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Sample records for early static pressure-related

  1. Early detection of cataract and response to pantethine therapy with non-invasive static and dynamic light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; King, James F.; Seeberger, Teri; Clark, John I.

    2003-07-01

    Cataractogenesis is a risk factor for space travelers. Here on earth, half of all blindness is due to cataracts. At this time, the only known treatment is surgical removal of the lens. In this paper, we present static and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements of early onset of cataract before it has any effect on vision and to test the effectiveness of pantethine as an anticataract agent in reversing cataracts. In this preliminary study, experiments were conducted on 12 rodents. Static measurements were performed by scanning the animal eye (cornea to retina) at a laser power of 80 microwatts to collect photons or scattered intensity in steps of 10 microns. The rodents studied were control, selenite injected, and selenite plus pantethine injected. Selenite was used to induce cataracts. Static and dynamic changes (increase in light scatter and crystalline size) in the lenses are quantitatively measured as early as 1 day post selenite injections. Scattering intensity and DLS measurements from lenses of animals administered pantethine resembled controls. These subtle molecular changes are not noticeable when the animals are examined with conventional ophthalmic instruments because their lenses remain transparent. Acknowledgements: Technical support from C.Ganders, University of Washington, Seattle, NEI research grant EY04542 (JIC) and support under a NASA-NEI/NIH interagency agreement (RRA) are greatly appreciated. JFK works for QSS Inc. at NASA GRC.

  2. Detection of Early Morning Daily Activities with Static Home and Wearable Wireless Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vanderpool

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a flexible, cost-effective, wireless in-home activity monitoring system for assisting patients with cognitive impairments due to traumatic brain injury (TBI. The system locates the subject with fixed home sensors and classifies early morning bathroom activities of daily living with a wearable wireless accelerometer. The system extracts time- and frequency-domain features from the accelerometer data and classifies these features with a hybrid classifier that combines Gaussian mixture models and a finite state machine. In particular, the paper establishes that despite similarities between early morning bathroom activities of daily living, it is possible to detect and classify these activities with high accuracy. It also discusses system training and provides data to show that with proper feature selection, accurate detection and classification are possible for any subject with no subject specific training.

  3. Undesirable dispersal of eggs and early-stage nymphs of the bed bug Hemiptera: cimicidae) by static electricity and air currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movement of whole live insects or other small arthropods attributed to static electricity has been reported only rarely. While viewing bed bugs in plastic or glass Petri dishes using a dissecting microscope, individual eggs and early stage nymphs were occasionally observed to move suddenly and rapid...

  4. Effect on germination and early growth characteristics in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds exposed to static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashisth, Ananta; Nagarajan, Shantha

    2010-01-15

    Seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were exposed in batches to static magnetic fields of strength from 0 to 250mT in steps of 50mT for 1-4h in steps of 1h. Treatment of sunflower seeds in these magnetic fields increased the speed of germination, seedling length and seedling dry weight under laboratory germination tests. Of the various treatments, 50 and 200mT for 2h yielded the peak performance. Exposure of seeds to magnetic fields improved seed coat membrane integrity and reduced the cellular leakage and electrical conductivity. Treated seeds planted in soil resulted in statistically higher seedling dry weight, root length, root surface area and root volume in 1-month-old seedlings. In germinating seeds, enzyme activities of alpha-amylase, dehydrogenase and protease were significantly higher in treated seeds in contrast to controls. The higher enzyme activity in magnetic-field-treated sunflower seeds could be triggering the fast germination and early vigor of seedlings.

  5. The rate of force development obtained at early contraction phase is not influenced by active static stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais de Oliveira, André L; Greco, Camila Coelho; Molina, Renato; Denadai, Benedito S

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of active static stretching on the maximal isometric muscle strength (maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]) and rate of force development (RFD) determined within time intervals of 30, 50, 100, and 200 milliseconds relative to the onset of muscle contraction. Fifteen men (aged 21.3 ± 2.4 years) were submitted on different days to the following tests: (a) familiarization session to the isokinetic dynamometer; (b) 2 maximal isometric contractions for knee extensors in the isokinetic dynamometer to determine MVC and RFD (control); and (c) 2 active static stretching exercises for the dominant leg extensors (10 × 30 seconds for each exercise with a 20-second rest interval between bouts). After stretching, the isokinetic test was repeated (poststretching). Conditions 2 and 3 were performed in random order. The RFD was considered as the mean slope of the moment-time curve at time intervals of 0-30, 0-50, 0-100; 0-150; and 0200 milliseconds relative to the onset of muscle contraction. The MVC was reduced after stretching (285 ± 59 vs. 271 ± 56 N · m, p 0.05). However, the RFD measured at intervals of 0-150 and 0-200 milliseconds was significantly lower after stretching (p < 0.01). It can be concluded that explosive muscular actions of a very short duration (<100 milliseconds) seem less affected by active static stretching when compared with actions using maximal muscle strength.

  6. Volumetric Modulated Arc Radiotherapy for Early Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma: Is It Better Than the Conventional Static Beam Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Wing Cheung Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the performance of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT techniques: single arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (SA-VMAT and double arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (DA-VMAT with the static beam conventional intensity modulated radiotherapy (C-IMRT for non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC. Twelve stage I and II NSCLC patients were recruited and their planning CT with contoured planning target volume (PTV and organs at risk (OARs was used for planning. Using the same dose constraints and planning objectives, the C-IMRT, SA-VMAT, and DA-VMAT plans were optimized. C-IMRT consisted of 7 static beams, while SA-VMAT and DA-VMAT plans consisted of one and two full gantry rotations, respectively. No significant difference was found among the three techniques in target homogeneity and conformity. Mean lung dose in C-IMRT plan was significantly lower than that in DA-VMAT plan P=0.04. The ability of OAR sparing was similar among the three techniques, with no significant difference in V20, V10, or V5 of normal lungs, spinal cord, and heart. Less MUs were required in SA-VMAT and DA-VMAT. Besides, SA-VMAT required the shortest beam on time among the three techniques. In treatment of early stage NSCLC, no significant dosimetric superiority was shown by the VMAT techniques over C-IMRT and DA-VMAT over SA-VMAT.

  7. Exposure of seeds to static magnetic field enhances germination and early growth characteristics in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashisth, Ananta; Nagarajan, Shantha

    2008-10-01

    Seeds of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) were exposed in batches to static magnetic fields of strength from 0 to 250 mT in steps of 50 mT for 1-4 h in steps of 1 h for all fields. Results showed that magnetic field application enhanced seed performance in terms of laboratory germination, speed of germination, seedling length and seedling dry weight significantly compared to unexposed control. However, the response varied with field strength and duration of exposure without any particular trend. Among the various combinations of field strength and duration, 50 mT for 2 h, 100 mT for 1 h and 150 mT for 2 h exposures gave best results. Exposure of seeds to these three magnetic fields improved seed coat membrane integrity as it reduced the electrical conductivity of seed leachate. In soil, seeds exposed to these three treatments produced significantly increased seedling dry weights of 1-month-old plants. The root characteristics of the plants showed dramatic increase in root length, root surface area and root volume. The improved functional root parameters suggest that magnetically treated chickpea seeds may perform better under rainfed (un-irrigated) conditions where there is a restrictive soil moisture regime.

  8. Lesion-based detection of early chemosensitivity using serial static FDG PET/CT in metastatic colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buvat, Irene; Necib, Hatem [IMNC UMR 8165 CNRS - Paris 7 and Paris 11 Universities, Orsay cedex (France); Garcia, Camilo; Wagner, Antoine; Vanderlinden, Bruno; Flamen, Patrick [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Nuclear Medicine Department, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium); Emonts, Patrick [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Radiology Department, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium); Hendlisz, Alain [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Digestive Oncology, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Medical oncology needs early identification of patients that are not responding to systemic therapy. {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) performed before and early during treatment has been proposed for this purpose. However, the best way to assess the change in FDG uptake between two scans has not been identified. We studied cutoff thresholds to identify responding tumours as a function of the method used to measure tumour uptake. The study included 28 metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients who underwent 2 FDG PET/CT scans (baseline and at day 14 of the first course of polychemotherapy). For 78 tumour lesions, 4 standardized uptake value (SUV) indices were measured: maximum SUV (SUV{sub max}) and mean SUV in a region obtained using an isocontour (SUV{sub 40} {sub %}), with each of these SUV normalized either by the patient body weight (BW) or body surface area (BSA). The per cent change and absolute change in tumour uptake between the baseline and the early PET scans were measured based on these four indices. These changes were correlated to the RECIST 1.0-based response using contrast-enhanced CT at baseline and at 6-8 weeks on treatment. The 78 tumours were classified as non-responding (NRL, n = 58) and responding lesions (RL, n = 20). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves characterizing the performance in NRL/RL classification using early FDG PET uptake had areas under the curve between 0.75 and 0.84, without significant difference between the indices. The cutoff threshold in FDG uptake per cent change to get a 95 % sensitivity of RL detection depended on the way uptake was measured: -14 % (specificity of 53 %) and -22 % (specificity of 64 %) for SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub 40} {sub %}, respectively. Thresholds expressed as absolute SUV decrease instead of per cent change were less sensitive to the SUV definition: an SUV decline by 1.2 yielded a sensitivity of RL detection of 95 % for SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub 40

  9. Early static {sup 18}F-FET-PET scans have a higher accuracy for glioma grading than the standard 20-40 min scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Nathalie L.; Winkelmann, Isabel; Wenter, Vera; Mille, Erik; Todica, Andrei; Brendel, Matthias; Bartenstein, Peter [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Suchorska, Bogdana; Tonn, Joerg-Christian [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany); Schmid-Tannwald, Christine [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); La Fougere, Christian [University of Tuebingen, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Current guidelines for glioma imaging by positron emission tomography (PET) using the amino acid analogue O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ({sup 18}F-FET) recommend image acquisition from 20-40 min post injection (p.i.). The maximal tumour-to-background evaluation (TBR{sub max}) obtained in these summation images does not enable reliable differentiation between low and high grade glioma (LGG and HGG), which, however, can be achieved by dynamic {sup 18}F-FET-PET. We investigated the accuracy of tumour grading using TBR{sub max} values at different earlier time points after tracer injection. Three hundred and fourteen patients with histologically proven primary diagnosis of glioma (131 LGG, 183 HGG) who had undergone 40-min dynamic {sup 18}F-FET-PET scans were retrospectively evaluated. TBR{sub max} was assessed in the standard 20-40 min summation images, as well as in summation images from 0-10 min, 5-15 min, 5-20 min, and 15-30 min p.i., and kinetic analysis was performed. TBR{sub max} values and kinetic analysis were correlated with histological classification. ROC analyses were performed for each time frame and sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were assessed. TBR{sub max} values in the earlier summation images were significantly better for tumour grading (P < 0.001) when compared to standard 20-40 min scans, with best results for the early 5-15 min scan. This was due to higher TBR{sub max} in the HGG (3.9 vs. 3.3; p < 0.001), while TBR{sub max} remained nearly stable in the LGG (2.2 vs. 2.1). Overall, accuracy increased from 70 % in the 20-40 min analysis to 77 % in the 5-15 min images, but did not reach the accuracy of dynamic analysis (80 %). Early TBR{sub max} assessment (5-15 min p.i.) is more accurate for the differentiation between LGG and HGG than the standard static scan (20-40 min p.i.) mainly caused by the characteristic high {sup 18}F-FET uptake of HGG in the initial phase. Therefore, when dynamic {sup 18}F-FET-PET cannot be performed

  10. Comparative dosimetry of volumetric modulated arc therapy and limited-angle static intensity-modulated radiation therapy for early-stage larynx cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riegel, Adam C.; Antone, Jeffrey [Department of Radiation Medicine, North Shore–LIJ Health System, New Hyde, Park, NY (United States); Schwartz, David L., E-mail: dschwartz3@nshs.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine, North Shore–LIJ Health System, New Hyde, Park, NY (United States); Hofstra–NSLIJ School of Medicine, Hempstead, NY (United States)

    2013-04-01

    To compare relative carotid and normal tissue sparing using volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for early-stage larynx cancer. Seven treatment plans were retrospectively created on 2 commercial treatment planning systems for 11 consecutive patients with T1-2N0 larynx cancer. Conventional plans consisted of opposed-wedged fields. IMRT planning used an anterior 3-field beam arrangement. Two VMAT plans were created, a full 360° arc and an anterior 180° arc. Given planning target volume (PTV) coverage of 95% total volume at 95% of 6300 cGy and maximum spinal cord dose below 2500 cGy, mean carotid artery dose was pushed as low as possible for each plan. Deliverability was assessed by comparing measured and planned planar dose with the gamma (γ) index. Full-arc planning provided the most effective carotid sparing but yielded the highest mean normal tissue dose (where normal tissue was defined as all soft tissue minus PTV). Static IMRT produced next-best carotid sparing with lower normal tissue dose. The anterior half-arc produced the highest carotid artery dose, in some cases comparable with conventional opposed fields. On the whole, carotid sparing was inversely related to normal tissue dose sparing. Mean γ indexes were much less than 1, consistent with accurate delivery of planned treatment. Full-arc VMAT yields greater carotid sparing than half-arc VMAT. Limited-angle IMRT remains a reasonable alternative to full-arc VMAT, given its ability to mediate the competing demands of carotid and normal tissue dose constraints. The respective clinical significance of carotid and normal tissue sparing will require prospective evaluation.

  11. Dopamine treatment of brain-dead Fisher rats improves renal histology but not early renal function in Lewis recipients after prolonged static cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, J; Yard, B; Stamellou, E; Wenz, H; Benck, U; Schnuelle, P; Hoeger, S

    2014-12-01

    Brain death (BD) and cold preservation are major risk factors for an unfavorable transplantation outcome. Although donor dopamine treatment in brain-dead rats improves renal function and histology in allogeneic recipients, it remains to be assessed if this also holds true for the combinations of BD and prolonged static cold preservation. BD was induced in F344 donor rats, which were subsequently treated with NaCl 1 mL/h (BD, n = 11), NaCl/hydroxy ethyl starch (BD-norm, n = 10), or 10 μg/min/kg dopamine (BD-dopa, n = 10). Renal grafts were harvested 4 h after BD and transplanted into bilateral nephrectomized Lewis recipients 6 h after cold preservation in University of Wisconsin solution. Renal function was evaluated by use of serum creatinine and urea concentrations at days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 10. Ten days after transplantation, recipients were killed and the renal allografts were processed for light microscopy and immune histology. Serum urea concentrations at days 5 and 10 were significantly lower in recipients that received a renal graft from dopamine-treated rats; for serum creatinine, only a trend was observed at day 10. Immune histology revealed a lower degree of ED1-positive cells in the donor dopamine-treated group. Under light microscopy, Banff classification revealed significantly less intimal arteritis in these grafts (P dopamine treatment clearly improves renal histology in this model, the beneficial effect on early renal function was marginal. It remains to be assessed if donor dopamine treatment has a beneficial effect on renal function in long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pressure-related activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A lot of reports suggested that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has a very different nature from constitutive NOS including endothelial NOS (eNOS) and neural NOS (nNOS). When exposed to cytokines or bacterial products, iNOS could be greatly activated and produces hundreds or thousands fold more NO than it does usually. Whether iNOS activation is arterial pressure related is not clear. In the present experiment, we studied three groups(n=6) of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with implanted aorta and venous catheters that were maintained on 1 mEq/d, 12.5 mEq/d and 25 mEq/d of sodium intake respectively. Pulsatile arterial pressure signals from the amplifier were sent to a digital computer and the urine samples were taken every other day for nitrate/nitrite excretion (UNOx) assay using Greiss Reaction. After 6 days infusion, the rats were euthanized with an overdose of sodium pentobarbital, and the renal medullas were rapidly removed and frozen on dry ice for iNOS activity assay. Morever separate groups of hypertensive rats including spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR, n=6) and High NaCl-induced hypertensive rat (NaHR, n=6) were used to measure renal iNOS protein by Western Blotting. The results showed that the mean arterial pressure (MAP) were significantly increased with the increase intake of sodium, the MAP (mmHg) at day 6 were 99.6±3.5,116.65±4.2 and 125.43±4.5, and the iNOS activity (nmol*g-1 protein*min-1) were 122.3±23.4, 342.4±35.6 and 623.9±65.4 in 1 mEq/d, 12.5 mEq/d and 25 mEq/d of sodium intake-rats respectively. At the same time, UNOx at day 6 were also increased, in turn, to 5 865.6±343.0 (for 12.5 mEq/d intake-rats) and (9 642.8±1 045.3) (for 25 mEq/d sodium intake-rats) nmol/d from (3 834.9±234.8) nmol/d of 1 mEq/d sodium intake-rats respectively. Western blotting showed that the renal medullary iNOS protein in SHR and NaHR were increased by 178%±13% and 104%±9% of normal Wistar rats. The data indicates that elevated arterial pressure

  13. Statics of deformable solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH

    2014-01-01

    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  14. Conditioning of self-assembled monolayers at two static immersion test sites along the east coast of Florida and its effect on early fouling development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, I; Bauer, S; Vater, S; Zargiel, K; Finlay, J A; Arpa-Sancet, M P; Alles, M; Callow, J A; Callow, M E; Swain, G W; Grunze, M; Rosenhahn, A

    2014-09-01

    Among the first events after immersion of surfaces in the ocean is surface 'conditioning'. Here, the accumulation and composition of the conditioning films formed after immersion in the ocean are analyzed. In order to account for different surface chemistries, five self-assembled monolayers that differ in resistance to microfouling and wettability were used. Water samples from two static immersion test sites along the east coast of Florida were collected at two different times of the year and used for experiments. Spectral ellipsometry revealed that conditioning films were formed within the first 24 h and contact angle goniometry showed that these films changed the wettability and rendered hydrophobic surfaces more hydrophilic and vice versa. Infrared reflection adsorption spectroscopy showed that the composition of the conditioning film depended on both the wettability and immersion site. Laboratory and field assays showed that the presence of a conditioning film did not markedly influence settlement of microorganisms.

  15. Static electromagnetic frequency changers

    CERN Document Server

    Rozhanskii, L L

    1963-01-01

    Static Electromagnetic Frequency Changers is about the theory, design, construction, and applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers, devices that used for multiplication or division of alternating current frequency. It is originally published in the Russian language. This book is organized into five chapters. The first three chapters introduce the readers to the principles of operation, the construction, and the potential applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers and to the principles of their design. The two concluding chapters use some hitherto unpublished work

  16. Early detection of corrosion of reinforcement: Potential field measurement and galvano-static pulse technique. Frueherkennung von Bewehrungskorrosion: Potentialfeldmessung und galvanostatische Impulstechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehni, H.; Elsener, B. (ETH Zurich (Switzerland))

    1991-01-01

    Early detection of corrosion damage in reinforced concrete buildings is not only with regard to savety of great importance but also economically. Electrochemical methods largely comply with the requirements. The focus is put on potential field measurements as nondestructive method for locating corroded areas of reinforcement in theory and with concrete examples of application. Galvanostatic pulse techniques can be used as valuable complement to potential measurements. (BWI).

  17. Rectifier cabinet static breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Jr, Roger A.; Gliebe, Ronald J.

    1992-09-01

    A rectifier cabinet static breaker replaces a blocking diode pair with an SCR and the installation of a power transistor in parallel with the latch contactor to commutate the SCR to the off state. The SCR serves as a static breaker with fast turnoff capability providing an alternative way of achieving reactor scram in addition to performing the function of the replaced blocking diodes. The control circuitry for the rectifier cabinet static breaker includes on-line test capability and an LED indicator light to denote successful test completion. Current limit circuitry provides high-speed protection in the event of overload.

  18. Einstein's static universe

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, Domingos Savio

    2012-01-01

    Einstein's static model is the first relativistic cosmological model. The model is static, finite and of spherical spatial symmetry. I use the solution of Einstein's field equations in a homogeneous and isotropic universe -- Friedmann's equation -- to calculate the radius of curvature of the model (also known as "Einstein's universe"). Furthermore, I show, using a Newtonian analogy, the model's mostly known feature, namely, its instability under small perturbations on the state of equilibrium.

  19. Static Analysis Numerical Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    STATIC ANALYSIS OF NUMERICAL ALGORITHMS KESTREL TECHNOLOGY, LLC APRIL 2016 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) NOV 2013 – NOV 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE STATIC ANALYSIS OF NUMERICAL ALGORITHMS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-14-C... algorithms , linear digital filters and integrating accumulators, modifying existing versions of Honeywell’s HiLiTE model-based development system and

  20. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  1. Observing the Forces Involved in Static Friction under Static Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Static friction is an important concept in introductory physics. Later in the year students apply their understanding of static friction under more complex conditions of static equilibrium. Traditional lab demonstrations in this case involve exceeding of the maximum level of static friction, resulting in the "onset of motion." (Contains…

  2. Static Transition Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Damian, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Starting from an operational specification of a translation from a structured to an unstructured imperative language, we point out how a compositional and context-insensitive translation gives rise to static chains of jumps. Taking an inspiration from the notion of continuation, we state a new...... compositional and context-sensitive specification that provably gives rise to no static chains of jumps, no redundant labels, and no unused labels. It is defined with one inference rule per syntactic construct and operates in linear time and space on the size of the source program (indeed it operates in one...

  3. Energy conversion statics

    CERN Document Server

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  4. Explosions and static electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of electrostatic discharges as causes of ignition of vapor/gas and dust/gas mixtures. A series of examples of static-caused explosions will be discussed. The concepts of explosion limits, the incendiveness of various discharge types and safe voltages are explained...

  5. Why Static Clings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naab, Laurie; Henry, David

    2009-01-01

    Using Wiggins and McTighe's (1998) concept of Big Ideas, the authors planned and designed an electricity investigation to address common student misconceptions about static electricity. With Styrofoam plates and transparent tape, elementary students investigated many properties of electrically charged and uncharged objects in a 5E learning cycle…

  6. Static Gravitational Global Monopoles

    CERN Document Server

    Liebling, S L

    2000-01-01

    Static solutions in spherical symmetry are found for gravitating global monopoles. Regular solutions lacking a horizon are found for $\\eta \\sqrt{3/8\\pi} \\approx 0.3455$ is consistent with findings that topological inflation begins at $\\eta \\approx 0.33$.

  7. Microprocessor controlled static converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Szabo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper wants to demonstrate a way of implementing a microcontroller into an DC motor speed control loop. The static power converter is a fully controlled rectifier bridge, using standard SCR's. The bridge's control signals are supplied by the microcontroller and are phase-angle or burst types. The automation loop contains a software PI-style regulator. All the experimental results shows that this aproach is flexibile enough to be used on a large scale.

  8. The Static Quantum Multiverse

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    We consider the multiverse in the intrinsically quantum mechanical framework recently proposed in Refs. [1,2]. By requiring that the principles of quantum mechanics are universally valid and that physical predictions do not depend on the reference frame one chooses to describe the multiverse, we find that the multiverse state must be static---in particular, the multiverse does not have a beginning or end. We argue that, despite its naive appearance, this does not contradict observation, inclu...

  9. Open static Chaplygin universe

    CERN Document Server

    Khalatnikov, I M

    2003-01-01

    We apply the qualitative theory of dynamical systems to the study of the Chaplygin gas cosmological model. In difference to earlier works devoted to this model we give up sign restrictions on the choice of the sign of the energy density and on the parameters characterising initial conditions for a cosmological evolution. It appears that exists a static stable open universe filled with the Chaplygin gas. Besides exist universes where the acoustic waves have a velocity exceeding that of light in the vacuum.

  10. Static analysis for blinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    operation blinding. In this paper we study the theoretical foundations for one of the successful approaches to validating cryptographic protocols and we extend it to handle the blinding primitive. Our static analysis approach is based on Flow Logic; this gives us a clean separation between the specification...... of the analysis and its realisation in an automatic tool. We concentrate on the former in the present paper and provide the semantic foundation for our analysis of protocols using blinding - also in the presence of malicious attackers....

  11. Static and dynamic stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tishin, A.M.; Spichkin, Yu.I.; Bohr, Jakob

    1999-01-01

    In this chapter we shall consider the properties of lanthanide metals, their alloys and compounds which can be studied using static and alternating mechanical stresses. The main attention will be paid to the effects related to magnetoelastic interactions. These interactions in magnetic materials...... to the appearance of anomalies in elastic constants, as well as to additional damping of sound oscillations in the lanthanide materials. The importance of understanding the nature of magnetoelastic interactions and related effects arises from the scientific desire to gather a better knowledge of magnetism, as well...

  12. Model Checking as Static Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fuyuan

    Both model checking and static analysis are prominent approaches to detecting software errors. Model Checking is a successful formal method for verifying properties specified in temporal logics with respect to transition systems. Static analysis is also a powerful method for validating program...... properties which can predict safe approximations to program behaviors. In this thesis, we have developed several static analysis based techniques to solve model checking problems, aiming at showing the link between static analysis and model checking. We focus on logical approaches to static analysis......-calculus can be encoded as the intended model of SFP. Our research results have strengthened the link between model checking and static analysis. This provides a theoretical foundation for developing a unied tool for both model checking and static analysis techniques....

  13. Measurement of compartment elasticity using pressure related ultrasound: a method to identify patients with potential compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellei, R M; Hingmann, S J; Kobbe, P; Weber, C; Grice, J E; Zimmerman, F; Jeromin, S; Gansslen, A; Hildebrand, F; Pape, H C

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Decision-making in treatment of an acute compartment syndrome is based on clinical assessment, supported by invasive monitoring. Thus, evolving compartment syndrome may require repeated pressure measurements. In suspected cases of potential compartment syndromes clinical assessment alone seems to be unreliable. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a non-invasive application estimating whole compartmental elasticity by ultrasound, which may improve accuracy of diagnostics. MATERIAL AND METHODS In an in-vitro model, using an artificial container simulating dimensions of the human anterior tibial compartment, intracompartmental pressures (p) were raised subsequently up to 80 mm Hg by infusion of saline solution. The compartmental depth (mm) in the cross-section view was measured before and after manual probe compression (100 mm Hg) upon the surface resulting in a linear compartmental displacement (Δd). This was repeated at rising compartmental pressures. The resulting displacements were related to the corresponding intra-compartmental pressures simulated in our model. A hypothesized relationship between pressures related compartmental displacement and the elasticity at elevated compartment pressures was investigated. RESULTS With rising compartmental pressures, a non-linear, reciprocal proportional relation between the displacement (mm) and the intra-compartmental pressure (mm Hg) occurred. The Pearson's coefficient showed a high correlation (r2 = -0.960). The intraobserver reliability value kappa resulted in a statistically high reliability (κ = 0.840). The inter-observer value indicated a fair reliability (κ = 0.640). CONCLUSIONS Our model reveals that a strong correlation between compartmental strain displacements assessed by ultrasound and the intra-compartmental pressure changes occurs. Further studies are required to prove whether this assessment is transferable to human muscle tissue. Determining the complete

  14. Muscle oxygenation and intramuscular pressure related to posture and load in back muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupeyron, Arnaud; Lecocq, Jehan; Vautravers, Philippe; Pélissier, Jacques; Perrey, Stéphane

    2009-09-01

    There is little information about the simultaneous changes of intramuscular pressure (IMP) and oxygen saturation (StO(2)) of the paraspinal muscle under various conditions of posture and load. To measure simultaneously and compare IMP and StO(2) across a range of static trunk postures commonly observed during normal work tasks. A prospective study using a repeated-measure design in clinical setting. Sixteen healthy young men with no history of back pain. Simultaneous measurements of IMP by a flexible slit catheter and StO(2) by near infrared spectroscopy of the multifidus muscle were performed. The two measures were taken in six static posture tasks: standing upright and bending forward with and without load (20kg), bending backward and during a sustained isometric contraction (ie, Sorensen test). To compare the influence of the tasks on IMP and StO(2) variables, a one-way variance analysis with repeated measures was used. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho) was determined between the two variables for each posture task. We observed only a moderate but significant correlation between IMP and StO(2) values in upright standing and a trend in bending forward positions with load (ppostures. In the mutifidus muscle, there is no evident linear relationship between IMP and StO(2) values in various static postures of the trunk in young males. This preliminary study shows that IMP may play a role on StO(2) only in some circumstances, such as a prolonged endurance test or in a bending forward position with a significant load bearing.

  15. Quantum singularities in static and conformally static space-times

    CERN Document Server

    Konkowski, D A; 10.1142/S0217751X11054334

    2011-01-01

    The definition of quantum singularity is extended from static space-times to conformally static space-times. After the usual definitions of classical and quantum singularities are reviewed, examples of quantum singularities in static space-times are given. These include asymptotically power-law space-times, space-times with diverging higher-order differential invariants, and a space-time with a 2-sphere singularity. The theory behind quantum singularities in conformally static space-times is followed by an example, a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-time with cosmic string. The paper concludes by discussing areas of future research.

  16. Static intervortex forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, J. M.

    1997-03-01

    A point particle approximation to the classical dynamics of well-separated vortices of the Abelian Higgs model is developed. A static vortex is asymptotically identical to a solution of the linearized field theory (a Klein-Gordon-Proca theory) in the presence of a singular point source at the vortex center. It is shown that this source is a composite scalar monopole and magnetic dipole, and the respective charges are determined numerically for various values of the coupling constant. The interaction potential of two well-separated vortices is computed by calculating the interaction Lagrangian of two such point sources in the linear theory. The potential is used to model type II vortex scattering.

  17. Statics and Mechanics of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    The statics and mechanics of structures form a core aspect of civil engineering. This book provides an introduction to the subject, starting from classic hand-calculation types of analysis and gradually advancing to a systematic form suitable for computer implementation. It starts with statically...

  18. Risk factors for a pressure-related deep tissue injury: a theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefen, Amit

    2007-06-01

    Pressure-related deep tissue injury is the term recommended by the United States National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel to describe a potentially life-threatening form of pressure ulcers, characterized by the presence of necrotic tissue under intact skin, and associated with prolonged compression of muscle tissue under bony prominences. In this study, a theoretical model was used to determine the relative contributions of the backrest inclination angle during prolonged wheelchair sitting, the muscle tissue stiffness and curvature of the ischial tuberosities (ITs) to the risk for injury in the gluteus muscles that pad the IT bones during sitting. The model is based on Hertz's theory for analysis of contact pressures between a rigid half-sphere (bone) and an elastic half-space (muscle). Hertz's theory is coupled with an injury threshold and damage law for muscle-both obtained in previous studies in rats. The simulation outputs the time-dependent bone-muscle contact pressures and the injured area in the gluteus. We calculated the full-size (asymptotic) injured area in the gluteus and the time for injury onset for different sitting angles alpha (90-150 degrees), muscle tissue long-term shear moduli G (250-1,200 Pa) and bone diameters D (8-18 mm). We then evaluated the sensitivity of model results to variations in these parameters, in order to determine how injury predictions are affected. In reclined sitting (alpha=150 degrees) the full-size injured area was approximately 2.1-fold smaller and the time for injury onset was approximately 1.3-fold longer compared with erect sitting (alpha=90 degrees). For greater G the full-size injured area was smaller but the time for injury onset was shorter, e.g., increasing G from 250 to 1200 Pa decreased the full-size injured area approximately 2.5-fold, but shortened the time for injury onset 6.2-fold. For smaller D the time for injury onset dropped, e.g., decreased approximately 1.5-fold when D decreased from 18 to 8 mm

  19. Static Validation of XSL Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders; Olesen, Mads Østerby; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2007-01-01

    no static guarantees that, under the assumption that the input is valid relative to the input schema, the output of the transformation is valid relative to the output schema. We present a validation technique for XSLT based on the XML graph formalism introduced in the static analysis of JWIG Web services...... and XACT XML transformations. Being able to provide static guarantees, we can detect a large class of errors in an XSLT stylesheet at the time it is written instead of later when it has been deployed, and thereby provide benefits similar to those of static type checkers for modern programming languages....... Our analysis takes a pragmatic approach that focuses its precision on the essential language features but still handles the entire XSLT language. We evaluate the analysis precision on a range of real stylesheets and demonstrate how it may be useful in practice....

  20. Statics and mechanics of structures

    CERN Document Server

    Krenk, Steen

    2013-01-01

    The statics and mechanics of structures form a core aspect of civil engineering. This book provides an introduction to the subject, starting from classic hand-calculation types of analysis and gradually advancing to a systematic form suitable for computer implementation. It starts with statically determinate structures in the form of trusses, beams and frames. Instability is discussed in the form of the column problem - both the ideal column and the imperfect column used in actual column design. The theory of statically indeterminate structures is then introduced, and the force and deformation methods are explained and illustrated. An important aspect of the book’s approach is the systematic development of the theory in a form suitable for computer implementation using finite elements. This development is supported by two small computer programs, MiniTruss and MiniFrame, which permit static analysis of trusses and frames, as well as linearized stability analysis. The book’s final section presents related ...

  1. The statics of cervical traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio, A; Rendina, M; Benazzo, F; Castelli, C; Paparella, F

    1994-08-01

    The statics of a sliding body was used to study the distribution of forces during the application of cervical traction in supine patients. This theoretical analysis was completed using a dynamometer to determine the static friction between bed surface and patient head. Therefore, we measured the head weight in 12 inpatients and the minimum force that causes impending motion of the head on the bed surface. The static friction coefficient was calculated from the ratio of the two quantities. The forces acting on the cervical spine were determined by inserting the former data into a specifically designed algorithm that forecasted a progressively increasing traction angle. The coefficient of static friction was 0.62, whereas the maximum available force acting on the cervical spine was obtained with a 35 degrees traction inclination. In contrast, the forces dissipated by the plane progressively decreased with larger angles.

  2. Statics of Historic Masonry Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of much of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. This book aims to help fill this demand presenting a comprehensive new statics of masonry constructions. The book, result of thirty years of research and professional experience, gives the fundamentals of statics of the masonry solid, then applied to the study of statics of arches, piers and vaults. Further, combining engineering and architecture and through an interdisciplinary approach, the book investigates the statical behaviour of many historic monuments, as the Pantheon, the Colosseum,  the domes of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence and of St. Peter in Rome, the Tower of Pisa, the Gothic Cathedrals and the Masonry Buildings under seismic actions.

  3. Static and Dynamic Traversable Wormholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiak, Jaroslaw P.

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this work is to discuss the effects found in static and dynamic wormholes that occur as a solution of Einstein equations in general relativity. The ground is prepared by presentation of faster than light effects, then the focus is narrowed to Morris-Thorne framework for a static spherically symmetric wormhole. Two types of dynamic worm-holes, evolving and rotating, are considered.

  4. Static Decoupling in fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index......An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index...

  5. Determinacy in Static Analysis of jQuery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Esben; Møller, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Static analysis for JavaScript can potentially help programmers find errors early during development. Although much progress has been made on analysis techniques, a major obstacle is the prevalence of libraries, in particular jQuery, which apply programming patterns that have detrimental conseque......Static analysis for JavaScript can potentially help programmers find errors early during development. Although much progress has been made on analysis techniques, a major obstacle is the prevalence of libraries, in particular jQuery, which apply programming patterns that have detrimental...... present a static dataflow analysis for JavaScript that infers and exploits determinacy information on-the-fly, to enable analysis of some of the most complex parts of jQuery. The techniques are implemented in the TAJS analysis tool and evaluated on a collection of small programs that use jQuery. Our...

  6. Static analysis of a piping system with elbows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, B.J.

    1994-03-01

    Vibration tests of elbows to failure were performed in Japan in the early 1970s. The piping system included two elbows and an eccentric mass. Tests were run both pressurized and unpressurized. This report documents a static analysis of the piping system in which the elbows are subjected to out of plane bending. The effects of internal pressure and material plasticity are investigated.

  7. Static Generalized Brans-Dicke Universe and Gravitational Waves Amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, M S; Berman, Marcelo S.; Trevisan, Luis A.

    2001-01-01

    We find a static solution for the scale-factor in a Brans-Dicke generalized theory where the scalar field and the coupling constant vary with time. We find also that in the early Universe there may be amplification of gravitational waves.

  8. Static-static-light-light tetraquarks in lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Marc

    2011-01-01

    I report on a lattice computation of the energy of a system of two light quarks and two static antiquarks as a function of the separation of the static antiquarks. In terms of hadrons such a system corresponds to a pair of B mesons and its energy to the hadronic potential. I present selected results for different isospin, spin and parity combinations of the individual B mesons mainly focusing on those channels relevant to determine, whether two B mesons may form a bound tetraquark state.

  9. Static Filtered Sky Color Constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alkhalifah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In Computer Vision, the sky color is used for lighting correction, image color enhancement, horizon alignment, image indexing, and outdoor image classification and in many other applications. In this article, for robust color based sky segmentation and detection, usage of lighting correction for sky color detection is investigated. As such, the impact of color constancy on sky color detection algorithms is evaluated and investigated. The color correction (constancy algorithms used includes Gray-Edge (GE, Gray-World (GW, Max-RGB (MRGB and Shades-of-Gray (SG. The algorithms GE, GW, MRGB, and SG, are tested on the static filtered sky modeling. The static filter is developed in the LAB color space. This evaluation and analysis is essential for detection scenarios, especially, color based object detection in outdoor scenes. From the results, it is concluded that the color constancy before sky color detection using LAB static filters has the potential of improving sky color detection performance. However, the application of the color constancy can impart adverse effects on the detection results. For images, the color constancy algorithms depict a compact and stable representative of the sky chroma loci, however, the sky color locus might have a shifting and deviation in a particular color representation. Since the sky static filters are using the static chromatic values, different results can be obtained by applying color constancy algorithms on various datasets.

  10. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments of its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant; still within the broad studies in the subject it is not yet recognised, in particular within the seismic area, a unitary approach to deal with Masonry structures. This successful book contributes to clarify the issues with a rigorous approach offering a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. This third edition has been driven by some recent developments of the research in the field, and it gives the fundamentals of Statics with an original and rigorous mathematical formulation, further in-depth inquired in this new version. With many refinements and improvements, the book investigates the static behaviour of many historic monuments, such as the Gothic Cathedrals, the Mycenaean Tholoi, the Pantheon, the Colosseum, the dome...

  11. Static Correctness of Hierarchical Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    1990-01-01

    A system of hierarchical, fully recursive types in a truly imperative language allows program fragments written for small types to be reused for all larger types. To exploit this property to enable type-safe hierarchical procedures, it is necessary to impose a static requirement on procedure calls....... We introduce an example language and prove the existence of a sound requirement which preserves static correctness while allowing hierarchical procedures. This requirement is further shown to be optimal, in the sense that it imposes as few restrictions as possible. This establishes the theoretical...... basis for a general type hierarchy with static type checking, which enables first-order polymorphism combined with multiple inheritance and specialization in a language with assignments. We extend the results to include opaque types. An opaque version of a type is different from the original but has...

  12. Static-Fluid Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Inyong

    2016-01-01

    We investigate black holes formed by static perfect fluid with $p=-\\rho/3$. These represent the black holes in $S_3$ and $H_3$ spatial geometries. There are three classes of black-hole solutions, two $S_3$ types and one $H_3$ type. The interesting solution is the one of $S_3$ type which possesses two singularities. The one is at the north pole behind the horizon, and the other is naked at the south pole. The observers, however, are free from falling to the naked singularity. There are also nonstatic cosmological solutions in $S_3$ and $H_3$, and a singular static solution in $H_3$.

  13. Static Fourier transform infrared spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardt, Michael; Murr, Patrik J; Rauscher, Markus S; Tremmel, Anton J; Wiesent, Benjamin R; Koch, Alexander W

    2016-04-01

    Fourier transform spectroscopy has established itself as the standard method for spectral analysis of infrared light. Here we present a robust and compact novel static Fourier transform spectrometer design without any moving parts. The design is well suited for measurements in the infrared as it works with extended light sources independent of their size. The design is experimentally evaluated in the mid-infrared wavelength region between 7.2 μm and 16 μm. Due to its large etendue, its low internal light loss, and its static design it enables high speed spectral analysis in the mid-infrared.

  14. Voltage Sensors Monitor Harmful Static

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A tiny sensor, small enough to be worn on clothing, now monitors voltage changes near sensitive instruments after being created to alert Agency workers to dangerous static buildup near fuel operations and avionics. San Diego s Quasar Federal Systems received a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center to develop its remote voltage sensor (RVS), a dime-sized electrometer designed to measure triboelectric changes in the environment. One of the unique qualities of the RVS is that it can detect static at greater distances than previous devices, measuring voltage changes from a few centimeters to a few meters away, due to its much-improved sensitivity.

  15. Static Analysis for Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Rosa, D. Schuch da

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows how static analysis techniques can help understanding biological systems. Based on a simple example we illustrate the outcome of performing three different analyses extracting information of increasing precision. We conclude by reporting on the potential impact and exploitation o...... of these techniques in systems biology....

  16. [Change of ambulatory blood pressure-related parameters for different levels of renal function in resistant hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yu; Li, Hang; Yu, Zhenqiu; Yang, Geng

    2015-03-24

    To explore the predictive values of ambulatory blood pressure-related parameters for moderate renal impairment in resistant hypertension (RH). The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed for 401 hospitalized patients with hypertension at our hospital from October 2010 to October 2013. They were divided into RH (n = 263) and non-RH (n = 138). The modified estimating equation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for Chinese patients was used to assess renal functions. The standardization of moderate renal impairment was when GFR below 60 ml · min⁻¹ · 1.73 m⁻². The ambulatory blood pressure-related parameters were obtained by 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. The important prediction of these parameters for moderate renal impairment was accessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. And the related risk factors for renal function impairment were tested by multiple stepwise Logistic regression analysis. Ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI), 24 h mean pulse pressure (24 hPP), sleeptime relative systolic blood pressure (SBP) decline and 24 h systolic blood pressure (24 hSBP) had important predictive values for moderate renal impairment in RH. GFR was significantly lower in those with AASI ≥ 0.485, 24 hPP ≥ 47.5 mmHg, sleeptime relative SBP decline ≤ -1.75% and 24 hSBP ≥ 130.5 mmHg (P resistant hypertension.

  17. Effect of olive oil phenolic compounds on the expression of blood pressure-related genes in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Peláez, Sandra; Castañer, Olga; Konstantinidou, Valentini; Subirana, Isaac; Muñoz-Aguayo, Daniel; Blanchart, Gemma; Gaixas, Sonia; de la Torre, Rafael; Farré, Magí; Sáez, Guillermo T; Nyyssönen, Kristina; Zunft, Hans Joachim; Covas, Maria Isabel; Fitó, Montse

    2017-03-01

    To investigate whether the ingestion of olive oil having different phenolic contents influences the expression of blood pressure-related genes, involved in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, in healthy humans. A randomized, double-blind, crossover human trial with 18 healthy subjects, who ingested 25 mL/day of olive oils (1) high (366 mg/kg, HPC) and (2) low (2.7 mg/kg, LPC) in phenolic compounds for 3 weeks, preceded by 2-week washout periods. Determination of selected blood pressure-related gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) by qPCR, blood pressure and systemic biomarkers. HPC decreased systolic blood pressure compared to pre-intervention values and to LPC, and maintained diastolic blood pressure values compared to LPC. HPC decreased ACE and NR1H2 gene expressions compared with pre-intervention values, and IL8RA gene expression compared with LPC. The introduction to the diet of an extra-virgin olive oil rich in phenolic compounds modulates the expression of some of the genes related to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. These changes could underlie the decrease in systolic blood pressure observed.

  18. Determinacy in Static Analysis of jQuery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Esben; Møller, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Static analysis for JavaScript can potentially help programmers find errors early during development. Although much progress has been made on analysis techniques, a major obstacle is the prevalence of libraries, in particular jQuery, which apply programming patterns that have detrimental...... present a static dataflow analysis for JavaScript that infers and exploits determinacy information on-the-fly, to enable analysis of some of the most complex parts of jQuery. The techniques are implemented in the TAJS analysis tool and evaluated on a collection of small programs that use jQuery. Our...... consequences on the analysis precision and performance. Previous work on dynamic determinacy analysis has demonstrated how information about program expressions that always resolve to a fixed value in some call context may lead to significant scalability improvements of static analysis for such code. We...

  19. In silico prediction of atomic static electric-dipole polarizabilities of the early tetravalent actinide ions: Th4+(5f0) , Pa4+(5f1) , and U4+(5f2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réal, Florent; Vallet, Valérie; Clavaguéra, Carine; Dognon, Jean-Pierre

    2008-11-01

    The dipole polarizability tensor components of the tetravalent actinide ions Th4+ , Pa4+ , and U4+ are computed using the numerical finite-field technique. Four-component correlated calculations have been performed to serve as a reference for establishing the accuracy of two- and one-component relativistic methods. A good agreement within all methods is achieved provided that extended basis sets are used to reach the complete basis set limit. The four-component correlated polarizabilities represent a database of reference values of the dipole polarizability for the early tetravalent actinide ions.

  20. Static Analysis of Dynamic Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Magnus

    on the behaviour of these languages. A common theme is the reliance on static program analysis to over-approximate the behaviour of programs written in these languages. Specifically, the use of whole-program dataflow analysis. The research challenge of this line of work is the adaption of existing- and invention......Dynamic programming languages are highly popular and widely used. Java- Script is often called the lingua franca of the web and it is the de facto standard for client-side web programming. On the server-side the PHP, Python and Ruby languages are prevalent. What these languages have in common...... is an expressive power which is not easily captured by any static type system. These, and similar dynamic languages, are often praised for their ease-of-use and flexibility. Unfortunately, this dynamism comes at a great cost: The lack of a type system implies that most errors are not discovered until run...

  1. Static Behaviour of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim André

    . The monopod concept is investigated in this thesis, regarding the static behaviour from loads relevant to offshore wind turbines. The main issue in this concept is the rotational stiffness of the foundation and the combined capacity dominated by moments. The vertical bearing capacity of bucket foundations...... theory is proposed. The proposed expression applies to plane strain as well as axis-symmetric stress conditions for foundations with smooth or rough bases. A thorough experimental investigation of the static behaviour of bucket foundations subjected to combined loading is carried out. Laboratory tests...... as well as large-scale tests on bucket foundations subjected to low vertical load are performed during this work. Numerical simulations of the tests performed are carried out using the Mohr Coulomb material model and the commercial finite element code ABAQUS. Based on the present work, the finite element...

  2. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    CERN Document Server

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply nonlinear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatiotemporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid flow is known to occur in the ground, it is not pertinent to the behaviour of induced seismicity. The proposed model is equivalent to the static stress model for tectonic foreshocks generated by the Non- Critical Precursory Accelerating Seismicity Theory. This study hence verifies the explanatory power of this theory outside of its original scope.

  3. Static Behaviour of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim André

    . The monopod concept is investigated in this thesis, regarding the static behaviour from loads relevant to offshore wind turbines. The main issue in this concept is the rotational stiffness of the foundation and the combined capacity dominated by moments. The vertical bearing capacity of bucket foundations...... theory is proposed. The proposed expression applies to plane strain as well as axis-symmetric stress conditions for foundations with smooth or rough bases. A thorough experimental investigation of the static behaviour of bucket foundations subjected to combined loading is carried out. Laboratory tests...... method is concluded to be a superior method in estimating the post peak behaviour as well as the combined capacity of bucket foundations in relation to the offshore wind turbine problem....

  4. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This successful book, which is now appearing in its second edition, presents a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. The book you hold in hands contributes to fill this demand. The second edition integrates the original text of the first edition with new developments, widening and revisions, due to recent research studies achievements. The result is a book that gives a complete picture of the behaviour of the Masonry Constructions. First of all, it gives the fundamentals of its Statics, based on the no-tension assumption, and then it develops the Limit Analysis for the Masonry Constructions. In this framework, through an interdisciplinary approach combining Engineering and Architecture, the book also investigates the sta...

  5. Static Analysis of Mobile Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air...and then use static analysis to verify them. In the end we pursued this idea successfully for several differnet properties and developed novel...difficult to develop with enough precision. In [3], we establish a connection between compositional analyses and modular lattices, which require

  6. A Pedagogical Model of Static Friction

    CERN Document Server

    Pickett, Galen T

    2015-01-01

    While dry Coulombic friction is an elementary topic in any standard introductory course in mechanics, the critical distinction between the kinetic and static friction forces is something that is both hard to teach and to learn. In this paper, I describe a geometric model of static friction that may help introductory students to both understand and apply the Coulomb static friction approximation.

  7. 30 CFR 18.26 - Static electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Static electricity. 18.26 Section 18.26 Mineral... § 18.26 Static electricity. Nonmetallic rotating parts, such as belts and fans, shall be provided with a means to prevent an accumulation of static electricity. ...

  8. In-Flight Pitot-Static Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John V. (Inventor); Cunningham, Kevin (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A GPS-based pitot-static calibration system uses global output-error optimization. High data rate measurements of static and total pressure, ambient air conditions, and GPS-based ground speed measurements are used to compute pitot-static pressure errors over a range of airspeed. System identification methods rapidly compute optimal pressure error models with defined confidence intervals.

  9. Static Analysis Alert Audits: Lexicon and Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-04

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material has been approved for public release and unlimited distribution. REV-03.18.2016.0 Static Analysis Alert Audits...unlimited distribution. Background: Automatic Alert Classification Static Analysis Tool(s) Alerts Alert Consolidation (SCALe) Potential Rule...Automatic Alert Classification Static Analysis Tool(s) Alerts Alert Consolidation (SCALe) Potential Rule Violations Auditing Determinations ML

  10. Static Charge Development on Explosives .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Raha

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Static charge development character of some of the important explosive crystals have been predicted on the basis of their crystal class and symmetry. Among the important mechanism of charge development, the piezoelectric and pyroelectric characters have been considered. Ammonium trinitrate, ammonium nitrate, m-dinitro-benzene, trinitro-toluene, styphnic acid, beeta-lead styphnate, 4,4'dinitro-dipheny1, a-hexamethylenetetranitramine, nitroguanidine, picric acid, dimethylnitramine, a-lead azide and beeta-lead azide are pyroelectric in nature, whereas pentaerythritol tetranitrate, picryliodide, hexamethylenetranitramine, tetranitromethane and trinitroethane are piezoelectric in nature.

  11. Static Analysis for Dynamic XML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    We describe the summary graph lattice for dataflow analysis of programs that dynamically construct XML documents. Summary graphs have successfully been used to provide static guarantees in the JWIG language for programming interactive Web services. In particular, the JWIG compiler is able to check...... validity of dynamically generated XHTML documents and to type check dynamic form data. In this paper we present summary graphs and indicate their applicability for various scenarios. We also show that the expressive power of summary graphs is similar to that of the regular expression types from XDuce......, but that the extra structure in summary graphs makes them more suitable for certain program analyses....

  12. Static Analysis for Dynamic XML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    We describe the summary graph lattice for dataflow analysis of programs that dynamically construct XML documents. Summary graphs have successfully been used to provide static guarantees in the JWIG language for programming interactive Web services. In particular, the JWIG compiler is able to check...... validity of dynamically generated XHTML documents and to type check dynamic form data. In this paper we present summary graphs and indicate their applicability for various scenarios. We also show that the expressive power of summary graphs is similar to that of the regular expression types from XDuce...

  13. Static Validation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, P.;

    2005-01-01

    We methodically expand protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to specify some of the checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques ...... suffice to identify several authentication flaws in symmetric and asymmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder symmetric key, Otway-Rees, Yahalom, Andrew secure RPC, Needham-Schroeder asymmetric key, and Beller-Chang-Yacobi MSR...

  14. Compartment elasticity measured by pressure-related ultrasound to determine patients "at risk" for compartment syndrome: an experimental in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellei, Richard Martin; Hingmann, Simon Johannes; Kobbe, Philipp; Weber, Christian; Grice, John Edward; Zimmerman, Frauke; Jeromin, Sabine; Hildebrand, Frank; Pape, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making in treatment of an acute compartment syndrome is based on clinical assessment, supported by invasive monitoring. Thus, evolving compartment syndrome may require repeated pressure measurements. In suspected cases of potential compartment syndromes clinical assessment alone seems to be unreliable. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a non-invasive application estimating whole compartmental elasticity by ultrasound, which may improve accuracy of diagnostics. In an in vitro model, using an artificial container simulating dimensions of the human anterior tibial compartment, intra-compartmental pressures (p) were raised subsequently up to 80 mmHg by infusion of saline solution. The compartmental depth (mm) in the cross-section view was measured before and after manual probe compression (100 mmHg) upon the surface resulting in a linear compartmental displacement (∆d). This was repeated at rising compartmental pressures. The resulting displacements were related to the corresponding intra-compartmental pressures simulated in our model. A hypothesized relationship between pressures related compartmental displacement and the elasticity at elevated compartment pressures was investigated. With rising compartmental pressures, a non-linear, reciprocal proportional relation between the displacement (mm) and the intra-compartmental pressure (mmHg) occurred. The Pearson coefficient showed a high correlation (r(2) = -0.960). The intra-observer reliability value kappa resulted in a statistically high reliability (κ = 0.840). The inter-observer value indicated a fair reliability (κ = 0.640). Our model reveals that a strong correlation between compartmental strain displacements assessed by ultrasound and the intra-compartmental pressure changes occurs. Further studies are required to prove whether this assessment is transferable to human muscle tissue. Determining the complete compartmental elasticity by ultrasound

  15. Electrowetting -- from statics to dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Longquan; Bonaccurso, Elmar

    2014-08-01

    More than one century ago, Lippmann found that capillary forces can be effectively controlled by external electrostatic forces. As a simple example, by applying a voltage between a conducting liquid droplet and the surface it is sitting on we are able to adjust the wetting angle of the drop. Since Lippmann's findings, electrocapillary phenomena - or electrowetting - have developed into a series of tools for manipulating microdroplets on solid surfaces, or small amounts of liquids in capillaries for microfluidic applications. In this article, we briefly review some recent progress of fundamental understanding of electrowetting and address some still unsolved issues. Specifically, we focus on static and dynamic electrowetting. In static electrowetting, we discuss some basic phenomena found in DC and AC electrowetting, and some theories about the origin of contact angle saturation. In dynamic electrowetting, we introduce some studies about this rather recent area. At last, we address some other capillary phenomena governed by electrostatics and we give an outlook that might stimulate further investigations on electrowetting.

  16. The Predictive Validity of the Static-99, Static-99R, and Static-2002/R: Which One to Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Sophie G; Ogloff, James R P; Simmons, Melanie

    2017-06-01

    The use of Static tools (Static-99, Static-99R, Static-2002, and Static-2002R) in risk decision making involving sexual offenders is widespread internationally. This study compared the predictive accuracy and incremental validity of four Static risk measures in a sample of 621 Australian sexual offenders. Results indicated that approximately 45% of the sample recidivated (with 18.8% committing sexual offenses). All of the Static measures investigated yielded moderate predictive validity for sexual recidivism, which was comparable with other Australian and overseas studies. Area under the curve (AUC) values for the four measures across the 5-, 10-, and 15-year intervals ranged from .67 to .69. All of the Static measures discriminated quite well between low-risk and high-risk sexual offenders but less well for the moderate risk categories. When pitted together, none of the tools accounted for additional variance in sexual recidivism, above and beyond what the other measures accounted for. The overall results provide support for the use of Static measures as a component of risk assessment and decision making with Australian sexual offending populations. The limitations of this study and recommendations for further research are also discussed.

  17. Ares I Static Tests Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, William; Lindemuth, Kathleen; Mich, John; White, K. Preston; Parker, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic engineering design enhances safety and reduces costs by incorporating risk assessment directly into the design process. In this paper, we assess the format of the quantitative metrics for the vehicle which will replace the Space Shuttle, the Ares I rocket. Specifically, we address the metrics for in-flight measurement error in the vector position of the motor nozzle, dictated by limits on guidance, navigation, and control systems. Analyses include the propagation of error from measured to derived parameters, the time-series of dwell points for the duty cycle during static tests, and commanded versus achieved yaw angle during tests. Based on these analyses, we recommend a probabilistic template for specifying the maximum error in angular displacement and radial offset for the nozzle-position vector. Criteria for evaluating individual tests and risky decisions also are developed.

  18. Statics learning from engineering examples

    CERN Document Server

    Emri, Igor

    2016-01-01

    This textbook introduces and explains the basic concepts on which statics is based utilizing real engineering examples. The authors emphasize the learning process by showing a real problem, analyzing it, simplifying it, and developing a way to solve it. This feature teaches students intuitive thinking in solving real engineering problems using the fundamentals of Newton’s laws. This book also: · Stresses representation of physical reality in ways that allow students to solve problems and obtain meaningful results · Emphasizes identification of important features of the structure that should be included in a model and which features may be omitted · Facilitates students' understanding and mastery of the "flow of thinking" practiced by professional engineers.

  19. Static and non-static black holes with the Liouville mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalets, T. M.; Nurmagambetov, A. J.

    2017-03-01

    We present a new class of static and non-static quasi-spherical black hole solutions in four-dimensional Minkowski and Anti-de Sitter spaces and briefly discuss its employing in the Gauge/Gravity duality.

  20. Model Checking as Static Analysis: Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fuyuan; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2012-01-01

    We show that the model checking problem of the μ-calculus can be viewed as an instance of static analysis. We propose Succinct Fixed Point Logic (SFP) within our logical approach to static analysis as an extension of Alternation-free Least Fixed Logic (ALFP). We generalize the notion...

  1. Static domain wall in braneworld gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdalla, M.C.B.; Carlesso, P.F. [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Fisica Teiorica, Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco II, Barra-Funda, Caixa Postal 70532-2, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hoff da Silva, J.M. [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    In this paper we consider a static domain wall inside a 3-brane. Different from the standard achievement obtained in General Relativity, the analysis performed here gives a consistency condition for the existence of static domain walls in a braneworld gravitational scenario. Also the behavior of the domain wall's gravitational field in the newtonian limit is shown. (orig.)

  2. Static Complexity Analysis of Higher Order Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, James Emil; Kristiansen, Lars; Moyen, Jean-Yves

    2009-01-01

    The overall goal of the research presented in this paper is to find^M automatic methods for static complexity analysis of higher order^M programs.......The overall goal of the research presented in this paper is to find^M automatic methods for static complexity analysis of higher order^M programs....

  3. Static balance and developmental coordination disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, RH

    2003-01-01

    The development of static balance is a basic characteristic of normal motor development. Most of the developmental motor tests include a measure of static balance. Children with a developmental coordination disorder (DCD) often fail this item. Twenty-four children at risk for DCD with balance proble

  4. ENROLMENT MODEL STABILITY IN STATIC SIGNATURE VERIFICATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allgrove, C.; Fairhurst, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    The stability of enrolment models used in a static verification system is assessed, in order to provide an enhanced chracterisation of signatures through the validation of the enrolment process. A number of static features are used to illustrate the effect of the variation in enrolment model size on

  5. Comparing Techniques for Certified Static Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachera, David; Pichardie, David

    2009-01-01

    A certified static analysis is an analysis whose semantic validity has been formally proved correct with a proof assistant. The recent increasing interest in using proof assistants for mechanizing programming language metatheory has given rise to several approaches for certification of static analysis. We propose a panorama of these techniques and compare their respective strengths and weaknesses.

  6. Heritability of blood pressure traits and the genetic contribution to blood pressure variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, M.J. van; Schut, A.F.; Aulchenko, Y.S.; Deinum, J.; Sayed-Tabatabaei, F.A.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Isaacs, A.; Axenovich, T.I.; Zorkoltseva, I.V.; Zillikens, M.C.; Pols, H.A.; Witteman, J.C.; Oostra, B.A.; Duijn, C.M. van

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the heritability of four blood pressure traits and the proportion of variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes. METHODS: All participants are members of an extended pedigree from a Dutch genetically isolated population. Heritability and genetic correlations of systo

  7. Heritability of blood pressure traits and the genetic contribution to blood pressure variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, M.J. van; Schut, A.F.; Aulchenko, Y.S.; Deinum, J.; Sayed-Tabatabaei, F.A.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Isaacs, A.; Axenovich, T.I.; Zorkoltseva, I.V.; Zillikens, M.C.; Pols, H.A.; Witteman, J.C.; Oostra, B.A.; Duijn, C.M. van

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the heritability of four blood pressure traits and the proportion of variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes. METHODS: All participants are members of an extended pedigree from a Dutch genetically isolated population. Heritability and genetic correlations of

  8. Early Mover Advantages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. Bijwaard (Govert); M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); E. Maasland (Emiel)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we analyze empirically whether and if so to what extent later entrants in the European mobile telephony industry have a disadvantage vis-à-vis incumbents and early mover entrants. To analyze this question we consider a series of static models and a dynamic model of market s

  9. Aftershocks halted by static stress shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.; Beroza, Gregory C.; Marsan, David

    2012-06-01

    Earthquakes impart static and dynamic stress changes to the surrounding crust. Sudden fault slip causes small but permanent--static--stress changes, and passing seismic waves cause large, but brief and oscillatory--dynamic--stress changes. Because both static and dynamic stresses can trigger earthquakes within several rupture dimensions of a mainshock, it has proven difficult to disentangle their contributions to the triggering process. However, only dynamic stress can trigger earthquakes far from the source, and only static stress can create stress shadows, where the stress and thus the seismicity rate in the shadow area drops following an earthquake. Here we calculate the stress imparted by the magnitude 6.1 Joshua Tree and nearby magnitude 7.3 Landers earthquakes that occurred in California in April and June 1992, respectively, and measure seismicity through time. We show that, where the aftershock zone of the first earthquake was subjected to a static stress increase from the second, the seismicity rate jumped. In contrast, where the aftershock zone of the first earthquake fell under the stress shadow of the second and static stress dropped, seismicity shut down. The arrest of seismicity implies that static stress is a requisite element of spatial clustering of large earthquakes and should be a constituent of hazard assessment.

  10. Martian Atmospheric Pressure Static Charge Elimination Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    A Martian pressure static charge elimination tool is currently in development in the Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory (ESPL) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. In standard Earth atmosphere conditions, static charge can be neutralized from an insulating surface using air ionizers. These air ionizers generate ions through corona breakdown. The Martian atmosphere is 7 Torr of mostly carbon dioxide, which makes it inherently difficult to use similar methods as those used for standard atmosphere static elimination tools. An initial prototype has been developed to show feasibility of static charge elimination at low pressure, using corona discharge. A needle point and thin wire loop are used as the corona generating electrodes. A photo of the test apparatus is shown below. Positive and negative high voltage pulses are sent to the needle point. This creates positive and negative ions that can be used for static charge neutralization. In a preliminary test, a floating metal plate was charged to approximately 600 volts under Martian atmospheric conditions. The static elimination tool was enabled and the voltage on the metal plate dropped rapidly to -100 volts. This test data is displayed below. Optimization is necessary to improve the electrostatic balance of the static elimination tool.

  11. Early Mover Advantages

    OpenAIRE

    Bijwaard, Govert; Janssen, Maarten; Maasland, Emiel

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes empirically whether and if so to what extent later entrants in the European mobile telephony industry have a disadvantage vis-à-vis incumbents and early mover entrants. To analyze this question a dynamic model of market share development and a series of static models are considered. There is clear evidence of early mover advantage, mainly caused by the influence of the penetration rate: it pays to enter when still few people have acquired a mobile telephone. Another import...

  12. Pheromone Static Routing Strategy for Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, Xiang; Jiang, Rui; Hu, Mao-Bin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we adopt the concept of pheromone to generate a set of static paths that can reach the performance of global dynamic routing strategy [Phys. Rev. E 81, 016113(2010)]. In the test stage, pheromone is dropped to the nodes by packets forwarded by the global dynamic routing strategy. After that, static paths are generated according to the density of pheromone. The output paths can greatly improve traffic systems' overall capacity on different network structures, including scale-free networks, small-world networks and random graphs. Because the paths are static, the system needs much less computational resource than the global dynamic routing strategy.

  13. Modeling the HTML DOM and Browser API in Static Analysis of JavaScript Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Holm; Madsen, Magnus; Møller, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Developers of JavaScript web applications have little tool support for catching errors early in development. In comparison, an abundance of tools exist for statically typed languages, including sophisticated integrated development environments and specialized static analyses. Transferring...... such technologies to the domain of JavaScript web applications is challenging. In this paper, we discuss the challenges, which include the dynamic aspects of JavaScript and the complex interactions between JavaScript, HTML, and the browser. From this, we present the first static analysis that is capable...... of reasoning about the flow of control and data in modern JavaScript applications that interact with the HTML DOM and browser API. One application of such a static analysis is to detect type-related and dataflow-related programming errors. We report on experiments with a range of modern web applications...

  14. Analytic three-loop static potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roman N.; Smirnov, Alexander V.; Smirnov, Vladimir A.; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    We present analytic results for the three-loop static potential of two heavy quarks. The analytic calculation of the missing ingredients is outlined, and results for the singlet and octet potential are provided.

  15. Static Stress Analysis of Security Injection Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The static structural analysis of the security injection tank is made to make sure whether the tank can withstand concerned loads or not on all conditions conforming to concerned code prescripts and design requirements. The tanks

  16. Static Water Vapor Feed Electrolyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a static vapor feed electrolyzer utilizing an advanced bipolar plate that produces sub-saturated H2 and O2 is proposed. This novel bipolar design can...

  17. Static Water Vapor Feed Electrolyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a static vapor feed electrolyzer utilizing an advanced bipolar plate that produces sub-saturated H2 and O2 is proposed. This novel bipolar design can...

  18. On static equilibrium and balance puzzler

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Samrat; Saikia, Dipankar; Kalita, Deepjyoti; Debbarma, Anamika; Wahab, Shaheen Akhtar; Sarma, Saurabh

    2012-01-01

    The principles of static equilibrium are of special interest to civil engineers. For a rigid body to be in static equilibrium the condition is that net force and net torque acting on the body should be zero. That clearly signifies that if equal weights are placed on either sides of a balance, the balance should be in equilibrium, even if its beam is not horizontal (we have considered the beam to be straight and have no thickness, an ideal case). Thus, although the weights are equal, they will appear different which is puzzling. This also shows that the concept of equilibrium is confusing, especially neutral equilibrium is confused to be stable equilibrium. The study not only throws more light on the concept of static equilibrium, but also clarifies that a structure need not be firm and steady even if it is in static equilibrium.

  19. Statics formulas and problems : engineering mechanics 1

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Dietmar; Wriggers, Peter; Schröder, Jörg; Müller, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    This book contains the most important formulas and more than 160 completely solved problems from Statics. It provides engineering students material to improve their skills and helps to gain experience in solving engineering problems. Particular emphasis is placed on finding the solution path and formulating the basic equations. Topics include: - Equilibrium - Center of Gravity, Center of Mass, Centroids - Support Reactions - Trusses - Beams, Frames, Arches - Cables - Work and Potential Energy - Static and Kinetic Friction - Moments of Inertia.

  20. Typification of Statice dichotoma Cav. (Plumbaginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrer-Gallego, P. Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A lectotype and an epitype are here designated for Statice dichotoma Cav. (Plumbaginaceae, an endemic taxon from the central part of the Iberian Peninsula, which is currently named Limonium dichotomum (Cav. KuntzeSe designan un lectótipo y un epítipo para Statice dichotoma Cav. (Plumbaginaceae, un taxon endémico del centro de la península Ibérica, actualmente denominado Limonium dichotomum (Cav. Kuntze.

  1. Static Validation of a Voting Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Andersen, Esben Heltoft; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2005-01-01

    The desired security properties of electronic voting protocols include verifiability, accuracy, democracy and fairness. In this paper we use a static program analysis tool to validate these properties for one of the classical voting protocols under appropriate assumptions. The protocol is formali......The desired security properties of electronic voting protocols include verifiability, accuracy, democracy and fairness. In this paper we use a static program analysis tool to validate these properties for one of the classical voting protocols under appropriate assumptions. The protocol...

  2. Static analysis of function calls in Erlang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dániel Horpácsi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Functions and their relations can affect numerous properties and metrics of a functional program. To identify and represent the functions and their calling connections, software analysers commonly apply semantic function analysis, which derives the static call graph of the program, based on its source code. Function calls however may be dynamic and complex, making it difficult to statically identify the callee. Dynamic calls are determined just at run-time, static analysis therefore cannot be expected to fully identify every call. Nevertheless, by utilising the results of a properly performed data-flow analysis as well as taking ambiguous references into account, numerous dynamic calls are discoverable and representable. We consider cases where the identifiers of the callee are statically determined, but they flow into the call expression from a different program point, and also, we manage to handle function calls whose identifiers are not fully identifiable at compile-time. By utilising the improved reference analysis, we extend the static call graph with various information about dynamic function calls. We investigate such a function call analysis in the programming language Erlang.

  3. The validity of static lung compliance in asbestos-induced diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Joachim; Arhelger, Rolf; Raab, Wolfgang; Hering, Kurt Georg

    2012-08-01

    Pulmonary compliance can be viewed as an indicator of distensibility of the lungs, not only in asbestos-induced pulmonary disorders but also in visceral pleural fibrosis extending into the lung parenchyma. In this study we evaluated static compliance measurements in asbestos-derived diseases, especially in patients with parietal pleura plaques. Lung function analyses, especially static lung compliance, were correlated with high-resolution computer tomography examinations. Sixty-three patients with parietal pleural plaques, 10 with visceral pleural fibrosis, 39 with parenchymal pulmonary asbestosis together with parietal pleural plaques, and 42 with parenchymal pulmonary asbestosis together with visceral pleural fibrosis were enrolled in the study. In comparison with patients having only parietal pleural plaques, those having asbestosis and visceral pleural fibrosis showed significant decreases in static lung compliance, diffusing capacity, and vital capacity. Visceral pleural thickening was also associated with significantly reduced FEV(1), MEF(50), and FEV(1)/FVC ratios. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the existence of visceral pleural fibrosis (p = 0.017) is the most important factor accounting for a decrease in static compliance. Reference values of static lung compliance differ notably. In comparison with mean reference values, the sensitivity of detecting reduced lung compliance was calculated to be between 9.7 and 45.5 %. Other respiratory function variables failed to show any significant differences. Our data indicate that the measurement of static compliance is not sufficient for early detection of pulmonary function impairment in patients with parietal pleural plaques.

  4. From Flow Logic to Static Type Systems in Coordination Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Nicola, Rocco; Gorla, Daniele; Hansen, René Rydhof;

    2008-01-01

    ; therefore, the correctness properties cannot be statically enforced. By contrast, static analysis approaches based on Flow Logic usually guarantee properties statically. In this paper we show how to combine these two approaches to obtain a static type system for describing secure access to tuple spaces...

  5. 30 CFR 57.6602 - Static electricity dissipation during loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Static electricity dissipation during loading... MINES Explosives Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6602 Static electricity dissipation... generates a static electricity hazard— (a) An evaluation of the potential static electricity hazard shall be...

  6. Investigating Static and Dynamic Light Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Yong

    2011-01-01

    A new size, static radii $R_{s}$, can be measured accurately using Static Light Scattering (SLS) technique when the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation is valid for dilute homogenous spherical particles in dispersion. The method proposed in this work not only can measures the particle size distribution and average molar mass accurately but also enables us to explore Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) technique further. Detailed investigation of the normalized time auto-correlation function of the scattered light intensity $g^{2)}(\\tau)$ shows that the measurements of DLS can be expected accurately and the static and hydrodynamic radii of nanoparticles are different. Only at some special conditions, the Z-average hydrodynamic radius can be measured accurately at a given scattering angle. The fact that the values of average hydrodynamic radius measured at different scattering angles are consistent or the values of polydispersity index are small does not mean the particle size distribution is narrow or monodisperse.

  7. Static Analysis for JavaScript

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Holm

    Web applications present unique challenges to designers of static analysis tools. One of these challenges is the language JavaScript used for client side scripting in the browser. JavaScript is a complex language with many pitfalls and poor tool support compared to other languages....... This dissertation describes the design and implementation of a static analysis for JavaScript that can assist programmers in finding bugs in code during development. We describe the design of a static analysis tool for JavaScript, built using the monotone framework. This analysis infers detailed type information...... about programs. This information can be used to detect bugs such as null pointer dereferences and unintended type coercions. The analysis is sound, enabling it to prove the absence of certain program errors. JavaScript is usually run within the context of the browser and the DOM API. The major...

  8. Pheromone Static Routing Strategy for Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mao-Bin; Henry, Y. K. Lau; Ling, Xiang; Jiang, Rui

    2012-12-01

    We adopt the concept of using pheromones to generate a set of static paths that can reach the performance of global dynamic routing strategy [Phys. Rev. E 81 (2010) 016113]. The path generation method consists of two stages. In the first stage, a pheromone is dropped to the nodes by packets forwarded according to the global dynamic routing strategy. In the second stage, pheromone static paths are generated according to the pheromone density. The output paths can greatly improve traffic systems' overall capacity on different network structures, including scale-free networks, small-world networks and random graphs. Because the paths are static, the system needs much less computational resources than the global dynamic routing strategy.

  9. Statics and rotational dynamics of composite beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ghorashi, Mehrdaad

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive study of the nonlinear statics and dynamics of composite beams and consists of solutions with and without active elements embedded in the beams. The static solution provides the initial conditions for the dynamic analysis. The dynamic problems considered include the analyses of clamped (hingeless) and articulated (hinged) accelerating rotating beams. Two independent numerical solutions for the steady state and the transient responses are presented. The author illustrates that the transient solution of the nonlinear formulation of accelerating rotating beam converges to the steady state solution obtained by the shooting method. Other key areas considered include calculation of the effect of perturbing the steady state solution, coupled nonlinear flap-lag dynamics of a rotating articulated beam with hinge offset and aerodynamic damping, and static and dynamic responses of nonlinear composite beams with embedded anisotropic piezo-composite actuators. The book is intended as a t...

  10. Extending and Enhancing SAS (Static Analysis Suite)

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, David

    2016-01-01

    The Static Analysis Suite (SAS) is an open-source software package used to perform static analysis on C and C++ code, helping to ensure safety, readability and maintainability. In this Summer Student project, SAS was enhanced to improve ease of use and user customisation. A straightforward method of integrating static analysis into a project at compilation time was provided using the automated build tool CMake. The process of adding checkers to the suite was streamlined and simplied by developing an automatic code generator. To make SAS more suitable for continuous integration, a reporting mechanism summarising results was added. This suitability has been demonstrated by inclusion of SAS in the Future Circular Collider Software nightly build system. Scalability of the improved package was demonstrated by using the tool to analyse the ROOT code base.

  11. Static multiplicities in heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Klavs; Andersen, Torben Ravn; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the results of a bifurcation analysis on heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences are given. Two sequences suitable for ethanol dehydration are compared: The 'direct' and the 'indirect' sequence. It is shown, that the two sequences, despite their similarities, exhibit very...... different static behavior. The method of Petlyuk and Avet'yan (1971), Bekiaris et al. (1993), which assumes infinite reflux and infinite number of stages, is extended to and applied on heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences. The predictions are substantiated through simulations. The static sequence...

  12. Static cylindrical symmetry and conformal flatness

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera, L; Marcilhacy, G; Santos, N O

    2004-01-01

    We present the whole set of equations with regularity and matching conditions required for the description of physically meaningful static cylindrically symmmetric distributions of matter, smoothly matched to Levi-Civita vacuum spacetime. It is shown that the conformally flat solution with equal principal stresses represents an incompressible fluid. It is also proved that any conformally flat cylindrically symmetric static source cannot be matched through Darmois conditions to the Levi-Civita spacetime. Further evidence is given that when the Newtonian mass per unit length reaches 1/2 the spacetime has plane symmetry.

  13. QuickChecking Static Analysis Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Møller, Anders

    2015-01-01

    A static analysis can check programs for potential errors. A natural question that arises is therefore: who checks the checker? Researchers have given this question varying attention, ranging from basic testing techniques, informal monotonicity arguments, thorough pen-and-paper soundness proofs......, to verified fixed point checking. In this paper we demonstrate how quickchecking can be useful for testing a range of static analysis properties with limited effort. We show how to check a range of algebraic lattice properties, to help ensure that an implementation follows the formal specification...

  14. MEMS linear and nonlinear statics and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Younis, Mohammad I

    2011-01-01

    MEMS Linear and Nonlinear Statics and Dynamics presents the necessary analytical and computational tools for MEMS designers to model and simulate most known MEMS devices, structures, and phenomena. This book also provides an in-depth analysis and treatment of the most common static and dynamic phenomena in MEMS that are encountered by engineers. Coverage also includes nonlinear modeling approaches to modeling various MEMS phenomena of a nonlinear nature, such as those due to electrostatic forces, squeeze-film damping, and large deflection of structures. The book also: Includes examples of nume

  15. Static and dynamic properties of Fibonacci multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, L. D.; Bezerra, C. G.; Correa, M. A.; Chesman, C.; Pearson, J. E.; Hoffmann, A.

    2013-05-01

    We theoretically investigate static and dynamic properties of quasiperiodic magnetic multilayers. We considered identical ferromagnetic layers separated by non-magnetic spacers with two different thicknesses chosen based on the Fibonacci sequence. Using parameters for Fe/Cr, the minimum energy was determined and the equilibrium magnetization directions found were used to calculate magnetoresistance curves. Regarding dynamic behavior, ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) curves were calculated using an approximation known from the literature. Our numerical results illustrate the effects of quasiperiodicity on the static and dynamic properties of these structures.

  16. Static compensators (STATCOMs) in power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shahnia, Farhad; Ghosh, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    A static compensator (STATCOM), also known as static synchronous compensator, is a member of the flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices. It is a power-electronics based regulating device which is composed of a voltage source converter (VSC) and is shunt-connected to alternating current electricity transmission and distribution networks. The voltage source is created from a DC capacitor and the STATCOM can exchange reactive power with the network. It can also supply some active power to the network, if a DC source of power is connected across the capacitor. A STATCOM

  17. Higher ambulatory blood pressure relates to new cerebral microbleeds: 2-year follow-up study in lacunar stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarenbeek, Pim; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; Rouhl, Rob P W; Knottnerus, Iris L H; Staals, Julie

    2013-04-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP) is associated with the presence of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in cross-sectional studies. However, longitudinal studies did not show a convincing relationship. We aimed to determine the association between elevated BP levels and the occurrence of new CMBs after a 2-year follow-up in first-ever lacunar stroke patients using ambulatory BP monitoring. Ninety-six first-ever lacunar stroke patients underwent brain MRI and ambulatory BP monitoring at baseline and after 2-year follow-up. We used logistic regression analyses to assess the association of BP levels with new CMBs. We found new CMBs in 17 patients (18%). Higher 24-hour, day and night systolic BP (odds ratio, 2.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-5.21 per SD increase for 24-hour BP) and diastolic BP (odds ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-3.90 per SD increase for 24-hour BP) at baseline were associated with the development of new CMBs independent of age and sex. BP levels decreased during follow-up in both patients with and without new CMBs. Unlike BP levels at baseline, there was no difference in BP levels at follow-up between patients with and without new CMBs. Both higher systolic and diastolic BP levels were associated with the development of new CMBs in a population of lacunar stroke patients. Decrease of BP levels during follow-up did not halt progression of CMBs; however, it remains to be determined whether (early) intervention with antihypertensive drugs can slow down progression of CMBs.

  18. Equation of state of dolomite from shock Hugoniot and static compression studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, D. E.

    2017-01-01

    Comparisons are made between shock Hugoniot data and recent high-pressure static DAC (diamond anvil cell) data on dolomite mineral. Stark disparities are noted. DAC measurements reveal first order phase transformation within the pressure range of approximately 17-37 GPa. The preponderance of shock data failed to reveal phase transformation on the Hugoniot. Early time-resolved pressure reveal a possible transformation in the neighborhood of 20-25 GPa impeded by transformation kinetics. Static and dynamic data are contrasted and the underlying mechanisms assessed.

  19. Static Theory for Planar Ferromagnets and Antiferromagnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Bo HANG; Fang Hua LIN

    2001-01-01

    Here we generalize the "BBH"-asymptotic analysis to a simplified mathematical model for the planar ferromagnets and antiferromagncts. To develop such a static theory is a necessary step for a rigorous mathematical justification of dynamical laws for the magnetic vortices formally derived in [1] and [2].

  20. Structural Encoding of Static Single Assignment Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Andreas; Probst, Christian; Franz, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Static Single Assignment (SSA) form is often used as an intermediate representation during code optimization in Java Virtual Machines. Recently, SSA has successfully been used for bytecode verification. However, constructing SSA at the code consumer is costly. SSAbased mobile code transport formats...

  1. Monotone Comparative Statics for the Industry Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    2015-01-01

    We let heterogeneous firms face decisions on a number of complementary activities in a monopolistically-competitive industry. The endogenous level of competition and selection regarding entry and exit of firms introduces a wedge between monotone comparative statics (MCS) at the firm level and MCS...

  2. Static Validation of a Voting Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Andersen, Esben Heltoft; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2005-01-01

    The desired security properties of electronic voting protocols include verifiability, accuracy, democracy and fairness. In this paper we use a static program analysis tool to validate these properties for one of the classical voting protocols under appropriate assumptions. The protocol is formali...

  3. Static Typing for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1994-01-01

    We develop a theory of statically typed object-oriented languages. It represents classes as labeled, regular trees, types as finit sets of classes , and sub-classing as a partial order on trees. We show that our sub-classing order strictly generalizes inheritance, and that a novel genericity...

  4. The longitudinal static stability of tailless aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, Helena V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a simple theory of the longitudinal controls fixed static stability of tailless aeroplanes. The classical theory, as developed for the conventional aircraft, is modified to accommodate the particular features of the tailless aeroplanes. The theory was then applied to a particular blended-wing-body tailless civil transport aircraft, BWB-98. Cranfield University

  5. A Logical Characterisation of Static Equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Pedersen, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The work of Abadi and Fournet introduces the notion of a frame to describe the knowledge of the environment of a cryptographic protocol. Frames are lists of terms; two frames are indistinguishable under the notion of static equivalence if they satisfy the same equations on terms. We present a first...

  6. Static shapes of levitated viscous drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchemin, L.; Lister, J. R.; Lange, U.

    2005-06-01

    We consider the levitation of a drop of molten glass above a spherical porous mould, through which air is injected with constant velocity. The glass is assumed to be sufficiently viscous compared to air that motion in the drop is negligible. Thus static equilibrium shapes are determined by the coupling between the lubricating pressure in the supporting air cushion and the Young-Laplace equation. The upper surface of the drop is under constant atmospheric pressure; the static shape of the lower surface of the drop is computed using lubrication theory for the thin air film. Matching of the sessile curvature of the upper surface to the curvature of the mould gives rise to a series of capillary "brim" waves near the edge of the drop which scale with powers of a modified capillary number. Several branches of static solutions are found, such that there are multiple solutions for some drop volumes, but no physically reasonable solutions for other drop volumes. Comparison with experiments and full Navier-Stokes calculations suggests that the stability of the process can be predicted from the solution branches for the static shapes, and related to the persistence of brim waves to the centre of the drop. This suggestion remains to be confirmed by a formal stability analysis.

  7. Effects of insoles contact on static balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ju Yong; Ryu, Young Uk; Yi, Chae Woo

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effect of the degree of the contact area between the insoles and soles on static balance. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy male and female adults voluntarily participated. All of the subjects wore three different types of insoles (no orthotic insole, partial contact, full contact) in the present experiment. The subjects were instructed to place both feet parallel to each other and maintain static balance for 30 seconds. Center of pressure parameters (range, total distance, and mean velocity) were analyzed. [Results] The results show that the anteroposterior range and mediolateral (ML) total distance and velocity decreased when orthotic insoles with partial contact or full contact were used in comparison to when a flat insole (no orthotic insole) was used. Also, the ML range and total distance were lower with full contact than in the other two conditions. These results indicate that static balance improves as the degree of contact between the soles and insoles increases. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggests that using insoles with increased sole contact area would improve static balance ability.

  8. Hall effect accompanying a static skin effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkenshtein, N.V.; Marchenkov, V.V.; Startsev, V.E.; Cherepanov, A.N.; Glin' skii, M.

    1985-05-10

    The Hall effect and the magnetoresistance of tungsten single crystals with rho/sub 293K//rho/sub 4.2K/ = 80 000 have been measured at 4.2 K in magnetic fields up to 150 kOe. The results reveal that a static skin effect gives rise to an anomalously pronounced increase in the Hall coefficient.

  9. The atomic and molecular reaction statics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; ZhengHe

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a new science called atomic and molecular reaction statics (AMRS). There are four parts for AMRS, i.e. the group theoretical derivation of molecular electronic states, the principle of microscopic reversibility, the principle of microscopic transitivity and the optimum energy process rule. AMRS has been developed for about twenty years.

  10. Static Analysis for Java Servlets and JSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Christian; Møller, Anders

    2006-01-01

    We present an approach for statically reasoning about the behavior of Web applications that are developed using Java Servlets and JSP. Specifically, we attack the problems of guaranteeing that all output is well-formed and valid XML and ensuring consistency of XHTML form fields and session state...

  11. Energy consumption in static muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerhuis, CL; Hof, AL; van der Heide, F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Energy consumption during static contraction of the human triceps surae muscles was studied in 11 healthy subjects. The subjects had to stand intermittently on the left and then right foot at different frequencies (for periods of 15 s, 10 s or 5 s), first on the whole foot and then on the forefoot.

  12. Forces between static-light mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Marc

    2010-01-01

    The isospin, spin and parity dependent potential of a pair of static-light mesons is computed using Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD with two flavors of degenerate dynamical quarks. From the results a simple rule can be deduced stating, which isospin, spin and parity combinations correspond to attractive and which to repulsive forces.

  13. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan;

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic prog...

  14. Energy consumption in static muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerhuis, CL; Hof, AL; van der Heide, F.M.

    Energy consumption during static contraction of the human triceps surae muscles was studied in 11 healthy subjects. The subjects had to stand intermittently on the left and then right foot at different frequencies (for periods of 15 s, 10 s or 5 s), first on the whole foot and then on the forefoot.

  15. Onthe static and spherically symmetric gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Ioan; Maftei, Gheorghe; Mociutchi, Cleopatra

    Starting from a generalization of Einstein 's theory of gravitation, proposed by one of the authors (Cleopatra Mociutchi), the authors study a particular spherical symmetric case. Among other one obtain the compatibility conditions for the existence of the static and spherically symmetruic gravitational filed in the case of extended Einstein equation.

  16. New schemes of static mass spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baisanov, O.A. [Military Institute of Air Defense Forces, Aktobe (Kazakhstan); Doskeyev, G.A. [Aktobe State University named after K. Zhubanov, Aktobe (Kazakhstan); Spivak-Lavrov, I.F., E-mail: baisanov@mail.ru [Aktobe State University named after K. Zhubanov, Aktobe (Kazakhstan)

    2011-07-21

    Different possibilities to increase the 'quality', or Q-quantity, of static mass spectrometers by expanding the ion beam before it enters the magnetic field are analyzed. The design of mass spectrometers using a cone-shaped achromatic prism is discussed. Different variants of achromatic mass spectrometers using electrostatic prisms and sector magnetic fields are also considered.

  17. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hills, M.A.; Klint, P.; Vinju, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two complementary analy

  18. Propfan test assessment propfan propulsion system static test report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orourke, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    The propfan test assessment (PTA) propulsion system successfully completed over 50 hours of extensive static ground tests, including a 36 hour endurance test. All major systems performed as expected, verifying that the large-scale 2.74 m diameter propfan, engine, gearbox, controls, subsystems, and flight instrumentation will be satisfactory with minor modifications for the upcoming PTA flight tests on the GII aircraft in early 1987. A test envelope was established for static ground operation to maintain propfan blade stresses within limits for propfan rotational speeds up to 105 percent and power levels up to 3880 kW. Transient tests verified stable, predictable response of engine power and propfan speed controls. Installed engine TSFC was better than expected, probably due to the excellent inlet performance coupled with the supercharging effect of the propfan. Near- and far-field noise spectra contained three dominant components, which were dependent on power, tip speed, and direction. The components were propfan blade tones, propfan random noise, and compressor/propfan interaction noise. No significant turbine noise or combustion noise was evident.

  19. Static and Dynamic Analysis of a Pump Impeller with a Balancing Device Part I: Static Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundera C.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This part of the work presents the design and static analysis of an impeller for a single-stage pump. The impeller is directly connected with a balancing device. The impeller needs to have a properly designed system of longitudinal and lateral clearances on both sides. With the simplifying assumptions concerning the flow and distribution of pressure in the longitudinal and lateral clearances, the static analysis involved deriving relationships between the impeller geometry and the basic performance parameters of the pump. A numerical example was used to show the calculation procedure of static characteristics for the predetermined parameters

  20. Implied Movement in Static Images Reveals Biological Timing Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Nather

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is adapted toward a better understanding of our own movements than those of non-conspecifics. The present study determined whether time perception is affected by pictures of different species by considering the evolutionary scale. Static (“S” and implied movement (“M” images of a dog, cheetah, chimpanzee, and man were presented to undergraduate students. S and M images of the same species were presented in random order or one after the other (S-M or M-S for two groups of participants. Movement, Velocity, and Arousal semantic scales were used to characterize some properties of the images. Implied movement affected time perception, in which M images were overestimated. The results are discussed in terms of visual motion perception related to biological timing processing that could be established early in terms of the adaptation of humankind to the environment.

  1. Expanding Earth and Static Universe: Two Papers of 1935

    CERN Document Server

    Kragh, Helge

    2015-01-01

    The German-born astronomer Jacob K. E. Halm (1866-1944) wrote in 1935 two papers on quite different subjects, one an astrophysically based argument for the expanding Earth and the other a no less original attempt to explain the galactic redshifts on the basis of a static universe. Of course, Halm was wrong in both cases. The second of the papers is reproduced in toto and compared to other early attempts to avoid the expansion of the universe by means of "tired light" explanations of the redshifts. Although often referred to in the literature on the expanding Earth, the content of Halm's first paper is not well known. This article also provides a brief account of Halm's life and scientific career, which included important studies of the solar spectrum (the "limb effect") and the first version of the mass-luminosity relation for stars.

  2. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 229 - Static Noise Test Protocols-In-Cab Static

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for the in-cab static measurements of locomotives. I. Measurement Instrumentation The instrumentation... electronic form. (1) Name(s) of persons conducting the test, and the date of the test. (2) Description...

  3. A Mathematical Model and Numerical Simulation of the Static Stability of a Tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Demšar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tractor overturning remains a serious problem in agricultural activities. A detailed analysis of problems and causes leading to a tractor overturn have revealed that by improving tractor’s static stability we can positively influence the safety as early as during the concept phase. We designed a mathematical model and a numerical simulation of the static stability of a tractor with an oscillating front axle in relation to its position on a slope. It was followed by analysing the changes of individual parameters, such as the position of the centre of gravity, the wheelbase, the wheel track width and the height of the oscillating axle mounting point, and their impact on tractor’s static stability in relation to its position on a slope. Results show that manipulating these parameters can significantly increase tractor’s static stability. A better static stability is directly proportional to improved dynamic stability, resulting in a better safety in a view of the tractor overturn, particularly while working on a sloping terrain.

  4. Differential Expression of Extracellular Matrix and Growth Factors by Embryoid Bodies in Hydrodynamic and Static Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridley, Krista M.; Nair, Rekha

    2014-01-01

    During development, cell fate specification and tissue development are orchestrated by the sequential presentation of soluble growth factors (GF) and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. Similarly, differentiation of stem cells in vitro relies upon the temporal presence of extracellular cues within the microenvironment. Hydrodynamic culture systems are not limited by volume restrictions and therefore offer several practical advantages for scalability over static cultures; however, hydrodynamic cultures expose cells to physical parameters not present in static culture, such as fluid shear stress and mass transfer through convective forces. In this study, the differences between static and hydrodynamic culture conditions on the expression of ECM and GF molecules during the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells were examined at both the gene and protein level. The expression of ECM and GF genes exhibited an early decrease in static cultures based on heat map and hierarchical clustering analysis and a relative delayed increase in hydrodynamic cultures. Although the temporal patterns of specific ECM and GF protein expression were comparable between static and hydrodynamic cultures, several notable differences in the magnitudes of expression were observed at similar time points. These results describe the establishment of an analytical framework that can be used to examine the expression patterns of ECM and GF molecules expressed by pluripotent stem cells undergoing differentiation as 3D multicellular aggregates under different culture conditions, and suggest that physical parameters of stem cell microenvironments can alter endogenous ECM and GF expression profiles that may, in turn, influence cell fate decisions. PMID:25423310

  5. Static Checking of Interrupt-driven Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brylow, Dennis; Damgaard, Niels; Palsberg, Jens

    2001-01-01

    in a few seconds on a standard PC. Our tool is one of the first to give an efficient and useful static analysis of assembly code. It enables increased confidence in correctness, significantly reduced testing requirements, and support for maintenance throughout the system life-cycle....... require extensive brute-force testing, making development and maintenance costly. This is particularly true for system components that are written in assembly language. Static checking has the potential of alleviating these problems, but until now there has been little tool support for programming...... fundamental safety and liveness properties. Our approach is based on a known algorithm for model checking of pushdown systems, and produces a control-flow graph annotated with information about time, space, safety, and liveness. Each benchmark is approximately 1000 lines of code, and the checking is done...

  6. Perturbative static four-quark potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, J; Green, A M

    1995-01-01

    A first attempt to understand hadron dynamics at low energies in terms of the fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom incorporates the effects of the gluonic field into a potential depending only on the spatial positions of the quarks, which are considered in the infinite mass limit. A suitable framework for calculating such potentials between static quarks, i.e.\\ a generalization of the Wilson loop will be discussed. Making a connection with recent Monte Carlo lattice simulations for the lowest two energies of a system of two quarks and two antiquarks, the static qq\\bar{q}\\bar{q}-potential will be calculated in perturbation theory to fourth order. The result will be shown to be exactly equal to the prediction of a straightforward two-body approach, which in Monte Carlo lattice simulations has been found to be a reasonable approximation for very small interquark distances.

  7. Static inelastic analysis of RC shear walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qin; Qian, Jiaru

    2002-06-01

    A macro-model of a reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall is developed for static inelastic analysis. The model is composed of RC column elements and RC membrane elements. The column elements are used to model the boundary zone and the membrane elements are used to model the wall panel. Various types of constitutive relationships of concrete could be adopted for the two kinds of elements. To perform analysis, the wall is divided into layers along its height. Two adjacent layers are connected with a rigid beam. There are only three unknown displacement components for each layer. A method called single degree of freedom compensation is adopted to solve the peak value of the capacity curve. The post-peak stage analysis is performed using a forced iteration approach. The macro-model developed in the study and the complete process analysis methodology are verified by the experimental and static inelastic analytical results of four RC shear wall specimens.

  8. Power analysis of static VAr compensators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintela, F.R.; Arevalo, J.M.G.; Redondo, R.C. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria Industrial, Universidad de Salamanca, 37700 Bejar (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    Analysis of three-phase loads usually assume them to be three impedances in a star or triangle connection. This is the reason why obtained results can only be considered valid for passive loads, strictly speaking. Analysis leading to the proposal of some static compensators is usually performed in this way, which induces to believe that this compensators are only valid for passive loads. An analysis procedure, which uses only powers to describe loads, is expounded in this paper. If applied to the analysis of static compensators, it reveals unequivocally their usefulness with active and passive three-phase loads. Therefore, this method is more general and, as it will be seen, easier. (author)

  9. Observational evidence favours a static universe

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, David F

    2010-01-01

    The common attribute of all Big Bang cosmologies is that they are based on the assumption that the universe is expanding. However examination of the evidence for this expansion clearly favours a static universe. The major topics considered are: Tolman surface brightness, angular size, type 1a supernovae, gamma ray bursts, galaxy distributions, quasar distributions, X-ray background radiation, cosmic microwave background radiation, radio source counts, quasar variability and the Butcher--Oemler effect. An analysis of the best raw data for these topics shows that they are consistent with expansion only if there is evolution that cancels the effects of expansion. An alternate cosmology, curvature cosmology, is in full agreement with the raw data. This tired-light cosmology predicts a well defined static and stable universe and is fully described. It not only predicts accurate values for the Hubble constant and the temperature of cosmic microwave background radiation but shows excellent agreement with most of the...

  10. Optimal Static Range Reporting in One Dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Rauhe, Theis

    2001-01-01

    We consider static one dimensional range searching problems. These problems are to build static data structures for an integer set S \\subseteq U, where U = \\{0,1,\\dots,2^w-1\\}, which support various queries for integer intervals of U. For the query of reporting all integers in S contained within...... a query interval, we present an optimal data structure with linear space cost and with query time linear in the number of integers reported. This result holds in the unit cost RAM model with word size w and a standard instruction set. We also present a linear space data structure for approximate range...... counting. A range counting query for an interval returns the number of integers in S contained within the interval. For any constant &egr;>0, our range counting data structure returns in constant time an approximate answer which is within a factor of at most 1+&egr; of the correct answer....

  11. Static inelastic analysis of RC shear walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勤; 钱稼茹

    2002-01-01

    A macro-model of a reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall is developed for static inelastic analysis. The model iscomposed of RC column elements and RC membrane elements. The column elements are used to model the boundary zone andthe membrane elements are used to model the wall panel. Various types of constitutive relationships of concrete could beadopted for the two kinds of elements. To perform analysis, the wall is divided into layers along its height. Two adjacent layersare connected with a rigid beam. There are only three unknown displacement components for each layer. A method called singledegree of freedom compensation is adopted to solve the peak value of the capacity curve. The post-peak stage analysis isperformed using a forced iteration approach. The macro-model developed in the study and the complete process analysismethodology are verified by the experimental and static inelastic analytical results of four RC shear wall specimens.

  12. Variational approach for static mirror structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, E. A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, 53 Leninsky Ave., 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Space Research Institute RAS, 84/32 Profsoyuznaya str., 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS, 2 Kosygin str., 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L. [UNS, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Ruban, V. P. [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS, 2 Kosygin str., 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-15

    Anisotropic static plasma equilibria where the parallel and perpendicular pressures are only functions of the amplitude of the local magnetic field are shown to be amenable to a variational principle with a free energy density given by the parallel tension. This approach is used to demonstrate that two-dimensional small-amplitude static magnetic holes constructed from a Grad-Shafranov type equation slightly below the (subcritical) mirror instability threshold identify with lump solitons of KPII equation, but turn out to be unstable. Differently, large-amplitude magnetic structures, which are stable as they realize a minimum of the free energy, are computed using a gradient method within two-dimensional numerical simulations where the regularizing effect of finite Larmor radius corrections is retained. Interestingly, these structures transform from stripes to bubbles when the angle of the magnetic field with the coordinate plane is increased.

  13. Quasi-Static Electric Field Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A generator for producing an electric field for with an inspection technology system is provided. The generator provides the required variable magnitude quasi-static electric fields for the "illumination" of objects, areas and volumes to be inspected by the system, and produces human-safe electric fields that are only visible to the system. The generator includes a casing, a driven, non-conducting and triboelectrically neutral rotation shaft mounted therein, an ungrounded electrostatic dipole element which works in the quasi-static range, and a non-conducting support for mounting the dipole element to the shaft. The dipole element has a wireless motor system and a charging system which are wholly contained within the dipole element and the support that uses an electrostatic approach to charge the dipole element.

  14. Static spherically symmetric wormholes with isotropic pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Cataldo, Mauricio; Rodríguez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study static spherically symmetric wormhole solutions sustained by matter sources with isotropic pressure. We show that such spherical wormholes do not exist in the framework of zero-tidal-force wormholes. On the other hand, it is shown that for the often used power-law shape function there is no spherically symmetric traversable wormholes sustained by sources with a linear equation of state $p=\\omega \\rho$ for the isotropic pressure, independently of the form of the redshift function $\\phi(r)$. We consider a solution obtained by Tolman at 1939 for describing static spheres of isotropic fluids, and show that it also may describe wormhole spacetimes with a power-law redshift function, which leads to a polynomial shape function, generalizing a power-law shape function, and inducing a solid angle deficit.

  15. Geodesics in the static Mallett spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Olum, Ken D

    2010-01-01

    Mallett has exhibited a cylindrically symmetric spacetime containing closed timelike curves produced by a light beam circulating around a line singularity. I analyze the static version of this spacetime obtained by setting the intensity of the light to zero. Some null geodesics can escape to infinity, but all timelike geodesics in this spacetime originate and terminate at the singularity. Freely falling matter originally at rest quickly attains relativistic velocity inward and is destroyed at the singularity.

  16. Static Gauge Potential from Noncritical Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, Enrique; Alvarez, Enrique; Manjarin, Juan Jose

    2001-01-01

    The static gauge potential between heavy sources is computed from a recently introduced non-critical bosonic string background. When the sources are located at the infinity of the holographic coordinate, the linear dilaton behavior is recovered, which means that the potential is exactly linear in the separation between the sources. When the sources are moved towards the origin, a competing overconfining cubic branch appears, which is however disfavored energetically.

  17. Non-self-dual static gauge fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, C. H.; Teh, Rosy

    1980-01-01

    We exhibit exact non-self-dual static solutions to the SU(2) Yang-Mills field equations by solving the equation ∇2V+λV3=0 using cylindrical and spherical coordinates. The resulting gauge fields are complex and have singularities. For the cylindrically symmetric solution, we convert it into a real gauge field coupled to the Higgs field in the limit in which the self-interaction potential of the Higgs field vanishes.

  18. Comparing numerically exact and modelled static friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krengel Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there exists no mechanically consistent “numerically exact” implementation of static and dynamic Coulomb friction for general soft particle simulations with arbitrary contact situations in two or three dimension, but only along one dimension. We outline a differential-algebraic equation approach for a “numerically exact” computation of friction in two dimensions and compare its application to the Cundall-Strack model in some test cases.

  19. numerical and numerical and experimental modeling of the static ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    flange width on the static response of these type of structural elements under service load ... walled reinforced concrete box girder bridges under .... [15] carried out a static live-load test of a ... accurately predicts the exterior girder distribution.

  20. Static Consistency Checking of Web Applications with WebDSL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemel, Z.; Groenewegen, D.M.; Kats, L.C.L.; Visser, E.

    2010-01-01

    Modern web application development frameworks provide web application developers with highlevel abstractions to improve their productivity. However, their support for static verification of applications is limited. Inconsistencies in an application are often not detected statically, but appear as

  1. Static Consistency Checking of Web Applications with WebDSL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemel, Z.; Groenewegen, D.M.; Kats, L.C.L.; Visser, E.

    2010-01-01

    Modern web application development frameworks provide web application developers with highlevel abstractions to improve their productivity. However, their support for static verification of applications is limited. Inconsistencies in an application are often not detected statically, but appear as er

  2. Static Versus Dynamic Stretching Effect on Agility Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Troumbley, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare effects of static and dynamic stretching on explosive agility movements, and to examine the effect of the interaction of dynamic and static stretching prior to explosive agility movements. Fourteen men and 10 women performed the different warm-up protocols, including no warm-up (NWU), static stretching (SS), dynamic stretching (DS), and dynamic stretching with static stretching (DS+SS). The T-Drill was used to assess agility. The results indicated n...

  3. Person Identification System using Static-dynamic signatures fusion

    OpenAIRE

    S.A Daramola; T.S Ibiyemi

    2010-01-01

    Off-line signature verification systems rely on static image of signature for person identification. Imposter can easily imitate the static image of signature of the genuine user due to lack of dynamic features. This paper proposes person identity verification system using fused static-dynamic signature features. Computational efficient technique is developed to extract and fuse static and dynamic features extracted from offline and online signatures of the same person. The training stage use...

  4. 14 CFR 33.64 - Pressurized engine static parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... engine static parts. (a) Strength. The applicant must establish by test, validated analysis, or a combination of both, that all static parts subject to significant gas or liquid pressure loads for a... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pressurized engine static parts....

  5. 14 CFR 25.1325 - Static pressure systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pressure systems. (a) Each instrument with static air case connections must be vented to the outside... or other foreign matter, and that the correlation between air pressure in the static pressure system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static pressure systems. 25.1325 Section 25...

  6. 14 CFR 27.1325 - Static pressure systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pressure systems. (a) Each instrument with static air case connections must be vented so that the influence... located in such manner that the correlation between air pressure in the static pressure system and true... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static pressure systems. 27.1325 Section 27...

  7. 14 CFR 27.610 - Lightning and static electricity protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning and static electricity protection....610 Lightning and static electricity protection. (a) The rotorcraft must be protected against... static electricity must— (1) Minimize the accumulation of electrostatic charge; (2) Minimize the risk of...

  8. 30 CFR 56.6602 - Static electricity dissipation during loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Static electricity dissipation during loading... Explosives Extraneous Electricity § 56.6602 Static electricity dissipation during loading. When explosive material is loaded pneumatically into a blasthole in a manner that generates a static electricity hazard...

  9. 49 CFR 238.203 - Static end strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Static end strength. 238.203 Section 238.203... Equipment § 238.203 Static end strength. (a)(1) Except as further specified in this paragraph or in.... (2) For a passenger car or a locomotive, the static end strength of unoccupied volumes may be...

  10. The Static Ladder Problem with Two Sources of Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jonathan; Mauney, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The problem of a ladder leaning against a wall in static equilibrium is a classic example encountered in introductory mechanics texts. Most discussions of this problem assume that the static frictional force between the ladder and wall can be ignored. A few authors consider the case where the static friction coefficients between ladder/wall…

  11. The Static Ladder Problem with Two Sources of Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jonathan; Mauney, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The problem of a ladder leaning against a wall in static equilibrium is a classic example encountered in introductory mechanics texts. Most discussions of this problem assume that the static frictional force between the ladder and wall can be ignored. A few authors consider the case where the static friction coefficients between ladder/wall…

  12. Static Enforcement of Static Separation-of-Duty Policies in Usage Control Authorization Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianfeng; Li, Ruixuan; Hu, Jinwei; Xu, Dewu

    Separation-of-Duty (SoD) is a fundamental security principle for prevention of fraud and errors in computer security. It has been studied extensively in traditional access control models. However, the research of SoD policy in the recently proposed usage control (UCON) model has not been well studied. This paper formulates and studies the fundamental problem of static enforcement of static SoD (SSoD) policies in the context of UCONA, a sub-model of UCON only considering authorizations. Firstly, we define a set-based specification of SSoD policies, and the safety checking problem for SSoD in UCONA. Secondly, we study the problem of determining whether an SSoD policy is enforceable. Thirdly, we show that it is intractable (coNP-complete) to direct statically enforce SSoD policies in UCONA, while checking whether a UCONA state satisfies a set of static mutually exclusive attribute (SMEA) constraints is efficient, which provides a justification for using SMEA constraints to enforce SSoD policies. Finally, we introduce a indirect static enforcement for SSoD policies in UCONA. We show how to generate the least restrictive SMEA constraints for enforcing SSoD policies in UCONA, by using the attribute-level SSoD requirement as an intermediate step. The results are fundamental to understanding SSoD policies in UCON.

  13. Assessing Static Performance of the Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge by Monitoring the Correlation between Temperature Field and Its Static Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Gao-Xin Wang; You-Liang Ding; Peng Sun; Lai-Li Wu; Qing Yue

    2015-01-01

    Taking advantage of the structural health monitoring system installed on the steel truss arch girder of Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge, the temperature field data and static strain data are collected and analyzed for the static performance assessment of the bridge. Through analysis, it is found that the static strain changes are mainly caused by temperature field (temperature and temperature difference) and train. After the train-induced static strains are removed, the correlation between the rem...

  14. Static Scale Conversion Weigh-In-Motion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beshears, D.L.

    2001-05-18

    In support of the Air Mobility Battle Lab (AMBL), the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Advanced Logistics Program and the U. S. Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM), the ultimate objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a full-scale prototype static scale conversion weigh-in-motion/Profilometry (SSC-WIM/P) system to measure and record dimensional and weight information for the Department of Defense (DoD) equipment and cargo. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), along with the AMBL, and Intercomp, Inc. have developed a long-range plan for developing a dual-use system which can be used as a standard static scale or an accurate weigh-in-motion system. AMBL will work to define requirements for additional activities with U.S. Transportation Command, Air Mobility Command, and the Joint Warfighting Battle Lab for both the SSC-WIM/P and a portable Weigh-in-Motion System for individual units. The funding goal is to fully fund the development of two prototype test articles (a SSC-WIM kit, and a laser profilometer) and have at least one fully operational system by the early 2002 timeframe. The objective of this portion of the project will be to develop a SSC-WIM system, which at a later date can be fully integrated with a profilometry system; to fully characterize DOD wheeled vehicles and cargo (individual axle weights, total vehicle weight, center of balance, height, width and length measurements). The program will be completed in phases with the initial AMBL/DARPA funding being used to initiate the efforts while AMBL/USTC obtains funding to complete the first generation system effort. At the completion of an initial effort, the interface hardware and the data acquisition/analysis hardware will be developed, fabricated, and system principles and basic functionality evaluated, tested, and demonstrated. Additional funding, when made available, will allow the successful completion of a first generation prototype system. This effort will be

  15. Monotone Comparative Statics for the Industry Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders

    for the industry composition. The latter phenomenon is dened as rst-order stochastic dominance shifts in the equilibrium distributions of all activities across active rms. We provide sucient conditions for MCS at both levels of analysis and show that we may have either type of MCS without the other....... It is therefore possible that rm-level complementarities manifest themselves more clearly at the industry level than at the rm level during comparative statics. This turns out to be the case for a large number of models and shocks considered in the recent trade literature for which we provide strong, novel...

  16. Does Acute Static Stretching Reduce Muscle Power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis M. Kozub

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Stretching is commonly used as a technique for injury prevention in the training and clinical setting. Recently, stretching in the warm-up has been shown to decrease several muscular performance variables, but the dose-response of this effect is unknown and moreover these stretching bouts are not representative of athletes during warm up procedures, as they are usually time consuming. Our findings may improve the understanding of the neuromuscular responses to stretching and help sportsmen, coaches, physiotherapist and clinicians make decisions for integrating stretching as a part of warm up or rehabilitation treatment plan.Purpose: The aim of the present study was to examine whether acute static stretching is responsible for losses in isokinetic peak torque production and if it does, than which time of stretching effect muscle peak torque?Design: Randomized, counterbalanced, within-subjects experimental design.Setting: A university human project laboratory.Methods: Twenty (n=20 light to moderate young exercisers, male and female, from University of Limerick community, with an average age of 22.1±3.6 years, height of 175.6±5 cm, and weight of 73.1±9.9 kg, were randomly selected to take part in the study. Prior to the main study, volunteers attended the lab on two occasions to be familiarized with the knee extension protocol on the Con - trex isokinetic system and with the static stretching protocol. All participants than performed five additional static stretching protocols randomly, in non-consecutive training session. The stretching protocols were 0, 60,120, 180 and 180 with alternative pattern.Results: The results of the statistical analysis (P > 0.05 indicated that peak torque remained unchanged following the static stretching for 0-180 sec at 60 & 180° s−1 angular velocities.Conclusion: The findings suggest that an athletic stretching (shorter duration ranging from 0-180 sec does not produce decreases in peak torque. Athletes

  17. Cancer progression modeling using static sample data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yijun; Yao, Jin; Nowak, Norma J; Goodison, Steve

    2014-01-01

    As molecular profiling data continues to accumulate, the design of integrative computational analyses that can provide insights into the dynamic aspects of cancer progression becomes feasible. Here, we present a novel computational method for the construction of cancer progression models based on the analysis of static tumor samples. We demonstrate the reliability of the method with simulated data, and describe the application to breast cancer data. Our findings support a linear, branching model for breast cancer progression. An interactive model facilitates the identification of key molecular events in the advance of disease to malignancy.

  18. Static aeroelastic analysis for generic configuration wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, IN; Miura, Hirokazu; Chargin, Mladen K.

    1991-01-01

    A static aeroelastic analysis capability that calculates flexible air loads for generic configuration wings was developed. It was made possible by integrating a finite element structural analysis code (MSC/NASTRAN) and a panel code of aerodynamic analysis based on linear potential flow theory. The framework already built in MSC/NASTRAN was used, and the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix was computed externally and inserted in the NASTRAN by means of a DMAP program. It was shown that deformation and flexible air loads of an oblique wing configuration including asymmetric wings can be calculated reliably by this code both in subsonic and supersonic speeds.

  19. Compiler-assisted static checkpoint insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Junsheng; Fuchs, W. K.; Abraham, Jacob A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a compiler-assisted approach for static checkpoint insertion. Instead of fixing the checkpoint location before program execution, a compiler enhanced polling mechanism is utilized to maintain both the desired checkpoint intervals and reproducible checkpoint 1ocations. The technique has been implemented in a GNU CC compiler for Sun 3 and Sun 4 (Sparc) processors. Experiments demonstrate that the approach provides for stable checkpoint intervals and reproducible checkpoint placements with performance overhead comparable to a previously presented compiler assisted dynamic scheme (CATCH) utilizing the system clock.

  20. Static Analysis for Java Servlets and JSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Christian; Møller, Anders

    2006-01-01

    We present an approach for statically reasoning about the behavior of Web applications that are developed using Java Servlets and JSP. Specifically, we attack the problems of guaranteeing that all output is well-formed and valid XML and ensuring consistency of XHTML form fields and session state....... Our approach builds on a collection of program analysis techniques developed earlier in the JWIG and Xact projects, combined with work on balanced context-free grammars. Together, this provides the necessary foundation concerning reasoning about output streams and application control flow....

  1. Relativistic Static Thin Disks of Polarized Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Anamaria; Lora-Clavijo, F. D.; González, Guillermo A.

    2017-03-01

    An infinite family of exact solutions of the electrovacuum Einstein-Maxwell equations is presented. The family is static, axially symmetric and describe thin disks composed by electrically polarized material in a conformastatic spacetime. The form of the conformastatic metric allows us to write down the metric functions and the electromagnetic potentials in terms of a solution of the Laplace equation. We find a general expression for the surface energy density of the disk, the pressure, the polarization vector, the electromagnetic fields and the velocity rotation for circular orbits. As an example, we present the first model of the family and show the behavior of the different physical variables.

  2. Static Model of Cement Rotary Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar D. Hernández-Arboleda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a static model of cement rotary kilns is proposed. The system model is obtained through polynomial series. The proposed model is contrasted with data of a real plant, where optimal results are obtained. Expected results are measured with respect to the clinker production and the combustible consumption is measured in relation with the consumption calorific. The expected result of the approach is the increase of the profitability of the factory through the decrease of the consumption of the combustible.

  3. QuickChecking Static Analysis Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Møller, Anders

    2015-01-01

    , to verified fixed point checking. In this paper we demonstrate how quickchecking can be useful for testing a range of static analysis properties with limited effort. We show how to check a range of algebraic lattice properties, to help ensure that an implementation follows the formal specification...... of a lattice. Moreover, we offer a number of generic, type-safe combinators to check transfer functions and operators on lattices, to help ensure that these are, e.g., monotone, strict, or invariant. We substantiate our claims by quickchecking a type analysis for the Lua programming language...

  4. Static analysis of software the abstract interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Boulanger, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    The existing literature currently available to students and researchers is very general, covering only the formal techniques of static analysis. This book presents real examples of the formal techniques called ""abstract interpretation"" currently being used in various industrial fields: railway, aeronautics, space, automotive, etc. The purpose of this book is to present students and researchers, in a single book, with the wealth of experience of people who are intrinsically involved in the realization and evaluation of software-based safety critical systems. As the authors are people curr

  5. Statics and dynamics of fluids in nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Gouin, Henri

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study the statics and dynamics of nanotubes by using the methods of continuum mechanics. The nanotube can be filled with only a liquid or a vapour phase according to the physicochemical characteristics of the wall and to the disjoining pressure associated with the liquid and vapour mother bulks of the fluid, regardless of the nature of the external mother bulk. In dynamics, flows through nanotubes can be much more important than classical Poiseuille flows. When the external mother bulk is of vapour, the flow can be a million times larger than the classical flows when slippage on wall does not exist.

  6. Management of Statically Modifiable Prolog Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨曦; 慈云桂

    1989-01-01

    The Warren Abstract Machine is an efficient execution model for Prolog,which has become the basis of many high performance Prolog systems.However.little support for the implementation of the non-logical components of Prolog is provided in the WAM.The original Warren code is not modifiable.In this paper,we show how static modifications of Warren code can be achieved by adding a few instructions and a little extra information to the code.The implementation of the code manager is discussed.Algorithms for some basic operations are given.

  7. STATIC AND DYNAMIC THEORIES OF LIQUID CRYSTALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林芳华; 刘春

    2001-01-01

    The study of liquid crystals givesrise to many fascinating but difficult mathematical problems. The purpose of this paper is to briefly summarize some recent advances, as well as to describe the present state of art of the theory of liquid crystals.For the static theory, we emphasis on the theory of defects and the theory of Smectic A materials. We will also study the Ericksen-Leslie theory for the liquid crystal flow.The well-posedness as well as the motion of the defects will be discussed.

  8. Static validation of licence conformance policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2008-01-01

    Policy conformance is a security property gaining importance due to commercial interest like Digital Rights Management. It is well known that static analysis can be used to validate a number of more classical security policies, such as discretionary and mandatory access control policies, as well...... as communication protocols using symmetric and asymmetric cryptography. In this work we show how to develop a Flow Logic for validating the conformance of client software with respect to a licence conformance policy. Our approach is sufficiently flexible that it extends to fully open systems that can admit new...

  9. A preliminary study for the assessment of hypertension using static and dynamic IR thermograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Jayanthi; Mariamichael, Anburajan

    2017-07-04

    Structural changes in blood vessels occur due to prolonged hypertension. Early detection of blood pressure (mm Hg) is essential for disease prevention. The aim of this work is to propose a computer-aided diagnostic (CADx) model for the diagnosis of hypertension using variables derived from non-contact static and dynamic thermal imaging in comparison with the pulse wave velocity (PWV)-derived parameters. Static and dynamic infrared (IR) thermograms of selected skin areas of the body from known hypertensive (n=14) and age- and sex-matched normal subjects were captured. The average skin surface temperature [SST (°C)] of selected skin areas of the body was calculated from a static IR thermogram. After denoising the dynamic IR thermogram using wavelets, the statistical variables power, mean, standard deviation (SD), variance, skewness and kurtosis were calculated. The variables derived from both static and dynamic thermograms were used to develop the CADx model. The performance of the CAD model was also tested by feature selection using principal component analysis (PCA). An accuracy of 75% (sensitivity=78.6%, specificity=71.4%) could be achieved with the average SST (°C) of the static IR thermogram alone. The statistical variables derived from the dynamic IR thermogram alone gave an accuracy of 82% (and 85% after feature selection by PCA), whereas the accuracy using standard methods like variables derived from PWV was only 71.4% (with and without feature selection). The highest accuracy of 89% could be achieved by combining variables like average SST (°C) measured from static and dynamic IR thermograms and PWV-derived variables.

  10. Cross-ocean GPS long distance rapid static positioning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The method of cross-ocean GPS long distance rapid static positioning has become one of the main technical means of GPS static positioning away from the mainland. The key technology had been analyzed including data preprocessing and quality control, long distance integer ambiguity resolution and static Kalman filter parameter estimation. Effective data processing method of cross-ocean GPS long baseline rapid static positioning had been proposed. Through the analysis of practical examples of coastal and ocean, the feasibility of cross-ocean GPS long distance rapid static positioning based on the method is testified and verified. The results show that the accuracy of one-hour single baseline static positioning for the 500–600 km distance can be better than 10 cm in the three-dimensional coordinates, which can suffice static positioning accuracy in the special ocean environment.

  11. Robot-Crawler: Statically Balanced Gaits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parasuraman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new statically balanced walking technique for a robot‐crawler. The gait design and the control of the robot crawler aim to achieve stability while walking. This statically balanced gait has to be designed in a different fashion to a wheeled robot, as there are discrete changes in the support of the robot when its legs are lifted or placed on the ground. The stability of the robot depends on how the legs are positioned relative to the body and also on the sequence and timing with which the legs are lifted and placed. In order to reduce the risk of stability loss while walking, a measure for the robot stability (so‐called stability margin is typically used in the gait and motion planning. In this paper different biological behaviours of four‐legged animals are studied and mapped on a quad-legrobot‐crawler. Experiments were carried out on the forward walking gaits of lizards and horses. Based on these results, the stability margins of different gaits are discussed and compared.

  12. Static Code Analysis with Gitlab-CI

    CERN Document Server

    Datko, Szymon Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Static Code Analysis is a simple but efficient way to ensure that application’s source code is free from known flaws and security vulnerabilities. Although such analysis tools are often coming with more advanced code editors, there are a lot of people who prefer less complicated environments. The easiest solution would involve education – where to get and how to use the aforementioned tools. However, counting on the manual usage of such tools still does not guarantee their actual usage. On the other hand, reducing the required effort, according to the idea “setup once, use anytime without sweat” seems like a more promising approach. In this paper, the approach to automate code scanning, within the existing CERN’s Gitlab installation, is described. For realization of that project, the Gitlab-CI service (the “CI” stands for "Continuous Integration"), with Docker assistance, was employed to provide a variety of static code analysers for different programming languages. This document covers the gene...

  13. On static Poincar\\'e-Einstein metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Galloway, Gregory J

    2015-01-01

    The classification of solutions of the static vacuum Einstein equations, on a given closed manifold or an asymptotically flat one, is a long-standing and much-studied problem. Solutions are characterized by a complete Riemannian $n$-manifold $(M,g)$ and a positive function $N$, called the lapse. We study this problem on Asymptotically Poincar\\'e-Einstein $n$-manifolds, $n\\ge 3$, when the conformal boundary-at-infinity is either a round sphere, a flat torus or smooth quotient thereof, or a compact hyperbolic manifold. Such manifolds have well-defined Wang mass, and are time-symmetric slices of static, vacuum, asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes. By integrating a mildly generalized form of an identity first found by Wang, we give a mass formula for such manifolds. There are no solutions with positive mass. In consequence, we observe that either the lapse is trivial and $(M,g)$ is Poincar\\'e-Einstein or the Wang mass is negative, as in the case of time symmetric slices of the AdS soliton. As an application,...

  14. Static non-reciprocity in mechanical metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulais, Corentin; Sounas, Dimitrios; Alù, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    Reciprocity is a general, fundamental principle governing various physical systems, which ensures that the transfer function—the transmission of a physical quantity, say light intensity—between any two points in space is identical, regardless of geometrical or material asymmetries. Breaking this transmission symmetry offers enhanced control over signal transport, isolation and source protection. So far, devices that break reciprocity (and therefore show non-reciprocity) have been mostly considered in dynamic systems involving electromagnetic, acoustic and mechanical wave propagation associated with fields varying in space and time. Here we show that it is possible to break reciprocity in static systems, realizing mechanical metamaterials that exhibit vastly different output displacements under excitation from different sides, as well as one-way displacement amplification. This is achieved by combining large nonlinearities with suitable geometrical asymmetries and/or topological features. In addition to extending non-reciprocity and isolation to statics, our work sheds light on energy propagation in nonlinear materials with asymmetric crystalline structures and topological properties. We anticipate that breaking reciprocity will open avenues for energy absorption, conversion and harvesting, soft robotics, prosthetics and optomechanics.

  15. Using Models at the Mesoscopic Scale in Teaching Physics: Two Experimental Interventions in Solid Friction and Fluid Statics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Ugo; Viennot, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the didactic suitability of introducing models at an intermediate (i.e. mesoscopic) scale in teaching certain subjects, at an early stage. The design and evaluation of two short sequences based on this rationale will be outlined: one bears on propulsion by solid friction, the other on fluid statics in the presence of gravity.…

  16. Static and Dynamic Balance in Congenital Severe to Profound Hearing-Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh HajiHeydari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Research conducted since the early 1900s has consistently identified differences between deaf and hearing children on performance of a wide variety of motor tasks, most notably balance. Our study was performed to test static and dynamic balance skills in congenital severe to profound hearing impaired children in comparison with normal age-matched children.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 severe to profound hearing impaired and 40 normal children with age 6 to 10 years old. Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency 2, balance subset with 9 parts was used for evaluation of balance skills.Results: Hearing-impaired children showed 16.7 to 100% fail results in 7 parts of the balance subset. In normal children fail result was revealed just in 3 parts of the balance subset from 2.5 to 57.5%, and differences between two groups were significant (p<0.0001. There was a significant difference between two groups in two static balance skills of standing on one leg on a line and standing on one leg on a balance beam with eyes closed (p<0.0001.conclusion: It seems that development of static balance skills are longer than dynamic ones. Because severe to profound hearing-impaired children showed more weakness than normal children in both static and dynamic balance abilities, functional tests of balance proficiency can help to identify balance disorders in these children.

  17. Perioperative monitoring of pulsatile and static intracranial pressure in patients with Chiari malformation type 1 undergoing foramen magnum decompression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frič, Radek; Eide, Per Kristian

    2016-02-01

    Patients with Chiari malformation type 1 (CMI) often present with elevated pulsatile and static intracranial pressure (ICP). The preferred treatment of CMI, foramen magnum decompression (FMD), is assumed to normalise ICP and craniospinal pressure dissociation. In order to further explore the mechanisms behind FMD, the present study investigated whether or not pulsatile and static ICP normalises immediately after FMD. The study included CMI patients undergoing FMD with perioperative ICP monitoring as a part of clinical management. The pulsatile and static ICP scores were retrieved from the department's ICP database, and the clinical and radiological data from the patient records. Eleven patients were included in the study. During the first 3 days following FMD, mixed model analysis revealed no significant time-dependent differences of preoperatively elevated either pulsatile (mean wave amplitude, MWA; p = 0.85) and/or static (mean ICP, p = 0.90) ICP. Percentage of mean ICP >15 mmHg increased during days 2 and 3 after FMD. Two patients from the present series had to receive ventriculoperitoneal shunt after FMD in the early postoperative period. The present observations suggest that anatomical restoration of cerebrospinal fluid pathways by FMD does not lead to immediate normalisation of preoperatively altered pulsatile and static ICP in patients with CMI. This finding may explain persistent symptoms during the early period after FMD.

  18. Plate shell structures - statics and stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the basic structural system, statics and spatial stability of plate shells. The structural system can be considered as a single layer of planar elements, where each element only transfers in-plane (membrane) forces to its neighbouring elements. External out-of-plane loads...... are carried into the structure as in-plane forces by plate action in each element. These in-plane forces are then carried through the plate structure to the supports as in-plane forces by membrane action. The consequence is that the spatial stability of the structure can be simply analysed by considering...... the plate system as only subject to in-plane loads. The stability of such systems is based on the fact that each plane element is held fixed in space by three fixed support lines and that these support lines can be provided by three plane neighbour elements. This means that the spatial stability of a plate...

  19. Network Completion for Static Gene Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsu Nakajima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tackle the problem of completing and inferring genetic networks under stationary conditions from static data, where network completion is to make the minimum amount of modifications to an initial network so that the completed network is most consistent with the expression data in which addition of edges and deletion of edges are basic modification operations. For this problem, we present a new method for network completion using dynamic programming and least-squares fitting. This method can find an optimal solution in polynomial time if the maximum indegree of the network is bounded by a constant. We evaluate the effectiveness of our method through computational experiments using synthetic data. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our proposed method can distinguish the differences between two types of genetic networks under stationary conditions from lung cancer and normal gene expression data.

  20. Static aeroelastic analysis of composite wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, IN; Hong, Chang Sun; Miura, Hirokazu; Kim, Seung KO

    1990-01-01

    A static aeroelastic analysis capability that can predict aerodynamic loads for the deformed shape of the composite wing has been developed. The finite element method (FEM) was used for composite plate structural analysis, and the linear vortex lattice method (VLM) was used for steady aerodynamic analysis. The final deformed shape of the wing due to applied forces is determined by iterative manner using FEM and VLM. FEM and VLM analysis are related by a surface spline interpolation procedure. The wing with Gr/Ep composite material has been investigated to see the wing deformation effect. Aerodynamic load change due to wing flexibility has been investigated. Also, the effect of fiber orientation and sweep angle on the deformation pattern and aerodynamic coefficients are examined. For a certain fiber orientation, the deflection and aerodynamic loading of the composite wing is very much reduced. The swept forward wing has more significant effect of wing flexibility on aerodynamic coefficient than the swept back wing does.

  1. Static aeroelastic analysis for generic configuration aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, IN; Miura, Hirokazu; Chargin, Mladen K.

    1987-01-01

    A static aeroelastic analysis capability that can calculate flexible air loads for generic configuration aircraft was developed. It was made possible by integrating a finite element structural analysis code (MSC/NASTRAN) and a panel code of aerodynamic analysis based on linear potential flow theory. The framework already built in MSC/NASTRAN was used and the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix is computed externally and inserted in the NASTRAN by means of a DMAP program. It was shown that deformation and flexible airloads of an oblique wing aircraft can be calculated reliably by this code both in subsonic and supersonic speeds. Preliminary results indicating importance of flexibility in calculating air loads for this type of aircraft are presented.

  2. Distributed static linear Gaussian models using consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanovic, Pavle; Valcarcel Macua, Sergio; Zazo, Santiago

    2012-10-01

    Algorithms for distributed agreement are a powerful means for formulating distributed versions of existing centralized algorithms. We present a toolkit for this task and show how it can be used systematically to design fully distributed algorithms for static linear Gaussian models, including principal component analysis, factor analysis, and probabilistic principal component analysis. These algorithms do not rely on a fusion center, require only low-volume local (1-hop neighborhood) communications, and are thus efficient, scalable, and robust. We show how they are also guaranteed to asymptotically converge to the same solution as the corresponding existing centralized algorithms. Finally, we illustrate the functioning of our algorithms on two examples, and examine the inherent cost-performance trade-off.

  3. The Spectrum of Static Subtracted Geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, Tomas; Cohen-Maldonado, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Subtracted geometries are black hole solutions of the four dimensional STU model with rather interesting ties to asymptotically flat black holes. In addition, a peculiar feature is that the solutions to the Klein-Gordon equation on this subtracted background can be organized according to representations of the conformal group $SO(2,2)$. We test if this behavior persists for the linearized fluctuations of gravitational and matter fields on static, electrically charged backgrounds of this kind. We find that there is a subsector of the modes that do display conformal symmetry, while some modes do not. We also discuss two different effective actions that describe these subtracted geometries and how the spectrum of quasinormal modes is dramatically different depending upon the action used.

  4. Construction of STACY (Static Experiment Critical Facility)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Kiyonobu; Onodera, Seiji; Hirose, Hideyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-08-01

    Two critical assemblies, STACY (Static Experiment Critical Facility) and TRACY (Transient Experiment Critical Facility), were constructed in NUCEF (Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility) to promote researches on the criticality safety at a reprocessing facility. STACY aims at providing critical data of uranium nitrate solution, plutonium nitrate solution and their mixture while varying concentration of solution fuel, core tank shape and size and neutron reflecting condition. STACY achieved first criticality in February 1995, and passed the licensing inspection by STA (Science and Technology Agency of Japan) in May. After that a series of critical experiments commenced with 10 w/o enriched uranium solution. This report describes the outline of STACY at the end of FY 1996. (author)

  5. Electrovacuum Static Counterrotating Relativistic Dust Disks

    CERN Document Server

    García-Reyes, Gonzalo

    2004-01-01

    A detailed study is presented of the counterrotating model (CRM) for generic electrovacuum static axially symmetric relativistic thin disks without radial pressure. We find a general constraint over the counterrotating tangential velocities needed to cast the surface energy-momentum tensor of the disk as the superposition of two counterrotating charged dust fluids. We also find explicit expressions for the energy densities, charge densities and velocities of the counterrotating fluids. We then show that this constraint can be satisfied if we take the two counterrotating streams as circulating along electro-geodesics. However, we show that, in general, it is not possible to take the two counterrotating fluids as circulating along electro-geodesics nor take the two counterrotating tangential velocities as equal and opposite. Four simple families of models of counterrotating charged disks based on Chazy-Curzon-like, Zipoy-Voorhees-like, Bonnor-Sackfield-like and Kerr-like electrovacuum solutions are considered w...

  6. Static analysis of an office desk construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Novotný

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is a static analysis of a desk construction and the determination of its probable mechanical behaviour using Finite Element Method. The construction was modelled and numerically analysed in Autocad Inventor 2011 and the stability of the entire desk was calculated with the size and placement of the loading force based on the standards and cited literature. Possible locations and directions of the deformation were analysed and a solution for its prevention was proposed and the stability of the desk as well as the extreme position of the stand were calculated. The verification of the obtained results in an accredited furniture testing lab is planned using a prototype of the office desk.

  7. Multipoint vibrometry with dynamic and static holograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haist, T.; Lingel, C.; Osten, W. [Institut für Technische Optik, Stuttgart Research Center of Photonic Engineering (SCOPE), University of Stuttgart, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Winter, M.; Giesen, M.; Ritter, F.; Sandfort, K.; Rembe, C. [Polytec GmbH, Polytec-Platz 1-7, D-76337 Waldbronn (Germany); Bendel, K. [Corporate Sector Research and Advanced Engineering, Robert Bosch GmbH, Gerlingen (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    We report on two multipoint vibrometers with user-adjustable position of the measurement spots. Both systems are using holograms for beam deflection. The measurement is based on heterodyne interferometry with a frequency difference of 5 MHz between reference and object beam. One of the systems uses programmable positioning of the spots in the object volume but is limited concerning the light efficiency. The other system is based on static holograms in combination with mechanical adjustment of the measurement spots and does not have such a general efficiency restriction. Design considerations are given and we show measurement results for both systems. In addition, we analyze the sensitivity of the systems which is a major limitation compared to single point scanning systems.

  8. Static Load Distribution in Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Mario

    2010-01-01

    A numerical procedure for computing the internal loading distribution in statically loaded, single-row, angular-contact ball bearings when subjected to a known combined radial and thrust load is presented. The combined radial and thrust load must be applied in order to avoid tilting between inner and outer rings. The numerical procedure requires the iterative solution of Z + 2 simultaneous nonlinear equations - where Z is the number of the balls - to yield an exact solution for axial and radial deflections, and contact angles. Numerical results for a 218 angular-contact ball bearing have been compared with those from the literature and show significant differences in the magnitudes of the ball loads, contact angles, and the extent of the loading zone.

  9. Static and dynamic friction of hierarchical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, Gianluca; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-12-01

    Hierarchical structures are very common in nature, but only recently have they been systematically studied in materials science, in order to understand the specific effects they can have on the mechanical properties of various systems. Structural hierarchy provides a way to tune and optimize macroscopic mechanical properties starting from simple base constituents and new materials are nowadays designed exploiting this possibility. This can be true also in the field of tribology. In this paper we study the effect of hierarchical patterned surfaces on the static and dynamic friction coefficients of an elastic material. Our results are obtained by means of numerical simulations using a one-dimensional spring-block model, which has previously been used to investigate various aspects of friction. Despite the simplicity of the model, we highlight some possible mechanisms that explain how hierarchical structures can significantly modify the friction coefficients of a material, providing a means to achieve tunability.

  10. Static impedance behavior of programmable metallization cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, S.; Saremi, M.; Barnaby, H. J.; Edwards, A.; Kozicki, M. N.; Mitkova, M.; Mahalanabis, D.; Gonzalez-Velo, Y.; Mahmud, A.

    2015-04-01

    Programmable metallization cell (PMC) devices work by growing and dissolving a conducting metallic bridge across a chalcogenide glass (ChG) solid electrolyte, which changes the resistance of the cell. PMC operation relies on the incorporation of metal ions in the ChG films via photo-doping to lower the off-state resistance and stabilize resistive switching, and subsequent transport of these ions by electric fields induced from an externally applied bias. In this paper, the static on- and off-state resistance of a PMC device composed of a layered (Ag-rich/Ag-poor) Ge30Se70 ChG film with active Ag and inert Ni electrodes is characterized and modeled using three dimensional simulation code. Calibrating the model to experimental data enables the extraction of device parameters such as material bandgaps, workfunctions, density of states, carrier mobilities, dielectric constants, and affinities.

  11. Landau problem in the static schwarzschild universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jafari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  This paper considers the Landau problem in an elected static space time and the are erased levels shifts which are erased as a metric deviation from the Minkowski space time. This research is based on the Weber’s method. We try to rewrite the equation of motion of particles in the presence of the gravitational effects and consider the regions limited with the tangent spaces conditions. I t would be reasonable to assume the nonrelativistic particles with low speed. We show that due to the Weber’s method, the tangent space is always available. Another assumption of this article is time independent tangent space of Schwarzschild universe and use of Riemann’s normal coordinates.

  12. Distributed parameter statics of magnetic catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunay, Ilker

    2011-01-01

    We discuss how to use special Cosserat rod theory for deriving distributed-parameter static equilibrium equations of magnetic catheters. These medical devices are used for minimally-invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and can be operated remotely or controlled by automated algorithms. The magnetic material can be lumped in rigid segments or distributed in flexible segments. The position vector of the cross-section centroid and quaternion representation of an orthonormal triad are selected as DOF. The strain energy for transversely isotropic, hyperelastic rods is augmented with the mechanical potential energy of the magnetic field and a penalty term to enforce the quaternion unity constraint. Numerical solution is found by 1D finite elements. Material properties of polymer tubes in extension, bending and twist are determined by mechanical and magnetic experiments. Software experiments with commercial FEM software indicate that the computational effort with the proposed method is at least one order of magnitude less than standard 3D FEM.

  13. Anisotropy in Quasi-Static Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2017-08-01

    In this review we summarise the current status of the quasi-static magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The energy spectrum is steeper than Kolmogorov’s k -5/3 spectrum due to the decrease of the kinetic energy flux with wavenumber k as a result of Joule dissipation. The spectral index decreases with the increase of interaction parameter. The flow is quasi two-dimensional with strong {{\\mathbf{U}}\\bot} at small k and weak {{U}\\parallel} at large k, where {{\\mathbf{U}}\\bot} and {{U}\\parallel} are the perpendicular and parallel components of velocity relative to the external magnetic field. For small k, the energy flux of {{\\mathbf{U}}\\bot} is negative, but for large k, the energy flux of {{U}\\parallel} is positive. Pressure mediates the energy transfer from {{\\mathbf{U}}\\bot} to {{U}\\parallel} .

  14. VIRTEX-4 VQ static SEU Characterization Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Gregory; Swift, Gary; Carmichael, Carl

    2008-01-01

    This report is the result of the combined efforts of members within the Xilinx Radiation Test Consortium (XRTC), sometimes known as the Xilinx SEE Test Consortium. The XRTC is a voluntary association of aerospace entities, including leading aerospace companies, universities and national laboratories, combining resources to characterize reconfigurable FPGAs for aerospace applications. Previous publications of Virtex-4 radiation results are for commercial (non-epitaxial) devices; see, for example, Refs. 1-4. A notable exception is Ref. 5, which presents XRTC upset measurements of storage elements in the PowerPC405s in the XQR4VFX60. This report of upset susceptibility to heavy ions and protons of the static memory elements in the Virtex-4QV family is a direct parallel to the XRTC report on the thin epitaxial devices in the Virtex-2 family released four years ago.

  15. Static hand gesture recognition from a video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokade, Rajeshree S.; Doye, Dharmpal

    2011-10-01

    A sign language (also signed language) is a language which, instead of acoustically conveyed sound patterns, uses visually transmitted sign patterns to convey meaning- "simultaneously combining hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands". Sign languages commonly develop in deaf communities, which can include interpreters, friends and families of deaf people as well as people who are deaf or hard of hearing themselves. In this paper, we proposed a novel system for recognition of static hand gestures from a video, based on Kohonen neural network. We proposed algorithm to separate out key frames, which include correct gestures from a video sequence. We segment, hand images from complex and non uniform background. Features are extracted by applying Kohonen on key frames and recognition is done.

  16. Assessing Static Performance of the Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge by Monitoring the Correlation between Temperature Field and Its Static Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Xin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of the structural health monitoring system installed on the steel truss arch girder of Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge, the temperature field data and static strain data are collected and analyzed for the static performance assessment of the bridge. Through analysis, it is found that the static strain changes are mainly caused by temperature field (temperature and temperature difference and train. After the train-induced static strains are removed, the correlation between the remaining static strains and the temperature field shows apparent linear characteristics, which can be mathematically modeled for the description of static performance. Therefore, multivariate linear regression function combined with principal component analysis is introduced to mathematically model the correlation. Furthermore, the residual static strains of mathematical model are adopted as assessment indicator and three kinds of degradation regulations of static performance are obtained after simulation of the residual static strains. Finally, it is concluded that the static performance of Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge was in a good condition during that period.

  17. Static gravitational equations of general relativity and "the fifth force"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A.

    2015-10-01

    Einstein's static field equations are investigated in various coordinate charts. After comparing Newtonian gravitational theory (in a curvilinear coordinate chart) with various charts of Einstein's static gravitational equations, the most appropriate choice of the coordinate chart for Einstein's static field equations is made. As a consequence, Einstein's equations imply the non-linear potential equation instead of the usual Poisson's equation of the Newtonian theory. Investigating the non-linear potential equation above in the spherically symmetric cases, the corresponding potentials yield scenarios comparable to "the fifth force". Next, static gravitational and electric fields generated by an incoherent charged dust are investigated. The corresponding non-linear potential equation is derived. Finally, the static Einstein-Maxwell-Klein-Gordon equations are explored and again, the corresponding non-linear potential equation is obtained. This potential resembles the static Higgs boson field.

  18. Effects of static magnetic fields on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, O.

    In our recent experiment on STS-107 (MFA-Biotube) we took advantage of the magnetic heterogeneity of the gravity receptor cells of flax roots, namely stronger diamagnetism of starch-filled amyloplasts compared to cytoplasm (Δ ≊ HGMF, grad(H2/2) up to 109-1010 Oe2/cm) of the experimental chambers (MFCs) repelled amyloplasts from the zones of stronger field thus providing a directional stimulus for plant gravisensing system in microgravity, and causing the roots to react. Such reaction was observed in the video downlink pictures. Unfortunately, the ``Columbia'' tragedy caused loss of the plant material and most of the images, thus preventing us from detailed studies of the results. Currently we are looking for a possibility to repeat this experiment. Therefore, it is very important to understand, what other effects (besides displacing amyloplasts) static magnetic fields with intensities 0 to 2.5104 Oe, and with the size of the area of non-uniformity 10-3 to 1 cm. These effects were estimated theoretically and tested experimentally. No statistically significant differences in growth rates or rates of gravicurvature were observed in experiments with Linum, Arabidopsis, Hordeum, Avena, Ceratodon and Chara between the plants grown in uniform magnetic fields of various intensities (102 to 2.5104 Oe) and those grown in the Earth's magnetic field. Microscopic studies also did not detect any structural differences between test and control plants. The magnitudes of possible effects of static magnetic fields on plant cells and organs (including effects on ion currents, magneto-hydrodynamic effects in moving cytoplasm, ponderomotive forces on other cellular structures, effects on some biochemical reactions and biomolecules) were estimated theoretically. The estimations have shown, that these effects are small compared to the thermodynamic noise and thus are insignificant. Both theoretical estimations and control experiments confirm, that intracellular magnetophoresis of

  19. Static model for a 3-DOF underactuated finger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Guay

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a static model of a three-degree-of-freedom underactuated finger. The model includes all static forces, namely actuation forces, return forces and gravity. All geometric and static parameters can be freely changed (pulley radius, member's mass, etc.. Hence, the model allows complete static simulations to be performed and it can also be used for numerical optimization.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  20. Static magnets: what are they and what do they do?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Laakso

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Therapeutic static magnets have gained wide community acceptance for neuromusculoskeletal pain relief in many countries yet, apart from strong anecdotal reports of benefit, there is a paucity of scientific evidence for their use. OBJECTIVES: In this review we describe the physical characteristics of traditional and commonplace unipolar and bipolar static magnets as well as newer quadripolar magnetic arrays; discuss what is known of the physiological effects of static magnets and the strength of the literature; and make suggestions for targeted future research for static magnets in the management of neuromusculoskeletal pain conditions.

  1. Ultrasound to Detect Pressure-related Deep Tissue Injuries in Adults Admitted via the Emergency Department: A Prospective, Descriptive, Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Jonathan; Farid, Karen; Raden, Mark; Demisse, Seleshi

    2017-03-01

    Stage 4 pressure ulcers (PUs) start with tissue death at the level of the bone, also known as deep tissue injury (DTI). Studies have shown the appearance of DTI on the skin is delayed for several days after the original pressure-related injury to the deep soft tissues. Studies also suggest DTI can be seen using ultrasound (US) technology. A prospective, descriptive, correlational pilot study was conducted to evaluate the use of US technology to detect DTI in the soft tissues that are not visible on the skin upon hospital admission. Study participants included a convenience sample of 33 persons at risk for PUs (ie, Braden score study. US scans identified pressure necrosis at 2 levels: bone (54 positive [US+]) and subcutaneous (SC); 79 US+, respectively). US+ bone sites resulted in 5 PUs appearing 6 to 7 days post-admission (sensitivity = 100%, specificity 84.7%, positive predictive value 10%, and negative predictive value 100%), indicating all DTI that later became purple skin DTI were detected by the US. US+ SC sites, located immediately under the skin, yielded 5 PUs appearing on day 2 after admission (sensitivity 100%, specificity 74.8%, positive predictive value 6.3%, and negative predictive value 100%). The participants with PU occurrence in both bone and SC groups had low Braden scores (bone group mean = 13.25, SC group mean = 11.2). Study patients who were positive for PU also had >4 SFRFs. Creatinine phosphokinase, calcium, and myoglobin levels were inconsistent and did not correlate with US+ scans. These observations warrant larger studies to confirm findings and optimize the validity of US screening for DTI in select populations, which may help improve protocols of care and PU admission documentation. The preliminary results suggest inclusion of the Braden Scale score and known PU risk factors may improve the positive predictive value of this test.

  2. Static Aeroelastic Analysis with an Inviscid Cartesian Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, David L.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Nemec, Marian; Smith, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    An embedded-boundary Cartesian-mesh flow solver is coupled with a three degree-offreedom structural model to perform static, aeroelastic analysis of complex aircraft geometries. The approach solves the complete system of aero-structural equations using a modular, loosely-coupled strategy which allows the lower-fidelity structural model to deform the highfidelity CFD model. The approach uses an open-source, 3-D discrete-geometry engine to deform a triangulated surface geometry according to the shape predicted by the structural model under the computed aerodynamic loads. The deformation scheme is capable of modeling large deflections and is applicable to the design of modern, very-flexible transport wings. The interface is modular so that aerodynamic or structural analysis methods can be easily swapped or enhanced. This extended abstract includes a brief description of the architecture, along with some preliminary validation of underlying assumptions and early results on a generic 3D transport model. The final paper will present more concrete cases and validation of the approach. Preliminary results demonstrate convergence of the complete aero-structural system and investigate the accuracy of the approximations used in the formulation of the structural model.

  3. Effects of static magnetic fields on growth of Paramecium caudatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahee, Khouaildi B; Poinapen, Danny

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of magnetic fields on growth of primitive eukaryotes such as the ciliate Paramecium. The latter are known to exhibit interesting characteristics such as electrotaxis, gravitaxis, and membrane excitability not commonly encountered in higher organisms. This preliminary study reports the effects of static magnetic fields on growth of Paramecium caudatum. The microorganisms were either permanently or 24 h on-and-off exposed to North and South polarity magnetic fields of average field gradient 4.3 T/m, for a period of 96 h. The growth rate and lag phase of all exposed populations were not significantly different from control ones exposed to normal geomagnetic field (P > .05). However, a significant negative shift in t(max) (time taken for maximum growth) of 10.5%-12.2% and a significant decrease (P fields, irrespective of polarity and exposure period reduce Paramecium growth by triggering early senescence of the population. The mechanisms underlying the small changes in population growth are unknown at this level, but various hypotheses have been suggested, including disorganization of swimming patterns resulting from (i) changes in cell membrane electric potential due to high speed movement through a gradient magnetic field and (ii) thermodynamic effect of anisotropic magnetic energies on cell membrane components affecting functioning of calcium channels. Altered swimming movements could in turn affect highly orchestrated processes such as conjugation, essential for survival of the organisms during development of adverse environmental conditions as thought to occur in the closed culture system used in this study.

  4. Death and transfiguration in static Staphylococcus epidermidis cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schaudinn

    Full Text Available The overwhelming majority of bacteria live in slime embedded microbial communities termed biofilms, which are typically adherent to a surface. However, when several Staphylococcus epidermidis strains were cultivated in static liquid cultures, macroscopic aggregates were seen floating within the broth and also sedimented at the test tube bottom. Light- and electron microscopy revealed that early-stage aggregates consisted of bacteria and extracellular matrix, organized in sheet-like structures. Perpendicular under the sheets hung a network of periodically arranged, bacteria-associated strands. During the extended cultivation, the strands of a subpopulation of aggregates developed into cross-connected wall-like structures, in which aligned bacteria formed the walls. The resulting architecture had a compartmentalized appearance. In late-stage cultures, the wall-associated bacteria disintegrated so that, henceforth, the walls were made of the coalescing remnants of lysed bacteria, while the compartment-like organization remained intact. At the same time, the majority of strand-containing aggregates with associated culturable bacteria continued to exist. These observations indicate that some strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis are able to build highly sophisticated structures, in which a subpopulation undergoes cell lysis, presumably to provide continued access to nutrients in a nutrient-limited environment, whilst maintaining structural integrity.

  5. STATIC VERSUS PNF STRETCHING IN HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY-A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Naga Prahalada Karnati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stretching used as a technique for injury prevention in the clinical settings, the study aimed to determine the early findings of hamstring tightness with both groups in the population, now a days the sedentary activities like prolonged sitting might cause hamstring tightness and change in path kinematics of gait intern lead to postural defects and back pain, understanding of the stretching helps clinician to make decisions for rehabilitation. Methods: Across-sectional study, counterbalanced with repeated-measures , one group with static stretch – (double hamstring stretch and hurdlers stretch for 3 times,30seconds subsequently in another group PNF contract relax(agonist contraction technique for 10 seconds position and 10 seconds stretch repeated for 3 times. Results: The results from data and statistical analysis by using t-test, SPSS obtained by using goniometer are tabulated in terms of mean, standard deviation and p-value in both groups. In experimental group flexion with PNF showed improvement 9.27±1.91(right side, 9.53±2.42(left side and static stretching showed 7.8±2.91(right side, 7.47±1.96(left side this proves that PNF has consistent improvement than static stretching. Conclusions: Static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching both have produced greater improvement but compared with PNF contract relax(agonist stretching showed significant change in hamstring flexibility compared with control group . The effect sizes, however corresponding to these stretching-induced changes were small, which suggests the need for practitioners to consider a risk-to-benefit ratio when incorporating static or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching.

  6. Static and simulated seismic testing of the TRG-7 through -16 shear wall structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, C.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Baker, W.E. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Dove, R.C. (Dove (R.C.), Del Norte, CO (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Results from the static, simulated seismic base excitation, and experimental modal analysis tests performed on the TRG-7 through -16 structures are reported. These results were used to establish the scalability of static and dynamic response measured on small structural models to the dynamic response of conventional concrete structures. In addition, these tests provided information concerning cumulative damage effects that occur in concrete structures when they are subjected to different dynamic load sequences. In contrast to previous results obtained in the early part of this program, TRG-7 through -16 responded to simulated seismic excitations with theoretical stiffness values until peak nominal base shear stress levels of 150 psi were reached. A summary of all experimental data obtained during this program is provided. 23 refs., 47 figs., 22 tabs.

  7. Latent Constructs of the Static-99R and Static-2002R: A Three-Factor Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillette-Alarie, Sébastien; Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; Helmus, Leslie-Maaike

    2016-02-01

    The most commonly used risk assessment tools for predicting sexual violence focus almost exclusively on static, historical factors (e.g., characteristics of prior offences). Consequently, they are assumed to be unable to directly inform the selection of treatment targets or evaluate change. In this article, we argue that this limitation can be mitigated by using latent variable models as a framework to link historical risk factors to the psychological characteristics of offenders. Accordingly, we conducted a factor analysis of the 13 nonredundant items from the two most commonly used risk tools for sexual offenders (Static-99R and Static-2002R) to identify the psychological information contained in these tools. Three factors were identified: (a) persistence/paraphilia, a construct related to sexual criminality, especially of the pedophilic type; (b) youthful stranger aggression, a construct centered on young age and offence seriousness; and (c) general criminality, a construct that reflected the diversity and magnitude of criminal careers. These constructs predicted sexual recidivism with similar accuracy, but only youthful stranger aggression and general criminality predicted nonsexual recidivism. These results indicate that risk tools for sexual violence are multidimensional, and support a shift from a focus on atheoretical risk markers to the assessment of psychologically meaningful constructs.

  8. 早期原发纵隔B细胞淋巴瘤静态IMRT和VMAT计划比较%Comparison of static intensity-modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy in early-stage primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐利明; 刘清峰; 王清鑫; 戴建荣; 李晔雄; 康明磊; 江波; 房辉; 金晶; 王维虎; 王淑莲; 刘跃平; 宋永文

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare target dosimetric distribution and normal tissue radiation between different static intensity⁃modulated radiation therapy ( IMRT) plans and volumetric modulated arc therapy ( VMAT) and to identify the best IMRT plan for patients with primary mediastinal B⁃cell lymphoma ( PMBCL) . Methods A total of 16 patients ( 8 males and 8 females) with early⁃stage ( Ann⁃Arbor stageⅠ) PMBCL were enrolled in this study,with doses of 45 Gy for primary gross tumor volume ( PGTV) and 40 Gy for planning target volume (PTV).Four plans were designed for each patient,consisting of static IMRT (5F⁃IMRT,7F⁃IMRT,9F⁃IMRT) and VMAT,and the target dosimetric distribution,normal tissue radiation dose,and efficiency of each plan were evaluated. The difference of dose was analyzed by analysis of variance. Results The mean conformity index ( CI) and homogeneity index ( HI) for PGTV in 5F⁃,7F⁃,9F⁃IMRT and VMAT were 1. 01 and 1. 10, 1. 01 and 1. 10, 1. 01 and 1. 10, and 1. 01 and 1. 11 ( P= 0. 963 and 0. 843) ,respectively,while these two indices for PTV were 1. 04 and 1. 22,1. 03 and 1. 19,1. 03 and 1. 17, and 1. 08 and 1. 14( P=0. 964 and 0. 969) ,respectively. The parameters of volume and dose were similar on normal tissue ( P= 0. 192⁃1. 000 ) . The treatment time and number of monitor units in 9F⁃IMRT were significantly higher than those in other static IMRT plans and VMAT ( P=0. 000,0. 000) ,and among these plans,VMAT had the lowest number of monitor units ( 13 345. 0 MU) and the shortest treatment time ( 5. 9 min) . Conclusions The target volume coverage of 7F⁃and 9F⁃IMRT is better than that of 5F⁃IMRT and VMAT.For early⁃stage PMBCL,VMAT is not superior to IMRT in terms of dosimetry,especially with a larger area of low⁃dose radiation to the breast,but it is highly efficient in practice.%目的:通过比较不同静态IMRT和VMAT计划靶区剂量分布与正常组织照射情况,以明确原发纵隔B细胞淋巴瘤( PMBCL)

  9. Instructional Animation versus Static Pictures: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffler, Tim N.; Leutner, Detlev

    2007-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 26 primary studies, yielding 76 pair-wise comparisons of dynamic and static visualizations, reveals a medium-sized overall advantage of instructional animations over static pictures. The mean weighted effect size on learning outcome is d = 0.37 (95% CI 0.25-0.49). Moderator analyses indicate even more substantial effect sizes…

  10. Static and Transient Cavitation Threshold Measurements for Mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraga, F.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1999-11-14

    Transient and static cavitation thresholds for mercury as a function of the cover gas (helium or air), and pressure are reported. Both static and transient cavitation onset pressure thresholds increase linearly with cover gas pressure. Additionally, the cavitation thresholds as a function of dissolved gases were also measured and are reported.

  11. Theory of static and dynamic properties of Gd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1986-01-01

    Gadolinium is a Heisenberg magnet intermediate between the localized EuO and the itinerant Fe and Ni. The authors develop a correlation theory for Gd and calculate self-consistently both static and dynamic properties. One finds that the high frequency spin waves persist for T>Tc. The static...

  12. 14 CFR 29.610 - Lightning and static electricity protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning and static electricity protection... § 29.610 Lightning and static electricity protection. (a) The rotorcraft structure must be protected... electricity must— (1) Minimize the accumulation of electrostatic charge; (2) Minimize the risk of electric...

  13. All Charged Up!--Experimenting with Static Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Build-up of static electricity happens readily when the air is cold and dry and is a common part of life. There are lots of ways to make students aware of static electricity--and many things one can teach them about its applications in today's industry. In this article, the author describes examples and experiments that will bring static…

  14. CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF HYDROXYPROPYL STARCH IN A STATIC MIXER REACTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LAMMERS, G; STAMHUIS, EJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    1993-01-01

    A novel type of reactor for the chemical derivatization of starch pastes is presented. The design is based on the application of static mixers. The reactor shows excellent plug flow behaviour with a Peclet number of about 100. The viscosity behaviour of concentrated starch pastes in the static mixer

  15. Static energy meter errors caused by conducted electromagnetic interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes; Keyer, Cornelis H.A.; Melentjev, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Static, or electronic, energy meters are replacing the conventional electromechanical meters. Consumers are some-times complaining about higher energy readings and billing after the change to a static meter, but there is not a clear common or root cause at present. Electromagnetic interference has

  16. 49 CFR 238.405 - Longitudinal static compressive strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Longitudinal static compressive strength. 238.405 Section 238.405 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... II Passenger Equipment § 238.405 Longitudinal static compressive strength. (a) To form an...

  17. All Charged Up!--Experimenting with Static Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Build-up of static electricity happens readily when the air is cold and dry and is a common part of life. There are lots of ways to make students aware of static electricity--and many things one can teach them about its applications in today's industry. In this article, the author describes examples and experiments that will bring static…

  18. Static energy meter errors caused by conducted electromagnetic interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank; Keyer, Cees; Melentjev, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Static, or electronic, energy meters are replacing the conventional electromechanical meters. Consumers are some-times complaining about higher energy readings and billing after the change to a static meter, but there is not a clear common or root cause at present. Electromagnetic interference has b

  19. 14 CFR 23.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 23.681 Section 23.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Control Systems § 23.681 Limit load static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of this...

  20. 14 CFR 25.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 25.681 Section 25.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... load static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of this Part must be shown by tests...

  1. 14 CFR 29.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 29.681 Section 29.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... load static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of this part must be shown by tests...

  2. 14 CFR 27.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 27.681 Section 27.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of this part must be shown by tests in...

  3. The Active-Static Nature of Amuzgo (Otomanguean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Thomas C. Smith; Garcia, Fermin Tapia

    An analysis of Amuzgo, a language within the Otomanguean family of Mexico, suggests that it is an active-static language with patterns similar but not parallel to those of Chocho. In the report, data on the characteristics of Chocho are summarized, theory and research on active-static languages is reviewed, and the data on Amuzgo are presented.…

  4. Non-static vacuum strings: exterior and interior solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein-Schabes, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    New non-static cylindrically symmetric solutions of Einsteins's equations are presented. Some of these solutions represent string-like objects. An exterior vacuum solution is matched to a non-vacuum interior solution for different forms of the energy-momentum tensor. They generalize the standard static string. 12 refs.

  5. Integrable cases of gravitating static isothermal fluid spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, B V

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that different approaches towards the solution of the Einstein equations for a static spherically symmetric perfect fluid with a gamma-law equation of state lead to an Abel differential equation of the second kind. Its only integrable cases at present are flat spacetime, de Sitter solution and its Buchdahl transform, Einstein static universe and the Klein-Tolman solution.

  6. Observation of static gestures influences speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarick, Michelle; Jones, Jeffery A

    2008-08-01

    Research investigating 'mirror neurons' has demonstrated the presence of an observation-execution matching system in humans. One hypothesized role for this system might be to aid in action understanding by encoding the underlying intentions of the actor. To investigate this hypothesis, we asked participants to observe photographs of an actor making orofacial gestures (implying verbal or non-verbal acts), and to produce syllables that were compatible or incompatible with the gesture they observed. We predicted that if mirror neurons encode the intentions of an actor, then the pictures implying verbal gestures would affect speech production, whereas the non-verbal gestures would not. Our results showed that the observation of compatible verbal gestures facilitated verbal responses, while incompatible verbal gestures caused interference. Although this compatibility effect did not reach statistical significance when the photographs implied a non-verbal act, responses were faster on average when the gesture implied the use of similar articulators as those involved with the production of the target syllable. Altogether, these behavioral findings compliment previous neuroimaging studies indicating that static pictures portraying gestures activate brain regions associated with an observation-execution matching system.

  7. Preservation of Laboratory Instruments in Static Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregg, J. L.; Shackelford, M. A.

    1950-02-22

    It is desirable to place laboratory instruments in static storage so that they may be put into operation with only normal servicing. Such instruments may be subject to many forms of deterioration. There may be deterioration of metal parts due to chemical and electrolytic corrosion and the effects of moisture, excessive dryness, and microorganisms, i.e., mildew on organic parts. To preserve such instruments without disassembly or troublesome surface coatings, requires methods that will remove the major cause of deterioration - that is, excessive humidity, by reducing and maintaining the relative humidity of the air surrounding the item at 30 per cent or less. It is also necessary to eliminate or separate hygroscopic materials from the item since they will cause corrosion, by surface adsorption and condensation, even though a dry atmosphere is maintained. The methods and materials used must not only be efficient and economical but also require a minimun of maintenance, Protection against physical damage and temperature extremes is dependent upon the storage site and is not considered in this report.

  8. Review of Static Compensation of Autonomous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarnath Banerji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Deregulation of the electric power energy market has thrown open opportunities for tapping the large number of small pockets of renewable energy sources with the asynchronous generators. Whether the power is supplied by asynchronous generator or by the grid at the remote location, its quality has become an important aspect for consumers of electricity. Efforts have been made to improve the power quality using passive filters, active filters and the new concept of Custom Power. Use of Custom power devices ensures that a load do not pollute the power supply of the other loads. One such custom power device is the DSTATCOM (Distribution Static Compensator which is connected in shunt at the load end. The heart of the DSTATCOM is an inverter. The focus on the autonomous generation has increased in the recent years. The paper presents a comprehensive review of the DSTATCOM used for autonomous generation. It is aimed at providing a broad perspective on the status of DSTATCOM, used with Asynchronous generators, vis-à-vis its working principle, topology, solid state switching devices and technology, supply system, control methodologies and approaches, technical and economic considerations, etc. to researchers and application engineers dealing with power quality aspects of Autonomous Systems. Classified manner in which the references are presented in this paper will serve them as quick and useful reference.

  9. Liquid methanol under a static electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassone, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.cassone@impmc.upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); Università degli Studi di Messina, Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra, Contrada Papardo, 98166 Messina (Italy); CNR-IPCF, Viale Ferdinando Stagno d’Alcontres 37, 98158 Messina (Italy); Giaquinta, Paolo V., E-mail: paolo.giaquinta@unime.it [Università degli Studi di Messina, Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra, Contrada Papardo, 98166 Messina (Italy); Saija, Franz, E-mail: saija@ipcf.cnr.it [CNR-IPCF, Viale Ferdinando Stagno d’Alcontres 37, 98158 Messina (Italy); Saitta, A. Marco, E-mail: marco.saitta@impmc.upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-02-07

    We report on an ab initio molecular dynamics study of liquid methanol under the effect of a static electric field. We found that the hydrogen-bond structure of methanol is more robust and persistent for field intensities below the molecular dissociation threshold whose value (≈0.31 V/Å) turns out to be moderately larger than the corresponding estimate obtained for liquid water. A sustained ionic current, with ohmic current-voltage behavior, flows in this material for field intensities above 0.36 V/Å, as is also the case of water, but the resulting ionic conductivity (≈0.40 S cm{sup −1}) is at least one order of magnitude lower than that of water, a circumstance that evidences a lower efficiency of proton transfer processes. We surmise that this study may be relevant for the understanding of the properties and functioning of technological materials which exploit ionic conduction, such as direct-methanol fuel cells and Nafion membranes.

  10. Non static cosmic strings in Lyra geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rahaman, Farook

    2007-01-01

    The gravitational field of both local and global non static cosmic strings in the context of Lyra geometry are investigated. Local strings are characterized by having an energy momentum tensor whose only non null components are $T_{tt} = T_{zz}$ . As linearized Einstein equations are formally analogous to the Maxwell equations, the exterior solution does not depend on the radial distribution of the source and hence a Dirac d function was used to approximate the radial distribution of the energy momentum tensor for a local cosmic string along the z-axis: $T_{ab} = \\delta(x) \\delta(y)diag (\\sigma, 0, 0, \\sigma) $, $\\sigma $being the energy density of the string [A.Vilenkin. Phys.Rep.(1985)121,263]. For a global string, the energy momentum tensor components are calculated from the action density for a complex scalar field y along with a Maxican hat potential. The gravitational field of the global string is shown to be attractive in nature.

  11. The influence of music on static posturography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forti, Stella; Filipponi, Eliana; Di Berardino, Federica; Barozzi, Stefania; Cesarani, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that high intensity sounds modify balance by activating the saccule, which is sensitive to both vestibular and acoustic stimuli. Few studies have examined the effects of music on the postural responses in healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different types of music (Mozart, Köhler, Köhler with a carrier of 12 KHz and subjects' favourite music) on twelve healthy subjects standing on a stabilometric platform. With each type of music, all subjects underwent static posturography with eyes opened and eyes closed, and with and without foam pads. We evaluated the length and the surface of body sway and the correlation between them, and we analyzed the visual, vestibular and somatosensory sub-components. Listening to different types of music did not significantly change the stabilometric variables, with the exception of listening to Mozart's Jupiter, which caused a significant reduction in the visual component with a consequent increase in both the vestibular and somatosensory inputs. Further studies are needed to determine the effect of Mozart's music in modifying the sensory strategy in the rehabilitation of patients with vestibular impairments.

  12. A multinuclear static NMR study of geopolymerisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favier, Aurélie, E-mail: aurelie.favier@epfl.ch [Univ Paris-Est, IFSTTAR, Materials Department, 14-20 bd Newton, F-77447 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 (France); Habert, Guillaume [Institute for Construction and Infrastructure Management, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Roussel, Nicolas [Univ Paris-Est, IFSTTAR, Materials Department, 14-20 bd Newton, F-77447 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 (France); D' Espinose de Lacaillerie, Jean-Baptiste [Ecole Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie Indusrtrielles de la Ville de Paris (ESPCI), ParisTech, PSL Research University, Soft Matter Sciences and Engineering Laboratory SIMM, CNRS UMR 7615, 10 rue Vauquelin, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-09-15

    Geopolymers are inorganic binders obtained by alkali activation of aluminosilicates. While the structure of geopolymers is now well understood, the details of the geopolymerisation reaction and their impact on the rheology of the paste remain uncertain. In this work, we follow the elastic properties of a paste made with metakaolin and sodium silicate solution. After the first sharp increase of elastic modulus occurring a few hundred of seconds after mixing and related to the heterogeneous formation of an alumina–silicate gel with a molar ratio Si/Al < 4 located at the grains boundaries, we focus on the progressive increase in elastic modulus on a period of few hours during the setting of the geopolymer. In this study, we combine the study of rheological properties of the paste with {sup 23}Na, {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si static NMR measurement in order to better understand the origin of this second increase in elastic modulus. Our results show that, after a few hours, Al and Na evolution in the liquid phase are concomitant. This suggests the precipitation of an aluminosilicate phase where Al is in tetrahedral position and Na compensates the charge. Furthermore, Si speciation confirms this result and allows us to identify the precipitation of a product, which has a chemical composition close to the final composition of geopolymer. This study provides strong evidence for a heterogeneous formation of an aluminosilicate glass directly from the first gel and the silicate solution without the need for a reorganisation of Gel 1 into Gel 2.

  13. Comparative statics of games between relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milchtaich, Igal

    2006-03-01

    According to Hamilton's theory of kin selection, species tend to evolve behavior such that each organism appears to be attempting to maximize its inclusive fitness. In particular, two neighbors are likely to help each other if the cost of doing so is less than the benefit multiplied by r, their coefficient of relatedness. Since the latter is less than unity, mutual altruism benefits both neighbors. However, is it theoretically possible that acting so as to maximize the inclusive, rather than personal, fitness may harm both parties. This may occur in strategic symmetric pairwise interactions (more specifically, nxn games), in which the outcome depends on both sides' actions. In this case, the equilibrium outcome may be less favorable to the interactants' personal fitness than if each of them acted so as to maximize the latter. This paper shows, however, that such negative effect of relatedness on fitness is incompatible with evolutionary stability. If the symmetric equilibrium strategies are evolutionarily stable, a higher coefficient of relatedness can only entail higher personal fitness for the two neighbors. This suggests that negative comparative statics as above are not likely to occur in nature.

  14. Scalar Static Polarizabilities of Lanthanides and Actinides

    CERN Document Server

    Dzuba, V A; Flambaum, V V

    2014-01-01

    We calculate scalar static polarizabilities for lanthanides and actinides, the atoms with open $4f$ or $5f$ subshell. We show that polarizabilities of the low states are approximately the same for all states of given configuration and present a way of calculating them reducing valence space to just two or three valence electrons occupying $6s$ and $5d$ states for lanthanides or $7s$ and $6d$ states for actinides while $4f$ and $5f$ states are considered to be in the core. Configuration interaction technique is used to calculate polarizabilities of lanthanides and actinides for all states of the $4f^n6s^2$ and $4f^{n-1}6s^25d$ configurations of lanthanides and all states of the $5f^{n}7s^2$ and $5f^{n-1}7s^26d$ configurations of actinides. Polarizability of the electron core (including f-orbitals) has been calculated in the RPA approximation.

  15. Intracellular Biopotentials During Static Extracellular Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Maurice

    1973-01-01

    Two properties of the intracellular potentials and electric fields resulting from static extracellular stimulation are obtained for arbitrarily shaped cells. First, the values of intracellular potential are shown to be bounded by the maximum and minimum values of extracellular potential on the surface of the cell. Second, the volume average of the magnitude of intracellular electric field is shown to have an upper bound given by the ratio of the magnitude of the largest extracellular potential difference on the surface of the cell to a generalized length constant λ = [σintraVcell/(σmemb Acell)]1/2, where Vcell and Acell are the volume and surface area of the cell, σintra is the intracellular conductivity (reciprocal ohms per centimeter), and σmemb is the membrane conductivity (reciprocal ohms per square centimeter). The use of the upper bound on the volume average of the magnitude of intracellular electric field as an estimate for intracellular isopotentiality is discussed and the use of the generalized length constant for electrically describing arbitrary cells is illustrated for cylindrical- and spheroidal-shaped cells. PMID:4726882

  16. Contagion processes on the static and activity driven coupling networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Yanjun; Guo, Quantong; Ma, Yifang; Li, Meng; Zheng, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of network structure and the spreading of epidemic are common coexistent dynamical processes. In most cases, network structure is treated either static or time-varying, supposing the whole network is observed in a same time window. In this paper, we consider the epidemic spreading on a network consisting of both static and time-varying structures. At meanwhile, the time-varying part and the epidemic spreading are supposed to be of the same time scale. We introduce a static and activity driven coupling (SADC) network model to characterize the coupling between static (strong) structure and dynamic (weak) structure. Epidemic thresholds of SIS and SIR model are studied on SADC both analytically and numerically with various coupling strategies, where the strong structure is of homogeneous or heterogeneous degree distribution. Theoretical thresholds obtained from SADC model can both recover and generalize the classical results in static and time-varying networks. It is demonstrated that weak structure...

  17. Static and flicker perimetry in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Chi D; Dimitrov, Peter N; Wu, Zhichao; Ayton, Lauren N; Makeyeva, Galina; Aung, Khin-Zaw; Varsamidis, Mary; Robman, Luba; Vingrys, Algis J; Guymer, Robyn H

    2013-05-01

    The relationship between clinical severity of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and macular function has not been well established. In this study, we investigated the correlation between clinical severity and functional deficits as detected by static and flicker perimetry. This cross-sectional study consisted of 279 AMD subjects and 24 control participants. AMD subjects were allocated into 1 of 10 AMD severity groups depending on the status of the designated study eye and the fellow eye, as assessed by color fundus photographs. Visual acuity, and static and flicker perimetry were tested on one eye during the same session. The geometric means, SDs, and percentage of abnormal eyes of static and flicker sensitivity of each AMD severity group were determined and compared. The pattern of change in sensitivity and percentage of abnormal eyes for static perimetry across all AMD severity groups were similar to flicker perimetry. Eyes with drusen > 125 μm (P[static] = 0.018, P[flicker] = 0.024), drusenoid epithelial detachment (P[static and flicker] static and flicker] static and flicker sensitivities compared to normal eyes. Static (β-coefficient -1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] -4.78-1.60) and flicker (β-coefficient -1.29, 95% CI -4.66-2.08) sensitivities declined at a similar rate in eyes that showed clinical signs of progression. Static and flicker perimetry were affected similarly across the spectrum of AMD severity, and methods appeared to be valid techniques for assessing retinal sensitivity in AMD once drusen > 125 μm are present, but before the development of late AMD.

  18. Dynamic and static tibial translation in patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency initially treated with a structured rehabilitation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonesson, Sofi; Kvist, Joanna

    2017-08-01

    To compare dynamic and static tibial translation, in patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency, at 2- to 5-year follow-up, with the tibial translation after 4 months of rehabilitation initiated early after the injury. Secondarily, to compare tibial translation in the injured knee and non-injured knee and explore correlations between dynamic and static tibial translation. Twelve patients with ACL rupture were assessed at 3-8 weeks after ACL injury, after 4 months of structured rehabilitation, and 2-5 years after ACL injury. Sagittal tibial translation was measured during the Lachman test (static translation) and during gait (dynamic translation) using a CA-4000 electrogoniometer. Static tibial translation was increased bilateral 2-5 years after ACL injury, whereas the dynamic tibial translation was unchanged. Tibial translation was greater in the injured knee compared with the non-injured knee (Lachman test 134 N 9.1 ± 1.0 vs. 7.0 ± 1.7 mm, P = 0.001, gait 5.6 ± 2.1 vs. 4.7 ± 1.8 mm, P = 0.011). There were no correlations between dynamic and static tibial translation. Dynamic tibial translation was unchanged in spite of increased static tibial translation in the ACL-deficient knee at 2- to 5-year follow-up compared to directly after rehabilitation. Dynamic tibial translation did not correlate with the static tibial translation. A more normal gait kinematics may be maintained from completion of a rehabilitation programme to mid-term follow-up in patients with ACL deficiency treated with rehabilitation only. IV.

  19. Literature review Quasi-static and Dynamic pile load tests: Primarily report on non-static pile load tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huy, N.Q.

    2010-01-01

    Pile testing, which plays an importance role in the field of deep foundation design, is performed by static and non-static methods to provide information about the following issues: (Poulos, 1998) - The ultimate capacity of a single pile. - The load-displacement behavior of a pile. - The performance

  20. Literature review Quasi-static and Dynamic pile load tests: Primarily report on non-static pile load tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huy, N.Q.

    2010-01-01

    Pile testing, which plays an importance role in the field of deep foundation design, is performed by static and non-static methods to provide information about the following issues: (Poulos, 1998) - The ultimate capacity of a single pile. - The load-displacement behavior of a pile. - The performance

  1. Compact static stars in minimal dilatonic gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiziev, Plamen P.

    2017-09-01

    In the version1 of this paper we presented for the first time the basic equations and relations for relativistic static spherically symmetric stars (SSSS) in the model of minimal dilatonic gravity (MDG). This model is locally equivalent to the f(R) theory of gravity and gives an alternative description of the effects of dark matter and dark energy using the Brans-Dicke dilaton Φ. To outline the basic properties of the MDG model of SSSS and to compare them with general relativistic results, in this paper we use the relativistic equation of state (EOS) of neutron matter as an ideal Fermi neutron gas at zero temperature. We overcome the well-known difficulties of the physics of SSSS in the f(R) theories of gravity2,3 applying novel highly nontrivial nonlinear boundary conditions, which depend on the global properties of the solution and on the EOS. We also introduce two pairs of new notions: cosmological-energy-pressure densities and dilaton-energy-pressure densities, as well as two new EOSs for them: cosmological EOS (CEOS) and dilaton EOS (DEOS). Special attention is paid to the dilatonic sphere (in brief — disphere) of SSSS, introduced in this paper for the first time. Using several realistic EOS for neutron star (NS): SLy, BSk19, BSk20 and BSk21, and current observational two-solar-masses-limit, we derive an estimate for scalar-field-mass mΦ ˜ 10‑13eV/c2 ÷ 4 × 10‑11eV/c2. Thus, the present version of the paper reflects some of the recent developments of the topic.

  2. High temperature static strain gage development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, C. O.; Bailey, R. S.; Grant, H. P.; Anderson, W. L.; Przybyszewski, J. S.

    1991-01-01

    Final results are presented from a program to develop a thin film static strain gage for use on the blades and vanes of running, test stand gas turbine engines with goals of an 3 x 3 mm gage area and total errors of less than 10 pct. of + or - 2,000 microstrain after 50 hrs at 1250 K. Pd containing 13 Wt. pct. Cr was previously identified as a new strain sensor alloy that appeared to be potentially usable to 1250 K. Subsequently, it was discovered, in contrast with its behavior in bulk, that Pd-13Cr suffered from oxidation attack when prepared as a 4.5 micron thick thin film. Continuing problems with electrical leakage to the substrate and the inability of sputtered alumina overcoats to prevent oxidation led to the discovery that sputtered alumina contains appreciable amounts of entrapped argon. After the argon has been exsolved by heating to elevated temperatures, the alumina films undergo a linear shrinkage of about 2 pct. resulting in formation of cracks. These problems can be largely overcome by sputtering the alumina with the substrate heated to 870 K. With 2 micron thick hot sputtered alumina insulation and overcoat films, total 50 hr drifts of about 100 microstrain (2 tests) and about 500 microstrain (1 test) were observed at 1000 and 1100 K, respectively. Results of tests on complete strain gage systems on constant moment bend bars with Pd temperature compensation grids revealed that oxidation of the Pd grid was a major problem even when the grid was overcoated with a hot or cold sputtered alumina overcoat.

  3. 14 CFR 29.1325 - Static pressure and pressure altimeter systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: Installation § 29.1325 Static pressure and pressure altimeter systems. (a) Each instrument with static air case... between air pressure in the static pressure system and true ambient atmospheric static pressure is not..., when on the alternate static pressure system, differs from the reading of altimeter when on the primary...

  4. ROPS performance during field upset and static testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J R; McKenzie, E A; Etherton, J R; Cantis, D M; Ronaghi, M

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture remains one of the most hazardous occupations in the U.S. By conservative estimates, tractor overturns alone claim 120 lives annually. A rollover protective structure (ROPS) and a seatbelt are a highly effective engineering safety control that can prevent many of these fatalities and reduce the severity of injuries associated with tractor overturn. SAE J2194 is a consensus performance standard established for agricultural ROPS. According to this standard, satisfactory ROPS performance can be demonstrated through static testing, field upset testing, or impact testing. A previous modeling study suggested that static testing may underpredict the strain induced in a ROPS during afield upset. In the current study, field upset testing and laboratory static testing results were compared. Field upset testing included six rear and six side upset tests performed according to SAE J2194 guidelines. Additionally, static testing was performed on a ROPS of the same model. The results support findings from the modeling study. Near the lowest sections of the ROPS, the plastic strain resulting from rear upset testing exceeded the plastic strain from static testing for 18 of 24 data points. Conversely, the ROPS plastic strain from side upset testing was typically less than plastic strain from laboratory static testing. However, data indicate that the side upset test may not be very repeatable. This study suggests that the longitudinal loading energy criterion for static testing might not be a conservative predictor of rear upset ROPS response.

  5. Effects of static magnetic field on mutagenesis in in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikehata, M; Yoshie, S; Hayakawa, T [Railway Technical Research Institute, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8540 (Japan); Hirota, N [Nano Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 277-8561 (Japan)], E-mail: ikehata@rtri.or.jp

    2009-03-01

    Effects of static magnetic field up to 13 T were estimated in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We observed that exposure to a 5 T static magnetic field resulted in a slight but significant increase in gene recombination frequency while frequency of reverse point mutation was not altered in S. cerevisiae. This mutagenic effect showed a dose response relationship as J-shape. To investigate an involvement of reactive oxygen species in possible mutagenic effect of static magnetic field, SOD deficient E. coli QC774 was used in thymine synthesis-based mutation assay. The result shows that static magnetic field up to 13 T did not indicate mutagenicity. Thus, it is suggested that frequency of point mutation does not changed under static magnetic field regardless of its susceptibility to superoxide. These results suggest that strong static magnetic field would have small but detectable mutagenic potential. Although mechanism of the mutagenic effect of static magnetic field has not been elucidated yet, the extent of this effect is estimated extremely small by comparison with other mutagens such as ultraviolet irradiation.

  6. Pre-exposure to moving form enhances static form sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S A Wallis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motion-defined form can seem to persist briefly after motion ceases, before seeming to gradually disappear into the background. Here we investigate if this subjective persistence reflects a signal capable of improving objective measures of sensitivity to static form. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We presented a sinusoidal modulation of luminance, masked by a background noise pattern. The sinusoidal luminance modulation was usually subjectively invisible when static, but visible when moving. We found that drifting then stopping the waveform resulted in a transient subjective persistence of the waveform in the static display. Observers' objective sensitivity to the position of the static waveform was also improved after viewing moving waveforms, compared to viewing static waveforms for a matched duration. This facilitation did not occur simply because movement provided more perspectives of the waveform, since performance following pre-exposure to scrambled animations did not match that following pre-exposure to smooth motion. Observers did not simply remember waveform positions at motion offset, since removing the waveform before testing reduced performance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Motion processing therefore interacts with subsequent static visual inputs in a way that can improve performance in objective sensitivity measures. We suggest that the brief subjective persistence of motion-defined forms that can occur after motion offsets is a consequence of the decay of a static form signal that has been transiently enhanced by motion processing.

  7. Dynamic and static knee alignment at baseline predict structural abnormalities on MRI associated with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis after 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, Armaghan; van Dieёn, Jaap H; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Baert, Isabel A C; Faber, Gert S; Luyten, Frank P; Verschueren, Sabine M P

    2017-09-01

    Dynamic and static varus alignment, both, have been reported as risk factors associated with structural progression of knee osteoarthritis. However the association of none of the static and dynamic alignment with structural, clinical, and functional progression associated with knee osteoarthritis has not been assessed yet in a longitudinal study. Forty-seven women with early and established medial knee osteoarthritis were evaluated. Static and dynamic alignment as well as MRI detected structural features, clinical, and functional characteristics of patients were assessed at baseline and at 2 years follow-up. Associations between baseline static and dynamic alignment with structural, functional, and clinical characteristics at the time of entry, as well as the changes over 2 years were evaluated. Both static and dynamic varus alignment at baseline were significantly associated with osteoarthritis related tibio-femoral joint structural abnormalities detected on MRI, at the time of entry. Only the magnitude of varus thrust at baseline was predictive of the changes in the presence of meniscal maceration over two years. None of the static or dynamic measures of knee joint alignment were associated with clinical characteristics associated with medial knee osteoarthritis. The key finding of this study is that both frontal plane dynamic and static alignment, are associated with structural abnormalities in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Survival of Apache Trout eggs and alevins under static and fluctuating temperature regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recsetar, Matthew S.; Bonar, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Increased stream temperatures due to global climate change, livestock grazing, removal of riparian cover, reduction of stream flow, and urbanization will have important implications for fishes worldwide. Information exists that describes the effects of elevated water temperatures on fish eggs, but less information is available on the effects of fluctuating water temperatures on egg survival, especially those of threatened and endangered species. We tested the posthatch survival of eyed eggs and alevins of Apache Trout Oncorhynchus gilae apache, a threatened salmonid, in static temperatures of 15, 18, 21, 24, and 27°C, and also in treatments with diel fluctuations of ±3°C around those temperatures. The LT50 for posthatch survival of Apache Trout eyed eggs and alevins was 17.1°C for static temperatures treatments and 17.9°C for the midpoints of ±3°C fluctuating temperature treatments. There was no significant difference in survival between static temperatures and fluctuating temperatures that shared the same mean temperature, yet there was a slight difference in LT50s. Upper thermal tolerance of Apache Trout eyed eggs and alevins is much lower than that of fry to adult life stages (22–23°C). Information on thermal tolerance of early life stages (eyed egg and alevin) will be valuable to those restoring streams or investigating thermal tolerances of imperiled fishes.

  9. An eigen theory of static electromagnetic field for anisotropic media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-hua GUO

    2009-01-01

    Static electromagnetic fields are studied based on standard spaces of the physical presentation,and the modal equations of static electromagnetic fields for anisotropic media are derived. By introducing a new set of first-order potential functions,several novel theoretical results are obtained. It is found that,for isotropic media,electric or magnetic potentials are scalar; while for anisotropic media,they are vectors. Magnitude and direction of the vector potentials are related to the anisotropic subspaces. Based on these results,we discuss the laws of static electromagnetic fields for anisotropic media.

  10. Another look at Statics and Dynamics of Switching Power Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Seigo; Watanabe, Haruo

    Three types of switching power supply, which are buck, boost, buck/boost converter, are statically and dynamically analysed. A framework of large signal analysis presents characteristics of converters which vary with operating points, and discusses a relationship between statics and dynamics. It is shown that boost and buck/boost converters substantially change their characteristics. There exists the operating points where for low frequencies the phases become -90° or -180° and the gains fall off to low values. The phenomenon is characterized by a zero of transfer function of the converter and also by the statics.

  11. Axisymmetric Natural Frequencies of Statically Loaded Annular Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eihab M. Abdel-Rahman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical procedure to solve the axisymmetric vibration problem of statically loaded annular plates. We use the von Kármán nonlinear plate model to account for large deformations and study the effect of static deflections on the natural frequencies and mode shapes for six combinations of boundary conditions. The shooting method is used to solve the resulting eigenvalue problem. Our results show that static deformations have a significant effect on the natural frequencies and small effect on the mode shapes of the plate. Further, the results show that the presence of in-plane stresses has a significant effect on the natural frequencies.

  12. Complete classification of spherically symmetric static spacetimes via Noether symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Farhad; Ali, Sajid

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give a complete classification of spherically symmetric static space-times by their Noether symmetries. The determining equations for Noether symmetries are obtained by using the usual Lagrangian of a general spherically symmetric static spacetime which are integrated for each case. In particular we observe that spherically symmetric static spacetimes are categorized into six distinct classes corresponding to Noether algebra of dimensions 5, 6, 7, 9, 11 and 17. Using Noether`s theorem we also write down the first integrals for each class of such spacetimes corresponding to their Noether symmetries.

  13. Static sensitivity calculation of a novel fiber optic biosensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongchen Bai; Shuijie Qin; Jing Li; Dashun Huang; Xin Zhang

    2008-01-01

    A novel structure of fiber optic biosensor and its principle are introduced. The sample is detected in microchannels of several microns diameter in fiber optic biosensors. The relation between the optic fiber tapered angle and the fluorescence incident angle is calculated in signal receiving part. As the sensor is a zero-order system, calculating formula of the static sensitivity is derived. When ZnSe nano-crystalline cluster is used for marking the molecules, the static sensitivity for fiber optic biosensors is calculated. At the same time, the relation between the static sensitivity and the ratio of exciting wavelength to fluorescence wavelength is presented.

  14. Characterization of Acryl amide Resins Using Static Light Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libi, Sumit; Norwood, David

    2012-02-01

    Our research is based on the use of light scattering technique for the characterization of known and unknown particles within a liquid. The research focused specifically on the detection of resin polymer that may be present in the given samples using static light scattering. The sample was delivered into a high performance liquid chromatography system with static light scattering, refractive index and viscosity detectors. Static Light scattering measures the intensity of the light scattered as the function of scattering angle and polymer sample concentration. Based on these results the molecular weight and radius of gyration of the given sample can be calculated.

  15. OPTIMASI KINERJA PROTOKOL AODV DENGAN STATIC INTERSECTION NODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Ericka Wahyu Prakasa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available VANET adalah sebuah pengembangan teknologi yang memungkinkan komunikasi antar kendaraan meskipun tidak terdapat koneksi secara langsung antara kendaraan yang berkomunikasi. Untuk meningkatkan performa protokol routing, maka pada penelitian ini akan ditambahkan SIN (Static Intersection Node. Static Intersection Node adalah RSU (Road Side Unit yang diletakkan di persimpangan jalan (intersection. Fungsi dari Static Intersection Node pada penelitian ini adalah sebagai repeater untuk membantu mengirimkan paket data ke kendaraan lain yang berada disekitarnya sehingga dapat meningkatkan Packet Delivery Ratio serta meminimalkan Packet Loss dan End to End Delay.

  16. QUASI-STATIC ANALYSIS FOR VISCOELASTIC TIMOSHENKO BEAMS WITH DAMAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on convolution-type constitutive equations for linear viscoelastic materials with damage and the hypotheses of Timoshenko beams, the equations governing quasi-static and dynamical behavior of Timoshenko beams with damage were first derived. The quasi-static behavior of the viscoelastic Timoshenko beam under step loading was analyzed and the analytical solution was obtained in the Laplace transformation domain. The deflection and damage curves at different time were obtained by using the numerical inverse transform and the influences of material parameters on the quasi-static behavior of the beam were investigated in detail.

  17. Static sampling of dynamic processes - a paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mälicke, Mirko; Neuper, Malte; Jackisch, Conrad; Hassler, Sibylle; Zehe, Erwin

    2017-04-01

    Environmental systems monitoring aims at its core at the detection of spatio-temporal patterns of processes and system states, which is a pre-requisite for understanding and explaining their baffling heterogeneity. Most observation networks rely on distributed point sampling of states and fluxes of interest, which is combined with proxy-variables from either remote sensing or near surface geophysics. The cardinal question on the appropriate experimental design of such a monitoring network has up to now been answered in many different ways. Suggested approaches range from sampling in a dense regular grid using for the so-called green machine, transects along typical catenas, clustering of several observations sensors in presumed functional units or HRUs, arrangements of those cluster along presumed lateral flow paths to last not least a nested, randomized stratified arrangement of sensors or samples. Common to all these approaches is that they provide a rather static spatial sampling, while state variables and their spatial covariance structure dynamically change in time. It is hence of key interest how much of our still incomplete understanding stems from inappropriate sampling and how much needs to be attributed to an inappropriate analysis of spatial data sets. We suggest that it is much more promising to analyze the spatial variability of processes, for instance changes in soil moisture values, than to investigate the spatial variability of soil moisture states themselves. This is because wetting of the soil, reflected in a soil moisture increase, is causes by a totally different meteorological driver - rainfall - than drying of the soil. We hence propose that the rising and the falling limbs of soil moisture time series belong essentially to different ensembles, as they are influenced by different drivers. Positive and negative temporal changes in soil moisture need, hence, to be analyzed separately. We test this idea using the CAOS data set as a benchmark

  18. Impaired Vestibular Function After Cochlear Implantation in Children: Role of Static Posturography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Satish; Gupta, Atul; Nilakantan, Ajith; Mittal, Ruchika; Dahiya, Ruchi; Saini, Sachin; Prasad, Rachana; Vajpayee, Deepika

    2017-06-01

    To identify vestibular dysfunction in children after cochlear implant surgery and to study the utility of static posturography in evaluating vestibular function in children. A prospective study was carried out on 25 children between 2 and 7 years of age with sensorineural hearing loss with no overt vestibular dysfunction. All children underwent static posturography using Synapsis Posturographic System (SPS) software (Version 3.0, REV C) using a static platform with foam. The centre of pressure (COP) shift was recorded as statokinesiogram on the software and the mean vestibular, visual and somesthetic scores were obtained. Cochlear implantation (CI) surgery was done with insertion of Med-El Pulsar standard cochlear implant with 12 twin electrodes. Children were evaluated again after 4 weeks of CI surgery (2 weeks after switch on) with static posturography on the same SPS software. The scores obtained were compared with pre op value and data analyzed statistically by paired t tests on SPSS 18 software. The mean age was 4.6 years with range 2-7 years. All the children in the study were able to complete the test with no difficulty and the mean time required for each child was 10.2 min. The mean pre op somesthetic score was 95.16 (SD 1.52) and post op score was 94.06 (SD 1.79). The mean pre op visual score was 86.64 (SD 2.24) and post op score was 82.55 (2.89). The mean pre op vestibular score was 84.11 (SD 2.20) and post op score was 73.66 (SD 4.25). Correlation and statistical analysis of the pre and post values of each score revealed statistically significant reduction in vestibular scores post CI. The vestibular system is at high risk of injury leading to vestibular dysfunction in children during CI. Our study found the static posturography as a simple, fast and efficient tool to screen children for vestibular dysfunction post CI. Identifying the dysfunction early can help in initiating early rehabilitation measures.

  19. Growth plate cartilage shows different strain patterns in response to static versus dynamic mechanical modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, Rosa; Londono, Irene; Parent, Stefan; Moldovan, Florina; Villemure, Isabelle

    2016-08-01

    Longitudinal growth of long bones and vertebrae occurs in growth plate cartilage. This process is partly regulated by mechanical forces, which are one of the underlying reasons for progression of growth deformities such as idiopathic adolescent scoliosis and early-onset scoliosis. This concept of mechanical modulation of bone growth is also exploited in the development of fusionless treatments of these deformities. However, the optimal loading condition for the mechanical modulation of growth plate remains to be identified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of in vitro static versus dynamic modulation and of dynamic loading parameters, such as frequency and amplitude, on the mechanical responses and histomorphology of growth plate explants. Growth plate explants from distal ulnae of 4-week-old swines were extracted and randomly distributed among six experimental groups: baseline ([Formula: see text]), control ([Formula: see text]), static ([Formula: see text]) and dynamic ([Formula: see text]). For static and dynamic groups, mechanical modulation was performed in vitro using an Indexed CartiGen bioreactor. A stress relaxation test combined with confocal microscopy and digital image correlation was used to characterize the mechanical responses of each explant in terms of peak stress, equilibrium stress, equilibrium modulus of elasticity and strain pattern. Histomorphometrical measurements were performed on toluidine blue tissue sections using a semi-automatic custom-developed MATLAB toolbox. Results suggest that compared to dynamic modulation, static modulation changes the strain pattern of the tissue and thus is more detrimental for tissue biomechanics, while the histomorphological parameters are not affected by mechanical modulation. Also, under dynamic modulation, changing the frequency or amplitude does not affect the biomechanical response of the tissue. Results of this study will be useful in finding optimal and non-damaging parameters

  20. A Transformational Approach to Parametric Accumulated-Cost Static Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haemmerlé, Rémy; López García, Pedro; Liqat, Umer

    2016-01-01

    Traditional static resource analyses estimate the total resource usage of a program, without executing it. In this paper we present a novel resource analysis whose aim is instead the static profiling of accumulated cost, i.e., to discover, for selected parts of the program, an estimate or bound...... of the resource usage accumulated in each of those parts. Traditional resource analyses are parametric in the sense that the results can be functions on input data sizes. Our static profiling is also parametric, i.e., our accumulated cost estimates are also parameterized by input data sizes. Our proposal is based...... on the concept of cost centers and a program transformation that allows the static inference of functions that return bounds on these accumulated costs depending on input data sizes, for each cost center of interest. Such information is much more useful to the software developer than the traditional resource...

  1. Fast static field CIPT mapping of unpatterned MRAM film stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, Daniel; Hansen, Ole; Hartmann Henrichsen, Henrik; Chenchen, Jacob Wang; Noergaard, Kristian; Folmer Nielsen, Peter; Hjorth Petersen, Dirch

    2015-04-01

    While investigating uniformity of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) stacks we find experimentally and analytically that variation in the resistance area product (RA) is more important to monitor as compared to the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR), which is less sensitive to MTJ variability. The standard Current In-Plane Tunneling (CIPT) method measures both RA and TMR, but the usefulness for uniformity mapping, e.g. for tool optimization, is limited by excessive measurement time. Thus, we develop and demonstrate a fast complementary static magnetic field method focused only on measurement of RA. We compare the static field method to the standard CIPT method and find perfect agreement between the extracted RA values and measurement repeatability while the static field method is several times faster. The static field CIPT method is demonstrated for 200 mm wafer mapping showing radial as well as asymmetrical variations related to the MTJ deposition conditions.

  2. Effects of Static Stretching and Playing Soccer on Knee Laxity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W.; Freiwald, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: University biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into

  3. Static and Dynamic Views of Culture and Intercultural Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of teaching culture in the second language classroom. Examines the difference between teaching the static or dynamic view of culture. Focuses on intercultural language teaching and developing intercultural competence. (Author/VWL)

  4. Separation distance and static transmission error of involute spur gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, David K.; Lin, Hsiang H.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of separation distance and deflection of gear teeth on the static transmission error of involute spur gears are investigated. In this paper, only low-contact-ratio gears with true involute profile are studied. Gear ratio and tooth addendum are varied to examine their effects on the separation distance and static transmission error. Results obtained from the investigation shows that the contact ratio and static transmission error are affected significantly if considering the separation distance. In general, the magnitude of contact ratio has been increased and the variation of static transmission error has been smoothed. The most significant change occurs for a gear pair with a theoretical contact ratio close to 1.95.

  5. Separation distance and static transmission error of involute spur gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, David K.; Lin, Hsiang H.

    1992-07-01

    The effects of separation distance and deflection of gear teeth on the static transmission error of involute spur gears are investigated. In this paper, only low-contact-ratio gears with true involute profile are studied. Gear ratio and tooth addendum are varied to examine their effects on the separation distance and static transmission error. Results obtained from the investigation shows that the contact ratio and static transmission error are affected significantly if considering the separation distance. In general, the magnitude of contact ratio has been increased and the variation of static transmission error has been smoothed. The most significant change occurs for a gear pair with a theoretical contact ratio close to 1.95.

  6. Person Identification System using Static-dynamic signatures fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A Daramola

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Off-line signature verification systems rely on static image of signature for person identification. Imposter can easily imitate the static image of signature of the genuine user due to lack of dynamic features. This paper proposes person identity verification system using fused static-dynamic signature features. Computational efficient technique is developed to extract and fuse static and dynamic features extracted from offline and online signatures of the same person. The training stage used the fused features to generate couple reference data and classification stage compared the couple test signatures with the reference data based on the set threshold values. The system performance is encouraging against imposter attacker in comparison with previous single sensor offline signature identification systems.

  7. Effects of Static Stretching and Playing Soccer on Knee Laxity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W.; Freiwald, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: University biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into

  8. Supporting secure programming in web applications through interactive static analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Jun; Xie, Jing; Lipford, Heather Richter; Chu, Bill

    2014-01-01

    .... Static analysis tools have been used to detect software vulnerabilities. However, their wide usage by developers is limited by the special training required to write rules customized to application-specific logic...

  9. HIRENASD Experimental Data, Static Cp Plots and Data files

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tecplot (ascii) and matlab files are posted here for the Static pressure coefficient data sets. To download all of the data in either tecplot format or matlab...

  10. Thévenin equivalent based static contingency assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for static security assessment of a power system and a real time static security assessment system for assessing a power system, the power system having a plurality of generators, the plurality of generators being represented in the network by a plurality...... of voltage controlled nodes, wherein the method for static security assessment of the power system comprises receiving information of a present state of the power system, determining a Thevenin equivalent for each voltage controlled node, determining for each voltage controlled node on basis......, and evaluating the voltage angles to determine whether the network having at least one contingency admit a steady state. Also a method of providing information on a real time static security assessment of a power system is disclosed....

  11. Passive Elimination of Static Electricity in Oil Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mićo Gaćanović

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explains the existing and real conditions of a possible passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives. We are considering the formation and survival of gas bubbles both in the volume of oil in its depth, but also at the surface of oil and oil derivatives of the partly filled reservoir, and formation of both volume and surface electric charge in oil and oil derivatives. The study presents the research of formation and survival of static electricity in both reservoirs and tank trucks of different geometric shapes partly filled with oil and oil derivatives. We are proposing a new original possibility of passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives in reservoirs and tank trucks. The proposed passive device for elimination of static electricity is protected at the international level in the domain of intellectual property (with a patent, model and distinctive mark.

  12. Passive elimination of static electricity in oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaćanović Mićo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explains the existing and real conditions of a possible passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives. We are considering the formation and survival of gas bubbles both in the volume of oil in its depth, but also at the surface of oil and oil derivatives of the partly filled reservoir, and formation of both volume and surface electric charge in oil and oil derivatives. The study presents the research of formation and survival of static electricity in both reservoirs and tank trucks of different geometric shapes partly filled with oil and oil derivatives. We are proposing a new original possibility of passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives in reservoirs and tank trucks. The proposed passive device for elimination of static electricity is protected at the international level in the domain of intellectual property (with a patent, model and distinctive mark.

  13. Interaction mechanisms and biological effects of static magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1994-06-01

    Mechanisms through which static magnetic fields interact with living systems are described and illustrated by selected experimental observations. These mechanisms include electrodynamic interactions with moving, ionic charges (blood flow and nerve impulse conduction), magnetomechanical interactions (orientation and translation of molecules structures and magnetic particles), and interactions with electronic spin states in charge transfer reactions (photo-induced electron transfer in photosynthesis). A general summary is also presented of the biological effects of static magnetic fields. There is convincing experimental evidence for magnetoreception mechanisms in several classes of lower organisms, including bacteria and marine organisms. However, in more highly evolved species of animals, there is no evidence that the interactions of static magnetic fields with flux densities up to 2 Tesla (1 Tesla [T] = 10{sup 4} Gauss) produce either behavioral or physiolocical alterations. These results, based on controlled studies with laboratory animals, are consistent with the outcome of recent epidemiological surveys on human populations exposed occupationally to static magnetic fields.

  14. Einstein's conversion from his static to an expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Nussbaumer, Harry

    2013-01-01

    In 1917 Einstein initiated modern cosmology by postulating, based on general relativity, a homogeneous, static, spatially curved universe. To counteract gravitational contraction he introduced the cosmological constant. In 1922 Alexander Friedman showed that Einstein's fundamental equation also allowed dynamical worlds, and in 1927 Geroges Lemaitre, backed by observational evidence, concluded that our universe was expanding. Einstein impetuously rejected Friedman's as well as Lemaitre's findings. However, in 1931 he retracted his former static model in favour of a dynamic solution. This investigation follows Einstein on his hesitating path from a static to the expanding universe. Contrary to an often repeated belief the primary motive for his switch was not observational evidence, but the realisation that his static model was unstable.

  15. Static and kinematic formulation of planar reciprocal assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Sassone, Mario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2014-01-01

    Planar reciprocal frames are two dimensional structures formed by elements joined together according to the principle of structural reciprocity. In this paper a rigorous formulation of the static and kinematic problem is proposed and developed extending the theory of pin-jointed assemblies....... This formulation is used to evaluate the static and kinematic determinacy of reciprocal assemblies from the properties of their equilibrium and kinematic matrices...

  16. Static Facial Slings: Approaches to Rehabilitation of the Paralyzed Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, Morgan; Singh, Prabhjyot

    2016-02-01

    Facial paralysis results from a variety of different causes. Patients with facial paralysis have cosmetic and functional defects that significantly affect quality of life. Surgical intervention has the potential to help improve cosmetic and functional outcomes. The 2 main categories of surgical rehabilitation are static and dynamic surgical procedures. Static rehabilitation of the midface is typically performed using autologous tissue grafts, allografts, synthetic grafts, permanent suspension sutures, and a novel technique using percutaneous suture-based slings.

  17. Static Standing Balance in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroya, M. Adoracion; Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Moros-Garcia, Teresa; de la Flor Marin, Mario; Moreno, Luis A.; Casajus, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To analyse static-standing-balance of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Methods: Thirty-two adolescents with DS aged 10-19 years (DSG); 33 adolescents, age/sex-matched, without DS (CG). Static-standing-balance under four conditions (C1: open-eyes/fixed-foot-support; C2: closed-eyes/fixed-foot-support; C3: open-eyes/compliant-foot-support;…

  18. Problem Handling and Improvement of Imported SCR Static Excitation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Shanwu; Li Weimin; Liang Jianfen; Chu Xue

    2006-01-01

    @@ Static self-excitation system has been more and more widely used for large turbogenerator units in China and achieved very good results in recent years. However, new problems have arisen along with the development of high-power thyristor technology, etc. In view of the actual operating condition of SEE900/5000 SCR static excitation system imported from Siemens, Germany, some technical renovations were carried out.

  19. New Sufficient LMI Conditions for Static Output Stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents new linear matrix inequality conditions to the static output feedback stabilization problem. Although the conditions are only sufficient, numerical experiments show excellent success rates in finding a stabilizing controller.......This paper presents new linear matrix inequality conditions to the static output feedback stabilization problem. Although the conditions are only sufficient, numerical experiments show excellent success rates in finding a stabilizing controller....

  20. Extending Graphic Statics for User-Controlled Structural Morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Fivet, Corentin; Zastavni, Denis; Cap, Jean-François; Structural Morphology Group International Seminar 2011

    2011-01-01

    The first geometrical definitions of any structure are of primary importance when considering pertinence and efficiency in structural design processes. Engineering history has taught us how graphic statics can be a very powerful tool since it allows the designer to take shapes and forces into account simultaneously. However, current and past graphic statics methods are more suitable for analysis than structural morphogenesis. This contribution introduces new graphical methods that can supp...

  1. Static power dissipation in adder circuits: the UDSM domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayouette, Steve; Al-Khalili, Dhamin

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents adder circuits of various architectures aimed at reducing static power dissipation. Circuit topologies for basic building blocks were evaluated for fabrication technologies of 65nm down to 32nm, and simulation results are presented. This work has lead to the development of various low power adder circuits and provides comparative analysis leading to the recommendation that a variable size block carry select adder is the best performer, taking into consideration both static and dynamic power dissipation.

  2. Static and rotating solutions for vector-Galileon theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisterna, Adolfo; Hassaine, Mokhtar; Oliva, Julio; Rinaldi, Massimiliano

    2016-11-01

    We consider a particular truncation of the generalized Proca field theory in four dimensions for which we construct static and axisymmetric rotating black hole "stealth solutions," namely solutions with (anti) de Sitter or Kerr metric but nontrivial vector field. The static configuration is promoted to a backreacting black hole with asymptotic (anti) de Sitter behavior by turning on a nonlinear electrodynamic source given as a fixed power of the Maxwell invariant. Finally we extend our solutions to arbitrary dimensions.

  3. Static and rotating solutions for Vector-Galileon theories

    CERN Document Server

    Cisterna, Adolfo; Oliva, Julio; Rinaldi, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    We consider a particular truncation of the generalized Proca field theory in four dimensions for which we construct a static and axisymmetric rotating black hole "stealth solutions", namely solutions with (Anti) de Sitter or Kerr metric but non-trivial vector field. The static configuration is promoted to a backreacting black hole with asymptotic (Anti) de Sitter behavior by turning on a nonlinear electrodynamic source given as a fixed power of the Maxwell invariant. Finally we extend our solutions to arbitrary dimensions.

  4. New static spheroidal solution in Jordan-Brands-Dicke theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kozyrev, S M

    2010-01-01

    The static spheroidal solutions of Jordan-Brands-Dicke theory (JBD) are studied. We consider the effect of the anisotropic stresses of scalar field on the shape of JBD self-graviting objects. It is shown that scalar fields can have significant effect on the structure and properties of self-graviting objects. In contrast with general relativity in JBD theory there are nonflat static spheroidal solutions.

  5. Global test of seismic static stress triggering model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万永革; 吴忠良; 周公威; 黄静; 秦立新

    2002-01-01

    Seismic static stress triggering model is tested using Harvard centroid moment tensor (CMT) solution catalogue of 1976~2000 and concept of (earthquake doublet(. Result shows that seismic static stress triggering effect does exist in the view of global earthquakes, but the effect is very weak. Dividing the earthquakes into thrust focal mechanism, normal focal mechanism, strike-slip focal mechanism, we find that non-strike-slip focal mechanism earthquakes have significant triggering effect, whereas, the triggering effect in strike-slip focal mechanism earthquakes is not obvious. Divided the subsequent events delay time of (earthquake doublet( into 5 classes of t(1, t<1, t(10, t<10, 1(t(10 (t is in unit of d), then seismic static stress triggering effect does not change with delay time in short time period after earthquakes. The research on seismic static stress triggering in different regions of the world indicates that triggering effect is significant in subduction belts. Seismic static stress triggering model is tested by using (earthquake doublets( in China and its adjacent region. The result indicates that seismic static stress triggering effect cannot be observed easily in China and its adjacent region due to the seismic focal mechanism type (most of the earthquakes are strike-slip earthquakes).

  6. Characteristics of enzyme hydrolysis of cellulose under static condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneda, Daisuke; Ueno, Yoshiki; Ikeo, Makoto; Okino, Shohei

    2012-10-01

    The effect of enzyme loading under static and agitated conditions was investigated. Enzymatic hydrolysis of 10 w/v% de-lignified cellulose slurry such as filter paper, avicel and pulp was conducted under agitated (120 rpm) and static condition, and the enzyme loading ranging from 1.2 to 120 mg-protein/g-dry substrate. Under the agitated condition, the final sugar concentration decreased with the decreasing enzyme loading. Under the static condition, the final sugar concentration was maintained even if the enzyme loading was decreased. The above phenomenon was caused by a rapid precipitation of cellobiohydrolase 2 (CBH2) under the agitated condition, which was not observed under the static condition. The hydrolysis experiments using enzymes containing different ratios of cellobiohydrolase 1 (CBH1) and CBH2 under the static condition suggested that preservation of CBH2 and its synergism with CBH1 is essential for static condition's characteristics, and for efficient hydrolysis of cellulose. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Static and dynamic balance deficiencies in chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigkanos, Christos; Gaskell, Lynne; Smirniotou, Athanasia; Tsigkanos, Georgios

    2016-11-21

    According to previously conducted studies, people with Low Back Pain (LBP) present with static balance deficiencies. The aim of the present study was to compare static, as well as dynamic balance ability between Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) and healthy subjects. The CLBP group comprised 17 subjects and the control group of 16 subjects, matched for age, BMI and gender. The protocol applied compared the balance ability when performing the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and the static 1-leg stance position. The innovation introduced in the protocol was that the participants performed not only the static 1-leg stance, but also the dynamic SEBT on a force plate which recorded the target sway (TS), i.e. the Center of Pressure (CoP) excursion. The CLBP group had significantly reduced performance in SEBT, coupled with greater static and dynamic TS values. Age and especially BMI also bear a significant effect on SEBT execution. The inclusion of SEBT and TS derived scores in a stepwise logistic regression equation lead to the correct classification of 85% of the subjects. Dynamic and static balance ability provide supplementary information for the identification of the presence of CLBP, with dynamic balance being more instrumental.

  8. SOLIDFELIX: a transportable 3D static volume display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Knut; Kreft, Alexander; Wörden, Henrik Tom

    2009-02-01

    Flat 2D screens cannot display complex 3D structures without the usage of different slices of the 3D model. Volumetric displays like the "FELIX 3D-Displays" can solve the problem. They provide space-filling images and are characterized by "multi-viewer" and "all-round view" capabilities without requiring cumbersome goggles. In the past many scientists tried to develop similar 3D displays. Our paper includes an overview from 1912 up to today. During several years of investigations on swept volume displays within the "FELIX 3D-Projekt" we learned about some significant disadvantages of rotating screens, for example hidden zones. For this reason the FELIX-Team started investigations also in the area of static volume displays. Within three years of research on our 3D static volume display at a normal high school in Germany we were able to achieve considerable results despite minor funding resources within this non-commercial group. Core element of our setup is the display volume which consists of a cubic transparent material (crystal, glass, or polymers doped with special ions, mainly from the rare earth group or other fluorescent materials). We focused our investigations on one frequency, two step upconversion (OFTS-UC) and two frequency, two step upconversion (TFTSUC) with IR-Lasers as excitation source. Our main interest was both to find an appropriate material and an appropriate doping for the display volume. Early experiments were carried out with CaF2 and YLiF4 crystals doped with 0.5 mol% Er3+-ions which were excited in order to create a volumetric pixel (voxel). In addition to that the crystals are limited to a very small size which is the reason why we later investigated on heavy metal fluoride glasses which are easier to produce in large sizes. Currently we are using a ZBLAN glass belonging to the mentioned group and making it possible to increase both the display volume and the brightness of the images significantly. Although, our display is currently

  9. The Estimation and Inversion of Magnetotelluric Data with Static Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Zhou, J.; Zhang, J.; Min, G.; Xia, S.

    2015-12-01

    IntroductionIn magnetotelluric sounding data processing, the static shift correction is one of the most important steps. Due to the complexity of near-surface inhomogeneous bodies distribution, it is difficult to estimate the static shift of measured data. For this problem, we put forward on the basis of the inversion model for static shift estimation, and reconstructed the initial model with using the original data for 2D or 3D inversion. Estimation and Inversion methodThe magnetotelluric impedance phase has the characteristics of not influenced by the static shift in Two-dimensional electrical structure. The objective function for static shift estimation can be constructed based on impedance phase data. On the basis of normal inversion, utilizing one-dimensional linear search algorithm, combined with the forward modeling, the MT static shift can be estimated.Using estimation results for translation of anomaly measured curve. According to the inversion(1-D) of these translated curve, the initial model for two-dimensional or two-dimensional inversion can be reconstructed. On this basis, we do inversion for the original data, which not only can effectively eliminate the influence of static shift on the deep structure of inversion model, but also can get the right shallow electrical structure in the inversionConclusionThe estimation value of static shift based on impedance phase can be close to the true value. This estimation results can be used to modify the initial model, which makes the deep electric structure of the model more reasonable. On this basis, the inversion of the original data can ensure the correctness of the final inversion results (including shallow and deep).Acknowledgement This paper is supported by National Natural Science Foundation (41274078) and National 863 High Technology Research and Development Program (2014AA06A612).Reference[1] deGroot-Hedlin C. Removal of static shift in two dimensions by regularized inversion[J]. Geophysics, 1991, 56

  10. STATIC{sub T}EMP: a useful computer code for calculating static formation temperatures in geothermal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoyo, E. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Temixco (Mexico); Garcia, A.; Santoyo, S. [Unidad Geotermia, Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco (Mexico); Espinosa, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Co. Vicentina (Mexico); Hernandez, I. [ITESM, Centro de Sistemas de Manufactura, Monterrey (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The development and application of the computer code STATIC{sub T}EMP, a useful tool for calculating static formation temperatures from actual bottomhole temperature data logged in geothermal wells is described. STATIC{sub T}EMP is based on five analytical methods which are the most frequently used in the geothermal industry. Conductive and convective heat flow models (radial, spherical/radial and cylindrical/radial) were selected. The computer code is a useful tool that can be reliably used in situ to determine static formation temperatures before or during the completion stages of geothermal wells (drilling and cementing). Shut-in time and bottomhole temperature measurements logged during well completion activities are required as input data. Output results can include up to seven computations of the static formation temperature by each wellbore temperature data set analysed. STATIC{sub T}EMP was written in Fortran-77 Microsoft language for MS-DOS environment using structured programming techniques. It runs on most IBM compatible personal computers. The source code and its computational architecture as well as the input and output files are described in detail. Validation and application examples on the use of this computer code with wellbore temperature data (obtained from specialised literature) and with actual bottomhole temperature data (taken from completion operations of some geothermal wells) are also presented. (Author)

  11. How Static Is the Statics Classroom? An Investigation into How Innovations, Specifically Research-Based Instructional Strategies, Are Adopted into the Statics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Stephanie Leigh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate how educational research, specifically Research-Based Instructional Strategies (RBIS), is adopted by education practice, specifically within the engineering Statics classroom. Using a systematic approach, changes in classroom teaching practices were investigated from the instructors' perspective.…

  12. Thermal stabilization of static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardt, Michael; Schwaller, Christian; Tremmel, Anton J.; Koch, Alexander W.

    2017-05-01

    Fourier transform spectroscopy has become a standard method for spectral analysis of infrared light. With this method, an interferogram is created by two beam interference which is subsequently Fourier-transformed. Most Fourier transform spectrometers used today provide the interferogram in the temporal domain. In contrast, static Fourier transform spectrometers generate interferograms in the spatial domain. One example of this type of spectrometer is the static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometer which offers a high etendue in combination with a simple, miniaturized optics design. As no moving parts are required, it also features a high vibration resistance and high measurement rates. However, it is susceptible to temperature variations. In this paper, we therefore discuss the main sources for temperature-induced errors in static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometers: changes in the refractive index of the optical components used, variations of the detector sensitivity, and thermal expansion of the housing. As these errors manifest themselves in temperature-dependent wavenumber shifts and intensity shifts, they prevent static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometers from delivering long-term stable spectra. To eliminate these shifts, we additionally present a work concept for the thermal stabilization of the spectrometer. With this stabilization, static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometers are made suitable for infrared process spectroscopy under harsh thermal environmental conditions. As the static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometer uses the so-called source-doubling principle, many of the mentioned findings are transferable to other designs of static Fourier transform spectrometers based on the same principle.

  13. Comparison of static and dynamic properties in a shale rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnelye, Audrey; Pimienta, Lucas; Schubnel, Alexandre; David, Christian

    2017-04-01

    When trying to understand the elastic properties of rocks in order to ultimately compare laboratory and field data, two opposite measuring techniques can be used: the "static" and "dynamic" measurement techniques. The "static" measurement technique consists in characterising the medium by its strain response to an applied stress. The strain rate is generally low enough that the measurement can be addressed as static. Using ultrasonic wave velocity, the "dynamic" measurements are obtained. Those allow obtaining accurately the full set of elastic constants characterising the medium. However, such measuring procedure is at high frequency, implying the risk for dispersion and attenuation effects to occur. When comparing the "static" and "dynamic" measurements, and investigating their differences, the effect of the measuring frequency is often the parameter considered. However, it is not the only parameter that may play a role. Indeed, often, "static" measurements rely on strain amplitudes above 10-4. On the other hand, "dynamic" measurements rely on strain amplitudes below 10-6. Such difference may play an important role in comparing measurements in weak materials such as shales. For this particular rock, the effect of strain amplitude on the "static" measurements is investigated by decreasing the amplitude of stress variations. Moreover, due to both multiscale and sedimentary nature, shale materials can exhibit strong anisotropic properties, usually described as transversly isotropic. In this study we propose to compare the different ways of measuring elastic moduli of Tournemire shale (IRSN underground laboratory, Aveyron, Southern France). In a first part, static moduli were calculated on three sets of samples with different bedding orientations (90°, 0°, 45°) deformed under deviatoric pressure at different confining pressures (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80MPa). During these deformation experiments, elastic wave velocities were continuously measured along different

  14. Are static and dynamic kinematics comparable after total knee arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saevarsson, Stefan K; Romeo, Carolina I; Anglin, Carolyn

    2013-04-05

    Knee kinematics provide information about how the femoral, tibial and patellar bones or prosthetic components move relative to each other. Accurate knowledge of kinematics is valuable for implant design, comparisons between designs or surgical techniques, and to identify differences between patients with good and poor outcomes. Both static and dynamic imaging techniques have been used to evaluate kinematics. In general, static imaging is used to capture better quality images or to capture views that cannot be acquired by dynamic imaging, whereas dynamic imaging is used to capture real-life movements. How well static kinematics represent dynamic kinematics is subject to frequent debate and has not been adequately addressed, especially after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We compared the static and dynamic weightbearing kinematics of 10 female subjects after TKA. Using the same clinical scanner for both methods, static images were taken using our standard protocol, sequential-biplane radiographs at multiple flexion angles, as well as with dynamic video fluoroscopy during a step up activity. The static method can reliably measure all 12 degrees of freedom (DOF) after TKA, however only seven were compared due to the poorer out-of-plane reliability in the single-plane dynamic imaging. No differences were found between the static and dynamic kinematics for nine out of ten subjects. For one subject, however, a difference of 5-8° in internal/external tibial rotation was found. The research question, study purpose and the advantages and disadvantages of each method need to be considered when determining which imaging method to use.

  15. Static and Dynamic Handgrip Strength Endurance: Test-Retest Reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerodimos, Vassilis; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Psychou, Dimitra; Vasilopoulou, Theodora; Zafeiridis, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the reliability of static and dynamic handgrip strength endurance using different protocols and indicators for the assessment of strength endurance. Forty young, healthy men and women (age, 18-22 years) performed 2 handgrip strength endurance protocols: a static protocol (sustained submaximal contraction at 50% of maximal voluntary contraction) and a dynamic one (8, 10, and 12 maximal repetitions). The participants executed each protocol twice to assess the test-retest reproducibility. Total work and total time were used as indicators of strength endurance in the static protocol; the strength recorded at each maximal repetition, the percentage change, and fatigue index were used as indicators of strength endurance in the dynamic protocol. The static protocol showed high reliability irrespective of sex and hand for total time and work. The 12-repetition dynamic protocol exhibited moderate-high reliability for repeated maximal repetitions and percentage change; the 8- and 10-repetition protocols demonstrated lower reliability irrespective of sex and hand. The fatigue index was not a reliable indicator for the assessment of dynamic handgrip endurance. Static handgrip endurance can be measured reliably using the total time and total work as indicators of strength endurance. For the evaluation of dynamic handgrip endurance, the 12-repetition protocol is recommended, using the repeated maximal repetitions and percentage change as indicators of strength endurance. Practitioners should consider the static (50% maximal voluntary contraction) and dynamic (12 repeated maximal repetitions) protocols as reliable for the assessment of handgrip strength endurance. The evaluation of static endurance in conjunction with dynamic endurance would provide more complete information about hand function. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An Eigenstructure Assignment for a Static Synchronous Compensator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad N. Al-Husban

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Power flow through an AC transmission line is influenced by three basic electrical parameters, which are line impedance, magnitudes and phase-shift angle between the sending and receiving voltages. Therefore, the change in any of the three basic parameters means a change in the power flow through the transmission line. The aims of this research paper are: increase the power transfer capability of transmission systems, minimize the transmission losses, support a good voltage profile and retain system stability under large disturbances. Study the use of eigenstructure techniques for state feedback control of the power system static compensator. Therefore, the mathematical analysis was performed for eigenvector assignment, power flow transmission line and for the static compensator analysis based on the transformation of the three-phase into d-q frame. Approach: A novel control method for regulating the power system in case of abnormal conditions was carried out. The system considered is a static synchronous compensator. The study includes a detailed mathematical analysis of the impact of the shunt compensator on the power flow; investigation of the system constraints and their effects on the static compensator control; in addition simulation of static compensator to control a transmitted active power flow on the transmission line. The conducted method provides a way of constructing the state feedback gain matrix to satisfy a certain prescribed performance. Results: The solutions of the obtained equation were conducted using the computer simulation method for both open-loop and static compensator techniques. The result shows fast tracking of the power flow transient response when using the static compensator technique comparing with open-loop technique. However, the same trend of the behavior was observed for all cases. Conclusion: A new method for developing a parameterized feedback matrix that assigns a closed-loop prespecified

  17. Design and Analysis of AN Static Aeroelastic Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ying-Yu; Yuan, Kai-Hua; Lv, Ji-Nan; Liu, Zi-Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Static aeroelastic experiments are very common in the United States and Russia. The objective of static aeroelastic experiments is to investigate deformation and loads of elastic structure in flow field. Generally speaking, prerequisite of this experiment is that the stiffness distribution of structure is known. This paper describes a method for designing experimental models, in the case where the stiffness distribution and boundary condition of a real aircraft are both uncertain. The stiffness distribution form of the structure can be calculated via finite element modeling and simulation calculation and F141 steels and rigid foam are used to make elastic model. In this paper, the design and manufacturing process of static aeroelastic models is presented and a set of experiment model was designed to simulate the stiffness of the designed wings, a set of experiments was designed to check the results. The test results show that the experimental method can effectively complete the design work of elastic model. This paper introduces the whole process of the static aeroelastic experiment, and the experimental results are analyzed. This paper developed a static aeroelasticity experiment technique and established an experiment model targeting at the swept wing of a certain kind of large aspect ratio aircraft.

  18. Static friction between silicon nanowires and elastomeric substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qingquan; Zhu, Yong

    2011-09-27

    This paper reports the first direct measurements of static friction force and interfacial shear strength between silicon (Si) nanowires (NWs) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). A micromanipulator is used to manipulate and deform the NWs under a high-magnification optical microscope in real time. The static friction force is measured based on "the most-bent state" of the NWs. The static friction and interface shear strength are found to depend on the ultraviolet/ozone (UVO) treatment of PDMS. The shear strength starts at 0.30 MPa without UVO treatment, increases rapidly up to 10.57 MPa at 60 min of treatment and decreases for longer treatment. Water contact angle measurements suggest that the UVO-induced hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic conversion of PDMS surface is responsible for the increase in the static friction, while the hydrophobic recovery effect contributes to the decrease. The static friction between NWs and PDMS is of critical relevance to many device applications of NWs including NW-based flexible/stretchable electronics, NW assembly and nanocomposites (e.g., supercapacitors). Our results will enable quantitative interface design and control for such applications.

  19. REQUIREMENTS AND CONSTRUCTIVE DIFFERENCES OF A STATIC CONVERTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uskov A. E.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article technical requirements to static converters are examined. We can treat as the basic parameters: efficiency and quality of a target voltage. Weight-dimensional parameters, reliability, maintainability are basic operational parameters, as well as target capacity, size of an starting and target voltage belong to key parameters of static converters. As a rule designing of converters is a uniform constructive complex. As at designing, time of an operating time until first failure is taken into account, time of guaranteed work of the separate elements included in the static converter, are determined on the statistical data. Failure of separate elements of parts of converters are possible because of internal (time of guaranteed work and external (short circuits, overloads factors. In the article we have offered the ways of reduction of influence of external factors (for example, we used high-speed automatic switches or iterative static converters in which parts of a power circuit were included in parallel. Using universal static converters allows raising some parameters of efficiency simultaneously. In the article we have also considered a scheme of the iterative converter with variable structure which allows (depending on start and target conditions or requirements forming an output capacity of the required level and quality without constructive change

  20. A systematic review on dynamic versus static distal tibiofibular fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge, S Y; Pull Ter Gunne, A F; Aarts, C A M; Bemelman, M

    2016-12-01

    In the last couple of years dynamic fixation for syndesmosis injuries, using a suture-button technique, raised more interest due to its advantages over the static fixation. In the current systematic review suture-button fixation is compared to the traditionally applied static fixation in unstable ankle fractures accompanied with distal tibiofibular syndesmosis injury, including the functional outcome, post-operative complications, reoperation rate, recurrent diastasis and financial aspects. A computerized literature search using PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE was conducted in search of suitable articles between January 2006 and February 2016. A total of 4 suture-button studies, 5 suture-button vs. static fixation studies and 1 study discussing the financial aspects were identified. The AOFAS of 104 patients treated with the suture-button device was 91.08 points with an average study-follow up of 24.85 months. The AOFAS of 106 patients treated with a static fixation device was 87.95 with an average follow-up of 24.78 months. Removal of the suture-button device was reported in 10.5% of 229 patients and removal of the screws in 38.5%. Dynamic fixation demonstrated to be a viable alternative to the static fixation device, with lower reoperation rates and less complications. They can accurately stabilize the ruptured syndesmosis without device breakage or loss of reduction. 1A economic/decision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Integrated dynamic and static tactile sensor: focus on static force sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettels, Nicholas; Pletner, Baruch

    2012-04-01

    Object grasping by robotic hands in unstructured environments demands a sensor that is durable, compliant, and responsive to static and dynamic force conditions. In order for a tactile sensor to be useful for grasp control in these, it should have the following properties: tri-axial force sensing (two shear plus normal component), dynamic event sensing across slip frequencies, compliant surface for grip, wide dynamic range (depending on application), insensitivity to environmental conditions, ability to withstand abuse and good sensing behavior (e.g. low hysteresis, high repeatability). These features can be combined in a novel multimodal tactile sensor. This sensor combines commercial-off-the-shelf MEMS technology with two proprietary force sensors: a high bandwidth device based on PZT technology and low bandwidth device based on elastomers and optics. In this study, we focus on the latter transduction mechanism and the proposed architecture of the completed device. In this study, an embedded LED was utilized to produce a constant light source throughout a layer of silicon rubber which covered a plastic mandrel containing a set of sensitive phototransistors. Features about the contacted object such as center of pressure and force vectors can be extracted from the information in the changing patterns of light. The voltage versus force relationship obtained with this molded humanlike finger had a wide dynamic range that coincided with forces relevant for most human grip tasks.

  2. How Static is the Statics Classroom? An investigation into how innovations, specifically Research-Based Instructional Strategies, are adopted into the Statics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Stephanie Leigh

    The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate how educational research, specifically Research-Based Instructional Strategies (RBIS), is adopted by education practice, specifically within the engineering Statics classroom. Using a systematic approach, changes in classroom teaching practices were investigated from the instructors' perspective. Both researchers and practitioners are included in the process, combining efforts to improve student learning, which is a critical goal for engineering education. The study is divided into 3 stages and each is discussed in an individual manuscript. Manuscript 1 provides an assessment of current teaching practices; Manuscript 2 explores RBIS use by Statics instructors and perceived barriers of adoption; and Manuscript 3 evaluates adoption using Fidelity of Implementation. A common set of concurrent mixed methods was used for each stage of this study. A quantitative national survey of Statics instructors (n =166) and 18 qualitative interviews were conducted to examine activities used in the Statics classroom and familiarity with nine RBIS. The results of this study show that lecturing is the most common activity throughout Statics classrooms, but is not the only activity. Other common activities included working examples and students working on problems individually and in groups. As discussed by the interview participants, each of Rogers' characteristics influenced adoption for different reasons. For example, Complexity (level of difficulty with implementation of an RBIS) was most commonly identified as a barrier. His study also evaluated the Fidelity of Implementation for each RBIS and found it to be higher for RBIS that were less complex (in terms of the number of critical components). Many of the critical components (i.e. activities required for implementation, as described in the literature) were found to statistically distinguish RBIS users and non-users. This dissertation offers four contributions: (1) an

  3. On the stability of Einstein static universe in massive bigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mousavi, M

    2016-01-01

    We study the static cosmological solutions and their stability in the framework of massive bigravity theory with Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metrics. By the modification proposed in the cosmological equations subject to a perfect fluid we obtain new solutions interpreted as the Einstein static universe. It turns out that the non-vanishing size of initial scale factor of Einstein static universe depends on the non-vanishing three-dimensional spatial curvature of FRW metrics and also the graviton's mass. By dynamical system approach and numerical analysis, we find that the extracted solutions for closed an open universes can be stable for some ranges of equation of state parameter and the values of fraction of two scale factors.

  4. Black hole stereotyping: induced gravito-static polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol, Barak; Smolkin, Michael

    2012-02-01

    We discuss the black hole effective action and define its static subsector. We determine the induced gravito-static polarization constants (electric Love numbers) of static black holes (Schwarzschild) in an arbitrary dimension, namely the induced mass multipole as a result of an external gravitational field. We demonstrate that in 4d these constants vanish thereby settling a disagreement in the literature. Yet in higher dimensions these constants are non-vanishing, thereby disproving (at least in d > 4) speculations that black holes have no effective couplings beyond the point particle action. In particular, when l/( d-3) is half integral these constants demonstrate a (classical) renormalization flow consistent with the divergences of the effective field theory. In some other cases the constants are negative indicating a novel non-spherical instability. The theory of hypergeometric functions plays a central role.

  5. Static and Dynamic Sensory Comfort of Knit Underwear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiang-ling; FANG Fang; ZHANG Wei-yuan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper relationships have been investigated between overall comfort estimate and five main factors on nine knit underwear at (29±2)℃ and relative humidity, (85±2)% .The values of thermal and moisture comfort rise obviously,yet the values of roughness, softness and tightness are near the static values after finishing movement. The analysis shows that the overall estimation has the negative correlation with the thermal and moisture comfort and the positive correlation with the roughness and softness under static state. After movement the effects on overall estimate of thermal and moisture increase. Oppositely, the effects of roughness and softness decrease. Overall estimation has positive correlation with tightness at static. But it has no evident effect on overall comfort after movement and 5-minute-rest according to this experiment. The relationships between tightness and thermal, moisture, roughness,softness were also discussed in this paper.

  6. Technology advancement of the static feed water electrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A program to advance the technology of oxygen- and hydrogen-generating subsystems based on water electrolysis was studied. Major emphasis was placed on static feed water electrolysis, a concept characterized by low power consumption and high intrinsic reliability. The static feed based oxygen generation subsystem consists basically of three subassemblies: (1) a combined water electrolysis and product gas dehumidifier module; (2) a product gas pressure controller and; (3) a cyclically filled water feed tank. Development activities were completed at the subsystem as well as at the component level. An extensive test program including single cell, subsystem and integrated system testing was completed with the required test support accessories designed, fabricated, and assembled. Mini-product assurance activities were included throughout all phases of program activities. An extensive number of supporting technology studies were conducted to advance the technology base of the static feed water electrolysis process and to resolve problems.

  7. Chloride permeability of concrete under static and repeated compressive loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Mitsuru; Ishimori, Hiroshi [Kanazawa Inst. of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan)

    1995-05-01

    The chloride permeability of normal weight concrete subjected to static and repeated compressive loading was evaluated by using the AASHTO T277 test method. The results of concrete under static loading showed that the application of loads up to 90% of the ultimate strength had little effect on the chloride permeability. It was found from the results of concrete under repeated loading that load repetitions at the maximum stress levels of 60% or more caused the chloride permeability to increase significantly. The test results also indicated that the chloride permeability of concrete subjected to static and repeated loading increased at an increasing rate with its residual strain. The relation between the chloride permeability obtained and the cracking behavior of concrete previously reported was discussed.

  8. A New Static and Fatigue Compression Test Method for Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Goutianos, Stergios; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom;

    2011-01-01

    the test through a mechanical mechanism, which automatically maintains the gripping pressure. The combined loading method has proven very efficient in static loading and is used in the new fixture which is specially designed for fatigue testing. Optimum gripping (shear loading) and alignment of the test......A new test method to determine the compressive properties of composite materials under both static and fatigue loading was developed. The novel fixture is based on the concept of transmitting the load by a fixed ratio of end-to-shear loading. The end-to-shear load ratio is kept fixed during...... coupon are achieved throughout the fatigue life. The fatigue strength obtained is more reliable because bending of the specimen due to poor gripping and alignment is minimised. The application of the new fixture to static and fatigue compression is demonstrated by using unidirectional carbon...

  9. The effect of static pressure on the inertial cavitation threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Kenneth B; Raymond, Jason L; Mobley, Joel; Church, Charles C; Felipe Gaitan, D

    2012-08-01

    The amplitude of the acoustic pressure required to nucleate a gas or vapor bubble in a fluid, and to have that bubble undergo an inertial collapse, is termed the inertial cavitation threshold. The magnitude of the inertial cavitation threshold is typically limited by mechanisms other than homogeneous nucleation such that the theoretical maximum is never achieved. However, the onset of inertial cavitation can be suppressed by increasing the static pressure of the fluid. The inertial cavitation threshold was measured in ultrapure water at static pressures up to 30 MPa (300 bars) by exciting a radially symmetric standing wave field in a spherical resonator driven at a resonant frequency of 25.5 kHz. The threshold was found to increase linearly with the static pressure; an exponentially decaying temperature dependence was also found. The nature and properties of the nucleating mechanisms were investigated by comparing the measured thresholds to an independent analysis of the particulate content and available models for nucleation.

  10. Black hole stereotyping: Induced gravito-static polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Kol, Barak

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the black hole effective action and define its static subsector. We determine the induced gravito-static polarization constants (electric Love numbers) of static black holes (Schwarzschild) in an arbitrary dimension, namely the induced mass multipole as a result of an external gravitational field. We demonstrate that in 4d these constants vanish thereby settling a disagreement in the literature. Yet in higher dimensions these constants are non-vanishing, thereby disproving (at least in d>4) speculations that black holes have no effective couplings beyond the point particle action. In particular, when l/(d-3) is half integral these constants demonstrate a (classical) renormalization flow consistent with the divergences of the effective field theory. In some other cases the constants are negative indicating a novel non-spherical instability. The theory of hypergeometric functions plays a central role.

  11. Static dipole polarizabilities of Scn (n≤15) clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xi-Bo; Wang Hong-Yan; Luo Jiang-Shan; Guo Yun-Dong; Wu Wei-Dong; Tang Yong-Jian

    2009-01-01

    The static dipole polarizabilities of scandium clusters with up to 15 atoms are determined by using the numerically finite field method in the framework of density functional theory. The electronic effects on the polarizabilities are investigated for the scandium clusters.We examine a large highest occupied molecular orbital-the lowest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO) gap of a scandium cluster usually corresponds to a large dipole moment.The static polarizability per atom decreases slowly and exhibits local minimum with increasing cluster size.The polarizability anisotropy and the ratio of mean static polarizability to the HOMO-LUMO gap can also reflect the cluster stability.The polarizability of the scandium cluster is partially related to the HOMO-LUMO gap and is also dependent on geometrical characteristics.A strong correlation between the polarizability and ionization energy is observed.

  12. Non-local means filter for trim statics

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yunsong

    2014-08-05

    Structures will be mispositioned across prestack migration gathers in the presence of inaccuracies in the velocity model. Stacking these misaligned gathers runs the risk of destroying important structures in the stacked migration image. To mitigate this problem, we propose a trim statics inspired by the non-local means algorithm originally developed for image denoising. This method differs from the conventional one in two fundamental respects. First, the trim statics are computed by comparing image patches instead of individual image traces. Second, no global pilot trace is needed because only two migration images at a time participate in trim statics and are stacked into one image. A multitude of migration images are stacked recursively in this two-to-one fashion. Tests with a Gulf of Mexico dataset show a noticeable improvement in the feature coherency of the stacked migration image.

  13. Static spherically symmetric metrics and their cosmological interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Velez, Camilo Santa

    2016-01-01

    We find the transformation between static coordinates and the Newton gauge for the Schwarzschild-De-Sitter (SDS) solution, confirming it coincides with the weak field limit of the McVittie solution. We then consider different generalized classes of static spherically symmetric (SSS) metrics and using the same method we transform them to the Newton gauge, which could be used to test these modifications of the SDS solution using physical observables which are more conveniently computed within the framework of cosmological perturbation theory. Using the gauge invariance of the Bardeen potentials we then obtain a gauge invariant definition of the turn around radius, checking it is consistent with the result obtained in static coordinates for the SDS metric and for other SSS metrics.

  14. Static and dynamic critical behavior of thin magnetic Ising films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabogal-Suárez, D.; Alzate-Cardona, J. D.; Restrepo-Parra, E.

    2015-09-01

    This work presents a study of the effect of film thickness on the static and dynamic critical behavior of thin magnetic Ising films. Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff algorithm were performed to determine the static and dynamic critical exponents of the films. A dimensionality crossover from 2D to 3D (due to the finiteness of the films) in the static and dynamic critical behavior was observed as the film thickness increases. In addition, a slight increase in the effective dimension deff and a considerable increase in the critical temperature Tc(∞) were found. Small values for the dynamic critical exponents were obtained, indicating that the Wolff algorithm is a very efficient method for these magnetic systems.

  15. AGENT based structural static and dynamic collaborative optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A static and dynamic collaborative optimization mode for complex machine system and itsontology project relationship are put forward, on which an agent-based structural static and dynamiccollaborative optimization system is constructed as two agent colonies: optimization agent colony andfinite element analysis colony. And a two-level solving strategy as well as the necessity and possibilityfor handing with finite element analysis model in multi-level mode is discussed. Furthermore, the coop-eration of all FEA agents for optimal design of complicated structural is studied in detail. Structural stat-ic and dynamic collaborative optimization of hydraulic excavator working equimpent is taken as an ex-ample to show that the system is reliable.

  16. Static- and Stationary-complete Spacetimes: Algebraic and Causal Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Steven G

    2014-01-01

    This is intended as an analysis of the global properties of static and stationary spacetimes with complete (timelike) Killing field, with particular attention to quotients by group actions. This is presented in terms of algebraic structures which are fairly simple for the static case and more involved for the stationary case; the most important tool, the fundamental cocycle, is a cohomological class for static spacetimes but of somewhat looser structure in the stationary case. In particular: (1) A new measurement, similar to the spacetime interval in Minkowski space, is devised for detecting whether two points are causally related in a stationary spacetime; this proves very useful for analysis. (2) All stationary spacetimes are categorized by how they behave with respect to the fundamental cocycle; this enables a complete characterization of global causality properties. (3) It is shown how these tools determine whether global hyperbolicity of a stationary spacetime is inherited by its quotients. (4) Examples ...

  17. Static Enforcement of Timing Policies Using Code Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-07

    to suggest that that would be a bad idea, but it is not how TALT works. 22 CHAPTER 2. TALT BACKGROUND Kinds K ::= T | Ti | TD | N | k1 → k2 Static...Terms c, τ, x ::= α | nsi | B0 | Bi | τ1 × τ2 | τ ↑ x | box(τ) | mbox(τ) | sptr(τ) | Γ → 0 | set=(x) | set<(x) | set>(x) | ∀α:K.τ | ∃α:K.τ | τ1 ∧ τ2 | τ1...second level, which we call static terms. The class of static terms is comprised of the types (of kinds Ti, TD and T) and the number terms (of kind N). By

  18. Static and dynamic buckling of thin-walled plate structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kubiak, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    This monograph deals with buckling and postbuckling behavior of thin plates and thin-walled structures with flat wall subjected to static and dynamic load. The investigations are carried out in elastic range. The basic assumption here is the  thin plate theory. This method is used to determination the buckling load and postbuckling analysis of thin-walled structures subjected to static and dynamic load. The book introduces two methods for static and dynamic buckling investigation which allow for a wider understanding of the phenomenon. Two different methods also can allow uncoupling of the phenomena occurring at the same time and attempt to estimate their impact on the final result. A general mathematical model, adopted in proposed analytical-numerical method, enables the consideration of all types of stability loss i.e.local, global and interactive forms of buckling. The applied numerical-numerical method includes adjacent of walls, shear-lag phenomenon and a deplanation of cross-sections.

  19. Fiber loop ring down for static ice pressure detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Yang, Lingzhen; Zhang, Zongwei; Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Juanfen; Zhang, Li; Deng, Xiao; Zhang, Zhaoxia

    2017-07-01

    We studied static ice pressure detection of hydraulic structures based on fiber loop ring down technology. Our detection system consists of a mode-locked laser, two 2 × 1 optical fiber couplers, a piece of single-mode fiber, the on-line micro-bend fiber sensor and a photo-detector. The static ice pressure was monitored based on measuring the change of the ring down time induced by external ice pressure on on-line micro-bend fiber sensor. We monitored the static ice pressure during ice growth and melting from -10 °C to 6 °C. The detection sensitivity is 0.00998/(μs·kPa). The proposed pressure sensing method has many advantages such as free from the fluctuation of the light power, simple structure, fast response and high sensitivity.

  20. Android Application Protection against Static Reverse Engineering based on Multidexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nak Young Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available DEX files are executable files of Android applications. Since DEX files are in the format of Java bytecodes, their Java source codes can be easily obtained using static reverse engineering tools. This results in numerous Android application thefts. There are some tools (e.g. bangcle, ijiami, liapp that protect Android applications against static reverse engineering utilizing dynamic code loading. These tools usually encrypt classes.dex in an APK file. When the application is launched, the encrypted classes.dex file is decrypted and dynamically loaded. However, these tools fail to protect multidex APKs, which include more than one DEX files (classes2.dex, classes3.dex, ... to accommodate large-sized execution codes. In this paper, we propose a technique that protects multidex Android applications against static reverse engineering. The technique can encrypt/decrypt multiple DEX files in APK files and dynamically load them. The experimental results show that the proposed technique can effiectively protect multidex APKs.

  1. Quantifying hypoxia in human cancers using static PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Edward; Yeung, Ivan; Keller, Harald; Wouters, Bradley G.; Milosevic, Michael; Hedley, David W.; Jaffray, David A.

    2016-11-01

    Compared to FDG, the signal of 18F-labelled hypoxia-sensitive tracers in tumours is low. This means that in addition to the presence of hypoxic cells, transport properties contribute significantly to the uptake signal in static PET images. This sensitivity to transport must be minimized in order for static PET to provide a reliable standard for hypoxia quantification. A dynamic compartmental model based on a reaction-diffusion formalism was developed to interpret tracer pharmacokinetics and applied to static images of FAZA in twenty patients with pancreatic cancer. We use our model to identify tumour properties—well-perfused without substantial necrosis or partitioning—for which static PET images can reliably quantify hypoxia. Normalizing the measured activity in a tumour voxel by the value in blood leads to a reduction in the sensitivity to variations in ‘inter-corporal’ transport properties—blood volume and clearance rate—as well as imaging study protocols. Normalization thus enhances the correlation between static PET images and the FAZA binding rate K 3, a quantity which quantifies hypoxia in a biologically significant way. The ratio of FAZA uptake in spinal muscle and blood can vary substantially across patients due to long muscle equilibration times. Normalized static PET images of hypoxia-sensitive tracers can reliably quantify hypoxia for homogeneously well-perfused tumours with minimal tissue partitioning. The ideal normalizing reference tissue is blood, either drawn from the patient before PET scanning or imaged using PET. If blood is not available, uniform, homogeneously well-perfused muscle can be used. For tumours that are not homogeneously well-perfused or for which partitioning is significant, only an analysis of dynamic PET scans can reliably quantify hypoxia.

  2. Static cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation remains intact during deep hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Dheeraj; McLeod, Katherine; Leonard, Samantha; Kibler, Kathleen; Easley, Ronald Blaine; Fraser, Charles D; Andropoulos, Dean; Brady, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Clinical studies measuring cerebral blood flow in infants during deep hypothermia have demonstrated diminished cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation. The coexistence of hypotension in these cohorts confounds the conclusion that deep hypothermia impairs cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation. We sought to compare the lower limit of autoregulation and the static rate of autoregulation between normothermic and hypothermic piglets. Twenty anesthetized neonatal piglets (5-7 days old; 10 normothermic and 10 hypothermic to 20°C) had continuous measurements of cortical red cell flux using laser Doppler flowmetry, while hemorrhagic hypotension was induced without cardiopulmonary bypass. Lower limit of autoregulation was determined for each subject using piecewise regression and SRoR was determined above and below each lower limit of autoregulation as (%change cerebrovascular resistance/%change cerebral perfusion pressure). The estimated difference in lower limit of autoregulation was 1.4 mm Hg (lower in the hypothermic piglets; 95% C.I. -10 to 14 mm Hg; P=0.6). The median lower limit of autoregulation in the normothermic group was 39 mm Hg [IQR 38-51] vs 35 mm Hg [31-50] in the hypothermic group. Intact steady-state pressure autoregulation was defined as static rate of autoregulation >0.5 and was demonstrated in all normothermic subjects (static rate of autoregulation=0.72 [0.65-0.87]) and in 9/10 of the hypothermic subjects (static rate of autoregulation=0.65 [0.52-0.87]). This difference in static rate of autoregulation of 0.06 (95% C.I. -0.3 to 0.1) was not significant (P=0.4). Intact steady-state cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation is demonstrated in a swine model of profound hypothermia. Lower limit of autoregulation and static rate of autoregulation were similar in hypothermic and normothermic subjects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Static or dynamic intramedullary nailing of femur and tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omerovic, Djemil; Lazovic, Faruk; Hadzimehmedagic, Amel

    2015-04-01

    The basic principle of non-surgical fracture treatment is to restore the original anatomical position of fractured fragments by different techniques, without direct access to the bone and without further traumatizing of tissues. Intramedullary nailing is synthesis and consolidation of fracture fragments with the main goal to gain strength and permanent placement of the implants. Two techniques of intramedullary osteosynthesis are used: with dynamic or with static intramedullary nail. Dynamization include conversion of static nail by removing screws from the longest fragment. The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a difference in the speed and quality of healing of the type A and B fractures of the femur and tibia treated by static or dynamic intramedullary nails and to compare the results. The study was conducted at the Clinic for Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Clinical Center University Sarajevo from January 2004 to June 2009. The study was retrospective-prospective, manipulative, controlled and it was conducted on a total of 129 patients with closed fractures of the diaphysis of the femur and tibia type A and type B, with different segments of bone, regardless of sex and age structure, with the exception of children under 14 years of age. Precisely there were 47 patients with femoral fractures and 82 patients with tibial fractures. The average number of weeks of healing femoral and tibial fractures was slightly in advantage of static intramedullary osteosynthesis, it was 17.08 weeks (SD=3.382). The average number of weeks of healing in 23 patients with fractures of the femur, treated by dynamic intramedullary osteosynthesis was 17.83 (SD=2.978). We can conclude that static intramedullary nailing osteosynthesis unable movements between fragments which directly stimulates bone formation and formation of minimal callus. Static intramedullary osteosynthesis resolve the problem of stabilizing the fracture, limb shortening and rotation of fragments.

  4. Quantifying hypoxia in human cancers using static PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Edward; Yeung, Ivan; Keller, Harald; Wouters, Bradley G; Milosevic, Michael; Hedley, David W; Jaffray, David A

    2016-11-21

    Compared to FDG, the signal of (18)F-labelled hypoxia-sensitive tracers in tumours is low. This means that in addition to the presence of hypoxic cells, transport properties contribute significantly to the uptake signal in static PET images. This sensitivity to transport must be minimized in order for static PET to provide a reliable standard for hypoxia quantification. A dynamic compartmental model based on a reaction-diffusion formalism was developed to interpret tracer pharmacokinetics and applied to static images of FAZA in twenty patients with pancreatic cancer. We use our model to identify tumour properties-well-perfused without substantial necrosis or partitioning-for which static PET images can reliably quantify hypoxia. Normalizing the measured activity in a tumour voxel by the value in blood leads to a reduction in the sensitivity to variations in 'inter-corporal' transport properties-blood volume and clearance rate-as well as imaging study protocols. Normalization thus enhances the correlation between static PET images and the FAZA binding rate K 3, a quantity which quantifies hypoxia in a biologically significant way. The ratio of FAZA uptake in spinal muscle and blood can vary substantially across patients due to long muscle equilibration times. Normalized static PET images of hypoxia-sensitive tracers can reliably quantify hypoxia for homogeneously well-perfused tumours with minimal tissue partitioning. The ideal normalizing reference tissue is blood, either drawn from the patient before PET scanning or imaged using PET. If blood is not available, uniform, homogeneously well-perfused muscle can be used. For tumours that are not homogeneously well-perfused or for which partitioning is significant, only an analysis of dynamic PET scans can reliably quantify hypoxia.

  5. Measurement and evaluation of static characteristics of rotary hydraulic motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hružík Lumír

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes experimental equipment for measurement of static characteristics of rotary hydraulic motor. It is possible to measure flow, pressure, temperature, speed and torque by means of this equipment. It deals with measurement of static characteristics of a gear rotary hydraulic motor. Mineral oil is used as hydraulic liquid in this case. Flow, torque and speed characteristics are evaluated from measured parameters. Measured mechanical-hydraulic, flow and total efficiencies of the rotary hydraulic motor are adduced in the paper. It is possible to diagnose technical conditions of the hydraulic motor (eventually to recommend its exchange from the experimental measurements.

  6. Static shape control of a flat shell structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The eight-node and forty-DOF piezoelectric shell element were applied to shape control of a flat shell structure. By the direct and converse effects, a distributed piezoelectric sensor layer was used to monitor the shape deformation and a distributed actuator layer was used to suppresse the deflection. A finite element model was for static response of laminated shell with piezoelectric sensors/actuators was derived. The model was verified by calculating piezoelectric polymeric PVDF bimorph beam. The results are in good agreement with those obtained by theoretical analysis of Tzou[1] and Hwang[2]. A case study of the static shape control of a flat shell structure is presented.

  7. A HYBRID POLYMER GEL AND ITS STATIC NONERGODICIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Zhao; Chi Wu

    2002-01-01

    We used a thermally reversible hybrid gel made of billions of physically jam-packed swollen thermally sensitive poly(N-isopropyl-acrylamide) chemical microgels. Laser light scattering study on a series of such hybrid gels formed at different gelling rates and temperatures revealed that the position-dependence of the scattering speckle pattern (static nonergodicity) came from large voids formed during the sol-gel transition. With a proper preparation, such a nonergodicity could be completely removed, indicating that the static nonergodicity generally observed in a gel is not intrinsic, but comes from the clustering "island" structure formed during the gelation process.

  8. Recovering map static nonlinearities from chaotic data using dynamical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Luis Antonio

    1997-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the estimation from chaotic data of maps with static nonlinearities. A number of issues concerning model construction such as structure selection, over-parametrization and model validation are discussed in the light of the shape of the static non-linearities reproduced by the estimated maps. A new interpretation of term clusters and cluster coefficients of polynomial models is provided based on this approach. The paper discusses model limitations and some useful principles to select the structure of nonlinear maps. Some of the ideas have been tested using several nonlinear systems including a boost voltage regulator map and a set of real data from a chaotic circuit.

  9. Quasi-static Deployment Simulation for Deployable Space Truss Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈务军; 付功义; 何艳丽; 董石麟

    2004-01-01

    A new method was proposed for quasi-static deployment analysis of deployable space truss structures. The structure is assumed a rigid assembly, whose constraints are classified as three categories:rigid member constraint, joint-attached kinematic constraint and boundary constraint. And their geometric constraint equations and derivative matrices are formulated. The basis of the null space and M-P inverse of the geometric constraint matrix are employed to determine the solution for quasi-static deployment analysis. The influence introduced by higher terms of constraints is evaluated subsequently. The numerical tests show that the new method is efficient.

  10. Structural testing for static failure, flutter and other scary things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Ground test and flight test methods are described that may be used to highlight potential structural problems that occur on aircraft. Primary interest is focused on light-weight general aviation airplanes. The structural problems described include static strength failure, aileron reversal, static divergence, and flutter. An example of each of the problems is discussed to illustrate how the data acquired during the tests may be used to predict the occurrence of the structural problem. While some rules of thumb for the prediction of structural problems are given the report is not intended to be used explicitly as a structural analysis handbook.

  11. Human body capacitance: static or dynamic concept? [ESD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M

    1998-01-01

    A standing human body insulated from ground by footwear and/or floor covering is in principle an insulated conductor and has, as such, a capacitance, i.e. the ability to store a charge and possibly discharge the stored energy in a spark discharge. In the human body, the human body capacitance (HBC...... when a substantial part of the flux extends itself through badly defined stray fields. Since the concept of human body capacitance is normally used in a static (electric) context, it is suggested that the HBC be determined by a static method. No theoretical explanation of the observed differences...

  12. Static stability of collapsible tube conveying non-Newtonian fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Yushutin, V S

    2014-01-01

    The global static stability of a Starling Resistor conveying non-Newtonian fluid is considered. The Starling Resistor consists of two rigid circular tubes and axisymmetric collapsible tube mounted between them. Upstream and downstream pressures are the boundary condition as well as external to the collapsible tube pressure. Quasi one-dimensional model has been proposed and a boundary value problem in terms of nondimensional parameters obtained. Nonuniqueness of the boundary value problem is regarded as static instability. The analytical condition of instability which defines a surface in parameter space has been studied numerically. The influence of fluid rheology on stability of collapsible tube is established.

  13. Static critical fluctuations on the freeze-out surface

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Lijia; Song, Huichao

    2016-01-01

    In this proceeding, we summarize the main results of our recent paper, which introduces a freeze-out scheme to the dynamical models near the QCD critical point. Within such framework of static critical fluctuations, the Beam Energy Scan (BES) data of $C_4$ and $\\kappa \\sigma^2$ for net protons within different $p_T$ ranges can be roughly described. Besides, the momentum acceptance dependence of higher cumulants at lower collision energies can also be qualitatively described. However, $C_2$ and $C_3$ are always over-predicted due to the positive static critical fluctuations.

  14. The acceleration of a neutron in a static electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, R. L.

    2012-06-01

    We show that when a non-relativistic neutron travels in a static electric field, the acceleration vector operator is perpendicular to the velocity operator. Kinetic energy is conserved. A spin-dependent field term in the canonical momentum gives rise to a non-dispersive contribution to the quantum mechanical (Aharonov-Casher) phase. This motion differs from that in a static magnetic field which has no field term in the canonical momentum and no conservation of kinetic energy. For the geometry of the Aharonov-Casher effect, there is no acceleration, while in Mott-Schwinger scattering, the acceleration causes a spin-dependent change in neutron direction.

  15. Counterrotating perfect fluid discs as sources of electrovacuum static spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    García-Reyes, Gonzalo

    2008-01-01

    The interpretation of some electrovacuum spacetimes in terms of counterrotating perfect fluid discs is presented. The interpretation is mades by means of an "inverse problem" approach used to obtain disc sources of known static solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations. In order to do such interpretation, a detailed study is presented of the counterrotating model (CRM) for generic electrovacuum static axially symmetric relativistic thin discs with nonzero radial pressure. Four simple families of models of counterrotating charged discs based on Chazy-Curzon-type, Zipoy-Voorhees-type, Bonnor-Sackfield-type, and charged and magnetized Darmois electrovacuum metrics are considered where we obtain some discs with a CRM well behaved.

  16. Quasilocal Energy for Static Charged Black Holes in String Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shi-Liang; JING Ji-Liang; WANG Yong-Jiu

    2001-01-01

    The Brown-York quasilocal energies of some static charged dilaton black holes are calculated, and then the validity of Martinez's conjecture is explored in string theory. It is shown that the energy is positive and monotonically decreases to the ADM mass at spatial infinity, and the conjecture that the Brown-York quasilocal energy at the outer horizon of black hole reduces to twice of its irreducible mass is still applicable for the static charged black holes in string theory. The result is different from Bose-Naing's one.``

  17. Dynamic Inheritance and Static Analysis can be Reconciled

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    1998-01-01

    In the area of object-orientation there is a long-standingschism between the rigid but safe statically typed languages, and theexpressive and exible but less safe \\typeless" languages. Many e ortshave aimed at combining the best of both. This paper presents a lan-guage mechanism which enhances....... With dynamic inheritance, pre-methoding becomesmore expressive, supporting control structures as rst class values whichmay be constructed and combined dynamically. Even though the conceptof pre-methoding is missing from most other languages, the basic ideacould be applied to any statically typed object-oriented...

  18. Adaptive financial networks with static and dynamic thresholds

    CERN Document Server

    Qiu, Tian; Chen, Guang

    2010-01-01

    Based on the daily data of American and Chinese stock markets, the dynamic behavior of a financial network with static and dynamic thresholds is investigated. Compared with the static threshold, the dynamic threshold suppresses the large fluctuation induced by the cross-correlation of individual stock prices, and leads to a stable topological structure in the dynamic evolution. Long-range time-correlations are revealed for the average clustering coefficient, average degree and cross-correlation of degrees. The dynamic network shows a two-peak behavior in the degree distribution.

  19. High-codimensional static bifurcations of strongly nonlinear oscillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qi-Chang; Wang Wei; Liu Fu-Hao

    2008-01-01

    The static bifurcation of the parametrically excited strongly nonlinear oscillator is studied.We consider the averaged equations of a system subject to Duffing-van der Pol and quintic strong nonlinearity by introducing the undetermined fundamental frequency into the computation in the complex normal form.To discuss the static bifurcation,the bifurcation problem is described as a 3-codimensional unfolding with Z2 symmetry on the basis of singularity theory.The transition set and bifurcation diagrams for the singularity are presented,while the stability of the zero solution is studied by using the eigenvalues in various parameter regions.

  20. Induced static magnetic field by a cellular phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einat, M.; Yahalom, A.

    2011-08-01

    Recent claims regarding the safety of cellular phones suggest that weak static magnetic fields are induced around the phone, and this field and its gradients may pose a health risk to the user. An experiment was conducted to measure the induced static magnetic field around a cellular phone. 65 μT variations and 18 μT/cm gradients were measured in the magnetic field at 6 cm from the phone. An analytical model is derived to explain the results. The influence that the measured magnetic fields may have on the user is beyond the scope of this research.

  1. Static and quasi-static analysis of lobed-pumpkin balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashino, Kyoichi; Sasaki, Makoto; Hashimoto, Satoshi; Saito, Yoshitaka; Izutsu, Naoki

    The present study is motivated by the need to improve design methodology for super pressure balloon with 3D gore design concept, currently being developed at the Scientific Balloon Center of ISAS/JAXA. The distinctive feature of the 3-D gore design is that the balloon film has excess materials not only in the circumferential direction but also in the meridional direction; the meridional excess is gained by attaching the film boundaries to the corresponding tendons of a shorter length with a controlled shortening rate. The resulting balloon shape is a pumpkin-like shape with large bulges formed between adjacent tendons. The balloon film, when fully inflated, develops wrinkles in the circumferential direction over its entire region, so that the stresses in the film are limited to a small amount of uniaxial tension in the circumferential direction while the high meridional loads are carried by re-enforced tendons. Naturally, the amount of wrinkling in the film is dominated by the shortening rate between the film boundaries and the tendon curve. In the 3-D gore design, as a consequence, the shortening rate becomes a fundamental design parameter along with the geometric parameters of the gore. In view of this, we have carried out a series of numerical study of the lobed-pumpkin balloon with varying gore geometry as well as with varying shortening rate. The numerical simula-tions were carried out with a nonlinear finite element code incorporating the wrinkling effect. Numerical results show that there is a threshold value for the shortening rate beyond which the stresses in the balloon film increases disproportionately. We have also carried out quasi-static simulations of the inflation process of the lobed-pumpkin balloon, and have obtained asymmetric deformations when the balloon films are in uniaxial tension state.

  2. Bone Response to Static Compressive Stress at Bone-Implant Interface: A Pilot Study of Critical Static Compressive Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikumi, Noriharu; Suzawa, Tetsuo; Yoshimura, Kentaro; Kamijo, Ryutaro

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical imbalance caused by mechanical overload or poor bone quality around a dental implant can result in osseointegration failure. To avoid that, it is important to identify an appropriate safety stress margin (critical stress level). For this study, a novel device was developed to generate a quantitative amount of static compressive stress under an aseptic closed condition. The aim was to clarify the amount of critical stress produced on the cortical bone when static compression is applied to the osseointegrated bone-implant interface. Small parts for bone sustaining, load generation, and load transmittance were developed to generate quantitative static compressive stress at the bone-implant interface and implanted inside the tibial cortical bone in adult beagle dogs. Each tibia in two dogs received bone-sustaining parts, then after 2 months, the load-transmitting parts were placed into the bone-sustaining parts. After another 2 months, various magnitudes of static compressive stress (0-180 MPa) were generated by tightening the load-generating part to the osseointegrated bone-implant interface. After 7 days, the animals were euthanized, and dissected blocks were prepared for histomorphometric analyses. There were no obvious signs of bone resorption or loss of osseointegration in any of the dogs. The change in shape of osteon was not influenced by the amount of static compressive stress. However, periosteal reactions were observed under the cortical bone on the opposite side. These results indicate that osseointegrated bone-implant interfaces show minimal response based on the magnitude of static compressive stress, even when such stress is greater than 120 MPa.

  3. Research on new software compensation method of static and quasi-static errors for precision motion controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To reduce mechanical vibrations induced by big errors compensation, a new software compensation method based on an improved digital differential analyzer (DDA) interpolator for static and quasi-static errors of machine tools is proposed. Based on principle of traditional DDA interpolator, a DDA interpolator is divided into command generator and command analyzer. There are three types of errors, considering the difference of positions between compensation points and interpolation segments. According to the classification, errors are distributed evenly in data processing and compensated to certain interpolation segments in machining. On-line implementation results show that the proposed approach greatly improves positioning accuracy of computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools.

  4. Supporting secure programming in web applications through interactive static analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Xie, Jing; Lipford, Heather Richter; Chu, Bill

    2014-07-01

    Many security incidents are caused by software developers' failure to adhere to secure programming practices. Static analysis tools have been used to detect software vulnerabilities. However, their wide usage by developers is limited by the special training required to write rules customized to application-specific logic. Our approach is interactive static analysis, to integrate static analysis into Integrated Development Environment (IDE) and provide in-situ secure programming support to help developers prevent vulnerabilities during code construction. No additional training is required nor are there any assumptions on ways programs are built. Our work is motivated in part by the observation that many vulnerabilities are introduced due to failure to practice secure programming by knowledgeable developers. We implemented a prototype interactive static analysis tool as a plug-in for Java in Eclipse. Our technical evaluation of our prototype detected multiple zero-day vulnerabilities in a large open source project. Our evaluations also suggest that false positives may be limited to a very small class of use cases.

  5. An Economical Method for Static Headspace Enrichment for Arson Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Bjorn

    2010-01-01

    Static headspace analysis of accelerants from suspected arsons is accomplished by placing an arson sample in a sealed container with a carbon strip suspended above the sample. The sample is heated, cooled to room temperature, and then the organic components are extracted from the carbon strip with carbon disulfide followed by gas chromatography…

  6. Java bytecode verification via static single assignment form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Andreas; Probst, Christian W.; Franz, Michael

    2008-01-01

    that transforms JVM bytecode into Static Single Assignment Form (SSA) and thereby propagates definitions directly to uses. Type checking at control flow merge points can then be performed in a single pass. Our prototype implementation of the new algorithm is faster than the standard JVM bytecode verifier. It has...

  7. Static and dynamic through thickness lamina properties of thick laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahuerta, F.; Nijssen, R.P.L.; Van der Meer, F.P.; Sluys, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Thick laminates are increasingly present in large composites structures such as wind turbine blades. Different factors are suspected to be involved in the decreased static and dynamic performance of thick laminates. These include the effect of self-heating, the scaling effect, and the manufacturing

  8. Supporting secure programming in web applications through interactive static analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many security incidents are caused by software developers’ failure to adhere to secure programming practices. Static analysis tools have been used to detect software vulnerabilities. However, their wide usage by developers is limited by the special training required to write rules customized to application-specific logic. Our approach is interactive static analysis, to integrate static analysis into Integrated Development Environment (IDE and provide in-situ secure programming support to help developers prevent vulnerabilities during code construction. No additional training is required nor are there any assumptions on ways programs are built. Our work is motivated in part by the observation that many vulnerabilities are introduced due to failure to practice secure programming by knowledgeable developers. We implemented a prototype interactive static analysis tool as a plug-in for Java in Eclipse. Our technical evaluation of our prototype detected multiple zero-day vulnerabilities in a large open source project. Our evaluations also suggest that false positives may be limited to a very small class of use cases.

  9. Quorum sensing via static coupling demonstrated by Chua's circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpartap; Parmananda, P.

    2013-10-01

    Dynamical quorum sensing, the population based phenomenon, is believed to occur when the elements of a system interact via dynamic coupling. In the present work, we demonstrate an alternate scenario, involving static coupling, that could also lead to quorum sensing behavior. These static and dynamic coupling terms have already been employed by Konishi [Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos Appl. Sci. Eng.IJBEE40218-127410.1142/S0218127407018750 17, 2781 (2007)]. In our context, the coupling is defined as static or dynamic, on the basis of the relative time scales at which the surrounding dynamics and the elements' dynamics evolve. According to this, if the variation in the surrounding dynamics happens on a much larger (fast) time scale than that at which the elements' dynamics are varying (such as seconds and μs), then the coupling is considered to be static, otherwise it is considered to be dynamic. A series of experiments have been performed starting from a system of three Chua's circuits to a system of 20 Chua's circuits to study two types of quorum transitions: the emergence and the extinction of global oscillations (period-1). The numerics involving up to 100 Chua's circuits validate the experimental observations.

  10. Hybrid static-runtime information flow and declassification enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha, Bruno P.S.; Conti, Mauro; Etalle, Sandro; Crispo, Bruno

    There are different paradigms for enforcing information flow and declassification policies. These approaches can be divided into static analyzers and runtime enforcers. Each class has its own strengths and weaknesses, each being able to enforce a different set of policies. In this paper, we

  11. Costs and effects of chlamydial screening : Dynamic versus static modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welte, R; Postma, M; Leidl, R; Kretzschmar, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the impact of modeling type on the economic evaluation of screening programs for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Study: We compared a stochastic network simulation model (dynamic model) with a decision analysis model (static model)

  12. Static analysis of a Model of the LDL degradation pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henrik; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2005-01-01

    BioAmbients is a derivative of mobile ambients that has shown promise of describing interesting features of the behaviour of biological systems. As for other ambient calculi static program analysis can be used to compute safe approximations of the behavior of modelled systems. We use these tools ...

  13. Static axisymmetric rings in general relativity: How diverse they are

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semerák, O.

    2016-11-01

    Three static and axially symmetric (Weyl-type) ring singularities—the Majumdar-Papapetrou-type (extremally charged) ring, the Bach-Weyl ring, and the Appell ring—are studied in general relativity in order to show how remarkably the geometries in their vicinity differ from each other. This is demonstrated on basic measures of the rings and on invariant characteristics given by the metric and by its first and second derivatives (lapse, gravitational acceleration, and curvature), and also on geodesic motion. The results are also compared against the Kerr space-time which possesses a ring singularity too. The Kerr solution is only stationary, not static, but in spite of the consequent complication by dragging, its ring appears to be simpler than the static rings. We show that this mainly applies to the Bach-Weyl ring, although this straightforward counterpart of the Newtonian homogeneous circular ring is by default being taken as the simplest ring solution, and although the other two static ring sources may seem more "artificial." The weird, directional deformation around the Bach-Weyl ring probably indicates that a more adequate coordinate representation and interpretation of this source should exist.

  14. Ischemic Preconditioning of One Forearm Enhances Static and Dynamic Apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeld, Thomas; Rasmussen, Mads Reinholdt; Jattu, Timo

    2014-01-01

    served as control because the warm-up for rowing regularly encompasses intense exercise and therefore reduced muscle oxygenation. METHODS: Six divers performed a dry static breath hold, 11 divers swam underwater in an indoor pool, and 14 oarsmen rowed "1000 m" on an ergometer. RESULTS: Ischemic...

  15. Another Approach to Solving Problems in Rotational Statics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineman, Morton A.; Burnett, Carl, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a technique which aids students in solving static problems involving three or more torques about a given axis. The method is longer and equivalent to the standard method, but students experience success with this new way to treat the more complicated equilibrium problems. (DH)

  16. Static Tension Tests on Axially Loaded Pile Segments in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    This paper provides laboratory test results of static axially loaded piles in sand. With a newly developed test setup, the pile-soil interface friction was investigated by using an open-ended steel pile segment with a diameter of 0.5 m. Use of a pile length of 1 m enabled the pile-soil interface...

  17. Static and dynamic aspects of an air gap capacitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJntema, D.J.; IJntema, Dominicus J.; Tilmans, Harrie A.C.; Tilmans, H.A.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with the theory of an air-gap capacitor used as a micromechanical resonator. Both static and dynamic aspects are discussed. A single-element approach for the electrostatic excitation and capacitive detection of the vibrational motion of the resonators is described. The non-linear

  18. 14 CFR 105.47 - Use of static lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... unless that person is a certificated parachute rigger or that person makes the next parachute jump with... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Parachute Equipment and Packing § 105.47 Use of static lines. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, no person may conduct a...

  19. Hybrid static-runtime information flow and declassification enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha, Bruno P.S.; Conti, Mauro; Etalle, Sandro; Crispo, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    There are different paradigms for enforcing information flow and declassification policies. These approaches can be divided into static analyzers and runtime enforcers. Each class has its own strengths and weaknesses, each being able to enforce a different set of policies. In this paper, we introduc

  20. A Static Burst Test for Composite Flywheel Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Stefan; Schulz, Alexander; Sima, Harald; Koch, Thomas; Kaltenbacher, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    High efficient and safe flywheels are an interesting technology for decentralized energy storage. To ensure all safety aspects, a static test method for a controlled initiation of a burst event for composite flywheel rotors is presented with nearly the same stress distribution as in the dynamic case, rotating with maximum speed. In addition to failure prediction using different maximum stress criteria and a safety factor, a set of tensile and compressive tests is carried out to identify the parameters of the used carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) material. The static finite element (FE) simulation results of the flywheel static burst test (FSBT) compare well to the quasistatic FE-simulation results of the flywheel rotor using inertia loads. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the presented method is a very good controllable and observable possibility to test a high speed flywheel energy storage system (FESS) rotor in a static way. Thereby, a much more expensive and dangerous dynamic spin up test with possible uncertainties can be substituted.

  1. Static Scaling on an Interacting Magnetic Nanoparticle System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, T.; Svedlindh, P.; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    1998-01-01

    The field dependence of the ac susceptibility of a concentrated frozen ferrofluid containing ultrafine Fe-C particles of monodisperse nature has been analyzed using static scaling. For the first time, a divergent behavior of the nonlinear susceptibility of a dipole-dipole interacting system...

  2. Statics and kinematics of discrete Cosserat-type granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, N.P.

    2003-01-01

    A theoretical framework is presented for the statics and kinematics of discrete Cosserat-type granular materials. In analogy to the force and moment equilibrium equations for particles, compatibility equations for closed loops are formulated in the two-dimensional case for relative displacements and

  3. Normal Wave Propagation Velocity in a Static Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    34 " " ’ . " . " . " " . " , " " . " -" " " " . " " . " " " " . " * . - " " " , 4 . " . " . " " " . " " "." "-" "." " . . . . . " " " " -w A- INah . . . . . . - - 1 NORMAL WAVE PROPAGATION VELOCITY IN A STATIC WEB By

  4. Einstein Static Universe in Exponential $f(T)$ Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jung-Tsung; Geng, Chao-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the stability of the Einstein static closed and open universe in two types of exponential $f(T)$ gravity theories. We show that the stable solutions exist in these two models. In particular, we find that large regions of parameter space in equation of state $w=p/\\rho$ for the stable universe are allowed in the $f(T)$ theories.

  5. Einstein static universe in exponential f(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jung-Tsung; Lee, Chung-Chi; Geng, Chao-Qiang [National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics, Hsinchu (China); National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Physics Division, Hsinchu (China)

    2013-02-15

    We analyze the stability of the Einstein static closed and open universe in two types of exponential f(T) gravity theory. We show that stable solutions exist in these two models. In particular, we find that large regions of parameter space in equation of state w=p/{rho} for the stable universe are allowed in the f(T) theories. (orig.)

  6. A Synthesis Method for Static Anti-Windup Compensators

    OpenAIRE

    Solyom, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Synthesis of static anti-windup compensators is considered. LMIconditions are established for stability and performance analysis of the closedloop system. The performance criterion describes the servo problem forthe resulting closed-loop piecewise linear system. The synthesisof the anti-windup compensators will be given by some bilinear matrix inequalities.

  7. Static and dynamic aspects of an air gap capacitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJntema, Dominicus J.; Tilmans, Harrie A.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with the theory of an air-gap capacitor used as a micromechanical resonator. Both static and dynamic aspects are discussed. A single-element approach for the electrostatic excitation and capacitive detection of the vibrational motion of the resonators is described. The non-linear ch

  8. A Minimum Leakage Quasi-Static RAM Bitcell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Teman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available As SRAMs continue to grow and comprise larger percentages of the area and power consumption in advanced systems, the need to minimize static currents becomes essential. This brief presents a novel 9T Quasi-Static RAM Bitcell that provides aggressive leakage reduction and high write margins. The quasi-static operation method of this cell, based on internal feedback and leakage ratios, minimizes static power while maintaining sufficient, albeit depleted, noise margins. This paper presents the concept of the novel cell, and discusses the stability of the cell under hold, read and write operations. The cell was implemented in a low-power 40 nm TSMC process, showing as much as a 12× reduction in leakage current at typical conditions, as compared to a standard 6T or 8T bitcell at the same supply voltage. The implemented cell showed full functionality under global and local process variations at nominal and low voltages, as low as 300 mV.

  9. Integrating and scheduling an open set of static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Mezini, Mira; Kloppenburg, Sven

    2006-01-01

    To improve the productivity of the development process, more and more tools for static software analysis are tightly integrated into the incremental build process of an IDE. If multiple interdependent analyses are used simultaneously, the coordination between the analyses becomes a major obstacle...

  10. Longitudinal static-field model for HD lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baets, R.; Lagasse, P. E.

    1984-01-01

    A new static model for double-heterostructure lasers is presented which can take into account longitudinal effects in the cavity. The model makes use of the beam-propagation method to calculate the field propagation through the lasing waveguide structure.

  11. Detection of static and dynamic activities using uniaxial accelerometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Petrus H.; Bussmann, Hans B.J.; de Vries, Wiebe; de Vries, W.; Martens, Wim L.J.; van Lummel, Rob C.

    1996-01-01

    Rehabilitation treatment may be improved by objective analysis of activities of daily living. For this reason, the feasibility of distinguishing several static and dynamic activities (standing, sitting, lying, walking, ascending stairs, descending stairs, cycling) using a small set of two or three

  12. Emotion attribution to basic parametric static and dynamic stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.; Goudbeek, M.B.; Cohn, J.; Nijholt, A.; Pantic, P.

    2009-01-01

    The following research investigates the effect of basic visual stimuli on the attribution of basic emotions by the viewer. In an empirical study (N = 33) we used two groups of visually minimal expressive stimuli: dynamic and static. The dynamic stimuli consisted of an animated circle moving

  13. Emotion attribution to basic parametric static and dynamic stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.; Goudbeek, M.B.; Cohn, J.; Nijholt, A.; Pantic, P.

    2009-01-01

    The following research investigates the effect of basic visual stimuli on the attribution of basic emotions by the viewer. In an empirical study (N = 33) we used two groups of visually minimal expressive stimuli: dynamic and static. The dynamic stimuli consisted of an animated circle moving accordin

  14. Static field dependence of the Raman polarizability, demonstrated in polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussenegg, Franz R.; Lippitsch, Max E.; Möller, Reinhard

    1982-01-01

    The nonlinearity of the Raman polarizability of polystyrene is revealed by applying a static electric field of ≈ 1 MV/cm to the sample while measuring the Raman intensity. A special experimental technique allows registration of relative intensity variations of 10 -3. The results can be understood using a simple theoretical model.

  15. Static and dynamic quenching of luminescent species in polymer media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, P; Leiner, M J; Lippitsch, M E

    1994-12-01

    A method developed for quantitative determination of static and dynamic contributions to luminescence quenching is applied to Ru(II) complexes in polymer matrices (silica gel and polystyrene), quenched by oxygen. This method is based on both intensity and lifetime quenching experiments. The curvature of intensity Stern-Volmer plots is related to the results.

  16. A Micro Dynamically Tuned Gyroscope with Adjustable Static Capacitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun Kong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel micro dynamically tuned gyroscope (MDTG with adjustable static capacitance. First, the principle of MDTG is theoretically analyzed. Next, some simulations under the optimized structure parameters are given as a reference for the mask design of the rotor wafer and electrode plates. As two key components, the process flows of the rotor wafer and electrode plates are described in detail. All the scanning electron microscopy (SEM photos show that the fabrication process is effective and optimized. Then, an assembly model is designed for the static capacitance adjustable MDTG, whose static capacitance can be changed by rotating the lower electrode plate support and substituting gasket rings of different thicknesses. Thus, the scale factor is easily changeable. Afterwards, the digitalized closed-loop measurement circuit is simulated. The discrete correction and decoupling modules are designed to make the closed-loop stable and cross-coupling effect small. The dual axis closed-loop system bandwidths can reach more than 60 Hz and the dual axis scale factors are completely symmetrical. All the simulation results demonstrate the proposed fabrication of the MDTG can meet the application requirements. Finally, the paper presents the test results of static and dynamic capacitance values which are consistent with the simulation values.

  17. A micro dynamically tuned gyroscope with adjustable static capacitance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dunzhu; Yu, Cheng; Kong, Lun

    2013-02-06

    This paper presents a novel micro dynamically tuned gyroscope (MDTG) with adjustable static capacitance. First, the principle of MDTG is theoretically analyzed. Next, some simulations under the optimized structure parameters are given as a reference for the mask design of the rotor wafer and electrode plates. As two key components, the process flows of the rotor wafer and electrode plates are described in detail. All the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photos show that the fabrication process is effective and optimized. Then, an assembly model is designed for the static capacitance adjustable MDTG, whose static capacitance can be changed by rotating the lower electrode plate support and substituting gasket rings of different thicknesses. Thus, the scale factor is easily changeable. Afterwards, the digitalized closed-loop measurement circuit is simulated. The discrete correction and decoupling modules are designed to make the closed-loop stable and cross-coupling effect small. The dual axis closed-loop system bandwidths can reach more than 60 Hz and the dual axis scale factors are completely symmetrical. All the simulation results demonstrate the proposed fabrication of the MDTG can meet the application requirements. Finally, the paper presents the test results of static and dynamic capacitance values which are consistent with the simulation values.

  18. Glacial isostatic adjustment in the static gravity field of Fennoscandia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Root, B.C.; Van der Wal, W.; Novak, P.; Ebbing, J.; Vermeersen, L.L.A.

    2015-01-01

    In the central part of Fennoscandia, the crust is currently rising, because of the delayed response of the viscous mantle to melting of the Late Pleistocene ice sheet. This process, called Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA), causes a negative anomaly in the present-day static gravity field as isosta

  19. Two-dimensional static black holes with pointlike sources

    CERN Document Server

    Melis, M

    2004-01-01

    We study the static black hole solutions of generalized two-dimensional dilaton-gravity theories generated by pointlike mass sources, in the hypothesis that the matter is conformally coupled. We also discuss the motion of test particles. Due to conformal coupling, these follow the geodesics of a metric obtained by rescaling the canonical metric with the dilaton.

  20. Static and Dynamic Moduli of Malm Carbonate: A Poroelastic Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadegan, Alireza; Guérizec, Romain; Reinsch, Thomas; Blöcher, Guido; Zimmermann, Günter; Milsch, Harald

    2016-08-01

    The static and poroelastic moduli of a porous rock, e.g., the drained bulk modulus, can be derived from stress-strain curves in rock mechanical tests, and the dynamic moduli, e.g., dynamic Poisson's ratio, can be determined by acoustic velocity and bulk density measurements. As static and dynamic elastic moduli are different, a correlation is often required to populate geomechanical models. A novel poroelastic approach is introduced to correlate static and dynamic bulk moduli of outcrop analogues samples, representative of Upper-Malm reservoir rock in the Molasse basin, southwestern Germany. Drained and unjacketed poroelastic experiments were performed at two different temperature levels (30 and 60°C). For correlating the static and dynamic elastic moduli, a drained acoustic velocity ratio is introduced, corresponding to the drained Poisson's ratio in poroelasticity. The strength of poroelastic coupling, i.e., the product of Biot and Skempton coefficients here, was the key parameter. The value of this parameter decreased with increasing effective pressure by about 56 ~% from 0.51 at 3 MPa to 0.22 at 73 MPa. In contrast, the maximum change in P- and S-wave velocities was only 3 % in this pressure range. This correlation approach can be used in characterizing underground reservoirs, and can be employed to relate seismicity and geomechanics (seismo-mechanics).

  1. The longitudinal controls fixed static stability of tailless aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, Helena V.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a simple theory of the longitudinal controls fixed static stability of tailless aeroplanes. The classical theory, as developed for the conventional aircraft, is modified to accommodate the particular features of the tailless aeroplanes. The theory was then applied to a particular blended-wing-body tailless civil transport aircraft, BWB-98. Cranfield University

  2. An overview of representation theorems for static risk measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG YongSheng; YAN JiaAn

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of representation theorems for various static risk measures: coherent or convex risk measures, risk measures with comonotonic subadditivity or convexity, law-invariant coherent or convex risk measures, risk measures with comonotonic subadditivity or convexity and respecting stochastic orders.

  3. Implementation of the quasi-static method for neutron transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaro, Fabio; Dulla, Sandra; Ravetto, Piero, E-mail: fabio.alcaro@polito.it, E-mail: sandra.dulla@polito.it, E-mail: piero.ravetto@polito.it [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Le Tellier, Romain; Suteau, Christophe, E-mail: romain.le-tellier@cea.fr, E-mail: christophe.suteau@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DER/SPRC/LEPh, Cadarache, Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2011-07-01

    The study of the dynamic behavior of next generation nuclear reactors is a fundamental aspect for safety and reliability assessments. Despite the growing performances of modern computers, the full solution of the neutron Boltzmann equation in the time domain is still an impracticable task, thus several approximate dynamic models have been proposed for the simulation of nuclear reactor transients; the quasi-static method represents the standard tool currently adopted for the space-time solution of neutron transport problems. All the practical applications of this method that have been proposed contain a major limit, consisting in the use of isotropic quantities, such as scalar fluxes and isotropic external neutron sources, being the only data structures available in most deterministic transport codes. The loss of the angular information produces both inaccuracies in the solution of the kinetic model and the inconsistency of the quasi-static method itself. The present paper is devoted to the implementation of a consistent quasi-static method. The computational platform developed by CEA in Cadarache has been used for the creation of a kinetic package to be coupled with the existing SNATCH solver, a discrete-ordinate multi-dimensional neutron transport solver, employed for the solution of the steady-state Boltzmann equation. The work aims at highlighting the effects of the angular treatment of the neutron flux on the transient analysis, comparing the results with those produced by the previous implementations of the quasi-static method. (author)

  4. Recognition of Moving and Static Faces by Young Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yumiko; Konishi, Yukuo; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.; Abdi, Herve; O'Toole, Alice J.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared 3- to 4-month-olds' recognition of previously unfamiliar faces learned in a moving or a static condition. Infants in the moving condition showed successful recognition with only 30 s familiarization, even when different images of a face were used in the familiarization and test phase (Experiment 1). In contrast, infants in the…

  5. From Static to Dynamic Mathematics: Historical and Representational Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Armella, Luis; Hegedus, Stephen J.; Kaput, James J.

    2008-01-01

    The nature of mathematical reference fields has substantially evolved with the advent of new types of digital technologies enabling students greater access to understanding the use and application of mathematical ideas and procedures. We analyze the evolution of symbolic thinking over time, from static notations to dynamic inscriptions in new…

  6. The acceleration of a neutron in a static electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelletti, R.L., E-mail: ron.cappelletti@nist.gov [NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2012-06-18

    We show that when a non-relativistic neutron travels in a static electric field, the acceleration vector operator is perpendicular to the velocity operator. Kinetic energy is conserved. A spin-dependent field term in the canonical momentum gives rise to a non-dispersive contribution to the quantum mechanical (Aharonov–Casher) phase. This motion differs from that in a static magnetic field which has no field term in the canonical momentum and no conservation of kinetic energy. For the geometry of the Aharonov–Casher effect, there is no acceleration, while in Mott–Schwinger scattering, the acceleration causes a spin-dependent change in neutron direction. -- Highlights: ► Acceleration of a neutron in an E field is orthogonal to velocity. KE is conserved. ► For the Aharonov–Casher (AC) effect, acceleration is 0. ► The AC phase arises from the field term in the canonical momentum. ► In a static B field there is no field term in the canonical momentum. ► In a static B field KE is exchanged with Zeeman energy to conserve energy.

  7. Static Solutions of Einstein's Equations with Cylindrical Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendafilova, C. S.; Fulling, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    In analogy with the standard derivation of the Schwarzschild solution, we find all static, cylindrically symmetric solutions of the Einstein field equations for vacuum. These include not only the well-known cone solution, which is locally flat, but others in which the metric coefficients are powers of the radial coordinate and the spacetime is…

  8. Neuron firing frequency dependence on the static magnetic field intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, M. J.; del Moral, A.

    1995-02-01

    The effects of static magnetic field (SMF) of B intensity ( B = 0.003-0.72 T) on neurons are studied. The firing frequency f decreases exponentially with B2 and a threshold field B0 (≈ 0.57 T), where f abruptly drops to zero, is observed. A suitable model is developed where SMF's liberate membrane bounded Ca 2+ ions.

  9. Three-way flexible cantilever probes for static contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Jensen, Helle Vendelbo;

    2011-01-01

    In micro four-point probe measurements, three-way flexible L-shaped cantilever probes show significant advantages over conventional straight cantilever probes. The L-shaped cantilever allows static contact to the sample surface which reduces the frictional wear of the cantilever tips. We analyze...

  10. Static electric dipole polarizability of lithium atoms in Debye plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Li-Na; Qi Yue-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The static electric dipole polarizabilities of the ground state and n ≤ 3 excited states of a lithium atom embedded in a weekly coupled plasma environment are investigated as a function of the plasma screening radium.The plasma screening of the Coulomb interaction is described by the Debye-Hückel potential and the interaction between the valence electron and the atomic core is described by a model potential.The electron energies and wave functions for both the bound and continuum states are calculated by solving the Schr(o)dinger equation numerically using the symplectic integrator.The oscillator strengths,partial-wave,and total static dipole polarizabilities of the ground state and n ≤ 3 excited states of the lithium atom are calculated.Comparison of present results with thosc of other authors,when available,is made.The results for the 2s ground state demonstrated that the oscillator strengths and the static dipole polarizabilities from np orbitals do not always increase or decrease with the plasma screening effect increasing,unlike that for hydrogen-like ions,especially for 2s→3p transition there is a zero value for both the oscillator strength and the static dipole polarizability for screening length D =10.3106a0,which is associated with the Cooper minima.

  11. Model Checking Is Static Analysis of Modal Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2010-01-01

    Flow Logic is an approach to the static analysis of programs that has been developed for functional, imperative and object-oriented programming languages and for concurrent, distributed, mobile and cryptographic process calculi. In this paper we extend it; to deal with modal logics and prove...

  12. Relationship between static foot posture and foot mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPoil Thomas G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not uncommon for a person's foot posture and/or mobility to be assessed during a clinical examination. The exact relationship, however, between static posture and mobility is not known. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of association between static foot posture and mobility. Method The static foot posture and foot mobility of 203 healthy individuals was assessed and then analyzed to determine if low arched or "pronated" feet are more mobile than high arched or "supinated" feet. Results The study demonstrated that those individuals with a lower standing dorsal arch height and/or a wider standing midfoot width had greater mobility in their foot. In addition, those individuals with higher Foot Posture Index (FPI values demonstrated greater mobility and those with lower FPI values demonstrated less mobility. Finally, the amount of foot mobility that an individual has can be predicted reasonably well using either a 3 or 4 variable linear regression model. Conclusions Because of the relationship between static foot posture and mobility, it is recommended that both be assessed as part of a comprehensive evaluation of a individual with foot problems.

  13. An overview of representation theorems for static risk measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we give an overview of representation theorems for various static risk measures:coherent or convex risk measures, risk measures with comonotonic subadditivity or convexity, law-invariant coherent or convex risk measures, risk measures with comonotonic subadditivity or convexity and respecting stochastic orders.

  14. Low Redundancy in Static Dictionaries with Constant Query Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus

    2001-01-01

    A static dictionary is a data structure for storing subsets of a finite universe U, so that membership queries can be answered efficiently. We study this problem in a unit cost RAM model with word size Ω(log |U|), and show that for n-element subsets, constant worst case query time can be obtained...

  15. Cardiovascular responses to voluntary and nonvoluntary static exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, D B; Peel, C; Mitchell, J H

    1992-11-01

    We have measured the cardiovascular responses during voluntary and nonvoluntary (electrically induced) one-leg static exercise in humans. Eight normal subjects were studied at rest and during 5 min of static leg extension at 20% of maximal voluntary contraction performed voluntarily and nonvoluntarily in random order. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cardiac output (CO) were determined, and peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) and stroke volume (SV) were calculated. HR increased from approximately 65 +/- 3 beats/min at rest to 80 +/- 4 and 78 +/- 6 beats/min (P voluntary and nonvoluntary contractions, respectively. CO increased from 5.1 +/- 0.7 to 6.0 +/- 0.8 and 6.2 +/- 0.8 l/min (P voluntary and nonvoluntary contractions, respectively. PVR and SV did not change significantly during voluntary or nonvoluntary contractions. Thus the cardiovascular responses were not different between voluntary and electrically induced contractions. These results suggest that the increases in CO, HR, SV, MAP, and PVR during 5 min of static contractions can be elicited without any contribution from a central neural mechanism (central command). However, central command could still have an important role during voluntary static exercise.

  16. Maxwell-Higgs equation on higher dimensional static curved spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyanto, Akbar, Fiki Taufik; Gunara, Bobby Eka

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we consider a class of solutions of Maxwell-Higgs equation in higher dimensional static curved spacetimes called Schwarzchild de-Sitter spacetimes. We obtain the general form of the electric fields and magnetic fields in background Schwarzchild de-Sitter spacetimes. However, determining the interaction between photons with the Higgs scalar fields is needed further studies.

  17. Static And Kinematic Formulation Of Planar Reciprocal Assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    Planar reciprocal frames are two dimensional structures formed by elements joined together according to the principle of structural reciprocity. In this paper a rigorous formulation of the static and kinematic problem is proposed and developed by extending the work on pin-jointed assemblies by Pe...

  18. Maxwell-Higgs equation on higher dimensional static curved spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulyanto, E-mail: mulyanto37@gmail.com [Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Theoretical High Energy Physics and Instrumentation Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Akbar, Fiki Taufik, E-mail: ftakbar@fi.itb.ac.id; Gunara, Bobby Eka, E-mail: bobby@fi.itb.ac.id [Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Theoretical High Energy Physics and Instrumentation Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Indonesia Center for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics (ICTMP) (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    In this paper we consider a class of solutions of Maxwell-Higgs equation in higher dimensional static curved spacetimes called Schwarzchild de-Sitter spacetimes. We obtain the general form of the electric fields and magnetic fields in background Schwarzchild de-Sitter spacetimes. However, determining the interaction between photons with the Higgs scalar fields is needed further studies.

  19. Test chambers for cell culture in static magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glinka, Marek, E-mail: mag@iq.pl [Research and Development Centre of Electrical Machines. 188 Rozdzienskiego Street, 40-203 Katowice (Poland); Gawron, Stanisław, E-mail: s.gawron@komel.katowice.pl [Research and Development Centre of Electrical Machines. 188 Rozdzienskiego Street, 40-203 Katowice (Poland); Sieroń, Aleksander, E-mail: sieron1@tlen.pl [Department of Internal Diseases, Angiology and Physical Medicine in Bytom. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 15 Batorego Street, 41-902 Bytom (Poland); Pawłowska–Góral, Katarzyna, E-mail: kgoral@sum.edu.pl [Department of Food and Nutrition in Sosnowiec. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 8 Jednosci Street, 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland); Cieślar, Grzegorz, E-mail: cieslar1@tlen.pl [Department of Internal Diseases, Angiology and Physical Medicine in Bytom. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 15 Batorego Street, 41-902 Bytom (Poland); Sieroń–Stołtny, Karolina [Department of Internal Diseases, Angiology and Physical Medicine in Bytom. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 15 Batorego Street, 41-902 Bytom (Poland)

    2013-04-15

    Article presents a test chamber intended to be used for in vitro cell culture in homogenous constant magnetic field with parametrically variable magnitude. We constructed test chambers with constant parameters of control homeostasis of cell culture for the different parameters of static magnetic field. The next step was the computer calculation of 2D and 3D simulation of the static magnetic field distribution in the chamber. The analysis of 2D and 3D calculations of magnetic induction in the cells' exposition plane reveals, in comparison to the detection results, the greater accuracy of 2D calculations (Figs. 9 and 10). The divergence in 2D method was 2–4% and 8 to 10% in 3D method (reaching 10% only out of the cells′ cultures margins). -- Highlights: ► We present test chamber to be used for in vitro cell culture in static magnetic field. ► The technical data of the chamber construction was presented. ► 2D versus 3D simulation of static magnetic field distribution in chamber was reported. ► We report the accuracy of 2D calculation than 3D.

  20. No hair theorems for a static and stationary reflecting star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta

    2017-04-01

    We prove the nonexistence of massive scalar, vector and tensor hairs outside the surface of a static and stationary compact reflecting star. Our result is the extension of the no-hair theorem for black holes to horizonless compact configurations with reflecting boundary condition at the surface. We also generalize the proof for spacetimes with a positive cosmological constant.

  1. Modified lattice-statics approach to dislocation calculations. I - Formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterling, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    A modified lattice-statics method to calculate the atomic displacements associated with a screw dislocation is outlined. The model incorporates an anharmonic region wherein the forces are derived from a pair potential. Appropriate energy and force expressions are derived. The modifications necessary for the implementation of the conjugate-gradient function minimization method are also derived.

  2. Static and Dynamic Modeling of a Solar Active Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Harry P.; Winebarger, Amy R.

    2007-09-01

    Recent hydrostatic simulations of solar active regions have shown that it is possible to reproduce both the total intensity and the general morphology of the high-temperature emission observed at soft X-ray wavelengths using static heating models. These static models, however, cannot account for the lower temperature emission. In addition, there is ample observational evidence that the solar corona is highly variable, indicating a significant role for dynamical processes in coronal heating. Because they are computationally demanding, full hydrodynamic simulations of solar active regions have not been considered previously. In this paper we make first application of an impulsive heating model to the simulation of an entire active region, AR 8156 observed on 1998 February 16. We model this region by coupling potential field extrapolations to full solutions of the time-dependent hydrodynamic loop equations. To make the problem more tractable we begin with a static heating model that reproduces the emission observed in four different Yohkoh Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) filters and consider impulsive heating scenarios that yield time-averaged SXT intensities that are consistent with the static case. We find that it is possible to reproduce the total observed soft X-ray emission in all of the SXT filters with a dynamical heating model, indicating that nanoflare heating is consistent with the observational properties of the high-temperature solar corona. At EUV wavelengths the simulated emission shows more coronal loops, but the agreement between the simulation and the observation is still not acceptable.

  3. CPV System with Static Linear Fresnel Lenses in a Greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, Piet; Zahn, H.; Swinkels, Gert-Jan

    2010-01-01

    A new CPV system with a static linear Fresnel lens, silicon PV module suitable for concentrated radiation and an innovative tracking system is integrated in a greenhouse covering. The basic idea of this horticultural application is to develop a greenhouse for pot plants (typical shadow plants) which

  4. Static-light meson masses from twisted mass lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, K; Shindler, A; Wagner, M

    2008-01-01

    We compute the static-light meson spectrum using two-flavor Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. We have considered five different values for the light quark mass corresponding to 300 MeV < m_PS < 600 MeV. We have extrapolated our results, to make predictions regarding the spectrum of B and B_s mesons.

  5. Static friction in elastic adhesive MEMS contacts, models and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, Niels Roelof; Gui, C.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2000-01-01

    Static friction in shearing mode can be expressed as the product of the shear strength of the interface and the real contact area. The influence of roughness on friction in elastic adhesive contact is analyzed. Special attention is paid to low loading conditions, in which the number of contact

  6. Model Checking Is Static Analysis of Modal Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2010-01-01

    Flow Logic is an approach to the static analysis of programs that has been developed for functional, imperative and object-oriented programming languages and for concurrent, distributed, mobile and cryptographic process calculi. In this paper we extend it; to deal with modal logics and prove...

  7. Costs and effects of chlamydial screening : Dynamic versus static modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welte, R; Postma, M; Leidl, R; Kretzschmar, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the impact of modeling type on the economic evaluation of screening programs for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Study: We compared a stochastic network simulation model (dynamic model) with a decision analysis model (static model)

  8. A Light-Weight Statically Scheduled Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rasmus Bo; Schoeberl, Martin; Sparsø, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates how a light-weight, statically scheduled network-on-chip (NoC) for real-time systems can be designed and implemented. The NoC provides communication channels between all cores with equal bandwidth and latency. The design is FPGA-friendly and consumes a minimum of resources...

  9. Static context model for context aware E-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minu. M. Das

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Context aware E-Learning systems provide learning content according to a learner’s context. In order to determine a learner’s context, the parameters that constitute the context and the values of these parameters in the current learner’s situation have to be found. There are several existing context aware E-Learning systems and each of these are taking care of some of the context parameters - like learning styles, learner preferences etc. But, a standardized static context model that helps to capture a learner’s context in its ntirety is not available. This paper proposes a static context model that helps to capture a learner’s context. The static context model is developed by consolidating the various context parameters used in the existing context aware E-Learning systems and organizing them into an appropriate structure. The structure of the static context model along with the parameters that constitute the context is explained in the paper

  10. Static axisymmetric rings in general relativity: How diverse they are

    CERN Document Server

    Semerák, O

    2016-01-01

    Three static and axially symmetric (Weyl-type) ring singularities -- the Majumdar-Papapetrou--type (extremally charged) ring, the Bach-Weyl ring and the Appell ring -- are studied in general relativity in order to show how remarkably the geometries in their vicinity differ from each other. This is demonstrated on basic measures of the rings and on invariant characteristics given by the metric and by its first and second derivatives (lapse, gravitational acceleration and curvature), and also on geodesic motion. The results are also compared against the Kerr space-time which possesses a ring singularity too. The Kerr solution is only stationary, not static, but in spite of the consequent complication by dragging, its ring appears to be simpler than the static rings. We show that this mainly applies to the Bach-Weyl ring, although this straightforward counter-part of the Newtonian homogeneous circular ring is by default being taken as the simplest ring solution, and although the other two static ring sources may...

  11. A New Approach for Magneto-Static Hysteresis Behavioral Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astorino, Antonio; Swaminathan, Madhavan; Antonini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new behavioral modeling approach for magneto-static hysteresis is presented. Many accurate models are currently available, but none of them seems to be able to correctly reproduce all the possible B-H paths with low computational cost. By contrast, the approach proposed...... achieved when comparing the measured and simulated results....

  12. 40 CFR 53.64 - Test procedure: Static fractionator test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test procedure: Static fractionator test. 53.64 Section 53.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Performance Characteristics of Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 § 53.64 Test procedure:...

  13. Static analysis of topology-dependent broadcast networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanz, Sebastian; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2010-01-01

    changing network topology is a crucial ingredient. In this paper, we develop a static analysis that automatically constructs an abstract transition system, labelled by actions and connectivity information, to yield a mobility-preserving finite abstraction of the behaviour of a network expressed...

  14. Crowdsourcing User-Generated Mobile Sensor Weather Data for Densifying Static Geosensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shay Sosko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Static geosensor networks are comprised of stations with sensor devices providing data relevant for monitoring environmental phenomena in their geographic perimeter. Although early warning systems for disaster management rely on data retrieved from these networks, some limitations exist, largely in terms of insufficient coverage and low density. Crowdsourcing user-generated data is emerging as a working methodology for retrieving real-time data in disaster situations, reducing the aforementioned limitations, and augmenting with real-time data generated voluntarily by nearby citizens. This paper explores the use of crowdsourced user-generated sensor weather data from mobile devices for the creation of a unified and densified geosensor network. Different scenario experiments are adapted, in which weather data are collected using smartphone sensors, integrated with the development of a stabilization algorithm, for determining the user-generated weather data reliability and usability. Showcasing this methodology on a large data volume, a spatiotemporal algorithm was developed for filtering on-line user-generated weather data retrieved from WeatherSignal, and used for simulation and assessment of densifying the static geosensor weather network of Israel. Geostatistical results obtained proved that, although user-generated weather data show small discrepancies when compared to authoritative data, with considerations they can be used alongside authoritative data, producing a densified and augmented weather map that is detailed and continuous.

  15. Research progress of renal pelvis high pressure related complications in urological minimally invasive technol-ogy%泌尿微创技术应用中肾盂高压相关并发症的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍仲超(综述); 刘刚(审校)

    2015-01-01

    It is a common phenomenon that renal pelvis high pressure occurs during percutaneous nephrolith-otripsy( PNL) and ureteroscopy.However, this phenomenon can be avoided.The related complications are common in clinic.In this paper, the research progress of renal pelvis high pressure related to the application of percutaneous nephrolithotripsy( PNL) and ureteroscopy is summarized.We mainly discuss renal pelvis high pressure related com-plications, their mechanisms, and prevention measures.%经皮肾镜和输尿管镜术中出现肾盂高压是一种常见现象,但是也是一种可以避免的现象,因此与其相关的并发症在临床上也较普遍。该文就经皮肾镜和输尿管镜术应用中肾盂高压的相关研究进行综述,重点探讨肾盂高压相关的并发症、机制及其防治,为临床提供参考。

  16. Theory of multisource crosstalk reduction by phase-encoded statics

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2011-03-01

    Formulas are derived that relate the strength of the crosstalk noise in supergather migration images to the variance of time, amplitude and polarity shifts in encoding functions. A supergather migration image is computed by migrating an encoded supergather, where the supergather is formed by stacking a large number of encoded shot gathers. Analysis reveals that for temporal source static shifts in each shot gather, the crosstalk noise is exponentially reduced with increasing variance of the static shift and the square of source frequency. This is not too surprising because larger time shifts lead to less correlation between traces in different shot gathers, and so should tend to reduce the crosstalk noise. Analysis also reveals that combining both polarity and time statics is a superior encoding strategy compared to using either polarity statics or time statics alone. Signal-to-noise (SNR) estimates show that for a standard migration image and for an image computed by migrating a phase-encoded supergather; here, G is the number of traces in a shot gather, I is the number of stacking iterations in the supergather and S is the number of encoded/blended shot gathers that comprise the supergather. If the supergather can be uniformly divided up into Q unique sub-supergathers, then the resulting SNR of the final image is, which means that we can enhance image quality but at the expense of Q times more cost. The importance of these formulas is that they provide a precise understanding between different phase encoding strategies and image quality. Finally, we show that iterative migration of phase-encoded supergathers is a special case of passive seismic interferometry. We suggest that the crosstalk noise formulas can be helpful in designing optimal strategies for passive seismic interferometry and efficient extraction of Green\\'s functions from simulated supergathers. © 2011 The Authors Geophysical Journal International © 2011 RAS.

  17. Vrancea slab earthquakes triggered by static stress transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ganas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the interaction of the Vrancea seismic activity (Romania in space as result of Coulomb, static stress transfer during M=7+ events. In this area, three large events occurred in 1977, 1986 and 1990 at mid-lower, lithospheric depths and with similar focal mechanisms. Assuming elastic rheology for the deforming rocks it is suggested that frictional sliding on pre-existing fault produced the 1986 M=7.1 event (depth 131 km, that was possibly triggered by the 1977 M=7.4 event (depth 94 km. We calculated a static stress transfer of 0.52–0.78 bar to the hypocentre of the 1986 event. On the contrary, the occurrence of the 1990 event is uncertain: it is located inside the relaxed (shadow zone of the combined 1977 and 1986 static stress field considering an azimuth for maximum compression of N307° E. It follows that, the 1990 earthquake most likely represents an unbroken patch (asperity of the 1977 rupture plane that failed due to loading. However, if a different compression azimuth is assumed (N323° E then the 1990 event was also possibly triggered by static stress transfer of the 1977 and 1986 events (combined. Our modeling is a first-order approximation of the kind of earthquake interaction we might expect at intermediate lithospheric depths (80–90 to 130–140 km. It is also suggested that static stress transfer may explain the clustering of Vrancea earthquakes in space by the rupturing of two (possibly three NW-dipping major zones of weakness (faults which accommodate the extension (vertical elongation of the slab.

  18. Speckle temporal stability in XAO coronagraphic images II. Refine model for quasi-static speckle temporal evolution for VLT/SPHERE

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, P; Costille, A; Sauvage, J F; Dohlen, K; Puget, P; Beuzit, J L

    2013-01-01

    Observing sequences have shown that the major noise source limitation in high-contrast imaging is due to the presence of quasi-static speckles. The timescale on which quasi-static speckles evolve, is determined by various factors, among others mechanical or thermal deformations. Understanding of these time-variable instrumental speckles, and especially their interaction with other aberrations, referred to as the pinning effect, is paramount for the search of faint stellar companions. The temporal evolution of quasi-static speckles is for instance required for a quantification of the gain expected when using angular differential imaging (ADI), and to determine the interval on which speckle nulling techniques must be carried out. Following an early analysis of a time series of adaptively corrected, coronagraphic images obtained in a laboratory condition with the High-Order Test bench (HOT) at ESO Headquarters, we confirm our results with new measurements carried out with the SPHERE instrument during its final t...

  19. Control of light trapping in a large atomic system by a static magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipetrov, S. E.; Sokolov, I. M.; Havey, M. D.

    2016-07-01

    We propose to control light trapping in a large ensemble of cold atoms by an external, static magnetic field. For an appropriate choice of frequency and polarization of the exciting pulse, the field is expected to speed up the fluorescence of a dilute atomic system. In a dense ensemble, the field does not affect the early-time superradiant signal but amplifies intensity oscillations at intermediate times and induces a very slow, nonexponential long-time decay. The slowing down of fluorescence is due to the excitation of spatially localized collective atomic states that appear only under a strong magnetic field and have exponentially long lifetimes. Our results therefore pave a way towards experimental observation of the disorder-induced localization of light in cold atomic systems.

  20. Speckle temporal stability in XAO coronagraphic images. II. Refine model for quasi-static speckle temporal evolution for VLT/SPHERE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, P.; Kasper, M.; Costille, A.; Sauvage, J. F.; Dohlen, K.; Puget, P.; Beuzit, J. L.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Observing sequences have shown that the major noise source limitation in high-contrast imaging is the presence of quasi-static speckles. The timescale on which quasi-static speckles evolve is determined by various factors, mechanical or thermal deformations, among others. Aims: Understanding these time-variable instrumental speckles and, especially, their interaction with other aberrations, referred to as the pinning effect, is paramount for the search for faint stellar companions. The temporal evolution of quasi-static speckles is, for instance, required for quantifying the gain expected when using angular differential imaging (ADI) and to determining the interval on which speckle nulling techniques must be carried out. Methods: Following an early analysis of a time series of adaptively corrected, coronagraphic images obtained in a laboratory condition with the high-order test bench (HOT) at ESO Headquarters, we confirm our results with new measurements carried out with the SPHERE instrument during its final test phase in Europe. The analysis of the residual speckle pattern in both direct and differential coronagraphic images enables the characterization of the temporal stability of quasi-static speckles. Data were obtained in a thermally actively controlled environment reproducing realistic conditions encountered at the telescope. Results: The temporal evolution of the quasi-static wavefront error exhibits a linear power law, which can be used to model quasi-static speckle evolution in the context of forthcoming high-contrast imaging instruments, with implications for instrumentation (design, observing strategies, data reduction). Such a model can be used for instance to derive the timescale on which non-common path aberrations must be sensed and corrected. We found in our data that quasi-static wavefront error increases with ~0.7 Å per minute.

  1. Spatial Distributions of Foreshocks and Aftershocks: Static or Dynamic Triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, M. J.; Rubin, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, the spatial distributions of foreshocks and aftershocks have been scrutinized for evidence supporting either triggering by static stress changes induced by the permanent deformation from prior earthquakes or triggering by the dynamic stresses from seismic waves. Felzer & Brodsky (2006) identified small (mbeyond the zone traditionally thought to be affected by static stress changes. On this basis, they argued that dynamic stresses are responsible for triggering earthquakes. Richards-Dinger et al. (2010) and other studies, however, have presented several lines of evidence that suggest otherwise. One crucial question is whether the stacked distances of pairs of earthquakes, representing either mainshock-aftershock or foreshock-mainshock pairs, are in fact correctly identified and not misattributed, unrelated earthquakes. This question is especially important in the critical distance range of several to tens of earthquake radii, over which static stresses are thought to be too small to affect seismicity. If earthquake pairs in this range are not causally related, then the histogram of foreshock-mainshock and mainshock-aftershock pairs should be identical, and the difference between the two histograms can be used to identify remote triggering. Results based on southern Californian seismicity suggest that (1) the existence of a single power-law with a particular exponent may not be a robust observation, (2) geothermal regions seem to play an important role over the relevant distances, (3) remote triggering seems to exist beyond the classical static stress influence zone (perhaps out to 15 km after mainshocks with magnitudes between 3 and 4), (4) simple ETAS model simulations cannot reproduce all observations, and (5) at most one-third of the remote aftershocks had received significant static Coulomb stress change from much earlier but nearby large (m>5) quakes, suggesting that a misattribution of aftershocks statically triggered by large quakes as

  2. Early clerkships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamalski, Digna M. A.; Ter Braak, Edith W. M. T.; Ten Cate, Olle Th. J.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Early clinical experience is being introduced in innovative, vertically integrated undergraduate medical curricula. While in many cases, this early clinical experience is limited to the presence of patients during lectures, in Utrecht students gain 'hands on' experience of daily clinical

  3. Comparative Study of Static Task Scheduling Algorithms for Heterogeneous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miss. Kalpana A. Manudhane

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available On the distributed or parallel heterogeneous computing systems, an application is usually decomposed into several interdependent sets of co-operating subtasks and assigned to a set of available processors for execution. Task scheduling is in general NP-compete problem. Static task scheduling algorithms are categorized as Heuristic based and Guided random search based scheduling algorithms. Heuristic algorithms guaranteed to find near optimal solution in less than polynomial time. Heuristic based list scheduling algorithms are Heterogeneous Earliest Finish Time (HEFT and Critical-Path-On- -Processor (CPOP. Whereas, Guided random search based scheduling algorithms have shown robust performance on verity of schedulingproblems. Typical examples are Multiple Priority Queueing Genetic Algorithm (MPQGA, Tabu Search(TS, Ant Colony System (ACS. This paper gives comparative study of all these static task scheduling algorithms and compares them on the basis of average makespan, schedule length ratio (SLR and speedup and running time of algorithm.

  4. Consistent Static Models of Local Thermospheric Composition Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Picone, J M; Drob, D P

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigate the ideal, nondriven multifluid equations of motion to identify consistent (i.e., truly stationary), mechanically static models for composition profiles within the thermosphere. These physically faithful functions are necessary to define the parametric core of future empirical atmospheric models and climatologies. Based on the strength of interspecies coupling, the thermosphere has three altitude regions: (1) the lower thermosphere (herein z ~200 km), in which the species flows are approximately uncoupled; and (3) a transition region in between, where the effective species particle mass and the effective species vertical flow interpolate between the solutions for the upper and lower thermosphere. We place this view in the context of current terminology within the community, i.e., a fully mixed (lower) region and an upper region in diffusive equilibrium (DE). The latter condition, DE, currently used in empirical composition models, does not represent a truly static composition profile ...

  5. Static Corrosion Test of Porous Iron Material with Polymer Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markušová-Bučková, Lucia; Oriňaková, Renáta; Oriňak, Andrej; Gorejová, Radka; Kupková, Miriam; Hrubovčáková, Monika; Baláž, Matej; Kováľ, Karol

    2016-12-01

    At present biodegradable implants received increased attention due to their use in various fields of medicine. This work is dedicated to testing of biodegradable materials which could be used as bone implants. The samples were prepared from the carbonyl iron powder by replication method and surface polymer film was produced through sol-gel process. Corrosion testing was carried out under static conditions during 12 weeks in Hank's solution. The quantity of corrosion products increased with prolonging time of static test as it can be concluded from the results of EDX analysis. The degradation of open cell materials with polyethylene glycol coating layer was faster compared to uncoated Fe sample. Also the mass losses were higher for samples with PEG coating. The polymer coating brought about the desired increase in degradation rate of porous iron material.

  6. Matter under Extreme Conditions: Advances Based on Static Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemley, Russell

    2008-04-01

    Current technological advances make it possible to perform experiments on materials at static or sustained conditions to multimegabar pressures (several hundred GPa) and several thousand degree (˜1 eV) temperatures. Densities of condensed matter can now be increased over an order of magnitude, causing novel transformations and new physical and chemical phenomena to occur. Growth in this area has been made possible by advances in diamond-anvil cell methods coupled with a wide range of probes, including x-ray diffraction, spectroscopy, inelastic scattering, radiography, and infrared spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. Examples include investigations of dense hydrogen; transformations in molecular materials; novel ceramics; new types of superconductors, electronic, and magnetic materials; and liquids and amorphous materials. Particularly exciting are new developments in time resolved methods and coupling of static and dynamic compression techniques made possible by the creation of new large-scale facilities and novel technologies.

  7. Neuromuscular disorders associated with static lumbar flexion: a feline model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonow, M; Zhou, B; Baratta, R V; Zhu, M; Lu, Y

    2002-04-01

    Static flexion of the lumbar spine with constant load applied to the viscoelastic structures for 20 minutes and for 50 minutes resulted in development of spasms and inhibition in the multifidus muscles (e.g., deep erector spinae) and in creep of the supraspinous ligament in the feline model. The development of spasms and inhibition was not dependent on load magnitude. It is suggested that occupational and sports activities which require prolonged static lumbar flexion within the physiological range can cause a "sprain"-like injury to the ligaments, which in turn reflexively induce spasms and inhibition in some erector spinae muscles. Such disorder may take a long time to recover, in the order of days to weeks, depending on the level of creep developed in the tissues.

  8. On the twin paradox in static spacetimes: I. Schwarzschild metric

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolowski, Leszek M

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by a conjecture put forward by Abramowicz and Bajtlik we reconsider the twin paradox in static spacetimes. According to a well known theorem in Lorentzian geometry the longest timelike worldline between two given points is the unique geodesic line without points conjugate to the initial point on the segment joining the two points. We calculate the proper times for static twins, for twins moving on a circular orbit (if it is a geodesic) around a centre of symmetry and for twins travelling on outgoing and ingoing radial timelike geodesics. We show that the twins on the radial geodesic worldlines are always the oldest ones and we explicitly find the conjugate points (if they exist) outside the relevant segments. As it is of its own mathematical interest, we find general Jacobi vector fields on the geodesic lines under consideration. In the first part of the work we investigate Schwarzschild geometry.

  9. A Succinct Approach to Static Analysis and Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filipiuk, Piotr

    In a number of areas software correctness is crucial, therefore it is often desirable to formally verify the presence of various properties or the absence of errors. This thesis presents a framework for concisely expressing static analysis and model checking problems. The framework facilitates...... in the classical formulation of ALFP logic. Finally, we show that the logics and the associated solvers can be used for rapid prototyping. We illustrate that by a variety of case studies from static analysis and model checking....... rapid prototyping of new analyses and consists of variants of ALFP logic and associated solvers. First, we present a Lattice based Least Fixed Point Logic (LLFP) that allows interpretations over complete lattices satisfying Ascending Chain Condition. We establish a Moore Family result for LLFP...

  10. Structural analysis with the finite element method linear statics

    CERN Document Server

    Oñate, Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS WITH THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD Linear Statics Volume 1 : The Basis and Solids Eugenio Oñate The two volumes of this book cover most of the theoretical and computational aspects of the linear static analysis of structures with the Finite Element Method (FEM). The content of the book is based on the lecture notes of a basic course on Structural Analysis with the FEM taught by the author at the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) in Barcelona, Spain for the last 30 years. Volume1 presents the basis of the FEM for structural analysis and a detailed description of the finite element formulation for axially loaded bars, plane elasticity problems, axisymmetric solids and general three dimensional solids. Each chapter describes the background theory for each structural model considered, details of the finite element formulation and guidelines for the application to structural engineering problems. The book includes a chapter on miscellaneous topics such as treatment of inclined supports, elas...

  11. Static analysis of worst-case stack cache behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Alexander; Brandner, Florian; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing a stack cache in a real-time system can aid predictability by avoiding interference that heap memory traffic causes on the data cache. While loads and stores are guaranteed cache hits, explicit operations are responsible for managing the stack cache. The behavior of these operations can...... be analyzed statically. We present algorithms that derive worst-case bounds on the latency-inducing operations of the stack cache. Their results can be used by a static WCET tool. By breaking the analysis down into subproblems that solve intra-procedural data-flow analysis and path searches on the call......-graph, the worst-case bounds can be efficiently yet precisely determined. Our evaluation using the MiBench benchmark suite shows that only 37% and 21% of potential stack cache operations actually store to and load from memory, respectively. Analysis times are modest, on average running between 0.46s and 1.30s per...

  12. Evolution of Primordial Protostellar Clouds Quasi-Static Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Omukai, K; Uehara, H; Susa, H; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Nishi, Ryoichi; Uehara, Hideya; Susa, Hajime

    1998-01-01

    The contraction processes of metal-free molecular clouds of starlike mass (or cloud cores) are investigated. We calculate radiative transfer of the H_2 lines and examine quasi-static contraction with radiative cooling. Comparing two time-scales, the free-fall time t_ff and the time-scale of quasi-static contraction t_qsc (nearly equal to t_cool, the cooling time) of these cores, we find that the ratio of the two time-scales t_ff/t_qsc, i.e., the efficiency of cooling, becomes larger with contraction even under the existence of cold and opaque envelopes. In particular, for fragments of primordial filamentary clouds, for which t_ff is nearly equal to t_qsc at the fragmentation epoch, they collapse dynamically in the free-fall time-scale. This efficiency of cooling is unique to line cooling.

  13. Alcohol and marijuana effects on static visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A J; Brown, B; Flom, M C; Jones, R T; Jampolsky, A

    1975-11-01

    Static visual acuity was measured at two contrast levels (12 and 49%) in ten subjects in a double blind experiment involving five drug conditions of alcohol and marijuana (0.5 ml and 1.0 ml/kg body weight of 95% ethanol, 8 and 15 mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and a placebo). We found no statistically significant change in static visual acuity for any of the dose levels at any of the measurement time up to six hours following drug ingestion; this is sharply contrasted with the marked decrements in acuity which were found in the same subjects under the same drug conditions when the targets were in motion and required corrdinated eye movements for their resolution.

  14. Epidemiologically optimal static networks from temporal network data

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Petter

    2013-01-01

    Network epidemiology's most important assumption is that the contact structure over which infectious diseases propagate can be represented as a static network. However, contacts are highly dynamic, changing at many time scales. In this paper, we investigate conceptually simple methods to construct static graphs for network epidemiology from temporal contact data. We evaluate these methods on empirical and synthetic model data. For almost all our cases, the network representation that captures most relevant information is a so-called exponential-threshold network. In these, each contact contributes with a weight decreasing exponentially with time, and there is an edge between a pair of vertices if the weight between them exceeds a threshold. Networks of aggregated contacts over an optimally chosen time window perform almost as good as the exponential-threshold networks. On the other hand, networks of accumulated contacts over the entire sampling time, and networks of concurrent partnerships, perform worse. We ...

  15. Eye gaze during observation of static faces in deaf people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumi Watanabe

    Full Text Available Knowing where people look when viewing faces provides an objective measure into the part of information entering the visual system as well as into the cognitive strategy involved in facial perception. In the present study, we recorded the eye movements of 20 congenitally deaf (10 male and 10 female and 23 (11 male and 12 female normal-hearing Japanese participants while they evaluated the emotional valence of static face stimuli. While no difference was found in the evaluation scores, the eye movements during facial observations differed among participant groups. The deaf group looked at the eyes more frequently and for longer duration than the nose whereas the hearing group focused on the nose (or the central region of face more than the eyes. These results suggest that the strategy employed to extract visual information when viewing static faces may differ between deaf and hearing people.

  16. Static Var Compensator Project for the SPS Electrical Network

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives a progress report on the Static Var Compensator project BEF2 for the SPS electrical network. Following a market survey and a call for tenders, a contract has been awarded to ABB Sweden and the project is now in the phase of detailed performance studies, system design and ordering of the main electrical components. This progress report describes the electrical design, summarises the results of the harmonic filter design studies, discusses the interfacing of the control- and communication system and explains the mechanical layout of the Static Var Compensator and as well as the project co-ordination with the feeding BE substation renovation project. Finally, the project planning is presented and critical paths are evaluated.

  17. Reduced arterial diameter during static exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, H L; Mitchell, J H; Friedman, D B

    1995-01-01

    of another limb. Static exercise increased heart rate and mean arterial pressure, which were largest during one-leg knee extension. After exercise heart rate and mean arterial pressure returned to the resting level. No changes were recorded in arterial carbon dioxide tension, and the rate of perceived......In eight subjects luminal diameter of the resting limb radial and dorsalis pedis arteries was determined by high-resolution ultrasound (20 MHz). This measurement was followed during rest and during 2 min of static handgrip or of one-leg knee extension at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction...... exertion was approximately 15 units after both types of exercise. The dorsalis pedis arterial diameter was 1.50 +/- 0.20 mm (mean and SE) and the radial AD 2.45 +/- 0.12 mm. During both types of contractions the luminal diameters decreased approximately 3.5% within the first 30 s (P

  18. Design, Static Analysis And Fabrication Of Composite Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiselvan, G.; Gobinath, R.; Yuvaraja, S.; Raja, T.

    2017-05-01

    The Bonded joints will be having one of the important issues in the composite technology is the repairing of aging in aircraft applications. In these applications and also for joining various composite material parts together, the composite materials fastened together either using adhesives or mechanical fasteners. In this paper, we have carried out design, static analysis of 3-D models and fabrication of the composite joints (bonded, riveted and hybrid). The 3-D model of the composite structure will be fabricated by using the materials such as epoxy resin, glass fibre material and aluminium rivet for preparing the joints. The static analysis was carried out with different joint by using ANSYS software. After fabrication, parametric study was also conducted to compare the performance of the hybrid joint with varying adherent width, adhesive thickness and overlap length. Different joint and its materials tensile test result have compared.

  19. Interferometric methods for mapping static electric and magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzi, Giulio; Beleggia, Marco; Kasama, Takeshi;

    2014-01-01

    The mapping of static electric and magnetic fields using electron probes with a resolution and sensitivity that are sufficient to reveal nanoscale features in materials requires the use of phase-sensitive methods such as the shadow technique, coherent Foucault imaging and the Transport of Intensi......) the model-independent determination of the locations and magnitudes of field sources (electric charges and magnetic dipoles) directly from electron holographic data.......The mapping of static electric and magnetic fields using electron probes with a resolution and sensitivity that are sufficient to reveal nanoscale features in materials requires the use of phase-sensitive methods such as the shadow technique, coherent Foucault imaging and the Transport of Intensity...... on theoretical models that form the basis of the quantitative interpretation of electron holographic data. We review the application of electron holography to a variety of samples (including electric fields associated with p–n junctions in semiconductors, quantized magnetic flux in superconductors...

  20. Self-forces on static bodies in arbitrary dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Harte, Abraham I; Taylor, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We derive exact expressions for the scalar and electromagnetic self-forces and self-torques acting on arbitrary static extended bodies in arbitrary static spacetimes with any number of dimensions. Non-perturbatively, our results are identical in all dimensions. Meaningful point particle limits are quite different in different dimensions, however. These limits are defined and evaluated, resulting in simple "regularization algorithms" which can be used in concrete calculations. In these limits, self-interaction is shown to be progressively less important in higher numbers of dimensions; it generically competes in magnitude with increasingly high-order extended-body effects. Conversely, we show that self-interaction effects can be relatively large in $1+1$ and $2+1$ dimensions. Our motivations for this work are twofold: First, no previous derivation of the self-force has been provided in arbitrary dimensions, and heuristic arguments presented by different authors have resulted in conflicting conclusions. Second,...

  1. Test-Data Generation Guided by Static Defect Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Hao; Lu Zhang; Ming-Hao Liu; He Li; Jia-Su Sun

    2009-01-01

    Software testing is an important technique to assure the quality of software systems, especially high-confidence systems. To automate the process of software testing, many automatic test-data generation techniques have been proposed.To generate effective test data, we propose a test-data generation technique guided by static defect detection in this paper.Using static defect detection analysis, our approach first identifies a set of suspicious statements which are likely to contain faults, then generates test data to cover these suspicious statements by converting the problem of test-data generation to the constraint satisfaction problem. We performed a case study to validate the effectiveness of our approach, and made a simple comparison with another test-data generation on-line tool, JUnit Factory. The results show that, compared with JUnit Factory, our approach generates fewer test data that are competitive on fault detection.

  2. Matlab Stability and Control Toolbox: Trim and Static Stability Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the technical background of the Trim and Static module of the Matlab Stability and Control Toolbox. This module performs a low-fidelity stability and control assessment of an aircraft model for a set of flight critical conditions. This is attained by determining if the control authority available for trim is sufficient and if the static stability characteristics are adequate. These conditions can be selected from a prescribed set or can be specified to meet particular requirements. The prescribed set of conditions includes horizontal flight, take-off rotation, landing flare, steady roll, steady turn and pull-up/ push-over flight, for which several operating conditions can be specified. A mathematical model was developed allowing for six-dimensional trim, adjustable inertial properties, asymmetric vehicle layouts, arbitrary number of engines, multi-axial thrust vectoring, engine(s)-out conditions, crosswind and gyroscopic effects.

  3. On several static cylindrically symmetric solutions of the Einstein equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryev, Sergey; Leonov, Arkadiy

    2016-04-01

    We study the Einstein equations in the static cylindrically symmetric case with the stress-energy tensor of the form T νμ = diag{μ,-αμ,-βμ,-γμ}, where μ is an unknown function and α, β, γ are arbitrary real constants (α is assumed to be nonzero). The stress-energy tensor of this form includes as special cases several well-known solutions, such as the perfect fluid solution with the barotropic equation of state, the solution with the static electric field and the solution with the massless scalar field. We solve the Einstein equations with this stress-energy tensor and study some properties of the obtained metric.

  4. HST Super Lightweight Interchangeable Carrier (SLIC) Static Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, William V.

    2008-01-01

    The HST Super Light Weight Interchangeable Carrier Static Test program calls for a total of 15 load cases with an average of 9 simultaneous push/pull locations per load case. This testing program represents the most complex static test ever attempted at Goddard Space Flight Center. Many unique multi-pull fixtures were designed to apply the simultaneous loading. Additionally, a total of 600 channels of data required processing for each loadcase. A total of 1100 separate strain gages were installed on SLIC. A team of 15 trained technicians were needed to apply test loads via mechanical hand pumps for several load cases. All 15 load cases were successfully conducted within 15 weeks. The ManTech team successfully tested all SLIC 1200 interface clips to the required testing loads. Several unique designs were needed to address testing challenges as loadline interference, Payload Safety, payload flexibility and opposing load applications.

  5. INTERVAL ARITHMETIC AND STATIC INTERVAL FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭书祥; 吕震宙

    2001-01-01

    When the uncertainties of structures may be bounded in intervals, through some suitable discretization, interval finite element method can be constructed by combining the interval analysis with the traditional finite element method(FEM). The two parameters,median and deviation, were used to represent the uncertainties of interval variables. Based on the arithmetic rules of intervals, some properties and arithmetic rules of interval variables were demonstrated. Combining the procedure of interval analysis with FEM, a static linear interval finite element method was presented to solve the non-random uncertain structures. The solving of the characteristic parameters of n-freedom uncertain displacement field of the static governing equation was transformed into 2 n-order linear equations. It is shown by a numerical example that the proposed method is practical and effective.

  6. Field theory of bicritical and tetracritical points. I. Statics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, R; Holovatch, Yu; Moser, G

    2008-10-01

    We calculate the static critical behavior of systems of O(n_||)(plus sign in circle)O(n_perpendicular) symmetry by the renormalization group method within the minimal subtraction scheme in two-loop order. Summation methods lead to fixed points describing multicritical behavior. Their stability border lines in the space of the order parameter components n_|| and n_perpendicular and spatial dimension d are calculated. The essential features obtained already in two-loop order for the interesting case of an antiferromagnet in a magnetic field ( n_|| =1, n_perpendicular =2 ) are the stability of the biconical fixed point and the neighborhood of the stability border lines to the other fixed points, leading to very small transient exponents. We are also able to calculate the flow of static couplings, which allows us to consider the attraction region. Depending on the nonuniversal background parameters, the existence of different multicritical behavior (bicritical or tetracritical) is possible, including a triple point.

  7. Cosmological simulations using a static scalar-tensor theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RodrIguez-Meza, M A [Depto. de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Col. Escandon, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F (Mexico); Gonzalez-Morales, A X [Departamento Ingenierias, Universidad Iberoamericana, Prol. Paseo de la Reforma 880 Lomas de Santa Fe, Mexico D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Gabbasov, R F [Depto. de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Col. Escandon, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F (Mexico); Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L [Depto. de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Col. Escandon, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We present {lambda}CDM N-body cosmological simulations in the framework of of a static general scalar-tensor theory of gravity. Due to the influence of the non-minimally coupled scalar field, the gravitational potential is modified by a Yukawa type term, yielding a new structure formation dynamics. We present some preliminary results and, in particular, we compute the density and velocity profiles of the most massive group.

  8. The static hyperpolarizability of space-fractional quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, Nathan J

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear response is investigated for a space-fractional quantum mechanical system subject to a static electric field. Expressions for the polarizability and hyperpolarizability are derived from the fractional Schrodinger equation in the particle-centric view under the three-level ansatz. Two types of asymmetric single-particle quantum systems are studied and both the linear and first nonlinear response to the perturbing field are analyzed with respect to the space-fractional parameter.

  9. Lattice renormalization of the static quark derivative operator

    CERN Document Server

    Blossier, B; Morénas, V; Pène, O

    2006-01-01

    We give the analytical expressions and numerical values of radiative corrections to the covariant derivative operator on the static quark line, used for the lattice calculation of the Isgur-Wise form factors $\\tau_{1/2}(1)$ and $\\tau_{3/2}(1)$. Those corrections induce an enhancement of renormalized quantities if an hypercubic blocking is applied to the Wilson line, whereas there is a reduction without such a blocking.

  10. Characterisation of static actuation behaviour of encapsulated PZT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Conrad J.; Butler, Raymond J.

    1994-09-01

    Within the field of 'smart' structures considerable interest has been shown in the use of piezoelectric materials both as sensors and actuators. One of the best characterized of these materials is the family of Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) based ceramics. The use of PZT in intelligent systems has been fairly widespread, the high modulus of the material give high authority actuation, coupled with a wide operational bandwidth and relative ease of control by the application of an applied voltage. The linearity of the actuation response over a limited range has made PZT a popular choice for high precision, relatively low displacement applications. A number of attempts have been made to utilize such actuators for aerospace, using both surface mounting [1] and embedding techniques [2,3]. The effects of actuators on aeroelastic performance has also been investigated for aerospace applications [4,5]. The current practical solution to this problem appears to be the use of spatially distributed actuators [6]. One of the practical limitations of this problem are the large number of actuators required to produce the required degree of static control. In order to ensure accurate shape control, measurements must be taken to ensure there are no significant difference in the actuator element properties due to factors such as batch processing variation. In the past this has proved difficult due to the extremely brittle nature of the actuator material. More specifically the requirement for thinner elements for use in embedded applications has increased this problem. A method by which the static performance of electroceramic actuators could be quickly established would therefore be desirable. This paper presents the results of recent work to develop a test method to define the static electromechanical properties of encapsulated actuator materials in order to assess their suitability as static actuators for aerospace applications. Preliminary results using a standard PZT material are

  11. 14 CFR 27.175 - Demonstration of static longitudinal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... speeds from 0.8 VNE − 10 kt to 0.8 VNE + 10 kt or, if VH is less than 0.8 VNE, from VH −10 kt to VH + 10... or VH, whichever is less; (4) The landing gear retracted; and (5) The rotorcraft trimmed at 0.8 VNE or VH, whichever is less. (c) V NE. Static longitudinal stability must be shown at speeds from...

  12. 14 CFR 29.175 - Demonstration of static longitudinal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... speeds from 0.8 VNE−10 kt to 0.8 VNE + 10 kt or, if VH is less than 0.8 VNE, from VH − 10 kt to VH + 10... or VH, whichever is less; (4) The landing gear retracted; and (5) The rotorcraft trimmed at 0.8 VNE or VH, whichever is less. (c) V NE. Static longitudinal stability must be shown at speeds from...

  13. Anisotropic static solutions in modelling highly compact bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Chaisi; S D Maharaj

    2006-03-01

    Einstein field equations for static anisotropic spheres are solved and exact interior solutions obtained. This paper extends earlier treatments to include anisotropic models which accommodate a wider variety of physically viable energy densities. Two classes of solutions are possible. The first class contains the limiting case ∝ -2 for the energy density which arises in many astrophysical applications. In the second class the singularity at the centre of the star is not present in the energy density

  14. Eye Gaze during Observation of Static Faces in Deaf People

    OpenAIRE

    Katsumi Watanabe; Tetsuya Matsuda; Tomoyuki Nishioka; Miki Namatame

    2011-01-01

    Knowing where people look when viewing faces provides an objective measure into the part of information entering the visual system as well as into the cognitive strategy involved in facial perception. In the present study, we recorded the eye movements of 20 congenitally deaf (10 male and 10 female) and 23 (11 male and 12 female) normal-hearing Japanese participants while they evaluated the emotional valence of static face stimuli. While no difference was found in the evaluation scores, the e...

  15. Transcranial static magnetic field stimulation of the human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, Antonio; Mordillo-Mateos, Laura; Arias, Pablo; Panyavin, Ivan; Foffani, Guglielmo; Aguilar, Juan

    2011-10-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate in healthy humans the possibility of a non-invasive modulation of motor cortex excitability by the application of static magnetic fields through the scalp. Static magnetic fields were obtained by using cylindrical NdFeB magnets. We performed four sets of experiments. In Experiment 1, we recorded motor potentials evoked by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex before and after 10 min of transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS) in conscious subjects. We observed an average reduction of motor cortex excitability of up to 25%, as revealed by TMS, which lasted for several minutes after the end of tSMS, and was dose dependent (intensity of the magnetic field) but not polarity dependent. In Experiment 2, we confirmed the reduction of motor cortex excitability induced by tSMS using a double-blind sham-controlled design. In Experiment 3, we investigated the duration of tSMS that was necessary to modulate motor cortex excitability. We found that 10 min of tSMS (compared to 1 min and 5 min) were necessary to induce significant effects. In Experiment 4, we used transcranial electric stimulation (TES) to establish that the tSMS-induced reduction of motor cortex excitability was not due to corticospinal axon and/or spinal excitability, but specifically involved intracortical networks. These results suggest that tSMS using small static magnets may be a promising tool to modulate cerebral excitability in a non-invasive, painless, and reversible way.

  16. Isolated neuron amplitude spike decrease under static magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, María J.; del Moral, A.

    1996-05-01

    Isolated Helix aspersa neurons under strong enough static magnetic fields B (0.07-0.7 T) show a decrease of the spike depolarization voltage of the form ∼exp(αB2), with α dependent on neuron parameters. A tentative model is proposed which explains such behaviour through a deactivation of Na+K+-ATP-ase pumps due to protein superdiamagnetic rotation. Values for the cluster and protein in cluster numbers are estimated.

  17. Static and Dynamic Quality Assurance by Aspect Oriented Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Knabe, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    The overall goal of the described research project was to create applicable quality assurance patterns for Java software systems using the aspect-oriented programming language extension AspectJ 5. We tried to develop aspects to check static quality criteria as a variable mutator convention and architectural layering rules. We successfully developed aspects for automating the following dynamic quality criteria: Parameterized Exception Chaining, Comfortable Declaration of Parameterized Exceptions, Not-Null Checking of Reference Variables.

  18. Decoherence in quantum systems in a static gravitational field

    CERN Document Server

    Shariati, Ahmad; Loran, Farhang

    2016-01-01

    A small quantum system is studied which is a superposition of states localized in different positions in a static gravitational field. The time evolution of the correlation between different positions is investigated, and it is seen that there are two time scales for such an evolution (decoherence). Both time scales are inversely proportional to the red shift difference between the two points. These time scales correspond to decoherences which are linear and quadratic, respectively, in time.

  19. Magnetic fields and accretion discs around static black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadhich, N. (Poona Univ. (India). Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics); Wiita, P.J. (Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India))

    1982-08-01

    Some aspects of accretion onto static black holes immersed in a uniform magnetic field are investigated. The Ernst metric is employed to find the 'Keplerian' angular momentum distribution and the efficiency of mass-to-energy conversion for a plasma and for test particles. Under almost all physically reasonable conditions for hydrodynamic accretion the effect of the magnetic field is small. However, for test particles the effect can be very important and the efficiency can approach unity.

  20. Accretion disc onto a static non-baryonic compact object

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Diego F.

    2002-01-01

    We study the emissivity properties of a geometrically thin, optically thick, steady accretion disc about a static boson star. Starting from a numerical computation of the metric potentials and the rotational velocities of the particles in the vicinity of the compact object, we obtain the power per unit area, the temperature of the disc, and the spectrum of the emitted radiation. In order to see if different central objects could be actually distinguished, all these results are compared with t...

  1. Graphical representation of the process of solving problems in statics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Carlos

    2011-03-01

    It is presented a method of construction to a graphical representation technique of knowledge called Conceptual Chains. Especially, this tool has been focused to the representation of processes and applied to solving problems in physics, mathematics and engineering. The method is described in ten steps and is illustrated with its development in a particular topic of statics. Various possible didactic applications of this technique are showed.

  2. Mathematical model of transmission network static state estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the characteristics and capabilities of the power transmission network static state estimator are presented. The solving process of the mathematical model containing the measurement errors and their processing is developed. To evaluate difference between the general model of state estimation and the fast decoupled state estimation model, the both models are applied to an example, and so derived results are compared.

  3. Integrating and scheduling an open set of static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Mezini, Mira; Kloppenburg, Sven

    2006-01-01

    to keep the set of analyses open. We propose an approach to integrating and scheduling an open set of static analyses which decouples the individual analyses and coordinates the analysis executions such that the overall time and space consumption is minimized. The approach has been implemented...... for the Eclipse IDE and has been used to integrate a wide range of analyses such as finding bug patterns, detecting violations of design guidelines, or type system extensions for Java....

  4. Semi-permeable wormholes and the stability of static wormholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, D. I.; Doroshkevich, A. G.; Novikov, I. D.; Shatskii, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    Physical processes arising when an impermeable wormhole is irradiated by self-gravitating, exotic radiation are considered. It is shown that, in this case, the conditions required for the passage of signals fromanother universe into our own arise only in our Universe, whereas signals cannot pass through the wormhole in the opposite direction. Such wormholes are called semi-permeable. The stability of a static wormhole filled with radial magnetic field and exotic dust with a negative energy density is also considered.

  5. On a static charged fluid around a magnetized mass

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrera-Munguia, I

    2008-01-01

    We show that any magnetostatic axially symmetric solution of the Einstein-Maxwell equations can be endowed with a specific charged fluid source of the Polanco et al type via a simple procedure requiring the knowledge of exclusively the magnetostatic seed spacetime. Using this procedure we construct yet another exact solution for a massive magnetic dipole surrounded by a static charged fluid which is different from the Polanco et al metric.

  6. Morphology of surface damage resulting from static and dynamic contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Vongbandit, Pratip

    2008-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Contact fatigue damages resulting either from static or dynamic contact are of interest for understanding the failure modes and mechanisms leading to improvement of the components’ performances in tribological applications. The objective of this research was to ascertain how and to what extent the counterface materials, loading conditions, contact configuration, lubrication, and the environme...

  7. Method for optimization of statically determined articulated structures

    OpenAIRE

    Parras Galán, L.; Montes Tubío, M.; García Guzmán, A.; Entrenas Angulo, J.A.; de Dios Palomares, R.

    1985-01-01

    An algorithm of mathematical programmation for the optimum disign of iso-static articulate structures has been developed. The characteristics of the proposed algorithm are: a) It not requires that the objective function or the restriction equations be derivable. b) They use unidimensional methods of unidimensional optimization to pass over from a given solution to a better one. c) To introduce contingent procedures to obtain Information which leads to a better solution. Those characteristics ...

  8. Subleading terms of thermodynamic quantities around static spherical black holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Gu-Qiang

    2009-01-01

    The thermodynamic quantities for the gases of massless particles with spin s = 1/2, 1, 3/2, 2 around static spherical black holes are investigated by using the brick-wall method. The appearance of the spin-dependent subleading terms is demonstrated and the terms are shown to contain not only the linear and quadratic terms of the spins but also a zero-power term of the spins.

  9. Transformation magneto-statics and illusions for magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Sun; Sailing He

    2014-01-01

    Based on the form-invariant of Maxwell’s equations under coordinate transformations, we extend the theoryof transformation optics to transformation magneto-statics, which can design magnets through coordinatetransformations. Some novel DC magnetic field illusions created by magnets (e.g. rescaling magnets,cancelling magnets and overlapping magnets) are designed and verified by numerical simulations. Ourresearch will open a new door to designing magnets and controlling DC magnetic fields. ...

  10. Static Structure of Two-Dimensional Granular Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Ping-Ping; LI Liang-Sheng; ZHENG Ning; SHI Qing-Fan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Static packing structures of two-dimensional granular chains are investigated experimentally.It is shown that the packing density approximates the saturation with the exponential law as the length of chain increases.The packing structures are globally disordered,while the local square crystallization is found by using the radial distribution function.This characteristic phase of chain packing is similar to a liquid crystal state,and has properties between a conventional liquid and solid crystal.

  11. GPS and Glonass Combined Static Precise Point Positioning (ppp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, D.; Dwivedi, R.; Dikshit, O.; Singh, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    With the rapid development of multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs), satellite navigation is undergoing drastic changes. Presently, more than 70 satellites are already available and nearly 120 more satellites will be available in the coming years after the achievement of complete constellation for all four systems- GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou. The significant improvement in terms of satellite visibility, spatial geometry, dilution of precision and accuracy demands the utilization of combining multi-GNSS for Precise Point Positioning (PPP), especially in constrained environments. Currently, PPP is performed based on the processing of only GPS observations. Static and kinematic PPP solutions based on the processing of only GPS observations is limited by the satellite visibility, which is often insufficient for the mountainous and open pit mines areas. One of the easiest options available to enhance the positioning reliability is to integrate GPS and GLONASS observations. This research investigates the efficacy of combining GPS and GLONASS observations for achieving static PPP solution and its sensitivity to different processing methodology. Two static PPP solutions, namely standalone GPS and combined GPS-GLONASS solutions are compared. The datasets are processed using the open source GNSS processing environment gLAB 2.2.7 as well as magicGNSS software package. The results reveal that the addition of GLONASS observations improves the static positioning accuracy in comparison with the standalone GPS point positioning. Further, results show that there is an improvement in the three dimensional positioning accuracy. It is also shown that the addition of GLONASS constellation improves the total number of visible satellites by more than 60% which leads to the improvement of satellite geometry represented by Position Dilution of Precision (PDOP) by more than 30%.

  12. A note on the uniqueness of global static decompositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Miguel [Departamento de GeometrIa y TopologIa, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Avenida Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Senovilla, Jose M M [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Historia de la Ciencia, Facultad de Ciencia y TecnologIa, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2007-12-07

    We discuss when static Killing vector fields are standard, that is, leading to a global orthogonal splitting of the spacetime. We prove that such an orthogonal splitting is unique whenever the natural space is compact. This is carried out by proving that many notable spacelike submanifolds must be contained in an orthogonal slice. Possible obstructions to the global splitting are also considered. (comments, replies and notes)

  13. Static dipole polarizability of shell-confined hydrogen atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, K. D.; Garza, Jorge; Vargas, Rubicelia; Aquino, Norberto

    2002-04-01

    Using the Sternheimer perturbation-numerical procedure, calculations of static dipole polarizability are reported for the shell-confined hydrogen atom as defined by two impenetrable concentric spherical walls. Unusually high polarizability states are predicted for the hydrogen atom as the inner sphere radius is increased to larger values inside the outer sphere of a constant radius. Implications of this model in mimicking internal compression leading to the metallic behaviour of the shell-confined hydrogen atoms are discussed.

  14. Longitudinal static stability requirements for wing in ground effect vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Yang, Zhigang; Collu, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    The issue of the longitudinal stability of a WIG vehicle has been a very critical design factor since the first experimental WIG vehicle has been built. A series of studies had been performed and focused on the longitudinal stability analysis. However, most studies focused on the longitudinal stability of WIG vehicle in cruise phase, and less is available on the longitudinal static stability requirement of WIG vehicle when hydrodynamics are considered: WIG vehicle usually take off from water. The present work focuses on stability requirement for longitudinal motion from taking off to landing. The model of dynamics for a WIG vehicle was developed taking into account the aerodynamic, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces, and then was analyzed. Following with the longitudinal static stability analysis, effect of hydrofoil was discussed. Locations of CG, aerodynamic center in pitch, aerodynamic center in height and hydrodynamic center in heave were illustrated for a stabilized WIG vehicle. The present work will further improve the longitudinal static stability theory for WIG vehicle.

  15. Contact angle hysteresis and pinning at periodic defects in statics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Stanimir; Pesheva, Nina; Nikolayev, Vadim S.

    2014-07-01

    This article deals with the theoretical prediction of the wetting hysteresis on nonideal solid surfaces in terms of the surface heterogeneity parameters. The spatially periodical chemical heterogeneity is considered. We propose precise definitions for both the advancing and the receding contact angles for the Wilhelmy plate geometry. It is well known that in such a system, a multitude of metastable states of the liquid meniscus occurs for each different relative position of the defect pattern on the plate with respect to the liquid level. As usual, the static advancing and receding angles are assumed to be a consequence of the preceding contact line motion in the respective direction. It is shown how to select the appropriate states among all metastable states. Their selection is discussed. The proposed definitions are applicable to both the static and the dynamic contact angles on heterogeneous surfaces. The static advancing and receding angles are calculated for two examples of periodic heterogeneity patterns with sharp borders: the horizontal alternating stripes of a different wettability (studied analytically) and the doubly periodic pattern of circular defects on a homogeneous base (studied numerically). The wetting hysteresis is determined as a function of the defect density and the spatial period. A comparison with the existing results is carried out.

  16. Longitudinal static stability requirements for wing in ground effect vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the longitudinal stability of a WIG vehicle has been a very critical design factor since the first experimental WIG vehicle has been built. A series of studies had been performed and focused on the longitudinal stability analysis. However, most studies focused on the longitudinal stability of WIG vehicle in cruise phase, and less is available on the longitudinal static stability requirement of WIG vehicle when hydrodynamics are considered: WIG vehicle usually take off from water. The present work focuses on stability requirement for longitudinal motion from taking off to landing. The model of dynamics for a WIG vehicle was developed taking into account the aerodynamic, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces, and then was analyzed. Following with the longitudinal static stability analysis, effect of hydrofoil was discussed. Locations of CG, aerodynamic center in pitch, aerodynamic center in height and hydrodynamic center in heave were illustrated for a stabilized WIG vehicle. The present work will further improve the longitudinal static stability theory for WIG vehicle.

  17. Enhanced biodecolorization of reactive dyes by basidiomycetes under static conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Ismat; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz

    2012-04-01

    This study presents the biodecolorization potential of basidiomycete fungi Trametes hirsuta, Pycnoporus sp., and Irpex sp. for different reactive dyes viz. Reactive Red 120, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), Reactive Orange G, and Reactive Orange 16 under static and shaking conditions. The screening trials revealed that T. hirsuta exhibited maximum potential (83.75 %) for biodecolorization of RBBR dye under static conditions after the fifth day of incubation. However, the rate of biodecolorization of RBBR dye by Pycnoporus sp. was much slow and reached maximum (81.25 %) after 15 days of incubation under shaking conditions. By process optimization, enhanced decolorization (91.2 %) of RBBR by T. hirsuta was achieved at pH 5.5 within 24 h using a defined salt medium amended with p-coumaric acid under static conditions. pH was found to be an important parameter for the enzymatic system involved in RBBR dye decolorization by T. hirsuta and Pycnoporus sp. Biodecolorization of RBBR dye was determined by a reduction in optical density at the wavelength of maximum absorbance (λ, 578 nm) by UV-vis spectrophotometer. The shift in maximum wavelength toward shorter/longer wavelength in UV-vis scanning spectrum revealed the degradation of RBBR dye into different transformation products.

  18. Static and dynamic calibration of radar data for hydrological use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Wood

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The HYREX dense raingauge network over the Brue catchment in Somerset, England is used to explore the accuracy of calibrated (raingauge-adjusted weather radar data. Calibration is restricted to the use of any single gauge within the catchment so as to simulate the conditions in a typical rainfall monitoring network. Combination of a single gauge and a radar estimate is used to obtain calibrated radar estimates, with the 'calibration factor' varying dynamically from one time-frame to the next. Comparing this dynamic calibration with a static (long-term calibration factor indicates the distance from a gauge over which the dynamic calibration is useful. A tapered calibration factor is implemented which behaves in the same way as the raw dynamic calibration at short distances, tending towards the static calibration factor at larger distances. This hybrid approach outperforms raingauge, uncalibrated radar, and statically-calibrated radar estimates of rainfall for the majority of raingauges in the catchment. The results provide valuable guidance on the density of raingauge network to employ in combination with a weather radar for flood estimation and forecasting. Keywords: radar, raingauge, calibration, rainfall, accuracy

  19. Terapascal static pressure generation with ultrahigh yield strength nanodiamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Solopova, Natalia A.; Abakumov, Artem; Turner, Stuart; Hanfland, Michael; Bykova, Elena; Bykov, Maxim; Prescher, Clemens; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Petitgirard, Sylvain; Chuvashova, Irina; Gasharova, Biliana; Mathis, Yves-Laurent; Ershov, Petr; Snigireva, Irina; Snigirev, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    Studies of materials’ properties at high and ultrahigh pressures lead to discoveries of unique physical and chemical phenomena and a deeper understanding of matter. In high-pressure research, an achievable static pressure limit is imposed by the strength of available strong materials and design of high-pressure devices. Using a high-pressure and high-temperature technique, we synthesized optically transparent microballs of bulk nanocrystalline diamond, which were found to have an exceptional yield strength (~460 GPa at a confining pressure of ~70 GPa) due to the unique microstructure of bulk nanocrystalline diamond. We used the nanodiamond balls in a double-stage diamond anvil cell high-pressure device that allowed us to generate static pressures beyond 1 TPa, as demonstrated by synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Outstanding mechanical properties (strain-dependent elasticity, very high hardness, and unprecedented yield strength) make the nanodiamond balls a unique device for ultrahigh static pressure generation. Structurally isotropic, homogeneous, and made of a low-Z material, they are promising in the field of x-ray optical applications. PMID:27453944

  20. Refraction Static Correction without Picking First Arrival Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ying Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept of differential delay time is proposed for refraction static correction without picking first arrival times in the CDP reflection data processing. This new method is a modification of the ABCD method; it uses cross-correlation to measure the first arrival time difference between signals received at stations B and C, instead of directly computing them from their picked times. By taking advantage of multiple-fold CDP data, we apply the "line-up trace" measurement of cross-correlations, which may alleviate the effect of data imperfections. The problem of refractor velocity variation has also been solved to a certain extent, which allows for a reliable delay time to be adequately estimated for each station and consequently the static correction value. A synthetic model and a real case with a severe weathered layer problem have been tested to evaluate the method. Stable and man age able computation processes have been explored to attain the maximum performance. The results are quite satisfactory. It should be possible to apply this method in rough areas with complicated refraction static problem, even in 3D cases.