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Sample records for early testicular effects

  1. Can Testicular Cancer Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testicular Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Can Testicular Cancer Be Found Early? Most testicular cancers can be ... Ask Your Doctor About Testicular Cancer? More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  2. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-01-01

    of this study is to utilize data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) to evaluate cryptorchidism, birth weight and birth order as risk factors for testicular cancer. METHODS: The study population consisted of 408 cases of testicular cancer identified by a government issued identification......PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective...

  3. Effects of ischaemic post-conditioning on the early and late testicular damage after experimental testis ischaemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minutoli, L; Irrera, N; Squadrito, F; Marini, H; Nicotina, P A; Arena, S; Romeo, C; Antonuccio, P; Altavilla, D

    2014-01-01

    Ischaemic post-conditioning (IPostC) might represent an innovative surgical approach to protect organs from ischaemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the contrasting effects of IPostC on the early and late damage induced by testicular I/R injury. Testis I/R was induced by occluding the right testicular vessels using a clip. Male rats were divided into the following groups: sham, I/R and I/R + IPostC. In the I/R group, the clip was removed after 60 min of ischaemia, and reperfusion was allowed for 30 min, 1 and 30 days. In the I/R + IPostC group, three cycles of 30-sec reperfusion and 30-sec ischaemia were performed after 60 min of ischaemia and then reperfusion followed up for 30 min, 1 and 30 days. Following 30-min reperfusion, there was an increase in mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in I/R rats; after 1 day of reperfusion, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression were significantly increased; IκB-α expression reduced; and a marked damage in both testes was observed. IPostC inhibited MAPKs, cytokines and NF-κB expression, augmented IκB-α expression and decreased histological damage in testes subjected to I/R. After 30 days of reperfusion, I/R injury activated the apoptosis machinery, caused severe histological damage and reduced spermatogenic activity. By contrast, IPostC did not modify the apoptotic markers, the histological alterations as well as spermatogenic activity following 30 days of reperfusion. Our data demonstrate that IPostC protects the testis from the early damage induced by I/R injury, but it does not protect against the late damage.

  4. Early evaluation of the effects of chemotherapy with longitudinal FDG small-animal PET in human testicular cancer xenografts: early flare response does not reflect refractory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aide, Nicolas [GRECAN, EA 1772, IFR 146 ICORE, Caen University, Bioticla Unit, Caen (France); Francois Baclesse Comprehensive Cancer Centre, Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen (France); Centre Francois Baclesse, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Caen Cedex 5 (France); Poulain, Laurent; Briand, Melanie; Dutoit, Soizic; Labiche, Alexandre; Gauduchon, Pascal [GRECAN, EA 1772, IFR 146 ICORE, Caen University, Bioticla Unit, Caen (France); Allouche, Stephane [University Hospital, Biochemistry Department, Caen (France); Ngo-Van Do, Aurelie; Nataf, Valerie; Talbot, Jean-Noel; Montravers, Francoise [Tenon Hospital and University Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6), LIMP, Paris (France); Batalla, Alain [Francois Baclesse Comprehensive Cancer Centre, Medical Physics Unit, Caen (France)

    2009-03-15

    We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of FDG PET in the early prediction of the effects of chemotherapy on human testicular cancer xenografts. Nude rats bearing subcutaneous human embryonal carcinoma xenografts received either cisplatin (5 mg/kg) or saline serum. Small-animal PET studies were performed on days 0, 2, 4 and 7 and compared to immunochemistry studies, flow cytometry studies and hexokinase assays. Cisplatin treatment resulted in biphasic FDG uptake evolution: a peak was observed on day 2, followed by a marked decrease on day 7 despite an insignificant change in tumour volume. Similarly, a peak in cyclin A immunostaining was observed on days 2 and 4, followed by a significant decrease on day 7. Flow cytometry showed that the cyclin A peak was not related to increased cell proliferation but was due to a transient S and G{sub 2}/M cell cycle arrest. A marked increase in cell apoptosis was observed from day 2 to day 7. GLUT-1 showed a significant decrease on day 7. Macrophagic infiltrate remained stable except for an increase observed on day 7. In control tumours, continuous growth was observed, all immunostaining markers remaining stable over time. Hexokinase activity was significantly lower on day 7 in treated tumours than in controls. FDG PET may be useful in the early evaluation of treatment in patients with testicular cancer. In our model, a very early increased [{sup 18}F]-FDG uptake was related to a transient cell cycle arrest and early stage apoptosis but did not reveal refractory disease. (orig.)

  5. Early-life exposure to dimethoate-induced reproductive toxicity: evaluation of effects on pituitary-testicular axis of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ruchna; Mohanty, Banalata

    2009-12-01

    In utero and lactational exposure to organophosphate dimethoate exerted toxic impact on the reproductive system of male mice. Pregnant mice were exposed to 4, 8, and 16 mg/kg of the pesticide, the sublethal doses (2.5, 5, and 10% of Lethal Dose(50) [LD(50)]), via gavaging from gestation day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21. The effects on the male reproductive system were evaluated at two stages: at prepubertal age (PND 22) and at the postpubertal age of PND 63. Gonadal inhibition was reflected in the significant reduction of weight and distinct histopathological alteration of testis and epididymis as well as in decreased sperm counts, which could be linked to hormonal imbalance caused by dimethoate interference of reproductive axis. Disruption of pituitary-testicular axis was shown in the weak immunointensity of luteinizing hormone (LH) cells, reduction in their size and number, and lowered plasma LH and testosterone levels as observed in the neonates exposed to two higher tested doses. In addition, the direct toxic impact of the pesticide on the testicular Leydig cells and inhibition of steroidogenesis could be suggested. Drastic reduction in the testosterone level (approximately 70%) was suggestive of this effect. The adverse effects were persisted in the young adult mice. Developmental toxicity was evident in the highest dose-exposed (10% LD(50)) group where GD length and stillbirths were significantly increased along with a decrease of body weight and anogenital distance of the fetus. Maternal exposure of pesticide during gestation and lactation periods thus adversely affected the pituitary-testicular axis of mice neonates, which further caused reproductive dysfunctioning of young adult mice.

  6. Early Life Events Predict Adult Testicular Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, Roger J; Doherty, Dorota A; Keelan, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    ; on testicular function in adulthood. DESIGN: Male members of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) were contacted at 20-22 years of age. Of 913 contacted, 423 (56%) agreed to participate; 404 underwent a testicular ultrasound, 365 provided a semen sample, and reproductive hormones were measured (384......). Consistent height above the 50th percentile for age through childhood was associated with larger adult mean testicular volume (P volume (P = .009) and higher serum inhibin B (P = .010) and T (P...

  7. Early testicular effects in rats perinatally exposed to DEHP in combination with DEHA - apoptosis assessment and immunohistochemical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Julie; Dalgaard, Majken; Ladefoged, Ole

    2005-01-01

    -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, smooth muscle actin (SMA), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), histone H3 and vimentin. Additionally, testicular apoptosis levels were assessed in fetal, prepubertal and adult rats. As the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) has similarities with DEHP in chemical structure...

  8. Effects of Cryopreservation on the Ultrastructure of Human Testicular Sperm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate effects of cryopreservation on changes of the ultrastructure of human testicular sperm and evaluate the efficacy of cryopreserving testicular tissue as a source of sperm for assisted reproduction.Methods Testicular biopsy tissues were obtained from infertile patients (n=12) with obstructive azoospermia and cryopreserved. Testicular sperm motility was observed after in vitro culture procedure. The ultrastructure of testicular sperm (n=6) was examined by transmission electron microscope.Results After cryopreservation, 10 biopsy tissues frozen revealed motile sperm, and 2samples showed non-motile sperm. Some testicular sperm in frozen-thawed group had normal morphology in fine structures. Sperm head in frozen-thawed tissue showed a proportion of nuclei with more electron-dense granules of chromatin. In a few frozen-thawed sperm heads, formation of vesicles and degeneration were observed.The frozen-thawed testicular sperm frequently showed swollen or/and ruptured of the plasma membrane and acrosome membranes.Conclusion Cryopreservation of testicular tissue is simple and efficacious for testicular sperm extraction. And the freezing-thawing procedure of testicular tissue causes damage to ultrastructural morphology of human testicular sperm.

  9. Early detection of testicular cancer: revisiting the role of self-efficacy in testicular self-examination among young asymptomatic males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Kanayo; Chadwick, Rebecca

    2016-02-01

    Research suggests that self-efficacy is an important factor in behaviors that facilitate the early-detection of various cancers. In general people with high self-efficacy are more likely to attend cancer screening sessions or perform bodily self-exams. However, there is a paucity of research focusing on testicular cancer and testicular self-examination (TSE). The effect of self-efficacy on TSE remains unclear especially given the relative obscurity of the testicular cancer threat, and appropriate clinical- and self-detection procedures, in the young asymptomatic male population. Thus, the present study tested the interaction of self-efficacy with young men's appraisals of the threat of testicular cancer. The study was based on 2 × 2 × 2 mixed factorial experimental design. Over 100 young asymptomatic men were exposed to a health warning about testicular cancer and randomly assigned to high/low self-efficacy, vulnerability, and severity conditions. High self-efficacy increased motivation to perform TSE given high vulnerability, but damaged attitudes to self-exams given low vulnerability and severity estimates. High self-efficacy also facilitated subsequent TSE. Overall, these findings support preexisting notions of self-efficacy but raise new questions about the moderating effects of threat appraisals.

  10. Long-term health effects among testicular cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashibe, Mia; Abdelaziz, Sarah; Al-Temimi, Mohammed; Fraser, Alison; Boucher, Kenneth M; Smith, Ken; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Rowe, Kerry; Rowley, Braden; Daurelle, Micky; Holton, Avery E; VanDerslice, James; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Bishoff, Jay; Lowrance, Will; Stroup, Antoinette

    2016-12-01

    Testicular cancer is diagnosed at a young age and survival rates are high; thus, the long-term effects of cancer treatment need to be assessed. Our objectives are to estimate the incidence rates and determinants of late effects in testicular cancer survivors. We conducted a population-based cohort study of testicular cancer survivors, diagnosed 1991-2007, followed up for a median of 10 years. We identified 785 testicular cancer patients who survived ≥5 years and 3323 men free of cancer for the comparison group. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to compare the hazard ratio between the cases and the comparison group and for internal analysis among case patients. Testicular cancer survivors experienced a 24 % increase in risk of long-term health effects >5 years after diagnosis. The overall incidence rate of late effects among testicular cancer survivors was 66.3 per 1000 person years. Higher risks were observed among testicular cancer survivors for hypercholesterolemia, infertility, and orchitis. Chemotherapy and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection appeared to increase the risk of late effects. Being obese prior to cancer diagnosis appeared to be the strongest factor associated with late effects. Testicular cancer survivors were more likely to develop chronic health conditions when compared to cancer-free men. While the late effects risk was increased among testicular cancer survivors, the incidence rates of late effects after cancer diagnosis was fairly low.

  11. How has early testicular cancer affected your life? A study of sexual function in men attending active surveillance for stage one testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Sue; Williams, Hilary; Braybrooke, Jeremy

    2015-06-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in young men, it is frequently diagnosed at key times in relationship formation. In early stage disease the vast majority of tumours will be cured by surgery alone with patients being offered active surveillance rather than adjuvant therapies. To date, research has not evaluated how surveillance alone impacts on sexual function. The aim of this quantitative longitudinal study was to ascertain the sexual function of men with stage one disease at 3 and 12 months post diagnosis and to compare with normative data. Additional data was collected on the information men sought regarding sexual function and media they used to access this. This study shows that men's sexual function is altered at diagnosis and improves by 3 months. At 12 months, whilst not statistically significant, sexual function improves but not to the same level as normative data comparison. Men appear to find verbal information useful at 3 months, however men appear to be seeking written and online information at 12 months. The intricacies of sexual function together with the low number of participants may have been best met with a qualitative approach. However, the information data indicates the importance of further research into the effects of early stage testicular cancer on sexual function. Therefore, further qualitative research is recommended to explore the effects of early stage testicular cancer in relation to sexual function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Adverse testicular effects of Botox® in mature rats

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    Breikaa, Randa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Mosli, Hisham A. [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Nagy, Ayman A. [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B., E-mail: abnaim.pharma@gmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-03-01

    Botox® injections are taking a consistently increasing place in urology. Intracremasteric injections, particularly, have been applied for cryptorchidism and painful testicular spasms. Studies outlining their safety for this use are, however, scanty. Thus, the present study aimed at evaluating possible testicular toxicity of Botox® injections and their effect on male fertility. Mature rats were given intracremasteric Botox® injections (10, 20 and 40 U/kg) three times in a two-week interval. Changes in body and testes weights were examined and gonadosomatic index compared to control group. Semen quality, sperm parameters, fructose, protein, cholesterol and triglycerides contents were assessed. Effects on normal testicular function were investigated by measuring testosterone levels and changes in enzyme activities (lactate dehydrogenase-X and acid phosphatase). To draw a complete picture, changes in oxidative and inflammatory states were examined, in addition to the extent of connective tissue deposition between seminiferous tubules. In an attempt to have more accurate information about possible spermatotoxic effects of Botox®, flowcytometric analysis and histopathological examination were carried out. Botox®-injected rats showed altered testicular physiology and function. Seminiferous tubules were separated by dense fibers, especially with the highest dose. Flowcytometric analysis showed a decrease in mature sperms and histopathology confirmed the findings. The oxidative state was, however, comparable to control group. This study is the first to show that intracremasteric injections of Botox® induce adverse testicular effects evidenced by inhibited spermatogenesis and initiation of histopathological changes. In conclusion, decreased fertility may be a serious problem Botox® injections could cause. - Highlights: • Botox® injections are the trend nowadays, for both medical and non-medical uses. • They were recently suggested for cryptorchidism and

  13. Cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity in rats: the protective effect of arjunolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Iman O; Abdel-Aziz, Azza; Sarhan, Osama M

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, the effect of arjunolic acid on testicular damage induced by intraperitoneal injection of rats with 7 mg/kg cisplatin was studied. Cisplatin induced a significant reduction in testicular weights, plasma testosterone, and testicular reduced glutathione levels in addition to a significant elevation of testicular malondialdehyde levels and testicular gene expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) when compared with the control group (p testicular injury by attenuating oxidative stress parameters along with downregulation of iNOS, TNF-α, and p38-MAPK testicular expressions.

  14. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination Training for Patient Care Personnel: Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Serife Zehra; Bebis, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common malignancy among men aged 15-35 years. Testicular self-examination (TSE) is an important tool for preventing late-stage TC diagnoses. This study aimed to assess health beliefs and knowledge related to TC and TSE and the effectiveness of TC and TSE training for patient care staff in a hospital. This was a…

  15. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination Training for Patient Care Personnel: Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Serife Zehra; Bebis, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common malignancy among men aged 15-35 years. Testicular self-examination (TSE) is an important tool for preventing late-stage TC diagnoses. This study aimed to assess health beliefs and knowledge related to TC and TSE and the effectiveness of TC and TSE training for patient care staff in a hospital. This was a…

  16. Chronic effect of endosulfan on the testicular functions of rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.C.Chitra; C.Latchoumycandane; P,P.Mathur

    1999-01-01

    Aim: To find out the toxic effect of endosulfan on the tesficular function of pubertal rats, Methods: Male rats of pu-bertal age were orally administered endosulfan at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg body weight for 30 days. Twenty-four hours af-ter the last tmagnent, the rats were sacrificed and the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostate were re-moved and weighed. A 10 % testicular homogenate was prepared for biochemical estimations. Results: In endosul-fan-treated rats, there were a reduction in the body weight and the weights of testis and accessory sex organs, a de-crease in the testicular lactate and pyruvate activities, and in the testicular DNA and RNA concentrations, whereas thetesticular protein concentration was slightly increased; the specific activity of testicular steroidogenic enzyme, 33OH-steroid dehydrogenase and the ascorbic acid level were decreased, which were correlated with a decrease in steroidoge-nesis. The lysosomal enzyme acid phosphatase and brush-border enzyme alkaline phosphatase activities were also de-creased in the testis of treated rats. Conclusion: In puhertal rats, endosulfan treaanent inhibits the testicular functions.(Asian J Androl 1999 Dec; 1 : 203 - 206)

  17. A critical point of male gonad development: neuroendocrine correlates of accelerated testicular growth in rats during early life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay N Dygalo

    Full Text Available Testis growth during early life is important for future male fertility and shows acceleration during the first months of life in humans. This acceleration coincides with the peak in gonadotropic hormones in the blood, while the role of hypothalamic factors remains vague. Using neonatal rats to assess this issue, we found that day 9 of life is likely critical for testis development in rats. Before this day, testicular growth was proportional to body weight gain, but after that the testes showed accelerated growth. Hypothalamic kisspeptin and its receptor mRNA levels begin to elevate 2 days later, at day 11. A significant increase in the mRNA levels for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH receptors in the hypothalamus between days 5 and 7 was followed by a 3-fold decrease in GnRH mRNA levels in this brain region during the next 2 days. Starting from day 9, hypothalamic GnRH mRNA levels increased significantly and positively correlated with accelerated testicular growth. Triptorelin, an agonist of GnRH, at a dose that had no effect on testicular growth during "proportional" period, increased testis weights during the period of accelerated growth. The insensitivity of testicular growth to GnRH during "proportional" period was supported by inability of a 2.5-fold siRNA knockdown of GnRH expression in the hypothalamus of the 7-day-old animals to produce any effect on their testis weights. GnRH receptor blockade with cetrorelix was also without effect on testis weights during "proportional" period but the same doses of this GnRH antagonist significantly inhibited "accelerated" testicular growth. GnRH receptor mRNA levels in the pituitary as well as plasma LH concentrations were higher during "accelerated" period of testicular growth than during "proportional" period. In general, our data defined two distinct periods in rat testicular development that are primarily characterized by different responses to GnRH signaling.

  18. A critical point of male gonad development: neuroendocrine correlates of accelerated testicular growth in rats during early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dygalo, Nikolay N; Shemenkova, Tatjana V; Kalinina, Tatjana S; Shishkina, Galina T

    2014-01-01

    Testis growth during early life is important for future male fertility and shows acceleration during the first months of life in humans. This acceleration coincides with the peak in gonadotropic hormones in the blood, while the role of hypothalamic factors remains vague. Using neonatal rats to assess this issue, we found that day 9 of life is likely critical for testis development in rats. Before this day, testicular growth was proportional to body weight gain, but after that the testes showed accelerated growth. Hypothalamic kisspeptin and its receptor mRNA levels begin to elevate 2 days later, at day 11. A significant increase in the mRNA levels for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors in the hypothalamus between days 5 and 7 was followed by a 3-fold decrease in GnRH mRNA levels in this brain region during the next 2 days. Starting from day 9, hypothalamic GnRH mRNA levels increased significantly and positively correlated with accelerated testicular growth. Triptorelin, an agonist of GnRH, at a dose that had no effect on testicular growth during "proportional" period, increased testis weights during the period of accelerated growth. The insensitivity of testicular growth to GnRH during "proportional" period was supported by inability of a 2.5-fold siRNA knockdown of GnRH expression in the hypothalamus of the 7-day-old animals to produce any effect on their testis weights. GnRH receptor blockade with cetrorelix was also without effect on testis weights during "proportional" period but the same doses of this GnRH antagonist significantly inhibited "accelerated" testicular growth. GnRH receptor mRNA levels in the pituitary as well as plasma LH concentrations were higher during "accelerated" period of testicular growth than during "proportional" period. In general, our data defined two distinct periods in rat testicular development that are primarily characterized by different responses to GnRH signaling.

  19. The effect of the melatonin on cryopreserved mouse testicular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Saki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: After improvements in various cancer treatments, life expectancy has been raised, but success in treatment causes loss of fertility in many of the survived young men. Cryopreservation of immature testicular tissues or cells introduced as the only way to preserve fertility. However, freezing has some harmful effects. Melatonin, a pineal gland hormone, has receptors in reproductive systems of different species. It is assumed that melatonin has free radical scavenger properties. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of melatonin on the cryopreserved testicular cells in mouse. Materials and Methods: Cells from 7- 10 days old NMRI mice testes were isolated using two step enzymatic digestion. The testicular cells were divided into two groups randomly and cryopreserved in two different freezing media with and without the addition of 100 μm melatonin. Finally, apoptosis of the cells was assayed by flow cytometry. Also, lactate dehydrogenase activity test was performed to assess the cytotoxicity. Results: The results of lactate dehydrogenase showed the nearly cytotoxic effect of melatonin. The results of flow cytometry showed increase in apoptosis in the cryopreserved cells in the media containing melatonin compared to the control group. Conclusion: The present study shows that melatonin has an apoptotic effect on cryopreserved mouse testicular cells.

  20. How Is Testicular Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging How Is Testicular Cancer Diagnosed? Testicular cancer is usually found as a ... the tumor might have returned. Surgery to diagnose testicular cancer Most types of cancer are diagnosed by removing ...

  1. Effect of testicular capsulotomy on fertility of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Nian QIN; Mary A. Lung

    2001-01-01

    To demonstrate the effect of capsulotomy on the fertility of male rats. Methods: Testicular capsulotomy was carried out in immature (21 days) and adult (60 days) male rats. The fertility of them was assessed by cohabitation with proestrus females overnight and 20 days later, the females were examined for impregnation. Morphological changes at the site of the capsulotomy were observed under light microscope. Results: In rats capsulotomized at Day 60, the fertility was gradually depressed and all the rats completely lost their fertility 2 months post - operation. At that time, a partial regeneration of the capsule at the site of capsulotomy was observed. Immature rats capsulotomized at Day 21 were found to possess normal fertility at maturity. The capsulotomy site was almost completely recovered 60days post-operation. Conclusion: In male rats, testicular capsulotomy at the age of Day 60 will damage fertility.However, when capsulotomy is performed at Day 21, fertility is preserve.

  2. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer: a case-cohort study based on the Copenhagen School Health Records Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Johansen, Christoffer; Baker, Jennifer L; Cederkvist, Luise; Andersen, Ingelise

    2017-02-01

    One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective of this study is to utilize data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) to evaluate cryptorchidism, birth weight and birth order as risk factors for testicular cancer. The study population consisted of 408 cases of testicular cancer identified by a government issued identification number linkage of the entire CSHRR with the Danish Cancer Registry and a random subsample of 4819 males from the CSHRR. The study design was case-cohort and the period of follow-up between 2 April 1968 and 31 December 2003. Cryptorchidism was significantly associated with testicular cancer in crude analyses [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.60, 95% CI 2.79-4.65]. Birth weight was inversely associated with testicular cancer and no clear association with birth order was observed. The positive association between cryptorchidism and testicular cancer was only slightly attenuated controlling for birth weight and birth order and stratified on birth cohort (HR = 3.46, 95% CI 2.67-4.48). This study confirmed the robustness of the association between cryptorchidism and testicular cancer even after adjustment for birth weight and birth order. Furthermore, the study showed an inverse association between birth weight and testicular cancer.

  3. Etiology and early pathogenesis of malignant testicular germ cell tumors: towards possibilities for preinvasive diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga-Tinke, Jenny E; Dohle, Gert R; Looijenga, Leendert Hj

    2015-01-01

    Malignant testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most frequent cancers in Caucasian males (20-40 years) with an 70% increasing incidence the last 20 years, probably due to combined action of (epi)genetic and (micro)environmental factors. It is expected that TGCT have carcinoma in situ(CIS) as their common precursor, originating from an embryonic germ cell blocked in its maturation process. The overall cure rate of TGCT is more than 90%, however, men surviving TGCT can present long-term side effects of systemic cancer treatment. In contrast, men diagnosed and treated for CIS only continue to live without these long-term side effects. Therefore, early detection of CIS has great health benefits, which will require an informative screening method. This review described the etiology and early pathogenesis of TGCT, as well as the possibilities of early detection and future potential of screening men at risk for TGCT. For screening, a well-defined risk profile based on both genetic and environmental risk factors is needed. Since 2009, several genome wide association studies (GWAS) have been published, reporting on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with significant associations in or near the genes KITLG, SPRY4, BAK1, DMRT1, TERT, ATF7IP, HPGDS, MAD1L1, RFWD3, TEX14, and PPM1E, likely to be related to TGCT development. Prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal environmental factors also influence the onset of CIS. A noninvasive early detection method for CIS would be highly beneficial in a clinical setting, for which specific miRNA detection in semen seems to be very promising. Further research is needed to develop a well-defined TGCT risk profile, based on gene-environment interactions, combined with noninvasive detection method for CIS.

  4. Testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, M

    1988-01-01

    Testicular cancer, which predominantly occurs in young men, has become increasingly common; it is presently the most common malignancy in men aged 20-34. Despite a lack of knowledge of aetiology, empirical advances, particularly in the management of patients with advanced disease, have been dramatic. Prior to the development of effective chemotherapy in the 1970s, less than 10% of men with metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumours were cured; nowadays approximately 90% of patients are potentially curable. The introduction of effective chemotherapy has led to a reappraisal of surgery and radiotherapy in the management of early stage disease and the introduction of a policy of surveillance in patients without evidence of metastases at the time of removal of the primary tumour. Following chemotherapy, surgery is required in approximately 25% of patients with advanced disease to excise residual masses, which in one-fifth of cases will show evidence of residual malignancy. In a proportion of patients, testicular cancer develops on a background of long-standing infertility, whereas in many men there is temporary oligospermia, despite a previous history of fertility. The majority of patients with prior evidence of spermatogenesis recover this function following chemotherapy and there is no evidence that children fathered by such patients have an increased risk of malformation. Despite physician optimism and excellent prospects for cure, significant psycho-social morbidity is associated with the diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer. Factors contributing to this are being identified and will lead, hopefully, to the minimisation of such problems by appropriate intervention.

  5. Dose-dependent protective effect of baicalin against testicular torsion-detorsion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, A A; Qutub, H O; Jresat, I

    2017-02-01

    Testicular torsion/detorsion induces oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation and apoptosis of testicular tissues. Baicalin exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study investigated the possible protective effect of baicalin against testicular torsion-detorsion injury in rats. Surgical testicular torsion was induced for 2 h, followed by detorsion which was continued for 24 h. Baicalin was administered in three different doses (25, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) , by intraperitoneal injection). Each dose was given twice, the first 30 min before and the second 12 h after testicular detorsion. Baicalin, in a dose-dependent manner, decreased the torsion/detorsion-induced elevations of testicular malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, tumour necrosis factor-α, BCL2-associated X protein (Bax), cytosolic cytochrome c and caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities. Baicalin, dose dependently, attenuated the reductions of B-cell leucemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in testicular tissues resulted from torsion/detorsion. In addition, baicalin ameliorated the histopathological testicular tissue damage and reduced the expression of Fas ligand in rat testes exposed to torsion/detorsion in a dose-dependent manner. It was concluded that baicalin, dose dependently, ameliorated testicular injury induced by torsion/detorsion via its antioxidant, antinitrosative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects.

  6. Protective Effect of Troxerutin on Nickel-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Perumal; Jalaludeen, Abdulkadhar Mohamed; Ramakrishnan, Ramalingam; Pari, Leelavinothan

    2016-01-01

    Nickel (Ni)-induced oxidative damage is a serious problem that leads to reproductive system failure through testicular damage. The present investigation was carried out to determine the effect of troxerutin (Txn) on testicular toxicity induced by Ni in experimental rat testes. The oral administration of Txn (100 mg/kg body weight [bw]) showed a significant (p glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), reduced glutathione, ascorbate, total sulphydryl groups, and testis-organ weight. Subsequently, the administration of Txn also significantly reduced the accumulation of Ni, lipid peroxidation products, and protein carbonyl levels in Txn-treated animals. Testicular protection in the experimental animals by Txn is further substantiated by a remarkable reduction of Ni, which was revealed through testicular tissue histopathology. These studies suggest that Txn could prevent oxidative damage and testicular toxicity induced by Ni in experimental animals.

  7. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: mechanistic insights and potential new downstream effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharpe, R.M.; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik

    2008-01-01

    Reproductive disorders of newborn (cryptorchidism, hypospadias) and young adult males (low sperm counts, testicular germ cell cancer) are common and/or increasing in incidence. It has been hypothesized that these disorders may comprise a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) with a common origin...

  8. Testicular cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - testes; Germ cell tumor; Seminoma testicular cancer; Nonseminoma testicular cancer; Testicular neoplasm ... There are two main types of testicular cancer: Seminomas Nonseminomas These cancers grow from germ cells, the ...

  9. Expression and effects of human telomerase RNA in testicular tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶哲伟; 陈晓春; 杨述华; 杨秀萍; 曾汉青; 谷龙杰; 鲁功成

    2004-01-01

    @@ Human telomerase RNA (hTR) plays an important role in determining repeated telomere sequence and the expression of an antisense telomerase RNA that leads to telomere shortening and cell death.1 Using highly sensitive in situ nucleic acid hybridisation, we investigated the expression of hTR in human testicular tumours and located its cellular expression. Our study may help in elucidating the role of hTR in human testicular tumours, finding a highly sensitive diagnostic method and a target for gene therapy of testicular tumours.

  10. Little effects of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I on testicular atrophy induced by hypoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Casares Amelia; Diaz-Sanchez Matias; Puche Juan; Garcia-Fernandez Maria; Castilla-Cortázar Inma; Diez-Caballero Fernando; Aliaga-Montilla M Aurelia; Rodriguez-Borrajo Coronación; Gonzalez-Barón Salvador

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) supplementation restores testicular atrophy associated with advanced liver cirrhosis that is a condition of IGF-I deficiency. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of IGF-I in rats with ischemia-induced testicular atrophy (AT) without liver disease and consequently with normal serum level of IGF-I. Methods Testicular atrophy was induced by epinephrine (1, 2 mg/Kg intra-scrotal injection five times per week) during 11 weeks. Th...

  11. Effects of obesity and exercise on testicular leptin signal transduction and testosterone biosynthesis in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xuejie; Gao, Haining; Chen, Dequan; Tang, Donghui; Huang, Wanting; Li, Tao; Ma, Tie; Chang, Bo

    2017-04-01

    To explore the role of the testicular leptin and JAK-STAT[leptin (LEP)-JAK-STAT] pathway in testosterone biosynthesis during juvenile stages and exercise for weight loss, male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into normal-diet and high-fat diet groups. After 10 wk, mice in the high-fat diet-fed group were further divided randomly into obese control, obese moderate-volume exercise, and obese high-volume exercise groups. Mice in the obese moderate-volume exercise group were provided with 2 h/day, 6 days/wk swimming exercise for 8 wk, and mice in the obese high-volume exercise group underwent twice the amount of daily exercise intervention as the obese moderate-volume exercise group. The results showed that a high-fat diet causes obesity, leptin resistance, inhibition of the testicular LEP-JAK-STAT pathway, decreased mRNA and protein expression of steroidogenic factor-1, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and the P-450 side-chain cleavage enzyme, a decrease in the serum testosterone-to-estradiol ratio, and declines in sperm quality parameters. Both moderate and high-volume exercise were able to reduce body fat and increase the mRNA and protein expression of LEP-JAK-STAT, but only moderate exercise significantly increased the mRNA and protein expression of steroidogenic factor-1, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and P-450 side-chain cleavage enzyme and significantly reversed the serum testosterone-to-estradiol ratio and sperm quality parameters. These findings suggest that by impairing the testicular LEP-JAK-STAT pathway, early-stage obesity inhibits the biosynthesis of testosterone and sexual development and reduces male reproductive potential. Long-term moderate and high-volume exercise can effectively reduce body fat and improve obesity-induced abnormalities in testicular leptin signal transduction, whereas only moderate-volume exercise can reverse the negative impacts of obesity on male reproductive function. Copyright © 2017 the American

  12. Protective effect of hemin against cadmium-induced testicular damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Amr A; Qureshi, Habib A; Al-Sultan, Ali Ibrahim; Yacoubi, Mohamed T; Ali, Abdellah Abusrie

    2009-03-29

    The protective effect of hemin, the heme oxygenase-1 inducer, was investigated in rats with cadmium induced-testicular injury, in which oxidative stress and inflammation play a major role. Testicular damage was induced by a single i.p. injection of cadmium chloride (2mg/kg). Hemin was given for three consecutive days (40 micromol/kg/day, s.c.), starting 1 day before cadmium administration. Hemin treatment significantly increased serum testosterone level that was reduced by cadmium. Hemin compensated deficits in the antioxidant defense mechanisms (reduced glutathione, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities), and suppressed lipid peroxidation in testicular tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Also, hemin attenuated the cadmium-induced elevations in testicular tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide levels, and caspase-3 activity. Additionally, hemin ameliorated cadmium-induced testicular tissue damage observed by light and electron microscopic examinations. The protective effect afforded by hemin was abolished by prior administration of zinc protoporphyrin-IX, the heme oxygenase-1 inhibitor. It was concluded that hemin, through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects, represents a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from the detrimental effects of cadmium.

  13. Little effects of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I on testicular atrophy induced by hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casares Amelia

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I supplementation restores testicular atrophy associated with advanced liver cirrhosis that is a condition of IGF-I deficiency. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of IGF-I in rats with ischemia-induced testicular atrophy (AT without liver disease and consequently with normal serum level of IGF-I. Methods Testicular atrophy was induced by epinephrine (1, 2 mg/Kg intra-scrotal injection five times per week during 11 weeks. Then, rats with testicular atrophy (AT were divided into two groups (n = 10 each: untreated rats (AT receiving saline sc, and AT+IGF, which were treated with IGF-I (2 μg.100 g b.w.-1.day-1, sc. for 28d. Healthy controls (CO, n = 10 were studied in parallel. Animals were sacrificed on day 29th. Hypophyso-gonadal axis, IGF-I and IGFBPs levels, testicular morphometry and histopathology, immuno-histochemical studies and antioxidant enzyme activity phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx were assessed. Results Compared to controls, AT rats displayed a reduction in testicular size and weight, with histological testicular atrophy, decreased cellular proliferation and transferrin expression, and all of these alterations were slightly improved by IGF-I at low doses. IGF-I therapy increased signifincantly steroidogenesis and PHGPx activity (p Conclusion In testicular atrophy by hypoxia, condition without IGF-I deficiency, IGF-treatment induces only partial effects. These findings suggest that IGF-I therapy appears as an appropriate treatment in hypogonadism only when this is associated to conditions of IGF-I deficiency (such as Laron Syndrom or liver cirrhosis.

  14. Protective effect of Satureja montana extract on cyclophosphamide-induced testicular injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Tawab, Azza M; Shahin, Nancy N; AbdelMohsen, Mona M

    2014-12-05

    The present study investigated the protective effect of Satureja montana extract against cyclophosphamide-induced testicular injury in rats. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract were 1.03% and 0.34%w/w of dry herb expressed as chlorogenic acid and quercetin, respectively. HPLC analysis identified caffeic, syringic and rosmarinic acids as the chief phenolic acids, and rutin as the major flavonoid in the extract. Oral daily administration of S.montana extract (50mg/kg/day) for 7days before and 7days after an intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (200mg/kg) restored the reduced relative testicular weight, serum testosterone level and testicular alkaline phosphatase activity, raised the lowered testicular sorbitol dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase activities, and decreased the elevated testicular hemoglobin absorbance. It also attenuated lipid peroxidation, restored the lowered glutathione content, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, and improved total antioxidant capacity. Moreover, S.montana extract mitigated testicular DNA fragmentation, decreased the elevated Fas and Bax gene expression, up-regulated the decreased Bcl-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) gene expression and normalized Akt1 protein level. Histopathological investigation confirmed the protective effects of the extract. Conclusively, S.montana extract protects the rat testis against cyclophosphamide-induced damage via anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic mechanisms that seem to be mediated, at least in part, by PPAR-γ and Akt1 up-regulation.

  15. Testicular biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... filled with fluid and dead sperm cells (spermatocele) Orchitis Testicular cancer Your health care provider will explain ... Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 31. Read More Infertility Orchitis Semen analysis Testes Testicular cancer Testicular self-exam ...

  16. Effects of Cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) Bark Oil Against Taxanes-Induced Damages in Sperm Quality, Testicular and Epididymal Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance, Testicular Apoptosis, and Sperm DNA Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariözkan, Serpil; Türk, Gaffari; Güvenç, Mehmet; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Özdamar, Saim; Cantürk, Fazile; Yay, Arzu Hanım

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark oil (CBO) has protective effect on taxanes-induced adverse changes in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular apoptosis, and sperm DNA integrity. For this purpose, 88 adult male rats were equally divided into 8 groups: control, CBO, docetaxel (DTX), paclitaxel (PTX), DTX+PTX, DTX+CBO, PTX+CBO, and DTX+PTX+CBO. CBO was given by gavage daily for 10 weeks at the dose of 100 mg/kg. DTX and PTX were administered by intraperitoneal injection at the doses of 5 and 4 mg/kg/week, respectively, for 10 weeks. DTX+PTX and DTX+PTX+CBO groups were treated with DTX during first 5 weeks and PTX during next 5 weeks. DTX, PTX, and their mixed administrations caused significant decreases in absolute and relative weights of all reproductive organs, testosterone level, sperm motility, concentration, glutathione level, and catalase activity in testicular and epididymal tissues. They also significantly increased abnormal sperm rate, testicular and epididymal malondialdehyde level, apoptotic germ cell number, and sperm DNA fragmentation and significantly damaged the histological structure of testes. CBO consumption by DTX-, PTX-, and DTX+PTX-treated rats provided significant ameliorations in decreased relative weights of reproductive organs, decreased testosterone, decreased sperm quality, imbalanced oxidant/antioxidant system, increased apoptotic germ cell number, rate of sperm with fragmented DNA, and severity of testicular histopathological lesions induced by taxanes. In conclusion, taxanes cause impairments in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular histopathological structure, and sperm DNA integrity, and long-term CBO consumption protects male reproductive system of rats.

  17. Effects of curcumin on bleomycin‑induced oxidative stress in malignant testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, Aysegul; Ozdemir, Evrim; Timur, Mujgan; Ozben, Tomris

    2012-10-01

    Bleomycin is commonly used in the treatment of testicular cancer. Bleomycin generates oxygen radicals, induces the oxidative cleavage of DNA strands and induces cancer cell apoptosis. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a potent antioxidant and chief component of the spice turmeric. No study investigating the effects of curcumin on intrinsic and bleomycin-induced oxidative stress in testicular germ cell tumors has been reported in the literature. For this reason, the present study aimed to examine the effects of curcumin on oxidative stress produced in wild-type NTera-2 and p53-mutant NCCIT testicular cancer cells incubated with bleomycin and the results were compared with cells treated with H2O2 which directly produces oxidative stress. The protein carbonyl content, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), 8-isoprostane, lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) levels and total antioxidant capacity in the two testicular cancer cell lines were determined. Results showed that bleomycin and H2O2 significantly increased protein carbonyl, TBARS, 8-isoprostane and LPO levels in the NTera-2 and NCCIT cell lines. Bleomycin and H2O2 significantly decreased the antioxidant capacity and GSH levels in NTera-2 cells. Curcumin significantly decreased LPO, 8-isoprostane and protein carbonyl content, and TBARS levels increased in cells treated with bleomycin and H2O2. Curcumin enhanced GSH levels and the antioxidant capacity of NTera-2 cells. In conclusion, curcumin inhibits bleomycin and H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human testicular cancer cells.

  18. Effects of Lipoic Acid on Acrylamide Induced Testicular Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Lebda, Mohamed; Gad, Shereen; Gaafar, Hossam

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Acrylamide is very toxic to various organs and associated with significant increase of oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidants. Alpha-lipoic acid enhances cellular antioxidant defense capacity, thereby protecting cells from oxidative stress. Aim of the study: This study aimed to evaluate the protective role of alpha-lipoic acid on the oxidative damage induced by acrylamide in testicular and epididymal tissues. Material and methods: Forty adult male rats were divided into ...

  19. Effect of caprine testicular extract on acrosome formation of spermatids of lead-injured mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-yan TIAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the effect of caprine testicular extract on the acrosomal formation of spermatids of lead-treated mice, and find a theoretical and experimental basis for further research on the effects of caprine testicular extract on the reproductive system. Methods The study was carried out on thirty male adult ICR mice, which were randomly assigned into control group, model group and treatment group (10 each. The testis-injury model was reproduced by intragastric administration of lead acetate (30mg/kg, 0.1ml/10g. Animals in treatment group received intragastric administration of lead acetate and intraabdominal injection of 0.5ml caprine testicular extract at the same time for 21days, and the mice in control group received the same amount of distilled water by intragastric administration and 0.5ml distilled water by intraabdominal injection. By the end of the experimental period, the mice were sacrificed. The testes were fixed by cardiac perfusion and processed for light microscopic examination. The acrosomal formation in round spermatids was observed by PAS staining. Results  Compared with the control group, the acrosomal formation in model group was blocked. Acrosomal vesicle was incomplete, the membrane was shrunken, rough and fuzzy. The acrosomal formation in treatment group was similar to that of the control group. The structure of the acrosomal vesicle was complete and the membrane was smooth. Conclusion  Administration of caprine testicular extract may protect the acrosomal formation of spermatids from lead poisoning, and the normal structure and function of the acrosome are preserved. Thus, indepth study of the effects of caprine testicular extract may contribute to the treatment of male infertility caused by heavy metal-induced testicular damage, and offer an effective protective measure for the lead-exposed males.

  20. Effect of short-term scrotal hyperthermia on spermatological parameters, testicular blood flow and gonadal tissue in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henning, H; Masal, C; Herr, A; Wolf, K; Urhausen, C; Beineke, A; Beyerbach, M; Kramer, S; Günzel-Apel, A-R

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to assess the effect of a short-term scrotal hyperthermia in dogs on quantitative and qualitative ejaculate parameters, testicular blood flow and testicular and epididymal histology. After a control period, the scrotum of seven normospermic adult beagle dogs was insulated with a se

  1. Mass-Mediated Information Effects on Testicular Self-Examination among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Craig W.

    2004-01-01

    The author assessed the effects of a youth-targeted national cable broadcast that promoted testicular self-examination (TSE). A telephone survey of 524 college men included variables from the theory of reasoned action, as well as measures of self-exam compliance, message exposure, knowledge, attention, and the effects of humor and fear. Exposure…

  2. Attenuating effect of daidzein on polychlorinated biphenyls-induced oxidative toxicity in mouse testicular cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-lei ZHANG; Yu-ling MI; Kai-ming WANG; Wei-dong ZENG; Cai-qiao ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The attenuating effect of daidzein (DAD on oxidative toxicity induced by Aroclor 1254 (A 1254) was investigated in mouse testicular cells. Cells were exposed to A1254 alone or with DAI. The oxidative damage was estimated by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) content. Results show that A 1254 induced a decrease of germ cell number, an elevation in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) but a decrease in SOD activity and GSH content. However, simultaneous supplementation with DAI decreased TBARS level and increased SOD activity and GSH content. Consequently, dietary DAI may restore the intracellular antioxidant system to attenuate the oxidative toxicity of A1254 in testicular cells.

  3. Acute effects of TCDD administration:special emphasis on testicular and sperm mitochondrial function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paula C Mota; Renata S Tavares; Marlia Cordeiro; Susana P Pereira; Stephen J Publicover; Paulo J Oliveira; Joo Ramalho-Santos

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to verify if 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) could have any effect on male germ cells mitochondria and in this way add new insights in how male reproductive alterations observed in other studies occur. Methods:In vivo and in vitro approaches using rat testis and human sperm as models were employed to evaluate TCDD effects on testicular and sperm mitochondria after 24 h of exposure. Results:Testicular mitochondria from TCDD-treated rats presented no differences in the bioenergetic parameters monitored except for a significantly higher electric membrane potential in the presence of ADP, corroborated when TCDD was directly added to testicular mitochondria from untreated rats. Nevertheless, sperm mitochondrial membrane potential, motility, viability, capacitation and acrosomal integrity did not change after TCDD treatment. Moreover, only few sperm cells exposed to TCDD increased their intracellular Ca2+concentration. Conlusions:TCDD can interact directly with rat testicular mitochondria inducing small changes. This effect, however, does not seem to occur in human sperm or it may be insufficient to induce significant alterations as observed by the maintenance of sperm function.

  4. Therapeutic effects of quercetin against bisphenol A induced testicular damage in male Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Sarwat; Ain, Qurat Ul; Ullah, Hizb

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate protective effects of quercetin against bisphenol A (BPA) induced testicular toxicity in male Sprague Dawley rats. Twenty adult male rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as the control and was provided with normal saline. The second group of rats was treated with 50 mg/kg of BPA dissolved in alcoholic saline. The third group received oral gavage of 50 mg/kg quercetin while the fourth group was treated with quercetin (50 mg/kg) along with BPA (50 mg/kg). All of the treatments were carried out for 52 days. Testicular tissues and epididymis were used for histology while blood plasma was used for hormonal and biochemical analysis. BPA administration resulted in a significant reduction in seminiferous tubule diameter and epithelial height with impaired spermatogenesis. Quercetin treatment resulted in restoration of spermatogenesis and reversal of histological damage. In addition, BPA treatment significantly reduced (p quercetin treatment led to a marked increase in plasma testosterone, decrease in estrogen concentration, as well as a normalized lipid profile. In conclusion, results indicated that BPA administration induces toxic effects on testis and epididymis, impairs spermatogenesis, with an imbalance in hormonal levels and lipid profile while quercetin amended these toxic effects by restoring normal spermatogenesis, testicular tissue damage, and hormonal levels. This suggests that quercetin may be a potential therapeutic against BPA induced testicular toxicity.

  5. Surgery for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage Testicular Cancer Treating Testicular Cancer Surgery for Testicular Cancer Surgery is typically the first treatment for all ... Testicular Cancer, by Type and Stage More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  6. Effects of nimesulide on testicular functions in prepubertal albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugochukwu, Agbasi Patrick; Ebere, Orisakwe Orish; Okwuoma, Abanobi

    2011-11-23

    Daily consumption of painkillers has almost become a routine in many parts of Africa and Asia due to manual labor, especially in young adults. In view of the wide-scale use of painkillers in many parts of Africa and Asia, it is feared that the use of nimesulide may constitute an appreciable public health risk. The present work is aimed at assessing the long-term testicular toxicity of nimesulide in growing male albino rats. Male albino rats aged 4-5 weeks and weighing between 36 and 42 g were obtained from the Toxicology Unit of the Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. The animals were housed singly in a cross-ventilated room at a temperature 22°C±3°C and a 12-h light/12-h dark cycle. They were fed with standard rat pellets (Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, Ikeja, Nigeria) and were given water ad libitum. The rats were divided into three groups of five rats each: the first and second groups orally received 5 and 7.5 mg/kg/day of nimesulide, respectively, whereas the third group did not receive any drug and acted as controls for 56 days. Weekly body weight of each rat was taken. Blood samples were collected on the 56th day by cardiac puncture, and serum samples were frozen until analysis. Rats were sacrificed under ether anesthesia. Epididymal semen number was counted using a Neubauer counting chamber. Sperm motility was assayed microscopically within 5 min at 37°C. Estradiol and testosterone were analyzed with electrochemiluminescence immunoassay using Elecsys autoanalyzer, model 1010 (Roche, Mannheim, Germany). The testes were excised, weighed, and fixed in Bouin fluid and processed for histopathology. Treatment with nimesulide did not significantly affect body weight, absolute and relative testis weights, or epididymal sperm number, but there were significant differences in testosterone and estradiol levels. At the doses studied, there were no significant changes in testicular architecture except for mild degenerative

  7. EFFECT OF CANNABINOIDS ON TESTICULAR ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION INJURY IN RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sepehri

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Anandamide is an endogenous ligand for cannabinoid receptors and has endothelial protective effect against ischemic preconditioning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cannabinoids on reperfusion injury due to testicular torsion-detorsion (T/D. A total of 36 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups. Testicular ischemia was achieved by twisting the right testes 720◦ counters clockwise for 1 hour and reperfusion was allowed for 4 hours after detorsion. In baseline (normal group, bilateral orchiectomies performed after anesthesia. Sham operated group was served as a control group. Torsion/detorsion group underwent 1 hour testicular torsion and 4 hours of detorsion. Anandamide (cannabinoid agonist group received pretreatment with intraperitoneally anandamide 30 min before torsion. AM251 (CB1 antagonist group, received intraperitoneally injection of AM251 45 min before torsion. Anandamid/AM251 (An/AM group received administrations of AM251 45 min before torsion and anandamide 30 min before torsion. The ipsilateral malondialdehyde (MDA level in T/D group were significantly higher versus control and base line groups. Ipsilateral MDA values in anandamid group were significantly lower than T/D and An/AM groups. There were also significant decreases in catalase activity in T/D group compared with control and base line groups. These values were significantly higher in cannabinoid group versus T/D and An/AM groups. Anandamide increased ipsilateral intratesticular antioxidative markers and decreased free radicals formation during reperfusion phase after unilateral testicular torsion, which was reflected in lesser testicular MDA level. Furthermore, the effects of anandamide were mediated via cannabinoid receptors, since AM251 could abolish these effects.

  8. Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or testicles that aren't shaped normally.Have Klinefelter's syndrome (a genetic condition where male infants are born ... contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Tags: cryptorehidism, Klinefelter's syndrome, malignancies, scrotal mass, scrotal masses, testicular cancer, testicular ...

  9. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark oil on heat stress-induced changes in sperm production, testicular lipid peroxidation, testicular apoptosis, and androgenic receptor density in developing Japanese quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, Gaffari; Şimşek, Ülkü G; Çeribaşı, Ali O; Çeribaşı, Songül; Özer Kaya, Şeyma; Güvenç, Mehmet; Çiftçi, Mehmet; Sönmez, Mustafa; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Bayrakdar, Ali; Yaman, Mine; Tonbak, Fadime

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cinnamon bark oil (CBO) on heat stress (HS)-induced changes in sperm production, testicular lipid peroxidation, testicular apoptosis, and androgenic receptor (AR) density in developing Japanese quails. Fifteen-day-old 90 male chicks were assigned to two main groups. The first group (45 chicks) was kept in a thermoneutral room at 22 °C for 24 h/day. The second group (45 chicks) was kept in a room with high ambient temperature at 34 °C for 8 h/day (from 9 AM-5 PM) and at 22 °C for 16 h/day. Each of these two main groups was then divided into three subgroups (CBO groups 0, 250, 500 ppm) consisting of 15 chicks (six treatment groups in 2 × 3 factorial order). Each of subgroups was replicated for three times and each replicate included five chicks. Heat stress caused significant decreases in body weight, spermatid and testicular sperm numbers, the density of testicular Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic marker) and AR immunopositivity, and significant increases in testicular lipid peroxidation level, the density of testicular Bax (apoptotic marker) immunopositivity, and a Bax/Bcl-2 ratio along with some histopathologic damages. However, 250 and 500 ppm CBO supplementation provided significant improvements in HS-induced increased level of testicular lipid peroxidation, decreased number of spermatid and testicular sperm, decreased densities of Bcl-2 and AR immunopositivity, and some deteriorated testicular histopathologic lesions. In addition, although HS did not significantly affect the testicular glutathione level, addition of both 250 and 500 ppm CBO to diet of quails reared in both HS and thermoneutral conditions caused a significant increase when compared with quails without any consumption of CBO. In conclusion, HS-induced lipid peroxidation causes testicular damage in developing male Japanese quails and, consumption of CBO, which has antiperoxidative effect, protects their testes against HS.

  10. Effects of biogenic amines on the testicular development in mud crabs Scylla serrata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Haihui; HUANG Huiyang; LI Shaojing; WANG Guizhong; LI Qifu

    2006-01-01

    The regulation of three biogenic amines over the reproductive neuroendocrine activity of the male Scylla serrata was investigated by in vivo injection and in vitro incubation. The testicular index, the ratio of the mature sections in testes, and the ratio of Type B cells in androgenic gland were taken as the quantitative indexes. The in vivo injections indicated that: 5-HT can significantly promote the testicular development and the secretion of the androgenic gland in S. serrata; DA can inhibit the testicular development, but no influence on the secretion of the androgenic gland was found; no significant difference was observed between the OA-injected group and the concurrent control group. In vitro incubations showed that: 5-HT can stimulate the secretion of the brain and the thoracic ganglia, thus accelerating that of the androgenic gland; however, neither OA nor DA showed any significant influence on the secretion of the brain and the thoracic ganglionic mass. As to the optic ganglia, the three biogenic amines hardly have any effect on its secretion. It is the first time to report the regulation of biogenic amines over the reproductive neuroendocrine of male crustaceans through vitro experiments.Results corroborate that 5-HT activates the brain and the thoracic ganglia to secret GSH first, then promote the testicular development through the activity of the androgenic gland.

  11. Effect of lindane on testicular antioxidant system and steroidogenic enzymes in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Sujatha; K.C. Chitin; C. Latchoumycandane; P.P. Mathur

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To find out the effect of lindane on testicular antioxidant system and testicular steroidogenesis in adult male rats. Methods: Adult male rats were orally administered with lindane at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg body weight per day for 30 days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment the rats were killed using anesthetic ether. Testes, epididymis,seminal vesicles and ventral prostate were removed and weighed. A 10% testicular homogenate was prepared and cen trifuged at 4°C. The supematant was used for various biochemical estimations. Results: The body weight and the weights of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostate were reduced in lindane-treated rars. There was asignificant decline in the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione reduc tase while an increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation was observed. The specific activities of testicular steroidogenic enzymes 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were decreased. The levels of DNA, RNA and protein were also decreased in lindane-treated rats. Conclusion: Lindane induces oxida tive stress and decreases antioxidant enzymes in adult male rats.

  12. Effect of hemi-castration on testicular growth and seminal characteristics of Iraqi male goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Taha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of hemi-castration on testicular size and semen characteristics of Iraqi local bucks. Eighteen adult bucks aged 1.5-2.5 years, weighing 36.9-43.7 kg were used. Animals were randomly divided into three groups (6 in each; groups 1 control group. Animals in groups 2 and 3 were subjected to hemi-castration in left and right testicles, respectively. Testicular circumference was measured two weeks before hemi-castration and ten weeks after. Semen samples were collected using electro-ejaculator two weeks after hemi-castration. Volume, color, mass motility, individual motility, percentage of live sperm, percentage of abnormal sperm and sperm concentration were analyzed immediately after collection. Results of the present study showed a significant (P<0.05 increase in testicular circumference after hemi-castration. Testicular circumference in left hemi-castration was higher than that in right hemi-castration. Result also showed a significant (P<0.05 increase in semen volume, mass motility individual motility and percentage of live sperm in semen of animal without any differences between left and right hemi-castrated animals comparing with control groups. The study concluded that hemi-castration leading to improve semen characteristics due to compensatory mechanism of the remaining testis.

  13. Testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene Roland; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Møller, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To perform a systematic literature review to assess whether the occurrence of testicular microlithiasis (TML) in conjunction with other risk factors is associated with testicular cancer. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed of original articles in English published 1998......: In total, 282 abstracts in were identified. Based on title and abstract the eligibility was assessed and 31 studies were included. Five conditions in relation to TML and testicular cancer emerged: Down syndrome, McCune-Albright syndrome, cryptorchidism, infertility and familial disposition of testicular...... cancer. CONCLUSION: Data support the conclusion that TML is not an independent risk factor for testicular cancer but associated with testicular cancer through other conditions. In male infertility, TML appears to be related to an increased risk of testicular cancer possibly as part of a testicular...

  14. Protective effect of an aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris Linn on cadmium-induced testicular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Rajendar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Tribulus terrestris Linn (TT could protect the cadmium (Cd-induced testicular tissue peroxidation in rats and to explore the underlying mechanism of the same. Materials and Methods : In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to know the protective effect of ethanolic extract of TT (eTT in Cd toxicity. In in vitro studies, total antioxidant and ferrous metal ion chelating activity of TT was studied. In vivo studies were conducted in rats. A total of 40 Wistar strain adult male rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 served as control, while group 2 to 4 received CdCl 2 (3 mg/kg b. wt. s/c once a week. In addition to Cd, group 3 and 4 rats also received eTT (5 mg/kg b.wt. daily as oral gavage and α-tocopherol (75 mg/kg daily by oral gavage, respectively. At the end of 6th week, all the rats were sacrificed and the separated testes were weighted and processed for estimation of tissue peroxidation markers, antioxidant markers, functional markers, and Cd concentration. The testes were also subjected to histopathological screening. Results : In in vitro studies, the percentage of metal ion chelating activity of 50 μg/ml of eTT and α-tocopherol were 2.76 and 9.39, respectively, and the antioxidant capacity of eTT was equivalent to 0.063 μg of α-tocopherol/μg of eTT. In in vivo studies, administration of Cd significantly reduced the absolute and relative testicular weight, antioxidant markers such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione, and functional markers such as LDH and ALP, along with significant increase in peroxidation markers such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls in testicular tissue. Testes of Cd only-treated group showed histological insults like necrotic changes in seminiferous tubules and interstitium, shrunken tubules with desquamated basal lamina, vacuolization and destruction of sertoli cells, and degenerating Leydig cells. This group also had higher Cd

  15. Antioxidant Protective Effect of Honey in Cigarette Smoke-Induced Testicular Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuttulebbai Nainamohamed Salam Sirajudeen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke (CS can cause testicular damage and we investigated the possible protective effect of honey against CS-induced testicular damage and oxidative stress in rats. CS exposure (8 min, 3 times daily and honey supplementation (1.2 g/kg daily were given for 13 weeks. Rats exposed to CS significantly had smaller seminiferous tubules diameter and epithelial height, lower Leydig cell count and increased percentage of tubules with germ cell loss. CS also produced increased lipid peroxidation (TBARS and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity, as well as reduced total antioxidant status (TAS and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT. However, supplementation of honey significantly reduced histological changes and TBARS level, increased TAS level, as well as significantly restored activities of GPx, SOD and CAT in rat testis. These findings may suggest that honey has a protective effect against damage and oxidative stress induced by CS in rat testis.

  16. Effect of zearalenone on reproductive parameters and expression of selected testicular genes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatecka, E; Ded, L; Elzeinova, F; Kubatova, A; Dorosh, A; Margaryan, H; Dostalova, P; Korenkova, V; Hoskova, K; Peknicova, J

    2014-06-01

    We tested the effect of two different concentrations (150μg/l and 0.15μg/l) of mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEA) on the reproductive parameters and expression of testicular genes in male mice. In adult males, no reduction of body or reproductive organ weight was observed, and the seminiferous tubules were morphologically normal with ongoing spermatogenesis. However, we found decreased sperm concentration, increase of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa and increased binding of apoptotic marker annexin V. This study was also focused on the evaluation of gene expression profiles of 28 genes playing important roles during the processes occurring in the testicular tissue. We detected changes in the expression of genes important for proper spermatogenesis. Surprisingly, we observed a stronger effect after exposure to the lower dose of ZEA.

  17. Effects of Caudal Elevation on Testicular Function in Rats: Separation of Effects on Spermatogenesis and Steroidogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaver, D. R.; Amann, R. P.; Hammerstedt, R. H.; Ball, R.; Veeramachaneni, D. N. R.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of biologic processes are perturbed when exposed to microgravity (space flight) for more than 7 days, including testicular function. Suspension of rats in a special harness (caudal elevation) to induce thoracic pooling of blood fluids and remove the support function of the hind limbs is used to mimic, on earth, the effects of microgravity encountered during space flight. Typically, this induces cryptorchidism in male rats. Three experiments were conducted to differentiate the effects of caudal elevation (30 deg angle) and anatomic location of testes on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. Rats were subjected to caudal elevation for 7 days using either a tail harness or a whole-body harness. Testes of rats fell into the abdominal cavity when a tail harness was used, but ligation of the iguinal canal prevented this repositioning. For rats with abdominal testes, testicular weight was reduced (P less than 0.05) and histology of testes was abnormal; the number of spermatids per gram parenchyma was lower (P less than 0.05) in tail-suspended rats compared with control rats.

  18. Effects of bleomycin and antioxidants on the fatty acid profile of testicular cancer cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, A; Ozben, T; Melchiorre, M; Chatgilialoglu, C; Ferreri, C; Sansone, A

    2016-02-01

    Bleomycin is used in chemotherapy regimens for the treatment of patients having testicular germ-cell tumor (TGCT). There is no study in the literature investigating the effects of bleomycin on membrane lipid profile in testicular cancer cells. We investigated membrane fatty acid (FA) profiles isolated, derivatized and analyzed by gas chromatography of NTera-2 testicular cancer cells incubated with bleomycin (Bleo) for 24 h in the absence and presence of N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC) and curcumin (Cur) as commonly used antioxidant adjuvants. At the same time the MAPK pathway and EGFR levels were followed up. Bleomycin treatment increased significantly saturated fatty acids (SFA) of phospholipids at the expense of monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Bleomycin also led to a significant increase in the trans lipid isomers of oleic and arachidonic acids due to its free radical producing effect. Incubation with bleomycin increased the p38 MAPK and JNK levels and downregulated EGFR pathway. Coincubation of bleomycin with NAC reversed effects caused by bleomycin. Our results highlight the important role of membrane fatty acid remodeling occurring during the use of bleomycin and its concurrent use with antioxidants which can adjuvate the cytotoxic effects of the chemotherapeutic agents.

  19. Attenuating effect of daidzein on polychlorinated biphenyls-induced oxidative toxicity in mouse testicular cells*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Da-lei; Mi, Yu-ling; Wang, Kai-Ming; Zeng, Wei-dong; Zhang, Cai-qiao

    2008-01-01

    The attenuating effect of daidzein (DAI) on oxidative toxicity induced by Aroclor 1254 (A1254) was investigated in mouse testicular cells. Cells were exposed to A1254 alone or with DAI. The oxidative damage was estimated by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) content. Results show that A1254 induced a decrease of germ cell number, an elevation in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) but a decrease in SOD activity and ...

  20. Interdisciplinary evidence-based recommendations for the follow-up of early stage seminomatous testicular germ cell cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souchon, Rainer [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Hartmann, Michael [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Urology; Krege, Susanne [Krankenhaus Maria-Hilf GmbH, Krefeld (Germany). Dept. of Urology; Lorch, Anja [Universitaetsklinikum Marburg (Germany). Dept. of Oncology; Mayer, Frank [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (Germany). Dept. of Oncology; Santis, Maria de [KFJ-Spital, ACR-ITR VIEnna/CEADDP and LBI-ACR VIEnna-CTO, Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Oncology; Gillessen, Silke [Kantonsspital St. Gallen (Switzerland). Dept. of Medical Oncology; Beyer, Joerg [Vivantes Klinikum am Urban, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Hemato-Oncology; Cathomas, Richard [Kantonsspital Graubuenden, Chur (Switzerland). Medical Oncology

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To provide guidance regarding follow-up procedures after initial treatment of early stage testicular seminoma (clinical stages (CS) I-II A/B) based on current published evidence complemented by expert opinion. Methods and Material: An interdisciplinary, multinational working group consisting of urologists, medical oncologists, and radiation oncologists analyzed the published evidence regarding follow-up procedures in various stages of seminomatous and nonseminomatous testicular cancers. Focusing on radiooncological aspects, the recommendations contained herein are restricted to early stage seminoma (with radiotherapy being a standard treatment option). In particular, extent, frequency, and duration of imaging at follow-up were analyzed concerning relapse patterns, risk factors, and mode of relapse detection. Results: Active surveillance, adjuvant carboplatin or radiotherapy are equally accepted options for CS I seminoma but they result in different relapse rates and patterns. Usually relapses occur within the first 2(-6) years. Routinely performed follow-up using computerized tomography (CT) after adjuvant treatment yield only low detection rates of recurrences. Therefore, there is no evidence to maintain routine examinations every 3-4 months. After treatment of stage IIA/B, detection rates of relapses or progression identified solely by routinely performed CT during follow-up are low. Conclusion: Considering lifelong cure rates of up to 99% for patients treated for seminoma CS I-IIA/B, the negative impact of unnecessary ionizing radiation exposure has to be considered. The presented recommendations for various follow-up scenarios for early stage seminoma strongly promote the restrictive use of imaging procedures that utilize ionizing radiation (especially CT), due to its potential to induce secondary malignancies. (orig.)

  1. Effect of Physalis peruviana L. on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Mohamed S; Nada, Ahmed; Zaki, Hassan S; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species and causes tissue damage. We investigated here the protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. (family Solanaceae) against cadmium-induced testes toxicity in rats. Twenty-eight Wistar albino rats were used. They were divided into four groups (n=7). Group 1 was used as control. Group 2 was intraperitoneally injected with 6.5 mg/kg body weight (bwt) of cadmium chloride for 5 days. Group 3 was orally treated with 200 mg/kg bwt of methanolic extract of physalis (MEPh). Group 4 was pretreated with MEPh before cadmium for 5 days. Changes in body and testes weights were determined. Oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes, and testosterone level were measured. Histopathological changes of testes were examined, and the immunohistochemical staining for the proapoptotic (caspase-3) protein was performed. The injection of cadmium caused a significant decrease in body weight, while a significant increase in testes weight and testes weight index was observed. Pretreatment with MEPh was associated with significant reduction in the toxic effects of Cd as shown by reduced testicular levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and caspase-3 expression and increased glutathione content, and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and testosterone were also increased. Testicular histopathology showed that Cd produced an extensive germ cell apoptosis, and the pretreatment of MEPh in Cd-treated rats significantly reduced Cd-induced testicular damage. On the basis of the above results, it can be hypothesized that P. peruviana L. has a protective effect against cadmium-induced testicular oxidative stress and apoptosis in the rat.

  2. Ameliorative Effect of Green Tea Catechin Against Cadmium Chloride-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of green tea catechin (7500 µg/kg/animal/day) against cadmium-induced testicular dysfunctions and oxidative stress in the testes of mice. For this purpose, Swiss albino mice were divided into six groups: group I, negative control; group II, catechin-treated control; group III, cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-treated control; group IV, experimental group I; group V, experimental group II; and group VI, experimental group III. Animals from all of these groups were necropsied at various post-treatment intervals between 12 hours and 30 days for various biochemical alterations in the testes. CdCl2 intoxication resulted in a significant decline in testicular total proteins, cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase, whereas acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation exhibited a noticeable augmentation as compared to negative control. Catechin treatment effectively protected CdCl2-induced alterations in all such parameters throughout the experiment. Catechin was effective in reducing the CdCl2-induced augmentation of phase I (P450 and CYPB5) as well as phase II (DT-diaphorase and glutathione-S-transferase) enzymes in testes. Furthermore, CdCl2 intoxication was found to attenuate the antioxidant potential of testes, which was however augmented when supplemented with green tea extract. Compared to CdCl2-treated control mice, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, and catalase levels were significantly decreased in testes. Indeed, green tea catechin significantly increased testicular antioxidant enzymatic activities compared to those given CdCl2 alone. In conclusion, the use of green tea extract appeared to be beneficial to a great extent in inhibiting and restoring the testicular injuries induced by CdCl2 intoxication in mammals.

  3. Early diagnosis of testicular tumor using Tc-/sub 99m/ pertechnetate scrotal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, G.D.; Prezio, J.A.; Ricci, P.E.

    1983-12-01

    Two patients who originally presented with clinical symptoms of epididymo-orchitis, with compatible findings on the Tc-/sub 99m/ pertechnetate scrotal images, had temporary remission of their symptoms with antibiotic therapy. After two months, both patients had repeat scrotal images, because of persistent testicular enlargement. Both now demonstrated a ''cold spot'' in the otherwise increased activity on the affected side. Both patients underwent orchiectomy; patient 1 had a tissue diagnosis of malignant mixed germ cell tumor and patient 2 showed teratocarcinoma.

  4. Effect of pinealectomy on annual testicular cycle of Indian chequered water snake, Natrix piscator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, C; Pandey, R

    1989-11-01

    Pinealectomy for 60 days (noted every month of the year), in the tropical Indian chequered water snake. Natrix piscator, caused inhibition of testicular growth during late progressive and active phases and retarded the rate of regression during regressive phase; during sexually inactive phase the testes remain partially active. The weight of the accessory sex organs, vas deferens, and kidney (along with the renal sex segment activity) followed the same pattern as that of the testes. Thus, it may be concluded that the pineal gland of this ophidian participates in the regulation of seasonal testicular cycle, probably via the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis, and hence the effects of pinealectomy are seasonal and a reproductive phase-dependent phenomenon.

  5. Testicular Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professional Testicular Cancer Treatment Testicular Cancer Screening Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Testicular Cancer Key Points Testicular cancer is a disease in ...

  6. Effects of trehalose supplementation on cell viability and oxidative stress variables in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Yan-Hua; Han, Cong; Hu, Shan; Wang, Li-Qiang; Hu, Jian-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Trehalose is widely used for cryopreservation of various cells and tissues. Until now, the effect of trehalose supplementation on cell viability and antioxidant enzyme activity in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue remains unexplored. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of varying doses of trehalose in cryomedia on cell viability and key antioxidant enzymes activities in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue. Bovine calf testicular tissue samples were collected and cryopreserved in the cryomedias containing varying doses (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%; v/v) of trehalose, respectively. Cell viability, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) content and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured and analyzed. The results showed that cell viability, T-AOC activity, SOD activity, CAT activity and GSH content of frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue was decreased compared with that of fresh group (Ptesticular tissue was significantly increased compared with that of fresh group (P0.05). In conclusion, the cryomedia added 15% trehalose reduced the oxidative stress and improved the cryoprotective effect of bovine calf testicular tissue. Further studies are required to obtain more concrete results on the determination of antioxidant capacity of trehalose in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue.

  7. The effect of melatonin on procarbazine induced testicular toxicity on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Bilal Fırat; Kesik, Vural; Malkoç, Ercan; Yiğit, Nuri; Saldır, Mehmet; Babacan, Oğuzhan; Akgül, Emin Özgür; Poyrazoglu, Yavuz; Korkmazer, Nadir; Gulgun, Mustafa; Erdem, Onur

    2014-12-01

    Procarbazine (P) is an effective chemotherapeutic drug especially used in lymphoma treatment; however testicular toxicity is a limiting factor. Various ways of treatment were tried to preserve testicular function including hormonal treatment, antioxidant treatment, and sperm cryopreservation but resulted with low rates of satisfaction. Procarbazine is a well known agent causing sterility even in the first doses of chemotherapy. Antioxidants such as N acetylcysteine and ascorbate have been used for protective purposes and were very successful. Melatonin (M) is another powerful antioxidant and we aimed to use M for the protection of P induced testicular toxicity in this study. Procarbazine was given peroral by gavage once a week at a dose of 62.5 mg/kg/week for 4 weeks (total dose: 250 mg/kg) (P group) and in procarbazine + melatonin (PM) group, 10 mg/kg melatonin was intraperitoneally administered daily for five days a week for 4 weeks (total 20 days). The experiment ended at day 90. In the P and PM groups the testicle width, length, and weight, sperm A and sperm AB properties (Sperm A: sperms straight line progressive, Sperm B: sperms straight slow progressive, Sperm AB: Sperm A + Sperm B), spermatogonia, Sertoli cells, seminiferous tubule, and germinative layer thickness were lowered as compared with the control group. However, there were no significant differences between the P and PM groups in regard to these parameters. Melatonin preserved Sertoli cell and spermatogonia function. The testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were also preserved. Melatonin significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and preserved the antioxidant enzyme levels such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and nitrite nitrate (NO2-/NO3-). Melatonin may protect testicular functions in P treated patients and is open to consideration during chemotherapy since it appears to be without any side effects.

  8. Effects of oncological treatments on semen quality in patients with testicular neoplasia or lymphoproliferative disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cataldo Di Bisceglie; Angela Bertagna; Emanuela R Composto; Fabio Lanfranco; Matteo Baldi; Giovanna Motta; Anna M Barberis

    2013-01-01

    Pretherapy sperm cryopreservation in young men is currently included in good clinical practice guidelines for cancer patients.The aim of this paper is to outline the effects of different oncological treatments on semen quality in patients with testicular neoplasia or lymphoproliferative disorders,based on an 8-year experience of the Cryopreservation Centre of a large public hospital.Two hundred and sixty-one patients with testicular neoplasia and 219 patients with lymphoproliferative disorders who underwent chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy and pretherapy semen cryopreservation were evaluated.Sperm and hormonal parameters (follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH),luteinizing hormone (LH),testosterone,inhibin B levels) were assessed prior to and 6,12,18,24 and 36 months after the end of cancer treatment.At the time of sperm collection,baseline FSH level and sperm concentration were impaired to a greater extent in patients with malignant testicular neoplasias than in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders.Toxic effects on spermatogenesis were still evident at 6 and 12 months after the end of cancer therapies,while an improvement of seminal parameters was observed after 18 months.In conclusion,an overall increase in sperm concentration was recorded about 18 months after the end of cancer treatments in the majority of patients,even if it was not possible to predict the evolution of each single case ‘a priori'.For this reason,pretherapy semen cryopreservation should be considered in all young cancer patients.

  9. Protective effects of quercetin against arsenic-induced testicular damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, B B; Uygur, R; Caglar, V; Aktas, C; Aydin, M; Ozen, O A

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of quercetin on changes in testes due to arsenic exposure. Twenty-seven male rats were divided into three groups: control (10 ml kg(-1)  day(-1) saline), arsenic (10 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) sodium arsenite) and arsenic + quercetin (arsenic + 50 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) quercetin). The rats were sacrificed at the end of 15-day experiment. There was no difference between control group and arsenic group in body weight gain, testicular weight and serum total testosterone level. Quercetin treatment did not cause a significant difference in these parameters. In the arsenic group rats, we determined deterioration in the structure of seminiferous tubules, a decrease in the number of spermatogenic cells, an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, a decrease in the number of PCNA-positive cells, a decrease in SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities, and an increase in the MDA level in testicular tissue. In all these changes, arsenic+quercetin group showed an improved compared to arsenic group. The amount of arsenic increased in the arsenic group was compared to the control group, and there was no difference between arsenic group and arsenic + quercetin group in the amount of arsenic. In conclusion, quercetin prevented arsenic-induced testicular damage with its anti-apoptotic and antioxidant effects.

  10. Protective effect of ascorbic acid on cyclophosphamide—induced testicular gametogenic and androgenic disorders in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    UjjalBaranDas; MousumiMallick

    2002-01-01

    Aim:To study the detrimental effects of cyclophosphamide on the testicular androgenic and gametogenic activities through endocrine inhibiton and/or induction of oxidative stress in male albino rats and to evaluate the protective effect of ascorbic acid.Methods:The testicular△5,3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase(HSD),17β-HSD,peroxidase and catalase activities along with the levels of malondialdehyde(MDA)and conjugated dienes in testicular tissue were measured for the evaluation of testicular oxidative stress.The plasma testosterone(T)level was measured by immunoassay7.Various germ cells at stage VⅡof spermatogenic cycle were quantified from testicular stained sections.Results:Cyclophosphamide treatment results in a significant inhibition in the testicular△5,3β-HSDand17β-HSDactivities,a decrease in plasma T level and a diminution in the coumts of various gern cells,Moreover,this treatment was also associated with a significant inhibition of the peroxidase and catalase activities along with high levels of MDA and conjugated dienes in the testis.All these changes were reversed by ascorbic acid co-administration.Conclusion:Cyclophosphamide treatment at the dosage used caused testicular gametogenic and androgenic disor-ders as well as induced testicular oxidative stress that can be reversed by ascorbic acid co-administration.

  11. Experiment K-7-16: Effects of Microgravity or Simulated Launch on Testicular Function in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, R. P.; Clemens, J. W.; Deaver, D.; Folmer, J.; Zirkin, B.; Veeramachaneni, D. N. R.; Grills, G. S.; Gruppi, C. M.; Wolgemuth, D.; Serova, L. V.; Sapp, W. J.; Williams, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    Fixed or frozen testicular tissues from five rats per group were analyzed by: subjective and quantitative evaluations of spermatogenesis; Northern-blot analysis for expression of selected genes; quantification of testosterone and receptors for LH; and morphometric analysis of Leydig cells. Based on observations of fixed tissue, it was evident that some rats in the flight and vivarium groups had testicular abnormalities unassociated with treatment, and probably existing when they were assigned randomly to the four treatment groups; the simulated-launch group contained no abnormal rat. Lesions induced in testes of caudal-elevation rats precluded discernment of any pre-existing abnormality. Considering rats without pre-existing abnormalities, diameter of seminiferous tubules and numbers of germ cells per tubule cross section were lower (E less than 0.05) in flight rats than in simulated-launch or vivarium rats. However, ratios of germ cells to each other, or to Sertoli cells, and number of homogenization-resistant spermatids did not differ from values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. There was no effect of flight on normal expression of testis-specific hsp gene products, or evidence for production of stress-inducible transcripts of the hsp70 or hsp90 genes. Concentration of receptors for rLH in testicular tissue, and surface densities of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes in Leydig cells, were similar in flight and simulated-launch rats. However, concentrations of testosterone in testicular tissue or peripheral blood plasma were reduced (P less than 0.05) in flight rats to less than 20 percent of values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. Thus, spermatogenesis was essentially normal in flight rats, but production of testosterone was severely depressed. Sequela of reduced androgen production on turnover of muscle and bone should be considered when interpreting data from mammals exposed to microgravity.

  12. Effects of nanostructures and mouse embryonic stem cells on in vitro morphogenesis of rat testicular cords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fei; Chi, Lifeng; Schlatt, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Morphogenesis of tubular structures is a common event during embryonic development. The signals providing cells with topographical cues to define a cord axis and to form new compartments surrounded by a basement membrane are poorly understood. Male gonadal differentiation is a late event during organogenesis and continues into postnatal life. The cellular changes resemble the mechanisms during embryonic life leading to tubular structures in other organs. Testicular cord formation is dependent on and first recognized by SRY-dependent aggregation of Sertoli cells leading to the appearance of testis-specific cord-like structures. Here we explored whether testicular cells use topographical cues in the form of nanostructures to direct or stimulate cord formation and whether embryonic stem cells (ES) or soluble factors released from those cells have an impact on this process. Using primary cell cultures of immature rats we first revealed that variable nanogratings exerted effects on peritubular cells and on Sertoli cells (at less than cells/mm(2)) by aligning the cell bodies towards the direction of the nanogratings. After two weeks of culture testicular cells assembled into a network of cord-like structures. We revealed that Sertoli cells actively migrate towards existing clusters. Contractions of peritubular cells lead to the transformation of isolated clusters into cord-like structures. The addition of mouse ES cells or conditioned medium from ES cells accelerated this process. Our studies show that epithelial (Sertoli cell) and mesenchymal (peritubular cells) cells crosstalk and orchestrate the formation of cords in response to physical features of the underlying matrix as well as secretory factors from ES cells. We consider these data on testicular morphogenesis relevant for the better understanding of mechanisms in cord formation also in other organs which may help to create optimized in vitro tools for artificial organogenesis.

  13. Ameliorative effect of grapefruit juice on amiodarone-induced cytogenetic and testicular damage in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saber Abdelruhman Sakr; Mohamed El-said Zoil; Samraa Samy El-shafey

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the ameliorative role of grapefruit juice on the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiarrythmic drug amiodarone in albino rats. Methods: Animals were divided into four groups. Group I was considered as control. Group II was given grapefruit juice at a dose level of 27 mL/kg body weight. Group III was orally administered amiodarone (18 mg/kg body weight) daily for 5 weeks. Animals were sacrificed after 5 weeks of treatment. Bone marrow was collected from the femurs for analysis of chromosomal aberrations and mitotic indices. Testes were removed and stained with H&E for histological examination. Sperms were collected from epidedymis for detection of sperm head abnormalities. Comet assay was used to detect DNA damage. Results: Amiodarone treatment caused a significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index and increased DNA damage. The testis showed many histopathological alterations, inhibition of spermatogenesis and morphometric changes. The number of sperm head abnormalities was increased. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice caused a reduction in chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, DNA damage and testicular alterations caused by amiodarone. Conclusions:The results of this study indicated that grapefruit juice ameliorates the cytotoxicty and testicular alterations induced by amiodarone in albino rats and this is may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components.

  14. Effect of lithium chloride on spermatogenesis and testicular steroidogenesis in mature albino rats: Duration dependent response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, P.K.; Biswas, N.M.; Ghosh, D. (Calcutta Univ. (India))

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of the different varieties of germ cells at stage VII of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, namely type-A spermatogonia (ASg), preleptotene spermatocytes (pLSc), midpachytene spermatocytes (mPSc) and step 7 spermatids (7 Sd) along with Leydig cell nuclear area (LCNA) and radioimmunoassay of plasma levels of gonadotrophins (FSH and LH), prolactin (PRL) and testosterone (T), activities of testicular, {Delta}{sup 5}-3{beta} hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ({Delta}{sup 5}-3{beta}-HSD) and 17{beta}-hydroxyteroid dehydrogenase (17{beta}-HSD) were measured in mature rats of the Wistar strain following treatment with lithium chloride at a dose of 200 ug/100 g body wt/day for 7, 14 and 21 days. A remarkable reduction in plasma levels of FSH, LH, PRL and T along with significant diminution in the activities of testicular {Delta}{sup 5}-3{beta}-HSD and 17 {beta}-HSD were observed following lithium treatment for 14 and 21 days. 21 days of treatment also resulted in a marked degree of degeneration of ASg and 7Sd at stage VII but 14 days of treatment did not exhibit any significant effect on testicular gametogenesis. LCNA was decreased after lithium chloride treatment for 14 and 21 days. 7 days of treatment did not exert any notable result in the above parameters.

  15. Effects of oestradiol-enriched diet and of feeding with porcine testicular tissue on macroscopic gonadal sex in European eels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, D.; Boetius, I.; Larsen, L.O.;

    1996-01-01

    days there were 44% with female-gonads, 40% with male+female-gonads and 16% with male-gonads. Oestradiol thus had a feminizing effect, not only on morphologically undifferentiated gonads but also on morphologically differentiated male-gonads. The presence of sex steroid hormones or their precursors...... in porcine testicular tissue may also exert a feminizing influence. In all experiments the hormone-fed groups showed a tendency (not significant) towards increased growth rate. In small eels early rapid growth and differentiation of female-gonads were clearly correlated, both in hormone treated...... and in control eels. Otherwise no correlation was found between growth rate and gonadal sex. (C) 1996 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles...

  16. Protective effects of the nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate on experimental testicular torsion and detorsion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabay, Sahin; Ozden, Hilmi; Guven, Gul; Burukoglu, Dilek; Ustuner, Mehmet Cengiz; Topal, Fatma; Gunes, Hasan Veysi; Ustuner, Derya; Ozbayer, Cansu

    2014-08-01

    Testicular torsion results with the damage of the testis and it is a surgical emergency. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is a low-molecular-weight antioxidant and potent inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of PDTC to testicular torsion-detorsion (T/D) injury. Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into four groups. A sham operation was performed in group I. In group II, torsion is performed 2 hours by 720 degree extravaginally testis. In group III, 4 h reperfusion of the testis was performed after 2 h of testicular torsion. In group IV, after performing the same surgical procedures as in group III, PDTC (100 mg/kg, intravenous's) was administered before 30 min of detorsion. The testes tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalase (CAT) level was evaluated. Histological evaluations were performed after hematoxylin and eosin staining. Testicular tissue MDA levels were the highest in the T/D groups compared with treatment group. Administration of PDTC prevented a further increase in MDA levels. Significant decrease occurred in CAT and SOD levels in treatment group compared with the control group. The rats in the treatment group had normal testicular architecture. The results suggest that PDTC can be a potential protective agent for preventing the biochemical and histological changes related to oxidative stress in testicular injury caused by testis torsion.

  17. From gonocytes to testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-de Meyts, Ewa; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E

    2007-01-01

    in highly developed industrialized countries. A hypothesis was put forward that CIS originates from arrested fetal germ cells, thus testicular cancer is a developmental disease of germ-cell differentiation. This notion was supported by comparative studies of the gene expression at the protein and RNA level......, which demonstrated a close similarity of CIS to primordial germ cells and gonocytes with many features of embryonic stem cells. The arrest of germ-cell differentiation is thus the key first event, which may be followed by malignant transformation and overt germ-cell cancer in young adult age, usually....... The most severe cases are a result of inherited genetic aberrations, but the etiology of the common sporadic testicular cancer must involve environmental factors, including maternal lifestyle and possibly an early exposure to endocrine disruptors. The effects of environmental factors are likely modulated...

  18. Effect of unilateral testicular rupture on histopathology and germ cell delayed-type hypersensitivity in C3H/He and A/J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Munekazu; Sakamoto, Yasuki; Terayama, Hayato; Hirai, Shuichi; Ning, Qu; Aota, Yoichi; Itoh, Masahiro

    2009-07-01

    Contralateral orchitis induced by unilateral testicular injury has been reported as sympathetic orchitis in men and experimental animals. In mice, experimental sympathetic orchitis (ESO) was first demonstrated in the C3H/He strain after experimental testicular trauma. Delayed-typed hypersensitivity (DTH) to testicular germ cells is induced by testicular trauma and treatment with cyclophosphamide before the trauma further enhances anti-testicular germ cell DTH. In the present study we investigated ESO induction with or without cyclophosphamide pretreatment in two murine strains, C3H/He and A/J mice, that are susceptible to testicular autoimmunity. The results show that traumatized testes undergo early degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium followed by neutrophilic inflammation and later fibrosis with little lymphocytic infiltration, in both murine strains. In the contralateral testes, ESO characterized by both lymphocytic inflammation and spermatogenic disturbance was induced in both strains. However, the incidence and severity of ESO in A/J mice tended to be higher than in C3H/He mice. In contrast, cyclophosphamide pretreatment significantly augmented both pathological stages of ESO and anti-testicular germ cell DTH in C3H/He mice, while those in A/J mice were fully developed by testicular rupture alone and were not further augmented by cyclophosphamide pretreatment. We conclude that A/J mice are more sensitive to trauma-induced testicular autoimmunity than C3H/He mice.

  19. Chemoprotective effect of a nuclear factor-kappaB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, against cisplatin-induced testicular damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem; Ozbek, Emin; Simsek, Abdulmuttalip; Cekmen, Mustafa; Otunctemur, Alper; Somay, Adnan

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor-kappaB inhibitor (NF-kappaB) expression and the potential chemoprotective effects of an NF-kappaB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), against cisplatin-induced testicular damage in rats. Rats were divided into 4 equal groups: group 1, control; group 2, injected with cisplatin (CIS) for 5 days (7 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally [IP]); group 3, injected with PDTC alone; group 4, injected with CIS plus PDTC (100 mg/kg IP). Body and testicular weights, plasma testosterone levels, and histopathologic structure of the testicular tissue were determined. The iNOS and NF-kappaB activity were evaluated immunohistochemically by staining p65 to define NF-kappaB activity. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and nitric oxide (NO) levels and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were assessed in testicular tissue. Body and testicular weights, plasma testosterone levels, activity of GSH-Px, and GSH levels were all significantly decreased, whereas the levels of MDA and NO were significantly increased in rats of the CIS group. PDTC treatment increased plasma testosterone levels. A significant increase in GSH levels and GSH-Px activity and a decrease in MDA and NO levels in testicular tissue were observed in the CIS + PDTC group. Immunohistochemically, there was a marked staining for iNOS and NF-kappaB/p65 expression in rats injected with CIS compared with the control (P < .001). CIS caused irregular seminiferous tubules, reduction of seminiferous epithelial layers, significant arrest of maturation, and perivascular fibrosis. Moreover, PDTC administration to CIS-treated rats significantly prevented these histopathologic chances, as well. CIS induces iNOS expression through activation of NF-kappaB/p65, and CIS-induced testicular toxicity may be prevented by PDTC, which is a selective NF-kappaB inhibitor.

  20. Toxic effects of methoxychlor administered subcutaneously on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, A; Cabaleiro, T; Caride, A; Esquifino, A I

    2008-05-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of methoxychlor MTX at the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in adult male rats. This global objective comprises three major aims: (1) to analyze the possible differential MTX effects in norepinephrine and serotonin concentration an in serotoninergic metabolism in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus and median eminence; (2) to evaluate effects induced by MTX exposure on gonadotropins and testosterone; 93 to elucidate whether the regulatory interactions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis are modified by this pesticide. Animals were administered subcutaneously 25mg/kg/day of MTX for 1 month. MTX increased norepinephrine and serotonin content in anterior hypothalamus (P < or = 0.05), but decreased serotonin concentration in posterior hypothalamus (P < or = 0.05). MTX diminished serotonin turnover in anterior hypothalamus (P < or = 0.01) and decreased plasma LH (P < or = 0.001) and testosterone (P < or = 0.05) levels but those of FSH remained unmodified. We can conclude that MTX exposure: (1) could exert differential effects in norepinephrine and serotonin concentration an in serotoninergic metabolism in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus and median eminence, being the anterior hypothalamus the most sensitive region to the pesticide; (2) could inhibit LH and testosterone secretion without changing FSH; (3) four potential pathways might be involved in MTX effects on testosterone secretion (changing LH secretion; modifying serotonin and norepinephrine at the hypothalamic level; alterating the direct neural pathway between brain and testes; and/or by a direct effect in testes).

  1. Effect of Phosalone on Testicular Tissue and In Vitro Fertilizing Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Amniattalab; Mazdak Razi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of phosalone (PLN) as an organophosphate (OP) compound on testicular tissue, hormonal alterations and embryo development in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we divided 18 mature Wistar rats into three groups-control, control-sham and test (n=6 per group). Animals in the test group received one-fourth the lethal dose (LD50) of PLN (150 mg/kg), orally, once per day for 45 days. DNA laddering an...

  2. The effects of fluoride on testicular cell cycle and cell apoptosis of male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张筱文

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of fluoride on testicular cell cycle and cell apoptosis of male rats.Methods Thirty-two healthy male Wistar rats,weighting 150-180 g,were randomly divided into 4 groups by body weight using random number table,normal sodium(control),the low-dose,medium-dose and high-dose groups(100,200,300 mg·kg-1·d-1Na F,respectively)by intragastric administration for 90 days,and bodyweight

  3. Effect of Alstonia Scholaris bark extract on testicular function of Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R·S·Gupta; RakhiSharma

    2002-01-01

    Aim:To evaluate the antifertility effect of Alstonia scholaris bark extract in male rats.Methods:In male Wistar rats Alstonia scholaris bark extract was given by oral route at a dose of 200mg/day for60days,The fertility and testicular function were assessed by mating tests,sperm motility,sperm concentration,biochemical indices and testicular cell population dynamics.Results:Oral feeding with the extract at a dose of 200mg/day for the period of 60days did not cause body weight loss,while the weights of testes,epididymides,seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were significantly reduced.The production of step-19 spermatids was reduced by 79.6%in treated rats.The popu-lation of preleptotene and pachytene spermatocytes were decrased by61.9%and60.1%,respectively.Spematogo-nia and Sertoli cell population were also affected.The seminiferous tubule and Leydig cell nuclear area were reduced significantly(P<0.01)when compared to the controls..Reduced sperm count and motility yesulted in a total supprs-sion of fertility.A significant fall in the protein and sialic acid content of the testes,epididymides,seminal vesicle and ventral prostate as well as glycogen content of testes were also noticed.The fructose content in the seminal vesicle was lowered whereas the testicular cholesterol was elevated as compared with the controls.The following com-pounds were obtained from the extract with chromatographic separation over Si-gel column;α-amyrin,β-amyrin,lupiol acetate,venenative,rhazine and yohimbine,Conclusion:At the dose level employed,Alstonia scholaris bark extract has a significant antifertility effect in male rast;the primary site of action may be post meiotic germ cells(Step19spermatids).

  4. Effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on bleomycin induced oxidative stress in malignant testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, Aysegul; Ozdemir, Evrim; Timur, Mujgan; Ozben, Tomris

    2012-12-01

    Testicular cancer is a very common cancer in males aged 15-44 years. Bleomycin is used in chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of patients having testicular germ-cell tumor. Bleomycin generates oxygen radicals, induces oxidative cleavage of DNA strand and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. There is no study in the literature investigating effects of N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC) on bleomycin-induced oxidative stress in testicular germ cell tumors. For this reason, we studied effects of NAC on oxidative stress produced in wild-type NTera-2 and p53-mutant NCCIT testis cancer cells incubated with bleomycin and compared the results with H(2)O(2) which directly produces oxidative stress. We determined protein carbonyl content, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), 8-isoprostane, lipid hydroperoxide levels and total antioxidant capacity in both testicular cancer cells. Bleomycin and H(2)O(2) significantly increased 8-isoprostane, TBARS, protein carbonyl and lipid hydroperoxide levels in NTera-2 and NCCIT cells. Bleomycin and H(2)O(2) significantly decreased antioxidant capacity and GSH levels in both cell lines. Co-incubation with NAC significantly decreased lipid hydroperoxide, 8-isoprostane, protein carbonyl content and TBARS levels increased by bleomycin and H(2)O(2). NAC enhanced GSH levels and antioxidant capacity in the NTera-2 and NCCIT cells. It can be concluded that NAC diminishes oxidative stress in human testicular cancer cells induced by bleomycin and H(2)O(2).

  5. Long-term cultures of testicular biopsies from boys with cryptorchidism: effect of FSH and LH on the number of germ cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Hans-Peter Ejler; Thorup, Jørgen; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2002-01-01

    A long-term culture system of testicular biopsies from boys with undescended testes was established to evaluate the effect of gonadotrophins on germ cell survival and growth.......A long-term culture system of testicular biopsies from boys with undescended testes was established to evaluate the effect of gonadotrophins on germ cell survival and growth....

  6. Kisspeptin-mediated regulation of testicular activity of rats under the effect of gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Kalynovskyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There are a variety of biomedical applications of nanoparticles. They can be used as drug carriers, anti-tumor agents, biosensors and modulators of immune response. But full-scale real clinical application of nanomaterials requires a great deal of information on their safety and biotoxicity. Even traditionally harmless materials, like gold, can obtain toxic features when scaled to the nanosize. In vitro studies showed that nanoparticles can be geno- and cytotoxic, but their effects on the body as a whole remain largely a mystery. To shed some light on this, our study focused on the reproductive toxicity of nanomaterials. We synthesized 10–15 nm gold nanoparticles through the reduction of sodium tetrachloroaurate (III in an alkaline medium with the addition of sodium polyphosphate as a stabilizing agent. Next, these particles were administered intraperitoneally to young and old rats for 10 days. To test functional capabilities of the testes, we injected kisspeptin-10 or its antagonist peptide-234 intracerebroventricularly. These substances are known to stimulate or inhibit the central component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis respectively. After the routine histological procedures, we measured the diameter of seminiferous tubules and the nuclear cross-sectional area of Sertoli cells as markers of testicular spermatogenic activity and a cross-sectional area of the Leydig cells’ nuclei as a marker of testicular steroidogenesis. We found that injections of nanogold caused no significant changes in the young animals. At the same time, morphometric parameters of adult animals were significantly lower compared to control, although we observed no pathological changes in the tissue. Combined administration of gold nanoparticles and kisspeptin showed that the stimulatory effect of the latter was not observed at all. This is a specific feature of toxicants called “endocrine disruptors”. Moreover, we found morphological signs of

  7. Histological and histochemical effects of Gly-phosate on testicular tissue and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study we aimed to evaluate the impact of chronic exposure to the Gly-phosate (GP on rat’s testicular tissue and sperm parameters.Objective: Testicular tissue, morphology of sperms and testosterone level in serum of mature male rats were analyzed.Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into two test and control-sham groups. The test group was subdivided into 4 groups (10, 20, 30 and 40 days GP administrated. Each test group (n=8 received the compound at dose of 125 mg/kg, once a day, orally for 40 days while control-sham group (n=16 received the corn oil (0.2 ml/day.Results: Microscopic analyses revealed increased thickness of tunica albuginea, obvious edema in sub-capsular and interstitial connective tissue, atrophied seminiferous tubules, arrested spermatogenesis, negative tubular differentiation and repopulation indexes, decreased Leydig cells/mm2 of interstitial tissue, hypertrophy and cytoplasmic granulation of Leydig cells, elevated death, immature sperm and increased immotile and abnormal sperm percentage. The carbohydrate ratio was reduced in first three layers of the germinal epithelium (GE cytoplasm. The upper layers of the GE series were manifested with low rate of lipid accumulation in cytoplasm, while the cells which were located in first layers were revealed with higher amount of lipid foci. Hematological investigations showed significant (p<0.05 decreasing of testosterone level in serum.Conclusion: The current data provide inclusive histological feature of chronic exposure against GP with emphasizing on reproductive disorders including histological adverse effect on the testicular tissue, spermatogenesis, sperm viability and abnormality which potentially can cause infertility

  8. Therapeutic effect of ozone and rutin on adriamycin-induced testicular toxicity in an experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, E A; Salem, N A; Hellstrom, W J

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the cytoprotective effects of rutin, ozone and their combination on adriamycin (ADR)-induced testicular toxicity, 50 male albino rats were classified into five groups of ten animals each as follows: placebo group; ADR group; ADR + rutin group; ADR + ozone group and ADR + rutin + ozone group. Sperm functions, testosterone (T), luteinising hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testicular enzymes, oxidant/antioxidant status, C-reactive protein, monocyte chemoattractant proteins-1 and leukotriene B4 were determined. After ADR injection, a decline in sperm functions was observed. FSH and LH levels were increased, T level and testicular enzymes were decreased, significant enhancement in oxidative stress with subsequent depletion in antioxidants was detected and inflammatory markers were significantly elevated. Treatment with rutin and/or ozone, however, improved the aforementioned parameters. Ozone therapy alone almost completely reversed the toxic effects of ADR and restored all parameters to normal levels.

  9. Effects of x-irradiation on steroid biotransformations by testicular tissue. Final report, May 1, 1966--July 31, 1976. [Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, L.C.

    1976-08-01

    A number of parameters of testicular and body function were investigated after various dosages of x-irradiation to ascertain: what relationship they have to the radiation syndrome and testicular repression and regeneration of the rat; and how sensitive these parameters are to radiation. Changes in androgen synthesis were not well correlated with either body or gonad weights, hematocrit values or testicular histology. Lipid peroxidation, catalase activity, metabolism of testosterone, prostaglandins, cyclic nucleotides and serotonin metabolism were all related to the direct effects of radiation on the male gonad. Indirect effects on the testis appear to be mediated by serotonin and the pineal gland. The pineal gland appeared to be responsible for variations in androgen synthesis and radiosensitivity of the testis through its secretory products-melatonin and arginine vasopressin. These compounds have the capacity of inducing endocrine rhythms by affecting: the hypothalamus-pituitary axis; the liver; and/or the gonad directly.

  10. Testicular Microlithiasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene Roland Vils; Osther, Palle Jørn Sloth; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2016-01-01

    factors (testicular atrophy (N=1) and previous testicular cancer (N=4)), but no cases of testicular malignancy were found in the follow-up period. Conclusion: The low patient compliance conflicts with the ESUR Scrotal Imaging Subcommittee guidelines that recommend scrotal US follow-up annually for TML......Introduction: We present a retrospective 2-year follow-up cohort of 103 men with testicular microlithiasis (TML) and discuss patient compliance and the value of surveillance. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients examined with scrotal ultrasonography (US) in the period from 2008 through...... until the age of 55 years. The fact that no cancers were found during follow-up using the pathology registry calls the value of follow-up into question....

  11. Testicular Microlithiasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene Roland Vils; Osther, Palle Jørn Sloth; Sørensen, F. B.

    2016-01-01

    factors (testicular atrophy (N=1) and previous testicular cancer (N=4)), but no cases of testicular malignancy were found in the follow-up period. Conclusion: The low patient compliance conflicts with the ESUR Scrotal Imaging Subcommittee guidelines that recommend scrotal US follow-up annually for TML......Introduction: We present a retrospective 2-year follow-up cohort of 103 men with testicular microlithiasis (TML) and discuss patient compliance and the value of surveillance. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients examined with scrotal ultrasonography (US) in the period from 2008 through...... until the age of 55 years. The fact that no cancers were found during follow-up using the pathology registry calls the value of follow-up into question....

  12. What Is Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment? Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer What Is Testicular Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... respond well to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Secondary testicular cancers Cancers that start in another organ and then ...

  13. [Study on producing rats with experimental testicular dysfunction and effects of mecobalamin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, S; Ohkawa, I; Katoh, Y; Tajima, T; Kimura, M; Orikasa, S

    1988-04-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of mecobalamin (CH3-B12) on disorders of testicular function. Male rats received subcutaneously an injection of doxorubicin (ADR) three times a week for 3, 5 and 7 weeks. Thereafter, they were periodically sacrificed for the examination of cauda epididymal sperm profiles and the morphology of the testis. ADR treatment caused a decrease in sperm counts, sperm motility and the diameter of the seminiferous tubules, and an increase in the percentage of abnormal sperms. These damaging effects depended on the dosage and period of treatment with ADR. Based on these findings, rats with testicular dysfunction induced by the treatment with ADR at a daily dose of 0.25 mg/kg, three times a week for 5 weeks were prepared to investigate the effects of CH3-B12 on oligozoospermia. CH3-B12 was given intraperitoneally to the oligozoospermic rats six times a week for 5 and 10 weeks. The results obtained indicated that 1,000 micrograms/kg of CH3-B12 caused a significant increase in both the sperm counts and the diameter of the seminiferous tubules. These results suggest that CH3-B12 is a candidate drug for oligozoospermia.

  14. Phytoremedial effect of Withania somnifera against arsenic-induced testicular toxicity in Charles Foster rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of the current study was to observe the ameliorative effect of Withania somnifera on arsenic-induced testicular toxicity by exploring the crucial parameters such as sperm counts, sperm motility, hormonal assay and lipid peroxidation including histopathology. Materials and Methods: In the present study, arsenic in the form of sodium arsenite was administered orally to male Charles Foster rats for 45 days. Thereafter, ethanolic root extract of Withania somnifera was administered for 30 days to observe its ameliorative effect on male reproductive system. Results: The study revealed that after administration of sodium arsenite, there was a decrease in the sperm counts and sperm motility accompanied by an increased incidence of sperm abnormalities and hormonal imbalance leading to infertility. However, after administration of Withania somnifera, there was significant reversal in the parameters denoting that it not only possesses antioxidant and rejuvenating property but also maintains the cellular integrity of testicular cells leading to normal functioning of it. Conclusion: The study concludes that Withania somnifera possesses phytoremedial effect. It is one of the best antidotes against arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity.

  15. Effect of noise pollution on testicular tissue and hormonal assessment in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzadinia, P; Bigdeli, M; Akbarzadeh, S; Mohammadi, M; Daneshi, A; Bargahi, A

    2016-11-01

    Many studies have focused on the effect of noise stress on the health. So far, few studies have been conducted on the effect of noise on reproductive system. The aim of study was to investigate the effect of noise pollution on morphometric parameters of testicular tissue and hormonal assessment (ACTH, cortisol and testosterone). In this study, 40 male rats were exposed to control, 95, 105 and 115 dB noise intensity for sixty days. At the end of study, blood sampling was performed and ACTH, cortisol and testosterone concentrations were assessed. The results showed that noise stress decreased testosterone levels in the 115 dB-treated group, while it increased the ACTH and cortisol levels. Histological sections of testis showed that the mean diameter of the seminiferous tubules and thickness of the germinal epithelium reduced compared to the control group. Also the ratio of the interstitial tissue area to the total testicular tissue area was increased significantly. Our study shows that noise stress may have negative influences on male fertility. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. The effect of unilateral vasectomy on testosterone and testicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Background: The effects of vasectomy on spermatogenesis and reproductive parameters are recognized ... animals were allowed either 8, 6 and 2 weeks respectively before sacrifice. ... studies in animals and humans suggest that ... Since the rat is an animal model frequently ..... development of anti-sperm antibodies after.

  17. Testicular Microlithiasis: Is It Associated with Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is there a link between testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer? Answers from Erik P. Castle, M.D. Testicular microlithiasis ( ... studies show a relationship between testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer. However, it remains unclear whether having testicular microlithiasis ...

  18. The experience of patients with early-stage testicular cancer during the transition from active treatment to follow-up surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Abra H; Howell, Doris; Edwards, Elizabeth; Warde, Padraig; Matthew, Andrew; Jones, Jennifer M

    2016-04-01

    To gain a better understanding of the experiences of patients with early-stage testicular cancer during the transition from active cancer treatment to follow-up care. Cross-sectional multimethod study (questionnaires, focus groups, and telephone interviews) to describe experiences of patients with testicular cancer transitioning to survivorship. Questionnaire package included standardized measures of survivorship knowledge, feeling of preparedness, health-related distress, and perspectives on care coordination. Standard descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney tests to examine associations between all outcomes based on demographic and clinical variables were performed. Qualitative results (focus groups and interviews) were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Based on quantitative data (n = 90) and qualitative analyses (n = 13), participants had relatively high survivorship knowledge, most testicular cancer survivors were not provided with any formal transition planning or documentation, and a substantial minority felt unprepared to cope with the aftereffects of testicular cancer and the posttreatment survivorship phase. Younger men had lower survivorship knowledge, feelings of preparedness, and continuity of care scores and were less likely to report having received any self-management tools and education or information of patient resources. Participants reported that they did not know what to expect physically or emotionally after treatment ended and many continued to be frustrated and worried about their health problems. They expressed the need for reliable and personalized resources on what to expect after treatment and more formal transition care planning. Patients with testicular cancer continue to struggle in their transition to posttreatment survivorship. Quality of care must emphasize a shift from a purely disease-focused approach to a wellness-centered approach that provides coordinated, patient-centered, and comprehensive care to optimize quality

  19. The protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids on rat testicular tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Zararsız

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this study, the protective effect of omega-3 fatty acids on testicular tissue was aimed to investigate at biochemical levels.Materials and methods: Totally, 16 adult male Wistar rats were divided into two groups. Rats in Group I were used as control and only saline was given by intragastric gavage. Rats in Group II, 400 mg/kg dose ω-3 fatty acids were given daily by intragastric gavage. At the end of the six-week experimental period, all rats were killed by decapitation. The testicular tissue specimens taken from animals, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde, enzyme activities were measured spectrophotometrically. In addition, blood testosterone levels were examined.Results: In our study, ω-3 fatty acids in rats were given a statistically significant increase in the levels of superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase a statistically significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels were determined when compared to control group. In addition, ω-3 fatty acids in rats given a statistically significant increase in blood testosterone levels were observed.Conclusion: We concluded that ω-3 fatty acid had favorable effects in rat testis tissue by preventing oxidative damage and increasing the level of testosterone.

  20. The effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on rat testicular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-June; Jin, Yeung Bae; Kim, Tae-Hong; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Nam; Choi, Hyung-Do; Lee, Jae-Seon; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2012-05-01

    Wireless mobile phones and other telecommunication devices are used extensively in daily life. We therefore examined the effects of combined exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on rat testicular function, specifically with respect to sensitive processes such as spermatogenesis. Male rats were exposed to single code division multiple access (CDMA) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) RF signals for 12 weeks. The RF exposure schedule comprised 45 min/day, 5 days/week for a total of 12 weeks. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of CDMA and WCDMA was 2.0 W/kg each or 4.0 W/kg in total. We then investigated the correlates of testicular function such as sperm count in the cauda epididymis, testosterone concentration in the blood serum, malondialdehyde concentrations in the testes and epididymis, frequency of spermatogenesis stages, and appearance of apoptotic cells in the testes. We also immunoblotted for p53, bcl2, GADD45, cyclin G, and HSP70 in the testes of sham- and combined RF-exposed animals. Based on the results, we concluded that simultaneous exposure to CDMA and WCDMA RF-EMFs at 4.0 W/kg SAR did not have any observable adverse effects on rat spermatogenesis.

  1. Beneficial effect of erdosteine on methotrexate-induced testicular toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktar, Süleyman; Gökçe, Ahmet; Aydin, Mehmet; Davarci, Mürsel; Meydan, Sedat; Oztürk, Oktay Hasan; Koç, Ahmet

    2010-08-01

    Methotrexate is used to treat certain types of cancer of the breast, skin, head and neck, or lung. Methotrexate can cause serious or life-threatening side effects on liver, lungs, kidneys, and immune system. Methotrexate chemotherapy causes testicular damage in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of erdosteine on testicular toxicity of methotrexate in mice. Twenty-six male mice were divided into four groups as follows: group 1, control; group 2, erdosteine-treated; group 3, methotrexate-treated; and group 4, methotrexate + erdosteine treated. On the first day of experiment, a single dose of methotrexate was intraperitoneally administered to groups 3 and 4, although a daily single dose of erdosteine was orally administered to group 2 and 4 for 7 days. At the end of the experiment, the testes of the animals were removed and weighed. The levels of total antioxidant capacity and total oxidative stress, and myeloperoxidase activity in the methotrexate group were higher than the control group (perdosteine could effectively protect the testes in methotrexate-induced toxicity.

  2. Protective effect of speman on cisplatin-induced testicular and epididymal toxicity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S B Sainath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular cancer is the most common cancer affecting men of reproductive age. Advances in treatment of the disease, which includes the administration of cisplatin, have brought the 5-year survival rate to over 90%. This high cure rate, coupled with young age of patients, makes elucidation of the impact of the treatment on reproduction become increasingly important. The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of speman, a non-hormonal herbal formulation, on cisplatin-induced suppressed male reproductive health in mice. Male mice were treated with cisplatin or speman alone or in combination and assessed for spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. Significant decrease in the weights of testes and epididymis was observed in cisplatin treated animals. Injection of cisplatin significantly decreased epididymal sperm count, viable sperms, motile sperms and hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS-tail coiled sperms with a significant reduction in the testicular steroidogenic enzyme activities and serum testosterone levels, whereas co-administration of speman with cisplatin showed a significant improvement in the selected reproductive parameters over cisplatin alone treated mice indicating the beneficial effect of speman to combat cisplatin-induced suppressed reproduction in male mice.

  3. Toxic effect of acyclovir on testicular tissue in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahed, Elham; Nejati, Vahid; Sadrkhanlou, Rajabali; Ahmadi, Abbas

    2013-02-01

    Acyclovir (ACV), a synthetic purine nucleoside analogue, is known to be toxic to gonads. The current study evaluated cytotoxicity of ACV on histopathological changes in testis tissue and serum testosterone and lipid peroxidation concentrations of male rats. Animals were divided into five groups. One group served as control and one group served as control sham. In the drug treated groups ACV administered for 15 days. 18 days after the last injection, animals were sacrificed. Histopathological and histomorphometrical analysis of the testis was carried out. Serum levels of testosterone and Lipid Peroxidation and potential fertility of animals was evaluated. Male rats exposed to ACV had significant reduction in serum testosterone concentrations at 16 and 48mg/kg dose-levels (pACV induced histopathological changes in the testis and also increase the mean number of mast cells in peritubular or interstitial tissue in the testis at at 16 and 48mg/kg dose-levels (pACV caused increase of serum level of Lipid Peroxidation at 48mg/kg dose-level (pACV decreased potential fertility in male rats. The present results highly support the idea that ACV has adverse effect on the reproductive system in male rat.

  4. Radiation Therapy for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testicular Cancer Treating Testicular Cancer Radiation Therapy for Testicular Cancer Radiation therapy uses a beam of high-energy ... Testicular Cancer, by Type and Stage More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  5. Protective effect of sildenafil citrate on contralateral testis injury after unilateral testicular torsion/detorsion

    OpenAIRE

    Yíldíz,Hamit; Durmus, Ali Said; Şimşek,Halil; Yaman, Mine

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to investigate prevention of contralateral testicular injury with sildenafil citrate after unilateral testicular torsion/detorsion. METHODS: Thirty-seven adult male rats were divided into four groups: sham operated (group 1, n = 7), torsion/detorsion + saline (group 2, n = 10), torsion/detorsion + 0.7 mg of sildenafil citrate (group 3, n = 10) and torsion/detorsion + 1.4 mg of sildenafil citrate (group 4, n = 10). Unilateral testicular torsion was created b...

  6. Effects of chronic tramadol administration on testicular tissue in rats: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellatief, R B; Elgamal, D A; Mohamed, E E M

    2015-08-01

    In a prospective experimental study, the effects of chronic tramadol administration on gonadotrophic and sex hormones, histopathological and morphometrical alterations in rat testicular tissue were investigated in a laboratory setting. Tramadol was given alone to adult male albino rats. Gonadotrophic and serum sex hormone levels were measured and testicular pathological and morphometric changes were observed in treated vs. After 30 days of treatment, tramadol induced a decrease in LH, FSH and testosterone serum levels. Histologically, degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules were observed. They showed shrinkage, separation of tubular basement membrane, disorganisation and vacuolisation of spermatogenic layers. Morphometric analysis revealed significant decrease in the mean values of the tubular diameter and epithelial height. Ultrastructural abnormalities were detected in all cells of spermatogenic lineage in addition to the appearance of apoptotic cells. Sertoli cell vacuolation, huge lipid droplets and disrupted Sertoli cell junctions were observed. Leydig cells showed euchromatic nuclei and dilated smooth endoplasmic reticulum. In view of these findings, it is concluded that tramadol induces alterations in sex hormonal levels in conjunction with disruption of the normal histological structure of rat testis. This might lead to the risk of male infertility. Therefore, tramadol should be used with caution with appropriate dose monitoring. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Effect of Stephania hernandifolia leaf extract on testicular activity in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.Jana; R.Maiti; D.Ghosh

    2003-01-01

    Aim: The testicular inhibitory effect of the aqueous fraction of methanol extract of Stephania hernandifolia leaf was studied in male Wistar rats. Methods: The supernatent and the precipitate part of aqueous fractions of the methanol extract of the leaf were gavaged separately to rat at a similar dose of 200 mg/mL per 100 g body weight per day for 28 days. After cessation of treatment, various observations were conducted. Results: In both treated groups, there were significant decreases in the relative weights of the sex organs, the testicular key androgenic enzymes activities, the plasma level of testosterone, the number of different germ cells at stage VII of seminiferous epithelial cell cycle and the seminiferous tubular diameter in comparison to the controls. Neither of the parts had somatic, renal and hepatic toxicity. This study suggested that the active molecules present in the aqueous fraction of methanol extract of Stephania hernandifolia leaves might be steroids as indicated by thin layer chromatography using specific staining substance for steroid molecules. Conclusion: In rats, the aqueous fraction of methanol extract of the S. hernandifolia leaves possesses certain testis-inhibitory substances, which may be steroid-like agents. ( Asian J Androl 2003 Jun; 5:125-129 )

  8. Effects of antineoplastic agents and ionizing irradiation on a human testicular cancer xenograft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osieka, R.; Pfeiffer, R.; Glatte, P.; Schmidt, C.G.; Bamberg, M.; Scherer, E.

    1985-01-01

    Chemotherapy has afforded a high percentage of definitive cures in advanced testicular cancer. Nevertheless some patients with large tumor burden still succumb to chemorefractory disease. Therefore preclinical and clinical evaluation of new drugs and agents not primarily used against this type of disease are still mandatory. For preclinical drug screening purposes heterotransplantation of specific human tumors yields a model with high validity for tumor markers and drug response. Heterotransplantation of a human embryonal testicular cancer was used for simultaneous testing of established agents such as cisplatin, melphalan, bleomycin, vinblastine, etoposide and adriamycin and some newer derivatives such as PHM or mafosfamide. Furthermore agents such as procarbazine, dacarbazine and methyl-CCNU that cross the blood-brain-barrier displayed some interesting activity. The results hint at a unique chemosensitivity pattern of the xenograft line, with some accordance between clinical response to vinblastine and bleomycin and good response of the xenografts to bleomycin but not to vinblastine. Radiotherapy was also effective against this tumor line, but there was not much difference in response when the schedule of fractionation was changed. It is concluded that a combined modality approach might salvage patients with residual, chemorefractory disease.

  9. In vivo effects of chronic contamination with 137 cesium on testicular and adrenal steroidogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grignard, Elise; Gueguen, Yann; Grison, Stephane; Gourmelon, Patrick; Souidi, Maamar [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Radiological Protection and Human Health Division, Radiobiology and Epidemiology Department, Laboratory of Experimental Toxicology, BP no 17, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A. [UMR Universite Blaise Pascal-CNRS 6547, Physiologie Comparee et Endocrinologie Moleculaire, Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d' Auvergne, Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2008-09-15

    More than 20 years after Chernobyl nuclear power plant explosion, radionuclids are still mainly bound to the organic soil layers. The radiation exposure is dominated by the external exposure to gamma-radiation following the decay of {sup 137}Cs and by soil-to-plant-to-human transfer of {sup 137}Cs into the food chain. Because of this persistence of contamination with {sup 137}Cs, questions regarding public health for people living in contaminated areas were raised. We investigated the biological effects of chronic exposure to {sup 137}Cs on testicular and adrenal steroidogenesis metabolisms in rat. Animals were exposed to radionuclide in their drinking water for 9 months at a dose of 6,500 Bq/l (610 Bq/kg/day). Cesium contamination decreases the level of circulating 17{beta}-estradiol, and increases corticosterone level. In testis, several nuclear receptors messenger expression is disrupted; levels of mRNA encoding Liver X receptor {alpha} (LXR{alpha}) and LXR{beta} are increased, whereas farnesoid X receptor mRNA presents a lower level. Adrenal metabolism presents a paradoxical decrease in cyp11a1 gene expression. In conclusion, our results show for the first time molecular and hormonal modifications in testicular and adrenal steroidogenic metabolism, induced by chronic contamination with low doses of {sup 137}Cs. (orig.)

  10. Association of long-term exposure to circulating platinum with adverse late effects in testicular cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Hink; Proost, Johannes H.; Nuver, Janine; Bunskoek, Sophie; Gietema, Joyce Q.; Geubels, Barbara M.; Altena, Renske; Zwart, Nynke; Oosting, Sjoukje; Uges, Donald R.A.; Meijer, Coby; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Gietema, Jourik A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Successful platinum(Pt)-based chemotherapy for testicular cancer (TC) comes at the price of late cardiovascular morbidity and neurotoxicity. Damage induced by circulating Pt could be an etiological mechanism. We investigated the relation between circulating Pt and late effects. Methods:

  11. Public awareness of testicular cancer and testicular self-examination in academic environments: a lost opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Ugboma,Henry A. A.; Aburoma, H L S

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although testicular cancer is the most common cancer among 18- to 50-year-old males, healthcare providers seldom teach testicular self-examination techniques to clients, thus potentially missing opportunities for early detection. This form of cancer is easily diagnosable by testicular self-examination and is 96% curable if detected early. Periodic self-examination must be performed for early detection. Knowledge deficits and sociocultural norms contribute to low levels of health-r...

  12. Unusually Located Stroke After Chemotherapy in Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Alexander Martinez MD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Testicular cancer is a type of malignancy that affects young adults and has high rates of cure; however, as any malignancy, it is associated with an increased risk of ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease, given the systemic tumor effects or side effects of chemotherapy, which in turn increases morbidity, functional impairment, and additional risk of early death.

  13. Testicular torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Andersen, L; Kay, L;

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-five patients were examined 6-11 years after operation for torsion of the testis. Loss of testicular tissue was significantly associated with long preoperative duration of symptoms and with low postoperative sperm counts. The sex hormones were normal in the majority of patients but there w......Thirty-five patients were examined 6-11 years after operation for torsion of the testis. Loss of testicular tissue was significantly associated with long preoperative duration of symptoms and with low postoperative sperm counts. The sex hormones were normal in the majority of patients...

  14. Effects of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark oil on testicular antioxidant values, apoptotic germ cell and sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüce, A; Türk, G; Çeribaşi, S; Sönmez, M; Çiftçi, M; Güvenç, M

    2013-08-01

    Cinnamon and its contents have multifactorial properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic. Male infertility is one of the major health problems in life. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term cinnamon bark oil (CBO) ingestion on testicular antioxidant values, apoptotic germ cell and sperm quality of adult rats. Twelve male healthy Wistar rats were divided into two groups, each group containing six rats. While olive oil was given to control group, 100 mg kg(-1)  CBO was administered to the other group by gavage daily for 10 weeks. Body and reproductive organ weights, sperm characteristics, testicular lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities, and testicular apoptosis via terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) method were examined. A significant decrease in malondialdehyde level and marked increases in reduced glutathione level, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were observed in rats treated with CBO compared with the control group. CBO consumption provided a significant increase in weights of testes and epididymides, epididymal sperm concentration, sperm motility and diameter of seminiferous tubules when compared with the control group. However, CBO consumption tended to decrease the abnormal sperm rate and apoptotic germ cell count, but it did not reach statistical significance. It is concluded that CBO has improvement effect on testicular oxidant-antioxidant balance and sperm quality, and its consumption may be useful for asthenozoospermic men.

  15. Protective effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. calyx extract on tetracycline induced testicular toxicity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaphat Taweebot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (Malvaceae calyx extract (HSE was evaluated for theprotective effect against testicular toxicity induced by tetracycline dose of 20 mg/100 gBW for 14 daysin mice. The extract doses of 20, 50 and 100 mg/100 gBW used in pretreatment by oral administrationfor 4 days and subsequent co-treatment with tetracycline for 14 days had the protective effectexhibiting significantly increasing quality of seminal fluid including an increase in total sperm count,percentage of mobile sperms and viable sperms when compared to the tetracycline treated group (p H. Sabdariffa. calyx extract may be used as protective agent againsttetracycline-induced reproductive toxicity in mice.

  16. Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of skin behind the penis. You can get cancer in one or both testicles. Testicular cancer mainly affects young men between the ages of ... undescended testicle Have a family history of the cancer Symptoms include pain, swelling, or lumps in your ...

  17. Testicular Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... boys should wear athletic supporters when they play sports. You should examine your testicles monthly and seek medical attention for lumps, redness, pain or other changes. Testicles can get inflamed or infected. They can also develop cancer. Testicular cancer is rare and highly treatable. It ...

  18. Orchiectomy and radiotherapy for stage I-II testicular seminoma: a prospective evaluation of short-term effects on body image and sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortel, Ruud C; Ghidey Alemayehu, Wendim; Incrocci, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Orchiectomy followed by infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy is a common treatment for stage I-II testicular seminoma. Long-term effects of orchiectomy and radiotherapy for testicular seminomas on body image and sexual function have been reported; however, few data are available on short-term effects. Patients are usually of reproductive age and sexually active; therefore, short-term effects on body image and sexual function should also be studied. To prospectively evaluate short-term effects of orchiectomy and radiotherapy on body image and sexual function in testicular seminoma patients. Questionnaires on body image and sexual function were prospectively distributed to all testicular seminoma patients treated between 1999 and 2013. The questionnaire distributed prior to radiotherapy was returned by 161 patients; 133 (82%) returned the second after 3 months, and 120 (75%) completed the questionnaire after 6 months. Body image and sexual function as assessed by a Dutch questionnaire on body image and sexuality after radiotherapy and orchiectomy. Median age was 36 years (range 18-70). After orchiectomy, 48% expressed fertility concerns, and 61% reported their body had changed. Six months after treatment, erectile rigidity was significantly decreased compared with prior to radiotherapy (P = 0.016), and 23% reported decreased sexual interest, activity, and pleasure. Changes in body image were significantly associated with decreased sexual interest, pleasure, and erectile function. Even though 45% reported that treatment negatively affected their sexual life, the number of sexually active patients remained stable at 91%. [Correction added on 12 November 2014, after first online publication: 'prior radiotherapy' was corrected to 'prior to radiotherapy'.] Short-term effects of treatment included fertility concerns and changes in body image. Reported erectile rigidity was significantly decreased after 6 months, as were sexual interest, activity, and pleasure. Disease and

  19. The Effect of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Treatment Before Testicular Sperm Extraction in Non-Obstructive Azoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Gul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate our experience on empirical hCG treatment of patients with idiopathic non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA. Material and Method: hCG group consisted of 34 patients who were empirically treated with hCG despite normal serum FSH and LH levels and normal testicular volumes. hCG was administered as 2500 IU twice weekly subcutaneous injections for 10 to 14 weeks prior to testicular sperm extraction (TESE. Control group consisted of 49 age and spouse age matched patients who underwent TESE in the same time period. Sperm retrieval rate (SRR, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, lutenizing hormone (LH and testosterone levels, volume of testicles, fertilization rate (FR, implantation rate (IR, pregnancy rate (PR, live birth rate (LBR and cancel rate (CR and surgical technique were compared between the two groups. Results: Conventional technique was used in 14 of the 17 patients (82.3% with successful sperm retrieval in the hCG group, and 18 of the 28 patients (64.3% in the control group (p=0.170. There were no differences between groups in terms of SRR (p=0.338. There were no significant differences in patient age, mean infertility period, mean values of FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol levels, and testis volume between the two groups (p>0.05. There were no statistically significant differences for FR, IR, PR, LBR between the two groups (p>0.05. Discussion: Empirical hCG treatment in patients with idiopathic NOA did not result in improved SRR. hCG treatment did not have any effect on the success of ICSI.

  20. Effects of Benzo(apyrene on Intra-testicular Function in F-344 Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald D. Lunstra

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive risk associated with exposure of adult male Fisher-344 (F-344 rats to inhaled benzo(apyrene (BaP, a ubiquitous environmental toxicant present in cigarette smoke, automobile exhaust fumes and industrial emissions. Rats were assigned randomly to a treatment or control group. Treatment consisted of exposure of rats via nose-only inhalation to 75μg BaP/m3, 4 hours daily for 60 days, while control animals were unexposed (UNC. Blood samples were collected immediately on day 60 of exposures (time 0 and subsequently at 24, 48, and 72 hours, to assess the effect of exposures to BaP on plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH concentrations. Mean testis weight, total weight of tubules and total tubular length per paired testes were reduced 33% (P < 0.025, 27% (P < 0.01 and 39%, respectively in exposed rats (P < 0.01 compared with UNC rats. The number of homogenization -resistant spermatids was significantly reduced in BaP-exposed versus UNC rats. Plasma testosterone and intra-testicular testosterone (ITT concentrations were significantly decreased by BaP compared with those of UNC rats. The decreases in circulating plasma testosterone were accompanied by concomitant increases in plasma LH concentrations in BaP-exposed versus control rats (P < 0.05. These data suggest that 60 days exposure to inhaled BaP contribute to reduced testicular endocrine and spermatogenic functions in exposed rats.

  1. The effects of long-term leptin administration on morphometrical changes of mice testicular tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaili-Nejad, Mohammad-Reza; Babaei, Homayoon; Kheirandish, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Leptin is a novel and interesting hormone for anyone trying to lose weight, but its effects on male gonad structure in longitudinal study is unknown. The present study was designed to explore morphometrical changes of mouse testicular tissue after long-term administration of leptin. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy mature male mice were randomly assigned to either control (n=15) or treatment (n=15) groups. Leptin was intraperitoneally injected to the treatment group (0.1 µg/100 µl of physiological saline) once a day for 30 consecutive days, and control animals received normal saline with the same volume and route. Five mice from each experimental group were sacrificed at 15, 30 and 60 days after the beginning of treatments. Left testes were removed, weighted and then fixed in 10% buffered formalin, and stained with hematoxylin and eosine for morphometrical assays. Results: Except for sertoli cell nucleus diameter, which was affected from 30th day, evaluation of other morphometrical parameters such as Johnsen’s score, meiotic index, spermatogenesis, epithelial height, seminiferous tubules diameter and spermatogonial nucleus diameter revealed significant decrease from 15th day after leptin administration compare to those of the control group (P<0.05). Thus, meiotic index and spermatogonial cell nucleus diameter were two parameters that were further disturbed on 30th day compare to the day 15 (3.09±0.03 vs. 3.23±0.03, P=0.006 and 5.50±0.09 vs. 6.08±0.14, P=0.007, respectively). Conclusion: Our results showed that long-term administration of leptin could disturb testicular tissue structure and delay spermatogenesis process. PMID:26877846

  2. [Status of penis and testicular development and effects of overweight/obesity on them in boys in the Zhengzhou area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao-Dong; Tan, Li-Na; Luo, Shu-Ying; Chen, Yong-Xing; Wei, Hai-Yan

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the current status of penis and testicular development in boys and the effects of overweight/obesity on their development in the Zhengzhou area of Henan Province. Height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, penis length and testicular volume were measured in 3 546 4 to 12-year-old boys. The penis length and testicular volume were compared between the overweight/obesity and normal weight groups. Before 9 years of age, the testicular volume was progressively smaller, and after 9 years old, it gradually increased. By the age of 11, it increased rapidly. The penis length increased gradually between 4 and 11 years of age, and after the age of 11 it increased rapidly. Phimosis was found in 144 cases (4.01%) and cryptorchidism was found in 18 cases (0.51%). A total of 639 (18.02%) boys were overweight or obese among 3 546 boys. At the ages of 6 and 7 years, the testicular volume in the overweight/obesity group was greater than in the normal control group (Poverweight/obesity group was significantly shorter than in the normal control group (Poverweight/obese boys. The penis length at the ages of 7 and 8 years was negatively correlated with weight, waist circumference and hip circumference. By the age of 12 years, the penis length was positively correlated with the height. The development of penis and testicles in boys in the Zhengzhou area is in line with the level of sex development of Chinese boys. Overweight/obesity adversely affects the development of penis and testicles.

  3. Percutaneous Revision of a Testicular Prosthesis is Safe, Cost-effective, and Provides Good Patient Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene B. Cone

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Office-based percutaneous revision of a testicular prosthesis has never been reported. A patient received a testicular prosthesis but was dissatisfied with the firmness of the implant. In an office setting, the prosthesis was inflated with additional fluid via a percutaneous approach. Evaluated outcomes included patient satisfaction, prosthesis size, recovery time, and cost savings. The patient was satisfied, with no infection, leak, or complication after more than 1 year of follow-up, at significantly less cost than revision surgery. Percutaneous adjustment of testicular prosthesis fill-volume can be safe, inexpensive, and result in good patient satisfaction.

  4. Has lymphography a role in early stage testicular germ cell tumours?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, N.J.H. [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Sandeman, T.F.; McKenzie, A.F. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Inst., Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Depts. of Radiation Oncology and Diagnostic Imaging

    1995-02-01

    A retrospective study was performed of 183 newly diagnosed seminoma cases and 73 newly diagnosed non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) presenting from 1985 to 1989 to a tertiary referral cancer hospital. The purpose was to assess the contribution of bipedal lymphography (LG) to the management of these patients. As the main value of LG is in detecting small retroperitoneal lymph node (LN) metastases, analysis concentrated upon early stage disease, specifically N{sub 0} and N{sub 1a} LN disease. Comparison between LG results, abdominopelvic computed tomography (APCT), final clinical stage and treatment outcome was performed. We found that with the LG and APCT criteria used (filling defects > 2 mm and LN diameter >20 mm, respectively), LG was much more sensitive in disease detection. However, with modern techniques APCT can reliably detect disease 10 mm or greater. In addition, tumour marker status, primary tumour vascular invasion status and initial clinical examination were each more important in staging NSGCT disease than LG alone. Thus, LG is now rarely used in our institution but we will have to monitor our excellent survival data to confirm that this change in policy is warranted. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  5. Chemotherapy for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Type and Stage Testicular Cancer Treating Testicular Cancer Chemotherapy for Testicular Cancer Chemotherapy (chemo) is the use of drugs to treat ... that is only in the testicle. Doctors give chemotherapy in cycles, with each period of treatment followed ...

  6. Objective and subjective effects of treatment for testicular cancer on sexual function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Basten, JPA; Van Driel, MF; Hoekstra, HJ; Sleijfer, DT; Van de Wiel, HBM; Droste, JHJ; Mensink, HJA; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    1999-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the treatment of patients with testicular cancer, using cisplatin combined with etoposide and bleomycin (BEP) after orchidectomy in those with disseminated disease, causes changes in sex hormones and penile vascularization, possibly related to sexual dysfunction, Patie

  7. Impalpable Testicular Seminoma Identified on Sonoelastography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Ghiraldi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of sonoelastography in diagnosing cancerous masses has increased since the advent of elastography as an ultrasound modality. Its ability to display differences in the mechanical properties of cancerous masses compared to normal surrounding tissue has shown benefit in increasing the accuracy of diagnosing malignant breast and thyroid masses and has shown early potential in accomplishing better targeted prostate biopsies. To date, the literature is limited in the number of studies describing the use of sonoelastography for testicular masses. We describe a 34-year-old man who presented with an incidental finding of an impalpable hypoechoic testicular mass on grayscale ultrasound during an infertility work-up. Sonoelastography was performed displaying intermediate testicular elastic properties. Upon frozen section of the mass during surgical exploration, classic testicular seminoma was diagnosed and subsequent radical orchiectomy was performed. We would like to use this atypical presentation of testicular seminoma to review the potential role of elastography for diagnosing testicular cancer.

  8. A molecular and phenotypic integrative approach to identify a no-effect dose level for antiandrogen-induced testicular toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Sophie; Tinwell, Helen; Schorsch, Frédéric; Cavaillé, Christel; Pallardy, Marc; Rouquié, David; Bars, Rémi

    2011-07-01

    The safety assessment of chemicals for humans relies on identifying no-observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) in animal toxicity studies using standard methods. With the advent of high information content technologies, especially microarrays, it is pertinent to determine the impact of molecular data on the NOAELs. Consequently, we conducted an integrative study to identify a no-transcriptomic effect dose using microarray analyses coupled with quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) and determined how this correlated with the NOAEL. We assessed the testicular effects of the antiandrogen, flutamide (FM), in a rat 28-day toxicity study using doses of 0.2-30 mg/kg/day. Plasma testosterone levels and testicular histopathology indicated a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg/day. A no-effect dose of 0.2 mg/kg/day was established based on molecular data relevant to the phenotypic changes. We observed differential gene expression starting from 1 mg/kg/day and a deregulation of more than 1500 genes at 30 mg/kg/day. Dose-related changes were identified for the major pathways (e.g., fatty acid metabolism) associated with the testicular lesion (Leydig cell hyperplasia) that were confirmed by RT-qPCR. These data, along with protein accumulation profiles and FM metabolite concentrations in testis, supported the no-effect dose of 0.2 mg/kg/day. Furthermore, the microarray data indicated a dose-dependent change in the fatty acid catabolism pathway, a biological process described for the first time to be affected by FM in testicular tissue. In conclusion, the present data indicate the existence of a transcriptomic threshold, which must be exceeded to progress from a normal state to an adaptative state and subsequently to adverse toxicity.

  9. Protective Effect of Melatonin against Inequality-Induced Damages on Testicular Tissue and Sperm Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Nasiraei-Moghadam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goals of the study are evaluation the effects of food deprivation and isolation situation as a social stress on fertility; and in the following, investigation of the improving effect of melatonin as an antioxidant component. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, We investigated histopathological and serological effects of melatonin and social stress (food deprivation and isolation on different features of sperm and testicular tissue among 42 male rats in 7 groups including control, sham, melatonin received (M, food deprivation (FD, Food deprivation and melatonin treatment (FDM, Food deprivation and isolation situation (FDi, and Food deprivation and melatonin treatment and isolation situation (FDMi groups. Epididymal sperms of all rats were also counted. Histopathological evaluation of the testes was done under a light microscopy to determine the number of spermiogenic cells. Serological evaluation of testosterone, corticosterone, and melatonin was performed, as well. For statistical analysis, one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test were used, and the value of p≤0.05 was considered statistically significance. Results: The result showed that food deprivation increased the number of abnormal, immotile, and dead sperms, while decreased the number of normal sperms (p<0.05. Isolation could improve sperm motility and viability, while enhanced the number of spermatogenic cells. Melatonin had a protective effect on sperm count, motility, and viability, while reduced sperm abnormality. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that melatonin treatment and isolation situation improve the parameters related to epididymal sperms and spermatogenic cells after food deprivation.

  10. Effects of oral intoxication by lead acetate on pituitary-testicular axis in the pubertal rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hachfi Lamia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The aim of this work is to study the effects of lead on pituitary-testicular axis. It is about a direct toxicity on testicular cells or an indirect toxicity via abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis?

    Methods: Forty male rats were divided equitably into four groups. One of these groups received tap water containing 0.3% lead acetate for one month. A second group was assigned to the same protocol but the intoxication was conducted for two months. The third and the fourth groups were used as reference. At the end of the experiment, the rats were anaesthetized and blood was collected for the proportioning of the FSH, the LH, testosterone and lead. The testes and epididymides were removed quickly and weighed. For the determination of testosterone in testicular fluids, a cruciate incision was made in the tunica albuginea of each right testis and centrifuged at 54xg for the extraction of interstitial fluid. Thereafter, the seminiferous tubules were extruded and centrifuged at 6000xg to collect seminiferous tubule fluid. The left testis of each animal was cut in two halves, one half was used for the histological examination and the other was suitably treated for the determination of the lead concentration. The epididymides were homogenized in solution containing Triton X-100 and spermatozoa were counted using Malessez cells. The plasma FSH and LH were determined by RIA using reagents from a commercial kit (BioInternational, France, while testosterone was determined by electrochemiluminescence (Elecsys, rochediagnostics. The lead concentration in blood and Tissues was measured by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry with the Zeeman effect background (Hitachi Z- 9000.

    Results: In the rats poisoned for one month, no notable effect was noted in spite of a blood lead concentration of 0.721 μg/ml. On the contrary, in animals exposed to lead acetate for two

  11. Adverse effects of long-time exposure to formaldehyde vapour on testicular tissue and sperm parameters in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazdak Razi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Formalin is widely used in industry and in medicine (as tissue fixative and disinfectant.It contains reactive molecules which have been known for its cytotoxic effects. To evaluate the effect of formalin exposure on the testicular tissue and sperm parameter from neonatal period through physical and sexual maturity, 28 male Wister rats were assigned into two equal test and control groups. The test group was exposed to 1.5 ppm of the vapour of 10% formaldehyde in a special chamber for 2 hr per day at 20-26 ˚C and the air pressure of 760-763 atm. After 55 days, the tubular differentiation (TDI and repopulation (RI indexes in testicular tissue, sperm quality parameters, serum total antioxidant capacity and testosterone level were determined. The formaldehyde-exposed animals showed severe seminiferous tubules atrophy, edematous connective tissue, arrested spermatogenesis with negative TDI and RI and vascular thrombosis compared to control group. Histomorphological studies showed a high sperm mortality and abnormality associated with a remarkable decrease in sperm count. Formaldehyde-exposed animals revealed with decreased serum level of testosterone (p < 0.05 and down-regulated antioxidant status versus control group. In conclusion, the current data provide inclusive histological and biochemical information about the chronic exposure to formaldehyde with emphasizing on reproductive disorders including histological adverse effects on the testicular tissue, spermatogenesis, sperm viability, count and the abnormalities which can potentially cause infertility after sexual maturation.

  12. Protective effect of Eruca sativa seed oil against oral nicotine induced testicular damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Aziz, Gamal Said; El-Fark, Magdy Omar; Hamdy, Raid Mahmoud

    2016-08-01

    Nicotine is a pharmacologically active component of the tobacco that adversely affects the male reproductive system and fertility. Nicotine administration in experimental animals was found to affect spermatogenesis, epididymal sperm count, motility and the fertilizing potential of sperms. The goal of this work is to assess the protective or ameliorative effect of Eruca Sativa seed oil against testicular damage induced by oral administration of nicotine in rats. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used and divided into three groups; control, nicotine treated and nicotine and Eruca seed oil treated groups. After three weeks of treatment, the rats were weighed and sacrificed where testes were removed and weighed then calculating relative testis weights. The testes were processed for routine paraffin embedding and staining and the sections were examined for different morphometric and histopathological changes. The results show that nicotine administration had an effect on the body and testis weight and various morphometric parameters of the testis. It also induced varying degrees of structural damage to the seminiferous tubules, with shrinkage and absence of mature spermatids. Disorganized, vacuolization and loss of germinal cells were noticed in the basement membrane. The co-administration of Eruca Sativa seed oil led to improvement in the morphometric and histopathological changes of the seminiferous tubules. In conclusion, Eruca Sativa seed oil treatment in this study had a protective role by reversing, almost completely, all morphometric and histological changes in the testis induced by nicotine administration.

  13. Effect of prolonged cryptorchidism on germ cell apoptosis and testicular sperm count

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AlbahaBarqawi; HeraldTrummer; RandallMeacham

    2004-01-01

    Aim:To evaluate the long term effect of experimental cryptorchidism on germ cell apoptotic rate and testicular sperm content in adult rats.Methods:Bilateral cryptorchidism was created in 40 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by surgically manipulating the testes into the abdominal cavity and closing the internal inguinal ring.The rats were sacrificed and the testes removed 6 hours and 2,4,7,21,28 and 56 days after cryptorchidism.Germ cell apoptosis was quantified by means of TUNEL assay and apoptosis was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy.Results:The rate of apoptosis peaked at 4 days of cryptorchidism and then progressively declined to a nadir at 14 days of cryptorchidism.At 56 days of cryptorchidism,the germinal epithelium was largely depleted by the apoptotic process and only a few mature sperm were seen within the testis.At this point,a few tubules were seen to be repopulating with primary spermatocytes and the level of germ cell apoptosis began to increase marginally.Testicular sperm count (TSC) began to decline rapidly at day 7 of cryptorchidism.Only a few mature sperm were found in the testes of rats following 56 days of cryptorchidism.Multinucleated giant cells (MGC) were most numerous within the seminiferous tubules at day 4.At day 7,35% of MGCs were TUNEL positive.At all subsequent time points,however,MGCs fail to stain positive for apoptosis.This resumption of increased apoptosis coincided with the appearance of a population of primary spermatocytes in some seminiferous tubules.Moreover,there was not a corresponding increase in the number of mature sperm after 56 days of cryptorchidism.Conclusion:The decline in germ cell apoptosis after 4 days of cryptorchidism can be attributed to be the result of an overall depletion of germ cells.It appears that after a prolonged cryptorchidism (56 days),there is a limited resumption of spermatogenesis presumably as a result of a decrease in the maturing germ cells undergoing programmed cell death

  14. Effect of a PCB-based transformer oil on testicular steroidogenesis and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andric, Nebojsa L; Kostic, Tatjana S; Zoric, Sonja N; Stanic, Bojana D; Andric, Silvana A; Kovacevic, Radmila Z

    2006-07-01

    Pyralene is a PCB-based transformer oil with a unique PCB congener profile when compared to other mixtures. We studied the influence of Pyralene on testicular steroidogenesis and the status of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the testis and liver of rats during oral exposure (10 and 50 mg/kg body weight, p.o. daily for 1 week) and a 3-week post-treatment recovery period. As expected, Pyralene induced a rapid and sustained increase in mRNA transcripts for CYP1A1 and CYP2B1 in hepatocytes that was associated with a dramatic increase in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD) activities. Testicular androgenesis and the conversion of progesterone to testosterone in testicular microsomes were bidirectionally affected. An increase in these parameters was observed 24h after the initial administration of Pyralene, followed by inhibition that lasted until the fourth post-treatment day. Expression PCR analysis revealed a significant decrease in 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17betaHSD) transcript abundance at 48 h after Pyralene administration. In contrast, transcripts for several other steroidogenic enzymes and for testicular CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYP2B1 were unaffected under the same conditions. These results in the rat indicate that a sub-chronic exposure to Pyralene disrupted testicular steroidogenesis and suggest the mechanism may involve direct action on the regulation of specific steroidogenic enzymes such as 17betaHSD.

  15. Testicular growth and development in puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskenniemi, Jaakko J; Virtanen, Helena E; Toppari, Jorma

    2017-06-01

    To describe pubertal testicular growth in humans, changes in testicular cell populations that result in testicular growth, and the role of testosterone and gonadotrophins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in testicular growth. When human data were not available, studies in nonhuman primates and/or rodents were used as surrogates. Testicular growth in puberty follows a sigmoidal growth curve, with a large variation in timing of testicular growth and adult testicular volume. Testicular growth early in puberty is due to increase in Sertoli cell number and length of seminiferous tubules, whereas the largest and fastest growth results from the increase in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules first due to spermatogonial proliferation and then due to the expansion of meiotic and haploid germ cells. FSH stimulates Sertoli cell and spermatogonial proliferation, whereas LH/testosterone is mandatory to complete spermatogenesis. However, FSH and LH/testosterone work in synergy and are both needed for normal spermatogenesis. Testicular growth during puberty is rapid, and mostly due to germ cell expansion and growth in seminiferous tubule diameter triggered by androgens. Pre-treatment with FSH before the induction of puberty may improve the treatment of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, but remains to be proven.

  16. Effect of pinealectomy and prolonged melatonin administration on circadian testicular function in food restricted rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrowska, Z.; Zwirska-Korczala, K.; Kajdaniuk, D.; Gorski, J.; Buntner, B. [Slaska Akademia Medyczna, Katowice (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The effect of pinealectomy and exogenous melatonin on the circadian testosterone variations was investigated (using the radioimmunoassay method) after 3 weeks of 50% food restriction in sexually mature male Wistar rats at 3-h intervals under 12:12 light-dark cycle. The circadian periodicity of testosterone secretion was maintained after caloric deprivation, however its mean 24-h concentration was lower and rhythm disturbances appeared in the form of acrophase shifts from 18.00 to 0.50 h. In pinealectomized animals the mean 24-h testosterone level and amplitude values were significantly increased without the rhythm disturbances. As compared to the control animals, underfed pinealectomized rats had a partial recovery of reduced testosterone levels during the 24-h cycle and showed a normalization of the rhythm acrophase. Melatonin administration was found to inhibit the testosterone mesor value in pinealectomized rats with acrophase shifts from 16.58 to 14.51 h. In comparison with the pinealectomized ones the underfed pinealectomized rats had a greater reduction of the mesor and amplitude values after the melatonin administration. These findings indicate that long-term food restriction sensitizes the circadian testicular axis to antigonadotropic action of the pineal gland. (author). 42 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab.

  17. Effect of alcoholic extract of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on testicular function in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GustavoF.Gonzales; JulioRubio; ArturoChung; ManuelGasco; LeonVillegas

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of the alcoholic extract of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on the spermatogenesisin male rats. Methods: In Holtzman rats, Maca alcoholic extract (5 %) was given by oral route at doses of 48 mg/day or 96 mg/day for 7 days, 14 days and 21 days. Testicular function was assessed by measurements of lengths of different stages of seminiferous epithelia and by epididymal sperm count. Results: Ethanolic extract of Maca increased the length of stages IX-XI of seminiferous epithelium at treatment day 7, day 14 and day 21. Progression of spermatogenesis was evident only after day 21 when lengths of stages XII-XIV of seminiferous epithelium were increased; at day 7 and day 14, no important change in spermatogenesis was observed. Epididymal sperm count was increased with 48 mg/day at all times. With 96 mg/day an increase in sperm count was observed at day 7, but it was reduced at day 14 and day 21 of treatment. Serum testosterone levels were not affected. Conclusion: The alcoholic extract of Maca activates onset ant progression of spermatogenesis at 48 mg/day or 96 mg/day in rats.

  18. The effects of long-term leptin administration on morphometrical changes of mice testicular tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Esmaili-Nejad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Leptin is a novel and interesting hormone for anyone trying to lose weight, but its effects on male gonad structure in longitudinal study is unknown. The present study was designed to explore morphometrical changes of mouse testicular tissue after long-term administration of leptin. Materials and Methods:Thirty healthy mature male mice were randomly assigned to either control (n=15 or treatment (n=15 groups. Leptin was intraperitoneally injected to the treatment group             (0.1 µg/100 µl of physiological saline once a day for 30 consecutive days, and control animals received normal saline with the same volume and route. Five mice from each experimental group were sacrificed at 15, 30 and 60 days after the beginning of treatments. Left testes were removed, weighted and then fixed in 10% buffered formalin, and stained with hematoxylin and eosine for morphometrical assays. Results:Except for sertoli cell nucleus diameter, which was affected from 30th day, evaluation of other morphometrical parameters such as Johnsen’s score, meiotic index, spermatogenesis, epithelial height, seminiferous tubules diameter and spermatogonial nucleus diameter revealed significant decrease from 15th day after leptin administration compare to those of the control group (P

  19. Evaluation of the effects of α-cypermethrin on fetal rat testicular steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saillenfait, Anne-Marie; Sabaté, Jean-Philippe; Denis, Flavien; Antoine, Guillaume; Robert, Alain; Roudot, Alain-Claude; Ndiaye, Dieynaba; Eljarrat, Ethel

    2017-09-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered the insecticide α-cypermethrin at doses of 0.1, 1, 5, or 10mg/kg/day, or di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP) at 250mg/kg/day, by gavage, from gestation day (GD) 13 to 19. Testicular testosterone production and the expression of several key genes related to cholesterol and androgen synthesis and transport were assessed in GD 19 male fetuses. Dams treated with 10mg/kg/day of α-cypermethrin showed clinical signs of neurotoxicity and reduced body weight gain. α-Cypermethrin had no significant effect on post-implantation loss, fetal weight, incidence of male fetuses per litter, or anogenital distance of the male fetuses. In the fetal testes, mRNA expressions of HMG-CoA synthase and reductase, SRB1, StAR, P450scc, 3βHSD, P450 17A1, and 17βHSD were not affected by exposure to α-cypermethrin. Testosterone production by the fetal testis was significantly reduced at 5 and 10mg/kg/day of α-cypermethrin, although to a much smaller extent than in DIBP-exposed fetuses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rosa damascena Mill. Essential Oil Has Protective Effect Against Testicular Damage in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Somayeh; Shomali, Tahoora; Haghighat, Aliakbar

    2017-08-09

    This study investigates the protective effect of Rosa damascena essential oil on diabetes-induced testicular damage in rats. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 equal groups: Group I: negative control (no treatment); Group II: positive control (diabetic by alloxan injection); Groups III-VI that rendered diabetic and received, respectively, 50, 100, 200, and 400 µg/kg/day rose oil, orally for 28 days. Rose oil did not significantly change body weight and blood glucose level as compared to positive control. Serum testosterone level of rose oil-treated rats remained statistically the same with both negative and positive control groups (Groups I and II). Rats treated with rose oil especially at 2 higher dosages (Groups V and VI) had higher sperm count and increased diameters of seminiferous tubules as compared to Group II. Rose oil even at the lowest dosage significantly increased cell count of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, Sertoli cells, and Leydig cells, with better outcomes for higher dosages. It appears that short-term repeated dose administration of rose oil can dose-dependently improve structural deteriorations of testes and epididymal sperm count in diabetic rats.

  1. Protective effects of analogs of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone against x-radiation-induced testicular damage in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schally, A.V.; Paz-Bouza, J.I.; Schlosser, J.V.; Karashima, T.; Debeljuk, L.; Gandle, B.; Sampson, M.

    1987-02-01

    Possible protective effects of the agonist (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH and antagonist N-Ac(D-Phe(pCl)/sup 1,2/,D-Trp/sup 3/,D-Arg/sup 6/,D-Ala/sup 10/)LH-RH against testicular damage caused by x-radiation were investigated in rats. Three months after being subjected to x-irradiation of the testes with 415 or 622 rads, control rats showed marked reduction in the weights of the testes and elevated levels of LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), indicating tubular damage. Histological studies demonstrated that, in testes of rats given 415 rads, most seminiferous tubules had only Sertoli cells and no germinal cells, and, in the group give 622 rads, the depression of spermatogenesis was even more marked. Rats pretreated for 50 days with LH-RH antagonist showed a complete recovery of testicular weights and spermatogenesis 3 months after 415 rads and showed partial recovery after 622 rads, and LH and FSH levels returned to normal in both of these groups. Three experiments were also carried out in which the rats were pretreated for 1-2 months with long-acting microcapsules of the agonist (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH. Some rats were then subjected to gonadal irradiation with 415 or 622 rads and allowed a recovery period of 2-4 months. On the basis of testicular weights, histology, and gonadotropin levels, it could be concluded that the agonist (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH did not protect the rat testes exposed to 622 rads and, at most, only partially protected against 415 rads. These results suggest that pretreatment with LH-RH antagonists and possibly agonists, might decrease the testicular damage caused by radiation and accelerate the recovery of reproductive functions.

  2. Testicular lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe; d'Amore, F; Christensen, Bjarne Egelund

    1994-01-01

    In a Danish population-based non-Hodgkin's lymphoma registry, 2687 newly diagnosed patients were registered from 1983 to 1992. 39 had testicular involvement (TL) (incidence 0.26/10(5)/year). Median age was 71 years. 24 cases had localised and 15 had disseminated disease. Histologically, all cases...... were diffuse (65% diffuse centroblastic type). Of the 27 tested, 11% were of T- and 89% of B-immunophenotype. In localised cases, where surgery was supplemented by combination chemotherapy (CCT), the relapse rate was 15.4%. The relapse rate for cases with localised disease treated with other regimens...

  3. [Segmental testicular infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripa Saldías, L; Guarch Troyas, R; Hualde Alfaro, A; de Pablo Cárdenas, A; Ruiz Ramo, M; Pinós Paul, M

    2006-02-01

    We report the case of a 47 years old man previously diagnosed of left hidrocele. After having a recent mild left testicular pain, an ultrasonografic study revealed a solid hipoecoic testicular lesion rounded by a big hidrocele, suggesting a testicular neoplasm. Radical inguinal orchiectomy was made and pathologic study showed segmental testicular infarction. No malignancy was found. We review the literature of the topic.

  4. Role of Inhibitors of Apoptosis Proteins in Testicular Function and Male Fertility: Effects of Polydeoxyribonucleotide Administration in Experimental Varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letteria Minutoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP and survivin might play an important role in testicular function. We investigated the effect of PDRN, an agonist of adenosine A2A receptor, on testicular NAIP and survivin expression in an experimental model of varicocele. After the creation of experimental varicocele (28 days, adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to one of the following treatments lasting 21 days: vehicle, PDRN (8 mg/kg i.p., daily, PDRN + 3,7-dimethyl-propargylxanthine (DMPX, a specific adenosine A2A-receptor antagonist, 0.1 mg/kg i.p., daily, varicocelectomy, and varicocelectomy + PDRN (8 mg/kg i.p., daily. Sham-operated animals were used as controls. Animals were then euthanized and testis expression of NAIP and survivin was evaluated through qRT-PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemical analysis. Spermatogenetic activity was also assessed. NAIP and survivin expressions were significantly reduced following varicocele induction when compared to sham animals whereas PDRN-treated rats showed an increase in NAIP and survivin levels. Immunohistochemistry revealed an enhanced expression of NAIP and survivin with a characteristic pattern of cellular localization following PDRN treatment. Moreover, administration of PDRN significantly restored spermatogenic function in varicocele rats. PDRN may represent a rational therapeutic option for accelerating recovery from depressed testicular function through a strategic modulation of apoptosis in experimental varicocele.

  5. Effects of 3-aminobenzamide on unilateral testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury: what is the role of PARP inhibition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekimoglu, Askin; Kurcer, Zehra; Aral, Faruk; Baba, Fusun; Atessahin, Ahmet; Sakin, Fatih

    2010-12-01

    The therapeutic effects of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibition by 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB) were investigated in testicular ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, using sperm analysis and histopathological and biochemical examinations, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Male rats were divided into 3 groups: sham (n = 12), I/R (n = 12), and I/R with 3-AB (I/R-3-AB) (n = 12). The left testicular artery was occluded for 1 h, followed by 24 h (for biochemical and histopathological examinations) and 30 days (for sperm analysis) of reperfusion. 3-AB treatment intraperitoneally 10 min prior to and 1 h after reperfusion increased the I/R-induced decrease in sperm motility in both testes and reduced the increased abnormal sperm rates in the ipsilateral testis. However, 3-AB treatment failed to prevent the I/R-induced decrease in sperm concentration in both testes. SOD and CAT activities did not change in any group. GSH-Px activity and GSH levels were increased by I/R. 3-AB treatment reversed the I/R-induced increase in GSH-Px activity, similar to the level in sham rats, but did not alter GSH levels. 3-AB treatment significantly increased the I/R-induced decrease in histopathologic score. In conclusion, 3-AB treatment has potential biochemical and histopathological benefits beyond improving sperm quality and may have the potential to decrease damage from testicular torsion.

  6. Combined effects of chronic hyperglycaemia and oral aluminium intoxication on testicular tissue and some male reproductive parameters in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinola, O B; Biliaminu, S A; Adedeji, O G; Oluwaseun, B S; Olawoyin, O M; Adelabu, T A

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to either environmental toxicants or chronic hyperglycaemia could impair male reproductive function. However, the extent to which exposure to such toxicants, in the presence of pre-existing metabolic dysfunction, could affect male reproduction is unclear. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were exposed to oral aluminium chloride at 250 ppm for 30 days; followed by evaluation of caudal epididymal sperm count and motility, assay for serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T) and oestradiol; and assessment of testicular histology. Moreover, blood glucose was evaluated by the glucose oxidase method. In rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ) or aluminium (Al) alone, erosion of testicular parenchyma and stroma was observed. This effect was most severe in diabetic rats simultaneously exposed to Al; coupled with reduced caudal epididymal sperm count that was least in this (STZ+Al) group (18.75 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ) compared with controls (61.25 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ; P < 0.05), STZ group or Al group. Moreover, these reproductive perturbations (in the STZ+Al group) were associated with reduced sperm motility and significantly reduced serum FSH (P < 0.05); but elevated serum T and oestradiol (P < 0.05), compared with control. These suggest that diabetes-induced testicular lesion is exacerbated by simultaneous oral Al toxicity in Wistar rats. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Testicular cancer in cryptorchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batata, M A; Chu, F C; Hilaris, B S; Whitmore, W F; Golbey, R B

    1982-03-01

    One-hundred thirty-seven patients with a history or clinical evidence of cryptorchidism and testicular germinal tumor were treated at our hospital from 1934 to 1976. Cryptorchidism was corrected ipsilaterally or contralaterally in 93 patients with intrascrotal testis cancer when they were from 2 to 42 years old, either spontaneously (24 patients), by orchiopexy (58 patients), or by hormonal therapy (11 patients). Forty-four cryptorchid patients (uncorrected cases) had either ipsilateral inguinal (24 patients), or abdominal (14 patients), or contralateral intrascrotal tumors (six patients). Tumor histologic types on orchiectomy were pure seminoma in 56 patients, embryonal carcinoma in 41, teratocarcinoma in 37, and pure choriocarcinoma in 3. The five-year survival rates were similar in the corrected (61%) and uncorrected (63%) cases, and they were higher in patients with pure seminoma (79%) than in patients with germinal carcinomas (50%). The majority (64 of 80) of five-year survivors received regional lymphatic irradiation in 41 patients with pure seminoma and/or systemic chemotherapy in 23 patients with other germinomas. Since the testicular tumors that developed despite correction of the cryptorchid state were predominantly (72%) germinal carcinomas, unilateral cryptorchidism, which usually is associated with testicular atrophy, should be treated by orchiectomy instead of orchiopexy to prevent ipsilateral carcinogenesis. Cryptorchid patients with testicles that descended late should be observed periodically, especially after the 20-year latent period, for early detection of cancer.

  8. The development of cat testicular sperm cryopreservation protocols: Effects of tissue fragments or sperm cell suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatdarong, Kaywalee; Thuwanut, Paweena; Morrell, Jane M

    2016-01-15

    In endangered animals that have been found dead or sterilized for medical reasons, testis is the ultimate source of haploid DNA or sperm. Thus, preservation of testicular sperm may be performed to rescue their genetics. The aim of this study was to evaluate protocols for testicular sperm freezing: as tissue fragments or cell suspension in domestic cats as a model. A pair of testes from each cat (n = 9) were cut into eight equal pieces. Four randomly selected pieces were cryopreserved as: (1) tissue pieces using two-step freezing; (2) tissue pieces using a slow passive cooling device (CoolCell); (3) sperm suspension after single-layer centrifugation (SLC) through colloids; and (4) sperm suspension without being processed through SLC. A testicular piece from each cat served as fresh control. Testicular sperm membrane and DNA integrity were evaluated before, and after, the cryopreservation process. In addition, spermatogenic cell types (testicular sperm, spermatogonia, spermatocyte, and spermatid) present in the suspension samples were counted before and after SLC. The results found that testicular sperm membrane integrity in the suspension after SLC process was higher than that in the fragment form neither using the two-step nor CoolCell freezing, both before and after freezing (before freezing: 92.3 ± 3.4 vs. 81 ± 4.5 and 80.0 ± 7.0; after freezing: 84.5 ± 4.6 vs. 71.2 ± 12 and 76.2 ± 4.6; P ≤ 0.05). Testicular sperm DNA integrity was, however, not different among groups. Furthermore, the samples processed through the SLC had higher ration of sperm cells: other spermatogenic cells than those were not processed through the SLC (88.9 ± 3.8 vs. 30 ± 7.9; P ≤ 0.05). In summary, testicular sperm cryopreserved as a minced suspension is considered suitable in terms of preventing sperm membrane integrity, and SLC is considered a selection tool for enriching haploid sperm cells from castrated or postmortem cats.

  9. Transient inhibitory effect of methoxychlor on testicular steroidogenesis in rat: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithinathan, S; Saradha, B; Mathur, P P

    2008-11-01

    Methoxychlor, an organochlorine pesticide, has been reported to induce reproductive abnormalities in male reproductive tract. To get more insight into the mechanism(s) of gonadal toxicity provoked by methoxychlor, we investigated whether treatment with methoxychlor at low observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) would alter the activities of steroidogenic enzymes such as Delta(5)3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) and Delta(5)17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD), the expression levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein and androgen binding protein (ABP) in the testis of adult male rats. The experimental rats were exposed to a single dose of methoxychlor (50 mg/kg body weight) orally. The rats were killed at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 72 h following treatment using anesthetic ether and testes were collected, processed and used to measure the activities of 3beta-HSD, 17beta-HSD, levels of hydrogen peroxide produced and the expression levels of StAR protein, and ABP. Methoxychlor administration resulted in a sequential reduction in the expression of StAR protein and activities of 3beta-HSD, 17beta-HSD with concomitant increase in the levels of hydrogen peroxide in the testis. These changes were significant between 6-12 h following treatment. The levels of ABP declined at 6-12 h following exposure to methoxychlor. The present study demonstrates transient effect of methoxychlor at LOAEL on testicular steroidogenesis and the possible role of hydrogen peroxide in mediating these effects.

  10. Transient inhibitory effect of methoxychlor on testicular steroidogenesis in rat: an in vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaithinathan, S.; Saradha, B.; Mathur, P.P. [Pondicherry University, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Life Sciences, Pondicherry (India)

    2008-11-15

    Methoxychlor, an organochlorine pesticide, has been reported to induce reproductive abnormalities in male reproductive tract. To get more insight into the mechanism(s) of gonadal toxicity provoked by methoxychlor, we investigated whether treatment with methoxychlor at low observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) would alter the activities of steroidogenic enzymes such as {delta}{sup 5}3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) and {delta}{sup 5}17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17{beta}-HSD), the expression levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein and androgen binding protein (ABP) in the testis of adult male rats. The experimental rats were exposed to a single dose of methoxychlor (50 mg/kg body weight) orally. The rats were killed at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 72 h following treatment using anesthetic ether and testes were collected, processed and used to measure the activities of 3{beta}-HSD, 17{beta}-HSD, levels of hydrogen peroxide produced and the expression levels of StAR protein, and ABP. Methoxychlor administration resulted in a sequential reduction in the expression of StAR protein and activities of 3{beta}-HSD, 17{beta}-HSD with concomitant increase in the levels of hydrogen peroxide in the testis. These changes were significant between 6-12 h following treatment. The levels of ABP declined at 6-12 h following exposure to methoxychlor. The present study demonstrates transient effect of methoxychlor at LOAEL on testicular steroidogenesis and the possible role of hydrogen peroxide in mediating these effects. (orig.)

  11. Effects of acidic water, aluminum, and manganese on testicular steroidogenesis in Astyanax altiparanae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Bianca Mayumi Silva; Abdalla, Raisa Pereira; Moreira, Renata Guimarães

    2016-10-01

    Metals can influence the gonadal steroidogenesis and endocrine systems of fish, thereby affecting their reproduction. The effects of aluminum and manganese in acidic water were investigated on steroidogenesis in sexually mature male Astyanax altiparanae. Whether mature male fish recover from the effects of metals in metal-free water was also assessed. The fish were exposed to 0.5 mg L(-1) of isolated or combined aluminum and manganese in acidic pH (5.5) to keep the metals bioavailable. The fish underwent 96 h of acute exposure, and samples were taken 24 and 96 h after the beginning of the experiment. The fish were then maintained in metal-free water for 96 h. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, 17β-estradiol, and cortisol were measured. Acidic water increased the plasma concentration of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone. Aluminum increased the testosterone levels after 96 h of exposure. Manganese increased the 17β-estradiol levels after 24 h of exposure and maintained at high levels until the end of the experiment. With the exception of acidic pH, which increased cortisol levels after 24 h of exposure, no changes were observed in this corticosteroid during the acute experiment. Aluminum and manganese together also altered steroid levels but without a standard variation. The fish recovered from the effects of most exposure conditions after 96 h in metal-free water. A. altiparanae could use reproductive tactics to trigger changes in testicular steroidogenesis by accelerating spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis, which may interfere with their reproductive dynamics.

  12. Effect of bilateral testicular resection on thymocyte and its microenvironment in aged mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Yun WEI; Jin-Kun ZHANG; Jun LI; Su-Biao CHEN

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To observe the changes in thymocyte and its microenvironment in aged mice after bilateral testicular resection.Methods: In male old mice, at the 25th day after testicular resection, the peripheral blood and thymus were collected. Blood and thymus suspension smears were prepared for quantitative histochemistry and immunohistochemistry study under light and electron microscopes. Results: In testes resected mice the size and the weight of thymus were markedly increased. The demarcation between cortex and medulla was clear. The cortex was thickened and the cell density was increased. The ratio of cortex/medulla stereometry was increased. The total cell count, thymocyte count,the percentage of acid α-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) positive thymocytes, nonlymphocytes and the rosette formation of macrophages and thymocytes were all increased. The thymocytes surrounded closely to the light thymic epithelial cells, dendritic cells or macrophages. The lymphocytes, particularly the ANAE positive lymphocytes of peripheral blood were increased. Conclusion: After bilateral testicular resection, the thymus of aged male mice showed morphological regeneration and the thymocytes and its microenvironment appeared to be definitely improved. It is suggested that testicular resection may improve immune function.

  13. Protective effect of sildenafil citrate on contralateral testis injury after unilateral testicular torsion/detorsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Yíldíz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to investigate prevention of contralateral testicular injury with sildenafil citrate after unilateral testicular torsion/detorsion. METHODS: Thirty-seven adult male rats were divided into four groups: sham operated (group 1, n = 7, torsion/detorsion + saline (group 2, n = 10, torsion/detorsion + 0.7 mg of sildenafil citrate (group 3, n = 10 and torsion/detorsion + 1.4 mg of sildenafil citrate (group 4, n = 10. Unilateral testicular torsion was created by rotating the right testis 720º in a clockwise direction for 2 h in other groups, except for group 1, which was served as sham group. After torsion (2 h and detorsion (2 h periods, rats were killed. RESULTS: The level of reduced glutathion (GSH (p0.05. Histopathological changes were detected in groups 2, 3 and 4. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that biochemically and histologically torsion/detorsion injury occurs in the contralateral testis following 2-h torsion and 2-h detorsion and that administration of low-dose sildenafil citrate before detorsion prevents ischemia/reperfusion cellular damage in testicular tissue.

  14. Isolated testicular relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukemia - Effective treatment with the modified CCG-112 protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shama Goyal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The testes have been considered a sanctuary site for leukemic cells and testicular relapses used to account for a major proportion of the poor outcome of boys with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. With use of aggressive chemotherapy which includes intermediate or high dose methotrexate, the incidence of testicular relapses has declined. However once these patients have received cranial irradiation as a part of the front line protocol, high dose methotrexate needs to be avoided because of risk of developing leucoencephalopathy. AIM: To study the use of non cross resistant chemotherapeutic agents along with a regimen containing lower doses of methotrexate in patients of isolated testicular relapse (ITR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 12 consecutive patients with ITR treated with modified version of the CCG-112 protocol which consists of intensive systemic chemotherapy, cranial chemoprophylaxis along with testicular irradiation. RESULTS: One patient died of regimen related toxicity. Two patients relapsed in the bone marrow during maintenance. Of the nine patients who completed treatment, eight are alive and in remission. One patient had a bone marrow relapse two months after completing treatment. The Kaplan Meier estimates give us an Event Free Survival (EFS of 66.7% at 10 yrs. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, though the incidence is very low, patients with ITR should be treated aggressively since they have an excellent chance of achieving a long term EFS.

  15. Effects of electromagnetic radiation on morphology and TGF-β3 expression in mouse testicular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yaning; Wang, Xiaowu; Chen, Yongbin; Xu, Shenglong; Ding, Guirong; Shi, Changhong

    2013-08-09

    Exposure to electromagnetic pulses in certain doses may lead to increase in the permeability of the blood testes barrier (BTB) in mice, which in turn affects spermatogenesis, penetration and spermiation. TGF-β3 is a key molecule involved in BTB permeability via regulation of tight junction proteins, and it participates in regulating spermatogenesis, synthesis of steroids and production of the extracellular matrix in testicular tissue. Therefore, it is hypothesized that TGF-β3 plays important roles in electromagnetic pulse (EMP)-induced changes in BTB permeability. In the present study, we carried out whole-body irradiation on mice using EMP of different intensities. No obvious pathological changes or significant increase in apoptosis was detected in testicular tissues after exposure to 100 and 200 pulses of intensity 200kV/m; however, with 400 pulses we observed the degeneration and shrinkage of testicular tissues along with a significant increase in apoptotic rate. Moreover, in the 100- and 200-EMP groups, a non-significant increase in TGF-β3 mRNA and protein expression was observed, whereas in the 400-EMP group a significant increase was observed (P<0.05). These results indicate that increase in the apoptotic rate of testicular tissues and increase in TGF-β3 expression may be one of the mechanisms for EMP-induced increase in BTB permeability in mice.

  16. The effects of electromagnetic waves emitted by the cell phones on the testicular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Muhammet Ihsan; Gökçe, Ali Murat; Koca, Orhan; Karaman, Bilal; Öztürk, Metin Ishak; Yurdakul, Necati; Ercan, Feriha

    2014-12-30

    Various risks have emerged in parallel to the rapidly increasing use of cell phones. Herein we studied the effects of cell phone emitted electromagnetic waves (EMW) on rat testes. Twenty one adult male Albino rats were grouped into 3 groups each consisting of 7 rats. The first group was exposed to EMW on talk mode for 8 hours per day for 20 days and then their testes were extracted. The testes of the second group were extracted after 20 days of whole day EMW exposure. The third group was the control group. For the statistical analysis Mann- Whitney U analysis was performed. At light microscopic examination of the testicular tissue, the existence of a high number of immature cells in the lumen of the seminiferous tubule in addition to the normal seminiferous tubules, besides irregular tubules with a reduction in the spermatogenic cell lines and tubules without lumen were observed in groups 1 and 2. Histopathological alterations were scored as 0 = none, 1 = low, 2 = medium, 3 = serious. The average scores of the three groups were found to be 4.25 ± 1.5 for the group 1, 4.33 ± 3.9 for the group 2 and 0.37 ± 1.1 for the group 3 respectively. As a result of the statistical evaluation, group 1 and group 2 had significantly higher scores than the control group (p = 0.001). Infertility is one of the current problems of today due to a rapid increase in its incidence and cost. The negative effects of the EMWs on the testis should be taken into account and the necessary measures should be taken for prevention.

  17. The effects of electromagnetic waves emitted by the cell phones on the testicular tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Ihsan Karaman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Various risks have emerged in parallel to the rapidly increasing use of cell phones. Herein we studied the effects of cell phone emitted electromagnetic waves (EMW on rat testes. Material and Methods: Twenty one adult male Albino rats were grouped into 3 groups each consisting of 7 rats. The first group was exposed to EMW on talk mode for 8 hours per day for 20 days and then their testes were extracted. The testes of the second group were extracted after 20 days of whole day EMW exposure. The third group was the control group. For the statistical analysis Mann- Whitney U analysis was performed. Results: At light microscopic examination of the testicular tissue, the existence of a high number of immature cells in the lumen of the seminiferous tubule in addition to the normal seminiferous tubules, besides irregular tubules with a reduction in the spermatogenic cell lines and tubules without lumen were observed in groups 1 and 2. Histopathological alterations were scored as 0 = none, 1 = low, 2 = medium, 3 = serious. The average scores of the three groups were found to be 4.25 ± 1.5 for the group 1, 4.33 ± 3.9 for the group 2 and 0.37 ± 1.1 for the group 3 respectively. As a result of the statistical evaluation, group 1 and group 2 had significantly higher scores than the control group (p = 0.001. Conclusion: Infertility is one of the current problems of today due to a rapid increase in its incidence and cost. The negative effects of the EMWs on the testis should be taken into account and the necessary measures should be taken for prevention.

  18. Effects of Two Testicular Cancer Education Programs on Self-Examination Knowledge and Attitudes among College-Aged Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    This study compared instructional outcomes of two education programs about testicular cancer and testicular self-examination. Instruction facilitated by a former testicular cancer patient was compared to information provided by printed materials. There was no difference in information dissemination, but possible differences in attitude resulted.…

  19. Effects of Two Testicular Cancer Education Programs on Self-Examination Knowledge and Attitudes among College-Aged Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    This study compared instructional outcomes of two education programs about testicular cancer and testicular self-examination. Instruction facilitated by a former testicular cancer patient was compared to information provided by printed materials. There was no difference in information dissemination, but possible differences in attitude resulted.…

  20. Testicular Morphometry and Sperm Quality of Rabbit Bucks Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Testicular Morphometry and Sperm Quality of Rabbit Bucks Fed Graded Levels ... for their nutritional and medicinal values and are rich in minerals and vitamins. ... used to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on testicular ...

  1. Effects of peppermint teas on plasma testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone levels and testicular tissue in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdogan, Mehmet; Ozguner, Meltem; Kocak, Ahmet; Oncu, Meral; Cicek, Ekrem

    2004-08-01

    To justify the effects of Mentha piperita labiatae and Mentha spicata labiatae herbal teas on plasma total testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels and testicular histologic features. We performed this study because of major complaints in our area from men about the adverse effects of these herbs on male reproductive function. The experimental study included 48 male Wistar albino rats (body weight 200 to 250 g). The rats were randomized into four groups of 12 rats each. The control group was given commercial drinking water, and the experimental groups were given 20 g/L M. piperita tea, 20 g/L M. spicata tea, or 40 g/L M. spicata tea. The follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels had increased and total testosterone levels had decreased in the experimental groups compared with the control group; the differences were statistically significant. Also, the Johnsen testicular biopsy scores were significantly different statistically between the experimental groups and the control group. Although the mean seminiferous tubular diameter of the experimental groups was relatively greater than in the control group, the difference was not statistically significant. The only effects of M. piperita on testicular tissue was segmental maturation arrest in the seminiferous tubules; however, the effects of M. spicata extended from maturation arrest to diffuse germ cell aplasia in relation to the dose. Despite the beneficial effects of M. piperita and M. spicata in digestion, we should also be aware of the toxic effects when the herbs are not used in the recommended fashion or at the recommended dose.

  2. Polygenic susceptibility to testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litchfield, Kevin; Mitchell, Jonathan S; Shipley, Janet

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) combined with its strong heritable basis suggests that stratified screening for the early detection of TGCT may be clinically useful. We modelled the efficiency of such a personalised screening approach, based on genetic...... known TGCT susceptibility variants. The diagnostic performance of testicular biopsy and non-invasive semen analysis was also assessed, within a simulated combined screening programme. RESULTS: The area under the curve for the TGCT PRS model was 0.72 with individuals in the top 1% of the PRS having...

  3. Testicular germ cell tumor: Short and long-term side effects of treatment among survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Thierry; Sideris, Spyridon; Aoun, Fouad; van Velthoven, Roland; Sirtaine, Nicolas; Paesmans, Marianne; Ameye, Lieveke; Awada, Ahmad; Devriendt, Daniel; Peltier, Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    Long-term prognosis of germ cell tumor (GCT) types is excellent, however, treatment is associated with non-negligible complication rates and a negative impact on quality of life. The present study described treatment results in terms of survival, both short and long-term toxicity, and paternity rates in a cohort of patients treated at Jules Bordet Institute, University ULB of Brussels (Brussels, Belgium). The present study analyzed the data of a cohort of patients with GCT types. Pre-operative patient and tumor characteristics were described. Performance status, pulmonary function tests and renal clearance prior to chemotherapy were noted. Chemotherapeutic regimens and their associated toxicities were analyzed. The duration to event-free, cancer-specific and overall survivals were estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves. A total of 115 patients (median age, 31-years-old) were treated for a GCT at Jules Bordet Institute. At a median follow-up of 6-years, 11 (10%) patients had relapsed and 2 (2%) developed a second malignant neoplasm. At the final follow-up, 97 (89%) and 6 (5.5%) patients exhibited complete and partial remission, respectively. A total of 6% of patients exhibited a progressive disease. In terms of short-term toxicity, 11% of patients presented with febrile neutropenia. The 10-year overall survival rate and relapse-free survival rate were 93.4 and 89.8%, respectively. The paternity rate post-treatment was 27%. Testicular GCT survivors suffered from short- and long-term treatment-associated side effects on both a physical and psychological level. A long-term close follow-up is necessary in order to assist the patient with these treatment-induced complications.

  4. Effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic field exposure on testicular germ cell apoptosis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinSangLee; SangSeokAhn; KyeongCheonJung; Yoon-WonKim; SangKonLee

    2004-01-01

    Aim:To evaluate the effects of 60 Hz extremely low frequency (ELF) elelctromagnetic field (EMF) exposure on germ cell apoptosis in the testis of mice.Methods:Adult male BALB/c mice (7 weeks of age) were exposed to a 60 Hz EMF of 0.1 mT or 0.5 mT for 24 h/day.A sham-exposed group served as the control.After 8 weeks of exposure,the mice were sacrificed.Germ cell apoptosis in the testis was assessed by histopathological examination,the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay (TUNEL) and flow cytometric examination of isolated spermatogenic cells stained with 7 aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD).Results:EMF exposure did not significantly affect the body and testis weights,but significantly increased the incidence of germ cell death.The distinguishing morphological feature of EMF exposure was a decrement in the number of well organized seminiferous tubules.Quantitative analysis of TUNEL-positive germ cells showed a significantly higher apoptotic rate in the 0.5 mT exposed mice than that in the sham controls (P<0.05),while the difference between the two exposed groups was insignificant.The TUNEL-positive cells were mainly spermatogonia.In flow cytometryanalysis,the percentage of live cells [forward scatter count (FSC)hgh7-AAD-] was lower in the exposed groups than that in the controls (Figure 5A),but the decrease in viability was not statistically significant.Conclusion:Continuousexposure to ELF EMF may induce testicular germ cell apoptosis in mice.(Asian J Androl 2004 Mar;6:29-34)

  5. Tuberculous orchitis mimicking a testicular tumor: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Dayal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year old man presented with 5 months history of left scrotal mass and had underwent left orchidectomy following a presumptive diagnosis of testicular tumour. Histopathological diagnosis of testicular tuberculosis was subsequently made, which revealed a case of isolated TB orchitis. It signifies that the careful evaluation of patients with testicular mass is extremely significant for diagnostic accuracy, optimal treatment and avoiding unnecessary surgery in case of testicular tuberculosis. Simultaneously it will also help in early detection of testicular malignancies and vital for the clinicians to avoid negligence charges.

  6. Tuberculous orchitis mimicking a testicular tumor:A diagnostic dilemma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SeemaDayal; AlokKumar; SP Singh; ArchanaVerma

    2014-01-01

    A37-year old man presented with5 months history of left scrotal mass and had underwent left orchidectomy following a presumptive diagnosis of testicular tumour.Histopathological diagnosis of testicular tuberculosis was subsequently made, which revealed a case of isolatedTB orchitis. It signifies that the careful evaluation of patients with testicular mass is extremely significant for diagnostic accuracy, optimal treatment and avoiding unnecessary surgery in case of testicular tuberculosis.Simultaneously it will also help in early detection of testicular malignancies and vital for the clinicians to avoid negligence charges.

  7. Testicular Microlithiasis: Is It Associated with Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is there a link between testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer? Answers from Erik P. Castle, M.D. Testicular microlithiasis (tes-TIK-yoo- ... studies show a relationship between testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer. However, it remains unclear whether having testicular microlithiasis ...

  8. Tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids mimic direct but not receptor-mediated inhibitory effects of estrogens and phytoestrogens on testicular endocrine function. Possible significance for Leydig cell insufficiency in alcohol addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stammel, W.; Thomas, H. (Univ. Ulm (West Germany)); Staib, W.; Kuehn-Velten, W.K. (Heinrich-Heine-Univ., Duesseldorf (West Germany))

    1991-01-01

    Possible effects of various tetrahydroisoquinolines (TIQs) on rat testicular endocrine function were tested in vitro in order to prove whether these compounds may be mediators of the development of Leydig cell insufficiency. TIQ effects on different levels of regulation of testis function were compared in vitro with estrogen effects, since both classes of compounds have structural similarities. Gonadotropin-stimulated testosterone production by testicular Leydig cells was inhibited by tetrahydropapaveroline and isosalsoline, the IC{sub 50} values being comparable to those of estradiol, 2-hydroxyestradiol, and the phytoestrogens, coumestrol and genistein; salsolinol and salsoline were less effective, and salsolidine was ineffective. None of these TIQs interacted significantly with testicular estrogen receptor as analyzed by estradiol displacement. However, tetrahydropapaveroline, isosalsoline and salsolinol competitively inhibited substrate binding to cytochrome P45OXVII, with similar efficiency as the estrogens did; salsoline and salsolidine were again much less effective.

  9. Effect of 2-deoxy-D-glucose induced metabolic stress on testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status in golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus: Role of photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana

    2015-12-01

    The driving force underlying the evolution of reproductive seasonality is the marked seasonal fluctuation in energy availability. It is well established that photoperiod regulates testicular steroidogenesis through modulation of circulatory and local melatonin levels and MT1R expression in golden hamster. However, photoperiodic variation in energy availability and its impact on testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status has never been investigated for any seasonal breeder. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to elucidate the role of photoperiod in modulation of metabolic stress induced variation in steroidogenesis and antioxidant status in testes. We experimentally reduced energy availability via administration of 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG), a synthetic glucose analog, in critical- (CP), long- (LD) and short-day (SD) exposed golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus and examined testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status. Administration of 2-DG decreased testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant enzyme activity in CP and LD experienced hamsters as compared to CP- and LD-control groups. Moreover, a decrease in the plasma- and local-melatonin level and MT1R expression in testes with a simultaneous increase in plasma corticosterone level was noted following 2-DG administration in CP and LD exposed hamsters. In contrast, no significant effect of 2-DG administration was observed on the parameters investigated under SD condition. Therefore, it can be suggested that the reduction in energy availability under CP and LD condition suppressed testicular steroidogenesis and increased oxidative damage in testis whereas SD induced melatonin might have buffered the 2-DG induced suppression of testicular steroidogenesis and maintained testicular antioxidant status.

  10. Liver X receptors interfere with the deleterious effect of diethylstilbestrol on testicular physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oumeddour, Abdelkader [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Génétique Reproduction et Développement, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6293, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); INSERM, UMR 1103, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Laboratoire de Neuroendocrinologie Appliquée, Université Badji Mokhtar Annaba, BP12, 23000 Annaba (Algeria); Viennois, Emilie; Caira, Françoise; Decourbey, Clélia [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Génétique Reproduction et Développement, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6293, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); INSERM, UMR 1103, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Maqdasy, Salwan [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Génétique Reproduction et Développement, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6293, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); INSERM, UMR 1103, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Service d’endocrinologie, diabétologie et maladies métaboliques, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, F-63003 Clermont-Ferrand (France); and others

    2014-04-11

    basally important for testicular physiology but could also have a preventive effect against estrogen-like endocrine disruptors.

  11. Testicular epidermoid cyst; Quiste epidermoide testicular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabaza, M. J.; Medina, A.; Lopez, G.; Pardo, P. [Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves. Granada (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    The testicular epidermoid cyst is an uncommon benign tumor that represents 1% to 2% of resected testicular masses. The observation of the characteristic ultrasonographic features of these lesions facilitates their diagnosis and may make it possible to perform enucleation, obviating the need for orchidectomy. We present two cases in which the testicular epidermoid cysts were diagnosed preoperatively and their presence confirmed after conservative surgery. We review the literature concerning imaging studies and the management of these lesions. (Author) 9 refs.

  12. AMELIORATIVE EFFECT OF PUNICA GRANATUM ETHANOLIC EXTRACT IN CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE INDUCED TESTICULAR TOXICITY IN MALE WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Bhargavan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To explore the potential role of Punica granatum ethanolic extract (PGEE in Cyclophosphamide (CP induced testicular toxicity. Methods: Healthy male Wistar rats were allotted to 4 groups (N=6, each Group I: Control, Group II: CP 15mg/kg twice a week, Group III: PGEE 100mg/kg, Group IV: CP and PGEE for 28 days. At the end of the treatment period, organ weight, body weight, epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, SOD, catalase, GSH, ACP & testosterone level in the testis were evaluated. Results: The CP treated rats showed toxicity evidenced by decreased organ and body weight, decreased sperm quality and testosterone level also increase in MDA and decrease in antioxidants SOD, GSH indicating oxidative stress. In contrast PGEE co-treatment with CP resulted in significant restoration of the above mentioned parameters. Conclusion: These results indicate that PGEE attenuates CP induced testicular toxicity through its ROS scavenging activity.

  13. Chlorpyrifos induced testicular damage in rats: ameliorative effect of glutathione antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsharkawy, Eman E; Yahia, Doha; El-Nisr, Neveen A

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the induction of oxidative stress in the testes of adult rats exposed to chlorpyrifos (CPF). CPF was administered orally, in a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight to male rats for 90 days, twice weekly. Coadministration of water-soluble nonenzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH) was performed in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, orally, for the same period. Another two groups of male rats were administered GSH and corn oil, respectively. The activities of superoxide dismutase and GSH reductase were decreased while the levels of lipid peroxidation were increased in the testicular tissues of the exposed animals. Testosterone level in the serum was significantly decreased. A decrease in the histochemical determination of testicular alkaline phosphatase was observed in CPF-treated rats. A significant decrease in all stages of spermatogenesis in the seminiferous tubules was recorded in the exposed animals. Coadministration of GSH restored these parameters.

  14. Chlorpyrifos -induced testicular damage in rats: The effect of glutathione antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. El-Nisr

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available   This study investigated the induction of oxidative stress in the testis of adult rat exposed to Chlorpyriphos (CPF. CPF was administered orally, in a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight to male rats for 90 days/ twice/ weekly. Co- administration of water soluble non enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH was given in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, oral, for the same period. Another two groups of male rats were administered GSH and corn oil, respectively. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase were decreased while the levels of lipid peroxidation were increased in the testicular tissues of the exposed animals. Testosterone hormone level in the serum was significantly decreased. The decrease in the histochemical determination of testicular alkaline phosphatase was observed in CPF-treated rats. A significant decrease in all stages of spermatogenesis in the seminiferous tubules was recorded in the exposed animals. Co-dministration of GSH restored these parameters.

  15. Effect of testicular capsulotomy on lipid droplets in the seminiferous tubules of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Nian QIN; Mary A. Lung

    2001-01-01

    Aim: In order to reveal the histochemical alteration that might occur during the processes of the spermatogenic dis mption induced by testicular capsulotomy, the location and alteration of lipid droplets in the seminiferous tubules were observed in the present study. Methods: Osmium tetroxide was used to demonstrate the lipid droplets in the semi niferous tubules of capsulotomized and sham-operated control testes. Results: In the seminiferous tubules of the sham-operated rat testes, many small lipid droplets were located close to the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubules. But for the capsulotomized testes, the lipid droplets in the seminiferous tubules had increased in size and num ber, with many lipid droplets migrated towards the lumen of the tubules. Conclusion: The results indicated that a progressive fatty degeneration occurred in the seminiferous tubules after testicular capsulotomy.

  16. Effects of mecobalamin on testicular dysfunction induced by X-ray irradiation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshio, Shigeru; Yazaki, Tsunetada; Umeda, Takashi (Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Ozaki, Satoru; Ohkawa, Isao; Tajima, Tetsuya; Yamada, Takeshi; Mohri, Hideo

    1991-12-01

    Experimental testicular dysfunction was produced by X-ray irradiation to the testes in mice. Mecobalamin (CH{sub 3}-B{sub 12}) was orally administered at a daily dose of 0.01, 0.1 or 1 mg/kg six times a week for 8 weeks from the next day after the irradiation. The control mice received physiological saline in the same manner. On 4th- and 6th-week after the irradiation, the weights of testes and epididymides were decreased, although those of the body and accessory sex glands (seminal vesicle, coagulating gland and prostate) were nearly equal to those of non-irradiated mice. At the same time, the diameter of seminiferous tubules decreased and sperm parameters (sperm count, sperm motility and sperm abnormality) deteriorated. When CH{sub 3}-B{sub 12} (1 mg/kg) was administered, the diameter of seminiferous tubules increased and sperm parameters improved as compared to those of the control. The results indicate that CH{sub 3}-B{sub 12} improved the experimental testicular dysfunction in mice induced by the irradiation. These results suggest that CH{sub 3}-B{sub 12} might accelerate testicular function. (author).

  17. [Effects of mecobalamin on testicular dysfunction induced by X-ray irradiation in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, S; Yazaki, T; Umeda, T; Ozaki, S; Ohkawa, I; Tajima, T; Yamada, T; Mohri, H

    1991-12-01

    Experimental testicular dysfunction were produced by X-ray irradiation to the testes in mice. Mecobalamin (CH3-B12) was orally administered at a daily dose of 0.01, 0.1 or 1 mg/kg six times a week for 8 weeks from the next day after the irradiation. The control mice received physiological saline in the same manner. On 4th- and 6th-week after the irradiation, the weights of testes and epididymides were decreased, although those of the body and accessory sex glands (seminal vesicle, coagulating gland and prostate) were nearly equal to those of non-irradiated mice. At the same time, the diameter of seminiferous tubules decreased and sperm parameters (sperm count, sperm motility and sperm abnormality) deteriorated. When CH3-B12 (1 mg/kg) was administered, the diameter of seminiferous tubules increased and sperm parameters improved as compared to those of the control. The results indicate that CH3-B12 improved the experimental testicular dysfunction in mice induced by the irradiation. These results suggest that CH3-B12 might accelerate testicular function.

  18. Effects of polydeoxyribonucleotide on the histological damage and the altered spermatogenesis induced by testicular ischaemia and reperfusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minutoli, L; Antonuccio, P; Squadrito, F; Bitto, A; Nicotina, P A; Fazzari, C; Polito, F; Marini, H; Bonvissuto, G; Arena, S; Morgia, G; Romeo, C; Caputi, A P; Altavilla, D

    2012-04-01

    The effects of polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN), an agonist of the A2A adenosine receptors which when activated positively influences sperm activity, were tested in an experimental testicular ischaemia/reperfusion injury model. Anaesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to testicular torsion-induced ischaemia, followed by reperfusion (TI/R). Immediately after detorsion, randomized animals, including SHAM, received intraperitoneal injections of: (i) vehicle (1 mL/kg 0.9% NaCl solution); (ii) PDRN (8 mg/kg); (iii) DMPX (3,7-dimethyl-1-propargilxanthine, 0.1 mg/kg); or (iv) PDRN (8 mg/kg) + DMPX (0.1 mg/kg). Animals were euthanized at 1, 7 and 30 days following reperfusion. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression is normally associated with adenosine A2A receptor stimulation. After treatment, VEGF mRNA/protein expression quantified by qPCR and Western blot, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA measured by qPCR, VEGF and VEGFR1 assessed using immunohistochemical methods, histological staining and spermatogenic activity were all analysed. Testis ischaemia-reperfusion (TI/R) injury caused increases in VEGF mRNA and protein, VEGFR1 and eNOS mRNA, histological damage and reduced spermatogenic activity. Immunostaining showed a lower expression of VEGF in germinal epithelial cells and a strong expression of VEGFR1 in Leydig cells after TI/R. PDRN administration increased significantly VEGF message/protein, VEGFR1 and eNOS message, decreased histological damage and ameliorated spermatogenic activity. PDRN might be useful in the management of testicular torsion.

  19. Effects of intratesticular zinc gluconate treatment on testicular dimensions, echodensity, histology, sperm production, and testosterone secretion in American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Leonardo F C; Sertich, Patricia L; Rives, William; Knobbe, Marc; Del Piero, Fabio; Stull, Gordon B

    2011-05-01

    Eight adult American black bears were used to evaluate the effects of chemical castration by intratesticular zinc gluconate treatment on testicular dimensions, echodensity, histology, sperm production, and testosterone secretion. Treatment did not affect testicular dimensions and did not result in decreased resting or GnRH-stimulated testosterone secretion. Multifocal hyperchoic areas in the testicular parenchyma were observed on ultrasound examination, and white foci were observed on gross pathology examination after zinc gluconate treatment. Histologically, there were normal seminiferous tubules containing either round or elongated spermatids, along with abnormal tubules in all bears after treatment. Vacuolation of the seminiferous epithelium, sloughing of germ cells into the tubules' lumen, presence of multinuclear giant cells, and reduced height of the seminiferous epithelium with missing generations of germ cells were commonly observed. The most severe testicular changes were multifocal and included fibrosis, complete degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium with shrinkage of the tubule, and sperm stasis. Epididymal sperm reserve was 982.74 ± 654.16 × 10(6) sperm (mean ± SEM) and motile sperm were observed in the epididymis of all but one of the bears. In conclusion, although intratesticular zinc gluconate treatment in black bears resulted in testicular degenerative changes detected by ultrasound and histology examinations, sperm production was not completely ablated. We inferred that normal fertility might have been compromised, but treatment unlikely resulted in sterility.

  20. Does cisplatin-based chemotherapy effect on blood lipid levels of patients with germ cell testicular tumor in long-term follow-up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Gokhan; Divrik, Taner Rauf; Unlu, Nuri; Bulut, Volkan; Zorlu, Ferruh

    2011-12-01

    Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is widely used in the treatment for germ cell testicular tumors. However, long-term complications of this treatment have gained importance, and hypercholesterolemia is one of these. In some studies, hypercholesterolemia is reported following the cisplatin-based chemotherapy. In this study, we evaluated the relationship of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and blood lipid levels in long-term survivors of patients with germ cell testicular tumors. A total of 89 testicular cancer patients were evaluated between December 1989 and December 2001. Of these, while 39 received cisplatin-based chemotherapy (Group 1), the remaining control group of 50 testicular cancer patients (Group 2) had no adjuvant treatment. The patients in both groups had at least 5-year follow-up and had no known cardiovascular disease. Fasting lipid profiles were obtained including total cholesterol, triglyceride, low- and high-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein. These values were compared with the normal range, and the statistical difference between the two groups was evaluated. Student's t test was used for continuous variables, and P chemotherapy in germ cell testicular tumors did not have long-term negative effect on blood lipid levels.

  1. Public awareness of testicular cancer and testicular self-examination in academic environments: a lost opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry A. A. Ugboma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although testicular cancer is the most common cancer among 18- to 50-year-old males, healthcare providers seldom teach testicular self-examination techniques to clients, thus potentially missing opportunities for early detection. This form of cancer is easily diagnosable by testicular self-examination and is 96% curable if detected early. Periodic self-examination must be performed for early detection. Knowledge deficits and sociocultural norms contribute to low levels of health-related knowledge in most patients, resulting in undue delays before seeking medical advice. OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to assess the level of awareness of testicular cancer and the prevalence of the practice of testicular self-examination in academic environments to enable appropriate interventions. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 750 consecutive males aged 18-50 years in three tertiary institutions in Port Harcourt from October 2008 to April 2009. RESULT: Knowledge or awareness of testicular cancer was poor. Almost all of the respondents were unaware that testicular lumps may be signs of cancer. A lump was typically construed as a benign carbuncle or something that could resolve spontaneously. The main factor contributing to respondents' lack of knowledge of testicular cancer was that few reported that they were "ever taught about testicular self-examination." CONCLUSION: Young adult men are unaware of their risk for testicular cancer, which is the most common neoplasm in this age group. Healthcare providers are not informing them of this risk, nor are they teaching them the simple early detection technique of self-examination of the testes.

  2. Low frequency electromagnetic fields long-term exposure effects on testicular histology, sperm quality and testosterone levels of male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aminollah Bahaodini; Maryam Owjfard; Amin Tamadon; Seyedeh Marzieh Jafari

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects of long-term exposure to low frequency EMF on the testicular function and structure.Methods:Fourteen adult male rats were randomly and equally divided into sham and experimental groups. Experimental group was exposed to 1 mT, 50 Hz EMF, continuously for 85 days in a solenoid. Sham group was kept under conditions same as experimental group, without EMF. At the end of the exposure period, weight and size of testes, sperm evaluation (sperm counts, motility and viability), histological testicular sections and serum total testosterone were determined.Results:Long-term exposure to low frequency EMF significantly decreased the diameter of the seminiferous tubules and increased number of seminiferous tubules per unit area of testes. In addition, low frequency EMF significantly reduced sperm motility and testosterone levels. However, it had no effect on the weight and size of testes, sperm concentration, and viability. Conclusion:Prolonged exposure to 50 Hz EMF has an adverse effect on male fertility.

  3. Comparative study of the effects of pre and post natal administration of a thyroid drug on testicular activity in adult rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hadj-Bekkouche

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone is known to play a critical role in growth and development of rat testes with a specific effect on the differentiation of Sertoli cells leading to a normal evolution of germ cells. In the present study, we aimed to compare the effect of induced hypothyroidism during fetal and post-natal life on the structure and function of the testis in adult. Pregnant or lactating mothers were treated with 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU during 21 days and weight gain of pups was steady until adult age. Plasma hormonal levels were determined by RIA and morphology of testis was studied on sections stained with Masson's trichrome. Pre and early post natal hypothyroidism resulted in an impairment of body development and a diminution of thyroid hormone levels of treated rats. No significant effect on testicular development has been observed when hypothyroidism is induced in fetal life while it was associated with reduction in testis weight, diameter of seminiferous tubules and hormonal levels and delay in maturation of germ cells, when induced during early post natal life.

  4. Ameliorative effect of polydatin on oxidative stress-mediated testicular damage by chronic arsenic exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, S; Avdatek, F; Demirel, H H; Arslan-Acaroz, D; Goksel, E; Kucukkurt, I

    2016-06-01

    Arsenic causes lipid peroxidation leading to alterations in antioxidant status in organisms. In this study, the reproductive effects of chronic exposure to arsenic and the protective effects of polydatin (PD) were evaluated in 35 Wistar male rats, which were divided equally into five groups. The control group received a normal diet and tap water, arsenic (100 mg l(-1) , approximately 1/50 of oral LD50 ) was given via drinking water to experimental groups except control group, and PD was orally given to the other groups at dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. Arsenic administration decreased sperm motility, glutathione level, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in testicular tissue of rats. In contrast, malondialdehyde level and DNA damage were found to be high levels in arsenic-treated group. Histopathologically, it was observed that decreased sperm concentration and degeneration of Sertoli cells in testicular tissue. PD administration, partially 200 mg kg(-1) , reversed arsenic-induced lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, antioxidant enzyme activity and cell integrity in testis of rats. These results demonstrate that PD decreases arsenic-induced lipid peroxidation, enhances the antioxidant defence mechanism and regenerates tissue damage in testis of rats.

  5. Effect of short-term scrotal hyperthermia on spermatological parameters, testicular blood flow and gonadal tissue in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, H; Masal, C; Herr, A; Wolf, K; Urhausen, C; Beineke, A; Beyerbach, M; Kramer, S; Günzel-Apel, A-R

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to assess the effect of a short-term scrotal hyperthermia in dogs on quantitative and qualitative ejaculate parameters, testicular blood flow and testicular and epididymal histology. After a control period, the scrotum of seven normospermic adult beagle dogs was insulated with a self-made suspensory for 48 h. Nine weeks later, two animals were castrated, while in five animals, scrotal hyperthermia was repeated. Dogs were castrated either 10 or 40 days thereafter. In each phase of scrotal insulation, average scrotal surface temperature increased by 3.0°C. Semen was collected twice weekly throughout the experiment. Total sperm count did not change after the first hyperthermia, but it slightly decreased after the second (p  0.05). Histological examination of excised testes and epididymides for apoptotic (TUNEL and activated caspase-3) and proliferating cells (Ki-67 antigen) indicated only marginal effects of scrotal insulation on tissue morphology. In conclusion, a mild short-term scrotal hyperthermia in dogs does not cause substantial changes in sperm quantity and quality. In contrast to other species, canine testes and epididymides may have a higher competence to compensate such thermal stress. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Toxic effect of cyclophosphamide on sperm morphology, testicular histology and blood oxidant-antioxidant balance, and protective roles of lycopene and ellagic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceribaşi, Ali Osman; Türk, Gaffari; Sönmez, Mustafa; Sakin, Fatih; Ateşşahin, Ahmet

    2010-09-01

    In this study, the toxic effect of cyclophosphamide (CP) on sperm morphology, testicular histology and blood oxidant-antioxidant balance, and protective roles of lycopene (LC) and ellagic acid (EA) were investigated. For this purpose, 48 healthy, adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups; eight animals in each group. The control group was treated with placebo. LC, EA and CP groups were given alone LC (10 mg/kg/every other day), EA (2 mg/kg/every other day) and CP (15 mg/kg/week) respectively. One of the last two groups received CP + LC, and the other treated with CP + EA. All treatments were maintained for 8 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, morphological abnormalities of sperm, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and glutathione (GSH) levels, and GSH-peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in erythrocytes, and testicular histopathological changes were examined. CP administration caused statistically significant increases in tail and total abnormality of sperm, plasma MDA level and erythrocyte SOD activity, and decreases in erythrocyte CAT activity, diameters of seminiferous tubules, germinal cell layer thickness and Johnsen's Testicular Score along with degeneration, necrosis, immature germ cells, congestion and atrophy in testicular tissue. However, LC or EA treatments to CP-treated rats markedly improved the CP-induced lipid peroxidation, and normalized sperm morphology and testicular histopathology. In conclusion, CP-induced lipid peroxidation leads to the structural damages in spermatozoa and testicular tissue of rats, and also LC or EA have a protective effect on these types of damage.

  7. Evaluations of cytotoxicity of Smilax myosotiflora and its effects on sexual hormone levels and testicular histology in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Hilmi Wan; Norliza Ahmad; Mohd Dasuki Sul’ain

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the cytotoxicity of Smilax myosotiflora(S. myosotiflora)methanolic extract and its effects on sexual hormone levels and testicular histology in male rats.Methods: The cytotoxicity of S. myosotiflora methanolic extract was investigated by employing brine shrimp lethality assay. Forty eight male rats were randomly divided into four groups(Groups I–IV) of 12 each. Rats in Group I were administered with 0.5 m L of distilled water(vehicle), whilst Groups II, III and IV received 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of the methanolic extract of S. myosotiflora in 0.5 m L of the vehicle, respectively. Male rats treated with continuous daily dosing were killed and necropsied after a total dose period of 60 days. Sexual hormones were assayed and histological examination of testes was performed according to standard methods.Results: S. myosotiflora extracts did not produce any cytotoxicity to brine shrimp in all concentrations tested. Serum testosterone level was significantly higher in rats treated with high dose of S. myosotiflora. Testicular histology showed normal architecture with all stages of spermatogenesis in all experimental groups.Conclusions: The present work confirmed that S. myosotiflora extract improves reproductive functions, without any cytotoxic activity and produces no histological changes to the testes.

  8. Protective effects of Artocarpus altilis (Moraceae) on cadmium-induced changes in sperm characteristics and testicular oxidative damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaramoye, O A; Akanni, O O

    2016-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a major environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor. We investigated the protective effects of methanol extract of Artocarpus altilis (AA) against Cd-induced testicular damage in rats while quercetin (Que) served as standard. The total flavonoids and phenolic contents (TFC and TPC), 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals scavenging activities of AA were determined. In vivo, thirty male Wistar rats were assigned to six groups and orally treated with corn oil (control), Cd alone, Cd+Que, Cd+AA, Que and AA alone. Que and AA were given at doses of 25 and 200 mg kg(-1), respectively, for 3 weeks and challenged with two doses of Cd (1.5 mg kg(-1)). Results showed that TFC and TPC of AA increased with increase in concentration. AA scavenged DPPH and OH radicals in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of Cd significantly increased the relative weight of testis of rats. Lipid peroxidation was significantly increased while antioxidant parameters decreased in testis of Cd-treated rats. Also, Cd-treated rats had significantly reduced sperm count, motility, sialic acid, luteinising hormone and testosterone relative to controls. Pre-treatment with AA or Que significantly attenuated the biochemical alterations observed in Cd-treated rats. Overall, AA protects against Cd-induced testicular damage via antioxidative mechanism. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Attenuating effect of lycopene and ellagic acid on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced spermiotoxicity and testicular apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Mustafa; Türk, Gaffari; Çeribaşı, Ali Osman; Sakin, Fatih; Ateşşahin, Ahmet

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prophylactic effects of lycopene (LC) and ellagic acid (EA) on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced testicular and spermatozoal toxicity. These toxicological changes are associated with the oxidative stress and apoptosis in male rats. Forty-eight male rats were allocated to one of six groups of 8 rats each: control, LC, EA, TCDD, TCDD+LC, and TCDD+EA. The control group was treated with 0.5 mL/rat slightly alkaline solution+0.5 mL/rat corn oil every other day. The LC group was treated with 0.5 mL/rat slightly alkaline solution+0.5 mL/rat corn oil containing 10 mg/kg of LC every other day. The EA group received 0.5 mL/rat corn oil+0.5 mL/rat slightly alkaline solution containing 2 mg/kg of EA every other day. The TCDD group received 0.5 mL/rat corn oil containing 100 ng/kg/day of TCDD+0.5 mL/rat slightly alkaline solution. The TCDD+LC group was treated with 0.5 mL/rat TCDD+0.5 mL/rat LC. The TCDD+EA group was treated with 0.5 mL/rat TCDD+0.5 mL/rat EA. All treatments were made by gavage, and the experimental period was maintained during 8 weeks. Sperm motility, concentration, and abnormal sperm rate in epididymal tissue, testicular tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant enzyme activity, histopathological changes, and apoptosis (i.e., Bax and Bcl-2 proteins) were determined. TCDD exposure resulted in significant decreases in sperm motility, concentration, testicular superoxide dismutase activity, germinal cell-layer thickness, Johnsen's testicular score, and significant increases in abnormal sperm rate, testicular malondialdehyde, glutathione levels, Bax-positive staining, and Bax-positive apoptotic cell score, along with some testicular histopathological lesions. TCDD treatment did not affect significantly catalase activity. However, combined treatment with LC or EA, in addition to TCDD, prevented the development of TCDD-induced damages in sperm quality, testicular histology

  10. The Danish Testicular Cancer database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Kier, Maria Gry Gundgaard; Bandak, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The nationwide Danish Testicular Cancer database consists of a retrospective research database (DaTeCa database) and a prospective clinical database (Danish Multidisciplinary Cancer Group [DMCG] DaTeCa database). The aim is to improve the quality of care for patients with testicular cancer (TC......) in Denmark, that is, by identifying risk factors for relapse, toxicity related to treatment, and focusing on late effects. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish male patients with a histologically verified germ cell cancer diagnosis in the Danish Pathology Registry are included in the DaTeCa databases. Data...

  11. Educating young men about testicular cancer: support for a comprehensive testicular cancer campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja; Foster, S Catherine; Servoss, Timothy; LaBelle, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of testicular cancer among men 15-39 years of age, little has been done to increase awareness of this disease or educate males about its prevention. To fill this gap, the Standard Model of Health Communication was incorporated to design and implement a comprehensive testicular cancer campaign among male college students. To test the effectiveness of these messages, college students (N = 220) completed measures before and after the campaign. In addition, the authors obtained a control group of male college students (N = 52) who were not exposed to the messages. Survey items assessed awareness of testicular cancer and behaviors related to testicular cancer. Participants' knowledge of testicular cancer and likelihood of conducting a testicular self-exam increased significantly after being exposed to the campaign information. Men who were exposed to testicular cancer messages were more knowledgeable about testicular cancer and were more likely to conduct testicular self-examinations than were men in the control group.

  12. Rat testicular impairment induced by electromagnetic radiation from a conventional cellular telephone and the protective effects of the antioxidants vitamins C and E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Abdullah Al-Damegh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of electromagnetic radiation from conventional cellular phone use on the oxidant and antioxidant status in rat blood and testicular tissue and determine the possible protective role of vitamins C and E in preventing the detrimental effects of electromagnetic radiation on the testes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The treatment groups were exposed to an electromagnetic field, electromagnetic field plus vitamin C (40 mg/kg/day or electromagnetic field plus vitamin E (2.7 mg/kg/day. All groups were exposed to the same electromagnetic frequency for 15, 30, and 60 min daily for two weeks. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules with a disorganized seminiferous tubule sperm cycle interruption in the electromagnetism-exposed group. The serum and testicular tissue conjugated diene, lipid hydroperoxide, and catalase activities increased 3-fold, whereas the total serum and testicular tissue glutathione and glutathione peroxidase levels decreased 3-5 fold in the electromagnetism-exposed animals. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the adverse effect of the generated electromagnetic frequency had a negative impact on testicular architecture and enzymatic activity. This finding also indicated the possible role of vitamins C and E in mitigating the oxidative stress imposed on the testes and restoring normality to the testes.

  13. Effects of butane-2,3-dione thiosemicarbazone oxime on testicular damage induced by cadmium in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Mayara Lutchemeyer; Dalmolin, Laíza; Oliveira, Lia Pavelacki; da Rosa Moreira, Laís; Roman, Silvane Souza; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; Bresolin, Leandro; Duarte, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura; Brandão, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Our group of studies investigated the action of butane-2,3-dione thiosemicarbazone oxime against the testicular damage caused by cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) in mice. Mice received a single injection of CdCl(2 )(5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and, after thirty minutes, the oxime (10 mg/kg, subcutaneously) was administered. Twenty four hours after the last administration, the animals were killed by cervical dislocation and the testes and serum were removed for analysis. The parameters determined were δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D), myeloperoxidase (MPO), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. The levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), nonprotein thiols (NPSH), ascorbic acid, cadmium and testosterone were also determined. In addition, histological analysis and cytokines quantification (IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ) were performed. Our results demonstrated that the oxime was effective in restoring the inhibition in δ-ALA-D activity induced by CdCl(2). The activation of MPO and increase in IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ levels induced by CdCl(2) were also reduced by oxime. IL-10, which was reduced by cadmium, was restored by oxime administration. In addition, the oxime was effective in restoring the increase in TBARS levels and the reduction on NPSH levels induced by CdCl(2). Our results demonstrated that oxime was effective in containing the histological alterations induced by CdCl(2). In addition, oxime was able to increase the testosterone levels, reduced by cadmium exposure. In conclusion, the oxime tested was effective in reducing the testicular damage induced by CdCl(2) in mice. The beneficial effects of this oxime are related to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action.

  14. Effect of Fenugreek seed Extract (Trigonella Foenum-graecum on testicular tissue in the embryos of Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M beyzaei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Diabetes mellitus is associated with some of the metabolic dysfunctions represented with chronic hyperglycemia.  This disease can disrupt the function of testicular tissue and decline male sexual ability. Some of the medicinal herbs such as fenugreeks have protective effects on tissues via hypoglycemic and anti-oxidative properties. In the present paper,  the effects of fenugreek seed extract was evaluated on testicular tissue of 20 day-old embryos from diabetic rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, sixty normal female rats were divided into three normal groups: non-diabetic control, glibenclamide and fenugreek groups and three diabetic groups: diabetic control, glibenclamide treatment and fenugreek treatment groups. Single injection of streptozotocin was used for induction of diabetes in these female rats. After detection of pregnancy, 1000 mg/kg fenugreek seed extract was fed to non-diabetic and diabetic fenugreek groups and 5 mg/kg glibenclamide was fed to non-diabetic and diabetic glibenclamide groups. Non-diabetic and diabetic control group was fed with distilled water as the same volume as the fenugreek extract. After 20 days, their embryos were pulled out and fixed at 10% formalin. After tissue processing, five micron sections were stained with Hematoxylin- eosin and evaluated for morphometric changes of testicular tissue. Data were evaluated with One-Way ANOVA test and Duncan post-hoc test. Results: The mean diameter of seminiferous tubules and testis capsule thickness indicated no significant differences between fenugreek treatment and diabetic control groups (P> 0.05. Mean body weight of male embryos was significantly lower in fenugreek treatment group in comparison with the diabetic control group (P&le 0.05. The leydig, sertoli and spermatogonial cells number was significantly higher in fenugreek treatment group in compression with diabetic control group                      (P

  15. The effect of Sertraline, Paroxetine, Fluoxetine and Escitalopram on testicular tissue and oxidative stress parameters in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Erdemir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs on testicular tissue and serum malondialdehyde (MDA levels in rats. Materials and methods: A total of 40 male Wistar albino rats, 5.5-6 months old, were equally divided at random into five groups: group 1 was the control group, group 2 received sertraline 10mg/kg (p.o, group 3 was administered fluoxetine 10mg/kg (p.o, group 4 received escitalopram 10mg/kg (p.o, and group 5 (n = 8 was administered paroxetine 20mg/kg. Each dose was administered orally for two months. Johnsen’s criteria were used to categorize spermatogenesis. Johnsen’s method assigns a score of 1 to 10 to each tubule cross-section examined. In this system, a Johnsen score of 9 and 10 indicates normal histology. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, and testosterone levels were evaluated. Serum MDA levels were also measured. Results: The mean Johnsen scores were 9.36 ± 0.33, 9.29 ± 0.32, 8.86 ± 0.48, 9.10 ± 0.56, and 8.33 ± 0.90 in control group, sertraline group, fluoxetine group, escitalopram group, and paroxetine group, respectively. The Johnsen score was significantly lower for paroxetine group compared with the control group (p < 0.05. The mean FSH level increased only in the sertraline group. With the exception of the fluoxetine group, the testosterone levels were lower in all groups compared with the control group. The total testosterone level was significantly lower in the sertraline group compared with the control group [40.87 (22.37-46.8 vs. 15.87 (13.53-19.88, p < 0.01]. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to the MDA and LH levels (p = 0.090 and p = 0.092. Conclusion: These data suggest that SSRIs have a negative effect on testicular tissues. This negative impact is markedly greater in the paroxetine group. To determine the exact mechanism of action of these drugs on testicular tissue, well

  16. Current situation of early diagnosis and treatment on testicular torsion%睾丸扭转的早期诊断和治疗现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王增利; 赵卫红; 孙伍柒

    2013-01-01

      目的正确掌握睾丸扭转的临床特点,提高睾丸扭转的早期诊治水平,降低误诊率。方法回顾性分析我院2005年1月—2012年1月收治的9例睾丸扭转患者的临床资料。结果9例患者中,扭转超过24 h 者7例睾丸坏死予以切除,1 h 内者2例睾丸得以挽救。结论加大普及医疗常识力度,正确认识睾丸扭转,发病时及时到正规医院专科诊治,及时手术探查,能有效降低误诊率,提高早期诊治水平。%Objective To grasp the clinical features of testicular torsion, improve the early diagnosis and reduce the rate of misdiagnosis. Methods from January 2005 to jan.9cases of our hospital data.Results 7 cases for more than 24 hours removing the tes necrosis testis,2 cases for 1 hour retening the testis. Conclusions Popular the medical sense,timely to normal hospital specialized subject make a diagnosis and treatment,and an operation to probe can decrease the misdiagnosis rate.

  17. What Happens After Treatment for Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Testicular Cancer? For most people with testicular cancer, treatment removes ... Treatment for Testicular Cancer Stops Working More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  18. Do We Know What Causes Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Factors, and Prevention Do We Know What Causes Testicular Cancer? The exact cause of most testicular cancers is ... Cancer? Can Testicular Cancer Be Prevented? More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  19. Effect of growth hormone on testicular dysfunction induced by methotrexate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, H Serati; Azarmi, Y; Movahedin, M

    2009-04-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is a chemotherapeutic agent causing defective oogenesis and spermatogenesis. This study was performed to assess the role of human growth hormone (GH) on testis recovery after treatment with MTX. Forty male Wistar rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups (n = 10): control (vehicle), GH group (0.3 mg kg(-1) GH for 28 days, IP), MTX group (MTX 1 mg kg(-1) week(-1) for 4 weeks, IP) and GH/MTX group (0.3 mg kg(-1) GH for 28 day plus 1 mg kg(-1) week(-1) MTX for 4 weeks, IP). On days 14 and 28, five rats from each group were killed, testes of rats of all groups were removed, spermatozoa were collected from epididymis and then prepared for analysis. MTX caused significant increase in interstitial tissue and capsular thickness and decrease of testicular and body weight (P rat testes and thus improved sperm parameters.

  20. Amelioration of nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats by taurine: effects on steroidogenesis, redox and inflammatory cascades, and intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Maha A E

    2015-02-01

    The wide abuse of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate by athletes and adolescents for enhancement of sporting performance and physical appearance may be associated with testicular toxicity and infertility. On the other hand, taurine; a free β-amino acid with remarkable antioxidant activity, is used in taurine-enriched beverages to boost the muscular power of athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of the possible protective effects of taurine on nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats. To achieve this aim, male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups and administered either vehicle, nandrolone decanoate (10mg/kg/week, I.M.), taurine (100mg/kg/day, p.o.) or combination of taurine and nandrolone decanoate, for 8 successive weeks. Results of the present study showed that taurine reversed nandrolone decanoate-induced perturbations in sperm characteristics, normalized serum testosterone level, and restored the activities of the key steroidogenic enzymes; 3β-HSD, and 17β-HSD. Moreover, taurine prevented nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular toxicity and DNA damage by virtue of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. This was evidenced by taurine-induced modulation of testicular LDH-x activity, redox markers (MDA, NO, GSH contents, and SOD activity), inflammatory indices (TNF-α, ICAM-1 levels, and MMP-9 gene expression), intrinsic apoptotic pathway (cytochrome c gene expression and caspase-3 content), and oxidative DNA damage markers (8-OHdG level and comet assay). In conclusion, at the biochemical and histological levels, taurine attenuated nandrolone decanoate-induced poor sperm quality and testicular toxicity in rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effects of microwave radiation on expressions of pCREB, CREM, and CBP in the testicular tissue of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-yu CHEN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects and ascertain the significance of microwave radiation on the expression of phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP-response element-binding protein (pCREB, cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM, and CREB-binding protein (CBP in the testicular tissue of rats. Methods Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group (n=5 and radiation group (n=25. Five rats in the radiation group were sacrificed at 6h, 1, 3, 7, and 14d, respectively, after exposure to microwave radiation for 5min, with an average power density of 30mW/cm2. Rats in the control group were sacrificed within 1d without receiving microwave radiation. Expressions and dynamic changes in pCREB, CREM, and CBP in the testicular tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Results pCREB, CREM, and CBP were mainly expressed in the sperm nuclei of the seminiferous tubule in the rat testis. pCREB and CBP protein expressions were downregulated from 6h to14d (except for pCREB at 1d after exposure to microwave radiation (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01. The expression of CREM was also weakened significantly from 6h to 7d after radiation (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01. Conclusion The downregulation of pCREB, CREM, and CBP expression may play an important role in the injury of spermatogenic cells caused by microwave radiation.

  2. Lipid peroxidation in adrenal and testicular microsomes.

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    Studies were carried out to determine the actions of and interactions between ascorbate, NADPH, Fe2+, and Fe3+ on lipid peroxidation in adrenal and testicular microsomes. Ascorbate-induced malonaldehyde production was maximal in adrenal and testicular microsomes at an ascorbate concentration of 1 X 10(-4)M. Fe2+, at levels between 10(-6) and 10(-3)M, produced concentration-dependent increases in lipid peroxidation in adrenal and testicular microsomes; Fe2+ had a far greater effect than Fe3+ i...

  3. Effect of testicular irradiation on established BPH in the dog: evidence of a non-steroidal testicular factor for BPH maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grayhack, J.T.; Lee, C.; Brand, W.

    1985-12-01

    Irradiation of the testes of four to 13-year-old male beagles with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) was undertaken to attempt to evaluate the possibility that the testes secrete a non-androgenic accessory sex gland-stimulating substance that may have a critical role in the development of BPH. Thirteen non-irradiated and shoulder irradiated control and 16 beagles subjected to 1500 to 2200 rads single dose testis irradiation had pre-irradiation, interval post-irradiation and terminal caliper measurements of prostatic length, width and depth, prostatic and testicular biopsies, and determination of serum testosterone and estradiol levels. Four beagles survived in a group observed for 109 weeks post testis irradiation, 12 in a group observed for 51 and 10 in a group observed for 59 weeks. The wet weight of the prostate was determined at sacrifice. Ratios of the final/initial length and width and final actual/initial calculated weight of the prostate were significantly decreased in testis-irradiated as compared to control beagles. Histologic evaluation also demonstrated a significant difference in degree of prostatic stimulation in control and testis-irradiated groups. The serum testosterone and estradiol levels were not significantly different in the testis-irradiated and control beagles.

  4. Effect of fluoxetine and resveratrol on testicular functions and oxidative stress in a rat model of chronic mild stress-induced depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, H F; Abbas, A M; Elsamanoudy, A Z; Ghoneim, F M

    2015-08-01

    Our objective was to investigate the effects of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) with or without selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (fluoxetine) and anti-oxidant (resveratrol) on testicular functions and oxidative stress in rats. Fifty male rats were divided into 2 groups; control and CUMS. CUMS group was further subdivided into 4 subgroups administered water, fluoxetine, resveratrol and both. Sucrose intake, body weight gain, serum corticosterone, serotonin and testosterone levels, sperm count and motility, testicular malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione (GSH), and gene expression of steroidogenic acute-regulatory (StAR) protein and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme were evaluated. CUMS decreased sucrose intake, weight gain, anti-oxidants (SOD, catalase, GSH), testosterone, serotonin, StAR and cytochrome P450scc gene expression, sperm count and motility and increased malondialdehyde and corticosterone. Fluoxetine increased malondialdehyde, sucrose intake, weight gain, serotonin and decreased anti-oxidants, StAR and cytochrome P450scc gene expression, sperm count and motility, testosterone, corticosterone in stressed rats. Administration of resveratrol increased anti-oxidants, sucrose intake, weight gain, serotonin, StAR and cytochrome P450scc gene expression, testosterone, sperm count and motility, and decreased malondialdehyde and corticosterone in stressed rats with or without fluoxetine. In conclusion, CUMS induces testicular dysfunctions and oxidative stress. While treatment of CUMS rats with fluoxetine decreases the depressive behavior, it causes further worsening of testicular dysfunctions and oxidative stress. Administration of resveratrol improves testicular dysfunctions and oxidative stress that are caused by CUMS and further worsened by fluoxetine treatment.

  5. [Epidemiology and risk factors of testicular tumours].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, Piotr; Starosławska, Elżbieta; Szumiło, Justyna; Jankiewicz, Małgorzata; Kozłowska, Magdalena; Burdan, Franciszek

    2016-04-01

    Testicular tumours are rare neoplasms, which most commonly affects men aged 25 to 35 years. Among young adult males it is the most common cause of testicular swelling. In recent decades, the number of cases of testicular tumours has greatly increased. The most significant predisposing factors are cryptorchidism and some endocrine disorders, especially increased levels of gonadotropins and female sex hormones. Testicular trauma, inguinal hernia, extreme values of body mass index (BMI), high-calorie diet rich in dairy products as well as high social status are also regarded as risk factors. Furthermore, some chromosomal abnormalities like increased number of chromosomes 7, 8. 12, 21 and X, loss of chromosomes 4, 5, 11, 13, 18, or Y, mutation in the gene Xq27; as well as multiplied copy of the gene i(12p) are associated with tumor development. It has been proven that high testosterone levels and regular physical activity may prevent testicular tumours. Since one of the first sign the lesion is often a lump or swelling of the testis and the appearance of abnormal structure in the scrotum routine testicular self-examination seems to be important in early detection. In all suspected cases an immediate ultrasound examination of both testicles is highly recommended. It is also advised to conduct a computerized tomography (CT) and a positron emission tomography (PET) scan for staging of the tumor to select the best mode of treatment.

  6. Lifetime growth and risk of testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richiardi, Lorenzo; Vizzini, Loredana; Pastore, Guido; Segnan, Nereo; Gillio-Tos, Anna; Fiano, Valentina; Grasso, Chiara; Ciuffreda, Libero; Lista, Patrizia; Pearce, Neil; Merletti, Franco

    2014-08-01

    Adult height is associated with testicular cancer risk. We studied to what extent this association is explained by parental height, childhood height and age at puberty. We conducted a case-control study on germ-cell testicular cancer patients diagnosed in 1997-2008 and resident in the Province of Turin. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires in 2008-2011. Specifically, we asked for adult height (in cm), height at age 9 and 13 (compared to peers) and age at puberty (compared to peers). We also asked for paternal and maternal height (in cm) as indicators of genetic components of adult height. The analysis included 255 cases and 459 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) of testicular cancer were estimated for the different anthropometric variables. Adult height was associated with testicular cancer risk [OR: 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.31 per 5-cm increase]. The risk of testicular cancer was only slightly increased for being taller vs. shorter than peers at age 9 (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 0.91-2.64) or age 13 (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 0.78-2.01), and parental height was not associated with testicular cancer risk. The OR for adult height was 1.32 (95% CI: 1.12-1.56) after adjustment for parental height. Among participants with small average parental height (testicular cancer for tall (>180 cm) vs. short (testicular cancer is likely to be explained by environmental factors affecting growth in early life, childhood and adolescence.

  7. [EAU guidelines on testicular cancer: 2011 update. European Association of Urology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P; Albrecht, W; Algaba, F; Bokemeyer, C; Cohn-Cedermark, G; Fizazi, K; Horwich, A; Laguna, M P

    2012-03-01

    On behalf of the European Association of Urology (EAU), guidelines for the diagnosis, therapy, and follow-up of testicular cancer were established. This article is a short version of the EAU testicular cancer guidelines and summarises the main conclusions from the guidelines on the management of testicular cancer. Guidelines were compiled by a multidisciplinary guidelines working group. A systematic review was carried out using Medline and Embase, also taking Cochrane evidence and data from the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group into consideration. A panel of experts weighted the references, and a level of evidence and grade of recommendation were assigned. There is a paucity of literature especially regarding longer term follow-up, and results from a number of ongoing trials are awaited. The choice of treatment centre is of the utmost importance, and treatment in reference centres within clinical trials, especially for poor-prognosis nonseminomatous germ cell tumours, provides better outcomes. For patients with clinical stage I seminoma, based on recently published data on long-term toxicity, adjuvant radiotherapy is no longer recommended as first-line adjuvant treatment. The TNM classification 2009 is recommended. These guidelines contain information for the standardised management of patients with testicular cancer based on the latest scientific insights. Cure rates are generally excellent, but because testicular cancer mainly affects men in their third or fourth decade of life, treatment effects on fertility require careful counselling of patients, and treatment must be tailored taking individual circumstances and patient preferences into account. Although testicular cancer has excellent cure rates, the choice of treatment centre is of the utmost importance. Expert centres achieve better results for both early stage testicular cancer (lower relapse rates) and overall survival (higher stages within clinical trials). For patients with clinical stage I

  8. Testicular self-examination and testicular cancer: a cost-utility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberger, Michael; Wilson, Bradley; Holzbeierlein, Jeffrey M; Griebling, Tomas L; Nangia, Ajay K

    2014-12-01

    The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has recommended against testicular self-examinations (TSE) or clinical examination for testicular cancer screening. However, in this recommendation there was no consideration of the significant fiscal cost of treating advanced disease versus evaluation of benign disease. In this study, a cost-utility validation for TSE was performed. The cost of treatment for an advanced-stage testicular tumor (both seminomatous and nonseminomatous) was compared to the cost of six other scenarios involving the clinical assessment of a testicular mass felt during self-examination (four benign and two early-stage malignant). Medicare reimbursements were used as an estimate for a national cost standard. The total treatment cost for an advanced-stage seminoma ($48,877) or nonseminoma ($51,592) equaled the cost of 313-330 benign office visits ($156); 180-190 office visits with scrotal ultrasound ($272); 79-83 office visits with serial scrotal ultrasounds and labs ($621); 6-7 office visits resulting in radical inguinal orchiectomy for benign pathology ($7,686) or 2-3 office visits resulting in treatment and surveillance of an early-stage testicular cancer ($17,283: seminoma, $26,190: nonseminoma). A large number of clinical evaluations based on the TSE for benign disease can be made compared to the cost of one missed advanced-stage tumor. An average of 2.4 to 1 cost benefit ratio was demonstrated for early detected testicular cancer versus advanced-stage disease.

  9. What's New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer What’s New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment? Important research into testicular cancer ... in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment? More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  10. Infertility with Testicular Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Kevin A; Walsh, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    Testicular germ cell cancer is one of the most curable cancers. Most patients are treated during their reproductive years, making infertility a significant quality of life issue after successful treatment. This focused review evaluates the factors that contribute to infertility and specific fertility risks with the various testicular cancer treatments. Timing of patient discussions and current fertility treatments are reviewed.

  11. Effects of chronic exposure to sodium arsenite on hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular activities in adult rats: possible an estrogenic mode of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Subarna

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inorganic arsenic is a major water pollutant and a known human carcinogen that has a suppressive influence on spermatogenesis and androgenesis in male reproductive system. However, the actual molecular events resulting in male reproductive dysfunctions from exposure to arsenic remain unclear. In this context, we evaluated the mode of action of chronic oral exposure of sodium arsenite on hypothalamo-pituitary- testicular activities in mature male albino rats. Methods The effect of chronic oral exposure to sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg body weight/day via drinking water without or with hCG (5 I.U./kg body weight/day and oestradiol (25 micrograms oestradiol 3-benzoate suspended in 0.25 ml olive oil/rat/day co-treatments for 6 days a week for 4 weeks (about the duration of two spermatogenic cycle was evaluated in adult male rats. Changes in paired testicular weights, quantitative study of different varieties of germ cells at stage VII of spermatogenic cycle, epididymal sperm count, circulatory concentrations of hormones (LH, FSH, testosterone and corticosterone, testicular activities of delta 5, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (delta 5, 3beta-HSD, 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17 beta-HSD, sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH, acid phosphatase (ACP, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, as well as the levels of biogenic amines (dopamine, noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT in the hypothalamus and pituitary were monitored in this study. Hormones were assayed by radioimmuno- assay or enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay and the enzymes were estimated after spectrophotometry as well as the biogenic amines by HPLC electrochemistry. Results Sodium arsenite treatment resulted in: decreased paired testicular weights; epididymal sperm count; plasma LH, FSH, testosterone and testicular testosterone concentrations; and increased plasma concentration of corticosterone. Testicular enzymes such as delta 5, 3 beta

  12. Amelioration of nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats by taurine: Effects on steroidogenesis, redox and inflammatory cascades, and intrinsic apoptotic pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Maha A.E., E-mail: mahapharm@yahoo.com

    2015-02-01

    The wide abuse of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate by athletes and adolescents for enhancement of sporting performance and physical appearance may be associated with testicular toxicity and infertility. On the other hand, taurine; a free β-amino acid with remarkable antioxidant activity, is used in taurine-enriched beverages to boost the muscular power of athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of the possible protective effects of taurine on nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats. To achieve this aim, male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups and administered either vehicle, nandrolone decanoate (10 mg/kg/week, I.M.), taurine (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or combination of taurine and nandrolone decanoate, for 8 successive weeks. Results of the present study showed that taurine reversed nandrolone decanoate-induced perturbations in sperm characteristics, normalized serum testosterone level, and restored the activities of the key steroidogenic enzymes; 3β-HSD, and 17β-HSD. Moreover, taurine prevented nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular toxicity and DNA damage by virtue of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. This was evidenced by taurine-induced modulation of testicular LDH-x activity, redox markers (MDA, NO, GSH contents, and SOD activity), inflammatory indices (TNF-α, ICAM-1 levels, and MMP-9 gene expression), intrinsic apoptotic pathway (cytochrome c gene expression and caspase-3 content), and oxidative DNA damage markers (8-OHdG level and comet assay). In conclusion, at the biochemical and histological levels, taurine attenuated nandrolone decanoate-induced poor sperm quality and testicular toxicity in rats. - Highlights: • Nandrolone decanoate (ND) disrupts sperm profile and steroidogenesis in rats. • ND upregulates gene expression of inflammatory and apoptotic markers. • Taurine normalizes sperm profile and serum testosterone level

  13. A case of testicular rupture

    OpenAIRE

    野俣, 浩一郎; 林, 幹男

    1987-01-01

    A case of testicular rupture is reported. A 26-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of testicular trauma. Ultrasound of the testis was performed preoperatively. Ultrasonography revealed a disruption of the tunica albuginea and dense clusters of echoes in the tunica vaginalis. In the case of acute testicular trauma, this echo pattern suggests testicular rupture.

  14. Dexrazoxane exacerbates doxorubicin-induced testicular toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Mattan; Tzabari, Moran; Savion, Naphtali; Stemmer, Salomon M; Shalgi, Ruth; Ben-Aharon, Irit

    2015-10-01

    Infertility induced by anti-cancer treatments pose a major concern for cancer survivors. Doxorubicin (DXR) has been previously shown to exert toxic effects on the testicular germinal epithelium. Based upon the cardioprotective traits of dexrazoxane (DEX), we studied its potential effect in reducing DXR-induced testicular toxicity. Male mice were injected with 5  mg/kg DXR, 100  mg/kg DEX, combination of both or saline (control) and sacrificed either 1, 3 or 6 months later. Testes were excised and further processed. Glutathione and apoptosis assays were performed to determine oxidative stress. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to study the effects of the drugs on testicular histology and on spermatogonial reserve. DXR and the combined treatment induced a striking decline in testicular weight. DEX prevented DXR-induced oxidative stress, but enhanced DXR-induced apoptosis within the testes. Furthermore, the combined treatment depleted the spermatogonial reserve after 1 month, with impaired recovery at 3 and 6 months post-treatment. This resulted in compromised sperm parameters, testicular and epididymal weights as well as significantly reduced sperm motility, all of which were more severe than those observed in DXR-treated mice. The activity of DEX in the testis may differ from its activity in cardiomyocytes. Adding DEX to DXR exacerbates DXR-induced testicular toxicity.

  15. Melatonin blocks inhibitory effects of prolactin on photoperiodic induction of gain in body mass, testicular growth and feather regeneration in the migratory male redheaded bunting (Emberiza bruniceps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Sangeeta

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known about how hormones interact in the photoperiodic induction of seasonal responses in birds. In this study, two experiments determined if the treatment with melatonin altered inhibitory effects of prolactin on photoperiodic induction of seasonal responses in the Palearctic-Indian migratory male redheaded bunting Emberiza bruniceps. Each experiment employed three groups (N = 6–7 each of photosensitive birds that were held under 8 hours light: 16 hours darkness (8L:16D since early March. In the experiment 1, beginning in mid June 2001, birds were exposed to natural day lengths (NDL at 27 degree North (day length = ca.13.8 h, sunrise to sunset for 23 days. In the experiment 2, beginning in early April 2002, birds were exposed to 14L:10D for 22 days. Beginning on day 4 of NDL or day 1 of 14L:10D, they received 10 (experiment 1 or 13 (experiment 2 daily injections of both melatonin and prolactin (group 1 or prolactin alone (group 2 at a dose of 20 microgram per bird per day in 200 microliter of vehicle. Controls (group 3 received similar volume of vehicle. Thereafter, birds were left uninjected for the next 10 (experiment 1 or 9 days (experiment 2. All injections except those of melatonin were made at the zeitgeber time 10 (ZT 0 = time of sunrise, experiment 1; time of lights on, experiment 2; melatonin was injected at ZT 9.5 and thus 0.5 h before prolactin. Observations were recorded on changes in body mass, testicular growth and feather regeneration. Under NDL (experiment 1, testis growth in birds that received melatonin 0.5 h prior to prolactin (group 1 was significantly greater (P

  16. Effectiveness of highly purified urofollitropin treatment in patients with idiopathic azoospermia before testicular sperm extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocci, Andrea; Cito, Gianmartin; Russo, Giorgio I; Falcone, Marco; Capece, Marco; Timpano, Massimiliano; Della Camera, Pier Andrea; Morselli, Simone; Tasso, Giovanni; Morelli, Girolamo; Morgia, Giuseppe; Minervini, Andrea; Serni, Sergio; Carini, Marco; Natali, Alessandro; Gacci, Mauro

    2017-08-07

    Recent evidences demonstrated that male factor alone is responsible for about 30% cases of infertility. Human follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH) has been introduced to increase sperm concentration, spermatogonial population, or both natural or assisted pregnancy rates (PRs) in oligozoospermic subjects with normal concentrations of gonadotropins. Fifty infertile men affected by idiopathic azoospermia were enrolled in this study, after undergoing medical history, physical and clinical examination, baseline semen parameters and hormonal plasma concentrations. Inclusion criteria were infertility for at least 2 years, idiopathic azoospermia, FSH <12 mIU/ml. Twenty-five patients were allocated to treatment with hFSH three times/week per 3 months (Fostimon), and 25 patients underwent just testicular sperm extraction (TESE) without medical treatment. All patients underwent, after 3 months, assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs) with TESE. The primary outcome was represented by the differences in the sperm retrieval rate (SRR) between groups, while the secondary outcomes were the differences in PR and fertilization rate (FR). We observed a PR of 15% (3/25) and 28% (7/25) in control and treated group, respectively. SRR after medical treatment and ART was 24% (6/25), while in the control group was 12.5% (2/25). The sperm in the ejaculate of five patients (20%) after medical treatment exhibited a mean concentration of 0.9 million/ml and a mean motility of 12%. The FR was significantly greater in the treatment group with respect to the control group, 30% and 20%, respectively. FSH treatment showed greater efficacy rather than control by increasing the rate of PR and FR in azoospermic patients who underwent TESE.

  17. Secondary malignant neoplasms in testicular cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, Stephanie A; Fung, Chunkit; Beard, Clair J

    2015-09-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among men aged 15 to 40 years, and the incidence of testicular cancer is steadily increasing. Despite successful treatment outcomes and the rate of survival at 5 to 10 years being 95%, survivors can experience late effects of both their cancer and the treatment they received, including secondary malignant neoplasms (SMNs). We discuss the development of non-germ cell SMNs that develop after diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer and their effect on mortality. Patients diagnosed with testicular cancer frequently choose postoperative surveillance if they are diagnosed with clinical stage I disease. These patients may experience an increased risk for developing SMNs following radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging. Similarly, radiotherapy for testicular cancer is associated with increased risks of developing both solid tumors and leukemia. Studies have reported that patients exposed to higher doses of radiation have an increased risk of developing SMNs when compared with patients who received lower doses of radiation. Patients treated with chemotherapy also experience an increased risk of developing SMNs following testicular cancer, though the risk following chemotherapy and radiation therapy combined is not well described. A large population-based study concluded that the rate ratios for both cancer-specific and all-cause mortality for SMNs among testicular cancer survivors were not significantly different from those of matched first cancers. Although it is known that patients who receive adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy or who undergo routine diagnostic or follow-up imaging for a primary testicular cancer are at an increased risk for developing SMNs, the extent of this risk is largely unknown. It is critically important that research be conducted to determine this risk and its contributing factors as accurately as possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sperm recovery and IVF after testicular sperm extraction (TESE: effect of male diagnosis and use of off-site surgical centers on sperm recovery and IVF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Omurtag

    %. CONCLUSION: Testicular sperm extraction is a safe and effective option regardless of the etiology of the azoospermia. The type of surgical center and/or its distance from the laboratory was not related to success. Men with non-obstructive azoospermia have a lower chance of successful sperm retrieval and fertilization.

  19. Transient effect of single dose exposure of Nigerian Bonny-light crude oil on testicular steroidogenesis in Wistar rats is accompanied by oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebokaiwe, Azubuike Peter; Ramesh, Parjapath; Mathur, Premendu Prakash; Farombi, Ebenezer Olatunde

    2015-10-01

    The folkloric use of Nigerian Bonny-light crude oil (BLCO) in Niger Delta area of Nigeria is a common practice. There is increasing experimental evidence portending the adverse effects of BLCO an environmental toxicant on testicular function. We investigated the effects of single dose of BLCO (800 mg/kg body weight) on the activities of steroidogenic and antioxidant enzymes such as serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone, 3 β-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase (3 β-HSD), 17 β-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase (17 β-HSD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione reduced (GSH) and steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, in testes of rats. There was a sequential reduction in the concentration of steroid hormones and activities of steroidogenic enzymes with a concomitant decrease in levels of StAR protein, followed by a parallel increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and levels of LPO. These findings revealed inhibitory effects of BLCO on testicular steroidogenesis and the possible role of oxidative stress in testicular dysfunction observed in this study.

  20. The effect of environmental contaminants on testicular function%环境污染物对睾丸功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Premendu Prakash Mathur; Shereen Cynthia D'Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Male reproductive health has deteriorated considerably in the last few decades. Nutritional, socioeconomic, lifestyle and environmental factors (among others) have been attributed to compromising male reproductive health. In recent years, a large volume of evidence has accumulated that suggests that the trend of decreasing male fertility (in terms of sperm count, quality and other changes in male reproductive health) might be due to exposure to environmental toxicants. These environmental contaminants can mimic natural oestrogens and target testicular spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis, and the function of both Sertoli and Leydig cells.Most environmental toxicants have been shown to induce reactive oxygen species, thereby causing a state of oxidative stress in various compartments of the testes. However, the molecular mechanism(s) of action of the environmental toxicants on the testis have yet to be elucidated. This review discusses the effects of some of the more commonly used environmental contaminants on testicular function through the induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  1. Effect of neonatal or adult heat acclimation on plasma fT3 level, testicular thyroid receptors expression in male rats and testicular steroidogenesis in vitro in response to triiodothyronine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowicka, B; Chrusciel, M; Zmijewska, A; Kotwica, G

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of heat acclimation of neonatal and adult rats on their testes response to in vitro treatment with triiodothyronine (T3). Four groups of rats were housed from birth as: 1) control (CR) at 20°C for 90 days, 2) neonatal heat-acclimated (NHA) at 34°C for 90 days, 3) adult heat-acclimated (AHA) at 20°C for 45 days followed by 45 days at 34°C and 4) de-acclimated (DA) at 34°C for 45 days followed by 45 days at 20°C. Blood plasma and both testes were harvested from 90-day old rats. Testicular slices were then submitted to in vitro treatment with T3 (100 ng/ml) for 8 h. Plasma fT3 level was lower in AHA, NHA and DA groups than in CR group. Basal thyroid hormone receptor α1 (Thra1) expression was higher in testes of NHA and DA and β1 receptor (Thrb1) in DA rats vs. other groups. In the in vitro experiment, T3: 1) decreased Thra1 expression in all groups and Thrb1 in DA group, 2) increased Star expression in CR, NHA and DA groups, and Hsd17b3 expression in NHA group, 3) decreased the expression of Cyp11a1 in NHA and DA groups, and Cyp19a1 in all the groups, 4) did not affect the activity of steroidogenic enzymes and steroid secretion (A4, T, E2) in all the groups. These results indicate, that heat acclimation of rats, depending on their age, mainly affects the testicular expression of steroidogenic enzymes in response to short-lasting treatment with T3.

  2. Surviving testicular cancer: the Lebanese lived experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Mohammad; Noureddine, Samar; Abu-Saad Huijer, Huda; Dejong, Jocelyn

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer is thought to have a great impact on its survivors, yet there has been limited literature on the topic globally and no literature on the topic in Lebanon and the Arab region. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of Lebanese testicular cancer survivors and gain an in-depth understanding of the psychosexual aspect of their experience. A hermeneutic phenomenological approach with semistructured digitally recorded interviews and observational field notes was utilized. A purposive sample of Lebanese testicular cancer survivors, aged between 18 and 50 years, in remission for at least 3 years, and willing to share personal information was recruited. Interviews were transcribed verbatim in Arabic. Data saturation was achieved at the seventh interview; a total of eight informants were recruited. The opening question was, "Tell me about your life since you got treated for testicular cancer," and was followed by probing questions. Two to three weeks after the initial interview, informants were called to validate the investigators' primary analysis. Six core themes emerged: cancer perception in the Lebanese culture; "do not show, do not tell"; cancer experience is a turning point; fertility, manhood, and relationships; coping with cancer; and preserved aspects of life. The findings provide an in-depth understanding of the experience of Lebanese testicular cancer survivors with a focus on the psychosexual aspect of this experience. The results suggest the need to educate patients about testicular cancer and its effect on their fertility.

  3. Primary testicular failure in Klinefelter's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels;

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of androgen deficiency is based on clinical features and confirmatory low serum testosterone levels. In early primary testicular failure, a rise in serum LH levels suggests inadequate androgen action for the individual's physiological requirements despite a serum testosterone level ...

  4. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and Leydig cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Jørgensen, Niels; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    originating in early foetal life. TDS comprises various aspects of impaired gonadal development and function, including testicular cancer. A growing body of evidence, including animal models and research in human beings, points to lifestyle factors and endocrine disrupters as risk factors for TDS. We present...

  5. Case report: Traumatic unilateral testicular rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha J.G. Bauer

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Emergency assessment and diagnosis as well as scrotal exploration are important components of the management of acute testicular rupture. Analysis of the literature proves that timely surgical intervention is crucial; early intervention results in higher rates of preservation and avoids the need for an orchidectomy.

  6. Lack of effect on sexual behaviour or the development of testicular function after removal of olfactory bulbs in prepubertal boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, W D; Baldwin, B A

    1980-01-01

    Bilateral olfactory bulb ablation was carried out surgically on 8 prepubertal Large White boars when they were 10-12 weeks of age. Between 26 weeks and slaughter at 47-49 weeks of age, androgen was determined in peripheral blood plasma of bulbectomized and unoperated control animals. The pigs were exposed to oestrous female pigs to observe mating behaviour, and to alien boars to observe aggressive behaviour. Saliva produced during behaviour tests was extracted with diethyl ether and levels of the pheromonal 16-androstene steroids in the extracts were determined by a colorimetric assay. After slaughter the testes, accessory organs and submaxillary glands were weighed, and pices of tissue together with olfactory epithelium were processed for light microscopy; fructose and zinc were determined in the seminal vesicles. The results showed that, contrary to findings in some rodents, prepubertal bilateral bulbectomy in the male pig had no significant effect on mating or aggressive behaviour, or testicular function in so far as complete spermatogenesis was present and normal levels of androgen and pheromone were maintained together with the integrity of the accessory organs. However, in keeping with findings in other species, the height of the olfactory epithelium was generally reduced in the bulbectomized pigs.

  7. Ameliorating Effect of Various Fractions of Rumex hastatus Roots against Hepato- and Testicular Toxicity Caused by CCl4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaira Sahreen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of methanolic extract of Rumex hastatus roots (MRR and its derived fractions, n-hexane (HRR, ethyl acetate (ERR, chloroform (CRR, butanol (BRR, and aqueous extract (ARR, was studied against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced hepato and testicular toxicity in rats. Intraperitoneal dose of 20 percent CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg bw was administered twice a week for eight weeks to a group of rats. Other groups were given CCl4 and various fractions of R. hastatus roots (200 mg/kg bw. CCl4 treatment depleted glutathione contents and activities of antioxidant enzymes while increased the concentration of lipid peroxides (TBARS along with corresponding DNA injuries and histopathological damages. Supplementation with various fractions of R. hastatus roots (200 mg/kg body weight attenuated the toxicity of CCl4 in liver and testis tissues through improvement in the serological, enzymatic, and histological parameters towards the normal. Posttreatment of R. hastatus roots (200 mg/kg body weight also reversed the alteration in reproductive hormonal secretions and DNA damages in CCl4 treated rats. The results clearly demonstrated that R. hastatus treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism and provides the evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.

  8. Effect of etodolac hydrazone, a new compound synthesised from etodolac, on spermatozoon quality, testicular lipid peroxidation, apoptosis and spermatozoon DNA integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarıözkan, S; Türk, G; Çıkla-Süzgün, P; Güvenç, M; Yüce, A; Yay, A H; Cantürk, F; Küçükgüzel, Ş G

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of etodolac hydrazone (EH), a new compound synthesised from etodolac, on spermatozoon quality, testicular lipid peroxidation, apoptosis and spermatozoon DNA integrity in rats. Group 1 (n = 8) received 1 ml dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) daily (Control); group 2 (n = 8) was treated with 5 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) EH, dissolved in 1 ml DMSO (EH-5); and group 3 (n = 8) was treated with 10 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) EH, dissolved in 1 ml DMSO (EH-10). All administrations were performed by gavage and maintained for 8 weeks. Both doses of EH administration caused significant decreases in absolute and relative weights of testis, whole epididymis, right cauda epididymis, and spermatozoon motility, spermatozoon count in comparison with the control group. Only 10 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) EH administration caused significant decreases in absolute and relative weights of seminal vesicles and serum testosterone level, and significant increases in testicular lipid peroxidation level, and numbers of TUNEL+ apoptotic germ cells and spermatozoa with damaged DNA along with some histopathological damages when compared to the control group. However, body and ventral prostate weight, and testicular antioxidant markers (glutathione, glutathione-peroxidase and catalase), were unaffected significantly by both doses of EH administration. In conclusion, two different doses of EH, in particular its high dose, damage to testicular spermatogenic cells and spermatozoon DNA and, it decreases spermatozoon motility, count and testosterone level in healthy rats.

  9. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and Leydig cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, U.N.; Jorgensen, N.; Rajpert-De, Meyts E.

    2008-01-01

    originating in early foetal life. TDS comprises various aspects of impaired gonadal development and function, including testicular cancer. A growing body of evidence, including animal models and research in human beings, points to lifestyle factors and endocrine disrupters as risk factors for TDS. We present......Fertility among human beings appear to be on the decline in many Western countries, and part of the explanation may be decreasing male fecundity. A hypothesis has been put forward that decreasing semen quality may be associated with a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), a spectrum of disorders...

  10. The Danish Testicular Cancer database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Kier, Maria Gry Gundgaard; Bandak, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The nationwide Danish Testicular Cancer database consists of a retrospective research database (DaTeCa database) and a prospective clinical database (Danish Multidisciplinary Cancer Group [DMCG] DaTeCa database). The aim is to improve the quality of care for patients with testicular cancer (TC......) in Denmark, that is, by identifying risk factors for relapse, toxicity related to treatment, and focusing on late effects. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish male patients with a histologically verified germ cell cancer diagnosis in the Danish Pathology Registry are included in the DaTeCa databases. Data...... survivors alive on October 2014 were invited to fill in this questionnaire including 160 validated questions. Collection of questionnaires is still ongoing. A biobank including blood/sputum samples for future genetic analyses has been established. Both samples related to DaTeCa and DMCG DaTeCa database...

  11. Effects of sericin on the testicular growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis in a rat model of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cheng-Jun; Yang, Zhen-Jun; Tang, Qi-Feng; Chen, Zhi-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of sericin on the testicular growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Forty rats were randomly assigned to normal control, type 2 diabetes mellitus, sericin and metformin treated groups. Type 2 diabetes was established by repeated intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin, and identified by blood glucose ≥16.7 mmol/L at 1 week. The diabetic rats were given no other treatment, these rats in the sericin group were intragastrically perfused with 2.4 g/kg sericin and the metformin treated rats were intragastrically perfused with 55.33 mg/kg Metformin daily for 35 consecutive days. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to determine serum testosterone, growth hormone and IGF-1 levels. Immunohistochemical staining, western blotting and reverse transcription-PCR were used to determine testicular growth hormone, growth hormone receptor and IGF-1 expression. The sericin significantly reduced serum growth hormone levels, downregulated growth hormone expression, increased serum testosterone and IGF-1 levels, and upregulated testicular growth hormone receptor and IGF-1 expression. Moreover, there were no significant differences in any of the parameters between the sericin and metformin treated groups. These findings indicated that sericin improved spermatogenic function through regulating the growth hormone/IGF-1 axis, thereby protecting reproductive function against diabetes-induced damage.

  12. Protective effects of udenafil citrate, piracetam and dexmedetomidine treatment on testicular torsion/detorsion-induced ischaemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuglu, D; Yuvanc, E; Ozan, T; Bal, F; Yilmaz, E; Atasoy, P; Kisa, U; Batislam, E

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties of udenafil citrate (1.4 mg kg(-1) -2.8 mg kg(-1) ), dexmedetomidine 25 μg kg(-1) and piracetam 200 mg kg(-1) administered on ipsilateral/contralateral testes after ischaemia in a rat model of testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D) and define its protective effect histologically. Fifty-six Wistar albino rats were included and randomly assigned into 6 groups. No intervention was performed in control group (Group 1, n = 8) and in torsion/detorsion group, (Group 2, n = 8). Udenafil 1.4 mg kg(-1) was given to torsion/detorsion group (Group 3, n = 10), udenafil 2.8 mg kg(-1) was given to torsion/detorsion group (Group 4, n = 10), piracetam 200 mg kg(-1) was given to torsion/detorsion group (Group 5, n = 10) and dexmedetomidine 25 μg kg(-1) was given to torsion/detorsion group (Group 6, n = 10) intraperitoneally after 60 mins of testicular torsion. Biochemical and histopathological testicular injury were evaluated. When the tissue was examined by TOS values, Group 3, Group 4 and Group 5 were significantly lower than Group 2. In contrary Group 6 values were significantly higher than Group 2. The increasing doses of udenafil demonstrated antioxidant properties on the testis tissue and histopathological that protects the testicles. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Testicular scintigraphy; Hodenszintigrafie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiling, R. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    In the clinical situation of an acute scrotum, differentiation between different reasons for scrotal pain may be crucial in certain cases. Beside clinical examination and laboratory tests, Color Doppler sonography is routinely applied. Testicular scintigraphy can only be suggested as a complementary tool if it is available as an emergency procedure. Acute testicular torsion that has already been reliably diagnosed by clinical examination is not an indication for testicular perfusion scintigraphy. This diagnostic procedure is, however, valuable if the clinical findings are equivocal and, especially, if a conservative treatment is planned. The method of and the results obtained with testicular scintigraphy in the differential diagnosis of acute scrotal pain are briefly described in this article. (orig.)

  14. Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia of the Testis, Bilateral Testicular Cancer, and Aberrant Histologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pranav; Dhillon, Jasreman; Sexton, Wade J

    2015-08-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) is a precursor lesion for testicular germ cell tumors, most of which are early stage. ITGCN is also associated with testicular cancer or ITGCN in the contralateral testis, leading to a risk of bilateral testicular malignancy. Testicular biopsy detects most cases, and orchiectomy is the treatment of choice in patients with unilateral ITGCN. Low-dose radiation therapy is recommended in patients with bilateral ITGCN or ITGCN in the solitary testis, but the long-term risks of infertility and hypogonadism need to be discussed with the patient. Rare histologies of primary testicular cancer are also discussed.

  15. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebaek, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Main, K M

    2001-01-01

    Numerous reports have recently focused on various aspects of adverse trends in male reproductive health, such as the rising incidence of testicular cancer; low and probably declining semen quality; high and possibly increasing frequencies of undescended testis and hypospadias; and an apparently...... summarizes existing evidence supporting a new concept that poor semen quality, testis cancer, undescended testis and hypospadias are symptoms of one underlying entity, the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), which may be increasingly common due to adverse environmental influences. Experimental...

  16. [Gefitineb inhibits the growth and induces the apoptosis of mouse I-10 Leydig testicular cancer cells in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jie; Tong, Xu-hui; Zhang, Xin-yu; Gao, Qin; Li, Bei-bei; Wu, Xiao-xiang

    2015-09-01

    To observe the inhibitory effect of gefitineb on the proliferation and its inducing effect on the apoptosis of mouse I-10 Leydig testicular cancer cells in vitro. We treated I-10 Leydig testicular cancer cells of mice with gefitineb at 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 µmol/L. Then we determined the inhibitory effect of gefitineb on the growth of the cells by MTT, detected their early and late apoptosis by Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide double staining and Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining, respectively, and observed the expressions of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2, Bax and caspase 3/9 by Western blot. Compared with the blank control group, gefitineb significantly inhibited the proliferation of the I-10 cells at 10 and 20 µmol/L (P testicular cancer cells of mice and induce their apoptosis via the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis signaling pathway.

  17. Radiation Therapy of Testicular Seminoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hong Gyun; Oh, Do Hoon; Ha, Sung Whan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-15

    Purpose: Testicular seminomas are radiosensitive and adjuvant radiation therapy after orchiectomy results in long term survival in early stage diseases. Ten year results of radiation therapy after orchiectomy and results of definitive treatment of recurrent seminoma are presented. Materials and Methods: Between August 1980 and February 1990, 32 patients with testicular seminomas were treated at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital. Twenty-seven patients received radiation therapy after orchiectomy and 5 patients for treatment of recurrent tumors. Two of postoperatively treated patients and 2 of recurrent patients were excluded from the study because of incomplete treatment. Of the patients treated postoperatively. 18 were stage I, 5 were stage IIA, one was stage IIB, and one was stage IIC. There were 4 ipsilateral and 2 contralateral cryptorchids. Preoperatively, b-HCG levels were elevated in 5 patients. Median dose to pelvic and paraaortic lymph node area was 2900 cGy (1550-4550 cGy). One patient with stage I, 4 with stage IIA, and 1 with stage IIB received prophylactic mediastinal irradiation. Two patients were treated with chemotherapy before radiation therapy. Median follow-up period was 104(3-144) months. Result: Local control rates were 100% at 5 years after orchiectomy. Five year survival rates were 94.4% in Stage I and 100% in Stage II patients. One patient with stage I disease died 3 months after surgery due to mediastinal metastasis. All the 3 patients treated for recurrent disease are alive without disease. Conclusion: Postorchiectomy radiation to the pelvis and para-aortic area remains the treatment of choice for patient with early stage testicular seminoma. Radiation therapy is also an excellent treatment modality for recurrent seminoma.

  18. Vitamin D Metabolism and Effects on Pluripotency Genes and Cell Differentiation in Testicular Germ Cell Tumors In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Blomberg Jensen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs are classified as either seminomas or nonseminomas. Both tumors originate from carcinoma in situ (CIS cells, which are derived from transformed fetal gonocytes. CIS, seminoma, and the undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma (EC retain an embryonic phenotype and express pluripotency factors (NANOG/OCT4. Vitamin D (VD is metabolized in the testes, and here, we examined VD metabolism in TGCT differentiation and pluripotency regulation. We established that the VD receptor (VDR and VD-metabolizing enzymes are expressed in human fetal germ cells, CIS, and invasive TGCTs. VD metabolism diminished markedly during the malignant transformation from CIS to EC but was reestablished in differentiated components of nonseminomas, distinguished by coexpression of mesodermal markers and loss of OCT4. Subsequent in vitro studies confirmed that 1,25(OH2D3 (active VD downregulated NANOG and OCT4 through genomic VDR activation in EC-derived NTera2 cells and, to a lesser extent, in seminoma-derived TCam-2 cells, and up-regulated brachyury, SNAI1, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and fibroblast growth factor 23. To test for a possible therapeutic effect in vivo, NTera2 cells were xenografted into nude mice and treated with 1,25(OH2D3, which induced down-regulation of pluripotency factors but caused no significant reduction of tumor growth. During NTera2 tumor formation, down-regulation of VDR was observed, resulting in limited responsiveness to cholecalciferol and 1,25(OH2D3 treatment in vivo. These novel findings show that VD metabolism is involved in the mesodermal transition during differentiation of cancer cells with embryonic stem cell characteristics, which points to a function for VD during early embryonic development and possibly in the pathogenesis of TGCTs.

  19. 西地那非对大鼠单侧睾丸扭转后对侧睾丸的影响及作用研究%Effects of Sildenafil on rat's testicular function of the contralateral testicular after the unilateral Testicular Torsion/Detorsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴臻斐; 林孝坤; 秦乐; 林进汉; 李仲荣; 陈肖鸣

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨大鼠单侧睾丸扭转后对侧睾丸的损伤以及西地那非(万艾可)的保护机理.方法 将72只健康雄性SD大鼠,随机分为假手术组、安慰剂组、西地那非组.3组分别在假手术/左侧睾丸扭转复位术后4 h、24 h、2周时,各组各处死8只大鼠.分别观察右侧睾丸组织病理学变化、测定右侧睾丸组织中MDA、NO/NOS含量.结果 术后4 h,各组间组织病理学变化、MDA、NOS含量无明显差异,睾丸组织未见损伤,但NO在两地那非组较假手术组、安慰剂组明显增加(P<0.05).术后24 h,假手术组右侧睾丸组织损伤最小,西地那非组较严重,安慰剂组最为严重;与假手术组比,其余两组MDA、NO/NOS含量明显升高(P<0.05);西地那非组NO/NOS含量与安慰剂组相比明显下降(P<0.05);术后2周时,睾丸组织损伤有不同程度恢复,但仍以安慰剂组最为严重;与假手术组比,其余两组MDA、NO/NOS含量仍然升高(P<0.05);西地那非组NO/NOS含量与安慰剂组相比明显下降(P<0.05).结论 大鼠单侧睾丸扭转复位后,对侧睾丸组织术后4 h时.睾丸组织未见损伤.12 h后睾丸组织明显损伤,并且持续至2周后.早期应用适量西地那非(万艾可)可促局部NO增加,扩血管作用加强,拮抗交感神经缩血管作用,进而保护对侧睾丸.%Objective To study the injury of the contralateral testicular after after unilateral testicular torsion in prepubertal rats, and the protective effects of Sildenafil against the injury of contralateral testicular spermatogenic function after unilateral testicular torsion. Methods 72 prepubertal Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into three groups( n = 24) : sham-operation group、 saline group and Sidenafil group. All the rats except sham-operation group underwent torsion/detorsion operation that rotated left testicle 720°clockwise and kept in torsion for 4 hours. All the rats except sham-operation group received corresponding drug orally

  20. What Are the Key Statistics about Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testicular Cancer What Are the Key Statistics About Testicular Cancer? The American Cancer Society’s estimates for testicular cancer ... in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment? More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  1. Long-Term and Late Effects of Germ Cell Testicular Cancer Treatment and Implications for Follow-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haugnes, Hege S.; Bosl, George J.; Boer, Hink; Gietema, Jourik A.; Brydoy, Marianne; Oldenburg, Jan; Dahl, Alv A.; Bremnes, Roy M.; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2012-01-01

    Germ cell testicular cancer (TC) represents a malignancy with high cure rates. Since the introduction of cisplatin-based chemotherapy in the late 1970s, the 5-year survival rate has increased considerably, and it is currently above 95%. Because TC is usually diagnosed before the age of 40 years, the

  2. Oxidative stress in testicular tissues of rats exposed to cigarette smoke and protective effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hüseyin Ozyurt; Hidir Pekmez; Bekir Suha Parlaktas; Ilter Kus; Birsen Ozyurt; Mustafa Sarsllmaz

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To show the oxidative stress after cigarette smoke exposure in rat testis and to evaluate the effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE). Methods: Twenty-one rats were divided into three groups of seven. Animals in Group Ⅰwere used as control. Rats in Group Ⅱ were exposed to cigarette smoke only (4 x 30 min/d) and rats in Group Ⅲall the rats were killed and the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and anti-oxidant enzymes such as superoxide-dismutase,catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the level of malondialdehyde were studied in the testicular tissues of rats with spectrophotometric analysis. Results: There was a significant increase in catalase and superoxide-dismutase activities in Group Ⅱ when compared to the controls, but the levels of both decreased after CAPE administration in Group Ⅲ. GSH-Px activity was decreased in Group Ⅱ but CAPE caused an elevation in GSH-Px activity in Group Ⅲ.The difference between the levels of GSH-Px in Group Ⅰ and Group Ⅱ was significant, but the difference between groups Ⅱ and Ⅲ was not significant. Elevation of malondialdehyde after smoke exposure was significant and CAPE caused a decrease to a level which was not statistically different to the control group. A significantly increased level of NO after exposure to smoke was reversed by CAPE administration and the difference between NO levels in groups Ⅰ and Ⅲ was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Exposure to cigarette smoke causes changes in the oxidative enzyme levels in rat testis, but CAPE can reverse these harmful effects.

  3. Teaching about Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    Because testicular cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in young men, it is important that they become informed about it. This paper reviews the pathology and epidemiology of testicular cancer, the technique of testicular self-examination, and some suggestions for teaching about this subject. (Authors/JMK)

  4. Teaching about Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    Because testicular cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in young men, it is important that they become informed about it. This paper reviews the pathology and epidemiology of testicular cancer, the technique of testicular self-examination, and some suggestions for teaching about this subject. (Authors/JMK)

  5. Inguinal metastases from testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Karas, Vladimir; Sommer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of inguinal metastases in patients with testicular cancer and relapse after initial stage I disease.......To evaluate the incidence of inguinal metastases in patients with testicular cancer and relapse after initial stage I disease....

  6. Testicular calculus: A rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Volkan; Bozkurt, Ozan; Demır, Omer; Tuna, Burcin; Yorukoglu, Kutsal; Esen, Adil

    2015-01-01

    Testicular calculus is an extremely rare case with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. To our knowledge, here we report the third case of testicular calculus. A 31-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with painful solid mass in left testis. After diagnostic work-up for a possible testicular tumour, he underwent inguinal orchiectomy and histopathologic examination showed a testicular calculus. Case hypothesis: Solid testicular lesions in young adults generally correspond to testicular cancer. Differential diagnosis should be done carefully. Future implications: In young adults with painful and solid testicular mass with hyperechogenic appearance on scrotal ultrasonography, testicular calculus must be kept in mind in differential diagnosis. Further reports on this topic may let us do more clear recommendations about the etiology and treatment of this rare disease.

  7. Inguinal metastases from testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Karas, Vladimir; Sommer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of inguinal metastases in patients with testicular cancer and relapse after initial stage I disease.......To evaluate the incidence of inguinal metastases in patients with testicular cancer and relapse after initial stage I disease....

  8. Synergistic effect of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor expression: an explanation of cell sloughing during testicular inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ying; Lui, Wing-Yee

    2014-03-01

    Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a junction molecule that expresses on Sertoli and germ cells. It mediates Sertoli-germ cell adhesion and facilitates migration of preleptotene/leptotene spermatocytes across the blood-testis barrier, suggesting that CAR-based cell adhesion and migration are crucial for spermatogenesis. Interferon-gamma (IFNG) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) are two major cytokines that are elevated during testicular inflammation and cause reduced fertility. We investigated the mechanism by which IFNG and TNF exert their disruptive effects on testicular cell adhesion. We have demonstrated that combined treatment with IFNG and TNF (IFNG+TNF) exerts a synergistic effect by downregulating CAR mRNA and protein levels. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that IFNG+TNF treatment effectively removes CAR from the site of cell-cell contact. Using inhibitor and co-immunoprecipitation, we confirmed that IFNG+TNF mediates CAR protein degradation via ubiquitin-proteasome and NFKB pathways. Blockage of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway significantly inhibits CAR degradation, as indicated by the reappearance of CAR at the site of cell-cell contact. Additionally, IFNG+TNF reduces CAR mRNA via transcriptional regulation. Mutational studies have shown that IFNG+TNF-induced CAR repression is achieved by suppression of the basal transcription. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further confirmed that IFNG+TNF treament not only inhibits binding of the basal transcription factors but also promotes binding of NFKB subunits and Sp1 (negative regulators) to the CAR promoter region. Taken together, IFNG+TNF treatment significantly downregulates CAR expression, which provides an explanation of how cell sloughing in the epithelium mediates, by loss of CAR-based cell adhesion, during testicular inflammation.

  9. Vitamin D metabolism and effects on pluripotency genes and cell differentiation in testicular germ cell tumors in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John Erik

    2012-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are classified as either seminomas or nonseminomas. Both tumors originate from carcinoma in situ (CIS) cells, which are derived from transformed fetal gonocytes. CIS, seminoma, and the undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma (EC) retain an embryonic phenotype......) downregulated NANOG and OCT4 through genomic VDR activation in EC-derived NTera2 cells and, to a lesser extent, in seminoma-derived TCam-2 cells, and up-regulated brachyury, SNAI1, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and fibroblast growth factor 23. To test for a possible therapeutic effect in vivo, NTera2 cells were...

  10. Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination; Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice in Final Year Medical Students in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwumba, Fred O; Ekwueme, Osa Eloka C; Okoh, Agharighom D

    2016-11-01

    The testicular cancer (TCa) incidence is increasing in many countries, with age-standardized incidence rates up to 7.8/100,000 men in the Western world, although reductions in mortality and increasingly high cure rates are being witnessed at the same time. In Africa, where rates are lower, presentation is often late and morbidity and mortality high. Given this scenario, awareness of testicular cancer and practice of testicular self-examination among future first response doctors is very important. This study was conducted to determine knowledge and attitude to testicular cancer, and practice of testicular self-examination (TSE) among final (6th) year medical students. In addition, the effect of an intervention in the form of a single PowerPoint® lecture, lasting 40 minutes with image content on testicular cancer and testicular self examination was assessed. Pre and post intervention administration of a self-administered structured pre tested questionnaire was performed on 151 medical students, 101 of whom returned answers (response rate of 66.8%). In the TC domain, there was a high level of awareness of testicular cancer, but poor knowledge of the age group most affected, with significant improvement post intervention (ptesticular self-examination pre-intervention was found considering the nature of the study group..Respondents had surprisingly weak/poor responses to the question “How important to men’s health is regular testicular self-examination?” Answers to the questions “Do you think it is worthwhile to examine your testis regularly?” and “Would you be interested in more information on testicular cancer and testicular self-examination?” were also suboptimal, but improved post intervention ptesticular cancer in the curricula of medical schools and other training institutions for health care personnel.

  11. GESTATIONAL AGE AT BIRTH AND RISK OF TESTICULAR CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Kristina; Winkleby, Marilyn A.; Sieh, Weiva; Sundquist, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Most testicular germ cell tumors originate from carcinoma in situ cells in fetal life, possibly related to sex hormone imbalances in early pregnancy. Previous studies of association between gestational age at birth and testicular cancer have yielded discrepant results and have not examined extreme preterm birth. Our objective was to determine whether low gestational age at birth is independently associated with testicular cancer in later life. We conducted a national cohort study of 354,860 men born in Sweden in 1973–1979, including 19,214 born preterm (gestational age testicular cancer incidence through 2008. A total of 767 testicular cancers (296 seminomas and 471 nonseminomatous germ cell tumors) were identified in 11.2 million person-years of follow-up. Extreme preterm birth was associated with an increased risk of testicular cancer (hazard ratio 3.95; 95% CI, 1.67–9.34) after adjusting for other perinatal factors, family history of testicular cancer, and cryptorchidism. Only five cases (three seminomas and two nonseminomas) occurred among men born extremely preterm, limiting the precision of risk estimates. No association was found between later preterm birth, post-term birth, or low or high fetal growth and testicular cancer. These findings suggest that extreme but not later preterm birth may be independently associated with testicular cancer in later life. They are based on a small number of cases and will need confirmation in other large cohorts. Elucidation of the key prenatal etiologic factors may potentially lead to preventive interventions in early life. PMID:22314417

  12. Effect of chronic usage of tramadol on motor cerebral cortex and testicular tissues of adult male albino rats and the effect of its withdrawal: histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Khalaf, Hanaa A; Elsamanoudy, Ayman Z; Helaly, Ahmed N

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to demonstrate the histopathological and biochemical changes in rat cerebral cortex and testicles due to chronic usage of tramadol and the effect of withdrawal. Thirty adult male rats weighing 180-200 gm were classified into three groups; group I (control group) group II (10 rats received 50 mg/kg/day of tramadol intraperitoneally for 4 weeks) and group III (10 rats received the same dose as group II then kept 4 weeks later to study the effect of withdrawal). Histological and immunohistochemical examination of cerebral cortex and testicular specimens for Bax (apoptotic marker) were carried out. Testicular specimens were examined by electron microscopy. RT-PCR after RNA extraction from both specimens was done for the genes of some antioxidant enzymes .Also, malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured colourimetrically in tissues homogenizate. The results of this study demonstrated histological changes in testicular and brain tissues in group II compared to group I with increased apoptotic index proved by increased Bax expression. Moreover in this group increased MDA level with decreased gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes revealed oxidative stress. Group III showed signs of improvement but not returned completely normal. It could be concluded that administration of tramadol have histological abnormalities on both cerebral cortex and testicular tissues associated with oxidative stress in these organs. Also, there is increased apoptosis in both organs which regresses with withdrawal. These findings may provide a possible explanation for delayed fertility and psychological changes associated with tramadol abuse. PMID:25550769

  13. Psychostimulant-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Mice: Evidence of Cocaine and Caffeine Effects on the Local Dopaminergic System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candela R González

    Full Text Available Several organ systems can be affected by psychostimulant toxicity. However, there is not sufficient evidence about the impact of psychostimulant intake on testicular physiology and catecholaminergic systems. The aim of the present study was to further explore potential toxic consequences of chronic exposure to cocaine, caffeine, and their combination on testicular physiology. Mice were injected with a 13-day chronic binge regimen of caffeine (3x5mg/kg, cocaine (3×10mg/kg, or combined administration. Mice treated with cocaine alone or combined with caffeine showed reduced volume of the seminiferous tubule associated to a reduction in the number of spermatogonia. Cocaine-only and combined treatments induced increased lipid peroxidation evaluated by TBARS assay and decreased glutathione peroxidase mRNA expression. Importantly, caffeine-cocaine combination potentiated the cocaine-induced germ cell loss, and induced pro-apoptotic BAX protein expression and diminished adenosine receptor A1 mRNA levels. We analyzed markers of dopaminergic function in the testis and detected the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH in the cytoplasm of androgen-producing Leydig cells, but also in meiotic germs cells within seminiferous tubules. Moreover, using transgenic BAC-Drd1a-tdTomato and D2R-eGFP mice, we report for the first time the presence of dopamine receptors (DRs D1 and D2 in testicular mouse Leydig cells. Interestingly, the presence of DRD1 was also detected in the spermatogonia nearest the basal lamina of the seminiferous tubules, which did not show TH staining. We observed that psychostimulants induced downregulation of DRs mRNA expression and upregulation of TH protein expression in the testis. These findings suggest a potential role of the local dopaminergic system in psychostimulant-induced testicular pathology.

  14. Effect of fexofenadine,a mast cell blocker,in infertile men with significantly increased testicular mast cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CayaS; ApaDD

    2002-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the role of fexofenadine,a mast cell blocker,on semen quality in the treatment of infertile men.Methods:The study included 16 Turkish idiopathic infertile men with azoospermia or oligozoospermia who underwent testicular biopsy to examine maxt cells containing tryptase.In all patients,a complete metical history,clinical examination,semen analysis and serum hormone assay were carried out.The biopsy specimens were immunohistochemically stained with antihuman tryptase for mast cells.The number of total mast cells per seminiferous tubule was calculated and recorded as mast cell index.The patients were divided into two groups according to their mast cell index:the higher (≥1,n=9) and the lower (<1,n=7) index groups.Fexofenadine was administered orally at a dose of 180mg/day for 4 to 9 months.Pre-and post-treatment semen parameters,including total motile sperm counts(TMC) were recorded and compared.spontaneous pregnancies after the treatment were registered.Results:There was no statistically significant difference in TMC between the pre-treatment and post-treatment values in patients with higher and lower mast cell index(P≥0.05).In both groups,nobody had a significant response to the treatment and there was no spontaneous pregnancy after the treatment.Conclusion:Althought testicular dysfunction is closely associated with increased number of testicular mast cells,fexofenadine,a mast cell blocker,appears not having any benefit in the treatment of Turkish infertile men with a significant increase in testicular mast cells.

  15. Effects of maternal age on embryo quality and pregnancy outcomes using testicular sperm with intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Won; Park, Yong-Seog; Lee, Sun-Hee; Lim, Chun Kyu; Seo, Ju Tae; Yang, Kwang Moon

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of maternal age on fertilization, embryo quality, and clinical pregnancy in patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using testicular sperm from partners with azoospermia. A total of 416 ICSI cycles using testicular spermatozoa from partners with obstructive azoospermia (OA, n=301) and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA, n=115) were analyzed. Female patients were divided into the following age groups: 27 to 31 years, 32 to 36 years, and 37 to 41 years. The rates of fertilization, high-quality embryos, clinical pregnancy, and delivery were compared across maternal age groups between the OA and NOA groups. The rates of fertilization and high-quality embryos were not significantly different among the maternal age groups. Similarly, the clinical pregnancy and delivery rates were not significantly different. The fertilization rate was significantly higher in the OA group than in the NOA group (p<0.05). Age-group analysis revealed that the fertilization and high-quality embryo rates were significantly different between the OA and NOA groups in patients aged 27 to 31 years old, but not for the other age groups. Although the clinical pregnancy and delivery rates differed between the OA and NOA groups across all age groups, significant differences were not observed. In couples using testicular sperm from male partners with azoospermia, pregnancy and delivery outcomes were not affected by maternal age. However, women older than 37 years using testicular sperm from partners with azoospermia should be advised of the increased incidence of pregnancy failure.

  16. Effect of hypoxia by intermittent altitude exposure on semen characteristics and testicular morphology of male rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, D. K.

    1995-09-01

    Semen characteristics and testicular morphology of rhesus monkeys were studied on exposure to a simulated high altitude of 4411 m for 21 days. There was a partially reversible decrease in the semen volume, sperm count and sperm motility, as well as an elevation of pH and fructose concentration. These changes were associated with degeneration of the germinal epithelium and spermatogenic arrest at the end of third week of exposure which had not recovered even 3 weeks after the exposure.

  17. The effect of alkylating agents on the reproductive and hormonal testicular function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazowski, Z; Janczewski, Z; Polowiec, Z

    1982-01-01

    An evaluation of testicular function was undertaken in 11 boys and young men aged 14-26 years suffering from rheumatoid arthritis complicated by amyloidosis and treated with cyclophosphamide and chlorambucil. 7 cases were studied during life and 4 at autopsy. Semen analysis showed azoospermia in 4 cases; in one, cryptozoospermia; in one, oligoasthenotheratozoospermia; and in one, asthenoteratozoospermia. In 4 patients with azoospermia and in one with cryptozoospermia, testicular biopsy was done for histo-pathological examination. In patients with azoospermia, only Sertoli cells were present in the seminiferous tubules. In one patient with cryptozoospermia, normal spermato- and spermiogenesis was found only in occasional seminiferous tubules. Microscopic examination of the testis failed to show any changes in the structure of the interstitial gland in any of the patients. Amyloid deposits were found in the vascular walls of the interstitial gland in one patient only. The serum testosterone level was depressed in 3 patients of the 9 examined. The LH level was elevated in 2 patients. The mean value of testosterone-LH ratio was significantly lower in patients treated with alkylating agents as compared with patients not so treated. Serum FSH level was elevated in 6 patients. Post-mortem examination of the testis in 4 patients showed complete absence of the germinal epithelium and only the presence of Sertoli cells. In 2 cases, amyloid deposits were found in the vascular walls in the rete testis. It was concluded that alkylating agents, besides damaging the testicular germinal epithelium, also affect the function of Leydig cells.

  18. Effects of glucocorticoids on plasma levels of thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) and testicular activity in catfish, Clarias gariepinus during different phases of annual breeding cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchiang, P; Varkey, S; Gupta, B B P

    2012-06-01

    Effects of short-term administration of corticosterone and cortisol on plasma levels of thyroid hormones, gonado-somatic index and testicular histology have been reported in catfish, Clarias gariepinus during different phases of its breeding cycle. Corticosterone administration had no significant effect on plasma levels of T4, T3 and T3/T4 ratio, irrespective of doses and phases of breeding cycle. However, 5 microg dose of cortisol significantly increased plasma levels of T3 and the T3/T4 ratio during quiescent and regressive phases, while it significantly decreased plasma levels of T4 during progressive phase. During breeding phase, 2 microg and 5 microg doses of cortisol significantly decreased plasma levels of T4 and T3, respectively, while 5 microg dose of cortisol alone reduced T3/T4 ratio. Irrespective of phases of annual breeding cycle and doses, short-term administration of corticosterone and cortisol had no significant effect either on GSI or testicular histology. These findings suggest that corticosterone is ineffective in stimulating plasma levels of thyroid hormones, while cortisol, depending on dose and phase/season, may differentially increase, decrease or have no effect on plasma levels of thyroid hormones in C. gariepinus.

  19. Testicular Cancer Survivorship: Research Strategies and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Clair; Allan, James M.; Dahl, Alv A.; Feldman, Darren R.; Oldenburg, Jan; Daugaard, Gedske; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Dolan, M. Eileen; Hannigan, Robyn; Constine, Louis S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Okunieff, Paul; Armstrong, Greg; Wiljer, David; Miller, Robert C.; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Nichols, Craig R.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2010-01-01

    Testicular cancer represents the most curable solid tumor, with a 10-year survival rate of more than 95%. Given the young average age at diagnosis, it is estimated that effective treatment approaches, in particular, platinum-based chemotherapy, have resulted in an average gain of several decades of life. This success, however, is offset by the emergence of considerable long-term morbidity, including second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, pulmonary toxicity, hypogonadism, decreased fertility, and psychosocial problems. Data on underlying genetic or molecular factors that might identify those patients at highest risk for late sequelae are sparse. Genome-wide association studies and other translational molecular approaches now provide opportunities to identify testicular cancer survivors at greatest risk for therapy-related complications to develop evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventional strategies. We review research priorities identified during an international workshop devoted to testicular cancer survivors. Recommendations include 1) institution of lifelong follow-up of testicular cancer survivors within a large cohort setting to ascertain risks of emerging toxicities and the evolution of known late sequelae, 2) development of comprehensive risk prediction models that include treatment factors and genetic modifiers of late sequelae, 3) elucidation of the effect(s) of decades-long exposure to low serum levels of platinum, 4) assessment of the overall burden of medical and psychosocial morbidity, and 5) the eventual formulation of evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventions. Just as testicular cancer once served as the paradigm of a curable malignancy, comprehensive follow-up studies of testicular cancer survivors can pioneer new methodologies in survivorship research for all adult-onset cancer. PMID:20585105

  20. Development and clinical application of a new testicular prosthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Ning; Zhikang Cai; Huixing Chen; Ping Ping; Peng Li; Zhong Wang; Zheng Li

    2011-01-01

    A new type of testicular prosthesis made of silastic with an elliptical shape to mimic a normal testis was developed by our team and submitted for patenting in China.The prosthesis was produced in different sizes to imitate the normal testis of the patient.To investigate the effects and safety of the testicular prosthesis,20 patients receiving testicular prosthesis implantation were recruited for this study.Follow-up after 6 months revealed no complications in the patients.All the patients answered that they were satisfied with their body image and the position of the implants,19 patients were satisfied with the size and 16 patients were satisfied with the weight.These results show that the testicular prosthesis used in this study can meet patient's expectations.Patients undergoing orchiectomy should be offered the option to receive a testicular prosthesis implantation.The dimensions and weight of the available prosthetic implants should be further addressed to improve patient satisfaction.

  1. Effect of nutritional state on semen characteristics, testicular size and serum testosterone concentration in Sanjabi ram lambs during the natural breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbankhani, F; Souri, M; Moeini, M M; Mirmahmoudi, R

    2015-02-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of plane of nutrition on body weight, average daily gain, dry mater intake, semen characteristics, serum testosterone concentration and testicular circumference of Sanjabi ram lambs during the natural breeding season. Sanjabi ram lambs (n = 20) that were 8 months of age were penned under natural photoperiod at latitude 34°18'N for a period of 9 months. The control group (C, n = 10) received a diet consisting of 80% alfalfa and 20% concentrate, providing 2.18 Mcal metabolizable energy and 130.0 g /kg DM crude protein, whereas, treatment group (T, n = 10) was fed with 65% alfalfa and 35% concentrate, providing 2.34 Mcal metabolizable energy and 160.0 g/kg DM crude protein. Body weight, additive daily gain and feed intake in T group were significantly greater than those obtained in C group. Body weight and testicular circumference increased at a steady rate throughout the experiment. All semen variables (except percentage of abnormal sperm and semen pH), serum testosterone concentration and testicular circumference were positively influenced by nutritional state (P nutritional state with season was found for semen volume, sperm concentration and abnormal sperm, but there was no interaction on the total sperm, progressive motility, live sperm, semen pH and semen index. It is concluded that the reproductive activity of growing Sanjabi ram lambs is affected by nutritional state. These results also demonstrated a monthly pattern in reproductive characteristics of Sanjabi ram lambs, independent of the nutritional state.

  2. Vitamin D metabolism and effects on pluripotency genes and cell differentiation in testicular germ cell tumors in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John Erik

    2012-01-01

    and express pluripotency factors (NANOG/OCT4). Vitamin D (VD) is metabolized in the testes, and here, we examined VD metabolism in TGCT differentiation and pluripotency regulation. We established that the VD receptor (VDR) and VD-metabolizing enzymes are expressed in human fetal germ cells, CIS, and invasive......) treatment in vivo. These novel findings show that VD metabolism is involved in the mesodermal transition during differentiation of cancer cells with embryonic stem cell characteristics, which points to a function for VD during early embryonic development and possibly in the pathogenesis of TGCTs.......Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are classified as either seminomas or nonseminomas. Both tumors originate from carcinoma in situ (CIS) cells, which are derived from transformed fetal gonocytes. CIS, seminoma, and the undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma (EC) retain an embryonic phenotype...

  3. Effect of quinalphos, organophosphorus insecticide, on testicular steroidogenesis in fish, Clarias batrachus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagchi, P.; Chatterjee, S.; Ray, A.; Deb, C. (Univ. College of Science and Technology, Calcutta (India))

    1990-06-01

    The presence of insecticides in the environment, due to extensive use in agriculture and their low degradation capacity, are of potential toxicological concern for fish. Insecticides have also been found to be highly toxic not only to fish, but also to organisms which constitute the food of fish. Catfish, particularly the airbreathing species, are attracting attention of the pisciculturists owing to their high production potential from paddy fields and stagnant shallow ponds. In an earlier study the authors have shown that quinalphos, a widely used insecticide of organophosphorus group in the field of agriculture, has inhibitory effects on the steroidogenic status of testes in rats. Keeping this in view, an experiment has been conducted with the insecticide quinalphos to study the effects on steroidogenic activity of testes of a dietary catfish, Magur (Clarias batrachus).

  4. Effects of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban supplementation on testicular histology of tropical sheep and goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldemeskel, M.; Tegegne, A.; Umunna, N.N.; Kaitho, R.J.; Tamminga, S.

    2001-01-01

    Thirty Ethiopian highland rams with an average body weight of 23.7 kg (S.D.=1.23) and age of 18 months and 25 East African bucks with an average body weight of 18.6 kg (S.D.=2.06) and age of 14 months were used to study the long term effects of supplementation with the leaves of Leucaena pallida and

  5. Effects of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban supplementation on testicular histology of tropical sheep and goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldemeskel, M.; Tegegne, A.; Umunna, N.N.; Kaitho, R.J.; Tamminga, S.

    2001-01-01

    Thirty Ethiopian highland rams with an average body weight of 23.7 kg (S.D.=1.23) and age of 18 months and 25 East African bucks with an average body weight of 18.6 kg (S.D.=2.06) and age of 14 months were used to study the long term effects of supplementation with the leaves of Leucaena pallida and

  6. Therapeutic options in early stage testicular seminoma. Literature survey on first results of a prospective multi-center study on radiotherapy of seminoma in the clinical stages I, IIA and IIB; Therapieoptionen bei testikulaeren Seminomen in den fruehen Stadien. Literaturuebersicht mit ersten Ergebnissen einer prospektiven multizentrischen Studie zur Radiotherapie bei Seminomen in den klinischen Stadien I, IIA und IIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidberger, H. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Tuebingen (Germany). Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie; Bamberg, M. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Tuebingen (Germany). Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie

    1995-03-01

    Testicular seminoma in the early stages is treated with orchiectomy and radiotherapy to the retroperitoneal nodes. Despite the high cure rates of this treatment, there is an ongoing controversy concerning the extent of the radiation fields and the radiation doses to be given in the clinical stages I, IIA and IIB. In the present literature review, these controversial issues are discussed. Four hundred and ninety-one patients in stage I testicular seminoma received adjuvant paraaortic irradiation with a total dose of 26 Gy. Forty-one patients in stage IIA, and 19 patients in stage IIB received 30 Gy or 36 Gy respectively to the paraaortic and ipsilateral iliacal nodes. Paraaortic radiotherapy in stage I disease was associated with low acute side effects and a disease-free survival in 97.1% of the patients after a median observation of 13 months. In stage IIA the disease-free survival was 100%, in stage IIB 94.7%. The literature review and preliminary results of the reported ongoing trial are indicating that paraaortic irradiation in stage I and paraaortic with ipsilateral iliacal irradiation in stages IIA and IIB seem to be a sufficient treatment in early stage testicular seminoma with low treatment associated morbidity. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Testikulaere Seminome in den fruehen Stadien werden nach der Semikastratio mit einer Radiatio der retroperitonealen Lymphknotenstationen behandelt. Trotz der hohen Heilungsraten dieser Behandlung bestehen kontroverse Ansichten sowohl ueber die adaequate Ausdehnung der Bestrahlungsfelder als auch ueber die Dosierung der Bestrahlung in den klinischen Stadien I, IIA und IIB. In dem vorliegenden Literaturueberblick werden diese kontroversen Standpunkte diskutiert. 491 Patienten mit testikulaeren Seminomen im Stadium I erhielten eine adjuvante Bestrahlung der Paraaortalregion mit einer Gesamtdosis von 26 Gy. 41 Patienten im Stadium IIA und 19 Patienten im Stadium IIB erhielten eine Bestrahlung mit jeweils 30 Gy bzw. 36 Gy auf die

  7. Testicular trauma resulting in spermatic vessel thrombosis and testicular loss: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Robert; Kandzari, Stanley J; Zaslau, Stanley

    2012-02-01

    Testicular ischemia is typically seen with cases of testicular torsion. Twisting of the spermatic cord and compromise of testicular blood supply can induce testicular loss if not promptly discovered and treated. Non-torsion causes of testicular ischemia are uncommon with rare citations in the literature. Herein, we present a case of testicular ischemia induced by traumatic thrombosis of the spermatic vessels.

  8. Effect of metformin on germ cell-specific apoptosis, oxidative stress and epididymal sperm quality after testicular torsion/detorsion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemnejad-Berenji, M; Ghazi-Khansari, M; Yazdani, I; Nobakht, M; Abdollahi, A; Ghasemnejad-Berenji, H; Mohajer Ansari, J; Pashapour, S; Dehpour, A R

    2017-07-21

    The study was designed to evaluate the effects of metformin on apoptosis and epididymal sperm quality in a rat testicular ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury model. A total of 72 male rats were divided into four groups (n = 18 for each group): group 1 (sham-operated group), group 2 (metformin group), group 3 (torsion/detorsion [T/D] + saline) and group 4 (T/D + 300 mg kg(-1) metformin). Testicular torsion was achieved by rotating the right testis 720° in a clockwise direction for 1 hr. Tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) level and caspase-3 activity increased and the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased in comparison with sham-operated group 4 hr after detorsion (p < .001). In six rats of each group 24 hr after detorsion, histopathological changes and germ cell apoptosis were significantly deteriorated by measuring mean of seminiferous tubule diameters (MSTD) and TUNEL test. Moreover, 30 days after T/D, sperm concentration and motility were examined in six animals per group. Metformin pre-treatment reduced MDA and caspase-3 levels and normalised antioxidant enzyme activities 4 hr after detorsion, and germ cell apoptosis was significantly decreased, and the MSTD, as well as sperm functions, was significantly improved. Reduction in oxidative stress and apoptosis may have a major role in cytoprotective effects of metformin. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Long-Term Effect of Ciprofloxacin on Testicular Tissue: Evidence for Biochemical and Histochemical Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Mardani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research studied the effect of ciprofloxacin (CPFX on spermatogenesis. Weaimed to estimate the effect of CPFX on serum levels of testosterone, LH and FSH.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, a total of 24 mice were assigned to controlshamand test groups. We subdivided the test group into low (206 mg/kg and high (412 mg/kg doseCPFX groups. Control-sham animals received carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC. All animals weretreated orally for 45 days. Cytoplasmic carbohydrate, lipid accumulation, cytoplasmic lipase andalkaline phosphatase (ALP ratios were examined. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH, folliclestimulating hormone (FSH and testosterone were measured in the control and test groups.Results: The spermatogenesis cell series exhibited low numbers of cells with periodic acid Schiff(PAS-positive cytoplasm and higher numbers of cells with lipid-positive foci. The tissue to ALPratio and germinal epithelium (GE lipase synthesis increased in CPFX-treated animals. In contrastto the CPFX groups, control animals showed normal cytoplasmic carbohydrate, lipid, lipase andALP ratios in all cellular layers. In the CPFX-treated groups there was a significantly lower serumtestosterone level compared with the control group. The serum levels of FSH and LH in high dosetreatedanimals decreased.Conclusion: Our results suggest that following long time CPFX administration major alterationsoccur in GE intracytoplasmic biochemistry, which may lead to loss of physiological function andultimately result in fertility problems. CPFX is able to imbalance serum levels of gonadotropins andtestosterone levels by affecting Leydig cells.

  10. Effect of increased testicular temperature on seminal plasma proteome of the ram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, David R; Martins, Jorge André M; van Tilburg, Mauricio F; Oliveira, Rodrigo V; Moreno, Frederico B; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina O; Moreira, Renato A; Araújo, Airton A; Moura, Arlindo A

    2015-11-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of heat stress on the ram seminal plasma proteome. Six Morada Nova rams were scrotal insulated for 8 days. Scrotal circumference, sperm parameters, and seminal fluid proteins were evaluated before (Day 0) and twice during scrotal insulation (Days 4 and 8), and weekly until semen parameters returned to preinsulation values (normal). Seminal proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. Scrotal circumference decreased from 30 ± 0.4 cm on Day 0 to 22.6 ± 0.6 cm on Day 36 (P Rams were azoospermic between Days 29 and 64, and sperm concentration came back to normal on Day 92. The number of spots/two-dimensional gel reduced from 256 ± 31 on Day 0 to 104 ± 14 on Day 29 (when rams were azoospermic) and then increased to 183 ± 9 on Day 113 (P rams, indicating alterations in both spermatogenesis and sperm maturation. Changes of seminal plasma proteome were coincidental with variations in semen parameters. Proteins affected by heat challenge are potentially involved in sperm protection, maturation, and fertilization.

  11. Effect of insulin-like growth factor-I treatment on serum androgens and testicular and penile size in males with Laron syndrome (primary growth hormone resistance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Z; Klinger, B

    1998-02-01

    Serum gonadotrophins. androgens, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) were determined before and during long-term treatment with recombinant IGF-I of seven males with Laron syndrome, and the changes correlated with changes in testicular volume and penile size. The subjects were four boys below the age of 5, two boys aged 10 and 14 but prepubertal and one 28-year-old fully sexually developed adult. IGF-I was administered by a once daily subcutaneous injection of 150 microg/kg per day to the boys and 120 microg/kg per day to the adult patient. In the very young boys no change in serum gonadotrophins, androgens, gonads or genitals was registered. In the two older boys and the adult patient, there was a progressive rise in luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone. Concomitantly, there was an increase in size of the testes and penile length. The two boys started puberty. As very high serum IGF-I levels were registered in the adult patient, the daily dose was progressively decreased to 70 microg/kg per day. Stopping the IGF-I administration in this patient, according to the protocol, led to a return to pretreatment serum levels and testicular and penile size. This report shows for the first time a direct effect of IGF-I on sex hormones and sex organs in the male.

  12. Global incidence and outcome of testicular cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugalingam, Thurkaa; Soultati, Aspasia; Chowdhury, Simon; Rudman, Sarah; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Background Testicular cancer is a rare tumor type accounting for 1% of malignancies in men. It is, however, the most common cancer in young men in Western populations. The incidence of testicular cancer is increasing globally, although a decline in mortality rates has been reported in Western countries. It is important to identify whether the variations in trends observed between populations are linked to genetic or environmental factors. Methods Age-standardized incidence rates and age-standardized mortality rates for testicular cancer were obtained for men of all ages in ten countries from the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5plus) and World Health Organization (WHO) mortality databases. The annual percent change was calculated using Joinpoint regression to assess temporal changes between geographical regions. Results Testicular cancer age-standardized incidence rates are highest in New Zealand (7.8), UK (6.3), Australia (6.1), Sweden (5.6), USA (5.2), Poland (4.9), and Spain (3.8) per 100,000 men. India, China, and Colombia had the lowest incidence (0.5, 1.3, and 2.2, respectively) per 100,000 men. The annual percent changes for overall testicular cancer incidence significantly increased in the European countries Sweden 2.4%, (2.2; 2.6); UK 2.9%, (2.2; 3.6); and Spain 5.0%, (1.7; 8.4), Australia 3.0%, (2.2; 3.7), and China 3.5%, (1.9; 5.1). India had the lowest overall testicular cancer incidence −1.7%, (−2.5; −0.8). Annual percent changes for overall testicular cancer mortality rates were decreasing in all study populations, with the greatest decline observed in Sweden −4.2%, (−4.8; −3.6) and China −4.9%, (−6.5; −3.3). Conclusion Testicular cancer is increasing in incidence in many countries; however, mortality rates remain low and most men are cured. An understanding of the risks and long-term side effects of treatment are important in managing men with this disease. PMID:24204171

  13. Testicular Cancer Survivorship : Research Strategies and Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travis, Lois B.; Beard, Clair; Allan, James M.; Dahl, Alv A.; Feldman, Darren R.; Oldenburg, Jan; Daugaard, Gedske; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Dolan, M. Eileen; Hannigan, Robyn; Constine, Louis S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Okunieff, Paul; Armstrong, Greg; Wiljer, David; Miller, Robert C.; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Nichols, Craig R.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2010-01-01

    Testicular cancer represents the most curable solid tumor, with a 10-year survival rate of more than 95%. Given the young average age at diagnosis, it is estimated that effective treatment approaches, in particular, platinum-based chemotherapy, have resulted in an average gain of several decades of

  14. Effect of neonatal or adult heat acclimation on testicular and epididymal morphometry and sperm production in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowicka, B; Dietrich, G J; Kotwica, G

    2015-03-01

    The accessory gland weight, testicular and epididymal morphometry and sperm production were analyzed in four groups of rats housed at 20 or 34°C: (1) control rats (CR) kept at 20°C from birth to day 90; (2) adult heat-acclimated rats (AHA) kept at 20°C from birth to day 45 followed by 34°C to day 90; (3) neonatal heat-acclimated rats (NHA) kept at 34°C from birth to day 90 and (4) de-acclimated rats (DA) kept at 34°C from birth to day 45 followed by 20°C to day 90. In NHA and DA rats, accessory gland weight was higher than in controls. Despite the lack of differences in testicular and epididymal morphometry, curvilinear velocity of spermatozoa was lower in the NHA group compared to controls. Areas of seminiferous tubules were lower in the DA than in CR and NHA groups, however, sperm concentration and motility were not affected by the treatment in this group. In AHA rats, epithelium of approximately 20% of seminiferous tubules was degenerated and Sertoli cell number was lower in the remaining tubules. In contrast to sperm motility, epididymal duct area, area of the duct occupied by spermatozoa and cauda epididymis sperm concentration were lower in AHA rats than in the other groups. In conclusion, neonatal heat acclimation did not affect the testicular morphometry and epididymal sperm concentration, suggesting adjustment to high ambient temperature. On the contrary, adult heat acclimation of rats affected the examined parameters, leading to decreased sperm concentration.

  15. Testicular atrophy following paediatric primary orchidopexy: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durell, J; Johal, N; Burge, D; Wheeler, R; Griffiths, M; Kitteringham, L; Stanton, M; Manoharan, S; Steinbrecher, H; Malone, P; Griffin, S J

    2016-08-01

    With the Nordic consensus statement advocating orchidopexy at an earlier age, the present study sought to investigate the outcomes of primary paediatric orchidopexy at a tertiary UK centre. To prospectively assess testicular atrophy following primary orchidopexy for undescended testes in a paediatric population. Secondary outcomes were complication rates and whether outcomes were dependent on grade of operating surgeon. Prospective data regarding age at operation, classification of the undescended testis, length of follow-up, and subjective comparison of intraoperative and postoperative testicular volumes compared with the contralateral testis were collected. Testicular atrophy was defined as >50% loss of testicular volume or a postoperative testicular volume atrophy occurred in 2.6% of cases. There was no reported testicular re-ascent. All secondary acquired cases underwent a previous ipsilateral hernia repair. There was no significant difference in outcomes comparing the grade of surgeon (consultant n = 8, trainee/staff-grade surgeon n = 7-8). There was a trend towards postoperative catch-up growth in approximately one fifth of cases. Previous studies have reported a testicular atrophy rate of 5%. The present study reported a similar rate of 2.6%. In agreement with a previous publication, it was also found that testicular atrophy was not dependent on the grade of operating surgeon. The mechanism for testicular catch-up growth is not well understood. Animal studies have supported the hypothesis that increased temperature has a detrimental effect on testicular volume. However, follow-up in the present cohort was short (median 6.9 months), making interpretation of this finding difficult. It is acknowledged that clinical palpation alone to determine testicular volume potentially introduces intra-observer and inter-observer error. However, prospective studies using ultrasound to determine testicular volumes following orchidopexy have reported catch-up growth. This

  16. Testicular Growth During Puberty in Boys With and Without a History of Congenital Cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadov, Sergey; Koskenniemi, Jaakko J; Virtanen, Helena E

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: The pattern of testicular growth during puberty may provide important information about early testicular damage and reproductive potential in adulthood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pubertal testicular growth in boys with congenital cryptorchidism and controls. DESIGN: Longitudinal case...... mL by orchidometer and 25 mm by ruler as cut-offs in definition of the onset of puberty. An orchidometer size of 3 mL and ruler length of 25 mm corresponded to 1.6 and 1.7 mL by ultrasound (with Lambert's formula), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Testicular growth in puberty was impaired in congenitally...

  17. Oxidative and antioxidative defense system in testicular torsion/detorsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F A Elshaari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to assess the early effects of ischemia/reperfusion injury on the oxidants and anti-oxidant defense status in rat testicular tissue by measuring MDA, glucose-6-phosphte dehydrogenase activity and reduced glutathione levels in a designated time frame sequel to reperfusion. Animals were divided randomly into six groups (12 animals per group in the following order: Group I: Sham-operated control group (Cso without the application of the torsion. Group 2: Torsion-induced ischemia group (T30 m: Ischemia was induced through the torsion of spermatic cord for a period of 30 min. Group 3: One hour reperfusion group after detorsion (T30 mR1 h. Group 4: Twenty-four hour reperfusion group after detorsion (T30 mR24 h. Group 5: Forty-eight hours reperfusion group after detorsion (T30mR48h. Group 6: One week reperfusion group after detorsion (T30mR1wk. Results and Discussion: The oxidant-antioxidant system of the testicular tissue is altered during torsion as well as detorsion which results in the altered activities involved in the key enzyme of hexose monophosphate shunt pathway, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase activity along with a reduction of glutathione (G.SH content. The increase in G6PDH activity during torsion and followed by an increase in detorsion indicates the tissue′s response to counter the oxidant stress caused by reduced blood supply. Continued exposure to such oxidant stressed physiological state of a tissue may lead to decreased capacity of the tissue to perform its physiological function such as testicular steroidogenesis and spermiogenesis shown in the present study.

  18. Undetectable inhibin B serum levels in men after testicular irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P M; Andersson, A M; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    A group of men treated with testicular irradiation for carcinoma in situ in the remaining testis after orchidectomy for unilateral testicular germ cell cancer was used as a model to study of the effect of selective eradication of germ cells on the levels of serum inhibin B in the human male....... Thirteen men with verified spermatogenesis and detectable preirradiation levels of serum inhibin B (median, 55; range, 23-193 pg/mL) were investigated before and after testicular irradiation (14-20 Gy). All patients had undetectable levels of inhibin B 2-12 months (median, 5 months) after radiotherapy (...

  19. Long-term Morbidity of Testicular Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Chunkit; Fossa, Sophie D; Williams, Annalynn; Travis, Lois B

    2015-08-01

    Second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity and ototoxicity, pulmonary complications, hypogonadism, and nephrotoxicity are potentially life-threatening long-term complications of testicular cancer and its therapy. This article describes the pathogenesis, risks, and management of these late effects experienced by long-term testicular cancer survivors, who are defined as individuals who are disease free 5 years or more after primary treatment. Testicular cancer survivors should follow applicable national guidelines for cancer screening and management of cardiovascular disease risk factors. In addition, health care providers should capitalize on the time of cancer diagnosis as a teachable moment to introduce and promote lifestyle changes.

  20. 睾丸外伤35例临床分析%Diagnosis and treatment of 35 cases of testicular trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金成; 陈征儒

    2012-01-01

      Objective To improve the diagnosis and treatment of testicular trauma. The method of analysis of the comparative testicular trauma surgery and conservative treatment. Results of surgical repair in 26 cases of testicular scrotal fall pain disappeared in only two cases (9%) more than three and one cases of blood testosterone decreased, semen is normal, patients with bilateral testicular trauma reduction of sperm. Behind the conservative treatment group of nine cases in the scrotum falling pain in March mitigate or disappeared in 5 cases, 5 cases of testicular atrophy (56%), of which four cases of examination of sperm, one cases of sperm reduction. Conclusion early surgical exploration to remove the hematoma, removal of the testicular tissue of the prominent albuginea outside trim, stitching albuginea, place an effective drainage, can effectively eliminate the symptoms and reduce the possibility of testicular atrophy and orchiectomy.%  目的:提高睾丸外伤的诊治水平及预后。方法:分析比较睾丸外伤手术及保守治疗的效果。结果:手术修补睾丸26例中阴囊坠痛感超过3个月消失者仅2例(9%),保守治疗组9例中阴囊坠痛感3月后方减轻或消失者5例,5例睾丸萎缩(56%),其中4例检查无精子,1例精子量减少。结论:早期手术探查,阴囊血肿的清除引流、坏死组织的切除及白膜缝合修补,能有效降低睾丸萎缩及睾丸切除可能性。

  1. Altered expression profile of glycolytic enzymes during testicular ischemia reperfusion injury is associated with the p53/TIGAR pathway: effect of fructose 1,6-diphosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Al-Maghrebi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Testicular ischemia reperfusion injury (tIRI is considered the mechanism underlying the pathology of testicular torsion and detorsion. Left untreated, tIRI can induce testis dysfunction, damage to spermatogenesis and possible infertility. In this study, we aimed to assess the activities and expression of glycolytic enzymes (GEs in the testis and their possible modulation during tIRI. The effect of fructose 1,6-diphosphate (FDP, a glycolytic intermediate, on tIRI was also investigated. Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham, unilateral tIRI, and tIRI + FDP (2 mg/kg. tIRI was induced by occlusion of the testicular artery for 1 h followed by 4 h of reperfusion. FDP was injected peritoneally 30 min prior to reperfusion. Histological and biochemical analyses were used to assess damage to spermatogenesis, activities of major GEs, and energy and oxidative stress markers. The relative mRNA expression of GEs was evaluated by real-time PCR. ELISA and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the expression of p53 and TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR. Results. Histological analysis revealed tIRI-induced spermatogenic damage as represented by a significant decrease in the Johnsen biopsy score. In addition, tIRI reduced the activities of hexokinase 1, phosphofructokinase-1, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and lactate dehydrogenase C. However, mRNA expression downregulation was detected only for hexokinase 1, phosphoglycerate kinase 2, and lactate dehydrogenase C. ATP and NADPH depletion was also induced by tIRI and was accompanied by an increased Malondialdehyde concentration, reduced glutathione level, and reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities. The immunoexpression of p53 and TIGAR was markedly increased after tIRI. The above tIRI-induced alterations were attenuated by FDP treatment. Discussion. Our findings indicate that tIRI-induced spermatogenic damage is

  2. Altered expression profile of glycolytic enzymes during testicular ischemia reperfusion injury is associated with the p53/TIGAR pathway: effect of fructose 1,6-diphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maghrebi, May; Renno, Waleed M

    2016-01-01

    Background. Testicular ischemia reperfusion injury (tIRI) is considered the mechanism underlying the pathology of testicular torsion and detorsion. Left untreated, tIRI can induce testis dysfunction, damage to spermatogenesis and possible infertility. In this study, we aimed to assess the activities and expression of glycolytic enzymes (GEs) in the testis and their possible modulation during tIRI. The effect of fructose 1,6-diphosphate (FDP), a glycolytic intermediate, on tIRI was also investigated. Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham, unilateral tIRI, and tIRI + FDP (2 mg/kg). tIRI was induced by occlusion of the testicular artery for 1 h followed by 4 h of reperfusion. FDP was injected peritoneally 30 min prior to reperfusion. Histological and biochemical analyses were used to assess damage to spermatogenesis, activities of major GEs, and energy and oxidative stress markers. The relative mRNA expression of GEs was evaluated by real-time PCR. ELISA and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the expression of p53 and TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR). Results. Histological analysis revealed tIRI-induced spermatogenic damage as represented by a significant decrease in the Johnsen biopsy score. In addition, tIRI reduced the activities of hexokinase 1, phosphofructokinase-1, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and lactate dehydrogenase C. However, mRNA expression downregulation was detected only for hexokinase 1, phosphoglycerate kinase 2, and lactate dehydrogenase C. ATP and NADPH depletion was also induced by tIRI and was accompanied by an increased Malondialdehyde concentration, reduced glutathione level, and reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities. The immunoexpression of p53 and TIGAR was markedly increased after tIRI. The above tIRI-induced alterations were attenuated by FDP treatment. Discussion. Our findings indicate that tIRI-induced spermatogenic damage is associated with

  3. Testicular dislocation: the importance of scrotal examination in a trauma patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseer, A; King, D; Lee, H; Vale, J

    2012-03-01

    Testicular dislocation after blunt perineal trauma is a rare event and a diagnosis that can be easily overlooked. Careful examination can help facilitate early and appropriate treatment. Timely diagnosis and surgical management are of paramount importance to preserve normal spermatogenic function in the dislocated testicle. We describe a case of testicular dislocation and discuss some of the issues surrounding diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Microdissection testicular sperm extraction: an update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali A Dabaja; Peter N Schlegel

    2013-01-01

    Patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) were once considered to be infertile with few treatment options due to the absence of sperm in the ejaculate.In the last two decades,the advent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI),and the application of various testicular sperm retrieval techniques,including fine needle aspiration (FNA),conventional testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) have revolutionized treatment in this group of men.Because most men with NOA will have isolated regions of spermatogenesis within the testis,studies have illustrated that sperm can be retrieved in most men with NOA,including Klinefelter's syndrome (KS),prior history of chemotherapy and cryptorchidism.Micro-TESE,when compared with conventional TESE has a higher sperm retrieval rate (SRR) with fewer postoperative complications and negative effects on testicular function.In this article,we will compare the efficacy of the different procedures of sperm extraction,discuss the medical treatment and the role of testosterone optimization in men with NOA and describe the micro-TESE surgical technique.Furthermore,we will update our overall experience to allow counseling on the prognosis of sperm retrieval for the specific subsets of NOA.

  5. Testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Malene Roland; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Møller, Henrik; Vedsted, Peter; Osther, Palle Jörn

    2016-07-01

    To perform a systematic literature review to assess whether the occurrence of testicular microlithiasis (TML) in conjunction with other risk factors is associated with testicular cancer. A systematic literature search was performed of original articles in English published 1998 to 2015. Relevant studies were selected by reading the title and abstract by two of the authors. Studies were included if TML was diagnosed by ultrasonography and a risk condition was reported. Studies were only eligible if the particular risk condition was reported in more than one article. In total, 282 abstracts in were identified. Based on title and abstract the eligibility was assessed and 31 studies were included. Five conditions in relation to TML and testicular cancer emerged: Down syndrome, McCune-Albright syndrome, cryptorchidism, infertility and familial disposition of testicular cancer. Data support the conclusion that TML is not an independent risk factor for testicular cancer but associated with testicular cancer through other conditions. In male infertility, TML appears to be related to an increased risk of testicular cancer possibly as part of a testicular dysgenesis syndrome.

  6. Prognostic features and markers for testicular cancer management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy S Leman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular neoplasm accounts for about 1% of all cancers in men. Over the last 40 years, the incidence of testicular cancer has increased in northern European male populations for unknown reasons. When diagnosed at early stage, testicular cancer is usually curable with a high survival rate. In the past three decades, successful multidisciplinary approaches for the management of testicular cancer have significantly increased patient survival rates. Utilization of tumor markers and accurate prognostic classification has also contributed to successful therapy. In this article, we highlight the most commonly used tumor markers and several potential "novel" markers for testicular cancer as part of the ongoing effort in biomarker research and discovery. In addition, this article also identifies several key prognostic features that have been demonstrated to play a role in predicting relapse. These features include tumor size, rete testis invasion, lymphovascular invasion, and tumor histology. Together with tumor markers, these prognostic factors should be taken into account for risk-adapted management of testicular cancer.

  7. Apoptosis-mediated seasonal testicular regression in the Japanese Jungle Crow (Corvus macrorhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Nazrul; Tsukahara, N; Sugita, S

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigated effects of apoptosis observed during seasonal testicular regression in Japanese Jungle Crows. The study was conducted during January to June 2008, 2009. Testes from adults captured during non-breeding (January), prebreeding (February to mid-March), main-breeding (late March to early May), transition (mid-May to late May), and post-breeding (June) seasons were analyzed. Apoptosis was assessed by in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Paired-testis volume increased 95-fold from the non-breeding to the main-breeding season (P Crows; however, testis function was terminated rapidly after the breeding season. Furthermore, we concluded, similar to other avian species, Sertoli cell apoptosis followed by massive germ cell death was responsible for rapid testicular regression in Jungle Crows. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Stomach Cancer Following Hodgkin Lymphoma, Testicular Cancer and Cervical Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of Three International Studies with a Focus on Radiation Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ethel S; Curtis, Rochelle E; Hauptmann, Michael; Kleinerman, Ruth A; Lynch, Charles F; Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A; Weathers, Rita; Andersson, Michael; Dores, Graça M; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Fossa, Sophie D; Hall, Per; Hodgson, David C; Holowaty, Eric J; Joensuu, Heikki; Johannesen, Tom B; Langmark, Froydis; Kaijser, Magnus; Pukkala, Eero; Rajaraman, Preetha; Storm, Hans H; Vaalavirta, Leila; van den Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W; Aleman, Berthe M; Travis, Lois B; Morton, Lindsay M; van Leeuwen, Flora E

    2017-02-01

    To further understand the risk of stomach cancer after fractionated high-dose radiotherapy, we pooled individual-level data from three recent stomach cancer case-control studies. These studies were nested in cohorts of five-year survivors of first primary Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), testicular cancer (TC) or cervical cancer (CX) from seven countries. Detailed data were abstracted from patient records and radiation doses were reconstructed to the site of the stomach cancer for cases and to the corresponding sites for matched controls. Among 327 cases and 678 controls, mean doses to the stomach were 15.3 Gy, 24.7 Gy and 1.9 Gy, respectively, for Hodgkin lymphoma, testicular cancer and cervical cancer survivors, with an overall mean dose of 10.3 Gy. Risk increased with increasing radiation dose to the stomach cancer site (P testicular cancer and 0.096 (95% CI: -0.002-0.39) for cervical cancer (P homogeneity = 0.25). The EOR/Gy increased with time since exposure (P trend = 0.004), with an EOR/Gy of 0.38 (95% CI: 0.12-1.04) for stomach cancer occurring ≥20 years postirradiation corresponding to odds ratios of 4.8 and 10.5 at radiation doses to the stomach of 10 and 25 Gy, respectively. Of 111 stomach cancers occurring ≥20 years after radiotherapy, 63.8 (57%) could be attributed to radiotherapy. Our findings differ from those based on Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, where the overall EOR/Gy was higher and where there was no evidence of an increase with time since exposure. By pooling data from three studies, we demonstrated a clear increase in stomach cancer risk over a wide range of doses from fractionated radiotherapy with the highest risks occurring many years after exposure. These findings highlight the need to directly evaluate the health effects of high-dose fractionated radiotherapy rather than relying on the data of persons exposed at low and moderate acute doses.

  9. Effect of noise exposure (85 dB ) on testicular adrenocortical steroidogenic key enzymes, acid and alkaline phosphatase activities of sex organs in mature albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Changes in the activities of △5-3β-hydroysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) in testis and adrenal gland, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in testis, acid and alkaline phosphatase in testis, prostate and seminal vesicle were observed in noise exposed mature rats at the intensity of 85 dB for 8 h/day for 45 days. The results indicated that noise exposed group showed a significant diminution in the activities of androgenic key enzymes △5-3β and 17β-HSD, acid phosphatase in testis, prostate and seminal vesicle. There was a significant elevation in the activities of adrenal △5-3β-HSD, alkaline phosphatase in testis and other accessory sex organ in noise exposed group. Gonadosomatic, prostatosomatic and seminal vesiculo-somatic indexes were decreased significantly in noise exposed group. Therefore, it is evident that noise exposure at 85dB exerts a deleterious effect on testicular and adrenocortical activities.

  10. Reproductive effects in hybrid sparrow from a polluted area in Tunisia: Oxidative damage and altered testicular histomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Nahed; Hammouda, Abdessalem; Rahmouni, Fatma; Chokri, Med Ali; Chaabane, Rim; Selmi, Slaheddine; Rebai, Tarek; Badraoui, Riadh

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is a threat for human health and wildlife. The aim of this study is to assess the pathophysiological changes and the oxidative-antioxidative status in testicular tissues of 40 Hybrid sparrows collected from four areas in Gabès city, one of the most polluted areas in Tunisia. The testis histopathological analysis revealed alterations in birds from Ghannouche, the polluted area. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels were higher in testis of birds from the contaminated site compared to less polluted areas indicating oxidative damage to membrane lipids. Antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase and catalase) were lower in testis sparrows from the polluted site compared with the reference site, suggesting deficiency of the antioxidant system to compensate for oxidative stress. Overall, our results suggest that the hybrid sparrow offers a suitable model for biomonitoring programs of atmosphere pollutants and the selected biomarkers could be useful tool to evaluate pollution impacts in living organisms.

  11. Taurine increases testicular function in aged rats by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiancheng; Zong, Xiaomeng; Wu, Gaofeng; Lin, Shumei; Feng, Ying; Hu, Jianmin

    2015-08-01

    In males, the decline of androgen synthesis, spermatogenesis and sexual function are the main phenotypes of aging, which may be attributed to testicular dysfunction. Taurine can act as an antioxidant, a testosterone secretion stimulator, a sperm membrane stabilizer and motility factor, and an anti-apoptotic agent. Recent observational studies suggested that taurine may play an important role in spermatogenesis, but to date whether taurine has anti-aging effects on testes remains unknown. We found that in aged rats testicular SDH and G6PDH activities, marker enzymes of testes, serum testosterone, testicular 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD mRNA expression levels were significantly increased by taurine treatment. Taurine administration also markedly raised the sperm count, viability and motility, decreased the sperm abnormality. Our data suggested that taurine can postpone testicular function deterioration in aged rats. Importantly, we observed obvious elevation of testicular antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH, GSH-Px) activities, and remarkable reduction of ROS and MDA by taurine administration, indicating taurine can decrease testicular oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in aged rats. Finally, we found taurine effectively reduced testicular DNA fragmentation, increased testicular Bcl-2 protein expression, and decreased cytochrome c, Bax, Fas, FasL and caspase-3 expression, suggesting taurine can prohibit aged testicular apoptosis by mitochondrial dependent and independent signal pathway. In summary, our results indicated that taurine can suppress testicular function deterioration by increasing antioxidant ability and inhibiting apoptosis.

  12. Effects of L-carnitine and L-acetyl-carnitine on testicular sperm motility and chromatin quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Aliabadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sperm cells extracted from testes (TESE have poor chromatin quality and motility. Various substances are used in the laboratory to increase sperm motility and improve the ART outcomes; however, there are few research which considered improving both sperm motility and chromatin quality. Objective: The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the improvement of the testicular sperm motility and chromatin quality exposed to L-carnitine (LC and L-acetyl-carnitine (LAC, which are normally concentrated in testis and epididymis, compared with Pentoxifylline (PF, which used for sperm motility enhancement in IVF procedures. Materials and Methods: TESE samples from 30 male mice divided into four parts. The sperm samples were added to Ham' F10 (control or the media contained 1.76mM of LC, LAC or PF, then, the samples were kept in the room temperature for 30, 90 and 180 min. At each time step, sperm motility and chromatin quality were assessed. Chromatin quality was evaluated by chromomycin A3 and aniline blue. Statistical analysis was performed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA. A p-value less than 0.05 were accepted as a statistically significant difference. Results: The results showed LC, LAC and PF significantly increased the sperm motility. However, sperm chromatin quality only improved significantly by administration of LC and LAC. Conclusion: Administration of LC and LAC to the testicular sperm samples can lead to improve both sperm motility and chromatin quality. It may be because they can mimic in vivo sperm condition during late spermatogenesis.

  13. Late Relapses in Stage I Testicular Cancer Patients on Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette Saksø; Lauritsen, Jakob; Kier, Maria Gry Gundgaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Comprehensive data on late relapse (LR) and very LR (VLR) in patients with clinical stage I (CS-1) testicular cancer followed on surveillance are missing. These data are essential for planning optimal follow-up. OBJECTIVE: Assess incidence and outcome of LR (>2 yr) and VLR (>5 yr...... patients with LR(VLR) do not differ significantly from patients with ER. PATIENT SUMMARY: We compared stage I testicular cancer surveillance patients with early relapse (ER) versus late relapse (LR; >2 yr). LR patients as a group did no worse than ER patients, although increased time to relapse......) in a large cohort of CS-1 surveillance patients, and examine differences in the clinical characteristics of patients with early relapse (ER), LR, and VLR. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: CS-1 surveillance patients diagnosed between 1984 and 2007 were identified from the retrospective Danish Testicular...

  14. Propolis attenuates doxorubicin-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Sherine M; Zaki, Hala F; Mina, Mary A M

    2014-05-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox), an effective anticancer agent, can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study aimed to explore the protective effect of propolis extract on Dox-induced testicular injury. Rats were divided into four groups (n=10). Group I (normal control), group II received propolis extract (200 mg kg(-1); p.o.), for 3 weeks. Group III received 18 mg kg(-1) total cumulative dose of Dox i.p. Group IV received Dox and propolis extract. Serum and testicular samples were collected 48 h after the last treatment. In addition, the effects of propolis extract and Dox on the growth of solid Ehrlich carcinoma in mice were investigated. Dox reduced sperm count, markers of testicular function, steroidogenesis and gene expression of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). In addition, it increased testicular oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies supported the biochemical findings. Treatment with propolis extract prevented Dox-induced changes without reducing its antitumor activity. Besides, administration of propolis extract to normal rats increased serum testosterone level coupled by increased activities and gene expression of 3ß-HSD and 17ß-HSD. Propolis extract may protect the testis from Dox-induced toxicity without reducing its anticancer potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effect of Early Mosquito Insecticides Exposure on Spraque Dawley Rat Testis: A Histopathological Feature Towards Malignancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indah Winarni, Tri; Auzan Aziman, Milzam; Abshar Andar, Anindyo; Pawitra, Ika

    2017-02-01

    The incidence of health problems associated with endocrine-disruption have increased. Many studies suggesting that endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDC) do contribute to cancer through estrogen-related receptors. Many chemicals have EDCs properties including insecticides. Early life exposure to EDCs can increased the risk of testicular cancer have been reported in the last decade. This study was aimed to determine the effect of insecticides exposure on histopathological tumor cell development of germ and Leydig cell. True experiment research design with posttest only control group design was applied. Sprague Dawley (SD) rat (n = 25) were randomly divided into 5 groups (control group, 25 mg β estradiol 3-benzoate, spiral mosquito coil repellent, 3 ml of liquid mosquito repellent, and 4 ml of liquid mosquito repellent). The exposure were administered for 20 days started at aged 3 days. At the age of 100 days (older adult), testis was stained using Hematoxyllin Eosin (HE) and histological features predicting malignancy were observed. The number of tumor cell development in both testicular germ cells and Leydig cells significantly increased in all treated group compared to those of control and the changes towards malignancy were also observed in all treated group. Exposure to mosquito insecticides causes significant changes in testicular germ and Leydig cell histological features that leads to malignancy.

  16. The Effect of Propiconazole and Protective Effects of Selenium Gene Expression Profile of Caspase 9 in the Testicular Tissue of Male Sprague Dawley (SD Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rashidi pouya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Conazoles including imidazoles or triazoles are anti- fungal agents widely used to prevent fungal growth and their infections. Propiconazole placed in this group is a systemic fungicide used widely for detoxification of cereal seeds especially rice in Iran and other countries. This fungicide were designed to inhibit a specific cytochrome P450, CYP51 (lanosterol-14-α- demethylase, a critical step in the biosynthesis of ergosterol, a steroid required for the formation of the fungal cell wall. In the present experimental study, the effect of propiconazole on Caspase 9 gene expression profile as an initiator of apoptotic process and protective effect of selenium were investigated. Methods: Forty SD rats were divided into 10 groups of 4,  including : control , sham1 (solvent of propiconazole, distilled water, sham 2 (solvent of selenium, normal saline and 1 group received 0.5 mg/kg selenium ,3 groups received propiconazole in doses of 10,50,75  mg/kg and 3 groups received propiconazole in doses of 10,50,75 mg/kg propiconazole with 0.5 mg/kg of selenium. Injections were intrapritoneal for two weeks in alternate days. Then, using RT-PCR and Total Lab program gene expression of caspase-9 testicular of all groups were studied. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results:  A significant increase of caspase 9 expression were observed among all experimental groups compared to control and sham groups. These findings indicated that 0.5 mg/kg selenium is not a suitable dose to create protection in this experimental study.  Conclusion: The significant increase in Caspase 9 gene expression profile observed in all experimental groups as compared to control suggests activation of apoptosis and inefficacy of selenium to protect the testis against induced damages.

  17. TESTICULAR FEMINISING SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Testicular feminization syndrome is a form of pseudohermaphroditism where phenotypic female has male gonads and is genotypically male. Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS, also known as testicular feminization, encompasses a wide range of phenotypes that are caused by numerous different mutations in the androgen receptor gene. AIS is an X-linked recessive disorder that is classified as complete, partial based on the phenotypic presentation. The clinical findings include a female type of external genitalia, 46-XY karyotype, absence of Mullerian structures, presence of Wolffian structures to various degrees, and normal to high testosterone and gonadotropin levels. The syndrome is illustrated by a 24-year-old phenotypic female who presented with a primary amenorrhea, female-type external genitalia, an absent uterus and ovaries, and bilateral testes at the level of the internal inguinal ring. Management includes counseling, gonadectomy to prevent primary malignancy in undescended gonad, and hormone replacement. The karyotyping of family members is advocated because of known familial tendencies.

  18. Testicular Metastases From Prostate Carcinoma

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    Harrina Erlianti Rahardjo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis of prostate carcinoma to the testis is seldom reported. The tumour may spread from the prostatic urethra by retrograde venous extension, arterial embolism or through direct invasion into the lymphatics and lumen of the vas deferens. Clinical manifestations of secondary testicular tumours from the prostate are most often unsuspected clinically and are instead detected incidentally during orchidectomy. Less frequently, a palpable mass is detected, which may be confused with a primary testicular neoplasm. We report a case of a 66-year-old patient with adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and a left testicular tumour that was diagnosed as metastases from prostate carcinoma after radical orchidectomy.

  19. A Rare Complication of Brucellosis: Testicular Abscess

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    Ümit Gul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella species. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This case was a male patient who developed Brucella epidiymo-orchitis and testicular abscess. He had fever, arthralgia and his right epididymis and right testicle were enlarged and tender. Ultrasound evaluation showed hypertrophy of the right epididymis and testis and moreover hypoechoic area within the testis. Brucella serology was positive and the patient did not respond completely to treatment with streptomycin, doxycycline, and rifampicina. Unilateral orchidectomy was decided. In areas where brucella infection is endemic brucella epididymo-orchitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Effective and rapid treatment is important. It should be noted that these patients may develop testicular abscess.

  20. Melatonin prevents gentamicin-induced testicular toxicity and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S-H; Lee, I-C; Baek, H-S; Shin, I-S; Moon, C; Kim, S-H; Yun, W-K; Nam, K-H; Kim, H-C; Kim, J-C

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of melatonin (MT) against gentamicin (GM)-induced testicular toxicity and oxidative damage in rats. GM (100 mg kg(-1) ) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) to rats for 6 days. MT (15 mg kg(-1) ) was administered i.p. to rats for 6 days at 1 hr after the GM treatment. GM caused a decrease in prostate and seminal vesicle weights, sperm count and sperm motility. Histopathological examination showed various morphological alterations in the testis, characterised by degeneration of spermatogonia/spermatocytes, decrease in the number of early spermatogenic cells and vacuolisation. In addition, an increased malondialdehyde concentration and decreased glutathione content and glutathione reductase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase activities were found in the testis. In contrast, MT treatment significantly attenuated the testicular toxicity of GM, including decreased reproductive organ weights, sperm count, and sperm motility and increased histopathological alterations. MT also had an antioxidant benefit by decreasing the lipid peroxidative product malondialdehyde and increasing the level of the antioxidant glutathione and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the testis. These results indicate that MT prevents testicular toxicity induced by GM in rats, presumably due to its potent antioxidant activity, and its ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation, and restore antioxidant enzyme activity.

  1. Crossed testicular ectopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Esteves

    Full Text Available Crossed testicular ectopia (CTE is a rare anomaly, characterized by migration of one testis towards the opposite inguinal canal. Presented here is a case of crossed ectopia of the right testis, treated by extraperitoneal transposition of the gonad and right orchiopexy. Embriology and surgical findings suggest that CTE is a common consequence of many unclear ethiologic factors, specially mechanical ones, and can be associated with Muller duct persistence. Review of literature suggests a classification of CTE into 3 types: I - associated with inguinal hernia alone; II - associated with persistent mullerian remnants; III - associated with other anomalies without mullerian remnants. Treatment includes transeptal orchiopexy or extraperitoneal transposition of the testis, research for mullerian remnants and other anomalies, and long term postoperative follow-up, due to the risk of becoming malignant.

  2. Crossed testicular ectopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, E; Pinus, J; Maranhão, R F; Abib, S de C; Pinus, J

    1995-01-01

    Crossed testicular ectopia (CTE) is a rare anomaly, characterized by migration of one testis towards the opposite inguinal canal. Presented here is a case of crossed ectopia of the right testis, treated by extraperitoneal transposition of the gonad and right orchiopexy. Embriology and surgical findings suggest that CTE is a common consequence of many unclear ethiologic factors, specially mechanical ones, and can be associated with Muller duct persistence. Review of literature suggests a classification of CTE into 3 types: I--associated with inguinal hernia alone; II--associated with persistent mullerian remnants; III--associated with other anomalies without mullerian remnants. Treatment includes transeptal orchiopexy or extraperitoneal transposition of the testis, research for mullerian remnants and other anomalies, and long term postoperative follow-up, due to the risk of becoming malignant.

  3. [Treatment of testicular cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droz, Jean-Pierre; Boyle, Helen; Culine, Stéphane; Fizazi, Karim; Fléchon, Aude; Massard, Christophe

    2013-12-01

    Germ-cell tumours (GCTs) are the most common type of cancer in young men. Since the late 1970s, disseminated GCT have been a paradigm for curable metastatic cancer and metastatic GCTs are highly curable with cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by surgical resection of residual masses. Patients' prognosis is currently assessed using the International Germ-Cell Consensus Classification (IGCCC) and used to adapt the burden of chemotherapy. Approximately 20% of patients still do not achieve cure after first-line cisplatin-based chemotherapy, and need salvage chemotherapy (high dose or standard dose chemotherapy). Clinical stage I testicular cancer is the most common presentation and different strategies are proposed: adjuvant therapies, surgery or surveillance. During the last three decades, clinical trials and strong international collaborations lead to the development of a consensus in the management of GCTs.

  4. Testicular Cancer Treatments: After Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to alphafetoprotein (AFP), beta-hCG (b-hCG), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). AFP and b-hCG are proteins ... Our recommendations are divided by type of testicular cancer, stage, and treatment given. Clinical Stage I Nonseminoma - ...

  5. General Information about Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 tumor markers are used in staging testicular cancer : Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Tumor marker levels are measured again, ...

  6. Luteinizing hormone in testicular descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Kaleva, Marko M; Virtanen, Helena E

    2007-01-01

    . Insulin-like hormone-3 (INSL3) is suggested to be the main regulator of gubernacular development and therefore an apparent regulator of testicular descent. INSL3 production is also related to LH, and reduced INSL3 action is a possible cause for cryptorchidism. Cryptorchid boys have normal testosterone......A proper hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis with normal androgen synthesis and action is a prerequisite for normal testicular descent. Various defects in this axis may result in cryptorchidism but endocrine abnormalities are rarely detected. Androgens regulate testicular descent but androgen action...... alone is not sufficient for normal testicular descent. The regulation of androgen production is influenced both by placental human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH). There is evidence that the longer pregnancy continues, the more important role pituitary LH may have...

  7. Testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faure, Alice; Bouty, Aurore; O'Brien, Mike

    2016-01-01

    in undervirilized patients with 46,XY disorders of sexual development. Testicular histology is also of considerable value in the prediction of both fertility potential and risk of cancer in individuals with undescended testes, particularly those with intraabdominal undescended testes. New possibilities......No consensus exists regarding the precise role of testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys, although it is considered useful for assessing the potential consequences of undescended testes on fertility. Current scientific knowledge indicates that surgeons should broaden indications for this procedure...... for the preservation of fertility after gonadotoxic chemotherapy - even for prepubertal boys - are emerging. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue samples for the preservation of fertility - although still an experimental method at present - is appealing in this context. In our opinion, testicular biopsy...

  8. How to Perform a Testicular Self-Examination

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    ... Can Get Weight Loss Surgery? Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness How to Do a Testicular ... autoexamen testicular Testicular self-exams (TSE) can help you check for things like cancer. Although testicular cancer is rare in teenage guys, ...

  9. What Are the Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer? A risk factor is anything that changes your ... Cancer? Can Testicular Cancer Be Prevented? More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  10. Adolescent and adult risk factors for testicular cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Katherine A.; Trabert, Britton

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past several decades in many developed countries. The reasons for the increases are unknown because risk factors for the disease are poorly understood. Some research suggests that exposures in utero or in early childhood are likely to be important in determining an individual's level of risk. However, other research suggests that exposure to various factors in adolecence and adulthood are also linked to the development of testicular cancer. Of these, two occupational exposures—firefighting and aircraft maintenance—and one environmental exposure (to organochloride pesticides) are likely to be associated with increased risk of developing testicular cancer. By contrast, six of the identified factors—diet, types of physical activity, military service as well as exposure to ionizing radiation, electricity and acrylamide—are unlikely to increase the risk of developing testicular cancer. Finally, seven further exposures—to heat, polyvinylchloride, nonionizing radiation, heavy metals, agricultural work, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as marijuana use—require further study to determine their association with testicular cancer. PMID:22508459

  11. Cadmium-Induced Testicular Toxicity, Oxidative Stress and Histopathology in Wistar Rats: Sustained Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Extract of Vernonia Amygdalina (Del. Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Eseigbe Imafidon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium (Cd is a toxic heavy metal of both environmental and occupational concerns. The health impact of ethno-botanical approaches in attempts to ameliorate its deleterious effects in biological systems should be an area of scientific interest since established therapies are often burdened with undesirable side effects. Aim: To determine the effects of polyphenol-rich extract of the leaf of Vernonia amygdalina (PEVA on Cd-induced testicular toxicity, oxidative stress, and histopathology in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: A total of twenty five (25 male Wistar rats were divided into five groups as follows: Group 1 (Control received distilled water (0.2 ml/100 g i.p. for 5 consecutive days and thereafter left untreated for 28 days. Group 2 received Cd alone at 5 mg/kg (i.p. for 5 consecutive days. Group 3 was pre-treated with Cd as Group 2 and thereafter left untreated for a period of 28 days, whereas Groups 4 and 5 were pre-treated with Cd as Group 2 and thereafter received PEVA (orally at two dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively for 28 days. Results: Cd administration induced reproductive toxicity as evidenced by lowered level of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone (P < 0.05; perturbation of sperm characterization (P < 0.05; deleterious disruptions of the antioxidant system as evidenced by lowered levels of reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase as well as elevation in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level (P < 0.05; decrease in relative testicular weight (P < 0.05; and severe disseminated necrosis of the seminiferous tubules with terminally undifferentiated/necrotic cells as revealed by the histopathological examination. These conditions were sustained following administration of the two dose levels of PEVA. Conclusion: PEVA administration is not a suitable therapeutic choice for fertility enhancement in male Wistar rat model of Cd-induced decline in reproductive function

  12. Dose-dependent effects of cisplatin on the severity of testicular injury in Sprague Dawley rats: reactive oxygen species and endoplasmic reticulum stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni KK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kiran Kumar Soni,1 Hye Kyung Kim,2 Bo Ram Choi,1 Keshab Kumar Karna,1 Jae Hyung You,1 Jai Seong Cha,1 Yu Seob Shin,1 Sung Won Lee,3 Chul Young Kim,4 Jong Kwan Park1 1Department of Urology, Institute for Medical Sciences, Chonbuk National University Medical School – Biomedical Research and Institute and Clinical Trial Center for Medical Devices, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, 2College of Pharmacy, Kyungsung University, Busan, 3Department of Urology, Samsung Medical Center, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University Medical School, Seoul, 4College of Pharmacy, Hanyang University, Ansan, Republic of Korea Abstract: Cisplatin (CIS is used in the treatment of cancer, but its nonspecific systemic actions lead to toxic effects on other parts of the body. This study investigated the severity of CIS toxicity by increasing its dose over a constant time period. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five treatment groups and control group with CIS (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg/kg administered intraperitoneally for 5 days. The body and organs were weighed, epididymal sperm was counted, and sperm motility and sperm apoptosis were evaluated. Blood samples were evaluated for complete blood count, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, malondialdehyde levels, and total testosterone. The testicular tissue was examined for steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and endoplasmic reticulum stress protein. Epididymal sperm was collected for CatSper Western blot. The toxic effects of different doses of CIS on the testis and kidney were compared histologically. The weights of body, testis, epididymis, prostate, seminal vesicle, and kidney; sperm count; sperm motility; steroidogenic acute regulatory protein level; and epididymal sperm count were significantly lower in the CIS-treated groups than in the control group. In contrast, sperm apoptosis, plasma reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and malondialdehyde, testosterone, red blood cell

  13. Induction of spermatogenic cell apoptosis in prepubertal rat testes irrespective of testicular steroidogenesis: a possible estrogenic effect of di(n-butyl) phthalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Shah; Ohsako, Seiichiroh; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Zhu, Xiao Bo; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Sone, Hideko; Tohyama, Chiharu; Kurohmaru, Masamichi

    2010-02-01

    Although di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP), a suspected endocrine disruptor, induces testicular atrophy in prepubertal male rats, whether it exerts estrogenic activity in vivo remains a matter of debate. In the present study, we explored the estrogenic potency of DBP using 3-week-old male rats, and then examined the relationship between estrogen-induced spermatogenic cell apoptosis and testicular steroidogenesis. Daily exposure to DBP for 7 days caused testicular atrophy due to loss of spermatogenic cells, whereas testicular steroidogenesis was almost the same with the control values. A single exposure of DBP decreased testicular steroidogenesis in addition to decreasing the level of serum LH at 3 h after DBP treatment, with an extremely high incidence of apoptotic spermatogenic cells at 6 h after administration. To elucidate the estrogenic activity of DBP, we carried out an inhibition study using pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 (ICI) in a model of spermatogenic cell apoptosis induced by DBP or estradial-3-benzoate (EB). Although both the DBP- and EB-treated groups showed a significant increase in spermatogenic cell apoptosis, ICI pretreatment significantly decreased the number of apoptotic spermatogenic cells in these two groups. In contrast, testicular steroidogenesis and serum FSH were significantly reduced in all the treated groups, even in the DBP+ICI and EB+ICI groups. Taken together, these findings led us to conclude that estrogenic compounds such as DBP and EB induce spermatogenic cell apoptosis in prepubertal rats, probably by activating estrogen receptors in testis, and that reduction in testicular steroidogenic function induced by estrogenic compounds is not associated with spermatogenic cell apoptosis.

  14. Patients with Testicular Cancer Undergoing CT Surveillance Demonstrate a Pitfall of Radiation-induced Cancer Risk Estimates: The Timing Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Jonathan D.; Lee, Richard J.; Gilmore, Michael E.; Turan, Ekin A.; Singh, Sarabjeet; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Liu, Bob; Kong, Chung Yin; Gazelle, G. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate a limitation of lifetime radiation-induced cancer risk metrics in the setting of testicular cancer surveillance—in particular, their failure to capture the delayed timing of radiation-induced cancers over the course of a patient’s lifetime. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained for the use of computed tomographic (CT) dosimetry data in this study. Informed consent was waived. This study was HIPAA compliant. A Markov model was developed to project outcomes in patients with testicular cancer who were undergoing CT surveillance in the decade after orchiectomy. To quantify effects of early versus delayed risks, life expectancy losses and lifetime mortality risks due to testicular cancer were compared with life expectancy losses and lifetime mortality risks due to radiation-induced cancers from CT. Projections of life expectancy loss, unlike lifetime risk estimates, account for the timing of risks over the course of a lifetime, which enabled evaluation of the described limitation of lifetime risk estimates. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods were used to estimate the uncertainty of the results. Results: As an example of evidence yielded, 33-year-old men with stage I seminoma who were undergoing CT surveillance were projected to incur a slightly higher lifetime mortality risk from testicular cancer (598 per 100 000; 95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 302, 894) than from radiation-induced cancers (505 per 100 000; 95% UI: 280, 730). However, life expectancy loss attributable to testicular cancer (83 days; 95% UI: 42, 124) was more than three times greater than life expectancy loss attributable to radiation-induced cancers (24 days; 95% UI: 13, 35). Trends were consistent across modeled scenarios. Conclusion: Lifetime radiation risk estimates, when used for decision making, may overemphasize radiation-induced cancer risks relative to short-term health risks. © RSNA, 2012 Supplemental material: http

  15. Effect of dietary restriction on sperm characteristic and oxidative status on testicular tissue in young rats exposed to long-term heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydilek, N; Varisli, O; Kocyigit, A; Taskin, A; Kaya, M S

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary restriction on oxidative status and sperm parameters in rats exposed to long-term heat stress. Forty healthy Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 2.5 month, were divided into four groups of 10 with respect to feeding and temperature regimen (room temperature (22 °C)-ad libitum, room temperature-dietary restriction (40%), high temperature (38 °C)-ad libitum, high temperature-dietary restriction). At the end of the 9th week, some oxidants (lipid hydroperoxide, total oxidant status, oxidative stress index) and antioxidants (total antioxidant status, sulfhydryl groups, ceruloplasmin, paraoxonase and arylesterase activities) were measured in the testis tissue. The concentration, motility, volume, abnormal sperm count, acrosome and membrane integrity of epididymal spermatozoon and intratesticular testosterone levels were evaluated. High temperature did not change oxidative and antioxidative parameters except for sulfhydryl groups and ceruloplasmin, yet it impaired all sperm values. Neither sperm values nor oxidative status apart from sulfhydryl groups, ceruloplasmin and arylesterase was affected by dietary restriction in the testis tissue. These results suggest that long-term heat stress does not have a significant effect on testicular oxidative status, while the spermatozoa are sensitive to heat stress in young rats. Dietary restriction failed to improve the sperm quality and oxidative status except some individual antioxidant parameters; conversely, it decreased intratesticular testosterone level in the young rats exposed to long-term heat stress.

  16. A new affinity method for purification of bovine testicular hyaluronidase enzyme and an investigation of the effects of some compounds on this enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Mustafa Oguzhan; Arslan, Oktay; Guler, Ozen Ozensoy

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new affinity gel for the purification of bovine testicular hyaluronidase (BTH) was synthesized. L-Tyrosine was added as the extension arm to the Sepharose-4B activated with cyanogen bromide. m-Anisidine is a specific inhibitor of BTH enzyme. m-Anisidine was clamped to the newly formed Sepharose-4B-L-tyrosine as a ligand. As a result, an affinity gel having the chemical structure of Sepharose-4B-L-tyrosine-m-anisidine was obtained. BTH purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and affinity chromatography was obtained with a 16.95% yield and 881.78 degree of purity. The kinetic constants K(M) and V(Max) for BTH were determined by using hyaluronic acid as a substrate. K(M) and V(Max) values obtained from the Lineweaver-Burk graph were found to be 2.23 mM and 19.85 U/mL, respectively. In vitro effects of some chemicals were determined on purified BTH enzyme. Some chemically active ingredients were 1,1-dimethyl piperidinium chloride, β-naphthoxyacetic acid and gibberellic acid. Gibberellic acid showed the best inhibition effect on BTH.

  17. Contralateral biopsies in patients with testicular germ cell tumours: patterns of care in Germany and recent data regarding prevalence and treatment of testicular intra-epithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, C G; Gnoss, A; Hartmann, M; Matthies, C; Anheuser, P; Loy, V; Pichlmeier, U; Dieckmann, K-P

    2015-01-01

    The precursor of testicular germ cell tumours (GCTs), called testicular intra-epithelial neoplasia (TIN/CIS), is safely diagnosed immunohistologically. Testicular biopsy provides a valuable tool for early detection of GCTs in risk groups. Although this knowledge is undisputed, testicular biopsies are utilized poorly. The patterns of care regarding the use of biopsies remain unknown. Uncertainty exists about the prevalence and specific treatment of TIN/CIS. We asked clinical urologists in Germany whether or not they employed contralateral biopsies in GCT patients. We evaluated the prevalence of contralateral TIN/CIS in a retrospective analysis of 780 consecutive GCT patients. All had contralateral double biopsies. Discordance of TIN/CIS findings among biopsy pairs as well as age, histology of the primary tumour and clinical stage was noted. Evaluation of data comprised descriptive statistical methods. To evaluate treatment options for TIN/CIS, we performed a literature search. 52.1% of German urologists always perform the biopsy, 17% do it mostly, 27.3% in select cases, 3.5% never. Curiously, there was a geographic north-south gradient regarding biopsy use. Contralateral TIN/CIS was found in 5%. The median ages of patients with TIN/CIS and those without were 31.8 and 34.9 years respectively (p = 0.02). The discordance rate among biopsy pairs was of 33%. Two-site biopsies provide a 17% gain in diagnostic sensitivity. Local radiotherapy with 20 Gy is the safest treatment of TIN/CIS failing in 2%. Chemotherapy has significantly lower efficacy. Contralateral testicular biopsies in GCT patients are well accepted among German urologists. The prevalence of contralateral TIN/CIS found in this series is in accordance with previous reports. Double biopsies should be the diagnostic standard because of their diagnostic superiority. Local radiotherapy with 20 Gy is the safest way of eradicating TIN/CIS. Failures occur in only 2%, usually many years after irradiation

  18. The Danish Testicular Cancer database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daugaard G

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gedske Daugaard,1 Maria Gry Gundgaard Kier,1 Mikkel Bandak,1 Mette Saksø Mortensen,1 Heidi Larsson,2 Mette Søgaard,2 Birgitte Groenkaer Toft,3 Birte Engvad,4 Mads Agerbæk,5 Niels Vilstrup Holm,6 Jakob Lauritsen1 1Department of Oncology 5073, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 3Department of Pathology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, 4Department of Pathology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, 5Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 6Department of Oncology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark Aim: The nationwide Danish Testicular Cancer database consists of a retrospective research database (DaTeCa database and a prospective clinical database (Danish Multidisciplinary Cancer Group [DMCG] DaTeCa database. The aim is to improve the quality of care for patients with testicular cancer (TC in Denmark, that is, by identifying risk factors for relapse, toxicity related to treatment, and focusing on late effects. Study population: All Danish male patients with a histologically verified germ cell cancer diagnosis in the Danish Pathology Registry are included in the DaTeCa databases. Data collection has been performed from 1984 to 2007 and from 2013 onward, respectively. Main variables and descriptive data: The retrospective DaTeCa database contains detailed information with more than 300 variables related to histology, stage, treatment, relapses, pathology, tumor markers, kidney function, lung function, etc. A questionnaire related to late effects has been conducted, which includes questions regarding social relationships, life situation, general health status, family background, diseases, symptoms, use of medication, marital status, psychosocial issues, fertility, and sexuality. TC survivors alive on October 2014 were invited to fill in this questionnaire including 160 validated questions

  19. Exploring men's preferred strategies for learning about testicular disorders inclusive of testicular cancer: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Mohamad M; Landers, Margaret; Hegarty, Josephine

    2017-02-01

    Men's awareness of testicular disorders is lacking and their intention to seek help for testicular symptoms is sub-optimal. Studies conducted to explore and raise men's awareness of testicular disorders did not address their preferred learning strategies and failed to include men who are at risk for health inequities. The aim of this study was to explore, in-depth, the preferred strategies for learning about testicular disorders inclusive of testicular cancer among men who self-identify as heterosexual, gay, or bisexual. Maximum variation and snowball sampling were used to recruit 29 men aged 18-47 years. Participation was sought from community and youth organizations and a university in the Republic of Ireland. Semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Inductive analysis of manifest content was used. Seventeen informants self-identified as heterosexual, 11 as gay, and one as bisexual. Four main categories emerged, namely: strategies to enhance awareness (television, internet, campaigns, print media), educational dos and don'ts (tailoring effective messages, drawbacks of national initiatives, ineffective learning strategies), implications of raising awareness (risks and benefits of increasing awareness), and learning among gay and bisexual men (learning needs and strategies). Future studies promoting awareness of testicular disorders should take into account men's preferred learning strategies. National campaigns should be delivered frequently and altered occasionally in order to achieve a top-up effect. Clinicians are encouraged to educate young men about the seriousness of testicular symptoms and the importance of seeking timely medical attention for any abnormalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Polyorchidism with presumed contralateral intrauterine testicular torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Leodoro

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: We describe a unique case of a 2-year-old boy with right-sided polyorchidism and an absent left testis associated with a blind ending vas deferens and testicular vessels, presumed secondary to intrauterine testicular torsion.

  1. Testicular Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Testicular Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Testicular Cancer - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  2. The role of meaning in the prediction of psychosocial well-being of testicular cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleer, J; Hoekstra, H; Sleijfer, DT; Tuinman, M; Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM

    2006-01-01

    Stressful life events, such as cancer, may threaten the belief that life is meaningful and this may have a negative effect on well-being. This study aimed at: (1) examining meaning in testicular cancer survivors (TCSs); (2) changes in outlook on life after testicular cancer (TC); (3) the contributio

  3. The role of meaning in the prediction of psychosocial well-being of testicular cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleer, J; Hoekstra, H; Sleijfer, DT; Tuinman, M; Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM

    2006-01-01

    Stressful life events, such as cancer, may threaten the belief that life is meaningful and this may have a negative effect on well-being. This study aimed at: (1) examining meaning in testicular cancer survivors (TCSs); (2) changes in outlook on life after testicular cancer (TC); (3) the contributio

  4. Testicular relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: The challenges and lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K P Kulkarni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Relapse of disease is documented in 15-20% of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. Although testicular relapse is rare with modern risk-adapted treatment protocols, earlier, the testes were a frequently encountered site of relapse and were designated as "drug sanctuaries". Purpose : This descriptive study was designed to assess the pattern of testicular relapse and to identify high-risk factors. Materials and Methods : Data obtained from case records of 407 boys with ALL were analyzed. Fine needle aspiration cytology was carried out in children presenting with painless enlargement of testi(es. Bone marrow aspiration and cerebrospinal fluid examination were performed concomitantly to confirm or exclude disease at these sites. Results : Testicular relapse was documented in 30 boys. It was isolated in 17 patients and associated with bone marrow and/or central nervous system relapse in 13. At relapse, nine boys were over the age of 10 years. The majority were very early and early relapsers. Hyperleucocytosis was documented in five of 30 and seven of 137 relapsers and nonrelapsers, respectively (P = 0.04. Twelve of the 30 boys with testicular relapse were treated with testicular irradiation, reinduction and maintenance therapy. The estimated median overall survival was 33 months. Conclusion : Testicular relapse, which depends on the therapy administered, may manifest several months/years after completion of treatment. The high incidence of testicular relapse in our series implicates the need of revaluation of our protocol and incorporation of high/intermediate dose methotrexate therapy upfront.

  5. Cryptorchidism and testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batata, M A; Whitmore, W F; Chu, F C; Hilaris, B S; Loh, J; Grabstald, H; Golbey, R

    1980-09-01

    An analysis of 125 patients with a history or clinical evidence of cryptorchidism and testicular germinal tumor treated at our hospital from 1934 to 1975 is presented. Cryptorchidism was corrected ipsilaterally or contralaterally in 83 patients with intrascrotal testis cancer when they were from 4 to 42 years old, either spontaneously (21 patients), by orchiopexy (51 patients) or by hormonal therapy (11 patients). Forty-two cryptorchid patients (uncorrected cases) presented with either ipsilateral inguinal (24 patients), abdominal (14 patients) or contralateral intrascrotal tumors (4 patients). Tumor histologic types on orchiectomy were pure seminoma in 54 patients, embryonal carcinoma in 35, teratocarcinoma in 33 and pure choriocarcinoma in 3. The 5-year survival rates were 60 per cent for the corrected cases and 63 per cent for the uncorrected cases according to cryptorchid state, and they were 78 per cent in patients with pure seminoma and 48 per cent in patients with other germinomas according to histologic type. The majority (58 of 73) of 5-year survivors received regional lymphatic irradiation, in 39 patients with pure seminoma, and/or systemic chemotherapy, in 19 patients with germinal carcinomas, with or without regional lymphadenectomy.

  6. [Testicular torsion: A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Gustavo; Bravo-Hernández, Alberto; Bautista-Cruz, Raúl

    2016-07-13

    The acute scrotum is an emergency. Testicular torsion represents approximately 25% of the causes. The annual incidence of testicular torsion is approximately 1/4,000 persons under 25 years, with highest prevalence between 12 and 18 years old. It usually occurs without apparent cause, but it has been associated with anatomical, traumatic, and environmental factors, among others. A male 15 year-old male, with no history of importance, was seen in the Emergency Department, presenting with a sudden and continuous pain in the left testicle. It was accompanied by a pain that radiated to the abdomen and left inguinal area, with nausea and vomiting of more than 12h onset. Doppler ultrasound showed changes suggestive of testicular torsion. Surgery was performed that showed findings of a necrotic left testicle with rotation of the spermatic cord of 360°. A left orchiectomy was performed. Testicular torsion should always be considered one of the leading causes of acute scrotal pain. Delays in diagnosis should be avoided as this is directly related to the percentage of testicular salvage or loss. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  7. Prenatal DDT Exposure and Testicular Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We examined maternal serum levels of DDT-related compounds in relation to son's risk of testicular cancer 30 years later. Fifteen of 9,744 live-born sons were diagnosed with germ cell testicular cancer and had maternal serum samples. Cases were matched to three controls on race and birth year. Maternal serum DDT-related compounds, measured in the early postpartum, were associated with her son's risk of testicular cancer. Despite low statistical power, we observed that mothers of cases had a s...

  8. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3750 Testicular prosthesis. (a) Identification. A testicular prosthesis is an implanted device that consists of a solid or gel-filled...

  9. Primary Testicular B-cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Buğra Şentürk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary testicular lymphoma constitutes only 1-7% of all testicular neoplasms and less than 1% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We report a 69-year-old man who presented with a painful right testicular mass. Treatment modalities consist of surgical excision, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, however there are no standardized treatment options.

  10. The analysis on the clinical effect of intracytoplasmic sperm injection with testicular immobile sperm%睾丸不动精子行卵细胞浆内单精子注射的临床效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静雯; 伍捷阳; 池霖生; 柳倩茹; 徐娇燕; 马文敏

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨睾丸新鲜不活动精子行卵细胞浆内单精子注射(ICSI)的临床效果.方法 对27例因梗阻性无精子症行睾丸穿刺取精手术获得不活动精子行ICSI的病例进行回顾分析,女方常规超促排卵,在取卵日男方行睾丸穿刺抽吸取精术,经体外处理孵育后未获得活动精子,选择尾部柔软、结构完整的精子行ICSI.以同期行手术取精获活动精子行IC-SI的160个病例为对照组.结果 不动精子组与对照组两组病例在夫妇双方平均年龄、平均获卵数、平均获成熟卵子数、成熟卵子比例、平均移植胚胎数均无显著性差异(P>0.05),两组间的低受精发生率、可利用胚胎率、优胚率、平均移植优胚数、临床妊娠率、种植率与早期胚胎流产率无显著性差异(P>0.05),两组受精率(71.0%和80.9%)、卵裂率(93.5%和97.8%)与2PN受精率(80.0%和88.2%)均有非常显著性差异(P<0.001).结论 通过挑选尾部柔软的不动睾丸精子行ICSI,虽受精率受到较大影响,但临床妊娠情况令人满意,仍是睾丸无活动精子患者一种可行的治疗方法.%Objective:To investigate the clinical effect of intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection (ICSI) with testicular immobile sperm.Methods:The outcomes of ICSI for 27 obstructive azoospermic patients who had their immobile sperm obtained by testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) were analyzed,in these cases,although conventional super promoting ovulation were operated on women and TESA on men but it still fail to achieve active sperm in vitro treatment after incubation,and sperm's soft tail and integral structure were chosen.The control group consisted of 160 obstructive-azoospermic patients who had activities sperm obtained by ICSI in the same period.Results:There are no significant differences (P > 0.05) on test and control group in couples with average age,average egg number,average number of mature eggs,mature eggs ratio,average number of

  11. Laparoscopic resection of prenatally detected intra-abdominal testicular teratoma: Report of a neonatal case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keigo Yada

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal detection of intra-abdominal testicular tumor is rare. In this paper, we discuss the early laparoscopic resection of prenatally detected testicular tumor of a neonate. At 33 weeks gestation, follow-up ultrasound showed the mass measuring 3 × 2 cm, on the fetal right lower quadrant. After full-term birth, we performed laparoscopic resection of the tumor, on day 14 of life. Histology of 4-cm right testicular tumor revealed immature teratoma. Postoperative course was favorable and no recurrence has occurred 3 years after operation. Prenatal diagnosis of the intra-abdominal testicular teratoma enabled the early tumor resection, and laparoscopic resection of the tumor is safe and feasible, even in a neonate.

  12. Potential testicular toxicity of sodium nitrate in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Hamdy A A; Mansour, Ahmed M; Abo-Salem, Osama M; Abd-Ellah, Hala F; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2010-02-01

    Nitrate is a common contaminant in groundwater aquifers. Current study aimed at evaluating the potential testicular toxicity of sodium nitrate in rats. Sodium nitrate was given orally to rats at doses of 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for 60 consecutive days. Sperm count and motility, daily sperm production and testis weight were significantly decreased specially at high doses. Testicular activity of lactate dehydrogenase-X, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and acid phosphatase were inhibited in a dose-related manner. Lipid peroxides and hydrogen peroxide production were significantly increased in all treated animals. This was accompanied by inhibition of testicular activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Fifty mg/kg of sodium nitrate did not significantly alter catalase or glutathione reductase activity. Glutathione was significantly decreased by sodium nitrate in a dose-related manner. The decrease in sperm count and motility and daily sperm production was confirmed by histopathological studies which indicated chromatolysis, pyknosis and necrosis in spermatocytes. In conclusion, subchronic exposure of rats to sodium nitrate results in testicular toxicity as evidenced by decreased sperm count and motility, daily sperm production and testis weight, inhibited activity of enzyme markers of spermatogenesis and induction of histopathological changes. These effects are attributed, at least partly, to testicular oxidative stress.

  13. Effects of Early Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be harmful. It can lead to:Skin changes. Some skin cells with melanin can form a clump. This creates freckles and moles. Over time, these can develop cancer.Early aging. Time spent in the sun makes your skin age faster than normal. Signs of this are wrinkled, tight, or leathery ...

  14. Hematotesticular barrier is altered from early stages of liver cirrhosis:Effect of insulin-like growth factor 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Inma Castilla-Cortázar; Isabel Varela-Nieto; Jesús Prieto; Salvador González-Barón; Nieves Diez; María García-Fernández; Juan Enrique Puche; Fernando Diez-Caballero; Jorge Quiroga; Matías Díaz-Sánchez; Alberto Castilla; Amelia Díaz Casares

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The pathogenesis of hypogonadism in liver cirrhosis is not well understood. Previous results from our laboratory showed that IGF-1 deficiency might play a pathogenetic role in hypogonadism of cirrhosis. The administration of IGF-1 for a short period of time reverted the testicular atrophy associated with advanced experimental cirrhosis.The aim of this study was to establish the historical progression of the described alterations in the testes,explore testicular morphology, histopathology, cellular proliferation, integrity of testicular barrier and hypophysogonadal axis in rats with no ascitic cirrhosis.METHODS: Male Wistar rats with histologically-proven cirrhosis induced with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for 11 wk,were allocated into two groups (n = 12, each) to receive vehicle. Healthy rats receiving vehicle were used as control group (n = 12).RESULTS: Compared to controls, rats with compensated cirrhosis showed a normal testicular size and weight and very few histopathological testicular abnormalities.However, these animals showed a significant diminution of cellular proliferation and a reduction of testicular transferrin expression. In addition, pituitary-gonadal axis was altered, with significant higher levels of FSH (P<0.001vs controls) and increased levels of LH in untreated cirrhotic animals. Interestingly, IGF-1 treatment normalized testicular transferrin expression and cellular proliferation and reduced serum levels of LH (P = ns vs controls, and P<0.01 vs untreated cirrhotic group).CONCLUSION: The testicular barrier is altered from an early stage of cirrhosis, shown by a reduction of transferrin expression in Sertoli cells, a diminished cellular proliferation and an altered gonadal axis. The treatment with IGF-1 could be also useful in this initial stage of testicular disorder associated with compensated cirrhosis.

  15. Comments on: Effects of Wi-Fi (2.45 GH z Exposure on Apoptosis, Sperm Parameters and Testicular Histomorphometry in Rats: A Time Course Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We read with great interest an article by Shokri et al. entitled "Effects of Wi-Fi (2.45 GH z exposure on apoptosis, sperm parameters and testicular histomorphometry in rats: a time course study" that is published in the latest issue of the Cell Journal (Vol.17, 2015: 322-331. In this article, Shokri et al. have presented their findings obtained in an experiment on an animal model. These researchers exposed rats to the 2.45 GHz radiation in a chamber with two Wi-Fi antennas on opposite walls of a box. The exposed animals in this study showed a decrease in sperm parameters. We have previously shown that exposure to electromagnetic fields generated by Wi-Fi routers or mobile phone jammers can adversely affect the sperm quality (1-3. The paper published by Shokri et al. is seriously flawed. The first major shortcoming of this paper is its exposure geometry. The authors stated that their exposure system was "a chamber (180 cm×80 cm×70 cm, designed for whole-body exposure of free-moving rats to a Wi-Fi signal. Two Wi-Fi antennas (NanoStation Loco M2, 2.45 GHz, 8.5 dBi, Ubiquiti Networks, Inc. USA were placed at the center of two sides of the chamber". It should be noted that in this case, the power density can be calculated using the below equation: S=P•G/4πR2 Where S=Power density P=Power input to antenna G=Antenna gain In this light, the geometry used in the study of Shokri et al. makes a very inhomogeneous distribution of power densities. The second shortcoming comes from this point that the authors claimed that their study was performed on a basis that could not affect the hormonal balance "A previous study applied a restrainer to fix space between antenna and rat. Since it was a stressful condition that could probably affect hormonal balance of animals, we tried to assess the effect of radiation on the free moving animals". However, these authors only had a control group and did not use a sham-exposed group to control the animals’s stress

  16. Pro- and anti-apoptotic effects of p53 in cisplatin-treated human testicular cancer are cell context-dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    di Pietro, Alessandra; Koster, Roelof; Boersma-van Eck, Wytske; Dam, Wendy A.; Mulder, Nanno H.; Gietema, Jourik A.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; de Jong, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In murine testicular cancer (TC) cells wild-type p53 contributes to sensitivity to DNA-damaging drugs in a dose-dependent way. In human TC, however, the role of wild-type p53 functionality in chemotherapeutic response remains elusive. We analyzed functionality of wild-type p53 in cisplatin sensitivi

  17. Histological evidence of testicular dysgenesis in contralateral biopsies from 218 patients with testicular germ cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Holm, Mette; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    This study was prompted by a hypothesis that testicular germ cell cancer may be aetiologically linked to other male reproductive abnormalities as a part of the so-called 'testicular dysgenesis syndrome' (TDS). To corroborate the hypothesis of a common association of germ cell cancer with testicular...... dysgenesis, microscopic dysgenetic features were quantified in contralateral testicular biopsies in patients with a testicular germ cell tumour. Two hundred and eighty consecutive contralateral testicular biopsies from Danish patients with testicular cancer diagnosed in 1998-2001 were evaluated...... presenting with testicular germ cell neoplasms of the adolescent and young type. The findings therefore support the hypothesis that this cancer is part of a testicular dysgenesis syndrome. The presence of contralateral carcinoma in situ was higher in the present study than previously reported....

  18. Leydig cell damage after testicular irradiation for lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalet, S.M.; Horner, A.; Ahmed, S.R.; Morris-Jones, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of testicular irradiation on Leydig cell function has been studied in a group of boys irradiated between 1 and 5 years earlier for a testicular relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Six of the seven boys irradiated during prepubertal life had an absent testosterone response to HCG stimulation. Two of the four boys irradiated during puberty had an appropriate basal testosterone level, but the testosterone response to HCG stimulation was subnormal in three of the four. Abnormalities in gonadotropin secretion consistent with testicular damage were noted in nine of the 11 boys. Evidence of severe Leydig cell damage was present irrespective of whether the boys were studied within 1 year or between 3 and 5 years after irradiation, suggesting that recovery is unlikely. Androgen replacement therapy has been started in four boys and will be required by the majority of the remainder to undergo normal pubertal development.

  19. Testicular biopsy: clinical practice and interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gert R Dohle; Saad Elzanaty; Niels J van Casteren

    2012-01-01

    Testicular biopsy was considered the cornerstone of male infertility diagnosis for many years in men with unexplained infertility and azoospermia.Recent guidelines for male infertility have limited the indications for a diagnostic testicular biopsy to the confirmation ofobstructive azoospermia in men with normal size testes and normal reproductive hormones.Nowadays,testicular biopsies are mainly performed for sperm harvesting in men with non-obstructive azoospermia,to be used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.Testicular biopsy is also performed in men with risk factors for testicular malignancy.In a subgroup of infertile men,there is an increased risk for carcinoma in situ of the testis,especially in men with a history of cryptorchidism and testicular malignancy and in men with testicular atrophy.Ultrasonographic abnormalities,such as testicular microlithiasis,inhomogeneous parenchyma and lesions of the testes,further increase the risk of carcinoma in situ (CIS) in these men.For an accurate histological classification,proper tissue handling,fixation,preparation of the specimen and evaluation are needed.A standardized approach to testicular biopsy is recommended.In addition,approaches to the detection of CIS of the testis testicular immunohistochemistry are mandatory.In this mini-review,we describe the current indications for testicular biopsies in the diagnosis and management of male infertility.

  20. Origin of INSL3-mediated testicular descent in therian mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Il; Semyonov, Jenia; Chang, Chia Lin; Yi, Wei; Warren, Wesley; Hsu, Sheau Yu Teddy

    2008-06-01

    Testicular descent is a unique physiological adaptation found in therian mammals allowing optimal spermatogenesis below core body temperature. Recent studies show that INSL3, produced by Leydig cells, and its receptor LGR8 (RXFP2) are essential for mediating the transabdominal phase of testicular descent during early development. However, the origin and genetic basis for this physiological adaptation is not clear. Using syntenic mapping and the functional characterization of contemporary and resurrected relaxin family hormones, we show that derivation of INSL3-mediated testicular descent involved the duplication of an ancestral RLN3-like gene that encodes an indiscriminate ligand for LGR7 (RXFP1) and LGR8. This event was followed by acquisition of the LGR7-selective characteristics by a daughter gene (RLN3) prior to the evolution of the common ancestor of monotremes, marsupials, and placentals. A subsequent mutation of the other daughter gene (INSL3) occurred before the emergence of therian mammals, which then led to the derivation of the reciprocal LGR8-specific characteristics of INSL3. The stepwise evolution of these independent signaling pathways through gene duplication and subsequent divergence is consistent with Darwinian theory of selection and adaptation, and the temporal proximity suggests an association between these genetic events and the concurrent evolution of testicular descent in ancestral therian mammals.

  1. Surviving testicular cancer : relationship aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinman, Marrit Annika

    2008-01-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in young men and a highly curable disease. However, the illness and treatment can negatively affect physical, psychological and social functioning of patients. The same is true for their family, especially their spouses. Being in an intimate relationsh

  2. Surviving testicular cancer : relationship aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinman, Marrit Annika

    2008-01-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in young men and a highly curable disease. However, the illness and treatment can negatively affect physical, psychological and social functioning of patients. The same is true for their family, especially their spouses. Being in an intimate relationsh

  3. Surviving testicular cancer : relationship aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinman, Marrit Annika

    2008-01-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in young men and a highly curable disease. However, the illness and treatment can negatively affect physical, psychological and social functioning of patients. The same is true for their family, especially their spouses. Being in an intimate

  4. Testicular Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of testicular cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  5. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib induces testicular toxicity by upregulation of oxidative stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and deregulation of germ cell development in adult murine testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei [Department of Human Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Fu, Jianfang [Department of Endocrinology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Zhang, Shun [Reproductive Medicine Center, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Zhao, Jie [Department of Human Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Xie, Nianlin, E-mail: xienianlin@126.com [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Cai, Guoqing, E-mail: firstchair@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2015-06-01

    Understanding how chemotherapeutic agents mediate testicular toxicity is crucial in light of compelling evidence that male infertility, one of the severe late side effects of intensive cancer treatment, occurs more often than they are expected to. Previous study demonstrated that bortezomib (BTZ), a 26S proteasome inhibitor used to treat refractory multiple myeloma (MM), exerts deleterious impacts on spermatogenesis in pubertal mice via unknown mechanisms. Here, we showed that intermittent treatment with BTZ resulted in fertility impairment in adult mice, evidenced by testicular atrophy, desquamation of immature germ cells and reduced caudal sperm storage. These deleterious effects may originate from the elevated apoptosis in distinct germ cells during the acute phase and the subsequent disruption of Sertoli–germ cell anchoring junctions (AJs) during the late recovery. Mechanistically, balance between AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and Akt/ERK pathway appeared to be indispensable for AJ integrity during the late testicular recovery. Of particular interest, the upregulated testicular apoptosis and the following disturbance of Sertoli–germ cell interaction may both stem from the excessive oxidative stress elicited by BTZ exposure. We also provided the in vitro evidence that AMPK-dependent mechanisms counteract follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) proliferative effects in BTZ-exposed Sertoli cells. Collectively, BTZ appeared to efficiently prevent germ cells from normal development via multiple mechanisms in adult mice. Employment of antioxidants and/or AMPK inhibitor may represent an attractive strategy of fertility preservation in male MM patients exposed to conventional BTZ therapy and warrants further investigation. - Highlights: • Intermittent treatment with BTZ caused fertility impairment in adult mice. • BTZ treatment elicited apoptosis during early phase of testicular recovery. • Up-regulation of oxidative stress by BTZ treatment

  6. Radiotherapy Treatment Planning for Testicular Seminoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: richardbwilder@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Efstathiou, Jason A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Beard, Clair J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Virtually all patients with Stage I testicular seminoma are cured regardless of postorchiectomy management. For patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, late toxicity is a major concern. However, toxicity may be limited by radiotherapy techniques that minimize radiation exposure of healthy normal tissues. This article is an evidence-based review that provides radiotherapy treatment planning recommendations for testicular seminoma. The minority of Stage I patients who choose adjuvant treatment over surveillance may be considered for (1) para-aortic irradiation to 20 Gy in 10 fractions, or (2) carboplatin chemotherapy consisting of area under the curve, AUC = 7 Multiplication-Sign 1-2 cycles. Two-dimensional radiotherapy based on bony anatomy is a simple and effective treatment for Stage IIA or IIB testicular seminoma. Centers with expertise in vascular and nodal anatomy may consider use of anteroposterior-posteroanterior fields based on three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy instead. For modified dog-leg fields delivering 20 Gy in 10 fractions, clinical studies support placement of the inferior border at the top of the acetabulum. Clinical and nodal mapping studies support placement of the superior border of all radiotherapy fields at the top of the T12 vertebral body. For Stage IIA and IIB patients, an anteroposterior-posteroanterior boost is then delivered to the adenopathy with a 2-cm margin to the block edge. The boost dose consists of 10 Gy in 5 fractions for Stage IIA and 16 Gy in 8 fractions for Stage IIB. Alternatively, bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy for 3 cycles or etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy for 4 cycles may be delivered to Stage IIA or IIB patients (e.g., if they have a horseshoe kidney, inflammatory bowel disease, or a history of radiotherapy).

  7. Novel tumor markers in the serum of testicular germ cell cancer patients: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syring I

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Isabella Syring, Stefan C Müller, Jörg Ellinger Department for Urology and Pediatric Urology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany Abstract: Serum tumor markers have an important role in the management of patients with testicular cancer. They are useful for diagnosis, staging and risk assessment, follow-up, evaluation of response, and early detection of relapse. Alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and lactate dehydrogenase are established serum markers in testicular cancer, but they have a limited sensitivity. Ongoing research may lead to the identification of novel biomarkers. Therefore, we review the experimental analyses for nucleic acids, circulating tumor cells, and proteins as potential biomarkers in the serum of testicular germ cell cancer patients. Keywords: biomarker, serum, testicular germ cell cancer

  8. Risk of second primary cancers after testicular cancer in East and West Germany: a focus on contralateral testicular cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusner, Carsten; Streller, Brigitte; Stegmaier, Christa; Trocchi, Pietro; Kuss, Oliver; McGlynn, Katherine A; Trabert, Britton; Stang, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer survival rates improved dramatically after cisplatin-based therapy was introduced in the 1970s. However, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are potentially carcinogenic. The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of developing second primary cancers including the risk associated with primary histologic type (seminoma and non-seminoma) among testicular cancer survivors in Germany. We identified 16 990 and 1401 cases of testicular cancer in population-based cancer registries of East Germany (1961-1989 and 1996-2008) and Saarland (a federal state in West Germany; 1970-2008), respectively. We estimated the risk of a second primary cancer using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). To determine trends, we plotted model-based estimated annual SIRs. In East Germany, a total of 301 second primary cancers of any location were observed between 1961 and 1989 (SIR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.7-2.1), and 159 cancers (any location) were observed between 1996 and 2008 (SIR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4-2.0). The SIRs for contralateral testicular cancer were increased in the registries with a range from 6.0 in Saarland to 13.9 in East Germany. The SIR for seminoma, in particular, was higher in East Germany compared to the other registries. We observed constant trends in the model-based SIRs for contralateral testicular cancers. The majority of reported SIRs of other cancer sites including histology-specific risks showed low precisions of estimated effects, likely due to small sample sizes. Testicular cancer patients are at increased risk especially for cancers of the contralateral testis and should receive intensive follow-ups.

  9. Skeletal and metabolic complications of testicular germ cell tumours.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, Peter-Paul Michiel

    2014-01-01

    The studies described in this thesis were performed to investigate the short and long-term effects of chemotherapy on bone metabolism, fat metabolism and cardiovascular risk in testicular germ cell tumour (GCT) patients. We report a twofold increased prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in GCT

  10. Unilateral and bilateral cryptorchidism and its effect on the testicular morphology, histology, accessory sex organs, and sperm count in laboratory mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumita Dutta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Experimental unilateral cryptorchidism (ULC and bilateral cryptorchidism (BLC are excellent methods to study undescended testis in relation to spermatogenesis against a temperature gradient. Objectives: In case of ULC, it is possible to compare the testicular functions between normal condition and cryptorchidism in the same animal, whereas BLC shows the necessity of testicular androgens for proper maintenance of reproductive structures and functions. Materials and Methods: In the present study, experimental ULC and BLC was done on same-aged adult mature male mice and kept for 15 days and 30 days, respectively, to observe the changes due to the induced cryptorchidism on the different reproductive organs, viz., the testis and accessory sex organs along with epididymal sperm count. Reproductive tissues were collected from individual animals and histopathological studies of testis were done to investigate different cytological changes. Results: The size of the testes and accessory sex organs were found to be significantly reduced in BLC mice, whereas only testicular weight reduction was observed in ULC mice. Histopathological studies showed degenerative changes throughout the seminiferous tubules. Conclusion: Thus, the present investigation showed compensatory androgen production in ULC mice, whereas absence of androgen mediated reproductive functions in BLC animals.

  11. Effects of relaxation training on azoospermia patients in the perioperative period of testicular sperm extraction%放松训练对睾丸穿刺取精术围手术期无精症患者的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石嵩

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨放松训练对行睾丸穿刺取精术(testicular sperm extraction,TESA)的无精症患者的影响。方法选取2011年2月-2014年11月行 TESA围手期无精症患者86例,随机分为对照组和干预组各43例。2组均采取常规护理,干预组在常规护理基础上对 TESA 围手术期各期实施放松训练。分别对 2组患者术中疼痛、术后睾丸血肿、睾丸硬结、勃起功能障碍(erectile dysfunction,ED)及术后6个月婚姻质量(OLSON)进行评定。结果干预组术中疼痛程度明显低于对照组(Z=-3.239,P<0.01);2组睾丸血肿、睾丸硬结、ED的发生差异无统计学意义;干预组术后夫妻交流、性生活评分均高于对照组。2组婚姻满意度评分差异无统计学意义。结论放松训练能有效减轻无精症患者TESA术中疼痛,减少术后并发症发生并改善夫妻婚姻质量。%Objective To explore the effect of relaxation training on azoospermia patients with testicular sperm extraction (TESA)in the perioperative period.Methods From February 2011 to November 2014,86 azoospermia patients with TESA in the perioperative period,were randomly divided into control group (n=43)and intervention group (n=43).The control group was treated with routine care,and the intervention group was given relaxation training at the base of routine care.The pain degree, the incidence rate of testicular hematoma,testicular scleroma and erectile dysfunction,scores of marital quality (OLSON)at 6 months after operation in two groups were compared.Results The pain degree in the intervention group was significantly lower than that in the control group(Z=-3.239,P<0.01).The incidence rates of testicular hematoma,testicular scleroma and erectile dysfunction between 2 groups had no statistically difference.The scores of couples communication and sexual life were higher than that of the control group at six months after surgery, the scores of marital satisfaction between 2 groups had no

  12. Co-operative effect of glutathione depletion and selenium induced oxidative stress on API and NFkB expression in testicular cells in vitro: insights to regulation of spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalini, Sonia; Bansal, Mohinder P

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that transcription factors, API and NFkB exert important roles in the process by which selenium regulates spermatogenesis. Glutathione, an intracellular thiol, acts as a source of reducing power and aids in maintenance of the cellular redox status. The activities of selenium are closely related to the availability of glutathione. Presently, mouse testicular cells were cultured in the presence of BSO, a known glutathione depletor, to generate oxidative stress. Selenium (Se) was added as sodium selenite to these cells at concentrations of 0.5 microM and 1.5 microM. It was observed that at 1.5 microM, Se acted as a pro-oxidant and significantly decreased the redox ratio. RT PCR analysis revealed that cjun, cfos expression increased in testicular cells cultured with Se compared to control. However, the major outcome was that the combined effect of Se supplementation and GSH depletion resulted in reduced expression of cjun and cfos while p65 expression increased. This suggests that selenium affects both these transcription factors differently. Our study indicates that though low levels of oxidative stress generated by moderate doses of selenium augments the expression of cjun and cfos, a robust increase in the ROS generation caused by the dual effect high levels of selenium and glutathione depletion leads to decrease in the expression of these genes. The present work substantiates our in vivo experiments and indicates the detrimental effect of excess selenium supplementation on male fertility.

  13. Case report: Traumatic unilateral testicular rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha J.G. Bauer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Testicular trauma is classified aetiologically as blunt, penetrating or degloving. Blunt testicular trauma, caused by interpersonal violence, sporting injuries and RTAs account for the majority of cases, typically affecting males aged 15–40 [1]. Approximately 98.5% of blunt trauma resulted in unilateral testicular injury; about 12–15% involving cyclists or motorcyclists (Cass and Luxenberg, 1988) [2]. Presentation of case A 48-year-old male motorcyclist presented to the accident ...

  14. Case report: Traumatic unilateral testicular rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha J.G. Bauer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Testicular trauma is classified aetiologically as blunt, penetrating or degloving. Blunt testicular trauma, caused by interpersonal violence, sporting injuries and RTAs account for the majority of cases, typically affecting males aged 15–40 [1]. Approximately 98.5% of blunt trauma resulted in unilateral testicular injury; about 12–15% involving cyclists or motorcyclists (Cass and Luxenberg, 1988) [2]. Presentation of case: A 48-year-old male motorcyclist presented to the acci...

  15. PADRÃO ULTRASSONOGRÁFICO DO PARÊNQUIMA, MEDIASTINO E TÚNICAS TESTICULARES EM BOVINOS JOVENS DA RAÇA NELORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo José Cardilli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the ultrasonographic patterns of the testicles parenchyma, mediastinum and tunics in young Nellore bulls with absence of echogenicity and relative density changes. Testes of 111 animals underwent clinical and ultrasonographic evaluation at 9, 13, and 15 months of age. Testicular parenchyma presented uniform pattern at low echogenicity. Positive correlation was found between age and testicular mediastinum. Testicular tunics were distinguished only in presence of fluid. The results of this research contribute with andrologic evaluation, allowing early detection of testicular disorders.

  16. Testicular damage and farming environments - An integrative ecotoxicological link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parelho, Carolina; Bernardo, Filipe; Camarinho, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Armindo Santos; Garcia, Patrícia

    2016-07-01

    The exposure to agrochemicals during farming activities affects the function of the reproductive system, as revealed by the increasing worldwide evidence of male infertility amongst farmers. The main objective of this study was to untangle the link between agricultural practices and male reproductive impairment due to chronic exposure to xenobiotics (such as agrochemicals) in conventional and organic farming environments. For this purpose, male wild mice (Mus musculus) populations from sites representing two distinct farming practices (conventional and organic farming systems) were used as bioindicators for observable effects of testicular damage, namely on a set of histological and cellular parameters: (i) relative volumetric density of different spermatogenic cells and interstitial space; (ii) damage in the seminiferous tubules and (iii) apoptotic cells in the germinal epithelium. Results showed that mice from the conventional farming site bioaccumulated higher Pb hepatic loads, while mice from the organic farming site tend to bioaccumulate higher Cd hepatic loads. In general, for the analyzed testicular damage related parameters, mice from the organic farming site showed a similar performance than mice from the reference site. Mice from the conventional farming site stood out not only by underperforming in most studied parameters, while displaying an association between Pb hepatic loads and the observed testicular structural and functional disruption, but also by the increased stress index (Integrated Biomarker Response value). This study highlights the potential damaging effects of conventional farming practices on testicular structure and function, under natural conditions, raising concern about ensuing fertility risks for farmers.

  17. Effects of nickel exposure on testicular function, oxidative stress, and male reproductive dysfunction in Spodoptera litura Fabricius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongxia; Wu, Wenjing; Guo, Jixing; Xiao, Rong; Jiang, Fengze; Zheng, Lingyan; Zhang, Guren

    2016-04-01

    Nickel is an environmental pollutant that adversely affects the male reproductive system. In the present study, the effects of nickel exposure on Spodoptera litura Fabricius were investigated by feeding larvae artificial diets containing different doses of nickel for three generations. Damage to testes and effects on male reproduction were examined. The amount of nickel that accumulated in the testes of newly emerged males increased as the nickel dose in the diet increased during a single generation. Nickel exposure increased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and decreased the amount of glutathione in treatment groups compared with the control. The activity levels of the antioxidant response indices superoxide dismutases, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the testes showed variable dose-dependent relationships with nickel doses and duration of exposure. Nickel doses also disrupted the development of the testes by decreasing the weight and volume of testes and the number of eupyrene and apyrene sperm bundles in treatment groups compared with the control. When the nickel-treated males mated with normal females, fecundity was inhibited by the higher nickel doses in all three generations, but fecundity significantly increased during the second generation, which received 5 mg kg(-1) nickel. Hatching rates in all treatments significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the three successive generations. The effects of nickel on these parameters correlated with the duration of nickel exposure. Results indicate assays of testes may be a novel and efficient means of evaluating the effects of heavy metals on phytophagous insects in an agricultural environment.

  18. Adverse effect of tetracycline and doxycycline on testicular tissue and sperm parameters in CD1 outbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzeinová, Fatima; Pěknicová, Jana; Děd, Lukáš; Kubátová, Alena; Margaryan, Hasmik; Dorosh, Andriy; Makovický, Peter; Rajmon, Radko

    2013-09-01

    Tetracycline and doxycycline are commonly used antibiotics in acne treatment during puberty in humans. The long-term effect of these antibiotics on male reproductive tract development has not been fully elucidated. For this reason we tested the effect of antibiotics on the reproductive parameters of mice males during puberty with the therapeutic dose used in humans, and with lower and higher doses. The outbred mouse strain CD1 with higher heterozygosity was exposed for 14 days at puberty. Adult males at the age of 70 days were used for the measurements. We observed a significant decrease in anogenital distance and thickness of the seminiferous epithelium in the treated animals. Pathological changes in the testes had an impact on sperm quality; a higher number of sperm positively stained with Annexin V and TUNEL and a lower number of acrosome-intact sperm was detected. In conclusion, the treatment of male mice with antibiotics in puberty led to long-lasting effects on reproductive organs and spermatozoa in adult males.

  19. Phthalate excretion pattern and testicular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Martin Blomberg;

    2012-01-01

    In animals, some phthalates impair male reproductive development and function. Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent evidence of associations between phthalates and markers of human testicular function....

  20. TESTICULAR CAPILLARY HEMANGIOMA: DESCRIPTION OF A CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Markova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a clinical case of testicular capillary hemangioma in a 24-year-old man undergone a partial resection of the testis with the intraoperative morphological examination. Testicular capillary hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of a vascular origin, which can be similar to malignant testicular tumors on the clinical presentation, as well as on the imaging methods, in particular to seminoma. The intraoperative histological study can assist in avoiding organ-removing surgical interventions in diagnostically ambiguous cases if a benign testicular tumor is diagnosed.

  1. Feline spermatozoa from fresh and cryopreserved testicular tissues have comparable ability to fertilize matured oocytes and sustain the embryo development after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buarpung, S; Tharasanit, T; Comizzoli, P; Techakumphu, M

    2013-01-01

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue associated with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a critical tool that still needs to be explored for preserving the fertility of endangered species. Using the domestic cat as a model for wild felids, the study aimed at determining the effect of different cryoprotectants and freezing techniques (two-step freezing vs. controlled slow freezing) on the sperm quality (membrane and DNA integrity). Then, spermatozoa were extracted from frozen-thawed testicular tissues and used for ICSI to assess early gamete activation or developmental competence in vitro. The percentage of spermatozoa with intact plasma membrane was not different (P > 0.05) among nonfrozen control, glycerol-, and ethylene glycol-frozen tissues (63.2 ± 2%, 58.2 ± 2.6%, 53.3 ± 2.3%, respectively). However, these percentages were significantly lower (P sperm membrane integrity (55.0 ± 2.7%) when compared with other freezing techniques. The incidence of DNA fragmentation was found to be low (0.2%-1.1%) in all freezing protocols. After ICSI with frozen testicular spermatozoa, male and female gametes were asynchronously activated and the percentages of normal fertilization at 6, 12, and 18 hours were 11.2%, 20.6%, and 22.1%, respectively. Metaphase II-arrested oocytes containing or not a decondensed sperm head were predominantly found after ICSI with frozen testicular spermatozoa. Although two-pronucleus formation could be observed as soon as 6 hours post ICSI (10%), the rate increased dramatically after 12 and 18 hours post ICSI (17.2% and 19.5%, respectively). ICSI using frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa yielded cleavage (32.7%), morula (6.5%), and blastocyst (4.4%) percentages similar to nonfrozen control (P > 0.05). It is concluded that conventional freezing technique with glycerol as a principle cryoprotectant is simplified and applicable for cat testicular tissue cryopreservation. We also demonstrate for the first time that feline spermatozoa

  2. Correlation Analysis of Cocoa Consumption Data with Worldwide Incidence Rates of Testicular Cancer and Hypospadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Giannandrea

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The underlying reasons for the increasing occurrence of male reproductive diseases (MRD such as hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and testicular cancer (TC over the last decades are still unknown. It has been hypothesized that the risk of MRD is determined in utero and that pregnancy dietary intake could also affect MRD risk in the offspring. Various studies in animals reported that cocoa and theobromine, the main stimulant of cocoa, exert toxic effects on the testis, inducing testicular atrophy and impaired sperm quality. A correlation analysis was conducted to examine the possible role of cocoa consumption on the occurrence of selected MRD during the prenatal and early life period of cases. The incidence rates between 1998-2002 of TC in 18 countries obtained from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents were correlated with the average per-capita consumption of cocoa (kg/capita/year (FAOSTAT-Database in these countries from 1965 to 1980, i.e. the period corresponding to the early life of TC cases. In order to test the above correlation in the case of hypospadias, the mean prevalence at birth in 20 countries (1999-2003 with average per-capita consumption of cocoa in these countries in the same period corresponding to pregnancy were used. The consumption of cocoa in the period 1965–80, was most closely correlated with the incidence of TC in young adults (r=0.859; p<0.001. An analogous significant correlation was also observed between early cocoa consumption and the prevalence rates of hypospadias in the period 1999-2003 (r=0.760; p<0.001. Although the ecological approach used in this study cannot provide an answer on the causal relationship between consumption of cocoa in early life and TC and hypospadias, the results are suggestive and indicate the need of further analytic studies to investigate the role of individual exposure to cocoa, particularly during the prenatal and in early life of the patients.

  3. Protective Effects of Pleurotus tuber-regium on Carbon- Tetrachloride Induced Testicular Injury in Sprague Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okolo, Kenneth O.; Siminialayi, Iyeopu M.; Orisakwe, Orish E.

    2016-01-01

    The high rate of male infertility and the meager resources to manage same in sub Saharan Africa have necessitated the search for cost effective and available alternatives. Mushrooms have been used traditionally in folk medicine and as nutraceuticals. This study has investigated the effect of the wild mushroom Pleurotus tuber-regium on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) deleterious effects on the reproductive system of male rats. Thirty six rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. Group I (negative control) received 10 ml/kg olive oil intraperitoneal weekly in addition to feed and water ad libitum. Group II (positive control) received CCl4 10 ml/kg (30% in Olive oil) weekly. Group III, IV, and V received 100 mg, 20 0mg, and 500 mg P. tuber-regium (33.3% in feed) daily in addition to 10 ml/kg CCl4 weekly. Group VI received 500 mg P. tuber-regium (33.3% in feed) daily. After 4 weeks, sperm motility, epididymal count and vitality were determined. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), testosterone, Luteinizing hormone (LH), Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin and oestradiol were estimated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Histopathologic examinations of the testis were carried out. Carbon tetrachloride significantly reduced the sperm motility (54.33 ± 3.79%), epididymal count (28.73 ± 2.86 × 106/ml, vitality (4.96 ± 0.62), LH (0.88 ± 0.14), FSH (2.04 ± 0.33), and Testosterone (2.02 ± 0.24) when compared with control (89.33 ± 9.01), 91.91 ± 1.92 × 106/ml, 13.12 ± 0.19, 2.74 ± 0.32, 3.64 ± 0.62, and 4.16 ± 0.23, respectively, which were reversed by P. tuber-regium administration. Co-administration of P. tuber-regium plus CCl4 significantly reduced MDA level. P. tuber-regium showed dose dependent ameliorative activity against CCl4 deleterious action on the testis and may be beneficial in the management of male infertility. PMID:28018218

  4. Testicular histology in cryptorchid boys - aspects of fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, jørgen; Petersen, BL

    2007-01-01

    a testicular biopsy simultaneously with surgery for cryptorchidism. The histological findings may be helpful when deciding whether a cryptorchid boy older than 15 months may be offered supplementary hormonal treatment in order to stimulate germ cell proliferation after surgery. Key words: cryptorchidism...... are extremely low (8). During puberty inhibin B becomes inverted to FSH (6, 8, and 9). The changes in the FSH, LH and testosterone-values reflect the histological changes in the testes. The total number of germ cells and the number of Leydig cells reach a peak value around the 3rd month of life (3...... recommend very early surgery for cryptorchidism, before the germ cells disappear from the testes, which happen from about 15 months of age. We recommend a testicular biopsy simultaneously with surgery for cryptorchidism. The histological findings may be helpful when deciding whether a cryptorchid boy older...

  5. Attitudes Toward Testicular Cancer and Self-Examination Among Northern Irish Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Rachel Kathryn; Casson, Karen

    2017-03-01

    Testicular cancer incidence rates are increasing worldwide making it the most common malignancy in males aged 15 to 45 years. Without a known way to prevent the disease health professionals must promote awareness and early detection. A literature review identified a scarcity of information regarding awareness and knowledge of, and attitudes toward, testicular cancer and testicular self-examination among men in Northern Ireland. This study aimed to establish baseline data for Northern Ireland using a convenience sample of 150 men, aged 18 to 45 years. The sample was recruited from across the country and so represents a range of education and area deprivation levels. An online survey was used to collect data. Results showed that while 39% of respondents correctly identified the age group at highest risk for testicular cancer, only 17% of respondents had ever heard of a testicular self-examination. Analysis revealed knowledge, awareness, and attitudes differed by age groups and area deprivation quintiles. It is recommended that health promoters in Northern Ireland and elsewhere use these findings to tailor health promotion initiatives to engage men and raise testicular cancer and self-examination awareness.

  6. The diagnostic impact of testicular biopsies for intratubular germ cell neoplasia in cryptorchid boys and the subsequent risk of testicular cancer in men with prepubertal surgery for syndromic or non-syndromic cryptorchidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterballe, Lene; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Cortes, Dina; Engholm, Gerda; Hertzum-Larsen, Rasmus; Reinhardt, Susanne; Thorup, Jorgen

    2017-04-01

    Cryptorchidism is a risk factor for testicular cancer in adult life. It remains unclear how prepubertal surgery for cryptorchidism impacts later development of adult testicular cancer. The aim of study was to investigate tools to identify the cryptorchid boys who later develop testicular cancer. The study cohort consisted of 1403 men operated prepubertally/pubertally for undescended testis between 1971 and 2003. At surgery testicular biopsies were taken from the cryptorchid testes. The boys were followed for occurrence of testicular cancer. The testicular cancer risk was compared to the risk in the Danish Population. Testicular biopsies from the boys who developed testicular cancer during follow-up underwent histological examination with specific diagnostic immunohistochemical markers for germ cell neoplasia. The cohort was followed for 33,627 person years at risk. We identified 16 cases with testicular cancer in adulthood. The standardized incidence ratio was 2.66 (95% CI: 1.52-4.32). At time of primary surgery in prepubertal/pubertal age Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia (ITGCN) was diagnosed in 5 cases and the boys were unilaterally orchiectomized. At follow-up new immunohistochemical staining indicated ITGCN in two of the 16 cancer cases at reevaluation of the original biopsies from time of prepubertal/pubertal surgery. One had syndromic cryptorchid and developed seminoma, and another showed nonsyndromic cryptorchidism and developed embryonic teratocarcinoma. Totally, ITGCN was diagnosed in 0.5% (7/1403) of prepubertal cryptorchid boys, whereof 57% (4/7) in syndromic-cryptorchidism. ITGCN is predominantly observed prepubertally in boys with syndromic-cryptorchidism. In nonsyndromic cryptorchidism testicular cancer develops postpubertally, generally not based on dormant germ cells of ITGCN caused by an early fetal maldevelopment. LEVEL I. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Testicular perfusion after standing laparoscopic peritoneal flap hernioplasty in stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Calvo, L A; Duque, J; Balao da Silva, C; Ezquerra, J; Ortega-Ferrusola, C

    2015-09-15

    Acquired inguinal herniation is a very common condition in stallions, usually leading to unilateral or bilateral castration to prevent future recurrence. Recently, several surgical techniques such as the standing laparoscopic peritoneal flap hernioplasty (SLPFH) have been developed to avoid herniation recurrence and also preserve the breeding activity of high economic value stallions. However, studies on SLPFH lack more comprehensive and systematic data about reproductive-related adverse effects and outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SLPFH of the internal inguinal rings produces changes in the testicular blood flow in a 1-year follow-up. For that purpose, six healthy stallions were used and testicular blood flow was assessed before, 3, 6, and 12 months (T0, T3, T6, and T12) after the procedure. Blood flow was evaluated ultrasonographically, using the pulsed-wave color Doppler mode. Peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity, the time-averaged maximum velocity, and the derived indexes (resistive index) and pulsatility index) of the testicular artery were measured in two localizations: in the spermatic cord and on the caudal epididymal edge of the testicle. On the spermatic cord, the peak systolic velocity of the testicular artery increased significantly at T12. However, on the epididymal edge location of the artery, the pulsatility and resistive indexes were decreased at T12 (P perfusion in stallions in a 1 year follow-up, although there was no effect on sperm production during this time. The spectral Doppler ultrasound is a useful tool to asses the testicular perfusion after reproductive surgical procedure and provides information which anticipates vascular supply compromise of the stallion testicles.

  8. Intra-Abdominal Testicular Seminoma in a Woman with Testicular Feminization Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana D. Rasalkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of intra-abdominal testicular tumor in a 36-year-old married lady presenting with chief complaints of primary amenorrhea. The patient was later diagnosed with testicular feminization syndrome, a form of male pseudohermaphroditism. This testicular tumor was histologically proven as seminoma. Due to rarity, imaging findings in patients with testicular feminization syndrome and intraabdominal testicular tumor have been poorly documented. So far, only one case report had described the combined role of CT and MR imaging in intraabdominal testicular sex-cord stromal tumor. To our knowledge, this case is first to document USG and MR imaging in addition to MR spectroscopy features in intraabdominal testicular seminoma.

  9. Androgen action via testicular arteriole smooth muscle cells is important for Leydig cell function, vasomotion and testicular fluid dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Welsh

    Full Text Available Regulation of blood flow through the testicular microvasculature by vasomotion is thought to be important for normal testis function as it regulates interstitial fluid (IF dynamics which is an important intra-testicular transport medium. Androgens control vasomotion, but how they exert these effects remains unclear. One possibility is by signalling via androgen receptors (AR expressed in testicular arteriole smooth muscle cells. To investigate this and determine the overall importance of this mechanism in testis function, we generated a blood vessel smooth muscle cell-specific AR knockout mouse (SMARKO. Gross reproductive development was normal in SMARKO mice but testis weight was reduced in adulthood compared to control littermates; this reduction was not due to any changes in germ cell volume or to deficits in testosterone, LH or FSH concentrations and did not cause infertility. However, seminiferous tubule lumen volume was reduced in adult SMARKO males while interstitial volume was increased, perhaps indicating altered fluid dynamics; this was associated with compensated Leydig cell failure. Vasomotion was impaired in adult SMARKO males, though overall testis blood flow was normal and there was an increase in the overall blood vessel volume per testis in adult SMARKOs. In conclusion, these results indicate that ablating arteriole smooth muscle AR does not grossly alter spermatogenesis or affect male fertility but does subtly impair Leydig cell function and testicular fluid exchange, possibly by locally regulating microvascular blood flow within the testis.

  10. Role of the KATP channel in the protective effect of nicorandil on cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Lamiaa A.; El-Maraghy, Shohda A.; Rizk, Sherine M.

    2015-01-01

    This study is the first to investigate the role of the KATP channel in the possible protection mediated by nicorandil against cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats. Animals received cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 2 consecutive days and then were untreated for the following 5 days. Nicorandil (3 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was administered starting from the day of cyclophosphamide injection with or without glibenclamide (5 mg/kg/day, p.o.). Nicorandil administration si...

  11. Semen quality and reproductive hormones before orchiectomy in men with testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P M; Skakkebaek, N E; Vistisen, K

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To obtain information about preorchiectomy gonadal function in patients with testicular germ cell cancer to improve the clinical management of fertility and other andrologic aspects in these men. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In group 1, a group of 83 consecutive patients with testicular germ cell......-existing Leydig cell dysfunction is present in men with testicular cancer could not be answered in this study because the tumor seems to have a direct effect on the Leydig cells. Men with testicular cancer had low LH values as compared with controls. We speculate that increased intratesticular level of hCG also...... in men without measurable serum hCG may play a role by exerting LH-like effects on the Leydig cells, causing increased testosterone and estrogen levels and low LH values in the blood....

  12. Primary testicular lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Demir

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary testicular lymphomas are rare malignancy. We discussed the patient who had referred with mass into left testis at 73 years old diagnosis as diffuse large B-cell testicular lymphoma. Systemic chemotherapy (R-CHOP was given to the patient. Prophylactic radiotherapy was performed for the contralateral testis and central nervous system. Complete remission was achieved in the patient.

  13. The potency of human testicular stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chikhovskaya, J.V.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, we evaluate the stem cell state of cells present in primary human testicular cell cultures as well as their origin and relation to germ or somatic lineages within testicular tissue. We conclude that human testis-derived embryonic stem cell-like (htES-like) colonies arising in primary

  14. Treatment-associated leukemia following testicular cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travis, LB; Andersson, M; Gospodarowicz, M; van Leeuwen, FE; Bergfeldt, K; Lynch, CF; Curtis, RE; Kohler, BA; Wiklund, T; Storm, H; Holowaty, E; Hall, P; Pukkala, E; Sleijfer, DT; Clarke, EA; Boice, JD; Stovall, M; Gilbert, E

    2000-01-01

    Background: Men with testicular cancer are at an increased risk of leukemia, but the relationship to prior treatments is not well characterized. The purpose of our study was to describe the risk of leukemia following radiotherapy and chemotherapy for testicular cancer. Methods: Within a

  15. Testicular Cancer Education in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Royal E.

    1998-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) education is not widespread, though TC is the most common cancer in men ages 15-34 years. Teachers can positively influence young men by providing TC and testicular self-examination (TSE) education in school. The paper describes TC and TSE, discussing strategies for and barriers to implementation of TC/TSE instruction in the…

  16. [A patient with bilateral testicular cancer].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, S.; Witjes, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In men aged 15-34 testicular cancer is the most commonly occurring malignancy. After treatment, the average 5-year survival rate is 85%. Recurring symptoms or raised tumour markers may indicate the presence of a second primary contralateral testicular tumour. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 34-year-

  17. Diagnosis and management of testicular ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jill C; McAninch, Jack W

    2006-02-01

    Testicular ruptures are a common occurrence in scrotal trauma that can go undetected ifa thorough examination or scrotal ultrasonography is not performed. Timely operative exploration and reconstruction is the standard of care and leads to high testicular salvage rates with hormonal, reproductive, and cosmetic benefits for the patient.

  18. Testicular Cancer Education in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Royal E.

    1998-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) education is not widespread, though TC is the most common cancer in men ages 15-34 years. Teachers can positively influence young men by providing TC and testicular self-examination (TSE) education in school. The paper describes TC and TSE, discussing strategies for and barriers to implementation of TC/TSE instruction in the…

  19. Surviving testicular cancer : sexuality & other existential issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Grietje

    2003-01-01

    The thesis deals with the psychological aspects of ‘sexuality after testicular cancer’, where my collegue, the physician dr. Van Basten formerly predominantly described the physical-biological aspects of this subject. Testicular cancer is a type of male genital cancer, usually diagnosed between abou

  20. [A patient with bilateral testicular cancer].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, S.; Witjes, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In men aged 15-34 testicular cancer is the most commonly occurring malignancy. After treatment, the average 5-year survival rate is 85%. Recurring symptoms or raised tumour markers may indicate the presence of a second primary contralateral testicular tumour. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 34-year-

  1. A review of main controversial aspects of acute testicular torsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ´Ad ´am Mikl ´os Feh ´er; Zolt ´an Bajory

    2016-01-01

    Testicular torsion (TT) is a severe acute urological emergency caused by twisting of the spermatic cord. It requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Unfortunately, its importance is still underestimated in everyday life: early-detected TT can be cured in almost every case, whereas late identification may lead to loss of the testicles. We present a compre-hensive review of TT, including the aetiology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment and outcome, based on recently published articles. The novel and the major controversial aspects of this topic are highlighted. The PubMed and ScienceDirect databases were searched with the following keywords: TT, torsion of the spermatic cord and acute scrotum, particular stress being placed on articles published in the last 5 years. The ge-netic aspects of TT are discussed, together with the diagnostic possibilities, such as so-nography, radionuclide and fluorescent imaging techniques. The effective surgical techniques and potential drugs for reducing molecular injuries were surveyed. Finally, the major controversial aspects of TT are considered. The new concepts of TT demonstrate that certain features remain unclear. New, more accurate diagnostic tools and prompt management may contribute to a better prognosis and prevent the loss of the testicles.

  2. The Effect of Early Entrepreneurship Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Laura Rosendahl; Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of early entrepreneurship education. To this end, we conduct a randomized field experiment to evaluate a leading entrepreneurship education program that is taught worldwide in the final grade of primary school. We focus on pupils׳ development ...

  3. 硫酸镍对大鼠睾丸细胞能量代谢的影响%Effects of nickel sulfate on energy metabolism of testicular cells in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏莉; 李成云; 张瑞; 孙应彪; 张志刚; 李晋

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of energy metabolism induced by nickel sulfate (NiSO4) in testicular cells of male rats. Methods Fourty wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally with normal saline or NiSO4 ( 1. 25 , 2. 5 , and 5 mg/kg/day) , respectively. The content of Ni was detected with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry assay. The expressions of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) , malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) proteins were determined by Western blot assay. Then the activities of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in mitochondria of testicular cells, and the contents of glucose ( GLU) and lactic acid ( LD) in testicular homogenate were detected with spectrophotometer assay. Results Ni contents of testes were higher than that of control group in NiSO4 2. 50 and 5. 00 mg/kg groups (P <0. 05) 30 days after the treatment. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of SDH protein decreased in the 2. 50 and 5. 00 mg/kg groups compared with controls (P <0. 05). At the same time, MDH protein decreased significantly from 1. 25 to 5. 00 mg/kg groups. Furthermore, the expression of GSH-Px protein decreased in 5. 00 mg/kg group. The activities of SDH and MDH significantly decreased in 2. 50 and 5. 00 mg/kg groups, and GSH-Px decreased in 5. 00 mg/kg group (P < 0. 05). The content of GLU of testicular cells decreased in 2. 50 and 5. 00 mg/kg groups (P < 0. 05). Conclusion These results demonstrate that NiSO4 exhibits reproductive toxicity by the disorder of energy metabolism in rats' testicular cells.%目的 探讨硫酸镍( NiSO4)对大鼠睾丸细胞能量代谢的影响.方法 健康Wistar雄性大鼠40只,随机分为4组,即正常对照组(NS组),NiSO4 1.25、2.50和5.00 mg/kg,腹腔注射染毒,1次/d,连续30 d.石墨炉原子吸收光谱法检测大鼠睾丸组织镍含量;Western blot法测定琥珀酸脱氢酶(SDH)、苹果酸脱氢酶(MDH)和谷胱甘

  4. [Isolated testicular tuberculosis: report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joual, A; Rabii, R; Guessous, H; Benjelloun, M; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    2000-06-01

    In this study, a case has been reported involving a 66-year old male who was admitted for scrotal pain on the right side with possible testicular involvement, but with no associated urinary disorder. At physical examination, the right testicle was found to have increased in volume: this was further confirmed by ultrasonography, but the findings were insufficient to exclude the hypothesis of testicular cancer. An exploratory orchidectomy by upper inguinal route was therefore carried out, and histopathological examination showed the destruction of testicular tissue by several granulomas, and caseous necrosis with giant cells. Antibacterial chemotherapy was administered after an i.v. urography found no evidence of abnormality or urinary disorder, thereby eliminating an active site of genitourinary tuberculosis. This case shows the importance of considering testicular tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of testicular enlargement in a region where this disease is endemic, despite the absence of systemic pulmonary and urinary signs of tuberculosis.

  5. Ontogenesis of testicular function in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GaĂŤlle Angenard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The two major functions of the testis, steroidogenesis and gametogenesis, take place during fetal life. These two functions have been extensively studied in rodents and adult humans. However, their onset during fetal life is poorly documented in humans. In the first part of this work we presented both our experimental data and some data of literature concerning the development of the human fetal testis. In the second part of this article, using the organ culture system we previously developed, we have investigated the regulations or perturbations of fetal testis development both in rodent and human models. Our findings provide important insight into the potential role of exposure to environmental pollutants (physical factors, in particular ionizing radiation, cadmium and endocrine disruptors such as phthalates during fetal testicular development and their potential deleterious effects on male fertility in adulthood. Our results highlight the specificity of the human model compared with rodent models.

  6. Genetic changes associated with testicular cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Louise C; Nathanson, Katherine L

    2016-10-01

    Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is a highly heritable cancer primarily affecting young white men. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been particularly effective in identifying multiple common variants with strong contribution to TGCT risk. These loci identified through association studies have implicated multiple genes as associated with TGCT predisposition, many of which are unique among cancer types, and regulate processes such as pluripotency, sex specification, and microtubule assembly. Together these biologically plausible genes converge on pathways involved in male germ cell development and maturation, and suggest that perturbation of them confers susceptibility to TGCT, as a developmental defect of germ cell differentiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Testicular development and reproductivity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, Wang; Masahiro, Murakami; Kiyomi, Eguchi-Kasai; Kumie, Nojima; Yi, Shang; Kaoru, Tanaka; Kazuko, Fujita [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba (Japan); Coffigny, H. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dir. des Sciences du Vivant, 92 (France)

    2006-07-01

    Effects on gonads in prenatal male fetuses, and on the postnatal testicular development and reproductivity of male offspring were studied following exposure of pregnant Wistar rats to either accelerated carbon-ion beans with a Let value of about 13 keV/L]m or neon-ion beams with a Let value of about 30 keV/I Im at a dose range from 0.1 Gy to 2.0 Gy on gestation day 15. Induction of apoptosis in fetal gonocytes was evaluated pathologically in male gonads. Mean number of pups, pre-weaning mortality, and the age for testis descent in offspring were examined. Testis weight and the ratio of it to body weight were measured on postnatal days 30, 60 and 90, respectively. Development of testicular tubules was analyzed histologically. In addition, in the male offspring, the successful mating rates with non-irradiated female rats, the mean number of pups descended, and, the weaning rates of the pups were investigated. The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp estimated for the same biological end points were studied for comparison. For heavy ions, a dose of 2.0 Gy caused 100% pre-weaning mortality. For some endpoints, such as pre-weaning mortality, testis weight, and ratio of testis weight to body weight, significant alteration was observed in offspring prenatally received only 0.1 Gy of accelerated neon ions; while for the most endpoints regarding the effects from carbon ions or X rays, a significant alteration could be observed only when a dose was at 0.5 Gy or more. In this dose range, apoptosis in gonocytes of fetal gonads was significantly induced in a dose-dependent manner with a peak at around 12 to 18 hr after irradiation; in the prenatally irradiated pups, statistical significances for increased prenatal death, delayed accomplishment in testis descent, low testis weight, changed ratios of testis weight to body weight, and increased malformed testicular tubules were recorded. When the dose was at 1.0 Gy or 1.5 Gy, marked decrease in successful mating rates was also observed

  8. Compromised Rat Testicular Antioxidant Defence System by Hypothyroidism before Puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak K. Sahoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered thyroid function during early stages of development is known to affect adversely testicular growth, physiology, and antioxidant defence status at adulthood. The objective of the present study is to investigate the modulation of antioxidant defence status in neonatal persistent hypothyroid rats before their sexual maturation and also to identify the specific testicular cell populations vulnerable to degeneration during neonatal hypothyroidism in immature rats. Hypothyroidism was induced in neonates by feeding the lactating mother with 0.05% 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU through the drinking water. From the day of parturition till weaning (25 day postpartum, the pups received PTU through mother's milk (or drinking water and then directly from drinking water containing PTU for the remaining period of experimentation. On the 31st day postpartum, the animals were sacrificed for the study. An altered antioxidant defence system marked by elevated SOD, CAT, and GR activities, with decreased GPx and GST activities were observed along with increased protein carbonylation, disturbed redox status in hypothyroid immature rat testis. This compromised testicular antioxidant status might have contributed to poor growth and development by affecting the spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in rats before puberty as indicated by reduced germ cell number, complete absence of round spermatids, decreased seminiferous tubule diameter, and decreased testosterone level.

  9. German second-opinion network for testicular cancer: sealing the leaky pipe between evidence and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengerling, Friedemann; Hartmann, Michael; Heidenreich, Axel; Krege, Susanne; Albers, Peter; Karl, Alexander; Weissbach, Lothar; Wagner, Walter; Bedke, Jens; Retz, Margitta; Schmelz, Hans U; Kliesch, Sabine; Kuczyk, Markus; Winter, Eva; Pottek, Tobias; Dieckmann, Klaus-Peter; Schrader, Andres Jan; Schrader, Mark

    2014-06-01

    In 2006, the German Testicular Cancer Study Group initiated an extensive evidence-based national second-opinion network to improve the care of testicular cancer patients. The primary aims were to reflect the current state of testicular cancer treatment in Germany and to analyze the project's effect on the quality of care delivered to testicular cancer patients. A freely available internet-based platform was developed for the exchange of data between the urologists seeking advice and the 31 second-opinion givers. After providing all data relevant to the primary treatment decision, urologists received a second opinion on their therapy plan within testicular cancer patient in Germany were submitted to second-opinion centers. Second-opinion centers can help to improve the implementation of evidence into clinical practice.

  10. Utility of Pamphlets in Promoting Knowledge and Positive Attitudes about Two Early Cancer Detection Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    Informational pamphlets about breast self-examination (BSE) and testicular self-examination (TSE) are widely distributed in health care settings, but the pamphlets' effectiveness in promoting knowledge and positive attitudes about these early cancer detection procedures is largely unknown. A study compared pamphlets with alternative methods of…

  11. Protective effects of vitamin E on ethane dimethane sulfonate-induced testicular toxicity in rats%维生素E对二甲磺酸乙烷在大鼠体内的睾丸毒性的防护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.Sahinturk; C.Guclu; C.Baycu

    2007-01-01

    Aim:To evaluate the protective/ameliorative effects of vitamin E (vit E) on ethane dimethane sulfonate (EDS)-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Methods: The rats were assigned to eight groups, seven rats in each, and were injected intraperitoneally with vehicle, a single dose of ethane dimethane sulfonate (EDS) (75 mg/kg bodyweight), vit E (100 mg/kg bodyweight) or EDS + vit E for 3-7 days. Thereafter, the rats were weighed, anaesthetized with ether and killed by cervical dislocation. The left testis weights were recorded and the relative testis weights were calculated.The left testes were processed for routine paraffin embedding. Three right testes from each group were taken randomly and then processed for routine electron microscopy. Tissue sections were examined using light and electron microscopy, and were scored for histopathological changes. Results: Vit E coadministration did not prevent the bodyweight loss on days 3 and 7. However, vit E administration prevented the EDS-induced testicular-weight loss in rats that received vit E for 3 days but not 7 days. The relative testis weight was higher on day 3 (instead of on day 7) than other groups. Nevertheless, the testis histology was not markedly protected by vit E in the EDS-treated rats.Detailed microscopic assessment showed few Leydig cells and abundant fibroblast-like cells indicating only some protection. Conclusion: Vit E cotreatment showed partial protective effects on the testicular weight and testicular histology in rats that received EDS.

  12. Testicular fine-needle aspiration for the assessment of intratesticular hormone concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada P Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of intratesticular sex steroid concentrations in men informs both the development of male hormonal contraceptives and the understanding of male infertility. Given the challenges of using invasive techniques to measure testicular hormone physiology, our group has used a minimally-invasive fine-needle aspiration technique to measure intratesticular hormones in normal healthy men. Herein, we present a post-hoc analysis of the safety and efficacy of testicular fine-needle aspiration (FNA completed as part of six clinical trials. From 2001 through 2011, a total of 404 procedures were conducted among 163 research volunteers, 85.9% of which were successful in obtaining sufficient fluid for the measurement of intratesticular steroid concentrations. Pain was the most common side effect, with 36.8% of procedures associated with moderate procedural pain and 4.7% with severe procedural pain. Postprocedural pain was uncommon and abated within a few days. Mild local bruising occurred with 14.9% of procedures. Two serious adverse events (0.5% required surgical intervention. The risk of an adverse event was not associated with age, body mass index, testicular size, or the volume of fluid aspirated. Testicular FNA to obtain fluid for measurement of intratesticular steroid concentrations frequently causes mild to moderate procedural pain, but serious adverse events occur rarely. Testicular FNA has been instrumental for defining human intratesticular hormone physiology and is a minimally-invasive, safe, effective method for obtaining fluid for research on testicular physiology and pathology.

  13. Histological evidence of testicular dysgenesis in contralateral biopsies from 218 patients with testicular germ cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Holm, Mette; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    patients, areas with immature and morphologically distorted tubules were also noted. Spermatogenesis was qualitatively normal in 51.4%, whereas 11.5% had very poor or absent spermatogenesis. It is concluded that microscopic testicular dysgenesis is a frequent feature in contralateral biopsies from patients...... dysgenesis, microscopic dysgenetic features were quantified in contralateral testicular biopsies in patients with a testicular germ cell tumour. Two hundred and eighty consecutive contralateral testicular biopsies from Danish patients with testicular cancer diagnosed in 1998-2001 were evaluated...... of other dysgenetic features was immature tubules with undifferentiated Sertoli cells, 4.6%; microcalcifications (microliths), 6.0%; and the presence of a Sertoli-cell-only pattern in at least a few tubules, 13.8%. The cumulative incidence of one or more signs of testicular dysgenesis was 25.2%. In a few...

  14. A test of the coincidence and duration models of melatonin action in Siberian hamsters: the effects of 1-hr melatonin infusions on testicular development in intact and pinealectomized prepubertal Phodopus sungorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, B; Stetson, M H

    2001-03-01

    The pineal hormone melatonin is known to play an important role in mediating photoperiodic messages to the reproductive system in seasonal breeding animals. Our goal was to test, in a single experimental paradigm, two hypotheses that have been forwarded to describe how the circadian rhythm of pineal melatonin transmits photoperiodic information to the reproductive system: 1) induction, i.e., a short-day effect, occurs when secreted melatonin and a circadian rhythm of sensitivity to melatonin coincide in time; 2) induction occurs following exposure to elevated circulating melatonin levels for a prescribed duration. In order to determine the relative validity of these hypotheses, we investigated the testicular maturation response to 1-hr daily infusions of 10, 25, and 50 ng of melatonin in pinealectomized intact and prepubertal Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Animals received, beginning on day 15 of life, programmed subcutaneous infusions of melatonin or vehicle at one of five time points (19:00-20:00, 20:00-21:00, 21:00-22:00, 24:00-01:00, and 03:00-04:00 hr) for 15 days. In animals gestated and raised in a long photoperiod (LD16:8 = 16L, where L is the duration of light in hours, and D that of dark), melatonin infusion right after lights off (20:00-21:00 hr) significantly retarded gonadal maturation; this dose was ineffective at other times tested. Doses of 10 and 25 ng melatonin were ineffective at all time points. Identical results were obtained in prepubertal hamsters gestated in a short photoperiod (LD10:14 = 10L) and raised in 16L; these results were independent of the presence or absence of the pineal gland. In animals gestated and raised in 10L, melatonin infusions failed to suppress testicular development beyond that induced by the photoperiod; testicular development was maximally suppressed in all groups. The results of these investigations are best explained under the experimental conditions employed here: 1) the photoperiodic gonadal response in

  15. Vitamin D metabolism and effects on pluripotency genes and cell differentiation in testicular germ cell tumors in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John Erik;

    2012-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are classified as either seminomas or nonseminomas. Both tumors originate from carcinoma in situ (CIS) cells, which are derived from transformed fetal gonocytes. CIS, seminoma, and the undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma (EC) retain an embryonic phenotype...... and express pluripotency factors (NANOG/OCT4). Vitamin D (VD) is metabolized in the testes, and here, we examined VD metabolism in TGCT differentiation and pluripotency regulation. We established that the VD receptor (VDR) and VD-metabolizing enzymes are expressed in human fetal germ cells, CIS, and invasive...... TGCTs. VD metabolism diminished markedly during the malignant transformation from CIS to EC but was reestablished in differentiated components of nonseminomas, distinguished by coexpression of mesodermal markers and loss of OCT4. Subsequent in vitro studies confirmed that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) (active VD...

  16. Testicular cancer: addressing the psychosexual issues.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Annamarie

    2012-01-31

    Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in men aged 15-35 years and predominantly occurs at a time in a man\\'s life when important decisions about marriage, starting a family and a professional career are being made. While treatments for testicular cancer are very successful, they can have a major impact on the person\\'s sexuality and sense of self. The focus of this article is on exploring the impact of cancer treatments for testicular cancer on men\\'s sexuality and how nurses can respond to their concerns in a sensitive and informed manner.

  17. Testicular torsion in children: Scintigraphic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, J.B.; Taylor, G.A.; Cheng, T.H.; Retik, A.; Bauer, S.; Treves, S.

    1985-02-01

    Seventy-five patients with suspected testicular torsion who had scintiscans and adequate clinical follow-up were analyzed retrospectively. The scintiscans diagnosed 12/13 cases of surgically proven missed torsion and 3/3 cases of surgically proven acute complete torsion. The scintiscans successfully distinguished all 35 cases of epididymo-orchitis, 14 cases of torsion of the appendix testes and 8 other miscellaneous conditions from testicular torsion. The incidence of testicular torsion in our patients undergoing scrotal scintigraphy was approximately 24%.

  18. [Segmental testicular infarction in sickle cell anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, F E

    2014-05-01

    Vascular occlusions are the clinical indicators of sickle cell disease and in urology they can lead to papillary necrosis, renal infarction or priapism. Segmental testicular infarction in patients with sickle cell disease is a rare event and only a few cases have been reported. We present a 25-year-old man with right testicular pain increasing over 3 days and sickle cell disease. Ultrasound of the right scrotum presented an inhomogeneous, mainly hypoechegenic mass with a hyperechogenic margin and no sign of blood flow. A partial orchiectomy was performed with total enucleation of the lesion, which was histologically diagnosed as benign hemorrhagic necrotic testicular tissue.

  19. Testicular Damage following Testicular Sperm Retrieval: A Ram Model Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Fedder

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible development of histological abnormalities such as fibrosis and microcalcifications after sperm retrieval in a ram model. Fourteen testicles in nine rams were exposed to open biopsy, multiple TESAs, or TESE, and the remaining four testicles were left unoperated on as controls. Three months after sperm retrieval, the testicles were removed, fixed, and cut into 1/2 cm thick slices and systematically put onto a glass plate exposing macroscopic abnormalities. Tissue from abnormal areas was cut into 3 μm sections and stained for histological evaluation. Pathological abnormalities were observed in testicles exposed to sperm retrieval (≥11 of 14 compared to 0 of 4 control testicles. Testicular damage was found independently of the kind of intervention used. Therefore, cryopreservation of excess sperm should be considered while retrieving sperm.

  20. Management trends in stage I testicular seminoma: Impact of race, insurance status, and treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Phillip J; Lin, Chun Chieh; Sineshaw, Helmneh; Paly, Jonathan J; Jemal, Ahmedin; Efstathiou, Jason A

    2015-03-01

    The management of stage I testicular seminoma is evolving rapidly. This study examined modern trends in the management of stage I testicular seminoma and the effects of sociodemographic factors on therapy choice. Data from the National Cancer Data Base on 34,067 patients with stage I testicular seminoma who were treated between 1998 and 2011 were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess factors associated with adjuvant management strategies. For patients with stage IA/B testicular seminoma, rates of observation after orchiectomy increased from 23.7% to 54.0%, the receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy increased from 1.5% to 16.0%, and the receipt of radiotherapy decreased from 70.8% to 28.8%. A similar pattern was seen in stage IS testicular seminoma, although these patients were more likely to receive adjuvant radiotherapy/chemotherapy (60.7% vs 44.8% for stage IA/B in 2011, P seminoma, observation after orchiectomy was more common in racial minorities (odds ratio [OR] for blacks vs whites, 1.31, P seminoma who received adjuvant radiotherapy/chemotherapy, the receipt of chemotherapy was more common at academic centers and for patients with nonprivate insurance. Postorchiectomy observation in stage I testicular seminoma has increased significantly in recent years, as has the receipt of chemotherapy, whereas the receipt of radiotherapy has declined, particularly at academic centers. Race, insurance status, and facility type are strongly associated with the choice of adjuvant management. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  1. Sulforaphane Prevents Angiotensin II-Induced Testicular Cell Death via Activation of NRF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonggang; Xin, Ying; Tan, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Although angiotensin II (Ang II) was reported to facilitate sperm motility and intratesticular sperm transport, recent findings shed light on the efficacy of Ang II in stimulating inflammatory events in testicular peritubular cells, effect of which may play a role in male infertility. It is still unknown whether Ang II can induce testicular apoptotic cell death, which may be a more direct action of Ang II in male infertility. Therefore, the present study aims to determine whether Ang II can induce testicular apoptotic cell death and whether this action can be prevented by sulforaphane (SFN) via activating nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2), the governor of antioxidant-redox signalling. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6J wild type (WT) and Nrf2 gene knockout mice were treated with Ang II, in the presence or absence of SFN. In WT mice, SFN activated testicular NRF2 expression and function, along with a marked attenuation in Ang II-induced testicular oxidative stress, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptotic cell death. Deletion of the Nrf2 gene led to a complete abolishment of these efficacies of SFN. The present study indicated that Ang II may result in testicular apoptotic cell death, which can be prevented by SFN via the activation of NRF2. PMID:28191275

  2. Sulforaphane Prevents Angiotensin II-Induced Testicular Cell Death via Activation of NRF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although angiotensin II (Ang II was reported to facilitate sperm motility and intratesticular sperm transport, recent findings shed light on the efficacy of Ang II in stimulating inflammatory events in testicular peritubular cells, effect of which may play a role in male infertility. It is still unknown whether Ang II can induce testicular apoptotic cell death, which may be a more direct action of Ang II in male infertility. Therefore, the present study aims to determine whether Ang II can induce testicular apoptotic cell death and whether this action can be prevented by sulforaphane (SFN via activating nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (NRF2, the governor of antioxidant-redox signalling. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6J wild type (WT and Nrf2 gene knockout mice were treated with Ang II, in the presence or absence of SFN. In WT mice, SFN activated testicular NRF2 expression and function, along with a marked attenuation in Ang II-induced testicular oxidative stress, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptotic cell death. Deletion of the Nrf2 gene led to a complete abolishment of these efficacies of SFN. The present study indicated that Ang II may result in testicular apoptotic cell death, which can be prevented by SFN via the activation of NRF2.

  3. he relationship of body mass index to penile length and testicular volume in adolescent boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizky Adriansyah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Evidence suggests that obesity may be related to early onset of puberty in girls. However, few studies have found a link between body mass index (BMI and puberty onset in boys. More study is needed to assess the relationship of BMI to penile length and testicular volume. Objective To investigate the relationship of BMI to penile length and testicular volume in adolescent boys. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on adolescent boys aged 9 to 14 years in Secanggang District, Langkat Regency, North Sumatera Province in August 2009. Subject's BMIs were calculated by dividing body weight (BW in kilograms by body height (BH in meters squared. Penile length (cm was measured with a spatula. We took the average of three measurements from the symphysis pubis to the tip of the glans penis. Testicular volume (mL was estimated by palpation using an orchidometer. Pearson's correlation test (r was used to assess the relationship of BMI to penile length and BMI to testicular volume. Results There were 108 participants, consisting of 64 primary school students and 44 junior high school students. Subjects' mean age was 11.7 (SD 1.62 years,; mean BW was 35.2 (SD 8.84 kg; mean testicular volume was 3.6 (SD 1.20 mL. We found no significant association between BMI and penile length (r=-0.25, P= 0.006, nor between BMI and testicular volume (r=-021; P=0.09. Conclusion There was no significant relationship of BMI to penile length nor BMI to testicular volume in adolescent boys. [

  4. Melatonin attenuates doxorubicin-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K-M; Lee, I-C; Kim, S-H; Moon, C; Park, S-H; Shin, D-H; Kim, S-H; Park, S-C; Kim, H-C; Kim, J-C

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of melatonin (MLT) against doxorubicin (DXR)-induced testicular toxicity and oxidative stress in rats. DXR was given as a single intraperitoneal dose of 10 mg kg(-1) body weight to male rats at 1 h after MLT treatment on day 6 of the study. MLT at 15 mg kg(-1) body weight was administered daily by gavage for 5 days before DXR treatment followed by an additional dose for 5 days. Sperm analysis, histopathological examination and biochemical methods were used for this investigation. DXR caused a decrease in the weight of seminal vesicles, epididymal sperm count and motility and an increase in the incidence of histopathological changes of the testis. In addition, an increased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and decreased glutathione content, glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities were observed. On the contrary, MLT treatment significantly ameliorated DXR-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Moreover, MDA concentration and GR, GST and SOD activities were not affected when MLT was administered in conjunction with DXR. These results indicate that MLT had a protective effect against DXR-induced testicular toxicity and that the protective effects of MLT may be due to both the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant activity.

  5. Primary testicular failure in Klinefelter's syndrome: the use of bivariate luteinizing hormone-testosterone reference charts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels;

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of androgen deficiency is based on clinical features and confirmatory low serum testosterone levels. In early primary testicular failure, a rise in serum LH levels suggests inadequate androgen action for the individual's physiological requirements despite a serum testosterone level ...

  6. Genome-wide gene expression profiling of testicular carcinoma in situ progression into overt tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, K; Hoei-Hansen, C E; Nielsen, J E

    2005-01-01

    into CIS occurs early during foetal life. Progression into an overt tumour, however, typically first happens after puberty, where CIS cells transform into either a seminoma (SEM) or a nonseminoma (N-SEM). Here, we have compared the genome-wide gene expression of CIS cells to that of testicular SEM...

  7. A Case of True Hermaphroditism Presenting as a Testicular Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Ceci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available True hermaphroditism represents only 5% cases of all of disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD and usually present in early childhood with ambiguous genitalia. Occasionally, cases might present later on in adolescence with problems of sexual maturation. Our case report presents a true hermaphrodite with normal male phenotype that presented as a left testicular mass, two years after being diagnosed with Sertoli cell only syndrome in the contralateral testis. Histological examination of the left testis showed ovarian, fallopian tube, myometrial, endometrial, and epididymal tissue. This combination of findings is found in approximately one-third of true hermaphrodites, but it is very rare to present clinically as an inguinoscrotal mass.

  8. A Case of True Hermaphroditism Presenting as a Testicular Tumour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, Edward; Said, Edith; Gatt, Noel

    2015-01-01

    True hermaphroditism represents only 5% cases of all of disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD) and usually present in early childhood with ambiguous genitalia. Occasionally, cases might present later on in adolescence with problems of sexual maturation. Our case report presents a true hermaphrodite with normal male phenotype that presented as a left testicular mass, two years after being diagnosed with Sertoli cell only syndrome in the contralateral testis. Histological examination of the left testis showed ovarian, fallopian tube, myometrial, endometrial, and epididymal tissue. This combination of findings is found in approximately one-third of true hermaphrodites, but it is very rare to present clinically as an inguinoscrotal mass. PMID:25774314

  9. Testicular lesions of streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, A

    1975-01-01

    Diabetes was induced in adult male albino rats by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (75 mg/kg body weight). The diabetes was allowed to stabilize for at least 15 days, whereafter the testicular and seminal vesicle histology was studied at various time intervals. Reduction in testis weights and tubule diameters was significant after 2 weeks of diabetes. The changes in seminiferous tubules ranged from premature sloughing of epithelium to total cessation of spermatogenesis. The testicular histology of diabetic animals frequently greatly simulated the situation described following hypophysectomy. By subjective visual assessment the number of Leydig cells was found to be normal or reduced in all of the diabetic animals. Diabetes was also demonstrated to induce seminal vesicle atrophy, which did not show any correlation with the degree of testicular lesions. The possible etiology of testicular damage in diabetic animals is discussed.

  10. Testicular Involvement of Tuberculous Epididymitis : Sonographic Findings

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    Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Myeong Jin; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Yong Hee [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joong Hwa [Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yeon Hee [Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-15

    To report the sonographic findings of testicular involvement of tuberculous epididymitis. The sonographic findings of testicular involvement in twelve patients with histologically proven tuberculous epididymitis were retrospectively reviewed. The sonographic findings of testicular lesions are 1) an ill defined hypoechoic lesion (3 cases, 25.0%), 2) a well-demarcated hypoechoic lesion (3 cases, 25.0%),3) multiple and small hypoechoic nodules in the enlarged testis (2 cases, 16.7%), 4) indistinct margin between the testis and epididymis (2 cases, 16.7%) and 5) a diffusely enlarged testis with hypoechogenicity (2 cases, 16.7%).Nine patients had ipsilateral epididymitis, and 3 patients had bilateral epididymitis. Pus discharge through the draining sinus tract was noted in 4 cases (33.3%), and hydrocele in 8 cases (66.7%). No parenchymal calcification was seen in the involved testis. Sonographic findings of testicular involvement in tuberculous epididymitis were various

  11. Pathogenesis and Active Prevention of Testicular Germ Cell Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slowikowska-Hilczer J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Most testicular neoplasms originate from fetal germ cells (germ cell tumors [GCT]. Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN or testicular carcinoma in situ (CIS are terms used for the state when these cells are present in the seminiferous epithelium. The highest risk of neoplastic lesions occurs in testes with disturbed organogenesis (in our study, 65 %. Genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors are suspected to lead to disturbed testicular organogenesis (dysgenesis, which creates the milieu favorable for GCT development. An external environment can cause a block or delay in fetal germ and somatic cell differentiation. CIS cells in dysgenetic testes of children reveal a predominantly aneuploid DNA pattern (62.2–97.6 % of germ cells and they do not express an RBM protein (present in normal germ cells, this indicates that CIS cells are neoplastic from fetal life on. Most of the neoplastic germ cells die, however, some survive and proliferate, leading to a clonal expansion and giving rise to gonadoblastoma, CIS, and GCT. Neoplastic germ cells located inside underdeveloped testicular tubules have an intratesticular environment favorable for their survival – this was confirmed by the finding that the highest incidence of neoplastic lesions occurred in patients with partial (90.9 % and mixed gonadal dysgenesis (76.9 %. It was hypothesized that the transformation of CIS into overt GCT may be promoted by gonadotropin action. We found that in gonadal dysgenesis, serum concentrations of FSH and LH reveal highly significant, positive correlations with the number of CIS cells, even in childhood. At present, surgical biopsy of the testis is the only reliable method to detect CIS and hence to actively prevent the development of overt GCT. Accordingly, early bilateral gonadectomy is recommended in all types of disturbance of testicular organogenesis because of the high risk of various neoplastic lesions in dysgenetic testes (86 % of adult patients with

  12. Transverse testicular ectopia - case report

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    Živanović Dragoljub

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Transverse testicular ectopia is an extremely rare anomaly, characterized by migration of one testis towards the opposite inguinal canal, usually associated with inguinal hernia. Spermatic cord of the ectopic testis originates from the appropriate side. In most reported cases, the accurate diagnosis has not been made before surgery. This is a case report of transverse testicular ectopia in eleven-year-old boy who had undergone an operation for the left inguinal hernia in age often months. At the time of herniorrhaphy, the right testis was absent. Ten years later, during re-operation of the left inguinal hernia, both testis were found in left inguinal canal and easily brought down sequentially through the left groin into the scrotum. The right testis was fixed in the left hemiscrotum, due to shorter funicular elements, and the left was trans-septally moved to the right hemiscrotum (a modified Ombrédanne operation. Ultrasonography and voiding cystoureterography showed no associated genitourinary anomalies and no Mülerian duct remnants. The rupture of gubernaculum and dysfunction of the genito-femoral nerve could explain the etiology of crossed testis ectopia. Although ectopic testis could be localized preoperatively by ultrasonography, CT, MRI, arteriography and venography, correct diagnosis was made intraoperatively in the majority of cases. Treatment modalities include laparoscopic and surgical procedures. Atrophie testis should be removed. If testes are fused, they have to be brought into one hemiscrotum. In cases where testes are completely separated with individual funicular elements and vas deferens, an ipsilateral or contralateral orchiopexy should be performed depending on the length of funicular elements.

  13. Male sexual development in utero: testicular descent on prenatal magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, S F; Nemec, U; Weber, M; Kasprian, G; Brugger, P C; Krestan, C R; Rotmensch, S; Rimoin, D L; Graham, J M; Prayer, D

    2011-12-01

    To visualize in utero male fetal testicular descent on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to correlate it with gestational age. This retrospective study included 202 MRI examination results of 199 male fetuses (17-39 gestational weeks) with normal anatomy or minor congenital abnormalities, following suspicion of anomalies on prenatal ultrasound examination. Using a 1.5-Tesla unit, multiplanar T2-weighted sequences were applied using a standard protocol to image and identify the scrotal content. The relative frequencies of unilateral and bilateral testicular descent were calculated and correlated with gestational age. Between 17 and 25 gestational weeks, neither unilateral nor bilateral testicular descent was visualized on MRI. Testicular descent was first observed at 25 + 4 weeks, in 7.7% of cases. 12.5% of 27-week fetuses showed unilateral descent and 50% showed bilateral descent. Bilateral descent was observed in 95.7% of cases, on average, from 30 to 39 weeks. Our results chart the time course of testicular descent on prenatal MRI, which may be helpful in the identification of normal male sexual development and in the diagnosis of congenital abnormalities, including the early detection of cryptorchidism. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Diagnosis of Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumors on Ultrasound: A Retrospective Study of 15 Cases Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhu; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Wei; Chen, Li-Da; Huang, Yang; Li, Wei; Liu, Jin-Ya; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Lu, Ming-De; Lin, Man-Xia

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging features of testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) on baseline ultrasound (BUS).The imaging features of 30 TART lesions pathologically or clinically confirmed in 15 patients who had undergone BUS were evaluated, and the sonographic characteristics of the lesions were analyzed.All 15 cases were bilateral and located near the testicular mediastinum. Approximately 56.7% (17/30) of the TART lesions exhibited homogeneous hypoechogenicity, 36.7% (11/30) of the lesions exhibited heterogeneous hypoechogenicity, and 6.6% (2/30) of the lesions exhibited heterogeneous isoechogenicity. In addition, 76.7% (23/30) of the lesions exhibited a rich blood supply, whereas 23.3% (7/30) of the lesions exhibited a scarce blood supply.The sonographic characteristics of the TARTs were bilateral growth, location adjacent to the testicular mediastinum, hypoechogenicity, and rich blood supply, which may play important roles in early clinical diagnosis.

  15. D-type cyclins in adult human testis and testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, J; Rajpert-de Meyts, E; Skakkebaek, N E

    1999-01-01

    on immunohistochemical and immunochemical analysis of human adult testis and 32 testicular tumours to examine the differential expression and abundance of cyclins D1, D2, and D3 in relation to cell type, proliferation, differentiation, and malignancy. In normal testis, the cell type-restricted expression patterns were...... D2 but not D1 or D3, while the invasive testicular tumours showed variable positivity for cyclins D2 and D3, but rarely D1. An unexpected correlation with differentiation rather than proliferation was found particularly for cyclin D3 in teratomas, a conceptually significant observation confirmed...... by massive up-regulation of cyclin D3 in the human teratocarcinoma cell line NTera2/D1 induced to differentiate along the neuronal lineage. These results suggest a possible involvement of cyclin D2 in the early stages of testicular oncogenesis and the striking examples of proliferation-independent expression...

  16. Prepubertal testicular tumors: Our 10 years experience

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    R B Nerli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Testicular tumors in the pediatric population are distinct from those of the adults. In contrast to the prevalence data reported in tumor registries, several studies have shown that a majority of the prepubertal testis tumors are benign. We retrospectively analyzed a series of prepubertal testicular tumors. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of all testicular tumors at our institution was done from Jan 1999 to Dec 2008. Data relating to presentation, evaluation, and management were collected. Results: A total of 22 children with prepubertal testicular tumors were identified. The mean age at presentation was 4.6 years. Mature teratoma, epidermoid cysts, immature teratoma, and yolk sac tumor accounted for 49.94%, 13.62%, 9.08%, and 18.16%, respectively. All surgeries were successful with respect to cancer control and testicular preservation. Conclusions: Benign tumors formed the majority (72.64% of the tumors that were encountered, with yolk sac tumors (18.16% being a minority. Testicular preserving surgery appears to be a feasible option for benign tumors and is safe and efficacious in long-term follow-up.

  17. Clusterin expression and human testicular seminoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Min; Li, Jie; Liu, Bianjiang; Song, Ninghong; Wang, Zengjun; Yin, Changjun

    2013-10-01

    Clusterin expression has a positive correlation with the occurrence and progression of various types of tumors from different genetic backgrounds. Clusterin overexpression may protect tumor cells from apoptosis and damage caused by autoimmunity or anti-tumor therapy. Using immunohistochemisty, one previous study showed that clusterin protein expression is downregulated in human testicular seminoma, which is highly sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We thus postulate that clusterin expression in human testicular seminoma differs from clusterin expression in other tumors. It may be the cause of the treatable characteristics of testicular seminoma. In the present preliminary study, we detected the abundance of clusterin mRNA in human testicular seminoma and normal testis. The results showed decreased clusterin expression in seminoma at the gene transcription level. Our primary data and summarized previous literature suggest that the downregulation of clusterin expression may be the cause of the high sensitivity of testicular seminoma to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. It may be that the scarcity of clusterin leaves tumor cells with insufficient protection from treatment. This is the first study to focus on the relationship between clusterin expression and human testicular cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Subfertility Induced by Testicular Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Adult Wistar Rats: A Possible New Mitochondrial Mechanism

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    Asmaa Ibrahim Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular torsion, a surgical emergency, could affect the endocrine and exocrine testicular functions. This study demonstrates histopathological and physiological effects of testicular ischemia/perfusion (I/R injury and the possible protective effects of Ginkgo biloba treatment. Fifty adult male Wistar rats, 180–200 gm, were randomly divided into sham-operated, Gingko biloba supplemented, ischemia only, I/R, and Gingko biloba treated I/R groups. Overnight fasted rats were anaesthetized by Pentobarbital; I/R was performed by left testis 720° rotation in I/R and treated I/R groups. Orchiectomy was performed for histopathological studies and detection of mitochondrial NAD+. Determination of free testosterone, FSH, TNF-α, and IL1-β in plasma was performed. Plasma-free testosterone was significantly decreased, while plasma FSH, TNF-α, IL-1β, and testicular mitochondrial NAD+ were significantly increased in I/R group compared to control group. These parameters were reversed in Gingko biloba treated I/R group compared to I/R group. I/R caused marked testicular damage and increased APAF-1 in the apoptotic cells which were reversed by Ginkgo biloba treatment. It could be concluded that I/R caused subfertility induced by apoptosis and oxidative stress manifested by the elevated testicular mitochondrial NAD+, which is considered a new possible mechanism. Also, testicular injury could be reduced by Gingko biloba administration alone.

  19. Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Subfertility Induced by Testicular Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Adult Wistar Rats: A Possible New Mitochondrial Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Asmaa Ibrahim; El-Zawahry, Khaled Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Testicular torsion, a surgical emergency, could affect the endocrine and exocrine testicular functions. This study demonstrates histopathological and physiological effects of testicular ischemia/perfusion (I/R) injury and the possible protective effects of Ginkgo biloba treatment. Fifty adult male Wistar rats, 180–200 gm, were randomly divided into sham-operated, Gingko biloba supplemented, ischemia only, I/R, and Gingko biloba treated I/R groups. Overnight fasted rats were anaesthetized by Pentobarbital; I/R was performed by left testis 720° rotation in I/R and treated I/R groups. Orchiectomy was performed for histopathological studies and detection of mitochondrial NAD+. Determination of free testosterone, FSH, TNF-α, and IL1-β in plasma was performed. Plasma-free testosterone was significantly decreased, while plasma FSH, TNF-α, IL-1β, and testicular mitochondrial NAD+ were significantly increased in I/R group compared to control group. These parameters were reversed in Gingko biloba treated I/R group compared to I/R group. I/R caused marked testicular damage and increased APAF-1 in the apoptotic cells which were reversed by Ginkgo biloba treatment. It could be concluded that I/R caused subfertility induced by apoptosis and oxidative stress manifested by the elevated testicular mitochondrial NAD+, which is considered a new possible mechanism. Also, testicular injury could be reduced by Gingko biloba administration alone. PMID:28101298

  20. A survey of etiologic hypotheses among testicular cancer researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, A; Trabert, B; Rusner, C; Poole, C; Almstrup, K; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; McGlynn, K A

    2015-01-01

    Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops and corresponding authors of PubMed-indexed articles identified by the search term 'testicular cancer' and published within 10 years (in total 2750 recipients) were invited to respond to an e-mail-based survey. Participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop in May 2014 were subsequently asked to rate the plausibility of the suggested etiologic hypotheses on a scale of 1 (very implausible) to 10 (very plausible). This report describes the methodology of the survey, the score distributions by individual hypotheses, hypothesis group, and the participants' major research fields, and discuss the hypotheses that scored as most plausible. We also present plans for improving the survey that may be repeated at a next international meeting of experts in testicular cancer. Overall 52 of 99 (53%) registered participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop submitted the plausibility rating form. Fourteen of 27 hypotheses were related to exposures during pregnancy. Hypotheses with the highest mean plausibility ratings were either related to pre-natal exposures or exposures that might have an effect during pregnancy and in post-natal life. The results of the survey may be helpful for triggering more specific etiologic hypotheses that include factors related to endocrine disruption, DNA damage, inflammation, and nutrition during pregnancy. The survey results may stimulate a multidisciplinary discussion about new etiologic hypotheses of testicular cancer.

  1. Chrysin alleviates testicular dysfunction in adjuvant arthritic rats via suppression of inflammation and apoptosis: Comparison with celecoxib

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    Darwish, Hebatallah A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562 (Egypt); Arab, Hany H., E-mail: hany.arab@pharma.cu.edu.eg [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562 (Egypt); Abdelsalam, Rania M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562 (Egypt)

    2014-09-01

    Long standing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with testicular dysfunction and subfertility. Few studies have addressed the pathogenesis of testicular injury in RA and its modulation by effective agents. Thus, the current study aimed at evaluating the effects of two testosterone boosting agents; chrysin, a natural flavone and celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, in testicular impairment in rats with adjuvant arthritis, an experimental model of RA. Chrysin (25 and 50 mg/kg) and celecoxib (5 mg/kg) were orally administered to Wistar rats once daily for 21 days starting 1 h before arthritis induction. Chrysin suppressed paw edema with comparable efficacy to celecoxib. More important, chrysin, dose-dependently and celecoxib attenuated the testicular injury via reversing lowered gonadosomatic index and histopathologic alterations with preservation of spermatogenesis. Both agents upregulated steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) mRNA expression and serum testosterone with concomitant restoration of LH and FSH. Furthermore, they suppressed inflammation via abrogation of myeloperoxidase, TNF-α and protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS besides elevation of IL-10. Alleviation of the testicular impairment was accompanied with suppression of oxidative stress via lowering testicular lipid peroxides and nitric oxide. With respect to apoptosis, both agents downregulated FasL mRNA expression and caspase-3 activity in favor of cell survival. For the first time, these findings highlight the protective effects of chrysin and celecoxib against testicular dysfunction in experimental RA which were mediated via boosting testosterone in addition to attenuation of testicular inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Generally, the 50 mg/kg dose of chrysin exerted comparable protective actions to celecoxib. - Highlights: • Chrysin and celecoxib alleviated testicular suppression in adjuvant arthritis. • They attenuated histopathological damage and preserved spermatogenesis

  2. 早期正确诊断睾丸残基瘤的意义及方法%The significance of early-correct diagnosis for testicular adrenal rest tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华东; 张志崇; 徐哲; 蒋宏; 潘静; 刘钧澄

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to improve the misdiagnosis of testicular adrenal rest tumors (TART) in children. Methods Six children, who were diagnosed congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in our hospital, had a poor response to hormonal therapy. We took history, carried out testicular examination, endocrine index (testosterone, androstenedione), ultrasound, magnetic resonance and pathology examinations to assess the possibility of TART.Results All 6 patients had a varying degrees endocrine index disorder; Of the 6 cases, 4 patients suffered from fatigue, acne or pain. Testicu lar nodules were palpable in all 6 patients; One child had CT scan previously without detecting the testicular nodule Another child underwent subtotal adrenalectomy due to failure of medical control of the testosterone level With the ultrasound and magnetic resonance, TART were detected in all 6 cases; All patients underwent the testis sparing enucleation; Ectopic adrenal tissue can be found in all surgical specimen. Conclusions Patients with CAH can develop TART, especially in those with poor hormonal control. The authors suggest a flow chart to diagnose TART.%目的 为防止睾丸残基瘤误诊或延迟诊断,探讨早期正确诊断睾丸残基瘤的方法.方法 对6例激素治疗无效的先天性肾上腺皮质增生症患儿,根据其临床症状和体格检查的情况,结合内分泌学方面如血睾酮、雄烯二酮的测定,影像学超声及磁共振检查,从而确定患儿睾丸内是否存在病灶,并行结节剔除病理检查明确是否为睾丸残基瘤.结果 6例患儿术前均有不同程度的内分泌指标紊乱,临床表现上4例患儿出现全身乏力、痤疮增多或局部酸痛不适,体格检查均可触及睾丸内结节形成,1例患儿曾行睾丸CT检查,当时未能认出已存在的睾丸内病灶;1例患儿曾行一侧肾上腺次全切除术,术后半年症状复发;6例患儿超声及磁共振均提示睾丸内病灶;全部患儿均

  3. Increased sensitivity to testicular toxicity of transplacental benzo[a]pyrene exposure in male glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit knockout (Gclm-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Brooke N; Mohar, Isaac; Lawson, Gregory W; Cortés, Mabel M; Hoang, Yvonne D; Ortiz, Laura; Patel, Reshma; Rau, Bogdan A; McConnachie, Lisa A; Kavanagh, Terrance J; Luderer, Ulrike

    2012-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), like benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are ubiquitous environmental pollutants formed by the incomplete combustion of organic materials. The tripeptide glutathione (GSH) is a major antioxidant and is important in detoxification of PAH metabolites. Mice null for the modifier subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclm), the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis, have decreased GSH concentrations. We investigated the effects of Gclm deletion alone on male fertility and spermatogenesis and its effect on the sensitivity of male embryos to the transplacental testicular toxicity of BaP. Gclm-/- males had dramatically decreased testicular and epididymal GCL enzymatic activity and total GSH concentrations compared with Gclm+/+ littermates. Ratios of reduced to oxidized GSH were significantly increased in Gclm-/- testes. GSH reductase enzymatic activity was increased in Gclm-/- epididymides. We observed no changes in fertility, testicular weights, testicular sperm head counts, or testicular histology and subtle changes in cauda epididymal sperm counts, motility, and morphology in Gclm-/- compared with Gclm+/+ males. Prenatal exposure to BaP from gestational day 7 to 16 was dose dependently associated with significantly decreased testicular and epididymal weights, testicular and epididymal sperm counts, and with vacuolated seminiferous tubules at 10 weeks of age. Gclm-/- males exposed prenatally to BaP had greater decreases in testicular weights, testicular sperm head counts, epididymal sperm counts, and epididymal sperm motility than Gclm+/+ littermates. These results show no effects of Gclm deletion alone on male fertility and testicular spermatogenesis and subtle epididymal effects but support increased sensitivity of Gclm-/- males to the transplacental testicular toxicity of BaP.

  4. Testicular cancer trends as 'whistle blowers' of testicular developmental problems in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebaek, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N

    2007-01-01

    Recently a worldwide rise in the incidence of testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) has been repeatedly reported. The changing disease pattern may signal that other testicular problems may also be increasing. We have reviewed recent research progress, in particular evidence gathered in the Nordic...... countries, which shows strong associations between testicular cancer, undescended testis, hypospadias, poor testicular development and function, and male infertility. These studies have led us to suggest the existence of a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), of which TGCC, undescended testis, hypospadias...... in TGCC rates of a population may be 'whistle blowers' of other reproductive health problems. As cancer registries are often of excellent quality - in contrast to registries for congenital abnormalities - health authorities should consider an increase in TGCC as a warning that other reproductive health...

  5. Therapeutic Potential of Date Palm Pollen for Testicular Dysfunction Induced by Thyroid Disorders in Male Rats.

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    Akram M El-Kashlan

    Full Text Available Hyper- or hypothyroidism can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study was designed to examine the protective effect of date palm pollen (DPP extract on thyroid disorder-induced testicular dysfunction. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I was normal control. Group II received oral DPP extract (150 mg kg(-1, group III (hyperthyroid group received intraperitoneal injection of L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300 μg kg(-1; i.p., group IV received L-T4 plus DPP extract, group V (hypothyroid group received propylthiouracil (PTU, 10 mg kg(-1; i.p. and group VI received PTU plus DPP extract. All treatments were given every day for 56 days. L-T4 or PTU lowered genital sex organs weight, sperm count and motility, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and testosterone (T, testicular function markers and activities of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD. Moreover, L-T4 or PTU increased estradiol (E2 serum level, testicular oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies backed these observations. Treatment with DPP extract prevented LT4- or PTU induced changes. In addition, supplementation of DPP extract to normal rats augmented sperm count and motility, serum levels of LH, T and E2 paralleled with increased activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD as well as testicular antioxidant status. These results provide evidence that DPP extract may have potential protective effects on testicular dysfunction induced by altered thyroid hormones.

  6. Testicular cancer risk associated with occupational radiation exposure: a systematic literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousif, Lamya; Blettner, Maria; Hammer, Gael P; Zeeb, Hajo, E-mail: yousif@imbei.uni-mainz.d [Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics (IMBEI), University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Strasse 69, 55131 Mainz (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease, affecting mainly young men aged 15-49. There have been some recent reports that it might be associated with radiation exposure. We have systematically reviewed this topic. English-language articles published between 1990 and 2008 studying the relationship between occupational radiation exposure and testicular cancer were included. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the EPHPP checklist. For ionising radiation we subdivided study populations into occupational groups. No pooled analysis was performed due to the heterogeneity of studies. Seven case-control and 30 cohort studies were included in the review. For radiation workers, one incidence study showed a significant increase and four showed no effect. Eight mortality studies did not indicate an effect while four showed a non-significant increase. Incidence among persons with military exposure was not increased in two studies and non-significantly increased in another two. Among aircrew studies, one showed no effect against five with slight increases. Medical exposure studies showed no increases. For EMF exposure, three studies showed no effect, two reported a significant and four a non-significant increase in incidence. Overall, there was very limited evidence for associations between occupational ionising radiation and testicular cancer, while there were some positive associations for EMF. Testicular cancer mortality is generally low and was not associated with radiation. New incidence studies are recommended to investigate the association between radiation exposure and testicular cancer where exposure is better specified and individually estimated. (review)

  7. Thymoquinone Defeats Diabetes-Induced Testicular Damage in Rats Targeting Antioxidant, Inflammatory and Aromatase Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa S. Atta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants have valuable effects on the process of spermatogenesis, particularly with diabetes mellitus (DM. Therefore, the present study investigated the impact and the intracellular mechanisms by which thymoquinone (TQ works against diabetes-induced testicular deteriorations in rats. Wistar male rats (n = 60 were randomly allocated into four groups; Control, Diabetic (streptozotocin (STZ-treated rats where diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ, 65 mg/kg, Diabetic + TQ (diabetic rats treated with TQ (50 mg/kg orally once daily, and TQ (non-diabetic rats treated with TQ for 12 weeks. Results revealed that TQ significantly improved the sperm parameters with a reduction in nitric oxide (NO and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in testicular tissue. Also, it increased testicular reduced glutathione (GSH levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity. Interestingly, TQ induced downregulation of testicular inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB and significantly upregulated the aromatase protein expression levels in testicles in comparison with the diabetic rats. In conclusion, TQ treatment exerted a protective effect against reproductive dysfunction induced by diabetes not only through its powerful antioxidant and hypoglycemic effects but also through its downregulation of testicular iNOS and NF-κB along with upregulation of aromatase expression levels in diabetic rats.

  8. Influence of hCG on inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in ram testicular arteries

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    Maria Matteo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Experimental evidence suggests a relationship between the vasodilatory effect of hCG and the NOS system in the testis. The influence of hCG administration on testicular vascular NOS gene expression has not been fully investigated. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the presence of the nitric oxide syntheses gene in ram testicular arteries and the influence of hCG administration on its expression. Materials and methods: Both testicular arteries of sixteen rams were extracted before and after i.v. administration of 5000 IU of hCG or placebo. The expression of the iNOS gene was investigated by real time PCR. Data were analyzed by means of Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests. A p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: PCR revealed the presence of iNOS mRNA in all basal samples but the expression of the iNOS gene was significantly reduced in all arteries obtained 24 h after the administration of either hCG or placebo. A significant reduction in the expression of iNOS gene was observed in the testicular arteries extracted after 24 h in both treated and placebo groups. On the other hand hCG stimulation did not significantly influence iNOS expression following its administration compared to a placebo. Conclusion: Ram testicular arteries express the iNOS gene but hCG stimulation did not significantly influence iNOS expression. A significant reduction in the expression of this gene was observed in the testicular arteries extracted after 24 h in both treated and placebo groups, suggesting that iNOS expression on the testicular artery could be influenced by the spermatic vessel ligation of the controlateral testis.

  9. Relationship between testicular volume and testicular function: comparison of the Prader orchidometric and ultrasonographic measurements in patients with infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideo Sakamoto; Yoshio Ogawa; Hideki Yoshida

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the relationship between testicular function and testicular volume measured by using Prader orchidometry and ultrasonography (US) to determine the critical testicular volume indicating normal testicular func-tion by each method. Methods: Total testicular volume (right plus left testicular volume) was measured in 794 testes in 397 men with infertility (mean age, 35.6 years) using a Prader orchidometer and also by ultrasonography.Ultrasonographic testicular volumes were calculated as length×width×height×0.71. To evaluate volume-function relationships, patients were divided into 10 groups representing 5-mL increments of total testicular volume by each method from below 10 mL to 50 mL or more. Results: Mean total testicular volume based on Prader orchidometry and US were 36.8 mL and 26.3 mL, respectively. Semen volume, sperm density, total sperm count, total motile sperm count, and serum FSH, LH, and testosterone all correlated significantly with total testicular volume measured by either method. Mean sperm density was in the oligozoospermic range in patients with total testicular volume below 35 mL by orchidometry or below 20 mL by ultrasonography. Mean total sperm count was subnormal in patients with total testicular volume below 30 mL by orchidometry or under 20 mL by ultrasonography. Conclusion: Testicular volume measured by either ultrasonography or Prader orchidometry correlated significantly with testicular function.However, critical total testicular volume indicating normal or nearly normal testicular function was 30 mL to 35 mL using Prader orchidometer and 20 mL using ultrasonography. Prader orchidometry morphometrically and function-ally overestimated the testicular volume in comparison to US.

  10. ROLE OF TESTICULAR BIOPSY IN THE EVALUATION OF MIALE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... role of testicular biopsy in the management of male infertility. Patients and Methods: All male patients who ... hormone levels. Results: In total, 472 ... planning treatment. Key Words: testis ... recent years, the diagnostic role of testicular fine.

  11. Testicular Sperm Sampling by Subcapsular Orchiectomy in Klinefelter Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, Jens; Gravholt, Claus H.; Kristensen, Stine Gry

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate subcapsular orchiectomy as a method to retrieve spermatozoa from minute testicular foci in men with Klinefelter syndrome (KS). METHODS: Fourteen men with KS were consecutively recruited to unilateral subcapsular orchiectomy. Testicular tissue was dissected mechanically...

  12. Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    For testicular cancer, there is no standard or routine screening test. Review the limited evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for testicular cancer using ultrasound, physical examination, and self-examination in this expert-reviewed summary.

  13. Testicular seminoma metastasis to duodenum. Misdiagnosed as primary duodenal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Hashim Al Ani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: High index of suspicion for testicular seminoma must be raised when treating young males with GIT complications like hemorrhage. Testicular seminoma is the most common solid tumor at this age. Sometimes it is the cause behind this complication.

  14. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: possible role of endocrine disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Katrine; Asklund, Camilla; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2006-01-01

    The testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) hypothesis proposes that the four conditions cryptorchidism, hypospadias, impaired spermatogenesis and testis cancer may all be manifestations of disturbed prenatal testicular development. The TDS hypothesis is based on epidemiological, clinical...

  15. Co-administration of caffeine and hydromethanolic fraction of Citrullus lanatus seeds improved testicular functions in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.I. Onyeso

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: The present study showed that co-administration of caffeine and hydromethanolic fraction of C. lanatus seed extract have hypoglycemic effect and may consequently ameliorate the impaired testicular general architecture and inhibits sperm death or testicular damage caused by alloxan-induced diabetes.

  16. Zika virus causes testicular atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraki, Ryuta; Hwang, Jesse; Jurado, Kellie Ann; Householder, Sarah; Yockey, Laura J.; Hastings, Andrew K.; Homer, Robert J.; Iwasaki, Akiko; Fikrig, Erol

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that has recently been found to cause fetal infection and neonatal abnormalities, including microcephaly and neurological dysfunction. ZIKV persists in the semen months after the acute viremic phase in humans. To further understand the consequences of ZIKV persistence in males, we infected Ifnar1−/− mice via subcutaneous injection of a pathogenic but nonlethal ZIKV strain. ZIKV replication persists within the testes even after clearance from the blood, with interstitial, testosterone-producing Leydig cells supporting virus replication. We found high levels of viral RNA and antigen within the epididymal lumen, where sperm is stored, and within surrounding epithelial cells. Unexpectedly, at 21 days post-infection, the testes of the ZIKV-infected mice were significantly smaller compared to those of mock-infected mice, indicating progressive testicular atrophy. ZIKV infection caused a reduction in serum testosterone, suggesting that male fertility can be affected. Our findings have important implications for nonvector-borne vertical transmission, as well as long-term potential reproductive deficiencies, in ZIKV-infected males. PMID:28261663

  17. Pituitary gonadotropin and testicular gonadotropin receptor expression in Atlantic cod (Gadusmorhua L.) during the first reproductive season: Effects of photoperiod modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Fernanda Ferreira Loureiro; Andersson, Eva; Mittelholzer, Christian; Karlsen, Orjan; Taranger, Geir Lasse; Schulz, Rüdiger W

    2011-08-01

    Pituitary mRNA levels of gonadotropin β-subunits and of their cognate receptors in the testis were studied during puberty in Atlantic cod under normal and experimental photoperiod conditions that suppressed, delayed or accelerated testis maturation. Results are discussed in context with changes in testicular histology and plasma androgen levels, considered as end points of gonadotropic regulation. Up-regulation of fshb was closely associated with the onset of puberty, decreased when spermatogenesis was completed and reached minimum levels after spawning. These results demonstrate, for the first time using an experimental approach, that activation of Fsh-dependent signaling is associated with spermatogonial proliferation and formation of spermatogenic cysts. Changes in fshr expression were less prominent and could be explained by changes in the cellular composition and RNA content of cod testis tissue. At more advanced stages of development (spermiogenesis, spermiation and spawning), lhb and, one month later, lhcgr transcript levels increased and reached peak values in spawning fish, in a positive feedback loop involving plasma androgens and Lh/Lhcgr-dependent signaling. This loop was broken by a loss of lhb expression at the end of the spawning season. Continuous light (LL) from summer solstice, ~8 months prior to spawning, suppressed the start of testis maturation and the changes in gonadotropin and receptor mRNA levels, while LL from winter solstice initially up-regulated lhb and lhcgr expression, before resulting in a precocious termination of the spawning season and low expression of all four genes. Our studies provide experimental evidence for a clear functional discrimination of cod gonadotropins.

  18. Heterogenous effect of androgen receptor CAG tract length on testicular germ cell tumor risk: shorter repeats associated with seminoma but not other histologic types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Dao, Carol A.; Siegmund, Kimberly D.; Vandenberg, David J.; Skinner, Eila C.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Thomas, Duncan C.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Cortessis, Victoria K.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing rates of testicular germ cells tumors (TGCTs) overtime suggest that environmental factors are involved in disease etiology, but familial risk and genome-wide association studies implicate genetic factors as well. We investigated whether variation in the functional CAGn polymorphism in the androgen receptor (AR) gene is associated with TGCT risk, using data from a population-based family study. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of CAG repeat length and TGCT risk using matched pairs logistic regression. Analyses of 273 TGCT case–mother pairs revealed no association between AR CAG repeat length and overall TGCT risk. However, risk of seminoma was significantly associated with shorter CAG repeat length [CAG 20–21 versus CAG ≤ 19: OR = 0.82 (95% CI: 0.43–1.58), CAG 22–23 versus CAG ≤ 19: OR = 0.39 (95% CI: 0.19–0.83) and CAG ≥ 24 versus CAG ≤ 19: OR = 0.42 (95% CI: 0.20–0.86)], with a highly significant trend over these four categories of decreasing CAG repeat length (Ptrend = 0.0030). This is the first report of a statistically significant association between AR CAG repeat length and seminoma risk, suggesting that increased AR transactivation may be involved in development of seminoma and/or progression of carcinoma in situ/intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified to seminoma. This result provides a rationale whereby androgenic environmental compounds could contribute to increases in TGCT incidence, and identifies for the first time a potential biological pathway influencing whether TGCTs achieve seminomatous versus nonseminomatous histology, a clinically and biologically important distinction. PMID:21642359

  19. Heterogenous effect of androgen receptor CAG tract length on testicular germ cell tumor risk: shorter repeats associated with seminoma but not other histologic types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Dao, Carol A; Siegmund, Kimberly D; Vandenberg, David J; Skinner, Eila C; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Thomas, Duncan C; Pike, Malcolm C; Cortessis, Victoria K

    2011-08-01

    Increasing rates of testicular germ cells tumors (TGCTs) overtime suggest that environmental factors are involved in disease etiology, but familial risk and genome-wide association studies implicate genetic factors as well. We investigated whether variation in the functional CAG(n) polymorphism in the androgen receptor (AR) gene is associated with TGCT risk, using data from a population-based family study. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of CAG repeat length and TGCT risk using matched pairs logistic regression. Analyses of 273 TGCT case-mother pairs revealed no association between AR CAG repeat length and overall TGCT risk. However, risk of seminoma was significantly associated with shorter CAG repeat length [CAG 20-21 versus CAG ≤ 19: OR = 0.82 (95% CI: 0.43-1.58), CAG 22-23 versus CAG ≤ 19: OR = 0.39 (95% CI: 0.19-0.83) and CAG ≥ 24 versus CAG ≤ 19: OR = 0.42 (95% CI: 0.20-0.86)], with a highly significant trend over these four categories of decreasing CAG repeat length (P(trend) = 0.0030). This is the first report of a statistically significant association between AR CAG repeat length and seminoma risk, suggesting that increased AR transactivation may be involved in development of seminoma and/or progression of carcinoma in situ/intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified to seminoma. This result provides a rationale whereby androgenic environmental compounds could contribute to increases in TGCT incidence, and identifies for the first time a potential biological pathway influencing whether TGCTs achieve seminomatous versus nonseminomatous histology, a clinically and biologically important distinction.

  20. Quercetin prevents 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced testicular damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, O; Aydin, M; Ozdemir, I; Vardi, N

    2012-06-01

    The protective effect of quercetin on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced testicular damage in rats was investigated. Twenty-two rats were equally divided into four groups; first group was kept as control and given corn oil as carrier. In second group, TCDD was orally administered at the dose of 2 μ (kg week)(-1) for 60 days. In third group, quercetin was orally administered at the dose of 20 mg (kg day)(-1) by gavages, and in fourth group TCDD and quercetin were given together at the same doses. Although TCDD increased the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) significantly, it caused a significant decline in the levels of glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), GSH-Px and CuZn-Superoxide Dismutase (CuZn-SOD) in rats. In contrast, quercetin significantly increased the GSH, CAT, GSH-Px and CuZn-SOD levels but decreased the formation of TBARS. In addition, sperm motility, sperm concentration and serum testosterone levels were significantly decreased but abnormal sperm rate and testicular damage were increased with TCDD treatment. However, these effects of TCDD on sperm parameters, histological changes and hormone levels were eliminated by quercetin treatment. Our results show that administration of TCDD induces testicular damage (oxidative stress, testes tissue damage, serum hormone level and sperm parameters), and quercetin prevents TCDD-induced testicular damage in rats. Thus, quercetin may be useful for the prevention and treatment of TCDD-induced testicular damage.

  1. White tea consumption restores sperm quality in prediabetic rats preventing testicular oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Pedro F; Tomás, Gonçalo D; Dias, Tânia R; Martins, Ana D; Rato, Luís; Alves, Marco G; Silva, Branca M

    2015-10-01

    Prediabetes represents a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It encompasses some, but not all, T2DM diagnostic criteria. Prediabetes has been recently associated with altered testicular function and increased testicular oxidative stress (OS). Tea is widely consumed and its anti-hyperglycaemic/antioxidant properties are known. This study aimed to evaluate whether white tea (WTEA) consumption by prediabetic rats could prevent testicular OS, preserving sperm quality. For that purpose, WTEA (presenting a high catechin content) was given to 30-day-old streptozotocin-induced prediabetic rats for 2 months. Testicular antioxidant potential and OS were evaluated, as well as sperm parameters, by standard techniques. WTEA consumption improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in prediabetic rats. Testicular antioxidant potential was increased by WTEA consumption, restoring protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation, although glutathione content and redox state were not altered. WTEA consumption improved sperm concentration and sperm quality (motility, viability and abnormality) was restored. Overall, WTEA consumption improved reproductive health of male prediabetic rats. Based on the study results, WTEA consumption appears to be a natural, economical and effective strategy to counteract the deleterious effects of prediabetes on male reproductive health, but further studies will be needed before a definitive recommendation is made.

  2. Presumed testicular rupture during a college baseball game: a case report and review of the literature for on-field recognition and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freehill, Michael T; Gorbachinsky, Ilya; Lavender, John D; Davis, Ronald L; Mannava, Sandeep

    2015-03-01

    Scrotal rupture during athletic competition is considered a rare occurrence; however, blunt trauma to the scrotum is relatively common. Protective athletic cups are strongly recommended for both children and adults engaging in contact sports as they likely limit the amount of serious injury to the scrotal contents. Nonetheless, should the on-field assessment by the athletic trainer, coach, or team physician indicate that the athlete has increased pain, ecchymosis, swelling, and tenderness to palpation after blunt trauma, testicular rupture should be suspected and prompt ultrasound and urologic assessment should be undertaken, as early operative intervention is necessary for testicular preservation. This report reviews testicular trauma during athletic competition.

  3. Do environmental factors play a role in the aetiology of carcinoma in situ testis and the testicular dysgenesis syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, S B; Hoei-Hansen, C E; Fisher, J S

    2004-01-01

    in foetal life from primordial germ cells or early gonocytes. Histological dysgenetic features are frequently seen in testes affected with the TDS components testis cancer or cryptorchidism. A TDS-like phenotype can be induced in male rats by in utero exposure to high concentrations of dibutyl phthalate......The hypothesis of the Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome (TDS), first suggested in 2001, propose that several disorders of the male reproductive system such as infertility, hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer are all symptoms of TDS, which is most likely initiated during early foetal...

  4. In Utero Exposure to Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Induces Testicular Effects in Neonatal Rats That Are Antagonized by Genistein Cotreatment1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven; Boisvert, Annie; Francois, Sade; Zhang, Liandong; Culty, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Fetal exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs) is believed to predispose males to reproductive abnormalities. Although males are exposed to combinations of chemicals, few studies have evaluated the effects of ED mixtures at environmentally relevant doses. Our previous work showed that fetal exposure to a mixture of the phytoestrogen genistein (GEN) and the plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) induced unique alterations in adult testis. In this follow-up study, we examined Postnatal Day 3 (PND3) and PND6 male offspring exposed from Gestational Day 14 to parturition to corn oil, 10mg/kg GEN, DEHP, or their combination, to gain insight into the early molecular events driving long-term alterations. DEHP stimulated the mRNA and protein expression of the steroidogenic enzyme HSD3B, uniquely at PND3. DEHP also increased the mRNA expression of Nestin, a Leydig progenitor/Sertoli cell marker, and markers of Sertoli cell (Wt1), gonocyte (Plzf, Foxo1), and proliferation (Pcna) at PND3, while these genes were unchanged by the mixture. Redox (Nqo1, Sod2, Sod3, Trx, Gst, Cat) and xenobiotic transporter (Abcb1b, Abcg2) gene expression was also increased by DEHP at PND3, while attenuated when combined with GEN, suggesting the involvement of cellular stress in short-term DEHP effects and a protective effect of GEN. The direct effects of GEN and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, the principal bioactive metabolite of DEHP, on testis were investigated in PND3 organ cultures, showing a stimulatory effect of 10 μM mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on basal testosterone production that was normalized by GEN. These effects contrasted with previous reports of androgen suppression and decreased gene expression in perinatal rat testis by high DEHP doses, implying that neonatal effects are not predictive of adult effects. We propose that GEN, through an antioxidant action, normalizes reactive oxygen species-induced neonatal effects of DEHP. The notion that these EDs do not follow classical

  5. A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Testicular Microlithiasis and Incidence of Testicular Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Liu, LuHao; Luo, JinTai; Liu, TaiSheng; Wei, AnYang

    2015-04-29

    There are many recent observational studies on testicular microlithiasis (TM) and risk of testicular cancer. Whether TM increases the risk of testicular cancer is still inconclusive. The objective of this updated meta-analysis was to synthesize evidence from clinical observational studies that evaluated the association between TM and testicular cancer. We identified eligible studies by searching the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library before March 2014. Adjusted relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using random-or fixed-model. A total of 14 studies involving 35,578 participants were included in the meta-analysis. On the basis of the Newcastle Ottawa Scale systematic review, eleven studies were identified as relatively high-quality. TM was strong association with an increased incidence of testicular cancer (RR = 12.70, 95% CI: 8.18-19.71, P testicular cancer. More researches are warranted to clarify an understanding of the association between TM and risk of testicular cancer.

  6. 睾丸组织高表达基因PRKACG对细胞增殖的影响%The effect of a testicular highly expression gene PRKACG on cell proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋亚娟; 孟雅楠; 刘青; 贾孟春; 张秀军

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the function of a testicular highly expression gene PRKACG (protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, gamma), and find out novel diagnosis and therapeutic targets for the treatment of male infertility. Methods: The activation effect of PRKACG in the NF-kB signaling pathways that are related to spermatogenesis was analyzed by using dual luciferase report system, and the effect of PRKACG on cell proliferation was further studied by morphological observation, cell counting and CCK8 assay. Results: The 293T cells present the changes containing volume fill-out, full, antenna elongation, connection large expanse mostly when PRKACG transfect in the cells. Cell counting and CCK8 assays showed that PRKACG expression enhances overall cell growth rate compared with Sport 6. Conclusions; PRKACG could activate NF-kB signaling pathway, and promote cell proliferation, indicating that PRKACG might be a novel functional gene in testicular development and spermatogenesis.%目的 研究睾丸组织高表达cAMP依赖蛋白激酶催化亚基γ(protein kinase,cAMP-dependent,catalytic,gamma,PRKACG)基因的功能,观察其对NF-κB信号通路的激活作用和促细胞增殖作用. 方法 采用双荧光素酶报告基因系统,利用体外培养的293T细胞,分析PRKACG对NF-κB信号通路的激活作用,并观察293T细胞的形态学,通过细胞计数和CCK8观察其对细胞生长和细胞增殖的影响. 结果 转染PRKACG的293T细胞相对于对照组转染PCMV-Sport 6的细胞体积变大、饱满、触角伸长;CCK8和细胞计数的结果显示,过表达PRKACG的293T的生长速度明显高于对照组Sport 6.结论 PRKACG能够激活293T细胞的NF-κB信号通路,并可促进细胞增殖,提示PRKACG可能是睾丸发育和精子发生过程中的一个功能基因.

  7. Tissue Engineered Testicular Prostheses With Prolonged Testosterone Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    and Hospital Infantil de Mexico “Federico Gomez”, Mexico City, Mexico* ABSTRACT Young soldiers with testicular tissue injury may require...Rustin, 2001: Testicular implants and patient satisfaction: a questionnaire-based study of men after orchidectomy for testicular cancer .[see comment

  8. Familial testicular cancer in a single-centre population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, DJA; Sleijfer, DT; Sijmons, RH; van der Graaf, WTA; Sluiter, WJ; Hoekstra, HJ; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    1999-01-01

    Familial occurrence of testicular cancer suggests a genetic predisposition to the disease. A genetic susceptibility may also be reflected by the occurrence of bilateral testicular neoplasms and the high rates of urogenital developmental anomalies in families prone to testicular cancer. In this study

  9. Testicular plasmacytoma: a case report and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yi-min; LI Fang-yin; LUO Jin-dan; LI Jun; XIE Li-ping; YANG Guo-sheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Testicular plasmacytoma is rarely reported. The diagnosis is mainly based on pathological examination. Orchiectomy, combined with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, is currently the main treatment strategy for testicular plasmacytoma. The prognosis of extramedullary plasmacytoma involving the testis is much better than multiple myeloma involving the testis.Herein we present a case of a 62-year-old man who was diagnosed with testicular plasmacytoma.

  10. Familial testicular cancer in a single-centre population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, DJA; Sleijfer, DT; Sijmons, RH; van der Graaf, WTA; Sluiter, WJ; Hoekstra, HJ; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    1999-01-01

    Familial occurrence of testicular cancer suggests a genetic predisposition to the disease. A genetic susceptibility may also be reflected by the occurrence of bilateral testicular neoplasms and the high rates of urogenital developmental anomalies in families prone to testicular cancer. In this study

  11. [Multicystic mesothelioma of the testicular tunica vaginalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Leal, José Luis; Tallada Buñuel, Miguel; Espejo Maldonado, Eduardo; Cózar Olmo, José Manuel; Vicente Prados, Francisco Javier; Martínez Morcillo, Antonio; Buitragosivianes, Soledad; Rodríguez Herrera, Francisco; Ortiz Gorráiz, Manuel; Zilbermman Morales, Sonia; Chamorro Santos, Clara

    2003-12-01

    To report an exceptional case of multicystic mesothelioma of the testicular tunica vaginalis. A 72-year-old male was referred for study of a scrotal mass. Physical examination, blood tests, and ultrasound were performed prior to surgical excision and pathologic study of the lesion. The ultrasound study showed a multilobar cystic lesion near the spermatic cord. Pathology reported multiple 3-4 mm cystic formations, with rudimentary papillae covered by a hyperchromatic epithelium and vimentin (+), CD 34 (+) immunophenotype. Multicystic mesothelioma is a rare form of mesothelioma, easy to recognize but infrequent. This tumor generally affects the peritoneal surface of the pelvis and abdomen; although other less frequent locations have been described testicular location is exceptional. We report the case of a patient presenting with a multicystic mesothelioma of the testicular tunica vaginalis and review the diagnosis, pathology and treatment options for this type of tumor.

  12. Segmental testicular infarction following cysto-prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam I Alleemudder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Segmental (partial testicular infarction is a very rare condition of unknown cause in more than 70% of cases. Several predisposing conditions have been described, but to our knowledge, this is the first documented case and often overlooked complication occurring as a result of cysto-prostatectomy. It usually presents in an acute manner resembling testicular torsion or epididymo-orchitis and is confirmed using ultrasonography. In some cases, it may present insidiously with no pain and may be confused with a testicular tumor due to the hypo-echoic features on imaging. In unclear situations, Doppler sonography shows vascularity and a magnetic resonance scan can be useful to distinguish between the two conditions.

  13. Thymoquinone ameliorates testicular tissue inflammation induced by chronic administration of oral sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyoussef, A; Al-Gayyar, M M H

    2016-06-01

    Although sodium nitrite has been widely used as food preservative, building bases of scientific evidence about nitrite continues to oppose the general safety in human health. Moreover, thymoquinone (TQ) has therapeutic potential as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anticancer. Therefore, we investigated the effects of both sodium nitrite and TQ on testicular tissues of rats. Forty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used. They received either 80 mg kg(-1) sodium nitrite or 50 mg kg(-1) TQ daily for twelve weeks. Serum testosterone was measured. Testis were weighed and the testicular tissue homogenates were used for measurements of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL10, caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9. Sodium nitrite resulted in significant reduction in serum testosterone concentration and elevation in testis weight and Gonado-Somatic Index. We found significant reduction in testicular tissues levels of IL-4 and IL-10 associated with elevated levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9. In conclusion, chronic oral sodium nitrite induced changes in the weight of rat testis accompanied by elevation in the testicular tissue level of oxidative stress markers and inflammatory cytokines. TQ attenuated sodium nitrite-induced testicular tissue damage through blocking oxidative stress, restoration of normal inflammatory cytokines balance and blocking of apoptosis.

  14. Protection from ischemia by preconditioning, postconditioning, and combined treatment in rabbit testicular ischemia reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Lv, Fangqing; Tang, Jie

    2016-10-15

    This study aimed to investigate the protection of ischemic preconditioning (IPreC), ischemic postconditioning (IPostC) and combined treatment on ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) of testis. A rabbit testicular ischemia reperfusion (IR) model was established with determining of rabbit serum testosterone, nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), myeloperoxidase (MPO), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and tissues pathology. After IR, the NO, MDA, PC, SOD, MPO, and GSH-Px expression significantly increased in torsive testis, and significantly decreased after IPreC, IPostC, and combined treatment in torsive testis when compared to contralateral testis. In torsive testis, testicular tissues was severely damaged with spermatogenic cells disappearing, and were filled with light eosin edema liquid. Cell apoptosis index significantly increased, and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax significantly decreased. After IPreC, IPostC, and combined treatment, testicular tissues were restored to normal, cell apoptosis index significantly decreased, and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax significantly increased. It indicates that IPreC, IPostC, and combined treatment has an obvious protective effect on testicular IRI, by decreasing the oxidative stress index and cell apoptosis, provides a significant reference for the treatment of testicular torsion induced infertility, and exhibits a great value in clinical applications.

  15. Smaller genitals at school age in boys whose mothers were exposed to non-persistent pesticides in early pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veje, Christine Wohlfahrt; Andersen, H R; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals are believed to play a role in the development of the testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Many pesticides are known to have endocrine disrupting abilities. In a previous study, sons of women who were occupationally exposed to non-persistent pesticides in early pregnancy...... showed signs of impaired reproductive function (reduced genital size and altered serum hormone concentrations) at three months of age. To assess the possible long-term effects of prenatal pesticide exposure, the boys were re-examined at 6-11 years. The 94 boys (59 exposed, 35 unexposed) underwent genital...... penile length (95% CI: -16.8; -1.1) compared with the unexposed. The testicular volume and penile length at school age could be tracked to measures from the same boys made at 3 months, e.g. those that had small testes at school age also had small testes at 3 months. Pituitary and testicular hormone serum...

  16. Early effect of SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, He-Ming; Hu, Hui-Yong; Qu, Jiang-Tao

    2012-06-01

    The standard Early voltage of the SGP model is generalized for SiGe NPN heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). A new compact formulation of the Early voltage compatible with the SGP model is presented. The impact of the Ge profile on Early effect is shown and validated by experiments. The model can be applied to the SGP model for circuit simulation.

  17. Probability to retrieve testicular spermatozoa in azoospermic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.-J.Glander; L.-C.Horn; W.Dorschner; U.Paasch; J.Kratzsch

    2000-01-01

    Aim: The degree of probability to retrieve spermatozoa from testicular tissue for intracytoplasmic sperm injection into oocytes is of interest for counselling of infertility patients. We investigated the relation of sperm retrieval to clinical data and histological pattern in testicular biopsies from azoospermic patients. Methods: In 264 testicular biopsies from 142 azoospermic patients, the testicular tissue was shredded to separate the spermatozoa, histological semi - thin sections of which were then evaluated using Johnsen score. Results: The retrieval of spermatozoa correlated significantly ( P 18 U/L, testicular volume < 5 mL, mean Johnsen score<5, and maximum Johnsen score < 7.

  18. Variant origin of right testicular artery – a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salve VM

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Testicular arterial anatomy is important for testicular and renal surgeries. It may vary at the origin and arise from renal artery, suprarenal artery or lumbar artery. During routine dissection of 52-year-old male cadaver; the right testicular artery arising from right aberrant renal artery was found. Anatomical variation of testicular arteries is reported to be 4.7%. Presence of aberrant renal artery is seen in 13–16% of cases only. The origin of right testicular artery from right aberrant renal artery is very rare. Thus knowledge of this type of variation is very important in avoiding complications during operative surgeries.

  19. Association of Torsion With Testicular Cancer: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uguz, Sami; Yilmaz, Sercan; Guragac, Ali; Topuz, Bahadır; Aydur, Emin

    2016-02-01

    Testicular torsion is a medical emergency that usually requires surgical exploration. However, testicular malignancy has been anecdotally reported with the association of torsion in surgical specimens, and the published data remain scant on the association of torsion with testicular tumors. By retrospective medical record review, we identified 32 patients who had been diagnosed with testicular torsion, 20 of whom had undergone orchiectomy. Of these 20 patients, 2 were diagnosed with a malignancy. Our study, the largest case series to date, has shown an association between testicular torsion and testicular cancer of 6.4%. Testicular torsion is a medical emergency that usually requires surgical exploration. However, testicular malignancy has been anecdotally reported in association with torsion in surgical specimens. However, the published data remain scant on the association between torsion and the presence of testicular tumors. The present retrospective study explored the association between torsion and testicular cancer in patients with testicular torsion undergoing orchiectomy during scrotal exploration. A medical record review was performed of patients who had had a diagnosis of testicular torsion from January 2003 to February 2015. The clinicopathologic characteristics of the patients were recorded. A total of 32 patients were identified. Their mean age was 21.1 years (range, 7-39 years). All the patients had unilateral testicular torsion, which affected the left side in 17 and the right side in 15. Manual detorsion was successful in 6 patients, and 26 patients underwent emergency surgery with testicular detorsion (6 fixation surgery and 20 orchiectomy). The type of incision was scrotal in 6, inguinal in 10, and unspecified in 4. Pathologic examination of the orchiectomy specimens showed malignancy in 2 cases (seminoma and malign mixed germ cell tumor). To the best of our knowledge, the present single-center case series is the largest case series to date of

  20. MicroRNAs in Testicular Cancer Diagnosis and Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Hui; Krassnig, Lisa; Bullock, Marc D; Pichler, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Testicular cancer processes a unique and clear miRNA expression signature. This differentiates testicular cancer from most other cancer types, which are usually more ambiguous when assigning miRNA patterns. As such, testicular cancer may represent a unique cancer type in which miRNAs find their use as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis, with a potential to surpass the current available markers usually with low sensitivity. In this review, we present literature findings on miRNAs associated with testicular cancer, and discuss their potential diagnostic and prognostic values, as well as their potential as indicators of drug response in patients with testicular cancer.

  1. Second primary cancer in irradiated stage I testicular seminoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, M.E. (Northern Israel Oncology Center, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa (Israel)); Steiner, M. (Northern Israel Oncology Center, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa (Israel)); Lachter, J. (Dept. of Internal Medicine, The Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine,Technicon-Israel Inst. of Technology, Haifa (Israel)); Kessel, I. (Rand Clinic, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Radiotherapy); Moskovitz, B. (Dept. of Urology, Bnai-Zion Medical Center, Haifa (Israel)); Kuten, A. (Northern Israel Oncology Center, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa (Israel))

    1993-11-01

    The incidence of second primary cancer (SPC) was determined in 64 irradiated stage I testicular seminoma patients, treated and followed at the Northern Israel Oncology Center from 1968 to 1988. Seven (11%) patients developed a total of eight second cancers. The cumulative risk for developing second primary cancer at ten, 15 and 20 years following the diagnosis of seminoma was 2.5%, 5.1% and 8.9%, respectively. Two patients developed SPC within the radiation field (urinary bladder, sigmoid colon) and four patients outside the radiation field (bronchogenic cancer, thymoma, malignant melanoma, thyroid cancer). In two patients, who developed lung cancer and testicular seminoma, respectively, scatter dose from the main radiation field could not be excluded as one of the factors contributing to the SPC. Three patients died as a direct result of their SPC. It is concluded that there is a low, but significant risk of solid SPC among patients apparently cured of early stage seminoma. It will be important in future surveillance studies of stage I seminoma to assess the risk of SPC in the non-irradiated patients. (orig.)

  2. Testicular microlithiasis in paediatric age; Microlitiasis testiculares en la edad pediatrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanguesa, C.; Muro, D.; Dominguez, C. [Hospital Infantil La Fe. Valencia (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    To evaluate the eco graphic patters of testicular microlithiasis (TM) in paediatric age, its associations, clinical implications and how to manage them. We study four children between 11 and 13 years old with testicular microlithiasis. The echographic study is realized with a 7.5 Mhz linear probe. Two of the cases present bilateral microlithiasis. In five of the testicles, the presentation fits the pattern of classic testicular microlithiasis (CTM) ({>=} 5 echogenic foci per transducer field) and one testicle presents limited testicular microlithiasis (< 5 echogenic foci per transducer field). Distribution in the case of CTM is diffuse in two testes, peripheral in another two testicles and central in one of them. In one of the bilateral presentations, a biopsy of both testes is performed, observing intra tubular calcification in both. None of them has developed a tumor during the follow-up period, which ranges from nine months to four years. (Author) 21 refs.

  3. Human testicular insulin-like factor 3: in relation to development, reproductive hormones and andrological disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, K; Andersson, A-M

    2011-01-01

    the endocrine regulation of this process. INSL3 is, along with testosterone, a major secretory product of testicular Leydig cells. In addition to its crucial function in testicular descent, INSL3 is suggested to play a paracrine role in germ cell survival and an endocrine role in bone metabolism. INSL3......, steroidogenic effects of LH, which for example is an important factor in the regulation of testosterone. Clinically, serum INSL3 levels can turn out to be a usable tool to monitor basal Leydig cell function in patients with various disorders affecting Leydig cell function. According to animal studies, foetal...... INSL3 production is, directly or indirectly, sensitive to oestrogenic or anti-androgenic compounds. This provides important insight into the mechanism by which maternal exposure to endocrine disrupters can result in cryptorchidism in the next generation. Conclusively, INSL3 is an interesting testicular...

  4. Nortriptyline protects testes against germ cell apoptosis and oxidative stress induced by testicular ischaemia/reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, I; Ghazi-Khansari, M; Saeedi Saravi, S S; Nobakht, M; Majdani, R; Rezayat, S M; Mousavi, S E; Yari, A; Dehpour, A R

    2017-03-01

    We designed this experiment to evaluate the effects of nortriptyline on testicular injury after torsion/detorsion (T/D). Ninety-six adult Wistar rats were divided into six groups 16 each in control group (Group 1), sham operated (Group 2), T/D + saline (Group 3), and in groups 4-6; were administered 2, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) , i.p. of nortriptyline 30 and 90 min after torsion respectively. Testicular torsion was created by twisting the right testis 720° in clockwise direction for 1 h. In six rats of each group, tissue MDA level and caspase-3 activity increased and the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased in compared with control group 4 h after detorsion (P testicular T/D cell damages.

  5. Genetic determination of coat color affects testicular steroidogenesis in the Mustela vison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, A G; Sundqvist, C; Bartke, A

    1996-06-01

    Coat color genes in mammals are known to be developmental genes with wide pleiotropic effects. The present study was undertaken to study testicular steroidogenesis in American Mink (Mustela vison) of various coat color phenotypes. No differences in testicular steroid levels were observed between fertile and infertile mink with the standard phenotype and genotype (BB jj MM PP). Mink with the opaline phenotype and genotype (bb mm pp), were found to have in their testes, 20-40% higher levels of progesterone, five times higher levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and eight times higher levels of testosterone, than the corresponding values in other mink. No other differences were observed among the different types of mink. Since the genotype of the opaline mink differs from the other mink studied, only in their combination at the pastel (b) and moyle (m) loci, their bb mm genotype could be assumed to be responsible for the increase in testicular steroids.

  6. Fertilization after intracytoplasmic sperm injection with cryopreserved testicular spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, J; Remohí, J; Mínguez, Y; Rubio, C; Pellicer, A; Gil-Salom, M

    1996-04-01

    To assess the possibility of cryopreserving testicular tissue extracted sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A report of two cases. Our study was approved by the Ethical Committee at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. In vitro fertilization program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. Two azoospermic patients with severe spermatogenic failure but with focal spermatogenesis on testicular biopsies. In both cases, a first ICSI attempt with fresh testicular biopsy extracted sperm was unsuccessful. Cryopreservation of testicular spermatozoa in 100-micro L "pills." Intracytoplasmic sperm injection with thawed testicular spermatozoa. Fertilization rate, cleavage rate, embryo quality, clinical pregnancy. Fertilization rates were 36 percent and 100 percent after ICSI with fresh testicular spermatozoa, and 63 percent and 57 percent after ICSI with cryopreserved testicular sperm. In both cases, cleavage rates and embryo quality were similar when using fresh and cryopreserved testicular spermatozoa. No clinical pregnancies were achieved. High fertilization rates can be obtained after ICSI with frozen-thawed testicular tissue extracted spermatozoa. Cryopreservation of testicular sperm may avoid repetition of testicular biopsies in azoospermic patients in whom the only source of spermatozoa is the testicle.

  7. Serial Ultrasonography Assessments of a Testicular Infarction Mimicking Testicular Tumor in a Behcet Disease Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeid Al-Ani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Behcet disease (BD, a vasculitic disease, may present with a broad range of systemic manifestations. Urologic complications are rarely described in the literature, but when they occur, they present as epididymo-orchitis. We describe a rare case of testicular infarction in a patient with BD followed up with serial ultrasound imaging. We highlight the diagnostic challenges when presented with testicular pain in a patient with BD and the potential consequences in the management.

  8. Attenuation of cyclosporine A-induced testicular and spermatozoal damages associated with oxidative stress by ellagic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, Gaffari; Sönmez, Mustafa; Ceribaşi, Ali Osman; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Ateşşahin, Ahmet

    2010-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the possible protective effect of ellagic acid (EA) on cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced testicular and spermatozoal damages associated with oxidative stress in male rats. Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups of 10 animals each. Control group was used as placebo. Cyclosporine group received CsA at the dose of 15 mg/kg/day. Ellagic acid group was treated with EA (10 mg/kg/day). Cyclosporine plus ellagic acid group received CsA+EA. Reproductive organs were weighed and epididymal sperm characteristics and histopathological structure of testes were examined along with malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) activities in testicular tissue. CsA significantly decreased the weights of testes and ventral prostate, epididymal sperm concentration, motility, testicular tissue glutathione (GSH), glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT), diameters of seminiferous tubules and germinal cell layer thickness, and it significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level and abnormal sperm rates along with degeneration, necrosis, immature germ cells, congestion and atrophy in testicular tissue. However, the CsA plus EA treatment attenuated all the CsA-induced negative changes observed in the testicular tissue, sperm and oxidant/antioxidant parameters. In conclusion, CsA-induced oxidative stress leads to the structural and functional damages in the testicular tissue and sperm quality of rats, and also EA has a protective effect on these damages.

  9. Carvedilol alleviates testicular and spermatological damage induced by cisplatin in rats via modulation of oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ahmed H; Abdelkader, Noha F; Abd El-Raouf, Ola M; Fawzy, Hala M; El-Denshary, Ezz-El-Din S

    2016-12-01

    The clinical application of the anticancer drug cisplatin is limited by its deleterious side effects, including male reproductive toxicity. In this context, the potential protective effect of carvedilol on testicular and spermatological damage induced by cisplatin in male Sprague-Dawley rats was investigated. Carvedilol was orally administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 2 weeks, and cisplatin was given as a single intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg on the 12th day to induce toxicity. Cisplatin significantly reduced reproductive organ weight, sperm count and sperm motility, and increased sperm abnormalities and histopathological damage of testicular tissue. In addition, it resulted in a significant decline in serum testosterone as well as levels of testicular enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxides, and reduced glutathione). Moreover, cisplatin remarkably augmented malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and nuclear factor-kappa B contents in testicular tissue. Conversely, carvedilol administration markedly mitigated cisplatin-induced testicular and spermatological injury as demonstrated by suppression of oxidative/nitrosative and inflammatory burden, amendment of antioxidant defenses, enhancement of steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, and mitigation of testicular histopathological damage. The current study reveals a promising protective action of carvedilol against cisplatin-induced reproductive toxicity by virtue of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

  10. Adsorptive voltametry to determine platinum levels in plasma from testicular cancer patients treated with cisplatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelevert, T; Messerschmidt, J; Meinardi, M.T; Alt, F.; Gietema, Harold; Franke, J.P.; Uges, Donald

    2001-01-01

    Patients cured of metastatic testicular cancer with cisplatin chemotherapy may suffer late adverse effects even after 20 years. The cause of these late adverse effects has not been elucidated yet. One cause might be prolonged tissue retention of platinum in these patients. Therefore, an extremely se

  11. Adsorptive voltametry to determine platinum levels in plasma from testicular cancer patients treated with cisplatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelevert, T; Messerschmidt, J; Meinardi, M.T; Alt, F.; Gietema, Harold; Franke, J.P.; Uges, Donald

    2001-01-01

    Patients cured of metastatic testicular cancer with cisplatin chemotherapy may suffer late adverse effects even after 20 years. The cause of these late adverse effects has not been elucidated yet. One cause might be prolonged tissue retention of platinum in these patients. Therefore, an extremely se

  12. Ethambutol induces testicular damage and decreases the sperm functional competence in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Arpitha; Nayak, Guruprasad; Kumari, Sandhya; Prabhu, Amratha D; Khandige, Nalini; Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; Mutalik, Srinivas; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The present study reports the effect of ethambutol (EMB) on testicular function. Prepubertal and adult male Swiss albino mice were treated with 40, 80, 160mg/kg body weight of EMB, intraperitoneally, every alternate day for 4 weeks. After 2 weeks gap, mice were sacrificed to collect caudal spermatozoa. EMB treatment resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the testicular weight, sperm count and motility while the percentage of sperm with head abnormalities, immature chromatin (Pglutathione (Ptesticular function and impairs the sperm functional competence.

  13. Role of imaging in testicular cancer: current and future practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrisford, Glen W; Kreydin, Evgeniy I; Preston, Mark A; Rodriguez, Dayron; Harisighani, Mukesh G; Feldman, Adam S

    2015-09-01

    The article provides a summary of the epidemiologic and clinical aspects of testicular malignancy. Current standard imaging and novel techniques are reviewed. Present data and clinical treatment trends have favored surveillance protocols over adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy for low-stage testicular malignancy. This has resulted in increasing numbers of imaging studies and the potential for increased long-term exposure risks. Understanding imaging associated risks as well as strategies to minimize these risks is of increasing importance. The development, validation and incorporation of alternative lower risk highly efficacious and cost-effective imaging techniques is essential.

  14. Prenatal DDT exposure and testicular cancer: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Barbara A; Cirillo, Piera M; Christianson, Roberta E

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined maternal serum levels of DDT-related compounds in relation to son's risk of testicular cancer 30 years later. Fifteen of 9,744 live-born sons were diagnosed with germ cell testicular cancer and had maternal serum samples. Cases were matched to three controls on race and birth year. Maternal serum DDT-related compounds, measured in the early postpartum, were associated with her son's risk of testicular cancer. Despite low statistical power, we observed that mothers of cases had a significantly higher ratio of p,p'-DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane) to p,p'-DDE (1,1'-dichloro-2,2'-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene) and lower o,p'-DDT (1,1,1-tricholoro-2-(p-chlororphenyl)-2-(o-chlorophenyl)ethane). These findings are consistent with earlier exposure to DDT and with slower p,p'-DDT elimination among mothers of cases. Whether these associations could be direct, or operate via other pathways is unknown. Further research on interindividual differences in DDT metabolism could provide clues to testicular cancer etiology.

  15. Characteristics of Incident Testicular Cancer in Lebanon - 1990-2015 Single Institutional Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, Tarek; Nasr, Fadi; Rassy, Elie El; Ibrahim, Toni; Jabbour, Hicham; Chahine, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that testicular cancer is a major health issue with its increasing incidence, very few studies have described its characteristics in the Middle East, particularly in Lebanon. We report in this paper a retrospective pilot study of the characteristics of testicular cancer in Lebanon. The demographic, epidemiologic and survival characteristics of 178 patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2015 at an oncology clinic affiliated to Hotel Dieu de France Hospital were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was 32 ±10 years. The most prevalent testicular tumor was the germ cell type (GCT) (95.2%) of which non-seminomatous tumors (NST) were the commonest (64.7%). Most of our patients were diagnosed at an early stage. Lymph node spread affected most commonly the retroperitoneal region and distant visceral metastases occurred in 14.6%. All patients underwent orchiectomy with 67% receiving adjuvant treatment, mainly chemotherapy. After a median follow up of 2,248 days (75.9 months) 16 patients were reported dead. Two, five and ten-year overall survival rates were 96%, 94% and 89% respectively. The median overall survival rate was not reached. Despite being part of the developing world, demographic, epidemiologic and survival analyses of testicular cancer reported in our study are in line with those reported from developed countries and would allow us to extrapolate management plans from these populations.

  16. A family with the testicular feminisation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, N C; Willis, J; Magee, R A; Adam, W A

    1976-12-01

    A family of three sibs with the complete testicular feminisation syndrome is reported. The patient's mother had features, namely, sparse public and axillary hair, of the carrier state and a maternal aunt had primary amenorrhoea. The pathology of six gonads is described and the risk of tumour formation discussed. The possible mode of inheritance of the syndrome is reviewed.

  17. Simultaneous acute appendicitis with right testicular torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Akhtar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a child with both acute appendicitis and torsion of the right testis presenting at the same time. Testicular torsion possibly occurring due to vomiting in acute appendicitis so far has not been reported in the literature.

  18. Quality of Life of Testicular Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleer, Joke

    2006-01-01

    Men who are diagnosed with testicular cancer are generally young. As a consequence of the treatment they receive nowadays, they are likely to cure from the disease, even when they have metastases. This means that they have to live with possible short- and long-term sequel of diagnosis and treatment

  19. Comet assay on mice testicular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anoop Kumar

    2015-01-01

    for germ cell mutagens (Speit et al., 2009). The in vivo Comet assay is considered a useful tool for investigating germ cell genotoxicity. In the present study DNA strand breaks in testicular cells of mice were investigated. Different classes of chemicals were tested in order to evaluate the sensitivity...

  20. Surveillance in stage I testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Petersen, Peter Meidahl; Rørth, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    Treatment results on 695 stage I testicular cancer patients followed with surveillance are described. Seminoma (SGCT) was present in 394 patients and nonseminoma (NSGCT) in 301 patients. Relapses were detected in 155 patients (22%), in 69 patients with SGCT (17%) and 86 with NSGCT (29...

  1. TREATMENT FOR STAGE I TESTICULAR SEMINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Burova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overall survival is about 100% in patients with stage I germinogenic testicular tumors after orchifuniculectomy, which is achieved, by applying alternative adjuvant approaches. The use of approaches, such as a follow-up, chemo- and radiotherapy, may be recommended in seminoma. The paper shows the advantages and disadvantages of these methods.

  2. TREATMENT FOR STAGE I TESTICULAR SEMINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Burova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Overall survival is about 100% in patients with stage I germinogenic testicular tumors after orchifuniculectomy, which is achieved, by applying alternative adjuvant approaches. The use of approaches, such as a follow-up, chemo- and radiotherapy, may be recommended in seminoma. The paper shows the advantages and disadvantages of these methods.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamholz, Karen L; Cole, Cynthia H; Gray, James E; Zupancic, John A F

    2009-01-01

    The Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity trial demonstrated that peripheral retinal ablation of eyes with high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (early treatment) is associated with improved visual outcomes at 9 months' corrected gestational age compared with treatment at threshold disease (conventional management). However, early treatment increased the frequency of laser therapy, anesthesia with intubation, treatment-related systemic complications, and the need for repeat treatments. To determine the cost-effectiveness of an early treatment strategy for retinopathy of prematurity compared with conventional management. We developed a stochastic decision analytic model to assess the incremental cost of early treatment per eye with severe visual impairment prevented. We derived resource-use and efficacy estimates from the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity trial's published outcome data. We used a third-party payer perspective. Our primary analysis focused on outcomes from birth through 9 months' corrected gestational age. A secondary analysis used a lifetime horizon. Parameter uncertainty was quantified by using probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses. The incremental cost-effectiveness of early treatment was $14,200 per eye with severe visual impairment prevented. There was a 90% probability that the cost-effectiveness of early treatment would be less than $40,000 per eye with severe visual impairment prevented and a 0.5% probability that early treatment would be cost-saving (less costly and more effective). Limiting early treatment to more severely affected eyes (eyes with "type 1 retinopathy of prematurity" as defined by the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity trial) had a cost-effectiveness of $6,200 per eye with severe visual impairment prevented. Analyses that considered long-term costs and outcomes found that early treatment was cost-saving. Early treatment of retinopathy of prematurity is both

  4. Testicular function in boys after chemotherapy and/or testicular irradiation for acute leukemia and malignant lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinami, Akira; Nakanishi, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Kimiko; Takubo, Yoshiyuki; Sako, Masahiro; Konishi, Shouzaburo (Osaka City General Hospital (Japan))

    1994-04-01

    Testicular function was investigated by testicular biopsy, testicular volume, testosterone and LH-RH test in 16 prepubertal boys with 15 cases of acute leukemia and one case of malignant lymphoma after chemotherapy and/or testicular irradiation. One of 2 cases who had infiltrated in testes received irradiation at onset. With another 2 cases, testis was resected at testicular relapse and irradiated on opposite side. All continued complete remission for 1-9 years after cessation of chemotherapy. Basal levels of serum testosterone, FSH and LH were normal in 13 cases of unirradiated group recently but spermatogonia in testicular biopsy specimen decreased on cessation of chemotherapy in 8 cases. Primary gonadal dysfunction was detected in 3 cases of irradiated group. And so testicular irradiation induced damage of tubular system and Leydig cell function. It is necessary to follow up about sexual maturation. (author).

  5. The Correlation between Ultrasound Testicular Volume and Conventional Semen Parameters in Albanian Subfertile Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Kristo

    2014-09-01

    CONCLUSION: Testicular volume has a direct correlation with semen parameters and the critical total testicular volume indicating normal testicular function is approximately 26.6 ml (the mean testicular volume 13.3 ml. The measurement of testicular volume can be helpful for assessing fertility at the initial physical examination.

  6. Sertoli Cells Modulate Testicular Vascular Network Development, Structure, and Function to Influence Circulating Testosterone Concentrations in Adult Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebourcet, Diane; Wu, Junxi; Cruickshanks, Lyndsey; Smith, Sarah E; Milne, Laura; Fernando, Anuruddika; Wallace, Robert J; Gray, Calum D; Hadoke, Patrick W F; Mitchell, Rod T; O'Shaughnessy, Peter J; Smith, Lee B

    2016-06-01

    The testicular vasculature forms a complex network, providing oxygenation, micronutrients, and waste clearance from the testis. The vasculature is also instrumental to testis function because it is both the route by which gonadotropins are delivered to the testis and by which T is transported away to target organs. Whether Sertoli cells play a role in regulating the testicular vasculature in postnatal life has never been unequivocally demonstrated. In this study we used models of acute Sertoli cell ablation and acute germ cell ablation to address whether Sertoli cells actively influence vascular structure and function in the adult testis. Our findings suggest that Sertoli cells play a key role in supporting the structure of the testicular vasculature. Ablating Sertoli cells (and germ cells) or germ cells alone results in a similar reduction in testis size, yet only the specific loss of Sertoli cells leads to a reduction in total intratesticular vascular volume, the number of vascular branches, and the numbers of small microvessels; loss of germ cells alone has no effect on the testicular vasculature. These perturbations to the testicular vasculature leads to a reduction in fluid exchange between the vasculature and testicular interstitium, which reduces gonadotropin-stimulated circulating T concentrations, indicative of reduced Leydig cell stimulation and/or reduced secretion of T into the vasculature. These findings describe a new paradigm by which the transport of hormones and other factors into and out of the testis may be influenced by Sertoli cells and highlights these cells as potential targets for enhancing this endocrine relationship.

  7. [Relationship between testis volume and types of spermatogenic cells from testicular biopsy in patients with azoospermia or cryptozoospermia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing-Zhang; Tang, Yun-Ge; Liu, Huang; Tang, Li-Xin; Wen, Ren-Qian

    2010-01-01

    To study the relationship between the testis volume and types of spermatogenic cells derived from testicular biopsy in patients with azoospermia or cryptozoospermia. We collected testicular pathological biopsies from 492 infertile patients with azoospermia or cryptozoospermia reported in our hospital, classified them according to the testicular histological classification methods in WHO Manual for Standardized Investigation, Diagnosis and Management of the Infertile Male, and analyzed the relationship of the testis volume with the results of semen analyses and testicular histology. Of the 492 cases, 90.5% (445/492) were azoospermia and 9.5% (47/492) cryptozoospermia; mature spermatozoa were present in the seminiferous tubules in 17.9% (88/492) but absent in 42.9% (211/492), and Sertoli cell-only syndrome indicated in 39.2% (193/492); the testis volume was biopsy, and it may exist even if the testis volume is significantly below the reference value. The indications for testicular biopsy should not be improperly expanded. The WHO testicular histological classification methods have provided a convenient and effective guidance for further clinical examinations and establishment of a protocol.

  8. Early Universes with Effective Discrete Time

    CERN Document Server

    Baulieu, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism for triggering the universe inflation could be that at very early periods the time variable was discrete instead of smooth. Alternatively, and perhaps equivalently, it could be the consequence that the metrics of the early universe was a strongly concentrated gravitational coherent state with very high frequency oscillations, allowing local pair creations by a generalisation to gravity of the Schwinger mechanism, perhaps by creation of black holes of masses superior to the Planck scale. The lattice spacing between two clicks in the discrete time picture corresponds to the inverse frequency of the gravitational coherent state in the other picture. In both cases, a much lower time than the Planck time might represent a new fundamental scale, giving new type of physics. To make possible a concrete estimation of the pair production probability, we propose that the oscillating coherent state metrics that defines this very early geometry minimises the Einstein gravity action coupled to interacting 1-,...

  9. Early sport specialization: roots, effectiveness, risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Robert M

    2010-01-01

    Year-round training in a single sport beginning at a relatively young age is increasingly common among youth. Contributing factors include perceptions of Eastern European sport programs, a parent's desire to give his or her child an edge, labeling youth as talented at an early age, pursuit of scholarships and professional contracts, the sporting goods and services industry, and expertise research. The factors interact with the demands of sport systems. Limiting experiences to a single sport is not the best path to elite status. Risks of early specialization include social isolation, overdependence, burnout, and perhaps risk of overuse injury. Commitment to a single sport at an early age immerses a youngster in a complex world regulated by adults, which is a setting that facilitates manipulation - social, dietary, chemical, and commercial. Youth sport must be kept in perspective. Participants, including talented young athletes, are children and adolescents with the needs of children and adolescents.

  10. Beneficial role of celery oil in lowering the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-induced testicular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Naglaa K

    2014-10-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the most abundant phthalate in the environment, is known to be a reproductive toxicant. Considering the therapeutic significance of medicinal plants, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of administration of celery oil on DEHP-induced testicular toxicity. The experiment was carried out for 8 weeks on 36 male rats that were divided equally into six groups. Group 1 was kept as normal control (given vehicle), while rats of group 2 were administered orally 200 mg/kg/day of celery oil. Groups 3 and 5 were orally given 500 and 1000 mg DEHP/kg/day, respectively. Groups 4 and 6 were treated with similar doses of DEHP as in groups 3 and 5 plus celery oil (200 mg/kg/day). Body and testicular weights, sperm parameters, serum hormones (testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and estradiol), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT)) and expression of cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19) messenger RNA (mRNA) were investigated at the end of 8th week. Treatment with DEHP alone resulted in a significant decrease in body and testicular weights, sperm parameters and serum hormone levels when compared with control. On the other hand, testicular antioxidant enzymes showed a significant dose-dependent increase. The expression of CYP19 mRNA was significantly reduced by increasing the doses of DEHP. Administration of celery oil along with DEHP partially prevented the decrease in body and testicular weights and enhanced epididymal sperm count, serum hormone levels and the expression of CYP19 mRNA along with diminution in the activities of SOD, GPx and CAT enzymes. The obtained results showed that the celery improved the testicular alterations induced by DEHP in albino rats.

  11. [STRESS AND INFARCT LIMITING EFFECTS OF EARLY HYPOXIC PRECONDITIONING].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishmanov, Yu B; Maslov, L N; Sementsov, A S; Naryzhnaya, N V; Tsibulnikov, S Yu

    2015-09-01

    It was established that early hypoxic preconditioning is an adaptive state different from eustress and distress. Hypoxic preconditioning has the cross effects, increasing the tolerance of the heart to ischemia-reperfusion and providing antiulcerogenic effect during immobilization stress.

  12. Sexual functioning in testosterone-supplemented patients treated for bilateral testicular cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Basten, Johannes; vanDriel, MF; Jonker, G; Sleijfer, DT; Schraffordt Koops, Heimen; van de Wiel, HBM; Hoekstra, HJ

    1997-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of intramuscular injections with testosterone (Sustanon(R)) on sex-hormone levels, sexual functioning and general wellbeing in patients treated with orchidectomy for bilateral testicular cancer. Patients and methods The study comprised seven men (median age 38 year

  13. Expression of proteins correlated with the unique cisplatin-sensitivity of testicular cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Trude; de Jong, Steven; deVries, EGE; Mulder, NH

    1997-01-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) has a curative effect in approximately 80% of patients with testicular cancer, in contrast to the frequent development of resistance in patients with small cell lung cancer and ovarian cancer, and to the natural resistance of colon cancer. At present it is unknown which factors

  14. Expression of proteins correlated with the unique cisplatin-sensitivity of testicular cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Trude; de Jong, Steven; deVries, EGE; Mulder, NH

    1997-01-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) has a curative effect in approximately 80% of patients with testicular cancer, in contrast to the frequent development of resistance in patients with small cell lung cancer and ovarian cancer, and to the natural resistance of colon cancer. At present it is unknown which factors expl

  15. PSYCHOSEXUAL FUNCTIONING IN WOMEN WITH COMPLETE TESTICULAR FEMINIZATION - IS ANDROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY PREFERABLE TO ESTROGEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SLOB, AK; TENBOSCH, JJ; VANHALL, EV; DEJONG, FH; SCHULTZ, WCMW; EIKELBOOM, FA

    1993-01-01

    Effects of oral testosterone undecanoate (Andriol) on blood hormone levels, moods, sociosexual functioning and self-image of the body were studied in four gonadectomized patients with complete testicular feminization. In a double-blind cross-over experiment, patients were treated with oral testoster

  16. PSYCHOSEXUAL FUNCTIONING IN WOMEN WITH COMPLETE TESTICULAR FEMINIZATION - IS ANDROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY PREFERABLE TO ESTROGEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SLOB, AK; TENBOSCH, JJ; VANHALL, EV; DEJONG, FH; SCHULTZ, WCMW; EIKELBOOM, FA

    1993-01-01

    Effects of oral testosterone undecanoate (Andriol) on blood hormone levels, moods, sociosexual functioning and self-image of the body were studied in four gonadectomized patients with complete testicular feminization. In a double-blind cross-over experiment, patients were treated with oral testoster

  17. PSYCHOSEXUAL FUNCTIONING IN WOMEN WITH COMPLETE TESTICULAR FEMINIZATION - IS ANDROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY PREFERABLE TO ESTROGEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SLOB, AK; TENBOSCH, JJ; VANHALL, EV; DEJONG, FH; SCHULTZ, WCMW; EIKELBOOM, FA

    1993-01-01

    Effects of oral testosterone undecanoate (Andriol) on blood hormone levels, moods, sociosexual functioning and self-image of the body were studied in four gonadectomized patients with complete testicular feminization. In a double-blind cross-over experiment, patients were treated with oral

  18. Work ability of survivors of breast, prostate, and testicular cancer in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindbohm, M-L; Taskila, T; Kuosma, E

    2012-01-01

    Cancer can cause adverse effects on survivors' work ability. We compared the self-assessed work ability of breast, testicular, and prostate cancer survivors to that of people without cancer. We also investigated the association of disease-related and socio-demographic factors and job...

  19. 分子修饰后枸杞多糖对睾丸生精功能保护作用%Protective Effects of Molecularly Modified Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides on Testicular Spermatogenic Function of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李环; 张晶; 赵宏伟; 于敬红

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察硒化枸杞多糖对邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)所致的雄性大鼠睾丸组织氧化损伤的保护作用,并确定枸杞硒多糖的最佳反应条件.方法 在醋酸催化作用下,利用亚硒酸钠对枸杞多糖进行分子修饰.将48只健康雄性SD大鼠随机分成对照组、DBP+硒化枸杞多糖组、DBP+硒组、DBP+枸杞多糖组、DBP染毒组,连续灌胃30d,检测睾丸组织中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)、总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)和丙二醛(MDA)的含量.结果 硒化枸杞多糖的最佳条件是室温(20℃),亚硒酸钠与枸杞多糖用量为1∶1,反应时间为48h.硒化枸杞多糖组与除对照组的其他组比较脂质过氧化指标均有统计学意义(P<0.05);同时硒化枸杞多糖可显著提高体内SOD,T-AOC以及GSH-Px含量,降低MDA水平.结论 硒化修饰枸杞多糖后的抗氧化作用要强于普通枸杞多糖和无机硒.%Objective To observe the protective effect of selenium lyceum barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on dibutyl phthalate (DBP)-induced male rat testicular oxidative tissue damage and determine the best reaction condition for obtaining selenium LBP. Method On the basis of the catalytic effect of acetic acid, sodium selenite was used for the molecular modification of LBP.48 Healthy male SD rats were divided into control group,DBP + selenium group,LBP group,DBP + selenium group,DBP + LBP group and DBP-infected group at random. They were given the corresponding agents in intragastric administration for 30 days. Contents of SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) , total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC)and malondialdehyde (MDA)in testicular tissues of the rats were measured. Results The best conditions for making the selenium LBP included that the best temperature was room temperature (20 ℃), the proportion of sodium selenite and LBP was 1 :1 ,and the reaction time was 48 h. Compared with those in the other groups except the control group,the lipid

  20. Early Grade Teacher Effectiveness and Pre-K Effect Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker A. Swain

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, states have significantly expanded access to prekindergarten (pre-K, and federal policy makers have proposed funding near-universal access across the country. However, researchers know relatively little about the role of subsequent experiences in prolonging or truncating the persistence of benefits for participants. This study examines the interaction between pre-K participation and one of our most important educational interventions—teaching quality. We pair student-level data from a statewide pre-K experiment with records of teacher observation scores from Tennessee’s new formal evaluation program to assess whether a student’s access to high-quality early grade teachers moderates the persistence of pre-K effects. Our analyses indicate a small positive interaction between teaching quality and state pre-K exposure on some but not all early elementary cognitive measures, such that better teaching quality in years subsequent to pre-K is associated with more persistent positive pre-K effects.