature, and ionization evolution of the intergalactic medium over this dramatic period in the history of the universe. For my Ph.D. thesis, I explore a number of advancements toward detecting and characterizing the 21 cm signal from the Cosmic Dawn, especially during its final stage, the epoch of reionization. In seven different previously published papers, I explore new techniques for the statistical analysis of interferometric measurements, apply them to data from current generation telescopes like the Mu...

  10. The Cosmology - Particle Physics Connection

    CERN Document Server

    Trodden, M

    2006-01-01

    Modern cosmology poses deep and unavoidable questions for fundamental physics. In this plenary talk, delivered in slightly different forms at the {\\it Particles and Nuclei International Conference} (PANIC05) in Santa Fe, in October 2005, and at the {\\it CMB and Physics of the Early Universe International Conference}, on the island of Ischia, Italy, in April 2006, I discuss the broad connections between cosmology and particle physics, focusing on physics at the TeV scale, accessible at the next and future generations of colliders

  11. String Theory and Primordial Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperini, Maurizio

    String cosmology aims at providing a reliable description of the very early Universe in the regime where standard-model physics is no longer appropriate, and where we can safely apply the basic ingredients of superstring models such as dilatonic and axionic forces, duality symmetries, winding modes, limiting sizes and curvatures, higher dimensional interactions among elementary extended object. The sought target is that of resolving (or at least alleviating) the big problems of standard and inflationary cosmology like the spacetime singularity, the physics of the trans-Planckian regime, the initial condition for inflation, and so on.

  12. String theory and primordial cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Gasperini, M

    2014-01-01

    String cosmology aims at providing a reliable description of the very early Universe in the regime where standard-model physics is no longer appropriate, and where we can safely apply the basic ingredients of superstring models such as dilatonic and axionic forces, duality symmetries, winding modes, limiting sizes and curvatures, higher-dimensional interactions among elementary extended object. The sought target is that of resolving (or at least alleviating) the big problems of standard and inflationary cosmology like the space-time singularity, the physics of the trans-Planckian regime, the initial condition for inflation, and so on.

  13. String Theory, Cosmology And Brany Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Pokotilov, A

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by cosmological applications in this thesis we describe several string theory based models of the early Universe. The major property of these models is that they lead to inflationary-like expansion for early times. The interaction properties of fundamental strings, leading to the velocity dependent potentials are used to describe this accelerating expansion rate. Other types of extended objects such as fivebranes dual to fundamental strings are shown to lead to the similar cosmological implications. Our findings are consistent with recent astronomical observations of an accelerated expansion of the Universe and predict an asymptotically constant late time expansion rate.

  14. Observational constraints on the accelerating universe in the framework of a 5D bounce cosmological model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Jian-Bo; Xu Li-Xin; Liu Mo-Lin; Gui Yuan-Xing

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of a five-dimensional(5D)bounce cosmological model,a useful function f(z)is obtained by giving a concrete expression of deceleration parameter q(z)=q1+q2/1+1n(1+z).Then usng the obtained Hubble parameter H(z)according to the function f(z),we constrain the accelerating universe from recent cosmic observations:the 192 ESSENCE SNe Ia and the 9 observational H(z)data.The best fitting values of transition redshift zT and current deceleration parameter q0 are given as zT=o.65±0.25-0.12 and q0=-0.76+0.15-0.15(1σ).Furthermore,in the 5D bounce model it can be seen that the evolution of equation of state(EOS)for dark energy ωde can cross over-1 at about z=0.23 and the current value ω0de=1.15<-1.On the other hand,by giving a concrete expression of model-independent EOS of dark energy ωde,in the 5D bounce model we obtain the best fitting values zT=0.66+0311-0.08 and q0=-0.69+0.10-0.10(1σ)from the recently observed data:the 192 ESSENCE SNe Ia,the observational H(z)data,the 3-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe(WMAP),the Sloan Digital Sky Survey(SDSS)baryon acoustic peak and the x-ray gas mass fraction in clusters.

  15. The Higgs field and the resolution of the Cosmological Constant Paradox in the Weyl-geometrical Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martini, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    The nature of the scalar field responsible for the cosmological inflation is found to be rooted in the most fundamental concept of Weyl's differential geometry: the parallel displacement of vectors in curved space-time. Within this novel geometrical scenario, the standard electroweak theory of leptons based on the SU(2)L⊗U(1)Y as well as on the conformal groups of space-time Weyl's transformations is analysed within the framework of a general-relativistic, conformally covariant scalar-tensor theory that includes the electromagnetic and the Yang-Mills fields. A Higgs mechanism within a spontaneous symmetry breaking process is identified and this offers formal connections between some relevant properties of the elementary particles and the dark energy content of the Universe. An `effective cosmological potential': Veff is expressed in terms of the dark energy potential: http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="RSTA20160388IM1"/> via the `mass reduction parameter': http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="RSTA20160388IM2"/>, a general property of the Universe. The mass of the Higgs boson, which is considered a `free parameter' by the standard electroweak theory, by our theory is found to be proportional to the mass http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="RSTA20160388IM3"/> which accounts for the measured cosmological constant, i.e. the measured content of vacuum-energy in the Universe. The non-integrable application of Weyl's geometry leads to a Proca equation accounting for the dynamics of a φρ-particle, a vector-meson proposed as an an optimum candidate for dark matter. On the basis of previous cosmic microwave background results our theory leads, in the condition of cosmological `critical density', to the assessment of the average energy content of the φρ-excitation. The peculiar mathematical structure of Veff offers a clue towards a very general resolution of a most intriguing puzzle of modern quantum field theory, the `Cosmological Constant Paradox

  16. A simple model of universe describing the early inflation and the late accelerated expansion in a symmetric manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique (IRSAMC), CNRS and UPS, Université de Toulouse (France)

    2013-07-23

    We construct a simple model of universe which 'unifies' vacuum energy and radiation on the one hand, and matter and dark energy on the other hand in the spirit of a generalized Chaplygin gas model. Specifically, the phases of early inflation and late accelerated expansion are described by a generalized equation of state p/c{sup 2} = αρ+kρ{sup 1+1/n} having a linear component p = αρc{sup 2} and a polytropic component p = kρ{sup 1+1/n}c{sup 2}. For α= 1/3, n= 1 and k=−4/(3ρ{sub P}), where ρ{sub P}= 5.1610{sup 99} g/m{sup 3} is the Planck density, this equation of state describes the transition between the vacuum energy era and the radiation era. For t≥ 0, the universe undergoes an inflationary expansion that brings it from the Planck size l{sub P}= 1.6210{sup −35} m to a size a{sub 1}= 2.6110{sup −6} m on a timescale of about 23.3 Planck times t{sub P}= 5.3910{sup −44} s (early inflation). When t > t{sub 1}= 23.3t{sub P}, the universe decelerates and enters in the radiation era. We interpret the transition from the vacuum energy era to the radiation era as a second order phase transition where the Planck constant ℏ plays the role of finite size effects (the standard Big Bang theory is recovered for ℏ= 0). For α= 0, n=−1 and k=−ρ{sub Λ}, where ρ{sub Λ}= 7.0210{sup −24} g/m{sup 3} is the cosmological density, the equation of state p/c{sup 2} = αρ+kρ{sup 1+1/n} describes the transition from a decelerating universe dominated by pressureless matter (baryonic and dark matter) to an accelerating universe dominated by dark energy (late inflation). This transition takes place at a size a{sub 2}= 0.204l{sub Λ}. corresponding to a time t{sub 2}= 0.203t{sub Λ} where l{sub Λ}= 4.38 10{sup 26} m is the cosmological length and t{sub Λ}= 1.46 10{sup 18} s the cosmological time. The present universe turns out to be just at the transition between these two periods (t{sub 0}∼t{sub 2}). Our model gives the same results as the standard

  17. Viscous Quark-Gluon Plasma in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A; Mansour, H; Harko, T

    2010-01-01

    We consider the evolution of a flat, isotropic and homogeneous Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe, filled with a causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid, that can be characterized by an ultra-relativistic equation of state and bulk viscosity coefficient obtained from recent lattice QCD calculations. The basic equation for the Hubble parameter is derived under the assumption that the total energy in the Universe is conserved. By assuming a power law dependence of bulk viscosity coefficient, temperature and relaxation time on energy density, an approximate solution of the field equations has been obtained, in which we utilized equations of state from recent lattice QCD simulations QCD and heavy-ion collisions to derive an evolution equation. In this treatment for the viscous cosmology, we found no evidence for singularity. For example, both Hubble parameter and scale factor are finite at $t=0$, $t$ is the comoving time. Furthermore, their time evolution essentially differs from the one associated with non-visco...

  18. Chemical composition of the early universe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harwit, M; Spaans, M

    2003-01-01

    A prediction of standard inflationary cosmology is that the elemental composition of the medium out of which the earliest stars and galaxies condensed consisted primarily of hydrogen and helium (4)He, with small admixtures of deuterium, lithium (7)Li, and (3)He. The most redshifted quasars,

  19. How Fabulous Is Fab 5 Cosmology?

    CERN Document Server

    Linder, Eric V

    2013-01-01

    Extended gravity origins for cosmic acceleration can solve some fine tuning issues and have useful characteristics, but generally have little to say regarding the cosmological constant problem. Fab 5 gravity can be ghost free and stable, have attractor solutions in the past and future, and possess self tuning that solves the original cosmological constant problem. Here we show however it does not possess all these qualities at the same time. We also demonstrate that the self tuning is so powerful that it not only cancels the cosmological constant but also all other energy density, and we derive the scalings of its approach to a renormalized de Sitter cosmology. While this strong cancellation is bad for the late universe, it greatly eases early universe inflation.

  20. Observational constraints on models of the Universe with time variable Gravitational and Cosmological constants along MOG

    CERN Document Server

    Khurshudyan, M; Momeni, D; Myrzakulov, R; Raza, M

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this paper is to investigate the weak regime covariant scalar-tensor-vector gravity (STVG) theory, known as the MOdified gravity (MOG) theory of gravity. First, we show that the MOG in the absence of scalar fields is converted into $\\Lambda(t),G(t)$ models. Time evolution of the cosmological parameters for a family of viable models have been investigated. Numerical results with the cosmological data have been adjusted. We've introduced a model for dark energy (DE) density and cosmological constant which involves first order derivatives of Hubble parameter. To extend this model, correction terms including the gravitational constant are added. In our scenario, the cosmological constant is a function of time. To complete the model,interaction terms between dark energy and dark matter (DM) manually entered in phenomenological form. Instead of using the dust model for DM, we have proposed DM equivalent to a barotropic fluid. Time evolution of DM is a function of other cosmological parameters. Using ...

  1. Spin precession in anisotropic cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenshchik, A.Yu. [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Teryaev, O.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    We consider the precession of a Dirac particle spin in some anisotropic Bianchi universes. This effect is present already in the Bianchi-I universe. We discuss in some detail the geodesics and the spin precession for both the Kasner and the Heckmann-Schucking solutions. In the Bianchi-IX universe the spin precession acquires the chaotic character due to the stochasticity of the oscillatory approach to the cosmological singularity. The related helicity flip of fermions in the very early universe may produce the sterile particles contributing to dark matter. (orig.)

  2. Cosmology in time asymmetric extensions of general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Leon, Genly

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the cosmological behavior in a universe governed by time asymmetric extensions of general relativity, which is a novel modified gravity based on the addition of new, time-asymmetric, terms on the Hamiltonian framework, in a way that the algebra of constraints and local physics remain unchanged. Nevertheless, at cosmological scales these new terms can have significant effects that can alter the universe evolution, both at early and late times, and the freedom in the choice of the involved modification function makes the scenario able to produce a huge class of cosmological behaviors. For basic ansatzes of modification, we perform a detailed dynamical analysis, extracting the stable late time solutions. Amongst others, we find that the universe can result in dark-energy dominated, accelerating solutions, even in the absence of an explicit cosmological constant, in which the dark energy can be quintessence-like, phantom-like, or behave as an effective cosmological constant. Moreover, it can result...

  3. Cosmological Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kunze, Kerstin E

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic fields are observed on nearly all scales in the universe, from stars and galaxies upto galaxy clusters and even beyond. The origin of cosmic magnetic fields is still an open question, however a large class of models puts its origin in the very early universe. A magnetic dynamo amplifying an initial seed magnetic field could explain the present day strength of the galactic magnetic field. However, it is still an open problem how and when this initial magnetic field was created. Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide a window to the early universe and might therefore be able to tell us whether cosmic magnetic fields are of primordial, cosmological origin and at the same time constrain its parameters. We will give an overview of the observational evidence of large scale magnetic fields, describe generation mechanisms of primordial magnetic fields and possible imprints in the CMB.

  4. Non-Friedmann cosmology for the Local Universe, significance of the universal Hubble constant and short-distance indicators of dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Chernin, A D; Baryshev, Y V; Chernin, Arthur D.; Teerikorpi, Pekka; Baryshev, Yurij V.

    2006-01-01

    Basing on the increasing evidence for the cosmological relevance of the local Hubble flow, we consider a simple analytical cosmological model for the Local Universe. This is a non-Friedmann model with a non-uniform static space-time. The major dynamical factor controlling the local expansion is the antigravity produced by the omnipresent and permanent dark energy of the cosmic vacuum (or the cosmological constant). The antigravity dominates at distances larger than 1-2 Mpc from the center of the Local Group. The model gives a natural explanation of the two key quantitative characteristics of the local expansion flow, which are the local Hubble constant and the velocity dispersion of the flow. The observed kinematical similarity of the local and global flows of expansion is clarified by the model. We demonstrate analytically the efficiency of the vacuum cooling mechanism that allows one to see the Hubble flow so close to the Local Group. Special significance is argued for the 'universal Hubble constant' H_V, d...

  5. Rigorous Newtonian cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    1996-10-01

    It is generally believed that it is not possible to rigorously analyze a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model in Newtonian mechanics. I show on the contrary that if Newtonian gravity theory is rewritten in geometrical language in the manner outlined in 1923-1924 by Élie Cartan [Ann. Ecole Norm. Sup. 40, 325-412 (1923); 41, 1-25 (1924)], then Newtonian cosmology is as rigorous as Friedmann cosmology. In particular, I show that the equation of geodesic deviation in Newtonian cosmology is exactly the same as equation of geodesic deviation in the Friedmann universe, and that this equation can be integrated to yield a constraint equation formally identical to the Friedmann equation. However, Newtonian cosmology is more general than Friedmann cosmology: Ever-expanding and recollapsing universes are allowed in any noncompact homogeneous and isotropic spatial topology. I shall give a brief history of attempts to do cosmology in the framework of Newtonian mechanics.

  6. Large-scale structure from quantum fluctuations in the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Turner

    2000-05-25

    A better understanding of the formation of large-scale structure in the Universe is arguably the most pressing question in cosmology. The most compelling and promising theoretical paradigm, Inflation + Cold Dark Matter, holds that the density inhomogeneities that seeded the formation of structure in the Universe originated from quantum fluctuations arising during inflation and that the bulk of the dark matter exists as slowing moving elementary particles (cold dark matter) left over from the earliest, fiery moments. Large redshift surveys (such as the SDSS and 2dF) and high-resolution measurements of CBR anisotropy (to be made by the MAP and Planck Surveyor satellites) have the potential to decisively test Inflation + Cold Dark Matter and to open a window to the very early Universe and fundamental physics.

  7. Turbulence and mixing in the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, C H

    2001-01-01

    The role of turbulence and turbulent mixing in the formation and evolution of the early universe is examined. A new quantum-gravitational-dynamics model suggests that the mechanism of the hot big bang is functionally equivalent to the mechanism of turbulence, where an inertial-vortex force at Planck scales matches the Planck gravitational force and drives the formation of space-time-energy and the formation of more Planck particles, more spinning Planck-Kerr particles, and a big bang turbulence cascade to larger scales before cooling to the strong force freeze out temperature. Temperature fluctuations between the Planck temperature and strong force temperature are mixed by turbulence to give a Corrsin-Obukhov spectral form. Inflation fossilizes the turbulent temperature fluctuations by stretching them beyond the horizon scale of causal connection ct, where c is light speed and t is time. Fossil temperature turbulence fluctuations seed anisotropies in the nucleosynthesis of light elements, causing density fluc...

  8. Elementary particles in the early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Gromov, Nikolai A

    2015-01-01

    The low energy limit of Electroweak Model is obtained from first principles of gauge theory. The very weak neutrino-matter interaction especially at low energies is explained by zero tending contraction parameter, which depend on the neutrino energy. The high-energy limit of Standard Model is generated by the contractions of gauge groups. Contraction parameters of gauge group $SU(2)$ of Electroweak Model and gauge group $SU(3)$ of Quantum Chromodynamics are taken identical and tending to zero when energy increase. At the infinite energy limit all particles lose masses, all quarks have only one color. Electroweak interactions become long-range and are mediated by the neutral currents. The limit model represents the development of Standard Model in the early Universe from the Big Bang up to the end of several milliseconds.

  9. Structure Formation in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Miedema, P G

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the perturbations in the energy density and the particle number density in a flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe in the radiation-dominated era and in the epoch after decoupling of matter and radiation is studied. For large-scale perturbations the outcome is in accordance with treatments in the literature. For small-scale perturbations the differences are conspicuous. Firstly, in the radiation-dominated era small-scale perturbations grew proportional to the square root of time. Secondly, perturbations in the Cold Dark Matter particle number density were, due to gravitation, coupled to perturbations in the total energy density. This implies that structure formation has commenced successfully only after decoupling of matter and radiation. Finally, after decoupling density perturbations evolved diabatically, i.e., they exchanged heat with their environment. This heat exchange may have enhanced the growth rate of its mass sufficiently to explain structure formation in the early univ...

  10. Clustering Fossils from the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Donghui

    2012-01-01

    Many inflationary theories introduce new scalar, vector, or tensor degrees of freedom that may then affect the generation of primordial density perturbations. Here we show how to search a galaxy (or 21-cm) survey for the imprint of primordial scalar, vector, and tensor fields. These new fields induce local departures to an otherwise statistically isotropic two-point correlation function, or equivalently, nontrivial four-point correlation functions (or trispectra, in Fourier space), that can be decomposed into scalar, vector, and tensor components. We write down the optimal estimators for these various components and show how the sensitivity to these modes depends on the galaxy-survey parameters. New probes of parity-violating early-Universe physics are also presented.

  11. Fermions in a Walecka-type cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ribas, Marlos O; Devecchi, Fernando P; Kremer, Gilberto M

    2012-01-01

    A simplified Walecka-type model is investigated in a cosmological scenario. The model includes fermionic, scalar and vector fields as sources. It is shown that their interactions, taking place in a Robertson-Walker metric, could be responsible for the transition of accelerated-decelerated periods in the early universe and a current accelerated regime. It is also discussed the role of the fermionic field as the promoter of the accelerated regimes in the early and the late stages of the universe.

  12. Discovery Of A Major Contradiction In Big Bang Cosmology Points To The New Cosmic Center Universe Model

    CERN Document Server

    Gentry, R V

    2003-01-01

    The BAL z=3.91 quasar's high Fe/O ratio has led to a reexamination of big bang's spacetime expansion postulate and the discovery that it predicts a CBR redshift of z>36000 instead of the widely accepted z~1000. This result leads an expansion-predicted CBR temperature of only T = 0.08K, which is contradicted by the experimental T = 2.73K. Contrary to long-held belief, these results strongly suggest that the F-L expanding spacetime paradigm, with its expansion redshifts, is not the correct relativistic description of the universe. This conclusion agrees with the earlier finding (gr-qc/9806061) that the universe is relativistically governed by the Einstein static spacetime solution of the field equations, not the F-L solution. Disproof of expansion redshifts removes the only support for the Cosmological Principle, thus showing that the spherical symmetry of the cosmos demanded by the Hubble redshift relation can no longer be attributed to the universe being the same everythere. The Cosmological Principle is flaw...

  13. Tessellating the cosmological dark-matter sheet: origami creases in the universe and ways to find them

    CERN Document Server

    Neyrinck, Mark C

    2012-01-01

    Tessellations are valuable both conceptually and for analysis in the study of the large-scale structure of the universe. They provide a conceptual model for the 'cosmic web,' and are of great use to analyze cosmological data. Here we describe tessellations in another set of coordinates, of the initially flat sheet of dark matter that gravity folds up in rough analogy to origami. The folds that develop are called caustics, and they tessellate space into stream regions. Tessellations of the dark-matter sheet are also useful in simulation analysis, for instance for density measurement, and to identify structures where streams overlap.

  14. The Ultimate Future of the Universe, Black Hole Event Horizons, Holography, and the Value of the Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Tipler, F J

    2003-01-01

    Hawking has shown that if black holes were to exist in a universe that expands forever, black holes would completely evaporate, violating unitarity. I argue this means unitarity requires that the universe exist for only a finite future proper time. I develop this argument, showing that unitarity also requires the boundaries of all future sets to be Cauchy surfaces, and so no event horizons can exist. Thus, the null generators of the surfaces of astrophysical black holes must leave the surface in both time directions, allowing non-spherical topologies for black hole surfaces. Since all information eventually escapes astrophysical black holes, and since the null surfaces defining astrophysical black holes are Cauchy surfaces, holography automatically holds. I further show that unitarity requires the effective cosmological constant to be zero eventually, since otherwise the universe would expand forever.

  15. Nuclear matter in the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Celso de Camargo, E-mail: barros.celso@ufsc.br [Depto de Física - CFM - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina - Florianópolis - SC - CP. 476 - CEP 88.040 - 900 - Brazil (Brazil); Cunha, Ivan Eugênio da, E-mail: lordlihige@hotmail.com [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas - CBPF - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2015-12-17

    Recently, extreme conditions have been obtained in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC and at the Large Hadron collider. It is believed that these conditions are similar to the ones of the early Universe, in the time between 10{sup −6}s and 1s, approximately. In this work, the hadrons produced in this range of time will be studied, considering some aspects of the systems produced in the heavy-ion collisions. We will study a phase posterior to the phase transition (in fact it is believed to be a crossover) from the quark-gluon plasma, that is the hadronic phase of the Universe. We will show the model proposed in [1], considering the hadronic matter described by a relativistic model (similar to the Walecka model), considering particles described by quantum equations in a curved spacetime. This curvature is due to the mass and to the strong interactions that appears in the energy-momentum tensor. The set of the equations is proposed in the Robertson-Walker metric, and some approximate solutions are obtained.

  16. Compton Composites Late in the Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Mayer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Beginning roughly two hundred years after the big-bang, a tresino phase transition generated Compton-scale composite particles and converted most of the ordinary plasma baryons into new forms of dark matter. Our model consists of ordinary electrons and protons that have been bound into mostly undetectable forms. This picture provides an explanation of the composition and history of ordinary to dark matter conversion starting with, and maintaining, a critical density Universe. The tresino phase transition started the conversion of ordinary matter plasma into tresino-proton pairs prior to the the recombination era. We derive the appropriate Saha–Boltzmann equilibrium to determine the plasma composition throughout the phase transition and later. The baryon population is shown to be quickly modified from ordinary matter plasma prior to the transition to a small amount of ordinary matter and a much larger amount of dark matter after the transition. We describe the tresino phase transition and the origin, quantity and evolution of the dark matter as it takes place from late in the early Universe until the present.

  17. Timelike information broadcasting in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Blasco, Ana; Martin-Benito, Mercedes; Martin-Martinez, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    We study the transmission of information and correlations through quantum fields in cosmological backgrounds. With this aim, we make use of quantum information tools to quantify the classical and quantum correlations induced by a quantum massless scalar field in two particle detectors, one located in the early universe (Alice's) and the other located at a later time (Bob's). In particular, we focus on two phenomena: a) the consequences on the transmission of information of the violations of the strong Huygens principle for quantum fields, and b) the analysis of the field vacuum correlations via correlation harvesting from Alice to Bob. We will study a standard cosmological model first and then assess whether these results also hold if we use other than the general relativistic dynamics. As a particular example, we will study the transmission of information through the Big Bounce, that replaces the Big Bang, in the effective dynamics of Loop Quantum Cosmology.

  18. The Age of Precision Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, David T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, our understanding of the evolution and fate of the universe has increased dramatically. This "Age of Precision Cosmology" has been ushered in by measurements that have both elucidated the details of the Big Bang cosmology and set the direction for future lines of inquiry. Our universe appears to consist of 5% baryonic matter; 23% of the universe's energy content is dark matter which is responsible for the observed structure in the universe; and 72% of the energy density is so-called "dark energy" that is currently accelerating the expansion of the universe. In addition, our universe has been measured to be geometrically flat to 1 %. These observations and related details of the Big Bang paradigm have hinted that the universe underwent an epoch of accelerated expansion known as Uinflation" early in its history. In this talk, I will review the highlights of modern cosmology, focusing on the contributions made by measurements of the cosmic microwave background, the faint afterglow of the Big Bang. I will also describe new instruments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in order to search for evidence of cosmic inflation.

  19. Viscous New Varying Modified Cosmic Chaplygin Gas with Cosmological Constant in Non-flat Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Jalil; Saadat, Hassan

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we study new varying modified cosmic Chaplygin gas which has viscosity in presence of cosmological constant and space curvature. By using well-known forms of scale factor in Friedmann equation we obtain behavior of dark energy density numerically. We use observational data to fix solution and discuss about stability of our system.

  20. Elements of String Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Tseytlin, Arkady A

    1992-01-01

    Aspects of string cosmology for critical and non-critical strings are discussed emphasizing the necessity to account for the dilaton dynamics for a proper incorporation of ``large - small" duality. This drastically modifies the intuition one has with Einstein's gravity. For example winding modes, even though contribute to energy density, oppose expansion and if not annihilated will stop the expansion. Moreover we find that the radiation dominated era of the standard cosmology emerges quite naturally in string cosmology. Our analysis of non-critical string cosmology provides a reinterpretation of the (universal cover of the) recently studied two dimensional black hole solution as a conformal realization of cosmological solutions found previously by Mueller.

  1. Quantum Hamilton-Jacobi Cosmology and Classical-Quantum Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, M.; Jalalzadeh, S.

    2017-07-01

    How the time evolution which is typical for classical cosmology emerges from quantum cosmology? The answer is not trivial because the Wheeler-DeWitt equation is time independent. A framework associating the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi to the minisuperspace cosmological models has been introduced in Fathi et al. (Eur. Phys. J. C 76, 527 2016). In this paper we show that time dependence and quantum-classical correspondence both arise naturally in the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism of quantum mechanics, applied to quantum cosmology. We study the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi cosmology of spatially flat homogeneous and isotropic early universe whose matter content is a perfect fluid. The classical cosmology emerge around one Planck time where its linear size is around a few millimeter, without needing any classical inflationary phase afterwards to make it grow to its present size.

  2. The screening Horndeski cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starobinsky, Alexei A.; Sushkov, Sergey V.; Volkov, Mikhail S.

    2016-06-01

    We present a systematic analysis of homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies in a particular Horndeski model with Galileon shift symmetry, containing also a Λ-term and a matter. The model, sometimes called Fab Five, admits a rich spectrum of solutions. Some of them describe the standard late time cosmological dynamic dominated by the Λ-term and matter, while at the early times the universe expands with a constant Hubble rate determined by the value of the scalar kinetic coupling. For other solutions the Λ-term and matter are screened at all times but there are nevertheless the early and late accelerating phases. The model also admits bounces, as well as peculiar solutions describing ``the emergence of time''. Most of these solutions contain ghosts in the scalar and tensor sectors. However, a careful analysis reveals three different branches of ghost-free solutions, all showing a late time acceleration phase. We analyse the dynamical stability of these solutions and find that all of them are stable in the future, since all their perturbations stay bounded at late times. However, they all turn out to be unstable in the past, as their perturbations grow violently when one approaches the initial spacetime singularity. We therefore conclude that the model has no viable solutions describing the whole of the cosmological history, although it may describe the current acceleration phase. We also check that the flat space solution is ghost-free in the model, but it may acquire ghost in more general versions of the Horndeski theory.

  3. Effect of the Lee-Wick partners in the evolution of the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Kaushik

    2012-01-01

    Recently some work has been done on Lee-Wick standard model where the authors tried to tackle the hierarchy problem by using higher derivative field theory. All those theories require unusual Lee-Wick partners to the Standard model particles where these unusual fields appear with negative signs in the Lagrangian. The thermodynamics of such unusual Lee-Wick particles has also been studied. In the present article the thermodynamic results of the Lee-Wick partner infested universe have been applied in a model where there is one Lee-Wick partner to each of the standard model particle. In this model one can analytically calculate the time-temperature relation in the very early radiation dominated universe which shows interesting new physics. The article also tries to point out how a Lee-Wick particle dominated early cosmology transforms into the standard cosmological model. Based on the results of the previous analysis a brief discussion on the more realistic model, which can accommodate two Lee-Wick parters for e...

  4. Improving Type Ia Supernova Standard Candle Cosmology Measurements Using Observations of Early-Type Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Joshua Evan

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are the current standard-bearers for dark energy but face several hurdles for their continued success in future large surveys. For example, spectroscopic classification of the myriad SNe soon to be discovered will not be possible, and systematics from uncertainties in dust corrections and the evolution of SN demographics and/or empirical calibrations used to standardize SNe Ia must be studied. Through the identification of low-dust host galaxies and through increased understanding of both the SN - progenitor connections and empirical calibrations, host galaxy information may offer opportunities to improve the cosmological utility of SNe Ia. The first half of this thesis analyzes the sample of SNe Ia discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cluster Supernova Survey augmented with HST-observed SNe Ia in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) fields. Correlations between properties of SNe and their host galaxies are examined at high redshift. Using galaxy color and quantitative morphology to determine the red sequence in 25 clusters, a model is developed to distinguish passively evolving early-type galaxies from star-forming galaxies in both clusters and the field. With this approach, 6 early-type cluster member hosts and 11 SN Ia early-type field hosts are identified. For the first time at z > 0.9, the correlation between host galaxy type and the rise and fall time of SN Ia light curves is confirmed. The relatively simple spectral energy distributions of early-type galaxies also enables stellar mass measurements for these hosts. In combination with literature host mass measurements, these measurements are used to show, at z > 0.9, a hint of the correlation between host mass and Hubble residuals reported at lower redshift. By simultaneously fitting cluster galaxy formation histories and dust content to the scatter of the cluster red sequences, it is shown that dust reddening of early-type cluster SN hosts is likely less

  5. Quantum Cosmology - The Supersymmetric Perspective - Vol. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniz, Paulo Vargas

    What is this book about? What is quantum cosmology with supersymmetry? How is supersymmetry implemented? Is it through the use of (recent developments in) a superstring theory? Why should the very early universe be explored in that manner? Are there enticing and interesting research problems left to solve? How relevant would it be to address and solve them?

  6. Effects of heavy fields on inflationary cosmology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortiz, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Cosmological inflation is the most successful theory that explains the homogeneity and flatness of the early universe. It also provides a quantum origin for the primordial perturbations that we observe in the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMB). The simplest models make use of a single scala

  7. Cold electroweak baryogenesis and quantum cosmological correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van der Meulen

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes two subjects from theoretical cosmology. The first concerns the creation of the matter--anti-matter asymmetry, which is generally assumed to be created in the early universe by a process called baryogenesis. The details of this process are yet unknown and there exist many model

  8. A model with cosmological Bell inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Maldacena, Juan

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of devising cosmological observables which violate Bell's inequalities. Such observables could be used to argue that cosmic scale features were produced by quantum mechanical effects in the very early universe. As a proof of principle, we propose a somewhat elaborate inflationary model where a Bell inequality violating observable can be constructed.

  9. Cosmological constraints on a classical limit of quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Easson, D A; Trodden, M; Wohlfarth, M N R; Easson, Damien A.; Schuller, Frederic P.; Trodden, Mark; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the cosmology of a recently proposed deformation of Einstein gravity, emerging from quantum gravity heuristics. The theory is constructed to have de Sitter space as a vacuum solution, and thus to be relevant to the accelerating universe. However, this solution turns out to be unstable, and the true phase space of cosmological solutions is significantly more complex, displaying two late-time power-law attractors -- one accelerating and the other dramatically decelerating. It is also shown that non-accelerating cosmologies sit on a separatrix between the two basins of attraction of these attractors. Hence it is impossible to pass from a decelerating cosmology to an accelerating one, as required in standard cosmology for consistency with nucleosynthesis and structure formation and compatibility with the data inferred from supernovae Ia. We point out that alternative models of the early universe, such as the one investigated here might provide possible ways to circumvent these requirements.

  10. Loophole to the universal photon spectrum in electromagnetic cascades and application to the cosmological lithium problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Vivian; Serpico, Pasquale Dario

    2015-03-06

    The standard theory of electromagnetic cascades onto a photon background predicts a quasiuniversal shape for the resulting nonthermal photon spectrum. This has been applied to very disparate fields, including nonthermal big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). However, once the energy of the injected photons falls below the pair-production threshold the spectral shape is much harder, a fact that has been overlooked in past literature. This loophole may have important phenomenological consequences, since it generically alters the BBN bounds on nonthermal relics; for instance, it allows us to reopen the possibility of purely electromagnetic solutions to the so-called "cosmological lithium problem," which were thought to be excluded by other cosmological constraints. We show this with a proof-of-principle example and a simple particle physics model, compared with previous literature.

  11. Inhomogeneous Big Bang Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Wagh, S M

    2002-01-01

    In this letter, we outline an inhomogeneous model of the Big Bang cosmology. For the inhomogeneous spacetime used here, the universe originates in the infinite past as the one dominated by vacuum energy and ends in the infinite future as the one consisting of "hot and relativistic" matter. The spatial distribution of matter in the considered inhomogeneous spacetime is {\\em arbitrary}. Hence, observed structures can arise in this cosmology from suitable "initial" density contrast. Different problems of the standard model of Big Bang cosmology are also resolved in the present inhomogeneous model. This inhomogeneous model of the Big Bang Cosmology predicts "hot death" for the universe.

  12. Reconstructing the evolution of the Universe from loop quantum cosmology scalar fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, V. K.

    2016-08-01

    We extend the scalar-tensor reconstruction techniques for classical cosmology frameworks, in the context of loop quantum cosmology. After presenting in some detail how the equations are generalized in the loop quantum cosmology case, we discuss which new features and limitations the quantum framework introduces, and we use various illustrative examples in order to demonstrate how the method works. As we show, the energy density has two different classes of solutions, and one of these yields the correct classical limit, while the second captures the quantum phenomena. We study in detail the scalar tensor reconstruction method for both of these solutions. We also discuss some scenarios for which the Hubble rate becomes unbounded at finite time, which corresponds for example to the case in which the big rip occurs. As we show, this issue is nontrivial and we discuss how this case should be treated in a consistent way. Finally, we investigate how the classical stability conditions for the scalar-tensor solutions are generalized in the loop quantum framework.

  13. Numerical Results for a Polytropic Cosmology Interpreted as a Dust Universe Producing Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, J.; Cervantes-Cota, J.; Chauvet, P.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. A nivel cosmol6gico pensamos que se ha estado prodticiendo radiaci6n gravitacional en cantidades considerables dentro de las galaxias. Si los eventos prodnctores de radiaci6n gravitatoria han venido ocurriendo desde Ia epoca de Ia formaci6n de las galaxias, cuando menos, sus efectos cosmol6gicos pueden ser tomados en cuenta con simplicidad y elegancia al representar la producci6n de radiaci6n y, por consiguiente, su interacci6n con materia ordinaria fenomenol6gicamente a trave's de una ecuaci6n de estado politr6pica, como lo hemos mostrado en otros trabajos. Presentamos en este articulo resultados nunericos de este modelo. ABSTRACT A common believe in cosmology is that gravitational radiation in considerable quantities is being produced within the galaxies. Ifgravitational radiation production has been running since the galaxy formation epoch, at least, its cosmological effects can be assesed with simplicity and elegance by representing the production of radiation and, therefore, its interaction with ordinary matter phenomenologically through a polytropic equation of state as shown already elsewhere. We present in this paper the numerical results of such a model. K words: COSMOLOGY - GRAVITATION

  14. The ν2GC simulations: Quantifying the dark side of the universe in the Planck cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Enoki, Motohiro; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Makiya, Ryu; Nagashima, Masahiro; Oogi, Taira

    2015-08-01

    We present the evolution of dark matter halos in six large cosmological N-body simulations, called the ν2GC (New Numerical Galaxy Catalog) simulations on the basis of the ΛCDM cosmology consistent with observational results obtained with the Planck satellite. The largest simulation consists of 81923 (550 billion) dark matter particles in a box of 1.12 h-1 Gpc (a mass resolution of 2.20 × 108 h-1 M⊙). Among simulations utilizing boxes larger than 1 h-1 Gpc, our simulation yields the highest resolution simulation that has ever been achieved. A ν2GC simulation with the smallest box consists of eight billion particles in a box of 70 h-1 Mpc (a mass resolution of 3.44 × 106 h-1 M⊙). These simulations can follow the evolution of halos over masses of eight orders of magnitude, from small dwarf galaxies to massive clusters. Using the unprecedentedly high resolution and powerful statistics of the ν2GC simulations, we provide statistical results of the halo mass function, mass accretion rate, formation redshift, and merger statistics, and present accurate-fitting functions for the Planck cosmology. By combining the ν2GC simulations with our new semianalytic galaxy formation model, we are able to prepare mock catalogs of galaxies and active galactic nuclei, which will be publicly available in the near future.

  15. Early universe thermostatistics in curved momentum spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gorji, M A; Nozari, K; Vakili, B

    2016-01-01

    The theories known as doubly special relativity are introduced in order to take into account an observer-independent length scale and the speed of light in the framework of special relativity. These theories can be generally formulated on the de Sitter and also recently proposed anti-de Sitter momentum spaces. In the context of these theories, we study the statistical mechanics and to do this, we consider the natural measure on the corresponding extended phase space. The invariant measure on the space of distinct microstates is obtained by restriction of the natural measure of the extended phase space to the physical phase space through the disintegration theorem. Having the invariant measure, one can study the statistical mechanics in arbitrary ensemble for any doubly special relativity theory. We use the constructed setup to study the statistical properties of four doubly special relativity models. Applying the results to the case of early universe thermodynamics, we show that one of these models that is de...

  16. Implications for the Cosmological Landscape: Can Thermal Inputs from a Prior Universe Account for Relic Graviton Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, A. W.

    2008-01-01

    Sean Carroll's pre-inflation state of low temperature-low entropy provides a bridge between two models with different predictions. The Wheeler-de Witt equation provides thermal input into today's universe for graviton production. Also, brane world models by Sundrum allow low entropy conditions, as given by Carroll & Chen (2005). Moreover, this paper answers the question of how to go from a brane world model to the 10 to the 32 power Kelvin conditions stated by Weinberg in 1972 as necessary for the initiation of quantum gravity processes. This is a way of getting around the fact CMBR is cut off at a red shift of z = 1100. This paper discusses the difference in values of the upper bound of the cosmological constant between a large upper bound predicated for a temperature dependent vacuum energy predicted by Park (2002), and the much lower bound predicted by Barvinsky (2006). with the difference in values in vacuum energy contributing to relic graviton production. This paper claims that this large thermal influx, with a high initial cosmological constant and a large region of space for relic gravitons interacting with space-time up to the z = 1100 CMBR observational limit are interlinked processes delineated in the Lloyd (2002) analogy of the universe as a quantum computing system. Finally, the paper claims that linking a shrinking prior universe via a worm hole solution for a pseudo time dependent Wheeler-De Witt equation permits graviton generation as thermal input from the prior universe, transferred instantaneously to relic inflationary conditions today. The existence of a wormhole is presented as a necessary condition for relic gravitons. Proving the sufficiency of the existence of a worm hole for relic gravitons is a future project.

  17. Cosmology in Mr. Tompkins' Lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Rudi Paul

    2016-01-01

    Mr. Tompkins, the hero of George Gamow's most famous book, was born in the first decade of the twentieth century and lived until its end. A bank clerk by day, Mr. Tompkins had wide-ranging interests, and his curiosity led him to popular scientific presentations, and these in turn brought him a long and happy marriage to Maud, the daughter of a professor of physics. His lifetime offers an appropriate framework for a meditation on the history of cosmology during the century in which cosmology became a scientific enterprise. As it happens, Mr. Tompkins' first exposure to cosmology, in which he observed both the expansion and contraction of an oscillating universe in 1939, happened during the long night of relativity, the generation in which relativity specialists became few and, like the galaxies, far between. This talk will consider the heyday of early relativistic cosmology from 1917 to 1935, the causes and consequences of the "long night" from 1935 until 1963, and the renaissance of cosmology, which, occurring as it did upon the retirement of Mr. Tompkins, afforded him great pleasure in his later years.

  18. Limits of time in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Rugh, Svend E

    2016-01-01

    We provide a discussion of some main ideas in our project about the physical foundation of the time concept in cosmology. It is standard to point to the Planck scale (located at $\\sim 10^{-43}$ seconds after a fictitious "Big Bang" point) as a limit for how far back we may extrapolate the standard cosmological model. In our work we have suggested that there are several other (physically motivated) interesting limits -- located at least thirty orders of magnitude before the Planck time -- where the physical basis of the cosmological model and its time concept is progressively weakened. Some of these limits are connected to phase transitions in the early universe which gradually undermine the notion of 'standard clocks' widely employed in cosmology. Such considerations lead to a 'scale problem' for time which becomes particularly acute above the electroweak phase transition (before $\\sim 10^{-11}$ seconds). Other limits are due to problems of building up a cosmological reference frame, or even contemplating a s...

  19. Superstring cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Enrique

    1985-01-01

    Some cosmological consequences of the assumption that superstrings are more fundamental objects than ordinary local quantum fields are examined. We study, in particular, the dependence of both the string tension and the temperature of the primordial string soup on cosmic time. A particular scenario is proposed in which the universe undergoes a contracting ``string phase'' before the ordinary ``big bang,'' which according to this picture is nothing but the outcome of the transition from nonlocal to local fundamental physics.

  20. Historical Aspects of Post-1850 Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kragh, Helge

    2014-01-01

    Cosmology as an exact physical science is of new date, but it has long roots in the past. This essay is concerned with four important themes in the history of cosmological thought which, if taken together, offer a fairly comprehensive account of some of the key developments that have led to the modern understanding of the universe. Apart from the first section, dealing with early views of curved space, it focuses on mainstream cosmology from the expanding universe about 1930 to the emergence of the standard big bang model in the 1960s. This development includes theories we would not today consider "mainstream," such as the steady state model of the universe. The last section outlines what might be called the prehistory of the concept of dark energy, that is, ideas that were discussed before dark energy was actually inferred from supernovae observations in the late 1990s.

  1. Questions of Modern Cosmology Galileo's Legacy

    CERN Document Server

    D'Onofrio, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Are we living in the "golden age" of cosmology? Are we close to understanding the nature of the unknown ingredients of the currently most accepted cosmological model and the physics of the early Universe? Or are we instead approaching a paradigm shift? What is dark matter and does it exist? How is it distributed around galaxies and clusters? Is the scientific community open to alternative ideas that may prompt a new scientific revolution - as the Copernican revolution did in Galileo's time? Do other types of supernovae exist that can be of interest for cosmology? Why have quasars never been effectively used as standard candles? Can you tell us about the scientific adventure of COBE? How does the extraction of the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy depend on the subtraction of the various astrophysical foregrounds? These, among many others, are the astrophysical, philosophical and sociological questions surrounding modern cosmology and the scientific community that Mauro D'Onofrio and Carlo Burigana pose t...

  2. Friedmann cosmology with decaying vacuum density

    CERN Document Server

    Borges, H A

    2005-01-01

    Among the several proposals to solve the incompatibility between the observed small value of the cosmological constant and the huge value obtained by quantum field theories, we can find the idea of a decaying vacuum energy density, leading from high values at early times of universe evolution to the small value observed nowadays. In this paper we consider a variation law for the vacuum density recently proposed by Schutzhold on the basis of quantum field estimations in the curved, expanding background, characterized by a vacuum density proportional to the Hubble parameter. We show that, in the context of an isotropic and homogeneous, spatially flat model, the corresponding solutions retain the well established features of the standard cosmology, and, in addition, are in accordance with the observed cosmological parameters. Our scenario presents an initial phase dominated by radiation, followed by a dust era long enough to permit structure formation, and by an epoch dominated by the cosmological term, which te...

  3. Neutrinos in the Early Universe, Kalb-Ramond Torsion and Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavromatos Nick E.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The generation of a matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe may be induced by the propagation of fermions in non-trivial, spherically asymmetric (and hence Lorentz violating gravitational backgrounds. Such backgrounds may characterise the epoch of the early universe. The key point in these models is that the background induces di_erent dispersion relations, hence populations, between fermions and antifermions, and thus CPT Violation (CPTV appears in thermal equilibrium. Species populations may freeze out leading to leptogenesis and baryogenesis. We consider here a string-inspired scenario, in which the CPTV is associated with a cosmological background with torsion provided by the Kalb-Ramond (KR antisymemtric tensor field of the string gravitational multiplet. In a four-dimensional space time this field is dual to a pseudoscalar “axionlike” field. The mixing of the KR field with an ordinary axion field can lead to the generation of a Majorana neutrino mass.

  4. Can Superconducting Cosmic Strings Piercing Seed Black Holes Generate Supermassive Black Holes in the Early Universe?

    CERN Document Server

    Lake, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of a large number of supermassive black holes at redshifts $z> 6$, when the Universe was only nine hundred million years old, has raised the fundamental question of how such massive compact objects could form in a (cosmologically) short time interval. Each of the proposed standard scenarios for black hole formation, involving rapid accretion of seed black holes, or black hole mergers, faces severe theoretical difficulties in explaining the short time formation of supermassive objects. In the present Letter, we propose an alternative scenario for the formation of supermassive black holes in the early Universe in which energy transfer from superconducting cosmic strings, piercing small seed black holes, is the main physical process leading to rapid mass increase. The increase in mass of a primordial seed black hole pierced by two antipodal strings is estimated and it is shown that this increases linearly in time. Due to the high energy transfer rate from the cosmic strings, we find that supermassi...

  5. Ion chemistry in the early universe: revisiting the role of HeH+ with new quantum calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Bovino, Stefano; Gianturco, Francesco A; Galli, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    The role of HeH+ has been newly assessed with the aid of newly calculated rates which use entirely ab initio methods, thereby allowing us to compute more accurately the relevant abundances within the global chemical network of the early universe. A comparison with the similar role of the ionic molecule LiH+ is also presented. Quantum calculations have been carried out for the gas-phase reaction of HeH+ with H atoms with our new in-house code, based on the negative imaginary potential method. Integral cross sections and reactive rate coefficients obtained under the general conditions of early universe chemistry are presented and discussed. With the new reaction rate, the abundance of HeH+ in the early universe is more than one order of magnitude larger than in previous studies. Our more accurate findings further buttress the possibility to detect cosmological signatures of HeH+.

  6. Multiwavelength Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plionis, M.

    2004-07-01

    The recent scientific efforts in Astrophysics & Cosmology have brought a revolution to our understanding of the Cosmos. Amazing results is the outcome of amazing experiments! The huge scientific, technological & financial effort that has gone into building the 10-m class telescopes as well as many space and balloon observatories, essential to observe the multitude of cosmic phenomena in their manifestations at different wavelengths, from gamma-rays to the millimetre and the radio, has given and is still giving its fruits of knowledge. These recent scientific achievements in Observational and Theoretical Cosmology were presented in the "Multiwavelength Cosmology" conference that took place on beautiful Mykonos island in the Aegean between 17 and 20 June 2003. More than 180 Cosmologists from all over the world gathered for a four-day intense meeting in which recent results from large ground based surveys (AAT/2-df, SLOAN) and space missions (WMAP, Chandra, XMM, ISO, HST) were presented and debated, providing a huge impetus to our knowledge of the Cosmos. The future of the subject (experiments, and directions of research) was also discussed. The conference was devoted mostly on the constraints on Cosmological models and galaxy formation theories that arise from the study of the high redshift Universe, from clusters of galaxies, and their evolution, from the cosmic microwave background, the large-scale structure and star-formation history. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1971-8

  7. Axion Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, David J E

    2015-01-01

    Axions comprise a broad class of particles that can play a major role in explaining the unknown aspects of cosmology. They are also extraordinarily well-motivated within high energy physics, and so axion cosmology offers us a unique view onto these theories. I present a comprehensive and pedagogical view on the cosmology and astrophysics of axion-like particles, starting from inflation and progressing via the CMB and structure formation up to the present-day Universe. I briefly review the motivation and models for axions in particle physics and string theory. The primary focus is on the population of ultralight axions created via vacuum realignment, and its role as a dark matter (DM) candidate with distinctive phenomenology. Cosmological observations place robust constraints on the axion mass and relic density in this scenario, and I review where such constraints come from. I next cover aspects of galaxy formation with axion DM, and ways this can be used to further search for evidence of axions. An absolute l...

  8. Axion cosmology in the laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Christian

    2010-01-01

    What do advanced Josephson junction technologies, SQUIDs, coupled Josephson qubits and related superconducting devices used in nanotechnology have in common with the problem of dark matter in the early universe? A lot more than might seem obvious at first sight, as will be shown in this letter. One of the major candidates for dark matter in the universe is the axion. The equation of motion of the axion misalignment angle and that of the phase difference in a Josephson junction are identical if the symbols in the mathematical equations are properly re-interpreted. This allows for analogue simulation of early-universe physics using superconducting electronic devices such as SQUIDs and Josephson junctions. It also allows for new experimental setups that test axionic interaction strengths in a Josephson junction environment, similar in nature to recent experiments that test for quantum entanglement of two coupled Josephson qubits. The parameter values relevant for early-universe axion cosmology are accessible wit...

  9. Medieval Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    During the early Middle Ages (ca 500 to ca 1130) scholars with an interest in cosmology had little useful and dependable literature. They relied heavily on a partial Latin translation of PLATO's Timaeus by Chalcidius (4th century AD), and on a series of encyclopedic treatises associated with the names of Pliny the Elder (ca AD 23-79), Seneca (4 BC-AD 65), Macrobius (fl 5th century AD), Martianus ...

  10. The Philosophy of Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamcham, Khalil; Silk, Joseph; Barrow, John D.; Saunders, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Part I. Issues in the Philosophy of Cosmology: 1. Cosmology, cosmologia and the testing of cosmological theories George F. R. Ellis; 2. Black holes, cosmology and the passage of time: three problems at the limits of science Bernard Carr; 3. Moving boundaries? – comments on the relationship between philosophy and cosmology Claus Beisbart; 4. On the question why there exists something rather than nothing Roderich Tumulka; Part II. Structures in the Universe and the Structure of Modern Cosmology: 5. Some generalities about generality John D. Barrow; 6. Emergent structures of effective field theories Jean-Philippe Uzan; 7. Cosmological structure formation Joel R. Primack; 8. Formation of galaxies Joseph Silk; Part III. Foundations of Cosmology: Gravity and the Quantum: 9. The observer strikes back James Hartle and Thomas Hertog; 10. Testing inflation Chris Smeenk; 11. Why Boltzmann brains do not fluctuate into existence from the de Sitter vacuum Kimberly K. Boddy, Sean M. Carroll and Jason Pollack; 12. Holographic inflation revised Tom Banks; 13. Progress and gravity: overcoming divisions between general relativity and particle physics and between physics and HPS J. Brian Pitts; Part IV. Quantum Foundations and Quantum Gravity: 14. Is time's arrow perspectival? Carlo Rovelli; 15. Relational quantum cosmology Francesca Vidotto; 16. Cosmological ontology and epistemology Don N. Page; 17. Quantum origin of cosmological structure and dynamical reduction theories Daniel Sudarsky; 18. Towards a novel approach to semi-classical gravity Ward Struyve; Part V. Methodological and Philosophical Issues: 19. Limits of time in cosmology Svend E. Rugh and Henrik Zinkernagel; 20. Self-locating priors and cosmological measures Cian Dorr and Frank Arntzenius; 21. On probability and cosmology: inference beyond data? Martin Sahlén; 22. Testing the multiverse: Bayes, fine-tuning and typicality Luke A. Barnes; 23. A new perspective on Einstein's philosophy of cosmology Cormac O

  11. Connecting early and late universe by $f(R)$ gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Luongo, Orlando

    2014-01-01

    Inflation and dark energy are two of the most relevant aspects of modern cosmology. These different epochs provide the universe is passing through accelerated phases soon after the Big-Bang and at present stage of its evolution. In this review paper, we discuss that both eras can be, in principle, described by a geometric picture, under the standard of $f(R)$ gravity. We give the fundamental physics motivations and outline the main ingredients of $f(R)$ inflation, quintessence and cosmography. This wants to be a quick summary of $f(R)$ paradigm without claiming of completeness.

  12. Connecting early and late universe by f(R) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozziello, Salvatore; de Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Luongo, Orlando

    2015-12-01

    Inflation and dark energy are two of the most relevant aspects of modern cosmology. These different epochs provide the universe is passing through accelerated phases soon after the Big-Bang and at present stage of its evolution. In this review paper, we discuss that both eras can be, in principle, described by a geometric picture, under the standard of f(R) gravity. We give the fundamental physics motivations and outline the main ingredients of f(R) inflation, quintessence and cosmography. This wants to be a quick summary of f(R) paradigm without claiming of completeness.

  13. The Geometrization of Matter Proposal in the Barrett-Crane Model and Resolution of Cosmological Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Stephon

    2003-07-15

    We give an overview of the current issues in early universe cosmology and consider the potential resolution of these issues in an as yet nascent spin foam cosmology. The model is the Barrett-Crane Model for quantum gravity along with a generalization of manifold complexes to complexes including conical singularities.

  14. Cosmology and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbi Amedeo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Time has always played a crucial role in cosmology. I review some of the aspects of the present cosmological model which are more directly related to time, such as: the definition of a cosmic time; the existence of typical timescales and epochs in an expanding universe; the problem of the initial singularity and the origin of time; the cosmological arrow of time.

  15. Primordial tensor modes of the early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez, Florencia Benítez

    2016-01-01

    We study cosmological tensor perturbations on a quantized background within the hybrid quantization approach. In particular, we consider a flat, homogeneous and isotropic spacetime and small tensor inhomogeneities on it. We truncate the action to second order in the perturbations. The dynamics is ruled by a homogeneous scalar constraint. We carry out a canonical transformation in the system where the Hamiltonian for the tensor perturbations takes a canonical form. The new tensor modes now admit a standard Fock quantization with a unitary dynamics. We then combine this representation with a generic quantum scheme for the homogeneous sector. We adopt a Born-Oppenheimer ansatz for the solutions to the constraint operator, previously employed to study the dynamics of scalar inhomogeneities. We analyze the approximations that allow us to recover, on the one hand, a Schr\\"odinger equation similar to the one emerging in the dressed metric approach, and, on the other hand, the ones necessary for the effective evoluti...

  16. A model for the very early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Giacosa, Francesco; Neubert, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    A model with N species of massless fermions interacting via (microscopic) gravitational torsion in de Sitter spacetime is investigated in the limit N->infinity. The U_V(N)*U_A(N) flavor symmetry is broken dynamically irrespective of the (positive) value of the induced four-fermion coupling. This model is equivalent to a theory with free but massive fermions fluctuating about the chiral condensate. When the fermions are integrated out in a way demonstrated long ago by Candelas and Raine, the associated gap equation together with the Friedmann equation predict that the Hubble parameter vanishes. Introducing a matter sector (subject to a finite gauge symmetry) as a source for subsequent cosmology, the neutral Goldstone field acquires mass by the chiral anomaly, resulting in a Planck-scale axion.

  17. Connecting QGP-Heavy Ion Physics to the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Rafelski, Johann

    2013-01-01

    We discuss properties and evolution of quark-gluon plasma in the early Universe and compare to laboratory heavy ion experiments. We describe how matter and antimatter emerged from a primordial soup of quarks and gluons. We focus our discussion on similarities and differences between the early Universe and the laboratory experiments.

  18. Connecting QGP-Heavy Ion Physics to the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafelski, Johann

    2013-10-01

    We discuss properties and evolution of quark-gluon plasma in the early Universe and compare to laboratory heavy ion experiments. We describe how matter and antimatter emerged from a primordial soup of quarks and gluons. We focus our discussion on similarities and differences between the early Universe and the laboratory experiments.

  19. Connecting QGP-Heavy Ion Physics to the Early Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafelski, Johann

    2013-10-15

    We discuss properties and evolution of quark-gluon plasma in the early Universe and compare to laboratory heavy ion experiments. We describe how matter and antimatter emerged from a primordial soup of quarks and gluons. We focus our discussion on similarities and differences between the early Universe and the laboratory experiments.

  20. Study of Tachyon Warm Intermediate and Logamediate Inflationary Universe from Loop Quantum Cosmological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Mandal, Jyotirmay; Debnath, Ujjal

    2016-08-01

    We have studied the tachyon intermediate and logamediate warm inflation in loop quantum cosmological background by taking the dissipative co-efficient Γ = Γ0 (where Γ0 is a constant) in “intermediate” inflation and Γ = V(ϕ), (where V(ϕ) is the potential of tachyonic field) in “logamediate” inflation. We have assumed slow-roll condition to construct scalar field ϕ, potential V, N-folds, etc. Various slow-roll parameters have also been obtained. We have analyzed the stability of this model through graphical representations.

  1. Opening A New Window to the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Hivon, E; Hivon, Eric; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2002-01-01

    DASI has ended a 34-year quest to detect the CMB polarization, sounding the starting gun for a new race to peer further back in time, with more precision than ever before. Many more CMB polarization experiments are in progress or planned. NASA's recently launched Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) should detect the large-angle polarization induced by early star formation. This should be followed by increasingly precise ground and balloon experiments leading to the Launch of the European Space Agency's Planck satellite in 2007. If the recent past is any indication, studies of the CMB will continue to advance cosmology, even after Planck.

  2. Cosmic Radiation Fields: Sources in the early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raue, Martin; Kneiske, Tanja; Horns, Dieter; Elsaesser, Dominik; Hauschildt, Peter

    The workshop "Cosmic Radiation Fields - Sources in the Early Universe" (CRF 2010) focuses on the connection between the extragalactic infrared background and sources in the early universe, in particular stars powered by dark matter burning (Dark Stars; DS). The workshop covers the following topics: the cosmic infrared background, formation of early stars, dark stars, effect of dark matter in the early universe, dark matter halos, primordial star formation rate, and reionization. Further information can be found on the conference webpage: http://www.desy.de/crf2010/. Organizing committee: Tanja Kneiske, Martin Raue, Dominik Elsaesser, Alexander Gewering-Peine, Peter Hausschildt, Dieter Horns, and Andreas Maurer.

  3. Quantum Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Bojowald, Martin

    1999-01-01

    A complete model of the universe needs at least three parts: (1) a complete set of physical variables and dynamical laws for them, (2) the correct solution of the dynamical laws, and (3) the connection with conscious experience. In quantum cosmology, item (2) is the quantum state of the cosmos. Hartle and Hawking have made the `no-boundary' proposal, that the wavefunction of the universe is given by a path integral over all compact Euclidean 4-dimensional geometries and matter fields that hav...

  4. Exact Initial Data for Black Hole Universes with a Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Durk, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    We construct exact initial data for closed cosmological models filled with regularly arranged black holes in the presence of $\\Lambda$. The intrinsic geometry of the 3-dimensional space described by this data is a sum of simple closed-form expressions, while the extrinsic curvature is just proportional to $\\Lambda$. We determine the mass of each of the black holes in this space by performing a limiting procedure around the location of each of the black holes, and then compare the result to an appropriate slice through the Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime. The consequences of the inhomogeneity of this model for the large-scale expansion of space are then found by comparing the lengths of curves in the cosmological region to similar curves in a suitably chosen Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) solution. Finally, we locate the positions of the apparent horizons of the black holes, and determine the extremal values of their mass, for every possible regular arrangement of masses. We find that as the numb...

  5. Graviton Mass Might Reduce Tension between Early and Late Time Cosmological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2017-03-01

    The standard cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant (Λ -CDM) predicts a growth of structures which tends to be higher than the values of redshift space distortion (RSD) measurements if the cosmological parameters are fixed by the cosmic microwave background data. In this Letter, we point out that this discrepancy can be resolved or understood if we assume that the graviton has a small but nonzero mass. In the context of the minimal theory of massive gravity (MTMG), due to infrared Lorentz violations measurable only at present cosmological scales, the graviton acquires a mass without being haunted by unwanted extra degrees of freedom. While the so-called self-accelerating branch of cosmological solutions in the MTMG has the same phenomenology for the background as well as the scalar- and vector-type linear perturbations as the Λ CDM in general relativity (GR), it is possible to choose another branch so that the background is the same as that in GR, but the evolution of matter perturbations gets modified by the graviton mass. In studying the fit of such modified dynamics to the above-mentioned RSD measurements, we find that the Λ CDM model is less probable than the MTMG by 2 orders of magnitude. With the help of the cross-correlation between the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect and the large-scale structure, the data also pin down the graviton mass squared around μ2≈-(3 ×10-33 eV )2, which is consistent with the latest bound |μ2|<(1.2 ×10-22 eV )2 set by the recent LIGO observation.

  6. Graviton Mass Might Reduce Tension between Early and Late Time Cosmological Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2017-03-03

    The standard cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant (Λ-CDM) predicts a growth of structures which tends to be higher than the values of redshift space distortion (RSD) measurements if the cosmological parameters are fixed by the cosmic microwave background data. In this Letter, we point out that this discrepancy can be resolved or understood if we assume that the graviton has a small but nonzero mass. In the context of the minimal theory of massive gravity (MTMG), due to infrared Lorentz violations measurable only at present cosmological scales, the graviton acquires a mass without being haunted by unwanted extra degrees of freedom. While the so-called self-accelerating branch of cosmological solutions in the MTMG has the same phenomenology for the background as well as the scalar- and vector-type linear perturbations as the ΛCDM in general relativity (GR), it is possible to choose another branch so that the background is the same as that in GR, but the evolution of matter perturbations gets modified by the graviton mass. In studying the fit of such modified dynamics to the above-mentioned RSD measurements, we find that the ΛCDM model is less probable than the MTMG by 2 orders of magnitude. With the help of the cross-correlation between the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect and the large-scale structure, the data also pin down the graviton mass squared around μ^{2}≈-(3×10^{-33}  eV)^{2}, which is consistent with the latest bound |μ^{2}|<(1.2×10^{-22}  eV)^{2} set by the recent LIGO observation.

  7. Implications for the Cosmological Landscape: Can Thermal Inputs from a Prior Universe Account for Relic Graviton Production?

    CERN Document Server

    Beckwith, A W

    2008-01-01

    We present a way to accomodate relic graviton production via worm hole transitions of prior universe thermal / energy density values to our present universe. This is done in the context of providing a mechanism for thermally driven relic gravitons, and also to explain how Park's 2003 observation as to how a thermally scaled vacuum energy value plays a role in forming the early universe emergent field dynamics

  8. The new model of the Big Bang and the Universe expansion. A comparison with modern observational data and cosmological theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraiko, A. N.; Valiyev, Kh. F.

    2016-10-01

    The new model of the Big Bang and the Universe expansion is constructed. It is based on solutions in classical and in relativistic statements of problem on the dispersion into the void of the gas compressed into a point or in a finite, but for further negligible, volume. If to restrict in relativistic statement gas speed value v by the speed of light (υ =| v | cosmological theories with the dark energy and the dark matter. The conclusion is drawn on uselessness of the dark energy.

  9. Viscous quark-gluon plasma in the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, A.; Wahba, M. [Egyptian Center for Theoretical Physics (ECTP), MTI University, Al-Mukkatam, Cairo 11212 (Egypt); Mansour, H. [Department of Physics, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt); Harko, T. [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical and Computational Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam Road (China)

    2011-03-15

    In the present work a study is given for the evolution of a flat, isotropic and homogeneous Universe, which is filled with a causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid. We describe the viscous properties by an ultra-relativistic equation of state, and bulk viscosity coefficient obtained from recent lattice QCD calculations. The basic equation for the Hubble parameter is derived by using the energy equation obtained from the assumption of the covariant conservation of the energy-momentum tensor of the matter in the Universe. By assuming a power law dependence of the bulk viscosity coefficient, temperature and relaxation time on the energy density, we derive the evolution equation for the Hubble function. By using the equations of state from recent lattice QCD simulations and heavy-ion collisions we obtain an approximate solution of the field equations. In this treatment for the viscous cosmology, no evidence for singularity is observed. For example, both the Hubble parameter and the scale factor are finite at t=0, where t is the comoving time. Furthermore, their time evolution essentially differs from the one associated with non-viscous and ideal gas. Also it is noticed that the thermodynamic quantities, like temperature, energy density and bulk pressure remain finite. Particular solutions are also considered in order to prove that the free parameter in this model does qualitatively influence the final results. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. The Bohmian Approach to the Problems of Cosmological Quantum Fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Sheldon; Struyve, Ward; Tumulka, Roderich

    2015-01-01

    There are two kinds of quantum fluctuations relevant to cosmology that we focus on in this article: those that form the seeds for structure formation in the early universe and those giving rise to Boltzmann brains in the late universe. First, structure formation requires slight inhomogeneities in the density of matter in the early universe, which then get amplified by the effect of gravity, leading to clumping of matter into stars and galaxies. According to inflation theory, quantum fluctuati...

  11. Perspectives in cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilenkin, Alexander, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.ed [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The 'new standard cosmology', based on the theory of inflation, has very impressive observational support. I review some outstanding problems of the new cosmology and the global view of the universe - the multiverse - that it suggests. I focus in particular on prospects for further observational tests of inflation and of the multiverse.

  12. How secret interactions can reconcile sterile neutrinos with cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Hannestad, Steen; Tram, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Short baseline neutrino oscillation experiments have shown hints of the existence of additional sterile neutrinos in the eV mass range. However, such neutrinos seem incompatible with cosmology because they have too large an impact on cosmic structure formation. Here we show that new interactions in the sterile neutrino sector can prevent their production in the early Universe and reconcile short baseline oscillation experiments with cosmology.

  13. Sociology of Modern Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Corredoira, M.

    2009-08-01

    Certain results of observational cosmology cast critical doubt on the foundations of standard cosmology but leave most cosmologists untroubled. Alternative cosmological models that differ from the Big Bang have been published and defended by heterodox scientists; however, most cosmologists do not heed these. This may be because standard theory is correct and all other ideas and criticisms are incorrect, but it is also to a great extent due to sociological phenomena such as the ``snowball effect'' or ``groupthink''. We might wonder whether cosmology, the study of the Universe as a whole, is a science like other branches of physics or just a dominant ideology.

  14. Modern Cosmology: Assumptions and Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jai-Chan

    2012-06-01

    Physical cosmology tries to understand the Universe at large with its origin and evolution. Observational and experimental situations in cosmology do not allow us to proceed purely based on the empirical means. We examine in which sense our cosmological assumptions in fact have shaped our current cosmological worldview with consequent inevitable limits. Cosmology, as other branches of science and knowledge, is a construct of human imagination reflecting the popular belief system of the era. The question at issue deserves further philosophic discussions. In Whitehead's words, ``philosophy, in one of its functions, is the critic of cosmologies.'' (Whitehead 1925).

  15. Modern Cosmology: Assumptions and Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Jai-chan

    2012-01-01

    Physical cosmology tries to understand the Universe at large with its origin and evolution. Observational and experimental situations in cosmology do not allow us to proceed purely based on the empirical means. We examine in which sense our cosmological assumptions in fact have shaped our current cosmological worldview with consequent inevitable limits. Cosmology, as other branches of science and knowledge, is a construct of human imagination reflecting the popular belief system of the era. The question at issue deserves further philosophic discussions. In Whitehead's words, "philosophy, in one of its functions, is the critic of cosmologies". (Whitehead 1925)

  16. Nuclear and particle physics in the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, D. N.

    1981-01-01

    Basic principles and implications of Big Bang cosmology are reviewed, noting the physical evidence of a previous universe temperature of 10,000 K and theoretical arguments such as grand unification decoupling indicating a primal temperature of 10 to the 15th eV. The Planck time of 10 to the -43rd sec after the Big Bang is set as the limit before which gravity was quantized and nothing is known. Gauge theories of elementary particle physics are reviewed for successful predictions of similarity in weak and electromagnetic interactions and quantum chromodynamic predictions for strong interactions. The large number of photons in the universe relative to the baryons is considered and the grand unified theories are cited as showing the existence of baryon nonconservation as an explanation. Further attention is given to quark-hadron phase transition, the decoupling for the weak interaction and relic neutrinos, and Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

  17. From the universe to the elementary particles a first introduction to cosmology and the fundamental interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ellwanger, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    In this book, the author leads the reader, step by step and without any advanced mathematics, to a clear understanding of the foundations of modern elementary particle physics and cosmology. He also addresses current and controversial questions on topics such as string theory. The book contains gentle introductions to the theories of special and general relativity, and also classical and quantum field theory. The essential aspects of these concepts are understood with the help of simple calculations; for example, the force of gravity as a consequence of the curvature of the space-time. Also treated are the Big Bang, dark matter and dark energy, as well as the presently known interactions of elementary particles: electrodynamics, the strong and the weak interactions including the Higgs boson. Finally, the book sketches as yet speculative theories: Grand Unification theories, supersymmetry, string theory and the idea of additional dimensions of space-time. Since no higher mathematical or physics expertise is r...

  18. Brans--Dicke cosmology does not have the $\\Lambda$CDM phase as an universal attractor

    CERN Document Server

    García-Salcedo, Ricardo; Quiros, Israel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we seek for relevant information on the asymptotic cosmological dynamics of the Brans--Dicke theory of gravity for several self-interaction potentials. By means of the simplest tools of the dynamical systems theory, it is shown that the general relativity de Sitter solution is an attractor of the Jordan frame (dilatonic) Brans--Dicke theory only for the exponential potential $U(\\vphi)\\propto\\exp\\vphi$, which corresponds to the quadratic potential $V(\\phi)\\propto\\phi^2$ in terms of the original Brans--Dicke field $\\phi=\\exp\\vphi$, or for potentials which asymptote to $\\exp\\vphi$. At the stable de Sitter critical point, as well as at the stiff-matter equilibrium configurations, the dilaton is necessarily massless. We find bounds on the Brans--Dicke coupling constant $\\omega_\\textsc{bd}$, which are consistent with well-known results.

  19. Bianchi type Ⅴ universe with bulk viscous matter and time varying gravitational and cosmological constants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prashant Singh Baghel; Jagdish Prasad Singh

    2012-01-01

    We consider spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type Ⅴ space-time with a bulk viscous fluid source,and time varying gravitational constant G and cosmological term A.The coefficient of bulk viscosity ζ is assumed to be a simple linear function of the Hubble parameter H (i.e.ζ=ζ0 + ζ1H,where ζ0 and ζ1 are constants).The Einstein field equations are solved explicitly by using a law of variation for the Hubble parameter,which yields a constant value of the deceleration parameter.Physical and kinematical parameters of the models are discussed.The models are found to be compatible with the results of astronomical observations.

  20. Nonlocal Quantum Effects in Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Dumin, Yurii V

    2014-01-01

    Since it is commonly believed that the observed large-scale structure of the Universe is an imprint of quantum fluctuations existing at the very early stage of its evolution, it is reasonable to pose the question: Do the effects of quantum nonlocality, which are well established now by the laboratory studies, manifest themselves also in the early Universe? We try to answer this question by utilizing the results of a few experiments, namely, with the superconducting multi-Josephson-junction loops and the ultracold gases in periodic potentials. Employing a close analogy between the above-mentioned setups and the simplest one-dimensional Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model, we show that the specific nonlocal correlations revealed in the laboratory studies might be of considerable importance also in treating the strongly-nonequilibrium phase transitions of Higgs fields in the early Universe. Particularly, they should substantially reduce the number of topological defects (e.g., domain walls) expected du...

  1. Fundamental Particle Structure in the Cosmological Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Khlopov, Maxim Yu

    2013-01-01

    The nonbaryonic dark matter of the Universe is assumed to consist of new stable forms of matter. Their stability reflects symmetry of micro world and mechanisms of its symmetry breaking. Particle candidates for cosmological dark matter are lightest particles that bear new conserved quantum numbers. Dark matter particles may represent ideal gas of non-interacting particles. Self-interacting dark matter weakly or superweakly coupled to ordinary matter is also possible, reflecting nontrivial pattern of particle symmetry in the hidden sector of particle theory. In the early Universe the structure of particle symmetry breaking gives rise to cosmological phase transitions, from which macroscopic cosmological defects or primordial nonlinear structures can be originated. Primordial black holes (PBHs) can be not only a candidate for dark matter, but also represent a universal probe for super-high energy physics in the early Universe. Evaporating PBHs turn to be a source of even superweakly interacting particles, while...

  2. Tom Kibble and the early universe as the ultimate high energy experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turok, Neil

    2014-02-01

    Tom Kibble pioneered the idea that there were one or more symmetry breaking phase transitions in the very early universe, at which defects like monopoles, strings and domain walls would have formed. In the context of grand unified theories, or their extensions, this idea remains compelling: observing these defects would be one of the very few ways of directly confirming the theories. In contrast, inflationary theory invoked a strongly supercooled transition driving a period of exponential expansion which would sweep all such defects away. If inflation terminated slowly, quantum vacuum fluctuations would be amplified and stretched to cosmological scales, forming density variations of just the character required to explain the formation of galaxies. The ensuing paradigm has dominated cosmology for the last three decades. However, basic problems in the scenario remain unresolved. Extreme tuning both of the initial conditions and of the physical laws are required. There are many different versions, each with slightly different predictions. Finally, inflation brought with it the theory of a "multiverse" — a universe containing infinite number of different, infinite, universes — while providing no "measure" or means of calculating the probability of observing any one of them. I will discuss an alternative to inflation, in which the big bang was a bounce from a previous contracting epoch. The discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC has provided new evidence for such a picture by showing that, within the minimal standard model, our current vacuum is metastable. This opens the door to a cyclic universe scenario in which the electroweak Higgs plays a central role.

  3. Cosmology for physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Lyth, David

    2016-01-01

    Written by an award-winning cosmologist, this brand new textbook provides advanced undergraduate and graduate students with coverage of the very latest developments in the observational science of cosmology. The book is separated into three parts; part I covers particle physics and general relativity, part II explores an account of the known history of the universe, and part III studies inflation. Full treatment of the origin of structure, scalar fields, the cosmic microwave background and the early universe are provided. Problems are included in the book with solutions provided in a separate solutions manual. More advanced extension material is offered in the Appendix, ensuring the book is fully accessible to students with a wide variety of background experience.

  4. Cosmological quantum entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Martin-Martinez, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    We review recent literature on the connection between quantum entanglement and cosmology, with an emphasis on the context of expanding universes. We discuss recent theoretical results reporting on the production of entanglement in quantum fields due to the expansion of the underlying spacetime. We explore how these results are affected by the statistics of the field (bosonic or fermionic), the type of expansion (de Sitter or asymptotically stationary), and the coupling to spacetime curvature (conformal or minimal). We then consider the extraction of entanglement from a quantum field by coupling to local detectors and how this procedure can be used to distinguish curvature from heating by their entanglement signature. We review the role played by quantum fluctuations in the early universe in nucleating the formation of galaxies and other cosmic structures through their conversion into classical density anisotropies during and after inflation. We report on current literature attempting to account for this trans...

  5. Quark-Gluon Plasma: from accelerator experiments to early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Rosnet, P

    2015-01-01

    In the Big Bang scenario, the early Universe is characterized by the {\\it particle era}, i.e. a Universe made of particles. This period connects both scales of fundamental physics: infinitesimally small and infinitely large. So, particle physics and in particular experimental programs at accelerators can bring valuable inputs for the understanding of the early Universe and its evolution. These proceedings discuss the impact of the Quantum ChromoDynamics phase transition experienced by the {\\it particle era} in the expanding Universe, which is connected to the study of the Quark-Gluon Plasma produced in heavy-ion physics experiments.

  6. Axion cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, David J. E.

    2016-07-01

    Axions comprise a broad class of particles that can play a major role in explaining the unknown aspects of cosmology. They are also well-motivated within high energy physics, appearing in theories related to CP-violation in the standard model, supersymmetric theories, and theories with extra-dimensions, including string theory, and so axion cosmology offers us a unique view onto these theories. I review the motivation and models for axions in particle physics and string theory. I then present a comprehensive and pedagogical view on the cosmology and astrophysics of axion-like particles, starting from inflation and progressing via BBN, the CMB, reionization and structure formation, up to the present-day Universe. Topics covered include: axion dark matter (DM); direct and indirect detection of axions, reviewing existing and future experiments; axions as dark radiation; axions and the cosmological constant problem; decays of heavy axions; axions and stellar astrophysics; black hole superradiance; axions and astrophysical magnetic fields; axion inflation, and axion DM as an indirect probe of inflation. A major focus is on the population of ultralight axions created via vacuum realignment, and its role as a DM candidate with distinctive phenomenology. Cosmological observations place robust constraints on the axion mass and relic density in this scenario, and I review where such constraints come from. I next cover aspects of galaxy formation with axion DM, and ways this can be used to further search for evidence of axions. An absolute lower bound on DM particle mass is established. It is ma > 10-24eV from linear observables, extending to ma ≳ 10-22eV from non-linear observables, and has the potential to reach ma ≳ 10-18eV in the future. These bounds are weaker if the axion is not all of the DM, giving rise to limits on the relic density at low mass. This leads to the exciting possibility that the effects of axion DM on structure formation could one day be detected

  7. A Glimpse of the Very Early Universal Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    The VLT Maps Extremely Distant Galaxies Summary New, trailblazing observations with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Paranal lend strong support to current computer models of the early universe: It is "spongy", with galaxies forming along filaments, like droplets along the strands of a spiders web. A group of astronomers at ESO and in Denmark [1] determined the distances to some very faint galaxies in the neighbourhood of a distant quasar. Plotting their positions in a three-dimensional map, they found that these objects are located within a narrow "filament", exactly as predicted by the present theories for the development of the first structures in the young universe . The objects are most likely "building blocks" from which galaxies and clusters of galaxies assemble. This observation shows a very useful way forward for the study of the early evolution of the universe and the emergence of structures soon after the Big Bang. At the same time, it provides yet another proof of the great power of the new class of giant optical telescopes for cosmological studies. PR Photo 19a/01 : Web-like structures in the young Universe (computer model). PR Photo 19b/01 : A group of objects at redshift 3.04 . PR Photo 19c/01 : Animated view of sky field and distant filament . PR Photo 19d/01 : The shape of the filament . PR Photo 19e/01 : Artist's impression of the very distant filament. PR Video Clip 04/01 : Video animation of the very distant filament. The computers are ahead of the telescopes For the past two decades cosmologists have been in the somewhat odd situation that their computers were "ahead" of their telescopes. The rapid evolution of powerful computer hardware and sophisticated software has provided theorists with the ability to build almost any sort of virtual universe they can imagine. Starting with different initial conditions just after the Big Bang, they can watch such fictional worlds evolve over billions of years in their supercomputers - and do so in a

  8. Probing the Early Universe with the CMB Scalar, Vector and Tensor Bispectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Shiraishi, Maresuke

    2012-01-01

    Although cosmological observations suggest that the fluctuations of seed fields are almost Gaussian, the possibility of a small deviation of their fields from Gaussianity is widely discussed. Theoretically, there exist numerous inflationary scenarios which predict large and characteristic non-Gaussianities in the primordial perturbations. These model-dependent non-Gaussianities act as sources of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) bispectrum; therefore, the analysis of the CMB bispectrum is very important and attractive in order to clarify the nature of the early Universe. Currently, the impacts of the primordial non-Gaussianities in the scalar perturbations, where the rotational and parity invariances are kept, on the CMB bispectrum have been well-studied. However, for a complex treatment, the CMB bispectra generated from the non-Gaussianities, which originate from the vector- and tensor-mode perturbations and include the violation of the rotational or parity invariance, have never been considered in spite...

  9. Back to the early Universe by a Monge-Ampere-Kantorovich mass transportation method

    CERN Document Server

    Frisch, U; Mohayaee, R; Sobolevski, A; Frisch, Uriel; Matarrese, Sabino; Mohayaee, Roya; Sobolevski, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    Reconstructing the minute density fluctuations in the early Universe that evolved into a highly clumpy matter distribution, as revealed by the present distribution of luminous matter, constitutes a major challenge of modern cosmology. A number of techniques have been devised in recent years which attempt to achieve this aim by using galaxy positions alone [8 refs.]. However, without knowledge of their velocities, this problem is not well-posed and its solution suffers frequently from lack of uniqueness. Here we make the hypothesis that the map from initial to present locations of mass elements is irrotational. Using recent mathematical work [Brenier], we then relate reconstruction to ``mass transportation'', a well-posed optimisation problem in engineering introduced by Monge in 1781. We propose a new powerful algorithm for unique reconstruction which, when tested against N-body simulations, gives excellent reconstruction down to scales of a few comoving megaparsecs and demonstrates the validity of our hypoth...

  10. An inflationary scenario taking into account of possible dark energy effects in the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Zhe; Li, Ming-Hua [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Li, Xin; Wang, Sai [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Beijing (China)

    2012-03-15

    We investigate the possible effect of cosmological-constant type dark energy during the inflation period of the early universe. This is accommodated by a new dispersion relation in de Sitter space. The modified inflation model of a minimally coupled scalar field is still able to yield an observation-compatible scale-invariant primordial spectrum, simultaneously having the potential to generate a spectrum with lower power at large scales. A qualitative match to the WMAP 7-year data is presented. We obtain an {omega}{sub {lambda}} of the same order of that in the {lambda}-CDM model. Possible relations between the de Sitter scenario and Doubly Special Relativity (DSR) are also discussed. (orig.)

  11. Preferred axis in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Wen

    2016-01-01

    The foundation of modern cosmology relies on the so-called cosmological principle which states an homogeneous and isotropic distribution of matter in the universe on large scales. However, recent observations, such as the temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, the motion of galaxies in the universe, the polarization of quasars and the acceleration of the cosmic expansion, indicate preferred directions in the sky. If these directions have a cosmological origin, the cosmological principle would be violated, and modern cosmology should be reconsidered. In this paper, by considering the preferred axis in the CMB parity violation, we find that it coincides with the preferred axes in CMB quadrupole and CMB octopole, and they all align with the direction of the CMB kinematic dipole. In addition, the preferred directions in the velocity flows, quasar alignment, anisotropy of the cosmic acceleration, the handedness of spiral galaxies, and the angular distribution of the fine-structu...

  12. Kavli Foundation donate $7.5 million to University of Chicago for cosmological physics institute

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "The University of Chicago will devote $7.5 million in donations from Fred Kavli and the Kavli Foundation of Oxnard, Calif., to studying some of the most puzzling scientific questions about the origin and evolution of the universe and the laws that govern it" (1 page)

  13. Quantum cosmological correlations in inflating universe: Effect of gravitational fluctuation due to fermion, gauge, and others loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaicherdsakul, Kanokkuan

    2006-08-01

    Quantum theory of cosmological fluctuations with other matters is studied to higher order to understand the origin of the universe during the time of inflation. This study also links gravitational and all matter fluctuations with the observed cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy. It is important to keep in mind that what is tested observationally is the paradigm that the primordial spectrum of inhomogeneities was nearly scale invariant and predominantly adiabatic. Therefore, if other matters such as fermion and gauge fields which do not drive inflation predict the scale invariant spectrums, their existence during inflation cannot be ruled out. We therefore extend the calculation of quantum corrections to the cosmological correlation which has been done by Weinberg for a loop of minimally coupled scalars, to other types of matters loops and a general and realistic potential. This dissertation shows that departures from scale invariance are never large even when Dirac, vector, and conformal scalar fields are present during inflation and even when the two-loop spectrum is calculated. No fine tuning is needed, in the sense that effective masses can be arbitrary values. Although the loop power spectrum was generally expected to be smaller than the classical one by a factor of GH2, I find that the quantum effect could be in the order of the classical value at the two loop level. The momentum dependence of the quantum spectrum goes as q -3ln q for all massless matters at one-loop and goes as q-3 ln 2 q at two-loop. For massive matters, the momentum dependence goes as q-3+eta (m), where |eta| interactions between gravity and various matters during the time of Big Bang inflation.

  14. Sewn singularity cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Szydlowski, Marek; Borowiec, Andrzej; Wojnar, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    We investigate modified gravity cosmological model $f(R)=R+\\gamma R^2$ in Palatini formalism. We consider the universe filled with the Chaplygin gas and baryonic matter. The dynamics is reduced to the 2D sewn dynamical system of a Newtonian type. For this aim we use dynamical system theory. We classify all evolutional paths in the model as well as trajectories in the phase space. We demonstrate that the presence of a degenerate freeze singularity (glued freeze type singularities) is a generic feature of early evolution of the universe. We point out that a degenerate type III of singularity can be considered as an endogenous model of inflation between the matter dominating epoch and the dark energy phase. We also investigate cosmological models with negative $\\gamma$. It is demonstrated that $\\gamma$ equal zero is a bifurcation parameter and dynamics qualitatively changes in comparison to positive $\\gamma$. Instead of the big bang the sudden singularity appears and there is a generic class of bouncing solution...

  15. FLRW viscous cosmological models

    CERN Document Server

    Khadekar, G S; Meng, X -H

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we solve Friedmann equations by considering a universal media as a non-perfect fluid with bulk viscosity and is described by a general "gamma law" equation of state of the form $p= (\\gamma -1) \\rho + \\Lambda(t)$, where the adiabatic parameter $\\gamma$ varies with scale factor $R$ of the metric and $\\Lambda$ is the time dependent cosmological constant. A unified description of the early evolution of the universe is presented by assuming the bulk viscosity and cosmological parameter in a linear combination of two terms of the form: $\\Lambda(t)=\\Lambda_{0} + \\Lambda_{1}\\frac{\\dot{R}}{R}$ and $\\zeta = \\zeta_{0} + \\zeta_{1} \\frac{\\dot{R}}{R}$, where $\\Lambda_{0},\\;\\Lambda_{1},\\, \\zeta_{0}$ and $ \\zeta_{1}$ are constants, in which an inflationary phase is followed by the radiation dominated phase. For this general gamma law equation of state, an entirely integrable dynamical equation to the scale factor $R$ is obtained along with its exact solutions. In this framework we demonstrate that the model can...

  16. A little inflation in the early universe at the QCD phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Boeckel, Tillmann

    2009-01-01

    We explore a scenario that allows for a strong first order phase-transition of QCD at non-negligible baryon number in the early universe and its possible cosmological observable consequences. The main assumption is a quasi-stable QCD-vacuum state that leads to a short period of inflation, consequently diluting the net baryon to photon ratio to it's today observed value. A strong mechanism for baryogenesis is needed to start out with a baryon asymmetry of order unity, e.g. as provided by Affleck-Dine baryogenesis. The cosmological implications are direct effects on primordial density fluctuations up to dark matter mass scales of 1 - 10 solar masses, change in the spectral slope up to mass scales of 10^6 - 10^7 solar masses, production of primordial magnetic fields with initial strength up to 10^12 Gauss and a gravitational wave spectrum with present day peak strain amplitude of at most h_c = 4.7 * 10^-15 around a frequency of 4*10^-8 Hz. The little QCD inflation scenario could be probed with the upcoming heavy...

  17. Holographic Inflation and the Low Entropy of the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This is a completely rewritten version of the talk I gave at the Philosophy of Cosmology conference in Tenerife, September 2014, which incorporates elements of my IFT Madrid Anthropics Conference talk. The original was too technical. The current version uses intuitive notions from black hole physics to explain the model of inflationary cosmology based on the Holographic Space Time formalism. The reason that the initial state of the universe had low entropy is that more generic states have no localized excitations, since in HST, localized excitations are defined by constraints on the fundamental variables. The only way to obtain a radiation dominated era, is for each time-like geodesic to see an almost uniform gas of small black holes as its horizon expands, such that the holes evaporate into radiation before they collide and coalesce. Comparing the time slicing that follows causal diamonds along a trajectory, with the global FRW slicing, one sees that systems outside the horizon had to undergo inflation, with...

  18. Reconstruction of the early Universe as a convex optimization problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenier, Y.; Frisch, U.; Hénon, M.; Loeper, G.; Matarrese, S.; Mohayaee, R.; Sobolevskiĭ, A.

    2003-12-01

    We show that the deterministic past history of the Universe can be uniquely reconstructed from knowledge of the present mass density field, the latter being inferred from the three-dimensional distribution of luminous matter, assumed to be tracing the distribution of dark matter up to a known bias. Reconstruction ceases to be unique below those scales - a few Mpc - where multistreaming becomes significant. Above 6 h-1 Mpc we propose and implement an effective Monge-Ampère-Kantorovich method of unique reconstruction. At such scales the Zel'dovich approximation is well satisfied and reconstruction becomes an instance of optimal mass transportation, a problem which goes back to Monge. After discretization into N point masses one obtains an assignment problem that can be handled by effective algorithms with not more than O(N3) time complexity and reasonable CPU time requirements. Testing against N-body cosmological simulations gives over 60 per cent of exactly reconstructed points. We apply several interrelated tools from optimization theory that were not used in cosmological reconstruction before, such as the Monge-Ampère equation, its relation to the mass transportation problem, the Kantorovich duality and the auction algorithm for optimal assignment. A self-contained discussion of relevant notions and techniques is provided.

  19. Sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivashko, Artem

    2015-01-01

    Although the Standard Model of elementary particles successfully describes the Universe up to the smallest known scales, we know that there exists a number of observational phenomena, which do not find explanation in the framework of this theory. Among these problems are Neutrino Oscillations, Dark

  20. Sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivashko, Artem

    2015-01-01

    Although the Standard Model of elementary particles successfully describes the Universe up to the smallest known scales, we know that there exists a number of observational phenomena, which do not find explanation in the framework of this theory. Among these problems are Neutrino Oscillations, Dark

  1. Scale Factor in Very Early Universe with the Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Mohsenzadeh, M

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is presentation an expanding scenario of 5-dimensional space-time in the very early universe. We introduce the 5-dimensional generalized FRW metric and obtain the evolution of the bulk scale factor with space-like and time-like extra dimensions. It is shown that, additional space-like dimensions can produce an exponentially expansion for the bulk scale factor under repulsive strong gravitational force in the empty very early universe with the extra dimension.

  2. The screening Horndeski cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Starobinsky, Alexei A; Volkov, Mikhail S

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic analysis of homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies in a particular Horndeski model with Galileon shift symmetry, containing also a $\\Lambda$-term and a matter. The model, sometimes called Fab Five, admits a rich spectrum of solutions. Some of them describe the standard late time cosmological dynamic dominated by the $\\Lambda$-term and matter, while at the early times the universe expands with a constant Hubble rate determined by the value of the scalar kinetic coupling. For other solutions the $\\Lambda$-term and matter are screened at all times but there are nevertheless the early and late accelerating phases. The model also admits bounces, as well as peculiar solutions describing "the emergence of time". Most of these solutions contain ghosts in the scalar and tensor sectors. However, a careful analysis reveals three different branches of ghost-free solutions, all showing a late time acceleration phase. We analyze the dynamical stability of these solutions and find that all of them are...

  3. Characteristic properties of two different viscous cosmology models for the future universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normann, Ben David; Brevik, Iver

    2017-02-01

    We analyze characteristic properties of two different cosmological models: (i) a one-component dark energy model where the bulk viscosity ζ is associated with the fluid as a whole, and (ii) a two-component model where ζ is associated with a dark matter component ρm only, the dark energy component considered inviscid. Shear viscosity is omitted. We assume throughout the simple equation-of-state p = wρ with w a constant. In the one-component model, we consider two possibilities, either to take ζ proportional to the scalar expansion (equivalent to the Hubble parameter), in which case the evolution becomes critically dependent on the value of the small constant α = 1 + w and the magnitude of ζ, or we consider the case ζ = const., where a de Sitter final stage is reached in the future. In the two-component model, we consider only the case where the dark matter viscosity ζm is proportional to the square of ρm, where again a de Sitter form is found in the future. In this latter case, the formalism is supplemented by a phase space analysis. As a general result of our considerations, we suggest that a value ζ0 ˜ 106Pa ṡs for the present viscosity is reasonable, and that the two-component model seems to be favored.

  4. Highlights and Conclusions of the Chalonge 14th Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2010: `The Standard Model of the Universe: Theory and Observations'

    CERN Document Server

    de Vega, H J; Sanchez, N G

    2010-01-01

    The Chalonge 14th Paris Cosmology Colloquium was held on 22-24 July 2010 in Paris Observatory on the Standard Model of the Universe: News from WMAP7, BICEP, QUAD, SPT, AMI, ACT, Planck, QUIJOTE and Herschel; dark matter (DM) searches and galactic observations; related theory and simulations. %aiming synthesis, progress and clarification. P Biermann, D Boyanovsky, A Cooray, C Destri, H de Vega, G Gilmore, S Gottlober, E Komatsu, S McGaugh, A Lasenby, R Rebolo, P Salucci, N Sanchez and A Tikhonov present here their highlights of the Colloquium. Inflection points emerged: LambdaWDM (Warm DM) emerges impressively over LambdaCDM whose galactic scale problems are ever-increasing. Summary and conclusions by H. J. de Vega, M. C. Falvella and N. G. Sanchez stress among other points: (i) Primordial CMB gaussianity is confirmed. Inflation effective theory predicts a tensor to scalar ratio 0.05-0.04 at reach/border line of next CMB observations, early fast-roll inflation provides lowest multipoles depression. SZ amplitud...

  5. Cosmological special relativity the large scale structure of space, time and velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Carmeli, Moshe

    2002-01-01

    This book presents Einstein's theory of space and time in detail, and describes the large-scale structure of space, time and velocity as a new cosmological special relativity. A cosmological Lorentz-like transformation, which relates events at different cosmic times, is derived and applied. A new law of addition of cosmic times is obtained, and the inflation of the space at the early universe is derived, both from the cosmological transformation. The relationship between cosmic velocity, acceleration and distances is given. In the appendices gravitation is added in the form of a cosmological g

  6. Cosmological special relativity the large scale structure of space, time and velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Carmeli, Moshe

    1997-01-01

    This book deals with special relativity theory and its application to cosmology. It presents Einstein's theory of space and time in detail, and describes the large scale structure of space, time and velocity as a new cosmological special relativity. A cosmological Lorentz-like transformation, which relates events at different cosmic times, is derived and applied. A new law of addition of cosmic times is obtained, and the inflation of the space at the early universe is derived, both from the cosmological transformation. The book will be of interest to cosmologists, astrophysicists, theoretical

  7. The screening Horndeski cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starobinsky, Alexei A. [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS,Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics,Kazan Federal University,Kremlevskaya street 18, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Sushkov, Sergey V. [Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics,Kazan Federal University,Kremlevskaya street 18, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Volkov, Mikhail S. [Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique CNRS-UMR 7350,Université de Tours,Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics,Kazan Federal University,Kremlevskaya street 18, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-06

    We present a systematic analysis of homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies in a particular Horndeski model with Galileon shift symmetry, containing also a Λ-term and a matter. The model, sometimes called Fab Five, admits a rich spectrum of solutions. Some of them describe the standard late time cosmological dynamic dominated by the Λ-term and matter, while at the early times the universe expands with a constant Hubble rate determined by the value of the scalar kinetic coupling. For other solutions the Λ-term and matter are screened at all times but there are nevertheless the early and late accelerating phases. The model also admits bounces, as well as peculiar solutions describing “the emergence of time”. Most of these solutions contain ghosts in the scalar and tensor sectors. However, a careful analysis reveals three different branches of ghost-free solutions, all showing a late time acceleration phase. We analyse the dynamical stability of these solutions and find that all of them are stable in the future, since all their perturbations stay bounded at late times. However, they all turn out to be unstable in the past, as their perturbations grow violently when one approaches the initial spacetime singularity. We therefore conclude that the model has no viable solutions describing the whole of the cosmological history, although it may describe the current acceleration phase. We also check that the flat space solution is ghost-free in the model, but it may acquire ghost in more general versions of the Horndeski theory.

  8. Peeking into galaxies in early days of the Universe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ An international consortium of astronomers, in Acluding a CAS astrophysicist, has revealed how galaxies looked like in early days of the Universe. They discovered that massive galaxies already existed when the Universe is one fifth of its current age, posing challenges to the widely accepted hierarchical model of galaxy formation.

  9. Truth and beauty in cosmology: does the Universe have an aesthetic?

    CERN Multimedia

    Impey, C

    2004-01-01

    "Astronomy is an empirical science, yet scientific definitions of truth and beauty are closely tied to the fact that mathematics appears to provide an accurate description of the physical Universe" (2 pages)

  10. Grand-unification cosmology and the parameters of a neutrino-dominated universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroshkevich, A.G.; Khlopov, M.Y.

    1983-05-01

    Some new opportunities are suggested for reconciling the probable values of the neutrino mass predicted by grand unified theories with the observed parameters of the universe. The theoretical parameters would thereby be severely constrained, and might be verified experimentally.

  11. Multi-frequency survey of background radiations of the Universe. The "Cosmological Gene" project. First results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parijskij, Yu. N.; Mingaliev, M. G.; Nizhel'Skii, N. A.; Bursov, N. N.; Berlin, A. B.; Grechkin, A. A.; Zharov, V. I.; Zhekanis, G. V.; Majorova, E. K.; Semenova, T. A.; Stolyarov, V. A.; Tsybulev, P. G.; Kratov, D. V.; Udovitskii, R. Yu.; Khaikin, V. B.

    2011-10-01

    The results of the first stage of the "Cosmological Gene" project of the Russian Academy of Sciences are reported. These results consist in the accumulation of multi-frequency data in 31 frequency channels in the wavelength interval 1-55 cm with maximum achievable statistical sensitivity limited by the noise of background radio sources at all wavelengths exceeding 1.38 cm. The survey region is determined by constraints 00 h microwave background are reported as well as the contribution of these noise components in millimeter-wave experiments to be performed in the nearest years. The role of dipole radio emission of fullerene-type dust nanostructures is shown to be small. The most precise estimates of the role of background radio sources with inverted spectra are given and these sources are shown to create no serious interference in experiments. The average spectral indices of the weakest sources of the NVSS and FIRST catalogs are estimated. The "saturation" data for all wavelengths allowed a constraint to be imposed on the Sunyaev-Zeldovich noise (the SZ noise) at all wavelengths, and made it possible to obtain independent estimates of the average sky temperature from sources, substantially weaker than those listed in the NVSS catalog. These estimates are inconsistent with the existence of powerful extragalactic synchrotron background associated with radio sources. Appreciable "quadrupole" anisotropy in is detected in the distribution of the spectral index of the synchrotron radiation of the Galaxy, and this anisotropy should be taken into account when estimating the polarization of the cosmic microwave background on small l. All the results are compared to the results obtained by foreign researchers in recent years.

  12. Origin of masses in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Pervushin, Victor N; Cherny, Alexander Yu; Shilin, Vadim I; Nazmitdinov, Rashid G; Pavlov, Alexander E; Pichugin, Konstantin N; Zakharov, Alexander F

    2015-01-01

    New model is suggested, where the Casimir mechanism is the source of masses and conformal symmetry breaking at the Planck epoch in the beginning of the Universe. The mechanism is the Casimir energy and associated condensate, which are resulted from the vacuum postulate and normal ordering of the conformal invariant Hamiltonian with respect to the quantum elementary field operators. It is shown that the Casimir top-quark condensate specifies the value of the Higgs particle mass without involving the Higgs tachyon mass, which is put equal to zero. The Casimir mechanism yields another value of the coupling constant for the self-interaction of scalar field than the standard model does.

  13. Cosmological experiments in superfluid helium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, W. H.

    1985-10-01

    Symmetry breaking phase transitions occurring in the early Universe are expected to leave behind long-lived topologically stabel structures such as monopoles, strings or domain walls. The author discusses the analogy between cosmological strings and vortex lines in the superfluid, and suggests a cryogenic experiment which tests key elements of the cosmological scenario for string formation. In a superfluid obtained through a rapid pressure quench, the phase of the Bose condensate wavefunction - the 4He analogue of the broken symmetry of the field-theoretic vacuum - will be chosen randomly in domains of some characteristic size d. When the quench is performed in an annulus of circumference C the typical value of the phase mismatch around the loop will be ≡(C/d)1/2. The resulting phase gradient can be sufficiently large to cause the superfluid to flow with a measurable, randomly directed velocity.

  14. Cosmological evolution of interacting new holographic dark energy in non-flat universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M.; Jawad, Abdul [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2012-08-15

    We consider the interacting holographic dark energy with new infrared cutoff (involving Hubble parameter and its derivative) in a non-flat universe. In this context, we obtain the equation of state parameter which evolutes the universe from the vacuum dark energy region towards the quintessence region for particular values of constant parameters. It is found that this model always remains unstable against small perturbations. Further, we establish the correspondence of this model having quintessential behavior with quintessence, tachyon, K-essence and dilaton scalar-field models. The dynamics of scalar fields and potentials indicate accelerated expansion of the universe, which is consistent with the current observations. Finally, we discuss the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics in this scenario. (orig.)

  15. FRW Cosmology in Ghost Free Massive Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Comelli, D; Nesti, F; Pilo, L

    2011-01-01

    We study FRW homogeneous cosmological solutions in the recently found ghost free massive gravity. In previous works it was shown that when the additional extra metric, needed to generate the mass term, is taken as non-dynamical and flat, no homogeneous FRW cosmology exists. We show that, when the additional metric is a dynamical field, a perfectly safe FRW universe exists. FRW solutions fall in two branches. In the first branch the massive deformation is equivalent to an effectively generated cosmological constant whose scale is determined by the graviton mass. The second branch is quite rich: we have FRW cosmology in the presence of a "gravitational" fluid. The control parameter xi is the ratio of the two conformal factors. When xi is large, generically the cosmological evolution greatly differs from GR at the early time. In the small xi region, the evolution is similar to GR and the universe flows at late time toward an attractor represented by a dS phase.

  16. Viscous Cosmology and Thermodynamics of Apparent Horizon in Modified Friedman-Robertson-Walkers Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, J.; Naji, J.; Vaez, H.; Khanpour, B.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we write modified Friedman-Robertson-Walkers (FRW) equation in the form of first law of thermodynamics at the apparent horizon. We consider the universe filled with the viscous fluid. Here we employ the general expression of temperature gravity and entropy at the apparent horizon of FRW universe and obtain the generalized first law of thermodynamics at the special condition for the modified FRW equation. The generalized first law of thermodynamics help us to arrange the α 1, α 2, β 1 and β 2 in modified Friedman-Robertson-Walkers equation.

  17. Pseudoscalar Fields in Torsionful Geometries of the Early Universe, the Baryon Asymmetry and Majorana Neutrino Mass Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Mavromatos, Nick E

    2015-01-01

    We discuss here a specific field-theory model, inspired from string theory, in which the generation of a matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Cosmos is due to the propagation of fermions in a non-trivial, spherically asymmetric (and hence Lorentz violating) gravitational background that may characterise the epochs of the early universe. The background induces different dispersion relations, hence populations, between fermions and antifermions, and thus CPT Violation (CPTV) already in thermal equilibrium. Species populations may freeze out leading to leptogenesis and baryogenesis. More specifically, after reviewing some generic models of background-induced CPTV in early epochs of the Universe, we consider a string-inspired scenario, in which the CPTV is associated with a cosmological background with torsion provided by the Kalb-Ramond (KR) antisymemtric tensor field of the string gravitational multiplet. In a four-dimensional space time this field is dual to a pseudoscalar ``axion-like'' field. The thermalising ...

  18. Cosmological models with spinor and scalar fields by Noether symmetry approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, Gilberto M

    2013-01-01

    General cosmological models with spinor and scalar fields playing the role of gravitational sources are analyzed. The Noether symmetry approach is taken as a criterion to constrain the undefined potentials and couplings of the generic actions. For all the found Noether symmetries the corresponding dynamical systems can be analytically integrated. The obtained cosmological solutions describe the early and late Universe as expected by basing on the known eras of the Universe.

  19. Mixing Metals in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, A; Shchekinov, Yu A; Ferrara, Andrea; Pettini, Max; Shchekinov, Yuri

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of the metallicity of the intergalactic medium (IGM) with particular emphasis on its spatial distribution. We propose that metal enrichment occurs as a two step process. First, supernova (SN) explosions eject metals into relatively small regions confined to the surroundings of star-forming galaxies. From a comprehensive treatment of blowout we show that SNae by themselves fail by more than one order of magnitude to distribute the products of stellar nucleosynthesis over volumes large enough to pollute the whole IGM to the metallicity levels observed. Thus, a additional (but as yet unknown) physical mechanism must be invoked to mix the metals on scales comparable to the mean distance between the galaxies which are most efficient pollutants. From this simple hypothesis we derive a number of testable predictions for the evolution of the IGM metallicity. Specifically, we find that: (i) the fraction of metals ejected over the star formation history of the universe is about 50% at z=0; ...

  20. Early Predictors of First-Year Academic Success at University: Pre-University Effort, Pre-University Self-Efficacy, and Pre-University Reasons for Attending University

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Herpen, Sanne G. A.; Meeuwisse, Marieke; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan; Severiens, Sabine E.; Arends, Lidia R.

    2017-01-01

    Given the large number of dropouts in the 1st year at university, it is important to identify early predictors of 1st-year academic success. The present study (n = 453 first-year students) contributes to literature on the transition from secondary to higher education by investigating how the non-cognitive factors "pre-university" effort…

  1. Introduction to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ryden, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Introduction to Cosmology provides a rare combination of a solid foundation of the core physical concepts of cosmology and the most recent astronomical observations. The book is designed for advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students and assumes no prior knowledge of general relativity. An emphasis is placed on developing the readers' physical insight rather than losing them with complex math. An approachable writing style and wealth of fresh and imaginative analogies from "everyday" physics are used to make the concepts of cosmology more accessible. The book is unique in that it not only includes recent major developments in cosmology, like the cosmological constant and accelerating universe, but also anticipates key developments expected in the next few years, such as detailed results on the cosmic microwave background.

  2. Evolution of shifted cosmological parameter and shifted dust matter in a two-phase tachyonic field universe

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Murli Manohar

    2012-01-01

    We propose a model of the evolution of the tachyonic scalar field over two phases in the universe. The field components do not interact in phase I, while in the subsequent phase II, they change flavours due to relative suppression of the radiation contribution. In phase II, we allow them to interact mutually with time-independent perturbation in their equations of state, as Shifted Cosmological Parameter (SCP) and Shifted Dust Matter (SDM). We determine the solutions of their scaling with the cosmic redshift in both phases. We further suggest the normalized Hubble function diagnostic, which, together with the low- and high-redshift $H(z)$ data and the concordance values of the present density parameters from the CMBR, BAO statistics etc., constrains the strength of interaction, by imposing the viable conditions to break degeneracy in 3-parameter $(\\gamma, \\varepsilon, \\dot{\\phi}^2)$ space. The range of redshifts $(z=0.1$ to $z=1.75)$ is chosen to highlight the role of interaction during structure formation, a...

  3. Discovery of a Supernova Explosion at Half the Age of the Universe and its Cosmological Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Perlmutter, S; Valle, M D; Deustua, S; Ellis, Richard S; Fabbro, S; Fruchter, A S; Goldhaber, Gerson; Goobar, A; Groom, D E; Hook, I M; Kim, A G; Kim, M Y; Knop, R A; Lidman, C E; McMahon, R G; Nugent, P; Pain, R; Panagia, N; Pennypacker, C R; Ruiz-Lapuente, P; Schaefer, B; Walton, N A; Nugent, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The ultimate fate of the universe, infinite expansion or a big crunch, can be determined by measuring the redshifts, apparent brightnesses, and intrinsic luminosities of very distant supernovae. Recent developments have provided tools that make such a program practicable: (1) Studies of relatively nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have shown that their intrinsic luminosities can be accurately determined; (2) New research techniques have made it possible to schedule the discovery and follow-up observations of distant supernovae, producing well over 50 very distant (z = 0.3 -- 0.7) SNe Ia to date. These distant supernovae provide a record of changes in the expansion rate over the past several billion years. By making precise measurements of supernovae at still greater distances, and thus extending this expansion history back far enough in time, we can distinguish the slowing caused by the gravitational attraction of the universe's mass density Omega_M from the effect of a possibly inflationary pressure caused ...

  4. Cosmology and particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Michael S.

    1988-01-01

    The interplay between cosmology and elementary particle physics is discussed. The standard cosmology is reviewed, concentrating on primordial nucleosynthesis and discussing how the standard cosmology has been used to place constraints on the properties of various particles. Baryogenesis is discussed, showing how a scenario in which the B-, C-, and CP-violating interactions in GUTs provide a dynamical explanation for the predominance of matter over antimatter and for the present baryon-to-photon ratio. It is shown how the very early dynamical evolution of a very weakly coupled scalar field which is initially displaced from the minimum of its potential may explain a handful of very fundamental cosmological facts which are not explained by the standard cosmology.

  5. Supersymmetric classical cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Escamilla-Rivera, Celia; Urena-Lopez, L Arturo

    2010-01-01

    In this work a supersymmetric cosmological model is analyzed in which we consider a general superfield action of a homogeneous scalar field supermultiplet interacting with the scale factor in a supersymmetric FRW model. There appear fermionic superpartners associated with both the scale factor and the scalar field, and classical equations of motion are obtained from the super-Wheeler-DeWitt equation through the usual WKB method. The resulting supersymmetric Einstein-Klein-Gordon equations contain extra radiation and stiff matter terms, and we study their solutions in flat space for different scalar field potentials. The solutions are compared to the standard case, in particular those corresponding to the exponential potential, and their implications for the dynamics of the early Universe are discussed in turn.

  6. Cosmology and Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, S; Sagnotti, A

    2016-01-01

    Abdus Salam was a true master of 20th Century Theoretical Physics. Not only was he a pioneer of the Standard Model (for which he shared the Nobel Prize with S. Glashow and S.Weinberg), but he also (co)authored many other outstanding contributions to the field of Fundamental Interactions and their unification. In particular, he was a major contributor to the development of supersymmetric theories, where he also coined the word "Supersymmetry" (replacing the earlier "Supergauges" drawn from String Theory). He also introduced the basic concept of "Superspace" and the notion of "Goldstone Fermion"(Goldstino). These concepts proved instrumental for the exploration of the ultraviolet properties and for the study of spontaneously broken phases of super Yang-Mills theories and Supergravity. They continue to play a key role in current developments in Early-Universe Cosmology. In this contribution we review models of inflation based on Supergravity with spontaneously broken local supersymmetry, with emphasis on the rol...

  7. Loop Quantum Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojowald Martin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantum gravity is expected to be necessary in order to understand situations in which classical general relativity breaks down. In particular in cosmology one has to deal with initial singularities, i.e., the fact that the backward evolution of a classical spacetime inevitably comes to an end after a finite amount of proper time. This presents a breakdown of the classical picture and requires an extended theory for a meaningful description. Since small length scales and high curvatures are involved, quantum effects must play a role. Not only the singularity itself but also the surrounding spacetime is then modified. One particular theory is loop quantum cosmology, an application of loop quantum gravity to homogeneous systems, which removes classical singularities. Its implications can be studied at different levels. The main effects are introduced into effective classical equations, which allow one to avoid the interpretational problems of quantum theory. They give rise to new kinds of early-universe phenomenology with applications to inflation and cyclic models. To resolve classical singularities and to understand the structure of geometry around them, the quantum description is necessary. Classical evolution is then replaced by a difference equation for a wave function, which allows an extension of quantum spacetime beyond classical singularities. One main question is how these homogeneous scenarios are related to full loop quantum gravity, which can be dealt with at the level of distributional symmetric states. Finally, the new structure of spacetime arising in loop quantum gravity and its application to cosmology sheds light on more general issues, such as the nature of time.

  8. Loop Quantum Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojowald Martin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantum gravity is expected to be necessary in order to understand situations where classical general relativity breaks down. In particular in cosmology one has to deal with initial singularities, i.e., the fact that the backward evolution of a classical space-time inevitably comes to an end after a finite amount of proper time. This presents a breakdown of the classical picture and requires an extended theory for a meaningful description. Since small length scales and high curvatures are involved, quantum effects must play a role. Not only the singularity itself but also the surrounding space-time is then modified. One particular realization is loop quantum cosmology, an application of loop quantum gravity to homogeneous systems, which removes classical singularities. Its implications can be studied at different levels. Main effects are introduced into effective classical equations which allow to avoid interpretational problems of quantum theory. They give rise to new kinds of early universe phenomenology with applications to inflation and cyclic models. To resolve classical singularities and to understand the structure of geometry around them, the quantum description is necessary. Classical evolution is then replaced by a difference equation for a wave function which allows to extend space-time beyond classical singularities. One main question is how these homogeneous scenarios are related to full loop quantum gravity, which can be dealt with at the level of distributional symmetric states. Finally, the new structure of space-time arising in loop quantum gravity and its application to cosmology sheds new light on more general issues such as time.

  9. Primordial black hole formation in the early universe: critical behaviour and self-similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Musco, Ilia

    2012-01-01

    Following on after three previous papers discussing the formation of primordial black holes during the radiation-dominated era of the early universe, we present here a further investigation of the critical nature of the collapse. In particular, we focus on the long-lived intermediate state, which appears in collapses of perturbations close to the critical limit, and examine the extent to which this follows a similarity solution, as seen for critical collapse under more idealized circumstances (rather than within the context of an expanding universe, as studied here). We find that a similarity solution is indeed realised, to good approximation, for a region contained within the past light-cone of the forming black hole (and eventual singularity). The self-similarity is not exact, however, and this is explained by the presence within the light-cone of some outer matter still coupled to the expanding universe, which does not participate in the self-similarity. Our main interest, from a cosmological point of view...

  10. Cosmological applications in Kaluza-Klein theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. I. Wanas; Gamal G. L. Nashed; A. A. Nowaya

    2012-01-01

    The field equations of Kaluza-Klein (KK) theory have been applied in the domain of cosmology.These equations are solved for a flat universe by taking the gravitational and the cosmological constants as a function of time t.We use Taylor's expansion of cosmological function,△(t),up to the first order of the time t.The cosmological parameters are calculated and some cosmological problems are discussed.

  11. Cosmological applications in Kaluza-Klein theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wanas, M I; Nowaya, A A

    2011-01-01

    The field equations of Kaluza-Klein (KK) theory have been applied in the domain of cosmology. These equations are solved for a flat universe by taking the gravitational and the cosmological constants as a function of time t. We use Taylor's expansion of cosmological function, $\\Lambda(t)$, up to the first order of the time $t$. The cosmological parameters are calculated and some cosmological problems are discussed.

  12. Loop quantum cosmology: Recent progress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Martin Bojowald

    2004-10-01

    Aspects of the full theory of loop quantum gravity can be studied in a simpler context by reducing to symmetric models like cosmological ones. This leads to several applications where loop effects play a significant role when one is sensitive to the quantum regime. As a consequence, the structure of and the approach to classical singularities are very different from general relativity. The quantum theory is free of singularities, and there are new phenomenological scenarios for the evolution of the very early universe such as inflation. We give an overview of the main effects, focussing on recent results obtained by different groups.

  13. Emergent cosmology revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bag, Satadru; Sahni, Varun [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411007 (India); Shtanov, Yuri [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev 03680 (Ukraine); Unnikrishnan, Sanil, E-mail: satadru@iucaa.ernet.in, E-mail: varun@iucaa.ernet.in, E-mail: shtanov@bitp.kiev.ua, E-mail: sanil@lnmiit.ac.in [Department of Physics, The LNM Institute of Information Technology, Jaipur 302031 (India)

    2014-07-01

    We explore the possibility of emergent cosmology using the effective potential formalism. We discover new models of emergent cosmology which satisfy the constraints posed by the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We demonstrate that, within the framework of modified gravity, the emergent scenario can arise in a universe which is spatially open/closed. By contrast, in general relativity (GR) emergent cosmology arises from a spatially closed past-eternal Einstein Static Universe (ESU). In GR the ESU is unstable, which creates fine tuning problems for emergent cosmology. However, modified gravity models including Braneworld models, Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) and Asymptotically Free Gravity result in a stable ESU. Consequently, in these models emergent cosmology arises from a larger class of initial conditions including those in which the universe eternally oscillates about the ESU fixed point. We demonstrate that such an oscillating universe is necessarily accompanied by graviton production. For a large region in parameter space graviton production is enhanced through a parametric resonance, casting serious doubts as to whether this emergent scenario can be past-eternal.

  14. The choice of time in quantum cosmology: two different approaches to Kantowski-Sachs quantum universe

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarenga, F G; Freitas, R C; Gonçalves, S V B

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the quantum Kantowski-Sachs model and we solve the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in minisuperspace to obtain the wave function of the corresponding universe. The perfect fluid is described by the Schutz's canonical formalism, which allows to attribute dynamical degrees of freedom to matter. The time is introduced phenomenologically using the fluid's degrees of freedom. In particular, we adopt a stiff matter fluid. The Kantowski-Sachs model is also presented with the introduction of so-called geometric time. Finally, the agreement between the results is analyzed and the possibility of equivalence between the two approaches is discussed.

  15. Statistical mechanics and the description of the early universe I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias; F. Torres, Diego; Vucetich, H.

    2001-01-01

    We analyze how the thermal history of the universe is influenced by the statistical description, assuming a deviation from the usual Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac and Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution functions. These deviations represent the possible appearance of non-extensive effects related with the ......We analyze how the thermal history of the universe is influenced by the statistical description, assuming a deviation from the usual Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac and Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution functions. These deviations represent the possible appearance of non-extensive effects related...... law, and provide an estimate on how known cosmological bounds on the masses of neutrinos are modified by a change in the statistics. We particularly analyze here the recombination epoch, making explicit use of the chemical potentials involved in order to attain the necessary corrections. All...... these results constitute the basic tools needed for placing bounds on the amount of non-extensivity that could be present at different eras and will be later used to study primordial nucleosynthesis....

  16. Cosmological perturbations in a noncommutative braneworld inflation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kourosh Nozari; Siamak Akhshabi

    2012-01-01

    We use the smeared,coherent state picture of noncommutativity to study evolution of perturbations in a noncommutative braneworld scenario.Within the standard procedure of studying braneworld cosmological perturbations,we study the evolution of the Bardeen metric potential and curvature perturbations in this model.We show that in this setup,the early stage of the universe's evolution has a transient phantom evolution with imaginary effective sound speed.

  17. Introduction to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ryden, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This second edition of Introduction to Cosmology is an exciting update of an award-winning textbook. It is aimed primarily at advanced undergraduate students in physics and astronomy, but is also useful as a supplementary text at higher levels. It explains modern cosmological concepts, such as dark energy, in the context of the Big Bang theory. Its clear, lucid writing style, with a wealth of useful everyday analogies, makes it exceptionally engaging. Emphasis is placed on the links between theoretical concepts of cosmology and the observable properties of the universe, building deeper physical insights in the reader. The second edition includes recent observational results, fuller descriptions of special and general relativity, expanded discussions of dark energy, and a new chapter on baryonic matter that makes up stars and galaxies. It is an ideal textbook for the era of precision cosmology in the accelerating universe.

  18. Extragalactic astronomy and cosmology an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Accounting for the astonishing developments in the field of Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology, this second edition has been updated and substantially expanded. Starting with the description of our home galaxy, the Milky Way, this cogently written textbook introduces the reader to the astronomy of galaxies, their structure, active galactic nuclei, evolution and large scale distribution in the Universe. After an extensive and thorough introduction to modern observational and theoretical cosmology, the focus turns to the formation of structures and astronomical objects in the early Universe. The basics of classical astronomy and stellar astrophysics needed for extragalactic astronomy are provided in the appendix. The new edition incorporates some of the most spectacular results from new observatories like the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, Herschel, ALMA, WMAP and Planck, as well as new instruments and multi-wavelength campaigns which have expanded our understanding of the Universe and the objects populating it....

  19. Precision Cosmology: The First Half Million Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bernard J. T.

    2017-06-01

    Cosmology seeks to characterise our Universe in terms of models based on well-understood and tested physics. Today we know our Universe with a precision that once would have been unthinkable. This book develops the entire mathematical, physical and statistical framework within which this has been achieved. It tells the story of how we arrive at our profound conclusions, starting from the early twentieth century and following developments up to the latest data analysis of big astronomical datasets. It provides an enlightening description of the mathematical, physical and statistical basis for understanding and interpreting the results of key space- and ground-based data. Subjects covered include general relativity, cosmological models, the inhomogeneous Universe, physics of the cosmic background radiation, and methods and results of data analysis. Extensive online supplementary notes, exercises, teaching materials, and exercises in Python make this the perfect companion for researchers, teachers and students in physics, mathematics, and astrophysics.

  20. Precision cosmology the first half million years

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Bernard J T

    2017-01-01

    Cosmology seeks to characterise our Universe in terms of models based on well-understood and tested physics. Today we know our Universe with a precision that once would have been unthinkable. This book develops the entire mathematical, physical and statistical framework within which this has been achieved. It tells the story of how we arrive at our profound conclusions, starting from the early twentieth century and following developments up to the latest data analysis of big astronomical datasets. It provides an enlightening description of the mathematical, physical and statistical basis for understanding and interpreting the results of key space- and ground-based data. Subjects covered include general relativity, cosmological models, the inhomogeneous Universe, physics of the cosmic background radiation, and methods and results of data analysis. Extensive online supplementary notes, exercises, teaching materials, and exercises in Python make this the perfect companion for researchers, teachers and students i...

  1. Cosmology, Epistemology and Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Wasaburo

    1992-03-01

    We may consider the following three fundamental epistemological questions concerning cosmology. Can cosmology at last understand the origin of the universe? Can computers at last create? Can life be formed at last synthetically? These questions are in some sense related to the liar paradox containing the self-reference and, therefore, may not be answered by recursive processes in finite time. There are, however, various implications such that the chaos may break the trap of the self- reference paradox. In other words, Goedel's incompleteness theorem would not apply to chaos, even if the chaos can be generated by recursive processes. Internal relations among cosmology, epistemology and chaos must be investigated in greater detail

  2. Cosmological perturbations in warm-tachyon inflationary universe model with viscous pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Setare

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the warm-tachyon inflationary universe model with viscous pressure in high-dissipation regime. General conditions which are required for this model to be realizable are derived in the slow-roll approximation. We present analytic expressions for density perturbation and amplitude of tensor perturbation in longitudinal gauge. Expressions of tensor-to-scalar ratio, scalar spectral index and its running are obtained. We develop our model by using exponential potential, the characteristics of this model are calculated for two specific cases in great details: 1. Dissipative parameter Γ and bulk viscous parameter ζ are constant parameters. 2. Dissipative parameter is a function of tachyon field ϕ and bulk viscous parameter is a function of matter-radiation mixture energy density ρ. The parameters of the model are restricted by recent observational data from the nine-year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP9, Planck and BICEP2 data.

  3. Cosmological perturbations in warm-tachyon inflationary universe model with viscous pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setare, M.R., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir [Department of Science, Campus of Bijar, University of Kurdistan, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kamali, V., E-mail: vkamali1362@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, 65178 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-07

    We study the warm-tachyon inflationary universe model with viscous pressure in high-dissipation regime. General conditions which are required for this model to be realizable are derived in the slow-roll approximation. We present analytic expressions for density perturbation and amplitude of tensor perturbation in longitudinal gauge. Expressions of tensor-to-scalar ratio, scalar spectral index and its running are obtained. We develop our model by using exponential potential, the characteristics of this model are calculated for two specific cases in great details: 1. Dissipative parameter Γ and bulk viscous parameter ζ are constant parameters. 2. Dissipative parameter is a function of tachyon field ϕ and bulk viscous parameter is a function of matter-radiation mixture energy density ρ. The parameters of the model are restricted by recent observational data from the nine-year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP9), Planck and BICEP2 data.

  4. The Age of the Universe and the Cosmological Constant Determined from Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Knox, L; Skordis, C

    2001-01-01

    If Omega_tot = 1 and structure formed from adiabatic initial conditions then the age of the Universe, as constrained by measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), is t=14.0 +/- 0.5 Gyr. The uncertainty is surprisingly small given that CMB data alone constrain neither h nor Omega_Lambda significantly. It is due to the tight (and accidental) correlation of the age with the angle subtended by the sound horizon on the CMB last--scattering surface and thus with the well-determined acoustic peak locations. If we assume either the HST Key Project result h = 0.72 +/- .08 or simply that h > 0.55, we find Omega_Lambda > 0.4 at 95% confidence---another argument for dark energy, independent of supernovae observations. Our analysis is greatly simplified by the Monte Carlo Markov chain approach to Bayesian inference combined with a fast method for calculating angular power spectra.

  5. Unitary Evolution and Cosmological Fine-Tuning

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, Sean M

    2010-01-01

    Inflationary cosmology attempts to provide a natural explanation for the flatness and homogeneity of the observable universe. In the context of reversible (unitary) evolution, this goal is difficult to satisfy, as Liouville's theorem implies that no dynamical process can evolve a large number of initial states into a small number of final states. We use the invariant measure on solutions to Einstein's equation to quantify the problems of cosmological fine-tuning. The most natural interpretation of the measure is the flatness problem does not exist; almost all Robertson-Walker cosmologies are spatially flat. The homogeneity of the early universe, however, does represent a substantial fine-tuning; the horizon problem is real. When perturbations are taken into account, inflation only occurs in a negligibly small fraction of cosmological histories, less than $10^{-6.6\\times 10^7}$. We argue that while inflation does not affect the number of initial conditions that evolve into a late universe like our own, it neve...

  6. Lepton asymmetries and the growth of cosmological seed magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Primordial cosmological hypermagnetic fields polarize the early Universe plasma prior to the electroweak phase transition (EWPT). As a result of the long range parity violating gauge interaction present in the Standard Model their magnitude gets amplified, opening a new, perturbative way, of accounting for the observed intergalactic magnetic fields.

  7. Fate of Yang-Mills black hole in early Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakonieczny, Lukasz; Rogatko, Marek [Institute of Physics Maria Curie-Sklodowska University 20-031 Lublin, pl. Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej 1 (Poland)

    2013-02-21

    According to the Big Bang Theory as we go back in time the Universe becomes progressively hotter and denser. This leads us to believe that the early Universe was filled with hot plasma of elementary particles. Among many questions concerning this phase of history of the Universe there are questions of existence and fate of magnetic monopoles and primordial black holes. Static solution of Einstein-Yang-Mills system may be used as a toy model for such a black hole. Using methods of field theory we will show that its existence and regularity depend crucially on the presence of fermions around it.

  8. A Planck Vacuum Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Both the big-bang and the quasi-steady-state cosmologies originate in some type of Planck state. This paper presents a new cosmological theory based on the Planck- vacuum negative-energy state, a state consisting of a degenerate collection of negative- energy Planck particles. A heuristic look at the Einstein field equation provides a con- vincing argument that such a vacuum state could provide a theoretical explanation for the visible universe.

  9. The Interacting and Non-constant Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Murli Manohar

    2009-01-01

    We propose a time-varying cosmological constant with a fixed equation of state, which evolves mainly through its interaction with the background during most of the long history of the universe. However, such interaction does not exist in the very early and the late-time universe and produces the acceleration during these eras when it becomes very nearly a constant. It is found that after the initial inflationary phase, the cosmological constant, that we call as lambda parameter, rolls down from a large constant value to another but very small constant value and further dominates the present epoch showing up in form of the dark energy driving the acceleration.

  10. Early Tracking or Finally Leaving? Determinants of Early Study Success in First-Year University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Jasperina; Jansen, Ellen; Hofman, Adriaan; Flache, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Two theoretical approaches underlie this investigation of the determinants of early study success among first-year university students. Specifically, to extend Walberg's educational productivity model, this study draws on the expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation in a contemporary university context. The survey data came from 407…

  11. The Formation and Growth of Black Holes in the Universe: New cosmological clues

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    In the last few years a change of paradigm occurred in the field of black hole research. We now believe, that stellar mass black holes are created in powerful gamma ray bursts. Stellar remnants of the first generation of stars have very likely been the seeds of supermassive black holes, which we find dormant in the centers of most nearby galaxies - including our own Milky Way. A tight correlation between black hole mass and the global properties of their host galaxies indicates a co-formation and evolution of black holes and galaxies. The X-ray sky is dominated by a diffuse extragalactic background radiation, which our team, together with others, was able to resolve almost completely into discrete sources using the X-ray satellites ROSAT, Chandra and XMM-Newton. Optical and NIR follow-up identifications showed, that we observe the growth phase of the population of supermassive black holes throughout the history of the Universe. The accretion history derived from X-ray observations shows, that the black holes ...

  12. The Formation and Growth of Black Holes in the Universe New cosmological clues

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Landua, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    In the last few years a change of paradigm occurred in the field of black hole research. We now believe, that stellar mass black holes are created in powerful gamma ray bursts. Stellar remnants of the first generation of stars have very likely been the seeds of supermassive black holes, which we find dormant in the centers of most nearby galaxies - including our own Milky Way. A tight correlation between black hole mass and the global properties of their host galaxies indicates a co-formation and evolution of black holes and galaxies. The X-ray sky is dominated by a diffuse extragalactic background radiation, which our team, together with others, was able to resolve almost completely into discrete sources using the X-ray satellites ROSAT, Chandra and XMM-Newton. Optical and NIR follow-up identifications showed, that we observe the growth phase of the population of supermassive black holes throughout the history of the Universe. The accretion history derived from X-ray observations shows, that the black holes ...

  13. Cosmological Constraints on Radion Evolution in the Universal Extra Dimension Model

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, K C

    2007-01-01

    The constraints on the radion evolution in the Universal Extra Dimension (UED) model from Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) data are studied. In the UED model, where both the gravity and standard model fields can propagate in the extra dimensions, the evolution of the extra dimensional volume, the radion, induces variation of fundamental constants. We discuss the effects of variation of the relevant constants in the context of UED for CMB power spectrum and SNe Ia data. We then use the three-year WMAP data to constrain the radion evolution at z \\sim 1100, and the 2 \\sigma constraint on \\dot{\\rho} / \\rho_0 (\\rho is a function of the radion, to be defined in the text) is [ -8.8, 6.6] \\times 10 ^{-13} yr^-1. The SNe Ia gold sample yields a constraint on \\dot{\\rho} / \\rho_0, for redshift between 0 and 1, to be [-4.7, 14] \\times 10^{-13} yr^-1. Furthermore, the constraints from SNe Ia can be interpreted as bounds on the evolution QCD scale parameter, \\dot{\\Lambda}_{QCD} / \\Lambda_{Q...

  14. Resource Letter BE-1: The Beginning and Evolution of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ratra, Bharat

    2007-01-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the evolution of the Universe, from an early inflation epoch to the complex hierarchy of structure seen today. References are listed for the following topics: general relativity; observations of the expanding Universe; the hot early Universe and nucleosynthesis; theory and observations of the cosmic microwave background; Big Bang cosmology; inflation; dark matter and dark energy; theory of structure formation; the cold dark matter model; galaxy formation; cosmological simulations; observations of galaxies, clusters, and quasars; statistical measures of large-scale structure; measurement of cosmological parameters; and some open questions in cosmology.

  15. On the philosophy of cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, George Francis Rayner

    2014-05-01

    This paper gives an overview of significant issues in the philosophy of cosmology, starting off by emphasizing the uniqueness of the universe and the way models are used in description and explanation. It then considers, basic limits on observations; the need to test alternatives; ways to test consistency; and implications of the uniqueness of the universe as regards distinguishing laws of physics from contingent conditions. It goes on to look at the idea of a multiverse as a scientific explanation of facts about fine-tuning, in particular considering criteria for a scientific theory and for justifying unseen entities. It considers the relation between physical laws and the natures of existence, and emphasizes limits on our knowledge of the physics relevant to the early universe (the physics horizon), and the non-physical nature of some claimed infinities. The final section looks briefly at deeper issues, commenting on the scope of enquiry of cosmological theory and the limits of science in relation to the creation of the universe.

  16. The Union University "Early Bird" Internship Program in Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Union Univ., Jackson, TN.

    The Early Bird Internship Program in Teacher Education at Union University was developed to give the sophomore student a general field orientation to the whole school program prior to the senior student teaching program. In partial fulfillment of the requirements for a beginning course for all prospective teachers taken near the end of the…

  17. Cosmological networks

    CERN Document Server

    Boguna, Marian; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    Networks often represent systems that do not have a long history of studies in traditional fields of physics, albeit there are some notable exceptions such as energy landscapes and quantum gravity. Here we consider networks that naturally arise in cosmology. Nodes in these networks are stationary observers uniformly distributed in an expanding open FLRW universe with any scale factor, and two observers are connected if one can causally influence the other. We show that these networks are growing Lorentz-invariant graphs with power-law distributions of node degrees. New links in these networks not only connect new nodes to existing ones, but also appear at a certain rate between existing nodes, as they do in many complex networks.

  18. Bouncing cosmology inspired by regular black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, J. C. S.

    2017-09-01

    In this article, we present a bouncing cosmology inspired by a family of regular black holes. This scale-dependent cosmology deviates from the cosmological principle by means of a scale factor which depends on the time and the radial coordinate as well. The model is isotropic but not perfectly homogeneous. That is, this cosmology describes a universe almost homogeneous only for large scales, such as our observable universe.

  19. Gravitino Condensates in the Early Universe and Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Mavromatos, Nick E

    2015-01-01

    We review work on the formation of gravitino condensates via the super-Higgs effect in the early Universe. This is a scenario for both inflating the early universe and breaking local supersymmetry (supergravity), entirely independent of any coupling to external matter. The goldstino mode associated with the breaking of (global) supersymmetry is "eaten" by the gravitino field, which becomes massive (via its own vacuum condensation) and breaks the local supersymmetry (supergravity) dynamically. The most natural association of gravitino condensates with inflation proceeds in an indirect way, via a Starobinsky-inflation-type phase. The higher-order curvature corrections of the (quantum) effective action of gravitino condensates induced by integrating out massive gravitino degrees of freedom in a curved space-time background, in the broken-supergravity phase, are responsible for inducing a scalar mode which inflates the Universe. The scenario is in agreement with Planck data phenomenology in a natural and phenomen...

  20. Emergent Consciousness From the Early Universe to Our Mind

    CERN Document Server

    Zizzi, P A

    2000-01-01

    In a previous paper (gr-qc/9907063) we described the early inflationary universe in terms of quantum information. In this paper, we analize those results in more detail, and we stress the fact that, during inflation, the universe can be described as a superposed state of quantum registers. The self-reduction of the superposed quantum state is consistent with the Penrose's Objective Reduction (OR) model. The quantum gravity threshold is reached at the end of inflation, and corresponds to a superposed state of 10^9 quantum registers. This is also the number of superposed tubulins-qubits in our brain, which undergo the Penrose-Hameroff's Orchestrated Objective Reduction, (Orch OR), leading to a conscious event. Then, an analogy naturally arises between the very early quantum computing universe,and our mind.

  1. Horava-Lifshitz early universe phase transition beyond detailed balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheyri, F.; Khodadi, M.; Sepangi, H.R. [Shahid Beheshti University, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    The early universe is believed to have undergone a QCD phase transition to hadrons at about 10 {mu}s after the big bang. We study such a transition in the context of the non-detailed balance Horava-Lifshitz theory by investigating the effects of the dynamical coupling constant {lambda} in a flat universe. The evolution of the relevant physical quantities, namely the energy density {rho}, temperature T, scale factor a and the Hubble parameter H is investigated before, during and after the phase transition, assumed to be of first order. Also, in view of the recent lattice QCD simulations data, we study a cross-over phase transition of the early universe whose results are based on two different sets of lattice data. (orig.)

  2. CHAIRMAN'S PREFACE: Nobel Symposium 79: The Birth and Early Evolution of Our Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Bengt; Nilsson, Jan S.; Skagerstam, Bo-Sture

    1991-01-01

    It was in 1986 that we submitted a proposal to organize a Nobel Symposium on the topic "The Birth and Early Evolution of Our Universe", a subject not previously discussed at such a meeting. Our feeling at the time was that it would be appropriate to gather together international expertise on the deep and exciting connections between elementary physics and astrophysics/cosmology. In both these scientific disciplines there are wellknown "standard models"—the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model of electroweak interactions and the Big-Bang cosmological model. The former model has now been tested to a very high accuracy. Progress in observational cosmology and astrophysics has on the other hand given strong support to the standard Big-Bang model as a realistic framework of cosmological evolution. The interesting fact, of course, is that the two standard models are not independent, and their predictions become interlinked when one considers the early, hot universe. It is now a wonderfully accepted piece of history that the constraint on the number of light neutrinos as obtained from the Big-Bang primordial nucleosynthesis agree very well with recent high-energy laboratory experiments. When our proposal was approved in 1989 we were very happy and honoured to invite a large number of internationally outstanding contributors to take part in the Symposium, almost all of whom were able to participate. It was, however, with deep regret and shock that their sudden deaths prevented us from inviting A Sakharov and Y Zeldovich. Their presence and wisdom was sadly missed. By choosing the beautiful village of Gräftåvallen, outside the town of Östesund, as the location of the Symposium, we hoped to provide a relaxing and stimulating atmosphere and also, possibly, almost twenty hours of sunlight a day for a week. The hosts of Gräftåvallen, Annika and Tommy Hagström, have to be thanked for making our stay both extremely successful and to a memorable experience. Our thanks also go to

  3. Initial conditions for cosmological perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Ashtekar, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Penrose proposed that the big bang singularity should be constrained by requiring that the Weyl curvature vanishes there. The idea behind this past hypothesis is attractive because it constrains the initial conditions for the universe in geometric terms and is not confined to a specific early universe paradigm. However, the precise statement of Penrose's hypothesis is tied to classical space-times and furthermore restricts only the gravitational degrees of freedom. These are encapsulated only in the tensor modes of the commonly used cosmological perturbation theory. Drawing inspiration from the underlying idea, we propose a quantum generalization of Penrose's hypothesis using the Planck regime in place of the big bang, and simultaneously incorporating tensor as well as scalar modes. Initial conditions selected by this generalization constrain the universe to be as homogeneous and isotropic in the Planck regime \\emph{as permitted by the Heisenberg uncertainty relations}.

  4. Relativistic cosmology; Cosmologia Relativista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastero-Gil, M.

    2015-07-01

    Relativistic cosmology is nothing but the study of the evolution of our universe expanding from the General Theory of Relativity, which describes the gravitational interaction at any scale and given its character far-reaching is the force that dominate the evolution of the universe. (Author)

  5. The Dirac-Milne cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Chardin, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    We study an unconventional cosmology, in which we investigate the consequences that antigravity would pose to cosmology. We present the main characteristics of the Dirac-Milne Universe, a cosmological model where antimatter has a negative active gravitational mass. In this non-standard Universe, separate domains of matter and antimatter coexist at our epoch without annihilation, separated by a gravitationally induced depletion zone. We show that this cosmology does not require a priori the Dark Matter and Dark Energy components of the standard model of cosmology. Additionally, inflation becomes an unnecessary ingredient. Investigating this model, we show that the classical cosmological tests such as primordial nucleosynthesis, Type Ia supernovæ and Cosmic Microwave Background are surprisingly concordant.

  6. Loop Quantum Cosmology Gravitational Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Odintsov, S D

    2016-01-01

    Loop Quantum Cosmology is an appealing quantum completion of classical cosmology, which brings along various theoretical features which in many cases offer remedy or modify various classical cosmology aspects. In this paper we address the gravitational baryogenesis mechanism in the context of Loop Quantum Cosmology. As we demonstrate, when Loop Quantum Cosmology effects are taken into account in the resulting Friedmann equations for a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe, then even for a radiation dominated Universe, the predicted baryon-to-entropy ratio from the gravitational baryogenesis mechanism is non-zero, in contrast to the Einstein-Hilbert case, in which case the baryon-to-entropy ratio is zero. We also discuss various other cases apart from the radiation domination case, and we discuss how the baryon-to-entropy ratio is affected from the parameters of the quantum theory. In addition, we use illustrative exact solutions of Loop Quantum Cosmology and we investigate under which circumstances the bar...

  7. Spacetime deformation effect on the early universe and the PTOLEMY experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Raul; Trampetic, Josip; You, Jiangyang

    2017-09-01

    Using a fully-fledged formulation of gauge field theory deformed by the spacetime noncommutativity, we study its impact on relic neutrino direct detection, as proposed recently by the PTOLEMY experiment. The noncommutative background tends to influence the propagating neutrinos by providing them with a tree-level vector-like coupling to photons, enabling thus otherwise sterile right-handed (RH) neutrinos to be thermally produced in the early universe. Such a new component in the universe's background radiation has been switched today to the almost fully active sea of non-relativistic neutrinos, exerting consequently some impact on the capture on tritium at PTOLEMY. The peculiarities of our nonperturbative approach tend to reflect in the cosmology as well, upon the appearances of the coupling temperature, above which RH neutrinos stay permanently decoupled from thermal environment. This entails the maximal scale of noncommutativity as well, being of order of 10-4MPl, above which there is no impact whatsoever on the capture rates at PTOLEMY. The latter represents an exceptional upper bound on the scale of noncommutativity coming from phenomenology.

  8. Planetary Nebulae As A Laboratory For Molecular Hydrogen in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellgren, Kris; Bromm, Volker; Dinerstein, Harriet

    2008-03-01

    We propose to obtain Spitzer IRS observations of the mid-infrared rotational lines of H2 in planetary nebulae (PNe) with very hot central stars, T > 100,000 K. Our primary motivation is to investigate the excitation and cooling of H2 exposed to UV radiation near very hot stars, which can serve as a proxy for conditions in the early universe. Cosmological simulations show that the first stellar generation (Pop. III) had high masses, > 100 Msun, and hot photospheres. The UV radiation they produced and its effect on the thermal state of the ambient H2 is relevant to subsequent star formation because stellar masses are determined by accretion processes which depend on temperature, and the metal-free primordial gas cooled primarily through excited H2. Yet the effects of this radiative feedback are uncertain: for example, whether it triggers or suppresses further star formation, and the resultant characteristic masses of second generation stars, which are key to cosmic reionization. PNe with hot central stars may be the only place where we can study the relevant microphysics. We therefore propose to obtain Spitzer spectra of such nebulae, sampling regions with a range of gas densities and radiation field dilution factors. We will use the results to derive an improved H2 cooling function to be incorporated into state of the art cosmological models. Our targets have been previously observed in the near-infrared H2 lines, so we have confidence that the lower excitation rotational lines are detectable. Evidence already exists that in some PNe the excited rotational states are overpopulated relative to standard fluorescence models, and that this may be related to the presence of Lyman-continuum photons. The observations proposed here will enable us to verify and quantify this phenomenon, and improve our understanding of H2 excitation. Spitzer is the only facility at present - and for at least the next decade - which can accomplish these goals.

  9. BMS in cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehagias, A. [Physics Division, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou Campus, Athens (Greece); Riotto, A. [Department of Theoretical Physics,24 quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP),24 quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)

    2016-05-25

    Symmetries play an interesting role in cosmology. They are useful in characterizing the cosmological perturbations generated during inflation and lead to consistency relations involving the soft limit of the statistical correlators of large-scale structure dark matter and galaxies overdensities. On the other hand, in observational cosmology the carriers of the information about these large-scale statistical distributions are light rays traveling on null geodesics. Motivated by this simple consideration, we study the structure of null infinity and the associated BMS symmetry in a cosmological setting. For decelerating Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds, for which future null infinity exists, we find that the BMS transformations which leaves the asymptotic metric invariant to leading order. Contrary to the asymptotic flat case, the BMS transformations in cosmology generate Goldstone modes corresponding to scalar, vector and tensor degrees of freedom which may exist at null infinity and perturb the asymptotic data. Therefore, BMS transformations generate physically inequivalent vacua as they populate the universe at null infinity with these physical degrees of freedom. We also discuss the gravitational memory effect when cosmological expansion is taken into account. In this case, there are extra contribution to the gravitational memory due to the tail of the retarded Green functions which are supported not only on the light-cone, but also in its interior. The gravitational memory effect can be understood also from an asymptotic point of view as a transition among cosmological BMS-related vacua.

  10. BMS in cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehagias, A.; Riotto, A.

    2016-05-01

    Symmetries play an interesting role in cosmology. They are useful in characterizing the cosmological perturbations generated during inflation and lead to consistency relations involving the soft limit of the statistical correlators of large-scale structure dark matter and galaxies overdensities. On the other hand, in observational cosmology the carriers of the information about these large-scale statistical distributions are light rays traveling on null geodesics. Motivated by this simple consideration, we study the structure of null infinity and the associated BMS symmetry in a cosmological setting. For decelerating Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds, for which future null infinity exists, we find that the BMS transformations which leaves the asymptotic metric invariant to leading order. Contrary to the asymptotic flat case, the BMS transformations in cosmology generate Goldstone modes corresponding to scalar, vector and tensor degrees of freedom which may exist at null infinity and perturb the asymptotic data. Therefore, BMS transformations generate physically inequivalent vacua as they populate the universe at null infinity with these physical degrees of freedom. We also discuss the gravitational memory effect when cosmological expansion is taken into account. In this case, there are extra contribution to the gravitational memory due to the tail of the retarded Green functions which are supported not only on the light-cone, but also in its interior. The gravitational memory effect can be understood also from an asymptotic point of view as a transition among cosmological BMS-related vacua.

  11. School on Particle Physics, Gravity and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenberger, Robert

    These lectures present a brief review of inflationary cosmology, provide an overview of the theory of cosmological perturbations, and then focus on the conceptual problems of the current paradigm of early universe cosmology, thus motivating an exploration of the potential of string theory to provide a new paradigm. Specifically, the string gas cosmology model is introduced, and a resulting mechanism for structure formation which does not require a period of cosmological inflation is discussed. The School consisted of level-up courses intended for PhD students, as well as updating courses for postdocs and researchers. In addition, a few propaedeutical crash courses were organized to bridge the gaps in the attendance and to facilitate an active participation. The courses were held mostly on the blackboard. The audience was assumed to have at least a PhD student level either in phenomenological particle theory, in astroparticle physics or in field and string theory. One of the aims of the School was to bring together researchers of these different areas and to update them on one another's discipline. The School was divided in two workshops: Interface between Cosmology and Particle Physics Courses: W. GRIMUS and S. PETCOV: Neutrino Phenomenology A. MASIERO and F. FERUGLIO: Beyond the Standard Model P. ULLIO: Introduction to Dark Matter N. BILIC: Black holes phenomenology 2) Particle Physics, Gravity and String Theory Courses: R. BRANDENBERGER: Topics in Cosmology J. ZANELLI: Black holes physics C. NUNEZ: StringsGauge Correspondence A. JEVICKI: AdS/CFT G. DALL'AGATA: String vacua and moduli stabilization C. BURGESS: Cosmology and Strings G. CARDOSO: Black Holes and String Theory Seminars were held during the School: Seminars: D. DENEGRI: New physics at LHC D. WARK: Neutrino Experiments C. BACCIGALUPI: Review on Cosmological Experiments A. MUELLER: Experimental evidence of Black Holes S. LIBERATI: Astrophysical constraints on Lorentz violation In addition the following

  12. Reconstruction of the early Universe as a convex optimization problem

    CERN Document Server

    Brenier, Y; Hénon, M; Loeper, G; Matarrese, S; Mohayaee, R; Sobolevskii, A

    2003-01-01

    We show that the deterministic past history of the Universe can be uniquely reconstructed from the knowledge of the present mass density field, the latter being inferred from the 3D distribution of luminous matter, assumed to be tracing the distribution of dark matter up to a known bias. Reconstruction ceases to be unique below those scales -- a few Mpc -- where multi-streaming becomes significant. Above 6 Mpc/h we propose and implement an effective Monge-Ampere-Kantorovich method of unique reconstruction. At such scales the Zel'dovich approximation is well satisfied and reconstruction becomes an instance of optimal mass transportation, a problem which goes back to Monge (1781). After discretization into N point masses one obtains an assignment problem that can be handled by effective algorithms with not more than cubic time complexity in N and reasonable CPU time requirements. Testing against N-body cosmological simulations gives over 60% of exactly reconstructed points. We apply several interrelated tools f...

  13. Brane and Nonisotropic Bianchi Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Naboulsi, R

    2003-01-01

    In this letter, we use Einstein field equations in the presence of gravitino cosmological density derived in a previous paper [1] to study a spatially honogenous, nonisotropic cosmological model, in particular the Bianchi IV model. We find a axisymmetric Universe, free of singularity in the past, asymptotically flat as time grows, and admit the presence of gravitino mass as missing energy and positive cosmological constant as Lambda > 3m^2.

  14. Cosmological daemon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref'eva, I. Ya.; Volovich, I. V.

    2011-08-01

    Classical versions of the Big Bang cosmological models of the universe contain a singularity at the start of time, hence the time variable in the field equations should run over a half-line. Nonlocal string field theory equations with infinite number of derivatives are considered and an important difference between nonlocal operators on the whole real line and on a half-line is pointed out. We use the heat equation method and show that on the half-line in addition to the usual initial data a new arbitrary function (external source) occurs that we call the daemon function. The daemon function governs the evolution of the universe similar to Maxwell's demon in thermodynamics. The universe and multiverse are open systems interacting with the daemon environment. In the simplest case the nonlocal scalar field reduces to the usual local scalar field coupled with an external source which is discussed in the stochastic approach to inflation. The daemon source can help to get the chaotic inflation scenario with a small scalar field.

  15. Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleban, Matthew [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University,4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States); Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University and SLAC,2575 Sand Hill Road, M/S 29, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2016-10-12

    In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with “flat” (including toroidal) and “open” (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are “flat” or “open”. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with “flat” or “open” topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.

  16. Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo

    2016-10-01

    In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with ``flat'' (including toroidal) and ``open'' (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are ``flat'' or ``open''. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with ``flat'' or ``open'' topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.

  17. The strained state cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Tartaglia, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Starting from some relevant facts concerning the behaviour of the universe over large scale and time span, the analogy between the geometric approach of General Relativ- ity and the classical description of an elastic strained material continuum is discussed. Extending the elastic deformation approach to four dimensions it is shown that the accelerated expansion of the universe is recovered. The strain field of space-time repro- duces properties similar to the ones ascribed to the dark energy currently called in to explain the accelerated expansion. The strain field in the primordial universe behaves as radiation, but asymptotically it reproduces the cosmological constant. Subjecting the theory to a number of cosmological tests confirms the soundness of the approach and gives an optimal value for the one parameter of the model, i.e. the bulk modulus of the space-time continuum. Finally various aspects of the Strained State Cosmology (SSC) are discussed and contrasted with some non-linear massive gravity theor...

  18. Cosmology Beyond Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Adam R

    2015-01-01

    The accelerating expansion of the Universe poses a major challenge to our understanding of fundamental physics. One promising avenue is to modify general relativity and obtain a new description of the gravitational force. Because gravitation dominates the other forces mostly on large scales, cosmological probes provide an ideal testing ground for theories of gravity. In this thesis, we describe two complementary approaches to the problem of testing gravity using cosmology. In the first part, we discuss the cosmological solutions of massive gravity and its generalisation to a bimetric theory. These theories describe a graviton with a small mass, and can potentially explain the late-time acceleration in a technically-natural way. We describe these self-accelerating solutions and investigate the cosmological perturbations in depth, beginning with an investigation of their linear stability, followed by the construction of a method for solving these perturbations in the quasistatic limit. This allows the predictio...

  19. Cosmological Ontology and Epistemology

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Don N

    2014-01-01

    In cosmology, we would like to explain our observations and predict future observations from theories of the entire universe. Such cosmological theories make ontological assumptions of what entities exist and what their properties and relationships are. One must also make epistemological assumptions or metatheories of how one can test cosmological theories. Here I shall propose a Bayesian analysis in which the likelihood of a complete theory is given by the normalized measure it assigns to the observation used to test the theory. In this context, a discussion is given of the trade-off between prior probabilities and likelihoods, of the measure problem of cosmology, of the death of Born's rule, of the Boltzmann brain problem, of whether there is a better principle for prior probabilities than mathematical simplicity, and of an Optimal Argument for the Existence of God.

  20. Hypermagnetic helicity evolution in early universe: leptogenesis and hypermagnetic diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Semikoz, V. B.; Smirnov, A.Yu.(Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117, Heidelberg, Germany); Sokoloff, D. D.

    2013-01-01

    We study hypermagnetic helicity and lepton asymmetry evolution in plasma of the early Universe before the electroweak phase transition (EWPT) accounting for chirality flip processes via inverse Higgs decays and sphaleron transitions which violate the left lepton number and wash out the baryon asymmetry of the Universe (BAU). In the scenario where the right electron asymmetry supports the BAU alone through the conservation law $B/3 - L_{eR}=const$ at temperatures $T>T_{RL}\\simeq 10 TeV$ the fo...

  1. Can Higgs Field Have a Cosmological Origin?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辽; 裴寿镛

    2003-01-01

    A proposal of the cosmological origin of Higgs particles is given. We show that the Higgs field could be created from the vacuum quantum conformal fluctuation (VQCF) of Anti-de Sitter space-time, the spontaneous breaking of vacuum symmetry and the mass of a Higgs particle are related to the cosmological constant of our universe,especially the theoretical estimated mass mφ of Higgs particles is mφ = √-2μ2 =√|∧|/π. It seems that the Higgs particles with masses in GeV range may be the relics of the VQCF of Anti-de sitter space in inflational phase of our very early universe.

  2. Dissipative Processes in the Early Universe: Bulk Viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A; Mansour, H; Wahba, M

    2009-01-01

    In this talk, we discuss one of the dissipative processes which likely take place in the Early Universe. We assume that the matter filling the isotropic and homogeneous background is to be described by a relativistic viscous fluid characterized by an ultra-relativistic equation of state and finite bulk viscosity deduced from recent lattice QCD calculations and heavy-ion collisions experiments. We concentrate our treatment to bulk viscosity as one of the essential dissipative processes in the rapidly expanding Early Universe and deduce the dependence of the scale factor and Hubble parameter on the comoving time $t$. We find that both scale factor and Hubble parameter are finite at $t=0$, revering to absence of singularity. We also find that their evolution apparently differs from the one resulting in when assuming that the background matter is an ideal and non-viscous fluid.

  3. Unavoidable strong magnetic fields in the early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Wagstaff, Jacques M; Schleicher, Dominik; Sigl, Guenter

    2013-01-01

    In this letter we show that the Universe is already strongly magnetised at very early epochs during cosmic evolution. Our calculations are based on the efficient amplification of weak magnetic seed fields, which are unavoidably present in the early Universe, by the turbulent small-scale dynamo (SSD). We identify at least one epoch during the radiation dominated regime where all the necessities for the SSD to work are fulfilled. Hence, at scales of $l_c\\sim0.3$ pc, the comoving field strength due to this mechanism will be $B_0\\sim0.35\\varepsilon^{1/2}$ nG at the present time, where $\\varepsilon$ is the saturation efficiency.

  4. BOOK REVIEW: Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph

    2008-11-01

    The field of cosmology has been transformed since the glorious decades of the 1920's and 1930's when theory and observation converged to develop the current model of the expanding universe. It was a triumph of the theory of general relativity and astronomy. The first revolution came when the nuclear physicists entered the fray. This marked the debut of the hot big bang, in which the light elements were synthesized in the first three minutes. It was soon realised that elements like carbon and iron were synthesized in exploding stars. However helium, as well as deuterium and lithium, remain as George Gamow envisaged, the detritus of the big bang. The climax arrived with one of the most remarkable discoveries of the twentieth century, the cosmic microwave background radiation, in 1964. The fossil glow turned out to have the spectrum of an ideal black body. One could not imagine a stronger confirmation of the hot and dense origin of the universe. This discovery set the scene for the next major advance. It was now the turn of the particle physicists, who realized that the energies attained near the beginning of the universe, and unachievable in any conceivable terrestrial accelerator, provided a unique testing ground for theories of grand unification of the fundamental forces. This led Alan Guth and Andrei Linde in 1980 to propose the theory of inflation, which solved outstanding puzzles of the big bang. One could now understand why the universe is so large and homogeneous, and the origin of the seed fluctuations that gave rise to large-scale structure. A key prediction was that the universe should have Euclidean geometry, now verified to a precision of a few percent. Modern cosmology is firmly embedded in particle physics. It merits a text written by a particle physicist who can however appreciate the contributions of astronomy that provide the foundation and infrastructure for the theory of the expanding universe. There are now several such texts available. The most

  5. Entropy and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, M. H.

    This paper is a critical analysis and reassessment of entropic functioning as it applies to the question of whether the ultimate fate of the universe will be determined in the future to be "open" (expanding forever to expire in a big chill), "closed" (collapsing to a big crunch), or "flat" (balanced forever between the two). The second law of thermodynamics declares that entropy can only increase and that this principle extends, inevitably, to the universe as a whole. This paper takes the position that this extension is an unwarranted projection based neither on experience nonfact - an extrapolation that ignores the powerful effect of a gravitational force acting within a closed system. Since it was originally presented by Clausius, the thermodynamic concept of entropy has been redefined in terms of "order" and "disorder" - order being equated with a low degree of entropy and disorder with a high degree. This revised terminology more subjective than precise, has generated considerable confusion in cosmology in several critical instances. For example - the chaotic fireball of the big bang, interpreted by Stephen Hawking as a state of disorder (high entropy), is infinitely hot and, thermally, represents zero entropy (order). Hawking, apparently focusing on the disorderly "chaotic" aspect, equated it with a high degree of entropy - overlooking the fact that the universe is a thermodynamic system and that the key factor in evaluating the big-bang phenomenon is the infinitely high temperature at the early universe, which can only be equated with zero entropy. This analysis resolves this confusion and reestablishes entropy as a cosmological function integrally linked to temperature. The paper goes on to show that, while all subsystems contained within the universe require external sources of energization to have their temperatures raised, this requirement does not apply to the universe as a whole. The universe is the only system that, by itself can raise its own

  6. Cosmic microwave background constraints on a decaying cosmological term related to the thermal evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Riou; Ichiki, Kiyotomo

    2008-01-01

    We constrain the thermal evolution of the universe with a decaying cosmological term by using the method of the analysis for the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) observation data. The cosmological term is assumed to be a function of the scale factor that increases toward the early universe, and the radiation energy density is lower compared to that in the model with the standard cosmological "constant" (LCDM). The decrease in the radiation density affects the thermal history of the universe; e.g. the photon decoupling occurs at higher-z compared to the case of the standard LCDM model. As a consequence, a decaying cosmological term affects the cosmic microwave background anisotropy. Thanks to the Markov-chain Monte Carlo method, we compare the angular power spectrum in the decaying LCDM model with the CMB data, and we get severe constraints on parameters of the model.

  7. The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, P. T.

    2016-04-01

    The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor is a mission which will be proposed for the ESA M5 call. THESEUS will address multiple components in the Early Universe ESA Cosmic Vision theme:4.1 Early Universe,4.2 The Universe taking shape, and4.3 The evolving violent Universe.THESEUS aims at vastly increasing the discovery space of the high energy transient phenomena over the entire cosmic history. This is achieved via a unique payload providing an unprecedented combination of: (i) wide and deep sky monitoring in a broad energy band(0.3 keV-20 MeV; (ii) focusing capabilities in the soft X-ray band granting large grasp and high angular resolution; and (iii) on board near-IR capabilities for immediate transient identification and first redshift estimate.The THESEUS payload consists of: (i) the Soft X--ray Imager (SXI), a set of Lobster Eye (0.3--6 keV) telescopes with CCD detectors covering a total FOV of 1 sr; (ii) the X--Gamma-rays spectrometer (XGS), a non-imaging spectrometer (XGS) based on SDD+CsI, covering the same FOV than the Lobster telescope extending the THESEUS energy band up to 20 MeV; and (iii) a 70cm class InfraRed Telescope (IRT) observing up to 2 microns with imaging and moderate spectral capabilities.The main scientific goals of THESEUS are to:(a) Explore the Early Universe (cosmic dawn and reionization era) by unveiling the Gamma--Ray Burst (GRBs) population in the first billion years}, determining when did the first stars form, and investigating the re-ionization epoch, the interstellar medium (ISM) and the intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshifts.(b) Perform an unprecedented deep survey of the soft X-ray transient Universe in order to fill the present gap in the discovery space of new classes of transient; provide a fundamental step forward in the comprehension of the physics of various classes of Galactic and extra--Galactic transients, and provide real time trigger and accurate locations of transients for follow-up with next

  8. Cosmology: From Hubble to HST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Michael S.

    1997-03-01

    The Hubble constant sets the size and age of the Universe, and, together with independent determinations of the age, provides a consistency check of the standard cosmology. The Hubble constant also provides an important test of our most attractive paradigm for extending the standard cosmology, inflation and cold dark matter.

  9. String vacua with massive boson-fermion degeneracy and non-singular cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Florakis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    We discuss marginal deformations of string vacua with Massive boson-fermion Degeneracy Symmetry (MSDS), in connection to the cosmological evolution of the Universe from an early non-geometrical era. In particular, we discuss recent results on the stringy mechanism that resolves both Hagedorn divergences and the Initial Singularity problem. Based on a talk given at the Workshop on Cosmology & Strings, Corfu Institute, Greece, Sept 10, 2010.

  10. String Cosmological Solutions with O(d, d) Duality Symmetry and Matter Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bao-Lin; YAN Jun

    2013-01-01

    The duality properties of string cosmology model with negative energy matter are investigated by means of renormalization group equation,the cosmological solutions with exotic matter coupling are obtained in D =d + 1dimensional space-time.These inflation-power solutions can describe accelerated and decelerated process in the early universe,and the duality solutions can be generated through O(d,d) transformations.

  11. Deuterium Abundance in Consciousness and Current Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Elizabeth A.

    We utilize the deuterium-hydrogen abundances and their role in setting limits on the mass and other conditions of cosmogenesis and cosmological evolution. We calculate the dependence of a set of physical variables such as density, temperature, energy mass, entropy and other physical variable parameters through the evolution of the universe under the Schwarzschild conditions as a function from early to present time. Reconciliation with the 3°K and missing mass is made. We first examine the Schwarzschild condition; second, the geometrical constraints of a multidimensional Cartesian space on closed cosmologies, and third we will consider the cosmogenesis and evolution of the universe in a multidimensional Cartesian space, obeying the Schwarzschild condition. Implications of this model for matter creation are made. We also examine experimental evidence for closed versus open cosmologies; x-ray detection of the "missing mass" density. Also the interstellar deuterium abundance, along with the value of the Hubble constant set a general criterion on the value of the curvature constant, k. Once the value of the Hubble constant, H is determined, the deuterium abundance sets stringent restrictions on the value of the curvature constant k by an detailed discussion is presented. The experimental evidences for the determination of H and the primary set of coupled equations to determine D abundance is given. 'The value of k for an open, closed, or flat universe will be discussed in terms of the D abundance which will affect the interpretation of the Schwarzschild, black hole universe. We determine cosmology solutions to Einstein's field obeying the Schwarzschild solutions condition. With this model, we can form a reconciliation of the black hole, from galactic to cosmological scale. Continuous creation occurs at the dynamic blackhole plasma field. We term this new model the multiple big bang or "little whimper model". We utilize the deuteriumhydrogen abundances and their role in

  12. Cosmology from start to finish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L

    2006-04-27

    Cosmology is undergoing a revolution. With recent precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation, large galaxy redshift surveys, better measurements of the expansion rate of the Universe and a host of other astrophysical observations, there is now a standard, highly constrained cosmological model. It is not a cosmology that was predicted. Unidentified dark particles dominate the matter content of our Universe, and mysteries surround the processes responsible for the accelerated expansion at its earliest moments (inflation?) and for its recent acceleration (dark energy?). New measurements must address the fundamental questions: what happened at the birth of the Universe, and what is its ultimate fate?

  13. Implications of non standard scenarios in cosmology and the very early universe

    OpenAIRE

    Rasero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Está ampliamente aceptado hoy en día que el marco teórico del Universo está formado por el Modelo Estándar de las interacciones fundamentales y el modelo cosmológico del Big Bang. El primero es responsable de la descripción de la naturaleza a la escala del tamaño de las partículas, mientras que el segundo da lugar a la dinámica y evolución del Universo a nivel macroscópico. Es tal el éxito de ambos modelos que generalmente sirven como punto de partida para cualquier extensión teórica. La C...

  14. $\\Psi$-Epistemic Quantum Cosmology?

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Peter W; Thébault, Karim P Y

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a prospectus for a new way of thinking about the wavefunction of the universe: a $\\Psi$-epistemic quantum cosmology. We present a proposal that, if successfully implemented, would resolve the cosmological measurement problem and simultaneously allow us to think sensibly about probability and evolution in quantum cosmology. Our analysis draws upon recent work on the problem of time in quantum gravity, upon causally-symmetric local hidden variable theories, and upon a dynamical origin for the cosmological arrow of time. Our conclusion weighs the strengths and weaknesses of the approach and points towards paths for future development.

  15. A Physical – Geometrical Model of an Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu BERBENTE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A physical-geometrical model for a possible early universe is proposed. One considers an initial singularity containing the energy of the whole universe. The singularity expands as a spherical wave at the speed of light generating space and time. The relations of the special theory of relativity, quantum mechanics and gas kinetics are considered applicable. A structuring of the primary wave is adopted on reasons of geometrical simplicity as well as on satisfying the conservation laws. The evolution is able to lead to particles very close to neutrons as mass and radius. The actually admitted values for the radius and mass of the universe as well as the temperature of the ground radiation (3-5 K can be obtained by using the proposed model.

  16. Feedback in low-mass galaxies in the early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Dawn K

    2015-07-09

    The formation, evolution and death of massive stars release large quantities of energy and momentum into the gas surrounding the sites of star formation. This process, generically termed 'feedback', inhibits further star formation either by removing gas from the galaxy, or by heating it to temperatures that are too high to form new stars. Observations reveal feedback in the form of galactic-scale outflows of gas in galaxies with high rates of star formation, especially in the early Universe. Feedback in faint, low-mass galaxies probably facilitated the escape of ionizing radiation from galaxies when the Universe was about 500 million years old, so that the hydrogen between galaxies changed from neutral to ionized-the last major phase transition in the Universe.

  17. Cosmology with cosmic microwave background anisotropy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tarun Sourdeep

    2006-10-01

    Measurements of CMB anisotropy and, more recently, polarization have played a very important role in allowing precise determination of various parameters of the `standard' cosmological model. The expectation of the paradigm of inflation and the generic prediction of the simplest realization of inflationary scenario in the early Universe have also been established - `acausally' correlated initial perturbations in a flat, statistically isotropic Universe, adiabatic nature of primordial density perturbations. Direct evidence for gravitational instability mechanism for structure formation from primordial perturbations has been established. In the next decade, future experiments promise to strengthen these deductions and uncover the remaining crucial signature of inflation - the primordial gravitational wave background.

  18. Physical and Relativistic Numerical Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Anninos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to account for the observable Universe, any comprehensive theory or model of cosmology must draw from many disciplines of physics, including gauge theories of strong and weak interactions, the hydrodynamics and microphysics of baryonic matter, electromagnetic fields, and spacetime curvature, for example. Although it is difficult to incorporate all these physical elements into a single complete model of our Universe, advances in computing methods and technologies have contributed significantly towards our understanding of cosmological models, the Universe, and astrophysical processes within them. A sample of numerical calculations addressing specific issues in cosmology are reviewed in this article: from the Big Bang singularity dynamics to the fundamental interactions of gravitational waves; from the quark--hadron phase transition to the large scale structure of the Universe. The emphasis, although not exclusively, is on those calculations designed to test different models of cosmology against the observed Universe.

  19. Entropy in the Present and Early Universe: New Small Parameters and Dark Energy Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shalyt-Margolin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated that entropy and its density play a significant role in solving the problem of the vacuum energy density (cosmological constant of the Universe and hence the dark energy problem. Taking this in mind, two most popular models for dark energy—Holographic Dark Energy Model and Agegraphic Dark Energy Model—are analysed. It is shown that the fundamental quantities in the first of these models may be expressed in terms of a new small dimensionless parameter that is naturally occurring in High Energy Gravitational Thermodynamics and Gravitational Holography (UV-limit. On this basis, the possibility of a new approach to the problem of Quantum Gravity is discussed. Besides, the results obtained on the uncertainty relation of the pair “cosmological constant–volume of space-time”, where the cosmological constant is a dynamic quantity, are reconsidered and generalized up to the Generalized Uncertainty Relation.

  20. Producing a scale-invariant spectrum of perturbations in a Hagedorn phase of string cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayeri, Ali; Brandenberger, Robert H; Vafa, Cumrun

    2006-07-14

    We study the generation of cosmological perturbations during the Hagedorn phase of string gas cosmology. Using tools of string thermodynamics we provide indications that it may be possible to obtain a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological fluctuations on scales which are of cosmological interest today. In our cosmological scenario, the early Hagedorn phase of string gas cosmology goes over smoothly into the radiation-dominated phase of standard cosmology, without having a period of cosmological inflation.